WorldWideScience

Sample records for silicate dust grains

  1. Interstellar silicate analogs for grain-surface reaction experiments: Gas-phase condensation and characterization of the silicate dust grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, T.; Jäger, C. [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.; Vidali, G. [Observatoire de Paris/Université de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, F-95000 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Mutschke, H. [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Astrophysical Institute and University Observatory, Friedrich Schiller University Jena Schillergässchen 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Henning, T., E-mail: tolou.sabri@uni-jena.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    Amorphous, astrophysically relevant silicates were prepared by laser ablation of siliceous targets and subsequent quenching of the evaporated atoms and clusters in a helium/oxygen gas atmosphere. The described gas-phase condensation method can be used to synthesize homogeneous and astrophysically relevant silicates with different compositions ranging from nonstoichiometric magnesium iron silicates to pyroxene- and olivine-type stoichiometry. Analytical tools have been used to characterize the morphology, composition, and spectral properties of the condensates. The nanometer-sized silicate condensates represent a new family of cosmic dust analogs that can generally be used for laboratory studies of cosmic processes related to condensation, processing, and destruction of cosmic dust in different astrophysical environments. The well-characterized silicates comprising amorphous Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, as well as the corresponding crystalline silicates forsterite and fayalite, produced by thermal annealing of the amorphous condensates, have been used as real grain surfaces for H{sub 2} formation experiments. A specifically developed ultra-high vacuum apparatus has been used for the investigation of molecule formation experiments. The results of these molecular formation experiments on differently structured Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} described in this paper will be the topic of the next paper of this series.

  2. Identification of a Compound Spinel and Silicate Presolar Grain in a Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Kloeck, W.

    2014-01-01

    Anhydrous chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) have undergone minimal parent body alteration and contain an assemblage of highly primitive materials, including molecular cloud material, presolar grains, and material that formed in the early solar nebula [1-3]. The exact parent bodies of individual IDPs are not known, but IDPs that have extremely high abundances of presolar silicates (up to 1.5%) most likely have cometary origins [1, 4]. The presolar grain abundance among these minimally altered CP IDPs varies widely. "Isotopically primitive" IDPs distinguished by anomalous bulk N isotopic compositions, numerous 15N-rich hotspots, and some C isotopic anomalies have higher average abundances of presolar grains (375 ppm) than IDPs with isotopically normal bulk N (<10 ppm) [5]. Some D and N isotopic anomalies have been linked to carbonaceous matter, though this material is only rarely isotopically anomalous in C [1, 5, 6]. Previous studies of the bulk chemistry and, in some samples, the mineralogy of select anhydrous CP IDPs indicate a link between high C abundance and pyroxene-dominated mineralogy [7]. In this study, we conduct coordinated mineralogical and isotopic analyses of samples that were analyzed by [7] to characterize isotopically anomalous materials and to establish possible correlations with C abundance.

  3. The evolution of grain mantles and silicate dust growth at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Viti, Serena; Balucani, Nadia; Taquet, Vianney

    2018-05-01

    In dense molecular clouds, interstellar grains are covered by mantles of iced molecules. The formation of the grain mantles has two important consequences: it removes species from the gas phase and promotes the synthesis of new molecules on the grain surfaces. The composition of the mantle is a strong function of the environment that the cloud belongs to. Therefore, clouds in high-zeta galaxies, where conditions - like temperature, metallicity, and cosmic ray flux - are different from those in the Milky Way, will have different grain mantles. In the last years, several authors have suggested that silicate grains might grow by accretion of silicon-bearing species on smaller seeds. This would occur simultaneously with the formation of the iced mantles and be greatly affected by its composition as a function of time. In this work, we present a numerical study of the grain mantle formation in high-zeta galaxies, and we quantitatively address the possibility of silicate growth. We find that the mantle thickness decreases with increasing redshift, from about 120 to 20 layers for z varying from 0 to 8. Furthermore, the mantle composition is also a strong function of the cloud redshift, with the relative importance of CO, CO2, ammonia, methane, and methanol highly varying with z. Finally, being Si-bearing species always a very minor component of the mantle, the formation of silicates in molecular clouds is practically impossible.

  4. Dynamics of interplanetary dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, P.L.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of spherical grains of various materials-three silicates (quartz, obsidian and andesite), water-ice and iron - whose radii lie in the micronic and submicronic range with the interplanetary medium is solved. This includes: the interaction with the solar radiation field which is solved using Mie scattering theory and taking into account the precise dependence of the optical properties of the five materials upon wavelength; the interaction with the solar wind: corpuscular tangential drag is found to be always important and may even be larger than the Poynting-Robertson drag; the interaction with the interplanetary magnetic field is investigated in terms of a diffusion or random walk through a series of electromagnetic scatterings, leading to a Chapman-Komolgorov equation (i.e., a generalized Liouville equation). Numerical results are presented for these interactions spanning the entire solar system with circularity of elliptical orbits, direct or retrograde, with grains of various materials and sizes and giving -probably for the first time - a clear global picture of the interaction of dust grains with the interplanetary medium. The dynamics of the grains is then investigated using the theory of general perturbations and the numerical integration of trajectories of circum-solar grains

  5. Photoelectric charging of dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Photoemission from the surface of a dust grain in vacuum is considered. It is shown that the cutoff in the energy spectrum of emitted electrons leads to the formation of a steady-state electron cloud. The equation describing the distribution of the electric potential in the vicinity of a dust grain is solved numerically. The dust grain charge is found as a function of the grain size.

  6. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  7. Dust Spectroscopy and the Nature of Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-based, air-borne and space-based, infrared spectra of a wide variety of objects have revealed prominent absorption and emission features due to large molecules and small dust grains. Analysis of this data reveals a highly diverse interstellar and circumstellar grain inventory, including both amorphous materials and highly crystalline compounds (silicates and carbon). This diversity points towards a wide range of physical and chemical birthsites as well as a complex processing of these grains in the interstellar medium. In this talk, I will review the dust inventory contrasting and comparing both the interstellar and circumstellar reservoirs. The focus will be on the processes that play a role in the lifecycle of dust in the interstellar medium.

  8. Grain growth across protoplanetary discs: 10 μm silicate feature versus millimetre slope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, D.J.P.; van Dishoeck, E.F.; Wright, C.M.; Min, M.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Young stars are formed with dusty discs around them. The dust grains in the disc are originally of the same size as interstellar dust, i.e., of the order of 0.1 μm. Models predict that these grains will grow in size through coagulation. Observations of the silicate features around 10 and 20

  9. Grain dust and the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Ashley, M. J.; Grzybowski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Grain dust is composed of a large number of materials, including various types of grain and their disintegration products, silica, fungi, insects and mites. The clinical syndromes described in relation to exposure to grain dust are chronic bronchitis, grain dust asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, grain fever and silo-filler's lung. Rhinitis and conjunctivitis are also common in grain workers. While the concentration and the quality of dust influence the frequency and the type of clinical syndrome in grain workers, host factors are also important. Of the latter, smoking is the most important factor influencing the frequency of chronic bronchitis. The role of atopy and of bronchial hyperreactivity in grain dust asthma has yet to be assessed. Several well designed studies are currently being carried out in North America not only to delineate the frequency of the respiratory abnormalities, the pathogenetic mechanisms and the host factors, but also to establish a meaningful threshold limit concentration for grain dust. Images p1272-a PMID:348288

  10. Energetic Processing of Interstellar Silicate Grains by Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringa, E M; Kucheyev, S O; Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A; Tielens, A G Q M; Dai, Z R; Graham, G; Bajt, S; Bradley, J; Dukes, C A; Felter, T E; Torres, D F; van Breugel, W

    2007-03-28

    While a significant fraction of silicate dust in stellar winds has a crystalline structure, in the interstellar medium nearly all of it is amorphous. One possible explanation for this observation is the amorphization of crystalline silicates by relatively 'low' energy, heavy ion cosmic rays. Here we present the results of multiple laboratory experiments showing that single-crystal synthetic forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) amorphizes when irradiated by 10 MeV Xe{sup ++} ions at large enough fluences. Using modeling, we extrapolate these results to show that 0.1-5.0 GeV heavy ion cosmic rays can rapidly ({approx}70 Million yrs) amorphize crystalline silicate grains ejected by stars into the interstellar medium.

  11. Experiments on Dust Grain Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. N.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.

    2004-01-01

    Dust particles in various astrophysical environments are charged by a variety of mechanisms generally involving collisional processes with other charged particles and photoelectric emission with UV radiation from nearby sources. The sign and the magnitude of the particle charge are determined by the competition between the charging processes by UV radiation and collisions with charged particles. Knowledge of the particle charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a number of physical processes. The charge of a dust grain is thus a fundamental parameter that influences the physics of dusty plasmas, processes in the interplanetary medium and interstellar medium, interstellar dust clouds, planetary rings, cometary and outer atmospheres of planets etc. In this paper we present some results of experiments on charging of dust grains carried out on a laboratory facility capable levitating micron size dust grains in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The charging/discharging experiments were carried out by exposing the dust grains to energetic electron beams and UV radiation. Photoelectric efficiencies and yields of micron size dust grains of SiO2, and lunar simulates obtained from NASA-JSC will be presented.

  12. Composite grains: Application to circumstellar dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Vaidya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA we calculate the absorption efficiency of the composite grain, made up of a host silicate spheroid and inclusions of graphite, in the spectral region 5.0-25.0μm. We study the absorption as a function of the voulume fraction of the inclusions. In particular, we study the variation in the 10.0μm and 18.0μm emission features with the volume fraction of the inclusions. Using the extinction efficiencies, of the composite grains we calculate the infrared fluxes at several dust temperatures and compare the model curves with the observed infrared emission curves (IRAS-LRS, obtained for circumstellar dust shells around oxygen rich M-type stars.

  13. [Asthma due to grain dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Preisser, A; Wegner, R

    2003-06-01

    The actual literature as well as two case reports described in detail show that grain dust induces asthmatic reactions and ODTS which are obviously not of allergic origin. For diagnosis occupational-type exposure tests are decisive whereas allergological testing usually is not. Endotoxins which are present in the grain dust samples in high concentrations have to be regarded as the major causative components. To avoid irreversible lung function impairment a comprehensive early diagnosis is necessary. Generally, a remarkable reduction of exposure to dust with high levels of airborne endotoxin in agriculture has to be achieved since in many workplaces corresponding exposures are still rather high.

  14. Physical properties of five grain dust types.

    OpenAIRE

    Parnell, C B; Jones, D D; Rutherford, R D; Goforth, K J

    1986-01-01

    Physical properties of grain dust derived from five grain types (soybean, rice, corn, wheat, and sorghum) were measured and reported. The grain dusts were obtained from dust collection systems of terminal grain handling facilities and were assumed to be representative of grain dust generated during the handling process. The physical properties reported were as follows: particle size distributions and surface area measurements using a Coulter Counter Model TAII; percent dust fractions less tha...

  15. Efficient radiative transfer in dust grain mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, S.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of a dust grain mixture consisting of spherical dust grains with different radii and/or chemical composition on the resulting temperature structure and spectral energy distribution of a circumstellar shell is investigated. The comparison with the results based on an approximation of dust grain parameters representing the mean optical properties of the corresponding dust grain mixture reveal that (1) the temperature dispersion of a real dust grain mixture decreases substantially ...

  16. Formation of dust grains with impurities in red giant winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, Carsten

    1994-01-01

    Among the several proposed carriers of diffuse interstellar bands (DIB's) are impurities in small dust grains, especially in iron oxide grains (Huffman 1977) and silicate grains (Huffman 1970). Most promising are single ion impurities since they can reproduce the observed band widths (Whittet 1992). These oxygen-rich grains are believed to originate mostly in the mass flows from red giants and in supernovae ejecta (e.g. Gehrz 1989). A question of considerable impact for the origin of DIB's is therefore, whether these grains are produced as mainly clean crystals or as some dirty materials. A formalism has been developed that allows tracking of the heterogeneous growth of a dust grain and its internal structure during the dust formation process. This formalism has been applied to the dust formation in the outflow from a red giant star.

  17. Mid-infrared spectra of cometary dust: the evasion of its silicate mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, H.; Chigai, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    2008-04-01

    Infrared spectra of dust in cometary comae provide a way to identify its silicate constituents, and this is crucial for correctly understanding the condition under which our planetary system is formed. Recent studies assign a newly detected peak at a wavelength of 9.3 μm to pyroxenes and regard them as the most abundant silicate minerals in comets. Here we dispense with this pyroxene hypothesis to numerically reproduce the infrared features of cometary dust in the framework of our interstellar dust models. Presolar interstellar dust in a comet is modeled as fluffy aggregates consisting of submicrometer-sized organic grains with an amorphous-silicate core that undergoes nonthermal crystallization in a coma. We assert that forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is the carrier of all the observed features, including the 9.3 μm peak and that the major phase of iron is sulfides rather than iron-rich silicates.

  18. Ultraviolet interstellar linear polarization. I - Applicability of current dust grain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Michael J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Meade, Marilyn R.

    1993-01-01

    UV spectropolarimetric observations yielding data on the wavelength-dependence of interstellar polarization along eight lines of sight facilitate the evaluation of dust grain models previously used to fit the extinction and polarization in the visible and IR. These models pertain to bare silicate/graphite grains, silicate cores with organic refractory mantles, silicate cores with amorphous carbon mantles, and composite grains. The eight lines-of-sight show three different interstellar polarization dependences.

  19. Physical properties of five grain dust types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, C B; Jones, D D; Rutherford, R D; Goforth, K J

    1986-01-01

    Physical properties of grain dust derived from five grain types (soybean, rice, corn, wheat, and sorghum) were measured and reported. The grain dusts were obtained from dust collection systems of terminal grain handling facilities and were assumed to be representative of grain dust generated during the handling process. The physical properties reported were as follows: particle size distributions and surface area measurements using a Coulter Counter Model TAII; percent dust fractions less than 100 micron of whole dust; bulk density; particle density; and ash content. PMID:3709482

  20. Fine-grained sheet silicate rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1977-09-01

    Considerable interest has been shown in the possibility of using shales as repositories for radioactive waste and a variety of other waste products, and it appears that over the next few years much money and effort will be expended to investigate and test a wide variety of shales. If shales are to be studied in detail by a large number of investigators, it is important that all concerned have the same concept of what constitutes a shale. The term shale and other terms for fine-grained rocks have been used for many years and have been continually redefined. Most definitions predate the development of modern instrumentation and are based on field observations and intuition; however, the main problem is the diversity of definitions. An attempt is made here to develop a simple, rational classification of fine-grained sediments, and it is hoped that this classification will eliminate some of the present ambiguity. In order that the classification be pertinent, mineral composition and textural data were compiled and evaluated. The data on unconsolidated and consolidated sediments were contrasted and the effects of burial diagenesis assessed. It was found necessary to introduce a new term, physil, to describe all sheet silicate minerals. In contrast to the term clay mineral, the term physil has no size connotation. A simple classification is proposed that is based on the percentage of physils and grain size. In Part II the fine-grained physil rocks are classified on the basis of physil type, non-physil minerals, and texture. Formations are listed which have the mineral and textural characteristics of the most important rock types volumetrically. Selected rock types, and the formations in which they can be found, are recommended for laboratory study to determine their suitability for the storage of high-level radioactive waste

  1. Studies of dust grain properties in infrared reflection nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Y J; Tielens, A G; Werner, M W

    1990-01-20

    We have developed a model for reflection nebulae around luminous infrared sources embedded in dense dust clouds. The aim of this study is to determine the sizes of the scattering grains. In our analysis, we have adopted an MRN-like power-law size distribution (Mathis, Rumpl, and Nordsieck) of graphite and silicate grains, but other current dust models would give results which were substantially the same. In the optically thin limit, the intensity of the scattered light is proportional to the dust column density, while in the optically thick limit, it reflects the grain albedo. The results show that the shape of the infrared spectrum is the result of a combination of the scattering properties of the dust, the spectrum of the illuminating source, and foreground extinction, while geometry plays a minor role. Comparison of our model results with infrared observations of the reflection nebula surrounding OMC-2/IRS 1 shows that either a grain size distribution like that found in the diffuse interstellar medium, or one consisting of larger grains, can explain the observed shape of the spectrum. However, the absolute intensity level of the scattered light, as well as the observed polarization, requires large grains (approximately 5000 angstroms). By adding water ice mantles to the silicate and graphite cores, we have modeled the 3.08 micrometers ice band feature, which has been observed in the spectra of several infrared reflection nebulae. We show that this ice band arises naturally in optically thick reflection nebulae containing ice-coated grains. We show that the shape of the ice band is diagnostic of the presence of large grains, as previously suggested by Knacke and McCorkle. Comparison with observations of the BN/KL reflection nebula in the OMC-1 cloud shows that large ice grains (approximately 5000 angstroms) contribute substantially to the scattered light.

  2. Dust grain charging in a wake of other grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloch, W. J.; Block, D.

    2012-01-01

    The charging of dust grain in the wake of another grains in sonic and supersonic collisionless plasma flows is studied by numerical simulations. We consider two grains aligned with the flow, as well as dust chains and multiple grain arrangements. It is found that the dust charge depends significantly on the flow speed, distance between the grains, and the grain arrangement. For two and three grains aligned, the charges on downstream grains depend linearly on the flow velocity and intergrain distance. The simulations are carried out with DiP3D, a three dimensional particle-in-cell code with both electrons and ions represented as numerical particles [W. J. Miloch et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 103703 (2010)].

  3. CONCURRENT FORMATION OF CARBON AND SILICATE DUST IN NOVA V1280 SCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Usui, Fumihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate Schools of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sako, Shigeyuki; Takahashi, Hidenori; Ohsawa, Ryou [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Ohsawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Nozawa, Takaya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kimura, Yuki [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Fujiyoshi, Takuya [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shimonishi, Takashi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki aza Aoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Arai, Akira [Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto, 603-8555 (Japan); Uemura, Makoto [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Nagayama, Takahiro [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Koo, Bon-Chul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University , 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kozasa, Takashi, E-mail: isakon@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We present infrared multi-epoch observations of the dust-forming nova V1280 Sco over ∼2000 days from the outburst. The temporal evolution of the infrared spectral energy distributions at 1272, 1616, and 1947 days can be explained by the emissions produced by amorphous carbon dust of mass (6.6–8.7) × 10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} with a representative grain size of 0.01 μm and astronomical silicate dust of mass (3.4–4.3) × 10{sup −7} M{sub ⊙} with a representative grain size of 0.3–0.5 μm. Both of these dust species travel farther away from the white dwarf without apparent mass evolution throughout those later epochs. The dust formation scenario around V1280 Sco suggested from our analyses is that the amorphous carbon dust is formed in the nova ejecta followed by the formation of silicate dust either in the expanding nova ejecta or as a result of the interaction between the nova wind and the circumstellar medium.

  4. Experimental Study of Dust Grain Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F; Venturini, Catherine C.; Comfort, Richard H.; Mian, Abbas M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the charging mechanisms of micron size dust grains are presented. Individual dust grains are electrodynamically suspended and exposed to an electron beam of known energy and flux, and to far ultraviolet radiation of known wavelength and intensity. Changes in the charge-to-mass ratio of the grain are directly measured as a function of incident beam (electron and/or photon), grain size and composition. Comparisons of our results to theoretical models that predict the grain response are presented.

  5. PROPERTIES OF DUST GRAINS PROBED WITH EXTINCTION CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Takaya; Fukugita, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Modern data of the extinction curve from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared are revisited to study properties of dust grains in the Milky Way (MW) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We confirm that the graphite-silicate mixture of grains yields the observed extinction curve with the simple power-law distribution of the grain size but with a cutoff at some maximal size: the parameters are tightly constrained to be q = 3.5 ± 0.2 for the size distribution a –q and the maximum radius a max = 0.24 ± 0.05 μm, for both MW and SMC. The abundance of grains, and hence the elemental abundance, is constrained from the reddening versus hydrogen column density, E(B – V)/N H . If we take the solar elemental abundance as the standard for the MW, >56% of carbon should be in graphite dust, while it is dust /ρ H = 1 / (120 +10 -16 ) for the MW and 1 / (760 +70 -90 ) for the SMC under the elemental abundance constraints. We underline the importance of the wavelength dependence of the extinction curve in the near-infrared in constructing the dust model: if A λ ∝λ –γ with γ ≅ 1.6, the power-law grain-size model fails, whereas it works if γ ≅ 1.8-2.0.

  6. The formation of molecular hydrogen on silicate dust analogs: The rotational distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, de l' Observatoire de Paris et de l' Université de Cergy Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, F-95000 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France); Vidali, G. [Visiting Professor. Permanent address: Syracuse University, Physics Department, Syracuse, NY 13244-1320, USA. (United States); Sabri, T.; Jæger, C., E-mail: lisseth.gavilan@obspm.fr [Laboratory Astrophysics and Cluster Physics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    Our laboratory experiments continue to explore how the formation of molecular hydrogen is influenced by dust and how dust thereby affects hydrogen molecules adsorbed on its surface. In Sabri et al., we present the preparation of nanometer-sized silicate grain analogs via laser ablation. These analogs illustrate extremes in structure (fully crystalline or fully amorphous grains), and stoichiometry (the forsterite and fayalite end-members of the olivine family). These were inserted in FORMOLISM, an ultra-high vacuum setup where they can be cooled down to ∼5 K. Atomic beams are directed at these surfaces and the formation of new molecules is studied via REMPI(2+1) spectroscopy. We explored the rotational distribution (0 ≤ J'' ≤ 5) of v'' = 0 of the ground electronic state of H{sub 2}. The results of these measurements are reported here. Surprisingly, molecules formed and ejected from crystalline silicates have a cold (T {sub rot} ∼ 120 K) rotational energy distribution, while for molecules formed on and ejected from amorphous silicate films, the rotational temperature is ∼310 K. These results are compared to previous experiments on metallic surfaces and theoretical simulations. Solid-state surface analysis suggests that flatter grains could hinder the 'cartwheel' rotation mode. A search for hot hydrogen, predicted as a result of H{sub 2} formation, hints at its production. For the first time, the rotational distribution of hydrogen molecules formed on silicate dust is reported. These results are essential to understanding the chemistry of astrophysical media containing bare dust grains.

  7. GEMS Revealed: Spectrum Imaging of Aggregate Grains in Interplanetary Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.; Christoffersen, R.

    2005-01-01

    Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) of cometary origin contain abundant materials that formed in the early solar nebula. These materials were transported outward and subsequently mixed with molecular cloud materials and presolar grains in the region where comets accreted [1]. GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains are a major component of these primitive anhydrous IDPs, along with crystalline Mg-rich silicates, Fe-Ni sulfides, carbonaceous material, and other trace phases. Some GEMS grains (5%) are demonstrably presolar based on their oxygen isotopic compositions [2]. However, most GEMS grains are isotopically solar and have bulk chemical compositions that are incompatible with inferred compositions of interstellar dust, suggesting a solar system origin [3]. An alternative hypothesis is that GEMS grains represent highly irradiated interstellar grains whose oxygen isotopic compositions were homogenized through processing in the interstellar medium (ISM) [4]. We have obtained the first quantitative X-ray maps (spectrum images) showing the distribution of major and minor elements in individual GEMS grains. Nanometer-scale chemical maps provide critical data required to evaluate the differing models regarding the origin of GEMS grains.

  8. Alignment of dust grains in ionized regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nels; Watson, William D.

    1993-01-01

    The rate at which charged dust grains in a plasma are torqued by passing ions and electrons is calculated. When photo-emission of electrons is not important, attraction of ions by the grain monopole potential increases the rate at which the grains' spins are dealigned by nearly an order of magnitude. Consequently, the energy density of the magnetic field required to align grains in an H II region may be increased by about an order of magnitude. In contrast, electric dipole and quadrupole moments are unlikely to produce large dealignment rates for grains of modest length-to-width ratio. Nonetheless, for positively charged grains these higher-order moments likely prevent monopole repulsion of ions from reducing the dealignment rate far below that for neutral grains. The presence of positive grain charge therefore does not greatly facilitate grain alignment in an H II region.

  9. Iron and Silicate Dust Growth in the Galactic Interstellar Medium: Clues from Element Depletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovska, Svitlana; Henning, Thomas; Dobbs, Clare

    2018-04-01

    The interstellar abundances of refractory elements indicate a substantial depletion from the gas phase, which increases with gas density. Our recent model of dust evolution, based on hydrodynamic simulations of the life cycle of giant molecular clouds (GMCs), proves that the observed trend for [Sigas/H] is driven by a combination of dust growth by accretion in the cold diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and efficient destruction by supernova (SN) shocks. With an analytic model of dust evolution, we demonstrate that even with optimistic assumptions for the dust input from stars and without destruction of grains by SNe it is impossible to match the observed [Sigas/H]–n H relation without growth in the ISM. We extend the framework developed in our previous work for silicates to include the evolution of iron grains and address a long-standing conundrum: “Where is the interstellar iron?” Much higher depletion of Fe in the warm neutral medium compared to Si is reproduced by the models, in which a large fraction of interstellar iron (70%) is locked as inclusions in silicate grains, where it is protected from efficient sputtering by SN shocks. The slope of the observed [Fegas/H]–n H relation is reproduced if the remaining depleted iron resides in a population of metallic iron nanoparticles with sizes in the range of 1–10 nm. Enhanced collision rates due to the Coulomb focusing are important for both silicate and iron dust models to match the slopes of the observed depletion–density relations and the magnitudes of depletion at high gas density.

  10. PROPERTIES OF DUST GRAINS PROBED WITH EXTINCTION CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, Takaya; Fukugita, Masataka [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2013-06-10

    Modern data of the extinction curve from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared are revisited to study properties of dust grains in the Milky Way (MW) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We confirm that the graphite-silicate mixture of grains yields the observed extinction curve with the simple power-law distribution of the grain size but with a cutoff at some maximal size: the parameters are tightly constrained to be q = 3.5 {+-} 0.2 for the size distribution a {sup -q} and the maximum radius a{sub max} = 0.24 {+-} 0.05 {mu}m, for both MW and SMC. The abundance of grains, and hence the elemental abundance, is constrained from the reddening versus hydrogen column density, E(B - V)/N{sub H}. If we take the solar elemental abundance as the standard for the MW, >56% of carbon should be in graphite dust, while it is <40% in the SMC using its available abundance estimate. This disparity and the relative abundance of C to Si explain the difference of the two curves. We find that 50%-60% of carbon may not necessarily be in graphite but in the amorphous or glassy phase. Iron may also be in the metallic phase or up to {approx}80% in magnetite rather than in silicates, so that the Mg/Fe ratio in astronomical olivine is arbitrary. With these substitutions, the parameters of the grain size remain unchanged. The mass density of dust grains relative to hydrogen is {rho}{sub dust}/{rho}{sub H}= 1 / (120{sup +10}{sub -16}) for the MW and 1 / (760{sup +70}{sub -90}) for the SMC under the elemental abundance constraints. We underline the importance of the wavelength dependence of the extinction curve in the near-infrared in constructing the dust model: if A{sub {lambda}}{proportional_to}{lambda}{sup -{gamma}} with {gamma} {approx_equal} 1.6, the power-law grain-size model fails, whereas it works if {gamma} {approx_equal} 1.8-2.0.

  11. Physics of dust grains in hot gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draine, B.T.; Salpeter, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Charging of dust grains in hot (10 4 --10 9 K) plasma is studied, including photoelectron and secondary electron emission, field emission, and transmission of electrons and ions through the grain; resulting grain potentials are (for T > or approx. = 10 5 K) considerably smaller in magnitude than found by Burke and Silk. Even so, large electrostatic stresses can cause ion field emission and rapid destruction of small grains in very hot gas. Rapid rotation can also disrupt small grains, but damping (by microwave emission) usually limits the centrifugal stress to acceptable values for plasma densities n/sub H/ -3 . Sputtering rates are estimated for grains in hot gas, based upon a semiempirical fit to experimental data. Predicted sputtering rates for possible grain constituents are similar to estimates by Barlow, but in some cases differ significantly. Useful approximation formulae are given for the drag forces acting on a grain with arbitrary Mach number

  12. A Model of Silicate Grain Nucleation and Growth in Circumstellar Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, John A.; Ferguson, Frank T.; Nuth, Joseph A., III

    2011-01-01

    Based on its abundance, high bond energy, and recent measurements of its vapor pressure SiO is a natural candidate for dust nucleation in circumstellar outflows around asymptotic giant branch stars. In this paper, we describe a model of the nucleation and growth of silicate dust in such outflows. The sensitivity of the model to varying choices of poorly constrained chemical parameters is explored, and the merits of using scaled rather than classical nucleation theory are briefly considered, An elaboration of the model that includes magnesium and iron as growth species is then presented and discussed. The composition of the bulk of the grains derived from the model is consistent with olivines and pyroxenes, but somewhat metal-rich grains and very small, nearly pure SiO grains are also produced,

  13. Dust grains from the heart of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchio, M.; Marassi, S.; Schneider, R.; Bianchi, S.; Limongi, M.; Chieffi, A.

    2016-03-01

    Dust grains are classically thought to form in the winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. However, there is increasing evidence today for dust formation in supernovae (SNe). To establish the relative importance of these two classes of stellar sources of dust, it is important to know the fraction of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta that is able to survive the passage of the reverse shock and be injected in the interstellar medium. With this aim, we have developed a new code, GRASH_Rev, that allows following the dynamics of dust grains in the shocked SN ejecta and computing the time evolution of the mass, composition, and size distribution of the grains. We considered four well-studied SNe in the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud: SN 1987A, CasA, the Crab nebula, and N49. These sources have been observed with both Spitzer and Herschel, and the multiwavelength data allow a better assessment the mass of warm and cold dust associated with the ejecta. For each SN, we first identified the best explosion model, using the mass and metallicity of the progenitor star, the mass of 56Ni, the explosion energy, and the circumstellar medium density inferred from the data. We then ran a recently developed dust formation model to compute the properties of freshly formed dust. Starting from these input models, GRASH_Rev self-consistently follows the dynamics of the grains, considering the effects of the forward and reverse shock, and allows predicting the time evolution of the dust mass, composition, and size distribution in the shocked and unshocked regions of the ejecta. All the simulated models aagree well with observations. Our study suggests that SN 1987A is too young for the reverse shock to have affected the dust mass. Hence the observed dust mass of 0.7-0.9 M⊙ in this source can be safely considered as indicative of the mass of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta. Conversely, in the other three SNe, the reverse shock has already destroyed between 10-40% of the

  14. Mid-Infrared Silicate Dust Features in Seyfert 1 Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Grant D.; Levenson, N. A.; Sirocky, M. M.; Uddin, S.

    2007-12-01

    Silicate dust emission dominates the mid-infrared spectra of galaxies, and the dust produces two spectral features, at 10 and 18 μm. These features' strengths (in emission or absorption) and peak wavelengths reveal the geometry of the dust distribution, and they are sensitive to the dust composition. We examine mid-infrared spectra of 32 Seyfert 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN), observed with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. In the spectra, we typically find the shorter-wavelength feature in emission, at an average peak wavelength of 10.0 μm, although it is known historically as the "9.7 μm" feature. In addition, peak wavelength increases with feature strength. The 10 and 18 μm feature strengths together are sensitive to the dust geometry surrounding the central heating engine. Numerical calculations of radiative transfer distinguish between clumpy and smooth distributions, and we find that the surroundings of these AGN (the obscuring "tori" of unified AGN schemes) are clumpy. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features are associated with star formation, and we find strong PAH emission (luminosity ≥ 1042 erg/s) in only four sources, three of which show independent evidence for starbursts. We will explore the effects of luminosity on dust geometry and chemistry in a comparison sample of quasars. We acknowledge work supported by the NSF under grant number 0237291.

  15. DUST PROPERTIES AND DISK STRUCTURE OF EVOLVED PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN Cep OB2: GRAIN GROWTH, SETTLING, GAS AND DUST MASS, AND INSIDE-OUT EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Henning, Thomas; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Bouwman, Jeroen; Sturm, Bernhard; Patel, Nimesh; Juhász, Attila

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph spectra of 31 T Tauri stars (TTS) and IRAM/1.3 mm observations for 34 low- and intermediate-mass stars in the Cep OB2 region. Including our previously published data, we analyze 56 TTS and 3 intermediate-mass stars with silicate features in Tr 37 (∼4 Myr) and NGC 7160 (∼12 Myr). The silicate emission features are well reproduced with a mixture of amorphous (with olivine, forsterite, and silica stoichiometry) and crystalline grains (forsterite, enstatite). We explore grain size and disk structure using radiative transfer disk models, finding that most objects have suffered substantial evolution (grain growth, settling). About half of the disks show inside-out evolution, with either dust-cleared inner holes or a radially dependent dust distribution, typically with larger grains and more settling in the innermost disk. The typical strong silicate features nevertheless require the presence of small dust grains, and could be explained by differential settling according to grain size, anomalous dust distributions, and/or optically thin dust populations within disk gaps. M-type stars tend to have weaker silicate emission and steeper spectral energy distributions than K-type objects. The inferred low dust masses are in a strong contrast with the relatively high gas accretion rates, suggesting global grain growth and/or an anomalous gas-to-dust ratio. Transition disks in the Cep OB2 region display strongly processed grains, suggesting that they are dominated by dust evolution and settling. Finally, the presence of rare but remarkable disks with strong accretion at old ages reveals that some very massive disks may still survive to grain growth, gravitational instabilities, and planet formation.

  16. Exposure to grain dust in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spankie, Sally; Cherrie, John W

    2012-01-01

    Airborne grain dust is a complex mixture of fragments of organic material from grain, plus mineral matter from soil, and possible insect, fungal, or bacterial contamination or their toxic products, such as endotoxin. In the 1990s, grain workers in Britain were frequently exposed to inhalable dust >10 mg.m(-3) (8 h), with particularly high exposures being found at terminals where grain was imported or exported and in drying operations (personal exposure typically approximately 20 mg.m(-3)). Since then, the industry has made substantial progress in improving the control of airborne dust through better-designed processes, increased automation, and an improved focus on product quality. We have used information from the published scientific literature and a small survey of industry representatives to estimate current exposure levels. These data suggest that current long-term exposure to inhalable dust for most workers is on average less than approximately 3 mg.m(-3), with perhaps 15-20% of individual personal exposures being >10 mg.m(-3). There are no published data from Britain on short-term exposure during cleaning and other tasks. We have estimated average levels for a range of tasks and judge that the highest levels, for example during some cleaning activities and certain process tasks such as loading and packing, are probably approximately10 mg.m(-3). Endotoxin levels were judged likely to be dust levels are <10 mg.m(-3). There are no published exposure data on mycotoxin, respirable crystalline silica, and mite contamination but these are not considered to present widespread problems in the British industry. Further research should be carried out to confirm these findings.

  17. Dust grain resonant capture: A statistical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzari, F.; Vanzani, V.; Weidenschilling, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    A statistical approach, based on a large number of simultaneous numerical integrations, is adopted to study the capture in external mean motion resonances with the Earth of micron size dust grains perturbed by solar radiation and wind forces. We explore the dependence of the resonant capture phenomenon on the initial eccentricity e(sub 0) and perihelion argument w(sub 0) of the dust particle orbit. The intensity of both the resonant and dissipative (Poynting-Robertson and wind drag) perturbations strongly depends on the eccentricity of the particle while the perihelion argument determines, for low inclination, the mutual geometrical configuration of the particle's orbit with respect to the Earth's orbit. We present results for three j:j+1 commensurabilities (2:3, 4:5 and 6:7) and also for particle sizes s = 15, 30 microns. This study extends our previous work on the long term orbital evolution of single dust particles trapped into resonances with the Earth.

  18. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies.

  19. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D M; Romeo, P A; Olenchock, S A

    1986-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies. PMID:3709478

  20. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies

  1. Photoemission Experiments for Charge Characteristics of Individual Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Spann, James F., Jr.; Craven, Paul D.; West, E.; Pratico, Jared; Scheianu, D.; Tankosic, D.; Venturini, C. C.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Photoemission experiments with UV radiation have been performed to investigate the microphysics and charge characteristics of individual isolated dust grains of various compositions and sizes by using the electrodynamic balance facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Dust particles of 1 - 100 micrometer diameter are levitated in a vacuum chamber at pressures approx. 10(exp -5) torr and exposed to a collimated beam of UV radiation in the 120-300 nanometers spectral range from a deuterium lamp source with a MgF2 window. A monochromator is used to select the UV radiation wavelength with a spectral resolution of 8 nanometers. The electrodynamic facility permits measurements of the charge and diameters of particles of known composition, and monitoring of photoemission rates with the incident UV radiation. Experiments have been conducted on Al2O3 and silicate particles, and in particular on JSC-1 Mars regolith simulants, to determine the photoelectron yields and surface equilibrium potentials of dust particles when exposed to UV radiation in the 120-250 micrometers spectral range. A brief discussion of the experimental procedure, the results of photoemission experiments, and comparisons with theoretical models will be presented.

  2. Photoemission of Single Dust Grains for Heliospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F., Jr.; Venturini, Catherine C.; Abbas, Mian M.; Comfort, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    Initial results of an experiment to measure the photoemission of single dust grains as a function of far ultraviolet wavelengths are presented. Coulombic forces dominate the interaction of the dust grains in the heliosphere. Knowledge of the charge state of dust grains, whether in a dusty plasma (Debye length grains is primarily determined by primary electron and ion collisions, secondary electron emission and photoemission due to ultraviolet sunlight. We have established a unique experimental technique to measure the photoemission of individual micron-sized dust grains in vacuum. This technique resolves difficulties associated with statistical measurements of dust grain ensembles and non-static dust beams. The photoemission yield of Aluminum Oxide 3-micron grains For wavelengths from 120-300 nm with a spectral resolution of 1 nm FWHM is reported. Results are compared to interplanetary conditions.

  3. Computer simulation of dust grain evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liffman, K.

    1989-01-01

    The latest results are reported from a Monte Carlo code that is being developed at NASA Ames. The goal of this program, is to derive from the observed and presumed properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) the following information: (1) the size spectrum of interstellar dust; (2) the chemical structure of interstellar dust; (3) interstellar abundances; and (4) the lifetime of a dust grain in the ISM. Presently this study is restricted to refractory interstellar material, i.e., the formation and destruction of ices are not included in the program. The program is embedded in an analytic solution for the bulk chemical evolution of a two-phase interstellar medium in which stars are born in molecular clouds, but new nucleosynthesis products and stellar return are entered into a complementary intercloud medium. The well-mixed matter of each interstellar phase is repeatedly cycled stochastically through the complementary phase and back. Refractory dust is created by thermal condensation as stellar matter flows away from sites of nucleosynthesis such as novae and supernovae and/or from the matter returned from evolved intermediate stars. The history of each particle is traced by standard Monte Carlo techniques as it is sputtered and fragmented by supernova shock waves in the intercloud medium. It also accretes an amorphous mantle of gaseous refractory atoms when its local medium joins with the molecular cloud medium. Finally it encounters the possibility of astration (destruction by star formation) within the molecular clouds.

  4. On the theory of dynamics of dust grain in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, A. A.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2013-03-01

    The dynamics of rotationally symmetric dust grains in plasma embedded in a magnetic field are of concern. The general expressions for forces and torques acting on dust are found. It is shown that dust spinning is determined by torques related to both the Lorentz force (dominant for relatively small grains) and the gyro-motion of plasma particles impinging the grain (which prevails for large grains). The stability of grain spinning is analyzed and it is shown that, for some cases (e.g., oblate spheroid), there is no stable dynamic equilibrium of grain spinning.

  5. Charging of dust grains in a plasma with negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, A.A.; Shukla, P.K.

    2003-01-01

    The role of negative ions on the charging of dust grains in a plasma is examined. Two models for negative ion distributions are considered. These are streaming negative ions and Boltzmannian negative ions. It is found that the effects of the negative ion number density, negative ion charge, and negative ion streaming speed significantly affect the dust grain surface potential or the dust grain charge

  6. Dipole-dipole interaction of dust grains in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tskhakaya, D.D.; Shukla, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    Complete screening of the negative dust grain charge by a cloud of trapped ions in plasmas is investigated. In the external electric field, the compound dust particle - 'dust grain + ion cloud' acquires a dipole moment due to displacement of the centers of positive and negative charges in the opposite directions. By analogy to the Van der Waals potential, the dipole-dipole interaction of the compound dust particles can have an attractive behavior. It is shown that the dipole-dipole attractive force can exceed the shadowing force that is connected with the reciprocal interception of ions by the neighboring dust grains

  7. Infrared spectroscopy of dust in the Taurus dark clouds: ice and silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; Adamson, A.J.; McFadzean, A.D.; Aitken, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Low-resolution spectra are presented of the 3 μm water-ice and 10 μm silicate dust features for stars in the direction of the extensive dark cloud complex in Taurus. A total of 22 stars were observed at 3 μm, and 16 at 10 μm. Our sample includes both dust-embedded objects and background field stars seen through the cloud. New and previously published results are combined to investigate the correlation of the strengths of both features with visual extinction A v , and we demonstrate the existence of a very close linear correlation between the peak optical depth in the 3 μm feature and A v for field stars. Ice is detected in all cases where A v exceeds a threshold value of 3.3 ± 0.1 mag, a result which provides a firm observational basis for models of volatile mantle growth on grains in the dark cloud environment. In contrast, the silicate feature is rather poorly correlated with A v . (author)

  8. DUST IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: ANOMALOUS SILICATE TO OPTICAL EXTINCTION RATIOS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jianwei; Hao, Lei [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li, Aigen, E-mail: haol@shao.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Dust plays a central role in the unification theory of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, little is known about the nature (e.g., size, composition) of the dust that forms a torus around the AGN. In this Letter, we report a systematic exploration of the optical extinction (A{sub V} ) and the silicate absorption optical depth (Δτ{sub 9.7}) of 110 type 2 AGNs. We derive A{sub V} from the Balmer decrement based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, and Δτ{sub 9.7} from the Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph data. We find that with a mean ratio of (A{sub V} /Δτ{sub 9.7}) ≲ 5.5, the optical-to-silicate extinction ratios of these AGNs are substantially lower than that of the Galactic diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) for which A{sub V} /Δτ{sub 9.7} ≈ 18.5. We argue that the anomalously low A{sub V} /Δτ{sub 9.7} ratio could be due to the predominance of larger grains in the AGN torus compared to that in the Galactic diffuse ISM.

  9. Acute symptoms following exposure to grain dust in farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, J; Holford-Strevens, V; Cheang, M; Warren, C P

    1986-01-01

    History of acute symptoms (cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, fever, stuffy nose, and skin itching/rash) following exposure to grain dust was obtained from 661 male and 535 female current and former farmers. These symptoms were relatively common: 60% of male and 25% of female farmers reported at least one such symptom on exposure to grain dust. Association of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and stuffy nose with skin reactivity and capacity to form IgE is consistent with an allergic nature of these symptoms. Barley and oats dust were perceived as dust most often producing symptoms. On the other hand, grain fever showed a different pattern, i.e., it was not associated with either skin reactivity or total IgE. Smoking might modify the susceptibility to react to grain dust with symptoms. Only those who reported wheezing on exposure to grain dust may have an increased risk to develop chronic airflow obstruction. PMID:3709486

  10. Simulating galactic dust grain evolution on a moving mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Ryan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Torrey, Paul; Marinacci, Federico; Kannan, Rahul

    2018-05-01

    Interstellar dust is an important component of the galactic ecosystem, playing a key role in multiple galaxy formation processes. We present a novel numerical framework for the dynamics and size evolution of dust grains implemented in the moving-mesh hydrodynamics code AREPO suited for cosmological galaxy formation simulations. We employ a particle-based method for dust subject to dynamical forces including drag and gravity. The drag force is implemented using a second-order semi-implicit integrator and validated using several dust-hydrodynamical test problems. Each dust particle has a grain size distribution, describing the local abundance of grains of different sizes. The grain size distribution is discretised with a second-order piecewise linear method and evolves in time according to various dust physical processes, including accretion, sputtering, shattering, and coagulation. We present a novel scheme for stochastically forming dust during stellar evolution and new methods for sub-cycling of dust physics time-steps. Using this model, we simulate an isolated disc galaxy to study the impact of dust physical processes that shape the interstellar grain size distribution. We demonstrate, for example, how dust shattering shifts the grain size distribution to smaller sizes resulting in a significant rise of radiation extinction from optical to near-ultraviolet wavelengths. Our framework for simulating dust and gas mixtures can readily be extended to account for other dynamical processes relevant in galaxy formation, like magnetohydrodynamics, radiation pressure, and thermo-chemical processes.

  11. Evolution of silicate dust in interstellar, circumstellar and cometary environments: the role of irradiation and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoisne, Carine

    2006-01-01

    Due to the development of observational and analytical tools, our knowledge of the silicate dust has considerably increased these last years. Dust is formed around evolved stars and injected in the interstellar medium (ISM) in which it travels. Dust is then incorporated in the proto-planetary disks around young stars. During its life cycle, the silicate dust is subjected by numerous processes. The aim of this PhD work is firstly to study the chemical and morphological modifications of silicate dust in supernovae shock waves then to indicate its evolution when it is incorporated around young stars. We have developed low energy ion irradiations in situ in a photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). The chemical and morphological changes have been measured respectively by XPS and atomic force microscopy. We have also carried out thermal annealing under controlled atmosphere of amorphous silicates. The structural and chemical modifications have been observed by analytical transmission electron microscopy. We have shown that ion irradiation induces chemical and morphological changes in silicate. In the ISM, supernovae shock waves are thus a major process which could affect the silicate dust evolution. The microstructure obtained after thermal annealing strongly depends on oxygen fugacity. They often offer a good comparison with those observed in primitive materials present in our solar system. The recrystallization of amorphous interstellar precursors in the inner accretion disk is thus an efficient process to form crystalline silicates which are furthermore incorporated in small parent bodies (asteroids or comets). (author) [fr

  12. On interstellar light polarization by diamagnetic silicate and carbon dust in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoular, R.

    2018-04-01

    The motion of diamagnetic dust particles in interstellar magnetic fields is studied numerically with several different sets of parameters. Two types of behaviour are observed, depending on the value of the critical number R, which is a function of the grain inertia, the magnetic susceptibility of the material and of the strength of rotation braking. If R ≤ 10, the grain ends up in a static state and perfectly aligned with the magnetic field, after a few braking times. If not, it goes on precessing and nutating about the field vector for a much longer time. Usual parameters are such that the first situation can hardly be observed. Fortunately, in the second and more likely situation, there remains a persistent partial alignment that is far from negligible, although it decreases as the field decreases and as R increases. The solution of the complete equations of motion of grains in a field helps understanding the details of this behaviour. One particular case of an ellipsoidal forsterite silicate grain is studied in detail and shown to polarize light in agreement with astronomical measurements of absolute polarization in the infrared. Phonons are shown to contribute to the progressive flattening of extinction and polarization towards long wavelengths. The measured dielectric properties of forsterite qualitatively fit the Serkowski peak in the visible.

  13. Kuiper Belt Dust Grains as a Source of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Zook, Herbert A.; Dermott, Stanley F.

    1996-01-01

    The recent discovery of the so-called Kuiper belt objects has prompted the idea that these objects produce dust grains that may contribute significantly to the interplanetary dust population. In this paper, the orbital evolution of dust grains, of diameters 1 to 9 microns, that originate in the region of the Kuiper belt is studied by means of direct numerical integration. Gravitational forces of the Sun and planets, solar radiation pressure, as well as Poynting-Robertson drag and solar wind drag are included. The interactions between charged dust grains and solar magnetic field are not considered in the model. Because of the effects of drag forces, small dust grains will spiral toward the Sun once they are released from their large parent bodies. This motion leads dust grains to pass by planets as well as encounter numerous mean motion resonances associated with planets. Our results show that about 80% of the Kuiper belt grains are ejected from the Solar System by the giant planets, while the remaining 20% of the grains evolve all the way to the Sun. Surprisingly, the latter dust grains have small orbital eccentricities and inclinations when they cross the orbit of the Earth. This makes them behave more like asteroidal than cometary-type dust particles. This also enhances their chances of being captured by the Earth and makes them a possible source of the collected interplanetary dust particles; in particular, they represent a possible source that brings primitive/organic materials from the outer Solar System to the Earth. When collisions with interstellar dust grains are considered, however, Kuiper belt dust grains around 9 microns appear likely to be collisionally shattered before they can evolve toward the inner part of the Solar System. The collision destruction can be applied to Kuiper belt grains up to about 50 microns. Therefore, Kuiper belt dust grains within this range may not be a significant part of the interplanetary dust complex in the inner Solar

  14. Interaction between dust grains near a conducting wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a conducting electrode on the interaction of dust grains in an ion flow is discussed. It is shown that two grains levitating above the electrode at the same height may attract one another. This results in the instability of a dust layer

  15. Dust Coagulation in Infalling Protostellar Envelopes I. Compact Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, H.; Lin, D.; Suttner, G.

    1999-01-01

    Dust plays a key role in the optical, thermodynamic and gas dynamical behavior of collapsing molecular cores. Because of relative velocities of the individual dust grains, coagulation and shattering can modify the grain size distribution and -- due to corresponding changes in the medium's opacity significantly -- influence the evolution during early phases of star formation.

  16. PETROLOGIC CONSTRAINTS ON AMORPHOUS AND CRYSTALLINE MAGNESIUM SILICATES: DUST FORMATION AND EVOLUTION IN SELECTED HERBIG Ae/Be SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, MSC 03 2040, 1-University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-001 (United States); Nuth, Joseph A., E-mail: fransjmr@unm.edu [Astrochemistry Laboratory, Solar System Exploration Division, Code 691, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Herschel Space Observatory surveys provided a wealth of data on the Mg-silicate minerals (forsterite, enstatite), silica, and ''amorphous silicates with olivine and pyroxene stoichiometry'' around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These incredible findings do not resonate with the mainstream Earth Sciences because of (1) disconnecting ''astronomical nomenclature'' and the long existing mineralogical and petrologic terminology of minerals and amorphous materials, and (2) the fact that Earth scientists (formerly geologists) are bound by the ''Principle of Actualism'' that was put forward by James Hutton (1726-1797). This principle takes a process-oriented approach to understanding mineral and rock formation and evolution. This paper will (1) review and summarize the results of laboratory-based vapor phase condensation and thermal annealing experiments, (2) present the pathways of magnesiosilica condensates to Mg-silicate mineral (forsterite, enstatite) formation and processing, and (3) present mineralogical and petrologic implications of the properties and compositions of the infrared-observed crystalline and amorphous dust for the state of circumstellar disk evolution. That is, the IR-observation of smectite layer silicates in HD142527 suggests the break-up of asteroid-like parent bodies that had experienced aqueous alteration. We discuss the persistence of amorphous dust around some young stars and an ultrafast amorphous to crystalline dust transition in HD 163296 that leads to forsterite grains with numerous silica inclusions. These dust evolution processes to form forsterite, enstatite {+-} tridymite could occur due to amorphous magnesiosilica dust precursors with a serpentine- or smectite-dehydroxylate composition.

  17. PETROLOGIC CONSTRAINTS ON AMORPHOUS AND CRYSTALLINE MAGNESIUM SILICATES: DUST FORMATION AND EVOLUTION IN SELECTED HERBIG Ae/Be SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Nuth, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Herschel Space Observatory surveys provided a wealth of data on the Mg-silicate minerals (forsterite, enstatite), silica, and ''amorphous silicates with olivine and pyroxene stoichiometry'' around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These incredible findings do not resonate with the mainstream Earth Sciences because of (1) disconnecting ''astronomical nomenclature'' and the long existing mineralogical and petrologic terminology of minerals and amorphous materials, and (2) the fact that Earth scientists (formerly geologists) are bound by the ''Principle of Actualism'' that was put forward by James Hutton (1726-1797). This principle takes a process-oriented approach to understanding mineral and rock formation and evolution. This paper will (1) review and summarize the results of laboratory-based vapor phase condensation and thermal annealing experiments, (2) present the pathways of magnesiosilica condensates to Mg-silicate mineral (forsterite, enstatite) formation and processing, and (3) present mineralogical and petrologic implications of the properties and compositions of the infrared-observed crystalline and amorphous dust for the state of circumstellar disk evolution. That is, the IR-observation of smectite layer silicates in HD142527 suggests the break-up of asteroid-like parent bodies that had experienced aqueous alteration. We discuss the persistence of amorphous dust around some young stars and an ultrafast amorphous to crystalline dust transition in HD 163296 that leads to forsterite grains with numerous silica inclusions. These dust evolution processes to form forsterite, enstatite ± tridymite could occur due to amorphous magnesiosilica dust precursors with a serpentine- or smectite-dehydroxylate composition.

  18. The dust acoustic wave in a bounded dusty plasma with strong electrostatic interactions between dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    The dispersion relation for the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in an unmagnetized dusty plasma cylindrical waveguide is derived, accounting for strong electrostatic interactions between charged dust grains. It is found that the boundary effect limits the radial extent of the DAW. The present result should be helpful for understanding the frequency spectrum of the DAW in a dusty plasma waveguide with strongly coupled charged dust grains. - Highlights: → We study the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a bounded plasma. → We account for interactions between dust grains. → The boundary effect limits the radial extent of the DAW.

  19. Carbohydrate and protein contents of grain dusts in relation to dust morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashek, W V; Olenchock, S A; Mayfield, J E; Wirtz, G H; Wolz, D E; Young, C A

    1986-01-01

    Grain dusts contain a variety of materials which are potentially hazardous to the health of workers in the grain industry. Because the characterization of grain dusts is incomplete, we are defining the botanical, chemical, and microbial contents of several grain dusts collected from grain elevators in the Duluth-Superior regions of the U.S. Here, we report certain of the carbohydrate and protein contents of dusts in relation to dust morphology. Examination of the gross morphologies of the dusts revealed that, except for corn, each dust contained either husk or pericarp (seed coat in the case of flax) fragments in addition to respirable particles. When viewed with the light microscope, the fragments appeared as elongated, pointed structures. The possibility that certain of the fragments within corn, settled, and spring wheat were derived from cell walls was suggested by the detection of pentoses following colorimetric assay of neutralized 2 N trifluoroacetic acid hydrolyzates of these dusts. The presence of pentoses together with the occurrence of proteins within water washings of grain dusts suggests that glycoproteins may be present within the dusts. With scanning electron microscopy, each dust was found to consist of a distinct assortment of particles in addition to respirable particles. Small husk fragments and "trichome-like" objects were common to all but corn dust. Images FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. PMID:3709476

  20. The Importance of Physical Models for Deriving Dust Masses and Grain Size Distributions in Supernova Ejecta. I. Radiatively Heated Dust in the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 Solar Mass, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 micron. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in

  1. Laboratory Investigation of Space and Planetary Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James

    2005-01-01

    Dust in space is ubiquitous and impacts diverse observed phenomena in various ways. Understanding the dominant mechanisms that control dust grain properties and its impact on surrounding environments is basic to improving our understanding observed processes at work in space. There is a substantial body of work on the theory and modeling of dust in space and dusty plasmas. To substantiate and validate theory and models, laboratory investigations and space borne observations have been conducted. Laboratory investigations are largely confined to an assembly of dust grains immersed in a plasma environment. Frequently the behaviors of these complex dusty plasmas in the laboratory have raised more questions than verified theories. Space borne observations have helped us characterize planetary environments. The complex behavior of dust grains in space indicates the need to understand the microphysics of individual grains immersed in a plasma or space environment.

  2. SOFIA OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2010jl: ANOTHER NON-DETECTION OF THE 9.7 μm SILICATE DUST FEATURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Fox, Ori D.

    2015-01-01

    We present photometric observations from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) at 11.1 μm of the Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) 2010jl. The SN is undetected by SOFIA, but the upper limits obtained, combined with new and archival detections from Spitzer at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, allow us to characterize the composition of the dust present. Dust in other SN IIn has been shown in previous works to reside in a circumstellar shell of material ejected by the progenitor system in the few millenia prior to explosion. Our model fits show that the dust in the system shows no evidence for the strong, ubiquitous 9.7 μm feature from silicate dust, suggesting the presence of carbonaceous grains. The observations are best fit with 0.01–0.05 M ⊙ of carbonaceous dust radiating at a temperature of ∼550–620 K. The dust composition may reveal clues concerning the nature of the progenitor system, which remains ambiguous for this subclass. Most of the single star progenitor systems proposed for SNe IIn, such as luminous blue variables, red supergiants, yellow hypergiants, and B[e] stars, all clearly show silicate dust in their pre-SN outflows. However, this post-SN result is consistent with the small sample of SNe IIn with mid-IR observations, none of which show signs of emission from silicate dust in their IR spectra

  3. SOFIA OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2010jl: ANOTHER NON-DETECTION OF THE 9.7 μm SILICATE DUST FEATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Brian J. [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Code 662, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Fox, Ori D., E-mail: brian.j.williams@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We present photometric observations from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) at 11.1 μm of the Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) 2010jl. The SN is undetected by SOFIA, but the upper limits obtained, combined with new and archival detections from Spitzer at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, allow us to characterize the composition of the dust present. Dust in other SN IIn has been shown in previous works to reside in a circumstellar shell of material ejected by the progenitor system in the few millenia prior to explosion. Our model fits show that the dust in the system shows no evidence for the strong, ubiquitous 9.7 μm feature from silicate dust, suggesting the presence of carbonaceous grains. The observations are best fit with 0.01–0.05 M{sub ⊙} of carbonaceous dust radiating at a temperature of ∼550–620 K. The dust composition may reveal clues concerning the nature of the progenitor system, which remains ambiguous for this subclass. Most of the single star progenitor systems proposed for SNe IIn, such as luminous blue variables, red supergiants, yellow hypergiants, and B[e] stars, all clearly show silicate dust in their pre-SN outflows. However, this post-SN result is consistent with the small sample of SNe IIn with mid-IR observations, none of which show signs of emission from silicate dust in their IR spectra.

  4. Observations of dusty plasmas with magnetized dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Q.-Z.; D'Angelo, N.

    2000-11-01

    We report a newly observed phenomenon in a dusty plasma device of the \\mbox{Q-machine} type. At low plasma densities the time required by the plasma to return to its no-dust conditions, after the dust dispenser is turned off, can be as long as many tens of seconds or longer. A tentative interpretation of this observation in terms of magnetized dust grains is advanced. It appears that an important loss mechanism of fine dust grains is by ion drag along the magnetic field lines. The effect of ion drag is somewhat counteracted by the -µ∇B force present when the magnetic field has a mirror geometry.

  5. On interaction of large dust grains with fusion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Smirnov, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    So far the models used to study dust grain-plasma interactions in fusion plasmas neglect the effects of dust material vapor, which is always present around dust in rather hot and dense edge plasma environment in fusion devices. However, when the vapor density and/or the amount of ionized vapor atoms become large enough, they can alter the grain-plasma interactions. Somewhat similar processes occur during pellet injection in fusion plasma. In this brief communication the applicability limits of the models ignoring vapor effects in grain-plasma interactions are obtained.

  6. Identification of an Extremely 180-Rich Presolar Silicate Grain in Acfer 094

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Messenger, S.

    2009-01-01

    Presolar silicate grains have been abundantly identified since their first discovery less than a decade ago [1,2,3]. The O isotopic compositions of both silicate and oxide stardust indicate the vast majority (>90%) condensed around Orich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Though both presolar phases have average sizes of 300 nm, grains larger than 1 m are extremely uncommon for presolar silicates. Thus, while numerous isotopic systems have been measured in presolar oxide grains [4], very few isotopic analyses for presolar silicates exist outside of O and Si [2,5]. And still, these measurements suffer from isotopic dilution with surrounding matrix material [6]. We conduct a search for presolar silicates in the primitive carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094 and in some cases obtain high spatial resolution, high precision isotopic ratios.

  7. Long-range interaction between dust grains in plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Yu. Mishagli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The nature of long-range interactions between dust grains in plasma is discussed. The dust grain interaction potential within a cell model of dusty plasma is introduced. The attractive part of inter-grain potential is described by multipole interaction between two electro-neutral cells. This allowed us to draw an analogy with molecular liquids where attraction between molecules is determined by dispersion forces. Also main ideas of the fluctuation theory for electrostatic field in cell model are formulated, and the dominating contribution to attractive part of inter-grain potential is obtained.

  8. Effects of grain dust on lungs prior to and following dust remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Punam; Dosman, James A; McDuffie, Helen H

    2008-12-01

    To determine longitudinal estimates of pulmonary function decline in Canadian grain elevator workers before and after dust control by analyzing data collected from five regions of Canada over 15 years. Declines in forced expired volume in one second and forced vital capacity before and after dust control were estimated by using a generalized estimating equations approach. For grain workers who were in the grain industry for 20 or more years both before and after dust control: the mean annual loss of forced expired volume in one second was greatest among current smoking grain workers followed by ex-smokers and nonsmokers, respectively. Similar results were obtained for forced vital capacity. Grain dust control was effective in reducing decline in the lung function measurements among grain workers in all smoking and exposure categories.

  9. Low-temperature MIR to submillimeter mass absorption coefficient of interstellar dust analogues. II. Mg and Fe-rich amorphous silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyk, K.; Meny, C.; Leroux, H.; Depecker, C.; Brubach, J.-B.; Roy, P.; Nayral, C.; Ojo, W.-S.; Delpech, F.

    2017-10-01

    Context. To model the cold dust emission observed in the diffuse interstellar medium, in dense molecular clouds or in cold clumps that could eventually form new stars, it is mandatory to know the physical and spectroscopic properties of this dust and to understand its emission. Aims: This work is a continuation of previous studies aiming at providing astronomers with spectroscopic data of realistic cosmic dust analogues for the interpretation of observations. The aim of the present work is to extend the range of studied analogues to iron-rich silicate dust analogues. Methods: Ferromagnesium amorphous silicate dust analogues were produced by a sol-gel method with a mean composition close to Mg1-xFexSiO3 with x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4. Part of each sample was annealed at 500 °C for two hours in a reducing atmosphere to modify the oxidation state of iron. We have measured the mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of these eight ferromagnesium amorphous silicate dust analogues in the spectral domain 30-1000 μm for grain temperature in the range 10-300 K and at room temperature in the 5-40 μm range. Results: The MAC of ferromagnesium samples behaves in the same way as the MAC of pure Mg-rich amorphous silicate samples. In the 30-300 K range, the MAC increases with increasing grain temperature whereas in the range 10-30 K, we do not see any change of the MAC. The MAC cannot be described by a single power law in λ- β. The MAC of the samples does not show any clear trend with the iron content. However the annealing process has, on average, an effect on the MAC that we explain by the evolution of the structure of the samples induced by the processing. The MAC of all the samples is much higher than the MAC calculated by dust models. Conclusions: The complex behavior of the MAC of amorphous silicates with wavelength and temperature is observed whatever the exact silicate composition (Mg vs. Fe amount). It is a universal characteristic of amorphous materials, and therefore of

  10. The temperature of large dust grains in molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, F. O.; Laureijs, R. J.; Prusti, T.

    1991-01-01

    The temperature of the large dust grains is calculated from three molecular clouds ranging in visual extinction from 2.5 to 8 mag, by comparing maps of either extinction derived from star counts or gas column density derived from molecular observations to I(100). Both techniques show the dust temperature declining into clouds. The two techniques do not agree in absolute scale.

  11. The grain charging and the dust acoustic wave instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Ram K.

    2001-01-01

    The stability of the steady charging state of the assembly of dust grains in a plasma is analyzed using, besides the equations of continuity and momentum balance, also the equations of thermal energy balance with the grain charging terms for both the electron and ion species. The grain charging terms account for the energy exchange between the dust grains and the electron and ion fluids. The grains are taken to be immobile for the purpose of this analysis. Two limiting cases are analyzed: (i) f(≡4πn d λ D 2 a) >1 (n d is the dust number density, λ D plasma Debye length, and a, the grain radius). The steady grain charge state is found to be stable in the case f o is unaffected. On the other hand, in the limit f>>1, the state is found to be unstable provided γ q (≡q o e/aT e ) e -T i )/T e (T e , T i are electron and ion temperatures). A coherent charging of the dust grains results as a consequence of this instability until γ q ≅(1/2) (T e -T i )/T i . Next, by letting the grain charges be mobile, so that the perturbation of dust number density is nonzero, we examine the stability of the dust-acoustic wave (DAW). The DAW is found to be unstable, also in the f>>1 case, while stable in the f<<1. The instability of the DAW also implies a concomitant grain charge growth, which would again be of a coherent nature

  12. TRAJECTORIES AND DISTRIBUTION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST GRAINS IN THE HELIOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Frisch, Priscilla C.; Müller, Hans-Reinhard; Heerikhuisen, Jacob; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Reach, William T.; Zank, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The solar wind carves a bubble in the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) known as the heliosphere. Charged interstellar dust grains (ISDG) encountering the heliosphere may be diverted around the heliopause or penetrate it depending on their charge-to-mass ratio. We present new calculations of trajectories of ISDG in the heliosphere, and the dust density distributions that result. We include up-to-date grain charging calculations using a realistic UV radiation field and full three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic fluid + kinetic models for the heliosphere. Models with two different (constant) polarities for the solar wind magnetic field (SWMF) are used, with the grain trajectory calculations done separately for each polarity. Small grains a gr ∼ gr ∼> 1.0 μm, pass into the inner solar system and are concentrated near the Sun by its gravity. Trajectories of intermediate size grains depend strongly on the SWMF polarity. When the field has magnetic north pointing to ecliptic north, the field de-focuses the grains resulting in low densities in the inner heliosphere, while for the opposite polarity the dust is focused near the Sun. The ISDG density outside the heliosphere inferred from applying the model results to in situ dust measurements is inconsistent with local ISM depletion data for both SWMF polarities but is bracketed by them. This result points to the need to include the time variation in the SWMF polarity during grain propagation. Our results provide valuable insights for interpretation of the in situ dust observations from Ulysses.

  13. Infrared emission from isolated dust clouds in the presence of very small dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Dariusz C.; Leung, Chun M.

    1991-01-01

    Models of the effects of small grain-generated temperature fluctuations on the IR spectrum and surface brightness of externally heated interstellar dust clouds are presently constructed on the basis of a continuum radiation transport computer code which encompasses the transient heating of small dust grains. The models assume a constant fractional abundance of large and small grains throughout the given cloud. A comparison of model results with IRAS observations indicates that the observed 12-25 micron band emissions are associated with about 10-A radius grains, while the 60-100 micron emission is primarily due to large grains which are heated under the equilibrium conditions.

  14. The equilibrium and oscillations of dust grains in a discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N.F.; Vladimirov, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In a vertically oriented laboratory discharge plasma, dust particles are negatively charged and usually levitate in the sheath or pre-sheath region under the balance of gravitational, electrostatic (due to the sheath electric field) and plasma (such as the ion drag) forces. The ion flow, in addition to a direct (dragging) influence, is also responsible for the generation of associated collective plasma processes which can strongly affect the vertical arrangement of the grains, such as in the case of supersonic flows when a wake field is generated. Under some circumstances, the grains may form into a stable regular structure, the dust-plasma crystal, which can support a variety of lattice waves. The mechanism of formation of the crystal is still not well understood. The charge of the dust particles appears mainly due to electron and ion current onto the grain surfaces. The dependence of the dust particle charge on the sheath parameters has an important effect on the oscillations and equilibrium of dust grains in the vertical plane, leading to a possible disruption of the equilibrium position of the particle. Recent experiments at Sydney have shown the formation of the crystalline and liquid states of arrays of dust grains, and the self-excitation of vertical oscillations of the grains. To model these experiments, we have studied the interaction of dust grains with the plasma, including the charging of the grain, with a number of different models. A fluid model of the plasma to study the dust trapping, disruptions of the equilibrium, and the modes of transverse waves (vertically polarized) in arrays of grains in a dust-plasma crystal. It is found that for a grain radius greater than a critical value, there is no equilibrium position. Possible vertical oscillations about the stable equilibrium may develop high amplitudes, thus leading to a fall of the oscillating grain onto the electrode when the potential barrier is overcome. It is found that the charge

  15. Ochratoxin A in grain dust--estimated exposure and relations to agricultural practices in grain production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Elen, Oleif; Eduard, Wijnand

    2004-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxin frequently contaminating grains. OTA inhalation during grain handling may therefore represent a health risk to farmers, and was the subject of this study. Airborne and settled grain dust was collected during grain work on 84 Norwegian farms. Climate and agricultural practices on each farm were registered. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and OTA in settled dust were measured. Settled dust contained median 4 microg OTA/kg dust (range 2-128), correlating with Penicillium spp. (median 40 cfu/mg; range 0-32000, rs =0.33; p grain species, districts and agricultural practices. Penicillium levels, but not OTA levels, were higher in storage than in threshing dust (p=0.003), and increased with storage time (rs =0.51, p dust during threshing and median 7 mg/m3 (range 1-110) dust during storage work, equalling median 3.7 pg/m3 (range 0.6-200) and median 40 pg/m3 (range 2-14000) OTA, respectively (p grain work was low, although varying by more than 1,000-fold. However, the farmers may occasionally be highly exposed, particularly during handling of stored grain.

  16. Disintegration of Dust Aggregates in Interstellar Shocks and the Lifetime of Dust Grains in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, C.; Jones, A. P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Cuzzi, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Interstellar grains are destroyed by shock waves moving through the ISM. In fact, the destruction of grains may be so effective that it is difficult to explain the observed abundance of dust in the ISM as a steady state between input of grains from stellar sources and destruction of grains in shocks. This is especially a problem for the larger grains. Therefore, the dust grains must be protected in some way. Jones et al. have already considered coatings and the increased post-shock drag effects for low density grains. In molecular clouds and dense clouds, coagulation of grains is an important process, and the largest interstellar grains may indeed be aggregates of smaller grains rather than homogeneous particles. This may provide a means to protect the larger grains, in that, in moderate velocity grain-grain collisions in a shock the aggregates may disintegrate rather than be vaporized. The released small particles are more resilient to shock destruction (except in fast shocks) and may reform larger grains later, recovering the observed size distribution. We have developed a model for the binding forces in grain aggregates and apply this model to the collisions between an aggregate and fast small grains. We discuss the results in the light of statistical collision probabilities and grain life times.

  17. Solitons in dusty plasmas with positive dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluku, T. K.; Hellberg, M. A.; Mace, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Although ''typical'' micrometer-sized dust grains in a space or laboratory plasma are often negatively charged because of collisions with the mobile electrons, there are environments in which grains may take on a positive charge. We consider a dusty plasma composed of electrons, positive ions and positive dust grains, and use the fluid dynamic paradigm to identify existence domains in parameter space for both dust-acoustic (DA) and dust-modified ion-acoustic (DIA) solitons. Only positive potential DA solitons are found. This represents an expected antisymmetry with the case of negative dust, where previously only negative solitons were reported. However, whereas for negative dust DIA solitons of either sign of potential may exist, we find that for the case of positive dust, DIA solitons are restricted to positive potentials only. The results for both positive and negative dust are consistent with an hypothesis that, in the absence of flows, the sign(s) of the soliton potential coincide(s) with the sign(s) of the species whose inertia is included in the calculation; i.e., the cold, supersonic species present in the plasma

  18. Cosmic gamma-ray burst from intergalactic relativistic dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Charged dust grains of radii a approximately 3 x 10 -6 approximately 3 x 10 -5 cm may acquire relativistic energy (>10 18 eV) in the intergalactic medium. In order to attain relativistic energy, dust grains have to move in and out ('scattering') of the magnetic field of the medium. A relativistic grain of radius a -5 cm with Lorentz factor γ approximately 10 3 approaching the Earth will break up either due to electrostatic charge or due to sputtering about 150 approximately 100 km, and may scatter solar photons via a fluorescence process. Dust grains may also melt into droplets in the solar vicinity and may contribute towards observed gamma-ray bursts. (Auth.)

  19. Experimental Phase Functions of Millimeter-sized Cosmic Dust Grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Guirado, D.; Escobar-Cerezo, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Vargas-Martín, F. [Department of Electromagnetism and Electronics, University of Murcia, E-30100 Murcia (Spain); Min, M. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sobornnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Hovenier, J. W. [Astronomical Institute “Anton Pannekoek,” University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-09-01

    We present the experimental phase functions of three types of millimeter-sized dust grains consisting of enstatite, quartz, and volcanic material from Mount Etna, respectively. The three grains present similar sizes but different absorbing properties. The measurements are performed at 527 nm covering the scattering angle range from 3° to 170°. The measured phase functions show two well-defined regions: (i) soft forward peaks and (ii) a continuous increase with the scattering angle at side- and back-scattering regions. This behavior at side- and back-scattering regions is in agreement with the observed phase functions of the Fomalhaut and HR 4796A dust rings. Further computations and measurements (including polarization) for millimeter-sized grains are needed to draw some conclusions about the fluffy or compact structure of the dust grains.

  20. Exposure to grain dust and microbial components in the Norwegian grain and compound feed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Heldal, Kari Kulvik; Wouters, Inge M; Skogstad, Marit; Ellingsen, Dag G; Eduard, Wijnand

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to extensively characterize grain workers' personal exposure during work in Norwegian grain elevators and compound feed mills, to identify differences in exposures between the workplaces and seasons, and to study the correlations between different microbial components. Samples of airborne dust (n = 166) were collected by full-shift personal sampling during work in 20 grain elevators and compound feed mills during one autumn season and two winter seasons. The personal exposure to grain dust, endotoxins, β-1→3-glucans, bacteria, and fungal spores was quantified. Correlations between dust and microbial components and differences between workplaces and seasons were investigated. Determinants of endotoxin and β-1→3-glucan exposure were evaluated by linear mixed-effect regression modeling. The workers were exposed to an overall geometric mean of 1.0mg m(-3) inhalable grain dust [geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 3.7], 628 endotoxin units m(-3) (GSD = 5.9), 7.4 µg m(-3) of β-1→3-glucan (GSD = 5.6), 21 × 10(4) bacteria m(-3) (GSD = 7.9) and 3.6 × 10(4) fungal spores m(-3) (GSD = 3.4). The grain dust exposure levels were similar across workplaces and seasons, but the microbial content of the grain dust varied substantially between workplaces. Exposure levels of all microbial components were significantly higher in grain elevators compared with all other workplaces. The grain dust exposure was significantly correlated (Pearson's r) with endotoxin (rp = 0.65), β-1→3-glucan (rp = 0.72), bacteria (rp = 0.44) and fungal spore (rp = 0.48) exposure, whereas the explained variances were strongly dependent on the workplace. Bacteria, grain dust, and workplace were important determinants for endotoxin exposure, whereas fungal spores, grain dust, and workplace were important determinants for β-1→3-glucan exposure. Although the workers were exposed to a relatively low mean dust level, the microbial exposure was high. Furthermore, the

  1. Artist rendering of dust grains colliding at low speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Clues to the formation of planets and planetary rings -- like Saturn's dazzling ring system -- may be found by studying how dust grains interact as they collide at low speeds. To study the question of low-speed dust collisions, NASA sponsored the COLLisions Into Dust Experiment (COLLIDE) at the University of Colorado. It was designed to spring-launch marble-size projectiles into trays of powder similar to space or lunar dust. COLLIDE-1 (1998) discovered that collisions below a certain energy threshold eject no material. COLLIDE-2 was designed to identify where the threshold is. In COLLIDE-2, scientists nudged small projectiles into dust beds and recorded how the dust splashed outward (video frame at top; artist's rendering at bottom). The slowest impactor ejected no material and stuck in the target. The faster impactors produced ejecta; some rebounded while others stuck in the target.

  2. Properties and Alignment of Interstellar Dust Grains toward Type Ia Supernovae with Anomalous Polarization Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Thiem, E-mail: thiemhoang@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    Recent photometric and polarimetric observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show unusually low total-to-selective extinction ratios ( R {sub V} < 2) and wavelengths of maximum polarization ( λ{sub max} < 0.4 μ m) for several SNe Ia, which indicates peculiar properties of interstellar (IS) dust in the SN-hosted galaxies and/or the presence of circumstellar (CS) dust. In this paper, we use an inversion technique to infer the best-fit grain size distribution and the alignment function of interstellar grains along the lines of sight toward four SNe Ia with anomalous extinction and polarization data (SN 1986G, SN 2006X, SN 2008fp, and SN 2014J). We find that to reproduce low values of R{sub V}, a significant enhancement in the mass of small grains of radius a < 0.1 μ m is required. For SN 2014J, a simultaneous fit to its observed extinction and polarization is unsuccessful if all the data are attributed to IS dust (model 1), but a good fit is obtained when accounting for the contribution of CS dust (model 2). For SN 2008fp, our best-fit results for model 1 show that in order to reproduce an extreme value of λ{sub max} ∼ 0.15 μ m, small silicate grains must be aligned as efficiently as big grains. For this case, we suggest that strong radiation from the SN can induce efficient alignment of small grains in a nearby intervening molecular cloud via the radiative torque (RAT) mechanism. The resulting time dependence polarization from this RAT alignment model can be tested by observing at ultraviolet wavelengths.

  3. Simulation study of spheroidal dust gains charging: Applicable to dust grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahed, H.; Sobhanian, S.; Mahmoodi, J.; Khorram, S.

    2006-01-01

    The charging process of nonspherical dust grains in an unmagnetized plasma as well as in the presence of a magnetic field is studied. It is shown that unlike the spherical dust grain, due to nonhomogeneity of charge distribution on the spheroidal dust surface, the resultant electric forces on electrons and ions are different. This process produces some surface charge density gradient on the nonspherical grain surface. Effects of a magnetic field and other plasma parameters on the properties of the dust particulate are studied. It has been shown that the alignment direction could be changed or even reversed with the magnetic field and plasma parameters. Finally, the charge distribution on the spheroidal grain surface is studied for different ambient parameters including plasma temperature, neutral collision frequency, and the magnitude of the magnetic field

  4. SOFT X-RAY IRRADIATION OF SILICATES: IMPLICATIONS FOR DUST EVOLUTION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaravella, A.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Jiménez-Escobar, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.za Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Chen, Y.-J.; Huang, C.-H. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32054, Taiwan (China); Muñoz Caro, G. M. [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Venezia, A. M., E-mail: aciaravella@astropa.unipa.it [ISMN—CNR, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    The processing of energetic photons on bare silicate grains was simulated experimentally on silicate films submitted to soft X-rays of energies up to 1.25 keV. The silicate material was prepared by means of a microwave assisted sol–gel technique. Its chemical composition reflects the Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} stoichiometry with residual impurities due to the synthesis method. The experiments were performed using the spherical grating monochromator beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Taiwan. We found that soft X-ray irradiation induces structural changes that can be interpreted as an amorphization of the processed silicate material. The present results may have relevant implications in the evolution of silicate materials in X-ray-irradiated protoplanetary disks.

  5. TRAJECTORIES AND DISTRIBUTION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST GRAINS IN THE HELIOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavin, Jonathan D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS 83, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Frisch, Priscilla C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5460 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Mueller, Hans-Reinhard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Heerikhuisen, Jacob; Pogorelov, Nikolai V. [Department of Physics and Center for Space Physics and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Reach, William T. [Universities Space Research Association, MS 211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Zank, Gary [Department of Physics and Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    The solar wind carves a bubble in the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) known as the heliosphere. Charged interstellar dust grains (ISDG) encountering the heliosphere may be diverted around the heliopause or penetrate it depending on their charge-to-mass ratio. We present new calculations of trajectories of ISDG in the heliosphere, and the dust density distributions that result. We include up-to-date grain charging calculations using a realistic UV radiation field and full three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic fluid + kinetic models for the heliosphere. Models with two different (constant) polarities for the solar wind magnetic field (SWMF) are used, with the grain trajectory calculations done separately for each polarity. Small grains a {sub gr} {approx}< 0.01 {mu}m are completely excluded from the inner heliosphere. Large grains, a {sub gr} {approx}> 1.0 {mu}m, pass into the inner solar system and are concentrated near the Sun by its gravity. Trajectories of intermediate size grains depend strongly on the SWMF polarity. When the field has magnetic north pointing to ecliptic north, the field de-focuses the grains resulting in low densities in the inner heliosphere, while for the opposite polarity the dust is focused near the Sun. The ISDG density outside the heliosphere inferred from applying the model results to in situ dust measurements is inconsistent with local ISM depletion data for both SWMF polarities but is bracketed by them. This result points to the need to include the time variation in the SWMF polarity during grain propagation. Our results provide valuable insights for interpretation of the in situ dust observations from Ulysses.

  6. Aspergillus candidus: a respiratory hazard associated with grain dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysinska-Traczyk, E; Dutkiewicz, J

    2000-01-01

    The concentration of Aspergillus candidus in samples of grain dust and of air polluted with grain dust was found to be large (respectively 3.0 x 10(5) - 3.0 x 10(9) cfu/g and 5.0 x 10(3) - 6.47 x 10(5) cfu/m(3)) and proved to be significantly greater compared to samples of other organic dusts (pgrain workers reacted significantly more frequently to extract of A. candidus in the leukocyte migration inhibition test (pdusts. It was concluded that Aspergillus candidus, because of its common occurrence and strong immunomodulating properties, poses an important occupational hazard for grain handling workers

  7. Heterogeneous condensation of ice mantle around silicate core grain in molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    Interstellar water ice grains are observed in the cold and dense regions such as molecular clouds, HII regions and protostellar objects. The water ice is formed from gas phase during the cooling stage of cosmic gas with solid grain surfaces of high temperature silicate minerals. It is a question whether the ice is formed through the homogeneous condensation process (as the ice alone) or the heterogeneous one (as the ice around the pre-existing high temperature mineral grains). (author)

  8. CURVED WALLS: GRAIN GROWTH, SETTLING, AND COMPOSITION PATTERNS IN T TAURI DISK DUST SUBLIMATION FRONTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Ingleby, L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, 830 Dennison Building., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); D' Alessio, P. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Espaillat, C. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sargent, B. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Watson, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Hernández, J., E-mail: melisma@umich.edu, E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu, E-mail: p.dalessio@astrosmo.unam.mx, E-mail: cespaillat@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: baspci@rit.edu, E-mail: dmw@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: hernandj@cida.ve [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía (CIDA), Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    The dust sublimation walls of disks around T Tauri stars represent a directly observable cross-section through the disk atmosphere and midplane. Their emission properties can probe the grain size distribution and composition of the innermost regions of the disk, where terrestrial planets form. Here we calculate the inner dust sublimation wall properties for four classical T Tauri stars with a narrow range of spectral types and inclination angles and a wide range of mass accretion rates to determine the extent to which the walls are radially curved. Best fits to the near- and mid-IR excesses are found for curved, two-layer walls in which the lower layer contains larger, hotter, amorphous pyroxene grains with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.6 and the upper layer contains submicron, cooler, mixed amorphous olivine and forsterite grains. As the mass accretion rates decrease from 10{sup –8} to 10{sup –10} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, the maximum grain size in the lower layer decreases from ∼3 to 0.5 μm. We attribute this to a decrease in fragmentation and turbulent support for micron-sized grains with decreasing viscous heating. The atmosphere of these disks is depleted of dust with dust-gas mass ratios 1 × 10{sup –4} of the interstellar medium (ISM) value, while the midplane is enhanced to eight times the ISM value. For all accretion rates, the wall contributes at least half of the flux in the optically thin 10 μm silicate feature. Finally, we find evidence for an iron gradient in the disk, suggestive of that found in our solar system.

  9. CURVED WALLS: GRAIN GROWTH, SETTLING, AND COMPOSITION PATTERNS IN T TAURI DISK DUST SUBLIMATION FRONTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Ingleby, L.; D'Alessio, P.; Espaillat, C.; Sargent, B.; Watson, D. M.; Hernández, J.

    2013-01-01

    The dust sublimation walls of disks around T Tauri stars represent a directly observable cross-section through the disk atmosphere and midplane. Their emission properties can probe the grain size distribution and composition of the innermost regions of the disk, where terrestrial planets form. Here we calculate the inner dust sublimation wall properties for four classical T Tauri stars with a narrow range of spectral types and inclination angles and a wide range of mass accretion rates to determine the extent to which the walls are radially curved. Best fits to the near- and mid-IR excesses are found for curved, two-layer walls in which the lower layer contains larger, hotter, amorphous pyroxene grains with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.6 and the upper layer contains submicron, cooler, mixed amorphous olivine and forsterite grains. As the mass accretion rates decrease from 10 –8 to 10 –10 M ☉ yr –1 , the maximum grain size in the lower layer decreases from ∼3 to 0.5 μm. We attribute this to a decrease in fragmentation and turbulent support for micron-sized grains with decreasing viscous heating. The atmosphere of these disks is depleted of dust with dust-gas mass ratios 1 × 10 –4 of the interstellar medium (ISM) value, while the midplane is enhanced to eight times the ISM value. For all accretion rates, the wall contributes at least half of the flux in the optically thin 10 μm silicate feature. Finally, we find evidence for an iron gradient in the disk, suggestive of that found in our solar system

  10. Electrons scattered inside small dust grains of various materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richterova, Ivana; Beranek, Martin; Pavlu, Jiri; Nemecek, Zdenek; Safrankova, Jana

    2010-01-01

    The dust grain charge in an electron beam is given by a difference in numbers of electrons that fall onto the grain and those leaving it. Electrons with energies exceeding 1 keV can penetrate through submicron-sized dust grains. If the grain is small enough, a yield of these electrons reaches unity but they leave a part of their energy inside the grain and this energy excites secondary electrons. The paper presents a hybrid Monte Carlo code that simulates paths of the primary electrons inside a spherical grain and provides the yield of scattered electrons and their energy spectrum as a function of the grain size and material. This code is based on the Richterovaet al. [Phys. Rev. B 74, 235430 (2006)] model but it includes several corrections important for light materials like carbon or ice. The model was verified using experimental results obtained on large planar samples. For spherical samples, we have found that the yield of scattered electrons reaches unity for 50 nm Au grains illuminated by 5 keV electrons, whereas the same effect can be observed on ≅1000 nm carbon grains.

  11. Stochastic diffusion of dust grains by the interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.; Wallis, M.K.

    1983-10-01

    The effects of the sectored Interplanetary Magnetic Field on charged dust grains orbiting around the sun under radiation pressure and Poynting-Robertson drag forces are examined for initially circular and non-inclined orbits. The distribution function of the charged grains satisfies a Fokker-Planck equation in which the sectored field is taken as a source of stochastic impulses. By adopting the integrals of the impulse-free motion as variable parameters, the Fokker-Planck equation can be properly treated as a diffusion equation. Analytic solutions of the resulting diffusion equation show that dust grains injected near the ecliptic plane are scattered strongly to high helio-latitudes. The scattering is more pronounced for small grains injected at large distances from the Sun. (author)

  12. Nonlinear screening of dust grains and structurization of dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V. N.; Gusein-zade, N. G.

    2013-01-01

    A review of theoretical ideas on the physics of structurization instability of a homogeneous dusty plasma, i.e., the formation of zones with elevated and depressed density of dust grains and their arrangement into different structures observed in laboratory plasma under microgravity conditions, is presented. Theoretical models of compact dust structures that can form in the nonlinear stage of structurization instability, as well as models of a system of voids (both surrounding a compact structure and formed in the center of the structure), are discussed. Two types of structures with very different dimensions are possible, namely, those smaller or larger than the characteristic mean free path of ions in the plasma flow. Both of them are characterized by relatively regular distributions of dust grains; however, the first ones usually require external confinement, while the structures of the second type can be self-sustained (which is of particular interest). In this review, they are called dust clusters and self-organized dust structures, respectively. Both types of the structures are characterized by new physical processes that take place only in the presence of the dust component. The role of nonlinearities in the screening of highly charged dust grains that are often observed in modern laboratory experiments turns out to be great, but these nonlinearities have not received adequate study as of yet. Although structurization takes place upon both linear and nonlinear screening, it can be substantially different under laboratory and astrophysical conditions. Studies on the nonlinear screening of large charges in plasma began several decades ago; however, up to now, this effect was usually disregarded when interpreting the processes occurring in laboratory dusty plasma. One of the aims of the present review was to demonstrate the possibility of describing the nonlinear screening of individual grains and take it into account with the help of the basic equations for the

  13. Adiabatic motion of charged dust grains in rotating magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northrop, T.G.; Hill, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Dust grains in the ring systems and rapidly rotating magnetospheres of the outer planets such as Jupiter and Saturn may be sufficiently charged that the magnetic and electric forces on them are comparable with the gravitational force. The adiabatic theory of charged particle motion has previously been applied to electrons and atomic size particles. But it is also applicable to these charged dust grains in the micrometer and smaller size range. We derive here the guiding center equation of motion, drift velocity, and parallel equation of motion for these grains in a rotating magnetosphere. The effects of periodic grain charge-discharge have not been treated previously and have been included in this analysis. Grain charge is affected by the surrounding plasma properties and by the grain plasma velocity (among other factors), both of which may vary over the gyrocircle. The resulting charge-discharge process at the gyrofrequency destroys the invariance of the magnetic moment and causes a grain to move radially. The magnetic moment may increase or decrease, depending on the gyrophase of the charge variation. If it decreases, the motion is always toward synchronous radius for an equatorial grain. But the orbit becomes circular before the grain reaches synchronous radius, a conclusion that follows from an exact constant of the motion. This circularization can be viewed as a consequence of the gradual reduction in the magnetic moment. This circularization also suggests that dust grains leaving Io could not reach the region of the Jovian ring, but several effects could change that conclusion. Excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement is obtained between adiabatic theory and detailed numerical orbit integrations

  14. A note on dust grain charging in space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M.; Mendis, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Central to the study of dust-plasma interactions in the solar system is the electrostatic charging of dust grains. While previous calculations have generally assumed that the distributions of electrons and ions in the plasma are Maxwellian, most space plasmas are observed to have non-Maxwellian tails and can often be fit by a generalized Lorentzian (kappa) distribution. Here we use such a distribution to reevaluate the grain potential, under the condition that the dominant currents to the grain are due to electron and ion collection, as is the case in certain regions of space. The magnitude of the grain potential is found to be larger than that in a Maxwellian plasma as long as the electrons are described by a kappa distribution: this enhancement increased with ion mass and decreasing electron kappa. The modification of the grain potential in generalized Lorentzian plasmas has implications for both the physics (e.g., grain growth and disruption) and the dynamics of dust in space plasmas. These are also briefly discussed.

  15. Thirteen years of Aeolian dust dynamics in a desert region (Negev desert, Israel): analysis of horizontal and vertical dust flux, vertical dust distribution and dust grain size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offer, Z.Y.; Goossens, D.

    2004-01-01

    At Sede Boqer (northern Negev desert, Israel), aeolian dust dynamics have been measured during the period 1988–2000. This study focuses on temporal records of the vertical and horizontal dust flux, the vertical distribution of the dust particles in the atmosphere, and the grain size of the

  16. COMPARTMENTALIZATION OF THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE TO INHALED GRAIN DUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and the secreted form of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA) are involved in the inflammatory response to inhaled grain dust. Previously, we found considerable production of these cytokines in the lower...

  17. Stochastic histories of dust grains in the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liffman, K.; Clayton, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose is to study an evolving system of refractory dust grains within the Interstellar Medium (ISM). This is done via a combination of Monte Carlo processes and a system of partial differential equations, where refractory dust grains formed within supernova remnants and ejecta from high mass loss stars are subjected to the processes of sputtering and collisional fragmentation in the diffuse media and accretion within the cold molecular clouds. In order to record chemical detail, the authors take each new particle to consist of a superrefractory core plus a more massive refractory mantle. The particles are allowed to transfer to and fro between the different phases of the interstellar medium (ISM) - on a time scale of 10(exp 8) years - until either the particles are destroyed or the program finishes at a Galaxy time of 6x10(exp 9) years. The resulting chemical and size spectrum(s) are then applied to various astrophysical problems with the following results. For an ISM which has no collisional fragmentation of the dust grains, roughly 10 percent by mass of the most refractory material survives the rigors of the ISM intact, which leaves open the possibility that fossilized isotopically anomalous material may have been present within the primordial solar nebula. Stuctured or layered refractory dust grains within the model cannot explain the observed interstellar depletions of refractory material. Fragmentation due to grain-grain collisions in the diffuse phase plus the accretion of material in the molecular cloud phase can under certain circumstances cause a bimodal distribution in grain size

  18. The Influence of Abrasion on Martian Dust Grains: Evidence from a Study of Antigorite Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Drief, Ahmed; Dyar, M. Darby

    2003-01-01

    Grinding was shown to greatly affect the structure and a number of properties of antigorite grains in a study by Drief and Nieto. Grinding is likely to influence the structure of most clay mineral grains and has been shown recently to influence the structure of kaolinite. The antigorite structure includes curved waves of layered silicate as shown by D dony et al.. Our study was performed in order to characterize in detail changes in the mineral grains resulting from grinding and to assess the influence of physical processes on clay minerals on the surface of Mars. This project includes a combination of SEM, reflectance spectroscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  19. Scientists Detect Radio Emission from Rapidly Rotating Cosmic Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Astronomers have made the first tentative observations of a long-speculated, but never before detected, source of natural radio waves in interstellar space. Data from the National Science Foundation's 140 Foot Radio Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, W.Va., show the faint, tell-tale signals of what appear to be dust grains spinning billions of times each second. This discovery eventually could yield a powerful new tool for understanding the interstellar medium - the immense clouds of gas and dust that populate interstellar space. The NRAO 140 Foot Radio Telescope The NRAO 140-Foot Radio Telescope "What we believe we have found," said Douglas P. Finkbeiner of Princeton University's Department of Astrophysics, "is the first hard evidence for electric dipole emission from rapidly rotating dust grains. If our studies are confirmed, it will be the first new source of continuum emission to be conclusively identified in the interstellar medium in nearly the past 20 years." Finkbeiner believes that these emissions have the potential in the future of revealing new and exciting information about the interstellar medium; they also may help to refine future studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The results from this study, which took place in spring 1999, were accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal. Other contributors to this paper include David J. Schlegel, department of astrophysics, Princeton University; Curtis Frank, department of astronomy, University of Maryland; and Carl Heiles, department of astronomy, University of California at Berkeley. "The idea of dust grains emitting radiation by rotating is not new," comments Finkbeiner, "but to date it has been somewhat speculative." Scientists first proposed in 1957 that dust grains could emit radio signals, if they were caused to rotate rapidly enough. It was believed, however, that these radio emissions would be negligibly small - too weak to be of any impact to

  20. Size distribution of dust grains: A problem of self-similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, TH.; Dorschner, J.; Guertler, J.

    1989-01-01

    Distribution functions describing the results of natural processes frequently show the shape of power laws. It is an open question whether this behavior is a result simply coming about by the chosen mathematical representation of the observational data or reflects a deep-seated principle of nature. The authors suppose the latter being the case. Using a dust model consisting of silicate and graphite grains Mathis et al. (1977) showed that the interstellar extinction curve can be represented by taking a grain radii distribution of power law type n(a) varies as a(exp -p) with 3.3 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 3.6 (example 1) as a basis. A different approach to understanding power laws like that in example 1 becomes possible by the theory of self-similar processes (scale invariance). The beta model of turbulence (Frisch et al., 1978) leads in an elementary way to the concept of the self-similarity dimension D, a special case of Mandelbrot's (1977) fractal dimension. In the frame of this beta model, it is supposed that on each stage of a cascade the system decays to N clumps and that only the portion beta N remains active further on. An important feature of this model is that the active eddies become less and less space-filling. In the following, the authors assume that grain-grain collisions are such a scale-invarient process and that the remaining grains are the inactive (frozen) clumps of the cascade. In this way, a size distribution n(a) da varies as a(exp -(D+1))da (example 2) results. It seems to be highly probable that the power law character of the size distribution of interstellar dust grains is the result of a self-similarity process. We can, however, not exclude that the process leading to the interstellar grain size distribution is not fragmentation at all

  1. Plasma kinetics around a dust grain in an ion flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorov, S.A.; Vladimirov, S.V.; Cramer, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In a typical laboratory discharge, dust particles are negatively charged and usually levitate in the sheath or pre-sheath region under the balance of gravitational, electrostatic (due to the sheath electric field) and plasma (such as the ion drag) forces. The ion flow provides not only a direct (dragging) influence, but is also responsible for the generation of associated collective plasma processes which can strongly affect the vertical arrangement of the dust grains. The complete problem of the plasma dynamics around a macroscopic body in the presence of plasma flows is highly nonlinear and therefore its numerical analysis is of major importance. Among various numerical methods, direct integration of the equations of motion of the plasma particles represents a numerical experiment whose significance approaches experiments in the laboratory. Here, we present for the first time the results of a self-consistent molecular dynamics (MD) three-dimensional (3D) simulation of the kinetics of plasma particles (electrons and ions) around a dust grain, taking into account the dust charging. The core of the method includes consideration of the time evolution of the system consisting of positively ('ions') and negatively ('electrons') charged particles confined in a simulation box together with a macroscopic absorbing grain ('dust particle') with infinite mass and an initial (negative) charge. The ions are introduced in the system as a uniform flow defined by its Mach number and the ion temperature. The paths of the ions and electrons are determined through numerical integration of the equations of motion. We demonstrate that the plasma kinetics around a dust grain in the presence of an ion flow involves a strong ion focusing behind the grain. We have also confirmed that the most important of the processes involved is the ion time-scale; the kinetics of the electrons follows a Boltzmann distribution with good agreement. We note that the time constraints involved

  2. Dust grain characterization — Direct measurement of light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    BartoÅ, P.; Pavlů, J.

    2018-01-01

    Dust grains play a key role in dusty plasma since they interact with the plasma we can use them to study plasma itself. The grains are illuminated by visible light (e.g., a laser sheet) and the situation is captured with camera. Despite of simplicity, light scattering on similar-to-wavelength sized grains is complex phenomenon. Interaction of the electromagnetic wave with material has to be computed with respect to Maxwell equations — analytic solution is nowadays available only for several selected shapes like sphere, coated sphere, or infinite cylinder. Moreover, material constants needed for computations are usually unknown. For computation result verification and material constant determination, we designed and developed a device directly measur­ing light scattering profiles. Single dust grains are trapped in the ultrasonic field (so called "acoustic levitation") and illuminated by the laser beam. Scattered light is then measured by a photodiode mounted on rotating platform. Synchronous detection is employed for a noise reduction. This setup brings several benefits against conventional methods: (1) it works in the free air, (2) the measured grain is captured for a long time, and (3) the grain could be of arbitrary shape.

  3. Large dust grains in the wind of VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicluna, P.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Wesson, R.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Kasper, M.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Wolf, S.

    2015-12-01

    Massive stars live short lives, losing large amounts of mass through their stellar wind. Their mass is a key factor determining how and when they explode as supernovae, enriching the interstellar medium with heavy elements and dust. During the red supergiant phase, mass-loss rates increase prodigiously, but the driving mechanism has proven elusive. Here we present high-contrast optical polarimetric-imaging observations of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris and its clumpy, dusty, mass-loss envelope, using the new extreme-adaptive-optics instrument SPHERE at the VLT. These observations allow us to make the first direct and unambiguous detection of submicron dust grains in the ejecta; we derive an average grain radius ~0.5 μm, 50 times larger than in the diffuse ISM, large enough to receive significant radiation pressure by photon scattering. We find evidence for varying grain sizes throughout the ejecta, highlighting the dynamical nature of the envelope. Grains with 0.5 μm sizes are likely to reach a safe distance from the eventual explosion of VY Canis Majoris; hence it may inject upwards of 10-2 M⊙ of dust into the ISM. Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program 60.A-9368(A).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Cometary dust: the diversity of primitive refractory grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, D H; Ishii, H A; Zolensky, M E

    2017-07-13

    Comet dust is primitive and shows significant diversity. Our knowledge of the properties of primitive cometary particles has expanded significantly through microscale investigations of cosmic dust samples (anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), chondritic porous (CP) IDPs and UltraCarbonaceous Antarctic micrometeorites, Stardust and Rosetta ), as well as through remote sensing ( Spitzer IR spectroscopy). Comet dust are aggregate particles of materials unequilibrated at submicrometre scales. We discuss the properties and processes experienced by primitive matter in comets. Primitive particles exhibit a diverse range of: structure and typology; distribution of constituents; concentration and form of carbonaceous and refractory organic matter; Mg- and Fe-contents of the silicate minerals; sulfides; existence/abundance of type II chondrule fragments; high-temperature calcium-aluminium inclusions and ameboid-olivine aggregates; and rarely occurring Mg-carbonates and magnetite, whose explanation requires aqueous alteration on parent bodies. The properties of refractory materials imply there were disc processes that resulted in different comets having particular selections of primitive materials. The diversity of primitive particles has implications for the diversity of materials in the protoplanetary disc present at the time and in the region where the comets formed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Charging of dust grains in a plasma with negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su-Hyun; Merlino, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of negative ions on the charging of dust particles in a plasma is investigated experimentally. A plasma containing a very low percentage of electrons is formed in a single-ended Q machine when SF 6 is admitted into the vacuum system. The relatively cold Q machine electrons (T e ≅0.2 eV) readily attach to SF 6 molecules to form SF 6 - negative ions. Calculations of the dust charge indicate that for electrons, negative ions, and positive ions of comparable temperatures, the charge (or surface potential) of the dust can be positive if the positive ion mass is smaller than the negative ion mass and if ε, the ratio of the electron to positive ion density, is sufficiently small. The Q machine plasma is operated with K + positive ions (mass 39 amu) and SF 6 - negative ions (mass 146 amu), and also utilizes a rotating cylinder to dispense dust into the plasma column. Analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of a Langmuir probe in the dusty plasma shows evidence for the reduction in the (magnitude) of the negative dust charge and the transition to positively charged dust as the relative concentration of the residual electrons is reduced. Some remarks are offered concerning experiments that could become possible in a dusty plasma with positive grains

  6. Charging of dust grains in a plasma with negative ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Hyun; Merlino, Robert L.

    2006-05-01

    The effect of negative ions on the charging of dust particles in a plasma is investigated experimentally. A plasma containing a very low percentage of electrons is formed in a single-ended SF6 is admitted into the vacuum system. The relatively cold (Te≈0.2eV ) readily attach to SF6 molecules to form SF6- negative ions. Calculations of the dust charge indicate that for electrons, negative ions, and positive ions of comparable temperatures, the charge (or surface potential) of the dust can be positive if the positive ion mass is smaller than the negative ion mass and if ɛ, the ratio of the electron to positive ion density, is sufficiently small. The K+ positive ions (mass 39amu) and SF6- negative ions (mass 146amu), and also utilizes a rotating cylinder to dispense dust into the plasma column. Analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of a Langmuir probe in the dusty plasma shows evidence for the reduction in the (magnitude) of the negative dust charge and the transition to positively charged dust as the relative concentration of the residual electrons is reduced. Some remarks are offered concerning experiments that could become possible in a dusty plasma with positive grains.

  7. Wind-Eroded Silicate as a Source of Hydrogen Peroxide on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, E. N.; Merrison, J. P.; Jensen, S. K.; Nørnberg, P.; Finster, K.

    2014-07-01

    Laboratory simulations show that wind-eroded silicate can be a source of hydrogen peroxide. The ubiquitous, fine-grained silicate dust might thus explain the oxidizing properties of the martian soil and affect the preservation of organic compounds.

  8. Excitation of collective plasma modes during collisions between dust grains and the formation of dust plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.A.; Morfill, G.; Tsytovich, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    Dust plasma crystals have recently been produced in experiments in a number of laboratories. For dust crystallization to occur, there should exist an efficient mechanism for the cooling of the dust plasma component. It is shown that the excitation of collective plasma modes during collisions between the grains may serve as the required cooling mechanism. The excitation of dust sound waves is found to be most efficient. It is shown that the cooling of dust grains via the excitation of collective plasma modes can be even more efficient than that due to collisions with neutral particles, which was previously considered to be the only mechanism for cooling of the dust plasma component. At present, the first experiments are being carried out to study collisions between individual dust grains. High efficiency of the excitation of plasma modes caused by collisions between dust grains is attributed to the coherent displacement of the plasma particles that shield the grains. it is shown that the excitation efficiency is proportional to the fourth power of the charge of the dust grains and to a large power of their relative velocity, and is independent of their mass. The results obtained can be checked in experiments studying how the binary collisions between dust grains and the pressure of the neutral component influence the dust crystallization

  9. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF IRRADIATION-DRIVEN HYDROGEN ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION IN ANALOGS OF PROTOPLANETARY HYDROUS SILICATE DUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roskosz, Mathieu; Remusat, Laurent [IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, IRD, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, CP 52, 57 rue Cuvier, Paris F-75231 (France); Laurent, Boris; Leroux, Hugues, E-mail: mathieu.roskosz@mnhn.fr [Unité Matériaux et Transformations, Université Lille 1, CNRS UMR 8207, Bâtiment C6, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)

    2016-11-20

    The origin of hydrogen in chondritic components is poorly understood. Their isotopic composition is heavier than the solar nebula gas. In addition, in most meteorites, hydrous silicates are found to be lighter than the coexisting organic matter. Ionizing irradiation recently emerged as an efficient hydrogen fractionating process in organics, but its effect on H-bearing silicates remains essentially unknown. We report the evolution of the D/H of hydrous silicates experimentally irradiated by electrons. Thin films of amorphous silica, amorphous “serpentine,” and pellets of crystalline muscovite were irradiated at 4 and 30 keV. For all samples, irradiation leads to a large hydrogen loss correlated with a moderate deuterium enrichment of the solid residue. The entire data set can be described by a Rayleigh distillation. The calculated fractionation factor is consistent with a kinetically controlled fractionation during the loss of hydrogen. Furthermore, for a given ionizing condition, the deuteration of the silicate residues is much lower than the deuteration measured on irradiated organic macromolecules. These results provide firm evidence of the limitations of ionizing irradiation as a driving mechanism for D-enrichment of silicate materials. The isotopic composition of the silicate dust cannot rise from a protosolar to a chondritic signature during solar irradiations. More importantly, these results imply that irradiation of the disk naturally induces a strong decoupling of the isotopic signatures of coexisting organics and silicates. This decoupling is consistent with the systematic difference observed between the heavy organic matter and the lighter water typically associated with minerals in the matrix of most carbonaceous chondrites.

  10. Stochastic histories of dust grains in the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liffman, K.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study an evolving system of SU-perNOva CONdensateS (SUNOCONS) within the Interstellar Medium (ISM). This is done via a Monte Carlo process where refractory dust grains formed within supernova remnants are subjected to the processes of sputtering and collisional fragmentation in the diffuse phase and accretion within the cold molecular cloud phase. In order to record chemical detail, we take each new particle to consist of a superrefractory core plus a more massive refractory mantle. The particles are allowed to transfer to and from between the different phases of the ISM until either the particles are destroyed or the program finishes. The resulting chemical and size spectrum(s) are then applied to various astrophysical problems with the following results: (1) after six thousand million years roughly 10 to 20% by mass of the most refractory material (Al 2 O 3 ) survives the rigors of the ISM intact, which leaves open the possibility that fossilized isotopically anomalous material may have been present within the primordial solar nebula. (2) structured or layered refractory dust grains within our model cannot explain the observed interstellar depletions of refractory material. (3) fragmentation due to grain-grain collisions in the diffuse phase plus the accretion of material in the molecular cloud phase can under certain circumstances cause a biomodal distribution in grain size

  11. A Wealth of Dust Grains in Quasar Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger poster version This plot of data captured by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope reveals dust entrained in the winds rushing away from a quasar, or growing black hole. The quasar, called PG2112+059, is located deep inside a galaxy 8 billion light-years away. Astronomers believe the dust might have been forged in the winds, which would help explain where dust in the very early universe came from. The data were captured by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that splits apart light from the quasar into a spectrum that reveals telltale signs of different minerals. Each type of mineral, or dust grain, has a unique signature, as can be seen in the graph, or spectrum, above. The strongest features are from the mineral amorphous olivine, or glass (purple); the mineral forsterite found in sand (blue); and the mineral corundum found in rubies (light blue). The detection of forsterite and corundum is highly unusual in galaxies without quasars. Therefore, their presence is a key clue that these grains might have been created in the quasar winds and not by dying stars as they are in our Milky Way galaxy. Forsterite is destroyed quickly in normal galaxies by radiation, so it must be continually produced to be detected by Spitzer. Corundum is hard, and provides a seed that softer, more common minerals usually cover up. As a result, corundum is usually not seen in spectra of galaxies. Since Spitzer did detect the mineral, it is probably forming in a clumpy environment, which is expected in quasar winds. All together, the signatures of the unusual minerals in this spectrum point towards dust grains forming in the winds blowing away from quasars.

  12. Infrared spectroscopy of four carbon stars with 9.8 micron emission from silicate grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.L.; Smith, V.V.; Hinkle, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution K band and low resolution 4 micron spectra were obtained for four carbon stars showing IR emission by silicate grains. The results of the analysis of the K band spectra show that they are J-type stars. These results, together with published spectral classifications, show that all known carbon stars with a silicate emission feature are J-type stars. The 4 micron spectra are very similar to the spectra of classical J-type carbon stars, and do not show SiO bands that might come from a M giant companion. A binary model with a luminous M giant companion as a source of the silicate grain is rejected. It is proposed that the silicate grains formed from gas ejecta at or before the He-core flash, and that the flash initiates severe mixing, leading to the star's conversion to a J-type carbon star. The ejecta are stored in an accretion disk around a low mass unevolved companion. If it can be shown that the hypothesized accretion disk is stable and may be heated adequately, this binary model appears to account for these peculiar carbon stars. 41 refs

  13. Grain dust and respiratory health in South African milling workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, M; Myers, J E

    1991-01-01

    Respiratory health was investigated in 224 grain milling workers. The likelihood of respiratory symptoms and chronic airflow limitation was raised for workers exposed to dust independent of the effects of smoking. Smokers were more likely than non-smokers to respond to a bronchodilator at the end of the working week. Dust was more strongly associated with most abnormal outcomes than was smoking. Subjective categories of exposure to dust were more strongly associated with most abnormal outcomes than were objective categories. The prevalence of all symptoms at the time of a survey conducted at the mill six years before was higher in workers who subsequently left the mill than in those who remained employed although the differences were not significant. PMID:1931723

  14. Nasal lavage cellularity, grain dust, and airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaski, C A; Watt, J L; Quinn, T J; Thorne, P S; Schwartz, D A

    1996-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of nasal lavage (NL), we performed post-work shift NL on 172 grain workers and 78 postal worker control subjects. The grain worker group included a higher percentage of current smokers (25.7% vs 16.7%) and a lower percentage of former smokers (21.15% vs 35.9%) compared with the postal workers. The control subjects included more female workers and were slightly older than the grain workers. Compared with the postal workers, the grain workers were exposed to significantly greater concentrations of total dust (0.1 +/- 0.0 vs 6.8 +/- 1.4 mg/m3; mean +/- SEM) and total endotoxin (4.3 +/- 0.8 vs 2,372.4 +/- 653.8 endotoxin units/m3). NL from gain workers showed a higher concentration of total cells (55,000 +/- 14,000 vs 25,000 +/- 5,000 cells per milliliter; p=0.03), a higher concentration of squamous epithelial cells (17,029.0 +/- 4,177 .0 vs 7,103.7 +/- 1,479.8 cells per milliliter; p=0.03), and a higher concentration of neutrophils (40,058.0 +/- 12,803.2 vs 17,891.0 +/- 3,822.3 cells per milliliter; p=0.10) compared with postal workers. Importantly, these differences in NL cellularity between grain workers and postal workers were observed within the three strata of smokers. To further assess the importance of total cells, squamous epithelial cells, and neutrophils in the NL fluid of grain workers, we investigated the relationship between these cell concentrations and (1) measures of dust and endotoxin exposure during the work shift. (2) spirometric measures of airflow obtained immediately before the NL, and (3) work-related respiratory symptoms. The concentration of total cells, the concentration of squamous epithelial cells, or the concentration of neutrophils in the NL was not associated with ambient levels of dust or endotoxin, with baseline or cross-shift changes in lung function, or with work-related respiratory symptoms. These findings suggest that increased NL cellularity may be seen in workers exposed to high dust levels

  15. Effects of dust grain charge fluctuation on obliquely propagating dust-acoustic potential in magnetized dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, A.A.; Hassan, M.H.A.

    1999-05-01

    Effects of dust grain charge fluctuation, obliqueness and external magnetic field on finite amplitude dust-acoustic solitary potential in a magnetized dusty plasma, consisting of electrons, ions and charge fluctuating dust grains, have been investigated by the reductive perturbation method. It has been shown that such a magnetized dusty plasma system may support dust-acoustic solitary potential on a very slow time scale involving the motion of dust grains, whose charge is self-consistently determined by local electron and ion currents. The effects of dust grain charge fluctuation, external magnetic field and obliqueness are found to modify the properties of this dust-acoustic solitary potential significantly. The implications of these results to some space and astrophysical dusty plasma systems, especially to planetary ring-systems and cometary tails, are briefly mentioned. (author)

  16. The destruction and growth of dust grains in interstellar space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The processes governing the destruction and growth of dust grains in interstellar space are investigated with a view to establishing the conditions required for the existence of ice mantles. In this paper sputtering by particles with energies in the eV to GeV range is considered. Previous sputtering yield estimates which were based on theoretical considerations are shown to be greatly in error for incident particle energies of less than 1 keV. Empirical formulae for the sputtering threshold energy and the sputtering yield are derived from the extensive experimental data available. The sputtering of grains in H II regions, in the inter-cloud medium, and in shock waves produced by cloud-cloud collisions and by supernova remnants, is investigated. Of these, supernova remnants are shown to be the most important, leading to lifetimes of approximately 2 x 10 8 yr for ice grains and between 5 to 20 x 10 8 yr for refractory grains. Destruction rates are estimated for grains bombarded by MeV and GeV cosmic rays. It is shown that collision cascade sputtering dominates evaporative sputtering produced by thermal spikes. It is also shown that even if all electron excitation energy loss in a grain material could be transferred to the lattice particles, the observed cosmic ray flux spectrum could not cause significant destruction of ice grains. (author)

  17. Effects of grain size distribution on the interstellar dust mass growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Kuo, Tzu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Grain growth by the accretion of metals in interstellar clouds (called `grain growth') could be one of the dominant processes that determine the dust content in galaxies. The importance of grain size distribution for the grain growth is demonstrated in this paper. First, we derive an analytical formula that gives the grain size distribution after the grain growth in individual clouds for any initial grain size distribution. The time-scale of the grain growth is very sensitive to grain size di...

  18. Dust grain charges in a nuclear-track plasma and the formation of dynamic vortex dust structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykov, V.A.; Khudyakov, A.V.; Filinov, V.S.; Vladimirov, V.I.; Deputatova, L.V.; Krutov, D.V.; Nefedov, A.P.; Fortov, V.E.

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented from Monte Carlo calculations of the electric charge of dust grains in a plasma produced during the slowing down of the radioactive decay products of californium nuclei in neon. The dust grain charging is explained for the first time as being due to the drift of electrons and ions in an external electric field. It is shown that the charges of the grains depend on their coordinates and strongly fluctuate with time. The time-averaged grain charges agree with the experimental data obtained on ordered liquidlike dust structures in a nuclear-track plasma. The time-averaged dust grain charges are used to carry out computer modeling of the formation of dynamic vortex structures observed in experiments. Evidence is obtained of the fact that the electrostatic forces experienced by the dust grains are potential in character

  19. Pentoxifylline does not alter the response to inhaled grain dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielo, P J; Watt, J L; Quinn, T J; Knapp, H R; Schwartz, D A

    1997-05-01

    Pentoxifylline (PTX) has been shown to reduce sepsis-induced neutrophil sequestration in the lung and inhibit endotoxin-mediated release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Previously, we have shown that endotoxin appears to be the principal agent in grain dust causing airway inflammation and airflow obstruction following grain dust inhalation. To determine whether PTX affects the physiologic and inflammatory events following acute grain dust inhalation, 10 healthy, nonsmoking subjects with normal airway reactivity were treated with PTX or placebo (PL) followed by corn dust extract (CDE) inhalation (0.08 mL/kg), using a single-blinded, crossover design. Subjects received PTX (1,200 mg/d) or PL for 4 days prior to CDE inhalation and 400 mg PTX or PL on the exposure day. Both respiratory symptoms and declines in FEV1 and FVC occurred following CDE exposure in both groups, but there were no significant differences in the frequency of symptoms or percent declines from baseline in the FEV1 and FVC at any of the time points measured in the study. Elevations in peripheral blood leukocyte and neutrophil concentrations and BAL total cell, neutrophil, TNF-alpha, and interleukin-8 concentrations were measured 4 h following exposure to CDE in both the PTX- and PL-treated subjects, but no significant differences were found between treatment groups. These results suggest that pretreatment with PTX prior to inhalation of CDE, in the doses used in this study, does not alter the acute physiologic or inflammatory events following exposure to inhaled CDE.

  20. Ion trapping within the dust grain plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, D.; Shukla, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    One of the most important and still unresolved problems in the physics of dusty plasmas is the determination of the dust charge. The grains are not directly accessible to measurements and it is necessary to have a reliable theoretical model of the electron and ion dynamics inside the Debye sphere for the interpretation of the relevant experimental data, which include also the effects of the surrounding electron and ion clouds. Recent computer simulations [6] and laboratory experiments [9] indicate that the plasma sheath is dominated by trapped ions, orbiting the grain on closed trajectories at distances smaller than the Debye radius, that cannot be accounted for by the classical theories. We present the first analytical, fully self-consistent, calculations of the electrostatic shielding of a charged dust grain in a collisional plasma. In the regime when the mean free path for the ion-dust collisions is larger than that for the ion-neutral collisions, we solve the kinetic equation for the ions, coupled with Boltzmann distributed electrons and Poisson's equation. The ion velocity distribution function, in the form of a spherically symmetric ion hole, is found to be anisotropic in the presence of charge-exchange collisions. The number of trapped ions and their spatial distribution are determined from the interplay between the collective plasma interaction and the collisional trapping/de-trapping. The stationary state results from the self-tuning of the trapped ion density by the feedback based on the nonlocality of the collisional integral, and on the ion mixing in the radial direction along elongated orbits. Our results confirm the existence of a strong Debye shielding of the dust charge, allowing also the over-population of the trapped ion distribution (ion hump)

  1. Instability of dust ion-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma containing elongated and rotating charged dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Tskhakaya, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    The dispersion properties of the dust ion-acoustic waves (DIAWs) in an unmagnetized dusty plasma is examined when the plasma constituents are electrons, ions, and charged dust grains which are elongated and rotating. Since the dipole moment of elongated and rotating dust grains is nonzero, significant modifications of the DIAW spectrum emerge. It is found that the DIAWs are subjected to an instability when the DIAW frequency approximately equals the angular rotation frequency of the elongated dust grains. The relevance of our investigation to enhanced fluctuations in space and laboratory dusty plasmas is pointed out

  2. Potential around a dust grain in collisional plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulick, R., E-mail: moulick@gmail.com; Goswami, K. S. [Centre of Plasma Physics - Institute for Plasma Research Sonapur, Guwahati, Assam 782402 (India)

    2015-04-15

    The ion neutral collision can lead to interesting phenomena in dust charging, totally different from the expectations based on the traditional orbit motion limited theory. The potential around a dust grain is investigated for the collisional plasma considering the presence of ion neutral collisions. Fluid equations are solved for the one dimensional radial coordinate. It is observed that with the gradual increase in ion neutral collision, the potential structure around the dust grain changes its shape and is different from the usual Debye-Hückel potential. The shift however starts from a certain value of ion neutral collision and the electron-ion density varies accordingly. The potential variation is interesting and reconfirms the fact that there exists a region of attraction for negative charges. The collision modeling is done for the full range of plasma, i.e., considering the bulk and the sheath jointly. The potential variation with collision is also shown explicitly and the variation is found to cope up with the earlier observations.

  3. SILICATE COMPOSITION OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogerty, S.; Forrest, W.; Watson, D. M.; Koch, I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Sargent, B. A., E-mail: sfogerty@pas.rochester.edu [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    The composition of silicate dust in the diffuse interstellar medium and in protoplanetary disks around young stars informs our understanding of the processing and evolution of the dust grains leading up to planet formation. An analysis of the well-known 9.7 μ m feature indicates that small amorphous silicate grains represent a significant fraction of interstellar dust and are also major components of protoplanetary disks. However, this feature is typically modeled assuming amorphous silicate dust of olivine and pyroxene stoichiometries. Here, we analyze interstellar dust with models of silicate dust that include non-stoichiometric amorphous silicate grains. Modeling the optical depth along lines of sight toward the extinguished objects Cyg OB2 No. 12 and ζ Ophiuchi, we find evidence for interstellar amorphous silicate dust with stoichiometry intermediate between olivine and pyroxene, which we simply refer to as “polivene.” Finally, we compare these results to models of silicate emission from the Trapezium and protoplanetary disks in Taurus.

  4. SILICATE COMPOSITION OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogerty, S.; Forrest, W.; Watson, D. M.; Koch, I.; Sargent, B. A.

    2016-01-01

    The composition of silicate dust in the diffuse interstellar medium and in protoplanetary disks around young stars informs our understanding of the processing and evolution of the dust grains leading up to planet formation. An analysis of the well-known 9.7 μ m feature indicates that small amorphous silicate grains represent a significant fraction of interstellar dust and are also major components of protoplanetary disks. However, this feature is typically modeled assuming amorphous silicate dust of olivine and pyroxene stoichiometries. Here, we analyze interstellar dust with models of silicate dust that include non-stoichiometric amorphous silicate grains. Modeling the optical depth along lines of sight toward the extinguished objects Cyg OB2 No. 12 and ζ Ophiuchi, we find evidence for interstellar amorphous silicate dust with stoichiometry intermediate between olivine and pyroxene, which we simply refer to as “polivene.” Finally, we compare these results to models of silicate emission from the Trapezium and protoplanetary disks in Taurus.

  5. Positive column of a glow discharge in neon with charged dust grains (a review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, D. N., E-mail: cryolab@ihed.ras.ru; Shumova, V. V.; Vasilyak, L. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The effect of charged micron-size dust grains (microparticles) on the electric parameters of the positive column of a low-pressure dc glow discharge in neon has been studied experimentally and numerically. Numerical analysis is carried out in the diffusion-drift approximation with allowance for the interaction of dust grains with metastable neon atoms. In a discharge with a dust grain cloud, the longitudinal electric field increases. As the number density of dust grains in an axisymmetric cylindrical dust cloud rises, the growth of the electric field saturates. It is shown that the contribution of metastable atoms to ionization is higher in a discharge with dust grains, in spite of the quenching of metastable atoms on dust grains. The processes of charging of dust grains and the dust cloud are considered. As the number density of dust grains rises, their charge decreases, while the space charge of the dust cloud increases. The results obtained can be used in plasma technologies involving microparticles.

  6. Positive column of a glow discharge in neon with charged dust grains (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, D. N.; Shumova, V. V.; Vasilyak, L. M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of charged micron-size dust grains (microparticles) on the electric parameters of the positive column of a low-pressure dc glow discharge in neon has been studied experimentally and numerically. Numerical analysis is carried out in the diffusion-drift approximation with allowance for the interaction of dust grains with metastable neon atoms. In a discharge with a dust grain cloud, the longitudinal electric field increases. As the number density of dust grains in an axisymmetric cylindrical dust cloud rises, the growth of the electric field saturates. It is shown that the contribution of metastable atoms to ionization is higher in a discharge with dust grains, in spite of the quenching of metastable atoms on dust grains. The processes of charging of dust grains and the dust cloud are considered. As the number density of dust grains rises, their charge decreases, while the space charge of the dust cloud increases. The results obtained can be used in plasma technologies involving microparticles.

  7. Effect of dust size distribution on ion-acoustic solitons in dusty plasmas with different dust grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dong-Ning; Yang, Yang; Yan, Qiang [Northwest Normal University, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering (China); Wang, Xiao-Yun [Lanzhou Jiao Tong University, Department of Mathematics and Physics (China); Duan, Wen-Shan, E-mail: duanws@126.com [Northwest Normal University, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    Theoretical studies are carried out for ion acoustic solitons in multicomponent nonuniform plasma considering the dust size distribution. The Korteweg−de Vries equation for ion acoustic solitons is given by using the reductive perturbation technique. Two special dust size distributions are considered. The dependences of the width and amplitude of solitons on dust size parameters are shown. It is found that the properties of a solitary wave depend on the shape of the size distribution function of dust grains.

  8. Catalysis by Dust Grains in the Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Monika E.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine whether grain-catalyzed reactions played an important role in the chemistry of the solar nebula, we have applied our time-dependent model of methane formation via Fischer-Tropsch catalysis to pressures from 10(exp -5) to 1 bar and temperatures from 450 to 650 K. Under these physical conditions, the reaction 3H2 + CO yields CH4 + H2O is readily catalyzed by an iron or nickel surface, whereas the same reaction is kinetically inhibited in the gas phase. Our model results indicate that under certain nebular conditions, conversion of CO to methane could be extremely efficient in the presence of iron-nickel dust grains over timescales very short compared to the lifetime of the solar nebula.

  9. Busting dust: from cosmic grains to terrestrial microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendis, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Electrostatic charging can have important consequences for both the growth and disruption of microparticulates immersed in a plasma. In this topical review, my emphasis is on the latter process, while I extend the term microparticulates not only to include ordinary inanimate cosmic or terrestrial dust but also to include terrestrial microbes whose sizes range from tens of nanometers (viruses) to tens of micrometers (bacteria). Following a description of the basic mechanism of electrostatic disruption of a solid body, I will discuss the role of size, shape and surface irregularity on the process. I will also consider the mitigating role of electric field emission of electrons on the disruption process of a negatively charged grain as its size falls below a critical size. I will conclude by reviewing some early evidence for the electrostatic disruption of cosmic grains, and the very recent evidence for the electrostatic disruption of the bacterial cell membranes in terrestrial sterilization experiments. (orig.)

  10. Complex Role of Secondary Electron Emissions in Dust Grain Charging in Space Environments: Measurements on Apollo 11 and 17 Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM), and heliospheric, interplanetary, planetary, and lunar environments. The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron/submicron size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials and theoretical models. In this paper we present experimental results on charging of individual dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 dust samples by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10- 400 eV energy range. The charging rates of positively and negatively charged particles of approximately 0.2 to 13 microns diameters are discussed in terms of the secondary electron emission (SEE) process, which is found to be a complex charging process at electron energies as low as 10-25 eV, with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between dust charging properties of individual small size dust grains and of bulk materials.

  11. EXPLORING THE ROLE OF SUB-MICRON-SIZED DUST GRAINS IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF RED L0–L6 DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiranaka, Kay; Cruz, Kelle L.; Baldassare, Vivienne F. [Hunter College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, City University of New York, 695 Park Ave, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Douglas, Stephanie T. [American Museum of Natural History, Department of Astrophysics, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Marley, Mark S., E-mail: khiranak@hunter.cuny.edu [NASA Ames Research Center, MS-245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    We examine the hypothesis that the red near-infrared colors of some L dwarfs could be explained by a “dust haze” of small particles in their upper atmospheres. This dust haze would exist in conjunction with the clouds found in dwarfs with more typical colors. We developed a model that uses Mie theory and the Hansen particle size distributions to reproduce the extinction due to the proposed dust haze. We apply our method to 23 young L dwarfs and 23 red field L dwarfs. We constrain the properties of the dust haze including particle size distribution and column density using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. We find that sub-micron-range silicate grains reproduce the observed reddening. Current brown dwarf atmosphere models include large-grain (1–100 μ m) dust clouds but not sub-micron dust grains. Our results provide a strong proof of concept and motivate a combination of large and small dust grains in brown dwarf atmosphere models.

  12. Methanol extract of grain dust shows complement fixing activity and other characteristics similar to tannic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skea, D; Broder, I

    1986-01-01

    We have found several similarities between tannic acid and grain dust extract prepared with methanol. Both formed a precipitate with IgG, and these interactions were inhibited by albumin. In addition, both preparations fixed complement; this activity was heat stable and was removed by prior adsorption of the preparations with hide powder. Adsorption with polyvinyl polypyrrolidone reduced the complement-fixing activity of tannic acid but not that of the methanol grain dust extract. The similarities between tannic acid and the methanol grain dust extract are consistent with the presence of a tannin or tanninlike material in grain dust. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:3709479

  13. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory performance in workers exposed to grain and grain based food dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S P; Paddle, G M

    1998-05-01

    A health surveillance study of male grain food manufacturing workers used a respiratory health questionnaire and spirometry to assess the prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms and impaired ventilatory performance. The prevalence of cough, breathlessness, wheeze and chest tightness was between 8-13% but was 20% for rhinitis. Rhinitis was the most common symptom with 37% of those reporting rhinitis describing this as work-related. A case-control analysis of workers reporting rhinitis did not identify any specific occupational activities associated with increased risk of rhinitis. Smoking habit and all respiratory symptoms apart from rhinitis had a significant effect upon ventilatory performance. Occupational exposure to raw grains, flour, ingredients and finished food was categorized as high, medium or low in either continuous or intermediate patterns. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the effects of height, age and smoking upon ventilatory performance. However, occupational exposure to grain, flour, food ingredients and cooked food dusts had no effect upon ventilatory performance. It is concluded that smoking habit is the major determinant of respiratory symptoms and impaired ventilatory function. The excess complaints of rhinitis warrant further study but it would appear that the current occupational exposure limits for grain, flour, food ingredients and cooked food dusts are adequate to protect workers against impairment of ventilatory performance.

  14. Charging of Individual Micron-Size Interstellar/Planetary Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with UV/X-ray radiation, as well as by electron/ion impact. Knowledge of physical and optical properties of individual dust grains is required for understanding of the physical and dynamical processes in space environments and the role of dust in formation of stellar and planetary systems. In this paper, we discuss experimental results on dust charging by electron impact, where low energy electrons are scattered or stick to the dust grains, thereby charging the dust grains negatively, and at sufficiently high energies the incident electrons penetrate the grain leading to excitation and emission of electrons referred to as secondary electron emission (SEE). Currently, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size dust grains, particularly by low energy electron impact. Available theoretical models based on the Sternglass equation (Sternglass, 1954) are applicable for neutral, planar, and bulk surfaces only. However, charging properties of individual micron-size dust grains are expected to be different from the values measured on bulk materials. Our recent experimental results on individual, positively charged, micron-size lunar dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance facility (at NASA-MSFC) indicate that the SEE by electron impact is a complex process. The electron impact may lead to charging or discharging of dust grains depending upon the grain size, surface potential, electron energy, electron flux, grain composition, and configuration (e.g. Abbas et al, 2010). Here we discuss the complex nature of SEE charging properties of individual micron-size lunar dust grains and silica microspheres.

  15. Technology and Policy for Suppressing Grain Dust Explosions in Storage Facilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    To ensure workplace safety, grain handling facilities engage in a variety of activities to control the accumulation of grain dust, such as good housekeeping practices, pneumatic systems, and liquid additives...

  16. Laboratory Studies of Charging Properties of Dust Grains in Astrophysical/Planetary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with UV/X-ray radiation, as well as by electron/ion impact. Knowledge of physical and optical properties of individual dust grains is required for understanding of the physical and dynamical processes in space environments and the role of dust in formation of stellar and planetary systems. In this paper we focus on charging of individual micron/submicron dust grains by processes that include: (a) UV photoelectric emissions involving incident photon energies higher than the work function of the material and b) electron impact, where low energy electrons are scattered or stick to the dust grains, thereby charging the dust grains negatively, and at sufficiently high energies the incident electrons penetrate the grain leading to excitation and emission of electrons referred to as secondary electron emission (SEE). It is well accepted that the charging properties of individual micron/submicron size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the bulk materials. However, no viable models for calculation of the charging properties of individual micron size dust grains are available at the present time. Therefore, the photoelectric yields, and secondary electron emission yields of micron-size dust grains have to be obtained by experimental methods. Currently, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size dust grains. Our experimental results, obtained on individual, micron-size dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance facility (at NASA-MSFC), show that: (1) The measured photoelectric yields are substantially higher than the bulk values given in the literature and indicate a particle size dependence with larger particles having order-of-magnitude higher values than for submicron-size grains; (2) dust charging by low energy electron impact is a complex process. Also, our measurements indicate that

  17. Relativistic Gas Drag on Dust Grains and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Thiem, E-mail: thiemhoang@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 34113 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-20

    We study the drag force on grains moving at relativistic velocities through interstellar gas and explore its application. First, we derive a new analytical formula of the drag force at high energies and find that it is significantly reduced compared to the classical model. Second, we apply the obtained drag force to calculate the terminal velocities of interstellar grains by strong radiation sources such as supernovae and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find that grains can be accelerated to relativistic velocities by very luminous AGNs. We then quantify the deceleration of relativistic spacecraft proposed by the Breakthrough Starshot initiative due to gas drag on a relativistic lightsail. We find that the spacecraft’s decrease in speed is negligible because of the suppression of gas drag at relativistic velocities, suggesting that the lightsail may be open for communication during its journey to α Centauri without causing a considerable delay. Finally, we show that the damage to relativistic thin lightsails by interstellar dust is a minor effect.

  18. Measurement of photoemission and secondary emission from laboratory dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, Robert C.; Yadlowsky, Edward J.; Settersten, Thomas B.; Spanjers, Gregory G.; Moschella, John J.

    1995-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is experimentally determine the emission properties of dust grains in order to provide theorists and modelers with an accurate data base to use in codes that predict the charging of grains in various plasma environments encountered in the magnetospheres of the planets. In general these modelers use values which have been measured on planar, bulk samples of the materials in question. The large enhancements expected due to the small size of grains can have a dramatic impact upon the predictions and the ultimate utility of these predictions. The first experimental measurement of energy resolved profiles of the secondary electron emission coefficient, 6, of sub-micron diameter particles has been accomplished. Bismuth particles in the size range of .022 to .165 micrometers were generated in a moderate pressure vacuum oven (average size is a function of oven temperature and pressure) and introduced into a high vacuum chamber where they interacted with a high energy electron beam (0.4 to 20 keV). Large enhancements in emission were observed with a peak value, delta(sub max) = 4. 5 measured for the ensemble of particles with a mean size of .022 micrometers. This is in contrast to the published value, delta(sub max) = 1.2, for bulk bismuth. The observed profiles are in general agreement with recent theoretical predictions made by Chow et al. at UCSD.

  19. Trichothecene mycotoxins and their determinants in settled dust related to grain production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Karl-Christian; Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Elen, Oleif; Clasen, Per-Erik; Langseth, Wenche; Kristensen, Petter; Eduard, Wijnand

    2004-01-01

    We hypothesise that inhalant exposure to mycotoxins causes developmental outcomes and certain hormone-related cancers that are associated with grain farming in an epidemiological study. The aim of the present study was to identify and validate determinants of measured trichothecene mycotoxins in grain dust as work environmental trichothecene exposure indicators. Settled grain dust was collected in 92 Norwegian farms during seasons of 1999 and 2000. Production characteristics and climatic data were studied as determinants of trichothecenes in settled dust samples obtained during the production of barley (N = 59), oats (N = 32), and spring wheat (N = 13). Median concentrations of trichothecenes in grain dust were grain dust in this study. Differences in cereal species, production properties and districts contributed less to explain mycotoxin concentrations. Fungal forecasts are validated as indicators of mycotoxin exposure of grain farmers and their use in epidemiological studies may be warranted.

  20. The role of endotoxin in grain dust exposure and airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, S

    1997-05-01

    Grain dust exposure is a common cause of respiratory symptoms in grain workers, feed mill employees, and farmers. Many of these workers develop wheezing and acute and chronic bronchitis symptoms, which can be associated with obstructive changes on pulmonary function testing. It has recently been demonstrated that grain dust exposure causes neutrophilic airways inflammation and systemic symptoms related to release of interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and other mediators of inflammation. Although grain dust is a heterogenous substance, endotoxin has received the greatest amount of attention as a possible cause of the airway inflammation that occurs after grain dust exposure. Although endotoxin undoubtedly causes a portion of the changes seen after grain dust exposure, it is becoming clear that other substances play a role as well.

  1. Radial decoupling of small and large dust grains in the transitional disk RX J1615.3-3255

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Robin; Kamp, Inga; Fukagawa, Misato; Menard, Francois; Momose, Munetake; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hashimoto, Jun; Abe, Lyu; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present H-band (1.6 micron) scattered light observations of the transitional disk RX J1615.3-3255, located in the approx. 1 Myr old Lupus association. From a polarized intensity image, taken with the HiCIAO instrument of the Subaru Telescope, we deduce the position angle and the inclination angle of the disk. The disk is found to extend out to 68 +/- 12 AU in scattered light and no clear structure is observed. Our inner working angle of 24 AU does not allow us to detect a central decrease in intensity similar to that seen at 30 AU in the 880 m continuum observations. We compare the observations with multiple disk models based on the spectral energy distribution (SED) and submm interferometry and find that an inner rim of the outer disk at 30 AU containing small silicate grains produces a polarized intensity signal which is an order of magnitude larger than observed. We show that a model in which the small dust grains extend smoothly into the cavity found for large grains is closer to the actual H-band observations. A comparison of models with different dust size distributions suggests that the dust in the disk might have undergone significant processing compared to the interstellar medium.

  2. SECONDARY EMISSION FROM NON-SPHERICAL DUST GRAINS WITH ROUGH SURFACES: APPLICATION TO LUNAR DUST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richterová, I.; Němeček, Z.; Beránek, M.; Šafránková, J.; Pavlů, J.

    2012-01-01

    Electrons impinging on a target can release secondary electrons and/or they can be scattered out of the target. It is well established that the number of escaping electrons per primary electron depends on the target composition and dimensions, the energy, and incidence angle of the primary electrons, but there are suggestions that the target's shape and surface roughness also influence the secondary emission. We present a further modification of the model of secondary electron emission from dust grains which is applied to non-spherical grains and grains with defined surface roughness. It is shown that the non-spherical grains give rise to a larger secondary electron yield, whereas the surface roughness leads to a decrease in the yield. Moreover, these effects can be distinguished: the shape effect is prominent for high primary energies, whereas the surface roughness predominantly affects the yield at the low-energy range. The calculations use the Lunar Highlands Type NU-LHT-2M simulant as a grain material and the results are compared with previously published laboratory and in situ measurements.

  3. Charge and Levitation of Grains in Plasma Sheath with Dust Thermic Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Haicheng; Xie Baisong

    2005-01-01

    By taking into account thermic emission current from hot dust surface, the problem involved in dust charging and levitation of dust grains in plasma sheath has been researched. The results are compared to that without including thermal emission current while the system parameters are same. It is found that the thermal emission current has played a significant role on modifying the dust charging and balance levitations. Both of the charging numbers of dust and the dust radius in balance are dramatically reduced. The stability of dust levitation is also analyzed and discussed.

  4. Attraction of likely charged nano-sized grains in dust-electron plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnyakov, Vladimir I., E-mail: eksvar@ukr.net [Physical-Chemical Institute for Environmental and Human Protection, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine)

    2016-01-15

    Dust-electron plasma, which contains only the dust grains and electrons, emitted by them, is studied. Assumption of almost uniform spatial electrons distribution, which deviates from the uniformity only near the dust grains, leads to the grain charge division into two parts: first part is the individual for each grain “visible” charge and the second part is the common charge of the neutralized background. The visible grain charge can be both negative and positive, while the total grain charge is only positive. The attraction of likely charged grains is possible, because the grain interaction is determined by the visible charges. The equilibrium state between attraction and repulsion of grains is demonstrated.

  5. Formation of dust grains in the ejecta of SN 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozasa, Takashi; Hasegawa, Hiroichi; Nomoto, Kenichi

    1989-01-01

    Formation of dust grains in the ejecta of SN 1987A is investigated on the basis of a theory of homogeneous nucleation and grain growth. The formation of dust grains in the gas ejected from a heavy element-rich mantle is considered, including the effects of latent heat released during grain growth and of radiation from the photosphere. It is shown that dust grains can condense in the heavy-element-rich mantle, and that the time of formation strongly depends on the temperature structure in the ejecta. Moreover, the formation of dust grains is retarded by the strong SN radiation field and the effect of latent heat deposited during grain growth. 41 refs

  6. Measurements of Charging of Apollo 17 Lunar Dust Grains by Electron Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, Dragana; Spann, James F.; Dube, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known since the Apollo missions that the lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of micron size dust grains with unusually high adhesive characteristics. The dust grains observed to be levitated and transported on the lunar surface are believed to have a hazardous impact on the robotic and human missions to the Moon. The observed dust phenomena are attributed to the lunar dust being charged positively during the day by UV photoelectric emissions, and negatively during the night by the solar wind electrons. The current dust charging and the levitation models, however, do not fully explain the observed phenomena, with the uncertainty of dust charging processes and the equilibrium potentials of the individual dust grains. It is well recognized that the charging properties of individual dust grains are substantially different from those determined from measurements made on bulk materials that are currently available. An experimental facility has been developed in the Dusty Plasma Laboratory at MSFC for investigating the charging and optical properties of individual micron/sub-micron size positively or negatively charged dust grains by levitating them in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. In this paper, we present the laboratory measurements on charging of Apollo 17 individual lunar dust grains by a low energy electron beam. The charging rates and the equilibrium potentials produced by direct electron impact and by secondary electron emission process are discussed.

  7. Influence of the interaction of ions-dust grains on ion acoustic wave and dust acoustic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Jianjun; Liu Jinyuan; Ma Tengcai

    2004-01-01

    Based on a set of hydrodynamic equations and a linear time-dependent perturbation theory, the influence of the interaction of ions-dust grains on ion acoustic wave IAW and dust acoustic wave DAW in dusty plasma is analyzed. The results show that the interaction makes IAW more stable and DAW less stable

  8. Size Distribution and Rate of Dust Generated During Grain Elevator Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust generated during grain handling is an air pollutant that produces safety and health hazards. This study was conducted to characterize the particle size distribution (PSD) of dust generated during handling of wheat and shelled corn in the research elevator of the USDA Grain Marketing and Product...

  9. Laboratory-based grain-shape models for simulating dust infrared spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschke, H.; Min, M.; Tamanai, A.

    2009-01-01

    Context. Analysis of thermal dust emission spectra for dust mineralogy and physical grain properties depends on comparison spectra, which are either laboratory-measured infrared extinction spectra or calculated extinction cross sections based on certain grain models. Often, the agreement between

  10. Experimental Investigation of Charging Properties of Interstellar Type Silica Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    The dust charging by electron impact is an important dust charging processes in astrophysical and planetary environments. Incident low energy electrons are reflected or stick to the grains charging the dust grains negatively. At sufficiently high energies electrons penetrate the grains, leading to excitation and emission of electrons referred to as secondary electron emission (SEE). Available classical theoretical models for calculations of SEE yields are generally applicable for neutral, planar, or bulk surfaces. These models, however, are not valid for calculations of the electron impact charging properties of electrostatically charged micron/submicron-size dust grains in astrophysical environments. Rigorous quantum mechanical models are not yet available, and the SEE yields have to be determined experimentally for development of more accurate models for charging of individual dust grains. At the present time, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size dust grains, particularly for low energy electron impact. The experimental results on individual, positively charged, micron-size lunar dust grains levitated carried out by us in a unique facility at NASA-MSFC, based on an electrodynamic balance, indicate that the SEE by electron impact is a complex process. The electron impact may lead to charging or discharging of dust grains depending upon the grain size, surface potential, electron energy, electron flux, grain composition, and configuration (Abbas et al, 2010, 2012). In this paper, we discuss SEE charging properties of individual micron-size silica microspheres that are believed to be analogs of a class of interstellar dust grains. The measurements indicate charging of the 0.2m silica particles when exposed to 25 eV electron beams and discharging when exposed to higher energy electron beams. Relatively large size silica particles (5.2-6.82m) generally discharge to lower equilibrium potentials at both electron energies

  11. Occupational asthma and IgE sensitization to grain dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Nahm, D H; Suh, C H; Kwon, O Y; Kim, K S; Lee, S W; Chung, H K

    1998-06-01

    To evaluate type I hypersensitivity to grain dust (GD), its prevalence and relationship to respiratory dysfunction, we studied clinical and immunologic features, including skin prick tests (SPT), serum specific IgE, and bronchoprovocation tests of 43 employees working in the animal feed industry. To further characterize IgE-mediated reaction, SDS-PAGE and electroblot studies were performed. Our survey revealed that 15 (34.9%) subjects had work-related skin response (> or =2+ of A/H ratio) to GD, thirteen (30.2%) had high specific IgE antibody against GD. The specific IgE antibody was detected more frequently in symptomatic workers (40%) than in asymptomatic workers (11%). Significant association was found between specific IgE antibody and atopy or smoking (pdust mite, storage mite and corn dust. Immunoblot analysis showed 8 IgE binding components within GD ranging from 13.5 to 142.5 kDa. Two bands (13.5, 33 kDa) were bound to the IgE from more than 50% of the 14 sera tested. In conclusion, these findings suggest that GD inhalation could induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed workers.

  12. Effect of Dust Grains on Solitary Kinetic Alfven Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yangfang; Wu, D. J.; Morfill, G. E.

    2008-01-01

    Solitary kinetic Alfven wave has been studied in dusty plasmas. The effect of the dust charge-to-mass ratio is considered. We derive the Sagdeev potential for the soliton solutions based on the hydrodynamic equations. A singularity in the Sagdeev potential is found and this singularity results in a bell-shaped soliton. The soliton solutions comprise two branches. One branch is sub-Alfvenic and the soliton velocities are much smaller than the Alfven speed. The other branch is super-Alfvenic and the soliton velocities are very close to or greater than the Alfven speed. Both compressive and rarefactive solitons can exist in each branch. For the sub-Alfvenic branch, the rarefactive soliton is a bell shape curve which is much narrower than the compressive one. In the super-Alfvenic branch, however, the compressive soliton is bell-shaped and the rarefactive one is broadened. We also found that the super-Alfvenic solitons can develop to other structures. When the charge-to-mass ratio of the dust grains is sufficiently high, the width of the rarefactive soliton will increase extremely and an electron density depletion will be observed. When the velocity is much higher than the Alfven speed, the bell-shaped soliton will transit to a cusped structure.

  13. DUST DYNAMICS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISK WINDS DRIVEN BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE: A MECHANISM FOR FLOATING DUST GRAINS WITH CHARACTERISTIC SIZES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Tomoya; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: miyake.tomoya@e.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: stakeru@nagoya-u.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2016-04-10

    We investigate the dynamics of dust grains of various sizes in protoplanetary disk winds driven by magnetorotational turbulence, by simulating the time evolution of the dust grain distribution in the vertical direction. Small dust grains, which are well-coupled to the gas, are dragged upward with the upflowing gas, while large grains remain near the midplane of a disk. Intermediate-size grains float near the sonic point of the disk wind located at several scale heights from the midplane, where the grains are loosely coupled to the background gas. For the minimum mass solar nebula at 1 au, dust grains with size of 25–45 μm float around 4 scale heights from the midplane. Considering the dependence on the distance from the central star, smaller-size grains remain only in an outer region of the disk, while larger-size grains are distributed in a broader region. We also discuss the implications of our result for observations of dusty material around young stellar objects.

  14. In Situ Sampling of Relative Dust Devil Particle Loads and Their Vertical Grain Size Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raack, Jan; Reiss, Dennis; Balme, Matthew R; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Ori, Gian Gabriele

    2017-04-19

    During a field campaign in the Sahara Desert in southern Morocco, spring 2012, we sampled the vertical grain size distribution of two active dust devils that exhibited different dimensions and intensities. With these in situ samples of grains in the vortices, it was possible to derive detailed vertical grain size distributions and measurements of the lifted relative particle load. Measurements of the two dust devils show that the majority of all lifted particles were only lifted within the first meter (∼46.5% and ∼61% of all particles; ∼76.5 wt % and ∼89 wt % of the relative particle load). Furthermore, ∼69% and ∼82% of all lifted sand grains occurred in the first meter of the dust devils, indicating the occurrence of "sand skirts." Both sampled dust devils were relatively small (∼15 m and ∼4-5 m in diameter) compared to dust devils in surrounding regions; nevertheless, measurements show that ∼58.5% to 73.5% of all lifted particles were small enough to go into suspension (grain size classification). This relatively high amount represents only ∼0.05 to 0.15 wt % of the lifted particle load. Larger dust devils probably entrain larger amounts of fine-grained material into the atmosphere, which can have an influence on the climate. Furthermore, our results indicate that the composition of the surface, on which the dust devils evolved, also had an influence on the particle load composition of the dust devil vortices. The internal particle load structure of both sampled dust devils was comparable related to their vertical grain size distribution and relative particle load, although both dust devils differed in their dimensions and intensities. A general trend of decreasing grain sizes with height was also detected. Key Words: Mars-Dust devils-Planetary science-Desert soils-Atmosphere-Grain sizes. Astrobiology 17, xxx-xxx.

  15. Laboratory Measurements of Charging of Apollo 17 Lunar Dust Grains by Low Energy Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, Dragana; Spann, James F.; Dube, Michael J.; Gaskin, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    It is well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron/sub-micron size dust grains by various processes are expected to be substantially different from the currently available measurements made on bulk materials. Solar UV radiation and the solar wind plasma charge micron size dust grains on the lunar surface with virtually no atmosphere. The electrostatically charged dust grains are believed to be levitated and transported long distances over the lunar terminator from the day to the night side. The current models do not fully explain the lunar dust phenomena and laboratory measurements are needed to experimentally determine the charging properties of lunar dust grains. An experimental facility has been developed in the Dusty Plasma Laboratory at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center MSFC for investigating the charging properties of individual micron/sub-micron size positively or negatively charged dust grains by levitating them in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. In this paper, we present laboratory measurements on charging of Apollo 17 individual lunar dust grains by low energy electron beams in the 5-100 eV energy range. The measurements are made by levitating Apollo 17 dust grains of 0.2 to 10 micrometer diameters, in an electrodynamic balance and exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams. The charging rates and the equilibrium potentials produced by direct electron impact and by secondary electron emission processes are discussed.

  16. The effects of nedocromil sodium on the response to grain dust in West Australian grain workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blainey, A D; Musk, A W; Ryan, G; Phillips, M J; Buccilli, C; Troon, S; Kidd, G

    1990-01-01

    Seasonal grain workers in Western Australia who develop respiratory symptoms after exposure to grain dust develop concomitant changes in lung function and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine. The mechanisms underlying these changes are not known. A detailed study was undertaken of seasonal grain workers in Western Australia to evaluate the effect of nedocromil sodium (Fisons, United Kingdom) on these changes to see if they could be prevented by this drug. Forty seven subjects participated. Symptoms and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were recorded before the study and before, during, and after each working shift, and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine was measured at the beginning and end of the study. Twenty three subjects received nedocromil and 22 received a placebo in a double blind design; there was no difference in baseline characteristics between the two groups. At the end of the study, no differences were found between the nedocromil and placebo groups in the prevalence of symptoms or development of new symptoms during the study. The drug had no effect on changes in methacholine PD20 or FEV1. As in previous studies, new symptoms developing during the season were more common in atopic subjects and were associated with a fall in methacholine PD20. It is concluded that nedocromil has no effect on the development of new symptoms in grain workers. The mechanisms underlying these symptoms require further study. PMID:2171630

  17. Measurements of Photoelectric Yield and Physical Properties of Individual Lunar Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A.; West, F. A.; Taylor, L.; Hoover, R.

    2005-01-01

    Micron size dust grains levitated and transported on the lunar surface constitute a major problem for the robotic and human habitat missions for the Moon. It is well known since the Apollo missions that the lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of micron/sub-micron size dust grains. Transient dust clouds over the lunar horizon were observed by experiments during the Apollo 17 mission. Theoretical models suggest that the dust grains on the lunar surface are charged by the solar UV radiation as well as the solar wind. Even without any physical activity, the dust grains are levitated by electrostatic fields and transported away from the surface in the near vacuum environment of the Moon. The current dust charging and the levitation models, however, do not fully explain the observed phenomena. Since the abundance of dust on the Moon's surface with its observed adhesive characteristics is believed to have a severe impact on the human habitat and the lifetime and operations of a variety of equipment, it is necessary to investigate the phenomena and the charging properties of the lunar dust in order to develop appropriate mitigating strategies. We will present results of some recent laboratory experiments on individual micro/sub-micron size dust grains levitated in electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The experiments involve photoelectric emission measurements of individual micron size lunar dust grains illuminated with UV radiation in the 120-160 nm wavelength range. The photoelectric yields are required to determine the charging properties of lunar dust illuminated by solar UV radiation. We will present some recent results of laboratory measurement of the photoelectric yields and the physical properties of individual micron size dust grains from the Apollo and Luna-24 sample returns as well as the JSC-1 lunar simulants.

  18. Enhanced electromagnetic emission from plasmas containing positive dust grains and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Shukla, Nitin; Stenflo, L.

    2007-01-01

    Large amplitude high-frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) waves can scatter off dust-acoustic waves in plasmas containing positive dust grains and electrons, and can thus be responsible for HF enhanced electromagnetic emissions (EEE). An expression for the ensemble average of the squared HF-EEE vector potential is therefore derived, following the standard parametric interaction formalism and adopting the Rostoker superposition principle. The results should be useful for deducing the dust plasma parameters (e.g. the dust number density and dust charge) in situ, and HF intense EM beams can thus be used for diagnosis of positive dust-electron plasmas in space and laboratories

  19. Work Tasks as Determinants of Grain Dust and Microbial Exposure in the Norwegian Grain and Compound Feed Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straumfors, Anne; Heldal, Kari Kulvik; Wouters, Inge M; Eduard, Wijnand

    OBJECTIVES: The grain and compound feed industry entails inevitable risks of exposure to grain dust and its microbial content. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate task-dependent exposure differences in order to create knowledge basis for awareness and exposure reducing measures

  20. Relaxing the Small Particle Approximation for Dust-grain opacities in Carbon-star Wind Models

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Lars; Höfner, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    We have computed wind models with time-dependent dust formation and grain-size dependent opacities, where (1) the problem is simplified by assuming a fixed dust-grain size, and where (2) the radiation pressure efficiency is approximated using grain sizes based on various means of the actual grain size distribution. It is shown that in critical cases, the effect of grain sizes can be significant. For well-developed winds, however, the effects on the mass-loss rate and the wind speed are small.

  1. Composition of extracts of airborne grain dusts: lectins and lymphocyte mitogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenchock, S A; Lewis, D M; Mull, J C

    1986-01-01

    Airborne grain dusts are heterogeneous materials that can elicit acute and chronic respiratory pathophysiology in exposed workers. Previous characterizations of the dusts include the identification of viable microbial contaminants, mycotoxins, and endotoxins. We provide information on the lectin-like activity of grain dust extracts and its possible biological relationship. Hemagglutination of erythrocytes and immunochemical modulation by antibody to specific lectins showed the presence of these substances in extracts of airborne dusts from barley, corn, and rye. Proliferation of normal rat splenic lymphocytes in vitro provided evidence for direct biological effects on the cells of the immune system. These data expand the knowledge of the composition of grain dusts (extracts), and suggest possible mechanisms that may contribute to respiratory disease in grain workers. PMID:3709474

  2. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF SUPERNOVA DUST DESTRUCTION. I. CLOUD-CRUSHING AND POST-PROCESSED GRAIN SPUTTERING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvia, Devin W.; Smith, Britton D.; Michael Shull, J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate through hydrodynamic simulations the destruction of newly formed dust grains by sputtering in the reverse shocks of supernova (SN) remnants. Using an idealized setup of a planar shock impacting a dense, spherical clump, we implant a population of Lagrangian particles into the clump to represent a distribution of dust grains in size and composition. We then post-process the simulation output to calculate the grain sputtering for a variety of species and size distributions. We explore the parameter space appropriate for this problem by altering the overdensity of the ejecta clumps and the speed of the reverse shocks. Since radiative cooling could lower the temperature of the medium in which the dust is embedded and potentially protect the dust by slowing or halting grain sputtering, we study the effects of different cooling methods over the timescale of the simulations. In general, our results indicate that grains with radii less than 0.1 μm are sputtered to much smaller radii and often destroyed completely, while larger grains survive their interaction with the reverse shock. We also find that, for high ejecta densities, the percentage of dust that survives is strongly dependent on the relative velocity between the clump and the reverse shock, causing up to 50% more destruction for the highest velocity shocks. The fraction of dust destroyed varies widely across grain species, ranging from total destruction of Al 2 O 3 grains to minimal destruction of Fe grains (only 20% destruction in the most extreme cases). C and SiO 2 grains show moderate to strong sputtering as well, with 38% and 80% mass loss. The survival rate of grains formed by early SNe is crucial in determining whether or not they can act as the 'dust factories' needed to explain high-redshift dust.

  3. Laboratory Measurements of Optical and Physical Properties of Individual Lunar Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Hoover, R. B.

    2006-01-01

    The lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of sub-micron/micron size dust grains formed by meteoritic impact over billions of years. The fine dust grains are levitated and transported on the lunar surface, and transient dust clouds over the lunar horizon were observed by experiments during the Apollo 17 mission. Theoretical models suggest that the dust grains on the lunar surface are charged by the solar UV radiation as well as the solar wind. Even without any physical activity, the dust grains are levitated by electrostatic fields and transported away from the surface in the near vacuum environment of the Moon. The current dust charging and levitation models, however, do not fully explain the observed phenomena. Since the abundance of dust on the Moon's surface with its observed adhesive characteristics has the potential of severe impact on human habitat and operations and lifetime of a variety of equipment, it is necessary to investigate the charging properties and the lunar dust phenomena in order to develop appropriate mitigating strategies. Photoelectric emission induced by the solar UV radiation with photon energies higher than the work function of the grain materials is recognized to be the dominant process for charging of the lunar dust, and requires measurements of the photoelectric yields to determine the charging and equilibrium potentials of individual dust grains. In this paper, we present the first laboratory measurements of the photoelectric yields of individual sub-micron/micron size dust grains selected from sample returns of Apollo 17, and Luna 24 missions, as well as similar size dust grains from the JSC-1 simulants. The experimental results were obtained on a laboratory facility based on an electrodynamic balance that permits a variety of experiments to be conducted on individual sub-micron/micron size dust grains in simulated space environments. The photoelectric emission measurements indicate grain size dependence with the yield

  4. LUNAR DUST GRAIN CHARGING BY ELECTRON IMPACT: COMPLEX ROLE OF SECONDARY ELECTRON EMISSIONS IN SPACE ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; LeClair, A. C.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.

    2010-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions (SEEs). The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium, and heliospheric, interplanetary/planetary, and lunar environments. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron-/submicron-size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials. In this paper, we present experimental results on the charging of individual 0.2-13 μm size dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and 17 dust samples, and spherical silica particles by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-200 eV energy range. The dust charging process by electron impact involving the SEEs discussed is found to be a complex charging phenomenon with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between the polarity and magnitude of the dust charging rates of individual small-size dust grains, and the measurements and model properties of corresponding bulk materials. A more comprehensive plan of measurements of the charging properties of individual dust grains for developing a database for realistic models of dust charging in astrophysical and lunar environments is in progress.

  5. Lunary Dust Grain Charging by Electron Impact: Complex Role of Secondary Electron Emissions in Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Crave, P. D.; LeClair, A.; Spann, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions (SEES). The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium, and heliospheric, interplanetary/ planetary, and lunar environments. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron-/submicron-size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials. In this paper, we present experimental results on the charging of individual 0.2-13 m size dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and 17 dust samples, and spherical silica particles by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-200 eV energy range. The dust charging process by electron impact involving the SEES discussed is found to be a complex charging phenomenon with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between the polarity and magnitude of the dust charging rates of individual small-size dust grains, and the measurements and model properties of corresponding bulk materials. A more comprehensive plan of measurements of the charging properties of individual dust grains for developing a database for realistic models of dust charging in astrophysical and lunar environments is in progress.

  6. Rapid formation of large dust grains in the luminous supernova 2010jl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Christa; Hjorth, Jens; Watson, Darach; Dwek, Eli; Maund, Justyn R; Fox, Ori; Leloudas, Giorgos; Malesani, Daniele; Day-Jones, Avril C

    2014-07-17

    The origin of dust in galaxies is still a mystery. The majority of the refractory elements are produced in supernova explosions, but it is unclear how and where dust grains condense and grow, and how they avoid destruction in the harsh environments of star-forming galaxies. The recent detection of 0.1 to 0.5 solar masses of dust in nearby supernova remnants suggests in situ dust formation, while other observations reveal very little dust in supernovae in the first few years after explosion. Observations of the spectral evolution of the bright SN 2010jl have been interpreted as pre-existing dust, dust formation or no dust at all. Here we report the rapid (40 to 240 days) formation of dust in its dense circumstellar medium. The wavelength-dependent extinction of this dust reveals the presence of very large (exceeding one micrometre) grains, which resist destruction. At later times (500 to 900 days), the near-infrared thermal emission shows an accelerated growth in dust mass, marking the transition of the dust source from the circumstellar medium to the ejecta. This provides the link between the early and late dust mass evolution in supernovae with dense circumstellar media.

  7. Solar wind radiation damage in lunar dust grains and the characteristics of the ancient solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, J.; Chaumont, J.

    1980-01-01

    Current understanding of the exposure history of lunar dust grains to the ancient solar wind is reviewed, the work being based mostly on a Monte Carlo statistical code, describing the 'gardening' effects of the meteorite bombardment in the lunar regolith, and on analytical models, yielding the lifetimes of the grains against various types of destruction processes. Families of lunar dust grains are identified, and evidence is presented showing that lunar dust grains were not partially shielded from solar wind ions. Results of solar wind simulation experiments are used to interpret the thickness distribution of the amorphous coatings of solar wind radiation-damaged material observed on 1-micron lunar dust grains. It is argued that such distributions reflect the speed distribution of the ancient solar wind as averaged over periods of approximately 5000 years in duration, and that the ancient solar wind is less energetic than the present day solar wind

  8. Wool and grain dusts stimulate TNF secretion by alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D M; Donaldson, K

    1996-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of two organic dusts, wool and grain, and their soluble leachates to stimulate secretion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by rat alveolar macrophages with special reference to the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rat alveolar macrophages were isolated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and treated in vitro with whole dust, dust leachates, and a standard LPS preparation. TNF production was measured in supernatants with the L929 cell line bioassay. Both wool and grain dust samples were capable of stimulating TNF release from rat alveolar macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. The standard LPS preparation caused a dose-dependent secretion of TNF. Leachates prepared from the dusts contained LPS and also caused TNF release but leachable LPS could not account for the TNF release and it was clear that non-LPS leachable activity was present in the grain dust and that wool dust particles themselves were capable of causing release of TNF. The role of LPS in wool dust leachates was further investigated by treating peritoneal macrophages from two strains of mice, LPS responders (C3H) and LPS non-responders (C3H/HEJ), with LPS. The non-responder mouse macrophages produced very low concentrations of TNF in response to the wool dust leachates compared with the responders. LPS and other unidentified leachable substances present on the surface of grain dust, and to a lesser extent on wool dust, are a trigger for TNF release by lung macrophages. Wool dust particles themselves stimulate TNF. TNF release from macrophages could contribute to enhancement of inflammatory responses and symptoms of bronchitis and breathlessness in workers exposed to organic dusts such as wool and grain.

  9. Work Tasks as Determinants of Grain Dust and Microbial Exposure in the Norwegian Grain and Compound Feed Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumfors, Anne; Heldal, Kari Kulvik; Wouters, Inge M; Eduard, Wijnand

    2015-07-01

    The grain and compound feed industry entails inevitable risks of exposure to grain dust and its microbial content. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate task-dependent exposure differences in order to create knowledge basis for awareness and exposure reducing measures in the Norwegian grain and compound feed industry. A total of 166 samples of airborne dust were collected by full-shift personal sampling during work in 20 grain elevators and compound feed mills during one autumn season and two winter seasons. The personal exposure to grain dust, endotoxins, β-1→3-glucans, bacteria, and fungal spores was quantified and used as individual outcomes in mixed models with worker nested in company as random effect and different departments and tasks as fixed effects. The exposure levels were highest in grain elevator departments. Exposure to endotoxins was particularly high. Tasks that represented the highest and lowest exposures varied depending on the bioaerosol component. The most important determinants for elevated dust exposure were cleaning and process controlling. Cleaning increased the dust exposure level by a factor of 2.44 of the reference, from 0.65 to 1.58mg m(-3), whereas process controlling increased the dust exposure level by a factor of 2.97, from 0.65 to 1.93mg m(-3). Process controlling was associated with significantly less grain dust exposure in compound feed mills and the combined grain elevators and compound feed mills, than in grain elevators. The exposure was reduced by a factor of 0.18 and 0.22, from 1.93 to 0.34mg m(-3) and to 0.42mg m(-3), respectively, compared with the grain elevators. Inspection/maintenance, cleaning, and grain rotation and emptying were determinants of higher exposure to both endotoxin and β-1→3-glucans. Seed winnowing was in addition a strong determinant for endotoxin, whereas mixing of animal feed implied higher β-1→3-glucan exposure. Cleaning was the only task that contributed significantly to

  10. Dexamethasone attenuates grain sorghum dust extract-induced increase in macromolecular efflux in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S R; Ikezaki, H; Gao, X P; Rubinstein, I

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dexamethasone attenuates grain sorghum dust extract-induced increase in macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch and, if so, whether this response is specific. By using intravital microscopy, we found that an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust elicited significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and increase in clearance of FITC-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass, 70 kDa) from the in situ hamster cheek pouch (P grain sorghum dust extract- and substance P-induced increases in macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch in a specific fashion.

  11. Grain sorghum dust increases macromolecular efflux from the in situ nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X P

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust increases macromolecular efflux from the nasal mucosa in vivo and, if so, whether this response is mediated, in part, by substance P. Suffusion of grain sorghum dust extract on the in situ nasal mucosa of anesthetized hamsters elicits a significant increase in clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass, 70 kDa; P grain sorghum dust elicits neurogenic plasma exudation from the in situ nasal mucosa.

  12. Charging of Dust Grains in a Nuclear-Induced Plasma at High Pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal’, A. F.; Starostin, A. N.; Filippov, A. V.

    2001-01-01

    The process of dust-grain charging in plasmas produced by radioactive decay products or spontaneous fission fragments in air and xenon at high pressures is studied numerically in the hydrodynamic approximation. It is shown that, at sufficiently high rates of gas ionization, the dust grains in air are charged by electrons rather than ions, so that the grain charge in air is comparable to that in electropositive gases. The results of numerical calculations based on a complete model agree well with the experimental data. The time evolution of the grain charge is investigated, and the characteristic time scales on which the grains acquire an electric charge are established. The validity of approximate theories of dust-grain charging in electropositive and electronegative gases at high pressures is examined

  13. Strongly coupled Coulomb systems with positive dust grains: thermal and UV-induced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarian, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: A plasma containing macroscopic dust particles or grains (often referred to as a dusty or colloidal or complex plasma) has the feature that grains may be charged by electron or ion flux or by photo- or thermoelectron emission. Electron emission from a grain surface produces a positive charge; capture of electrons produces the reverse effect making the dust grains negatively charged. Most dusty plasma research is concerned with the ordered dust structures (so-called 'plasma crystal') in glow discharges. The dust grains in these experiments were found to carry a negative charge due to the higher mobility of electrons as compared to ions in the discharge plasma. In recent years, in parallel with the study of the properties of plasma crystals under discharge conditions, attempts to obtain a structure from positively charged dust grains have been made, and structure formation processes for various charging mechanisms, particularly thermoelectron emission and photoemission, have been investigated. In this paper we review the essential features of strongly coupled plasmas with positive dust grains. An ordered structure of CeO 2 grains has been experimentally observed in a combustion products jet. The grains were charged positively and suspended in the plasma flow. Their charge is about 10 3 a and the calculated value of a Coulomb coupling parameter Γ is >10, corresponding to a plasma liquid. The ordered structures of Al 2 O 3 dust grains in propellant combustion products plasma have been observed for the first time. These structures were found in the sheath boundary of condensation region. The obtained data let us estimate the value of parameter Γ =3-40, corresponding to the plasma liquid state. The possibility is studied of the formation of ordered dust grain structures in thermal plasma. The range of the required values of the coupling parameter Γ is calculated using the results of diagnostic measurements carried out in thermal plasma with grains of

  14. Effect of Different Size Dust Grains on the Properties of Solitary Waves in Space Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwakil, S.A.; Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.; Abdelwahed, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    Propagation of nonlinear dust-acoustic (DA) waves in an unmagnetized collisionless dusty plasma consisting of dust grains obey power law dust size distribution and nonthermal ions are investigated. For nonlinear DA waves, a reductive perturbation method was employed to obtain a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the first-order potential. The effects of a dust size distribution, dust radius and the non-thermal distribution of ions on the soliton amplitude, width and energy of electrostatic solitary structures are presented

  15. Mechanisms of dust grain charging in plasma with allowance for electron emission processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol’kov, S. I.; Savin, V. N., E-mail: moped@onego.ru [Petrozavodsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The process of dust grain charging is described with allowance for secondary, ion-induced, photoelectric, and thermal electron emission from the grain surface. The roughness of the grain surface is taken into account. An intermediate charging regime involving ion–atom collisions and electron ionization in the perturbed plasma region is analyzed using the moment equations and Poisson’s equation. A calculation method is proposed that allows one to take into account the influence of all the above effects and determine the radius of the plasma region perturbed by the dust grain.

  16. Diffusion coefficients of Fokker-Planck equation for rotating dust grains in a fusion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyari-Ramezani, M.; Mahmoodi, J.; Alinejad, N.

    2015-11-01

    In the fusion devices, ions, H atoms, and H2 molecules collide with dust grains and exert stochastic torques which lead to small variations in angular momentum of the grain. By considering adsorption of the colliding particles, thermal desorption of H atoms and normal H2 molecules, and desorption of the recombined H2 molecules from the surface of an oblate spheroidal grain, we obtain diffusion coefficients of the Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution function of fluctuating angular momentum. Torque coefficients corresponding to the recombination mechanism show that the nonspherical dust grains may rotate with a suprathermal angular velocity.

  17. Neurogenic plasma exudation mediates grain dust-induced tissue injury in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X P; Von Essen, S; Rubinstein, I

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust (GDE) elicits neurogenic plasma exudation in the oral mucosa in vivo. Using intravital microscopy, we found that GDE elicited significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and an increase in clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass 70 kDa) from the hamster cheek pouch (P grain sorghum dust elicits immediate oral mucosa inflammation in vivo.

  18. Shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of dusts from swine confinement and grain facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissy, Robert J; Romberger, Debra J; Roughead, William A; Weissenburger-Moser, Lisa; Poole, Jill A; LeVan, Tricia D

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of agricultural dusts causes inflammatory reactions and symptoms such as headache, fever, and malaise, which can progress to chronic airway inflammation and associated diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Although in many agricultural environments feed particles are the major constituent of these dusts, the inflammatory responses that they provoke are likely attributable to particle-associated bacteria, archaebacteria, fungi, and viruses. In this study, we performed shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of DNA from dusts from swine confinement facilities or grain elevators, with comparisons to dusts from pet-free households. DNA sequence alignment showed that 19% or 62% of shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic DNA sequence reads from swine facility or household dusts, respectively, were of swine or human origin, respectively. In contrast only 2% of such reads from grain elevator dust were of mammalian origin. These metagenomic shotgun reads of mammalian origin were excluded from our analyses of agricultural dust microbiota. The ten most prevalent bacterial taxa identified in swine facility compared to grain elevator or household dust were comprised of 75%, 16%, and 42% gram-positive organisms, respectively. Four of the top five swine facility dust genera were assignable (Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium, ranging from 4% to 19% relative abundance). The relative abundances of these four genera were lower in dust from grain elevators or pet-free households. These analyses also highlighted the predominance in swine facility dust of Firmicutes (70%) at the phylum level, Clostridia (44%) at the Class level, and Clostridiales at the Order level (41%). In summary, shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of agricultural dusts show that they differ qualitatively and quantitatively at the level of microbial taxa present, and that the bioinformatic analyses

  19. Shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of dusts from swine confinement and grain facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Boissy

    Full Text Available Inhalation of agricultural dusts causes inflammatory reactions and symptoms such as headache, fever, and malaise, which can progress to chronic airway inflammation and associated diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Although in many agricultural environments feed particles are the major constituent of these dusts, the inflammatory responses that they provoke are likely attributable to particle-associated bacteria, archaebacteria, fungi, and viruses. In this study, we performed shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of DNA from dusts from swine confinement facilities or grain elevators, with comparisons to dusts from pet-free households. DNA sequence alignment showed that 19% or 62% of shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic DNA sequence reads from swine facility or household dusts, respectively, were of swine or human origin, respectively. In contrast only 2% of such reads from grain elevator dust were of mammalian origin. These metagenomic shotgun reads of mammalian origin were excluded from our analyses of agricultural dust microbiota. The ten most prevalent bacterial taxa identified in swine facility compared to grain elevator or household dust were comprised of 75%, 16%, and 42% gram-positive organisms, respectively. Four of the top five swine facility dust genera were assignable (Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium, ranging from 4% to 19% relative abundance. The relative abundances of these four genera were lower in dust from grain elevators or pet-free households. These analyses also highlighted the predominance in swine facility dust of Firmicutes (70% at the phylum level, Clostridia (44% at the Class level, and Clostridiales at the Order level (41%. In summary, shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of agricultural dusts show that they differ qualitatively and quantitatively at the level of microbial taxa present, and that the

  20. Ochratoxin A and citrinin loads in stored wheat grains: impact of grain dust and possible prediction using ergosterol measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangni, E K; Pussemier, L

    2006-02-01

    Crop storage should be carried out under hygienic conditions to ensure safe products, but sometimes grain dust which has settled from previous storage may be left over and incorporated to the following stored grains. This paper describes the results obtained using a lab model developed in order to assess the impact of grain dust incorporation for its direct contribution as a contaminant but also as an inoculum in stored wheat. Settled grain dust (4 samples) released from Belgian grain storages were collected and analysed by HPLC for ergosterol, ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) content. For OTA and for ergosterol, there was a high degree of variability in concentrations found in the dust samples (from 17.3-318 ng g(-1) and from 39-823 microg g(-1), respectively) whilst for CIT, the range was less significant (from 137-344 ng g(-1)). Incorporation of grain dust into wheat storage contributed to an increase in the concentrations of mycotoxins in the stored grain. Dust acts as a contaminant and as an inoculum. According to these two ways, patterns of mycotoxin generation vary with the nature of the mycotoxin, the mycotoxigenic potential of dust and the water activity of the wheat. OTA and CIT showed a very versatile image when considering the amounts of toxins produced under the selected experimental conditions. The development of a robust tool to forecast the mycotoxigenicity of dust was based on the determination of ergosterol content as a general marker of fungal biomass. Present results suggest that this predictive tool would only be valid for predicting the contamination level of CIT and OTA at reasonable moisture content (14-20%). The potential risk of having highly contaminated batches from stock to stock may thus occur and this paper discusses possible pathways leading to OTA and CIT contamination either under wet or dry storage conditions. We therefore, recommend taking precautionary measures not only by controlling and maintaining moisture at a

  1. Recommendations for reducing the effect of grain dust on the lungs. Canadian Thoracic Society Standards Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklake, M; Broder, I; Chan-Yeung, M; Dosman, J A; Ernst, P; Herbert, F A; Kennedy, S M; Warren, P W

    1996-11-15

    To assess the appropriateness of the current Canadian standards for exposure to grain dust in the workplace. The current permissible exposure limit of 10 mg of total grain dust per cubic metre of air (expressed as mg/m3) as an 8-hour time-weighted average exposure, or a lower permissible exposure limit. Acute symptoms of grain-dust exposure, such as cough, phlegm production, wheezing and dyspnea, similar chronic symptoms, and spirometric deficits revealing obstructive or restrictive disease. Articles published from 1924 to December 1993 were identified from Index Medicus and the bibliographies of pertinent articles. Subsequent articles published from 1994 (when the recommendations were approved by the Canadian Thoracic Society Standards Committee) to June 1996 were retrieved through a search of MEDLINE, and modification of the recommendations was not found to be necessary. Studies of interest were those that linked measurements of total grain dust levels to the development of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and changes in lung function in exposed workers. Papers on the effects of grain dust on workers in feed mills were not included because other nutrients such as animal products may have been added to the grain. Unpublished reports (e.g., to Labour Canada) were included as sources of information. A high value was placed on minimizing the biological harm that grain dust has on the lungs of grain workers. A permissible exposure limit of 5 mg/m3 would control the short-term effects of exposure to grain dust on workers. Evidence is insufficient to determine what level is needed to prevent long-term effects. The economic implications of implementing a lower permissible exposure limit have not been evaluated. The current Canadian standards for grain-dust exposure should be reviewed by Labour Canada and the grain industry. A permissible exposure level of 5 mg/m3 is recommended to control short-term effects. Further measurements that link the levels of exposure to

  2. Injurious effects of wool and grain dusts on alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D M; Donaldson, K

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of workers in wool textile mills have shown a direct relation between the concentration of wool dust in the air and respiratory symptoms. Injurious effects of wool dust on the bronchial epithelium could be important in causing inflammation and irritation. A pulmonary epithelial cell line in vitro was therefore used to study the toxic effects of wool dust. Cells of the A549 epithelial cell line were labelled with 51Cr and treated with whole wool dusts and extracts of wool, after which injury was assessed. Also, the effects of grain dust, which also causes a form of airway obstruction, were studied. The epithelial injury was assessed by measuring 51Cr release from cells as an indication of lysis, and by monitoring cells which had detached from the substratum. No significant injury to A549 cells was caused by culture with any of the dusts collected from the air but surface "ledge" dust caused significant lysis at some doses. Quartz, used as a toxic control dust, caused significant lysis at the highest concentration of 100 micrograms/well. To determine whether any injurious material was soluble the dusts were incubated in saline and extracts collected. No extracts caused significant injury to epithelial cells. A similar lack of toxicity was found when 51Cr labelled control alveolar macrophages were targets for injury. Significant release of radiolabel was evident when macrophages were exposed to quartz at concentrations of 10 and 20 micrograms/well, there being no significant injury with either wool or grain dusts. These data suggest that neither wool nor grain dust produce direct injury to epithelial cells, and further studies are necessary to explain inflammation leading to respiratory symptoms in wool and grain workers. PMID:2015211

  3. Induction of histamine release in vitro from rat peritoneal mast cells by extracts of grain dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C P; Holford-Strevens, V

    1986-01-01

    The ability of extracts of grain dust and wheat to induce histamine release from rat peritoneal cells was investigated. Some grain dusts, with a high endotoxin content, were found to produce cytotoxic histamine release. Extract of wheat dust, with a low endotoxin release, produced noncytotoxic histamine release from peritoneal cells but not from purified mast cells. This reaction was dependent on the presence of phosphatidyl serine. The agent did not appear to be a lectin because histamine release was not enhanced by passive sensitization of mast cells with IgE. The activity occurred only over a narrow range of concentrations of the extract of wheat. The cause was unclear. PMID:2423321

  4. [The epidemiological validation of the MPEL for grain dust in the atmosphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinigin, M A; Cherepov, E M; Safiulin, A A; Petrova, I V; Mukhambetova, L Kh; Osipova, E M; Veselov, A P

    1998-01-01

    The use of calculating and gravimetric methods for examining the grain dust pollution of the ambient air at the site of an elevator determined the maximum single, mean daily, and mean annual concentrations at different distances from the source of dust emission. The mean ratio of these concentrations was 12.1:4.3:1, respectively. The calculated concentration-effect and concentration-time relationships provided evidence for the maximum single, mean daily, and mean annual allowable concentrations for grain dust in the ambient air.

  5. Levels of fungi and mycotoxins in the samples of grain and grain dust collected from five various cereal crops in eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Perkowski, Juliusz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    During combine harvesting of 5 various cereal crops (rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, corn) 24 samples of grain and 24 samples of settled grain dust were collected on farms located in the Lublin province of eastern Poland. The samples were examined for the concentration of total microfungi, Fusarium species, deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), and ochratoxin A (OTA). Microfungi able to grow on malt agar were present in 79.2% of grain samples and in 91.7% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 1.0-801.3x10(3) cfu/g and 1.5-12440.0x10(3) cfu/g, respectively. The concentration of microfungi in grain dust samples was significantly greater than in grain samples (pgrain samples and from 58.3% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.1-375.0x10(3) cfu/g and 4.0-7,700.0x10(3) cfu/g, respectively. They were found in all samples of grain and grain dust from rye, barley and corn, but only in 0-16.7% of samples of grain and grain dust from oats and buckwheat. DON was found in 79.2% of grain samples and in 100% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.001-0.18 microg/g and 0.006-0.283 microg/g, respectively. NIV was detected in 62.5% of grain samples and in 94.4% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.004-0.502 microg/g and 0.005-0.339 microg/g, respectively. OTA was detected in 58.3% of grain samples and in 91.7% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.00039- 0.00195 microg/g and 0.00036-0.00285 microg/g, respectively. The concentrations of DON, total fusariotoxins (DON+NIV) and OTA were significantly greater in grain dust samples than in grain samples (pgrain and dust was significantly correlated with the concentrations of DON (pgrain and dust was significantly correlated with the concentration of total fusariotoxins (pgrain dust collected from 5 various cereals on farms in eastern Poland was not large, the persistent presence of these mycotoxins in over 90% of examined samples poses a potential health risk of chronic respiratory

  6. Analytical study of spheroidal dust grains in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahed, H.; Mahmoodi, J.; Sobhanian, S.

    2006-01-01

    Using the modified spheroidal equations, the potential of a spheroidal conducting grain, floated in a plasma, is calculated. The electric field and capacitance for both prolate and oblate spheroidal grains are investigated. The solutions, obtained up to the second-order approximation, show that the plasma screening causes the equipotential surfaces around the grain to be more elongated or flattened than the potential spheroids of the Laplace equation. This leads to the variation of the plasma concentration around the grain

  7. Charging properties of a dust grain in collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrapak, S.A.; Morfill, G.E.; Khrapak, A.G.; D'yachkov, L.G.

    2006-01-01

    Charging related properties of a small spherical grain immersed in a collisional plasma are investigated. Asymptotic expressions for charging fluxes, grain surface potential, long range electrostatic potential, and the properties of grain charge fluctuations due to the discrete nature of the charging process are obtained. These analytical results are in reasonable agreement with the available results of numerical modeling

  8. Ion drag force on dust grains in the magnetized edge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyash, K.; Schneider, R.; Ikkurthi, V.R.; Melzer, A.

    2009-01-01

    A 3-dimensional Particle-Particle Particle-Mesh (P3M) code [K. Matyash, R. Schneider, F. Taccogna, D. Tskhakaya, J. Nucl. Mater. 363-365 (2007) 458] is applied to simulate a small-size (smaller than a Debye length) spherical dust grain confined in the magnetized plasma near the material wall of a tokamak. Plasma particles (electrons and ions) are treated kinetically (Particle-in-Cell with Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC MCC)), which allows to resolve self-consistently the electrostatic sheath in front of the wall. In order to describe accurately the plasma particles' motion close to the dust grain, the PIC technique is supplemented with Molecular Dynamics (MD), employing an analytic electrostatic potential for the interaction with the dust grain. The charging of a spherical, conducting dust grain confined in the sheath potential close to the wall of a tokamak is simulated. A magnetic field normal to the wall was investigated. The ion drag force resulting from dust grain collisions with the streaming ions is calculated. This force is critical for a realistic description of the dust particle dynamics and transport in fusion plasmas.

  9. Laboratory Measurements of Optical Properties of Micron Size Individual Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Witherow, W. K.; Camata, R.; Gerakines, P.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory program is being developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for experimental determination of the optical and physical properties individual dust grains in simulated astrophysical environments. The experimental setup is based on an electrodynamic balance that permits levitation of single 0.1 - 10 micron radii dust grains in a cavity evacuated to pressures of approx. 10(exp -6) torr. The experimental apparatus is equipped with observational ports for measurements in the UV, visible, and infrared spectral regions. A cryogenic facility for cooling the particles to temperature of approx. 10-50K is being installed. The current and the planned measurements include: dust charging processes, photoelectric emissions and yields with UV irradiation, radiation pressure measurements, infrared absorption and scattering properties, and condensation processes, involving the analogs of cosmic dust grains. Selected results based on photoemissions, radiation pressure, and other laboratory measurements will be presented.

  10. Laboratory Investigations of the Physical and Optical Properties of the Analogs of Individual Cosmic Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    Microdsub-micron size cosmic dust grains play an important role in the physical and dynamical process in the galaxy, the interstellar medium, and the interplanetary and planetary environments. The dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged by a variety of mechanisms that include collisional process with electrons and ions, and photoelectric emissions with UV radiation. The photoelectric emission process is believed to be the dominant process in many astrophysical environments with nearby UV sources, such as the interstellar medium, diffuse clouds, the outer regions of the dense molecular clouds, interplanetary medium, dust in planetary environments and rings, cometary tails, etc. Also, the processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains are of great interest in view of the polarization of observed starlight as a probe for evaluation of the galactic magnetic field.

  11. Presence of specific IgG antibody to grain dust does not go with respiratory symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Suh, C H; Nahm, D H; Kim, H Y

    1999-02-01

    A high prevalence of work-related symptoms in relation to grain dust exposure has been reported in grain dust workers, but the role of the specific IgG antibody is unknown. To study the possible role of specific IgG (sIgG) and specific IgG4 (sIgG4) in the development of work-related symptoms, sIgG and sIgG4 subclass antibodies against grain dust antigens were determined by ELISA in sera from 43 workers and 27 non-exposed controls. They were compared with results of specific IgE antibodies, exposure intensity and the presence of respiratory symptoms. SIgG and sIgG4 antibodies were detectable in almost all sera of exposed workers, and the prevalence were significantly higher than those of controls (pgrain dust exposure and may unlikely play a role in the etiology of respiratory symptoms.

  12. Size and density sorting of dust grains in SPH simulations of protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatale, F. C.; Gonzalez, J.-F.; Cuello, Nicolas; Bourdon, Bernard; Fitoussi, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    The size and density of dust grains determine their response to gas drag in protoplanetary discs. Aerodynamical (size × density) sorting is one of the proposed mechanisms to explain the grain properties and chemical fractionation of chondrites. However, the efficiency of aerodynamical sorting and the location in the disc in which it could occur are still unknown. Although the effects of grain sizes and growth in discs have been widely studied, a simultaneous analysis including dust composition is missing. In this work, we present the dynamical evolution and growth of multicomponent dust in a protoplanetary disc using a 3D, two-fluid (gas+dust) smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. We find that the dust vertical settling is characterized by two phases: a density-driven phase that leads to a vertical chemical sorting of dust and a size-driven phase that enhances the amount of lighter material in the mid-plane. We also see an efficient radial chemical sorting of the dust at large scales. We find that dust particles are aerodynamically sorted in the inner disc. The disc becomes sub-solar in its Fe/Si ratio on the surface since the early stage of evolution but sub-solar Fe/Si can be also found in the outer disc-mid-plane at late stages. Aggregates in the disc mimic the physical and chemical properties of chondrites, suggesting that aerodynamical sorting played an important role in determining their final structure.

  13. MULTIGRAIN: a smoothed particle hydrodynamic algorithm for multiple small dust grains and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Mark; Price, Daniel J.; Laibe, Guillaume

    2018-05-01

    We present a new algorithm, MULTIGRAIN, for modelling the dynamics of an entire population of small dust grains immersed in gas, typical of conditions that are found in molecular clouds and protoplanetary discs. The MULTIGRAIN method is more accurate than single-phase simulations because the gas experiences a backreaction from each dust phase and communicates this change to the other phases, thereby indirectly coupling the dust phases together. The MULTIGRAIN method is fast, explicit and low storage, requiring only an array of dust fractions and their derivatives defined for each resolution element.

  14. Laboratory Studies on the Charging of Dust Grains in a Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjun

    1993-01-01

    The charging of dust grains by the surrounding plasma is studied in a dusty plasma device (DPD) (Xu, W., B. Song, R. L. Merlino, and N. D'Angelo, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 63, 5266, 1992). The dusty plasma device consists of a rotating-drum dust dispersal device used in conjunction with an existing Q-machine, to produce extended, steady state, magnetized plasma columns. The dust density in the dust chamber is controlled by the drum rotation speed. The device is capable of generating a dusty plasma in which as much as about 90% of the negative charge is attached to the dust grains of 1-10mu m size. Measurements of the dust parameter eta, the percentage of negative charge on free electrons in the dusty plasma, are presented. The dust parameter eta is found to depend on the rotational speed of the dust chamber, plasma density and the type and size of different dust. The dust parameter eta is calculated from a pair of Langmuir curves taken with and without dust under the same conditions. The operation of the dust chamber as described above has been confirmed by the agreement between the measurements of eta and the direct mechanical measurements consisting of weighing dust samples collected within the rotation dust chamber, at different rotation rates. By varying the ratio d/lambda_ {rm D} between the intergrain distance and the plasma Debye length, the effects predicted by Goertz and Ip (Goertz, C. K., and W-H. Ip, Geophys. Res. Lett., 11, 349, 1984), and subsequently reanalyzed in a more general fashion by Whipple et al. (Whipple, E. C., T. G. Northrop, and D. A. Mendis, J. Geophys. Rev., 90, 7405, 1985), as "isolated" dust grains become "closely packed" grains, have been demonstrated experimentally (Xu, W., N. D'Angelo, and R. L. Merlino, J. Geophys. Rev., 98, 7843, 1993). Similar results are presented and compared for two types of dust, kaolin and Al_2O _3, which have been studied in the experiment.

  15. Cometary and interstellar dust grains - Analysis by ion microprobe mass spectrometry and other techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Ernst

    1991-01-01

    A survey of microanalytical measurements on interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and interstellar dust grains from primitive meteorites is presented. Ion-microprobe mass spectrometry with its capability to determine isotopic compositions of many elements on a micron spatial scale has played a special role. Examples are measurements of H, N, and O isotopes and refractory trace elements in IDPs; C, N, Mg, and Si isotopes in interstellar SiC grains; and C and N isotopes and H, N, Al, and Si concentrations in interstellar graphite grains.

  16. Analysis of the Effect of Prevailing Weather Conditions on the Occurrence of Grain Dust Explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghi, Achint; Ambrose, R P Kingsly

    2016-07-27

    Grain dust explosions have been occurring in the U.S. for the past twenty years. In the past ten years, there have been an average of ten explosions a year, resulting in nine fatalities and 93 injuries. In more than half of these cases, the ignition source remains unidentified. The effect of ambient humidity on the likelihood of a dust explosion has been discussed for many years. However, no investigation into a possible link between the two has been carried out. In this study, we analyzed local weather data and grain dust explosions during the period 2006 to 2014 to measure potential relationships between the two events. The 84 analyzed explosions do not show any trend with regard to prevailing temperatures, or relative or absolute humidity. In addition, the ignition source could not be identified in 54 of the incidents. The majority of grain dust explosion incidents occurred at grain elevator facilities, where the dust generation potential was high compared with grain processing industries. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  17. Enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity after bronchial challenge in subjects with grain dust-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Jung, K S

    1998-03-01

    There have been few reports suggesting involvement of neutrophils in induction of bronchoconstriction after inhalation of grain dust. To understand the role of neutrophils in pathogenesis of grain dust-induced asthma. We observed serum neutrophil chemotactic activity during grain dust-bronchoprovocation tests in six asthmatic subjects with positive bronchial challenges (group I). They were compared with those of six symptomatic subjects from the same workplace with negative bronchial challenges (group II). After grain dust inhalation, serum neutrophil chemotactic activity significantly increased at 30 minutes (P = .028), and then decreased to baseline level at 240 minutes (P = .028) in five subjects of group I having isolated early asthmatic responses. Enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity was persistent for up to 240 minutes in one asthmatic subject having both early and late asthmatic responses. There was, however, no significant change in serum neutrophil chemotactic activity during bronchial challenges in subjects of group II. Pre-incubation of sera with anti-interleukin-8 (IL-8) antibody did not affect the neutrophil chemotactic activity results of group I subjects. These results suggest that enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity distinct from IL-8 may contribute to significant bronchoconstriction induced by grain dust.

  18. Grain size effect on Sr and Nd isotopic compositions in eolian dust. Implications for tracing dust provenance and Nd model age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jinliang; Zhu Liping; Zhen Xiaolin; Hu Zhaoguo

    2009-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) and neodymium (Nd) isotopic compositions enable identification of dust sources and reconstruction of atmospheric dispersal pathways. The Sr and Nd isotopic compositions in eolian dust change systematically with grain size in ways not yet fully understood. This study demonstrates the grain size effect on the Sr and Nd isotopic compositions in loess and 2006 dust fall, based on analyses of seven separated grain size fractions. The analytical results indicate that Sr isotopic ratios strongly depend on the grain size fractions in samples from all types of eolian dust. In contrast, the Nd isotopic ratios exhibit little variation in loess, although they vary significantly with grain size in samples from a 2006 dust fall. Furthermore, Nd model ages tend to increase with increasing grain size in samples from all types of eolian dust. Comparatively, Sr isotopic compositions exhibit high sensitively to wind sorting, while Nd isotopic compositions show greater sensitively to dust origin. The principal cause for the different patterns of Sr and Nd isotopic composition variability with grain size appears related to the different geochemical behaviors between rubidium (Rb) and Sr, and the similar geochemical behaviors between samarium (Sm) and Nd. The Nd isotope data indicate that the various grain size fractions in loess have similar origins for each sample. In contrast, various provenance components may separate into different grain size fractions for the studied 2006 dust fall. The Sr and Nd isotope compositions further confirm that the 2006 dust fall and Pleistocene loess in Beijing have different sources. The loess deposits found in Beijing and those found on the Chinese Loess Plateau also derive from different sources. Variations between Sr and Nd isotopic compositions and Nd model ages with grain size need to be considered when directly comparing analyses of eolian dust of different grain size. (author)

  19. Size and density distribution of very small dust grains in the Barnard 5 cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Dariusz C.; Leung, Chun Ming

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the temperature fluctuations in small graphite grains on the energy spectrum and the IR surface brightness of an isolated dust cloud heated externally by the interstellar radiation field were investigated using a series of models based on a radiation transport computer code. This code treats self-consistently the thermal coupling between the transient heating of very small dust grains and the equilibrium heating of conventional large grains. The model results were compared with the IRAS observations of the Barnard 5 (B5) cloud, showing that the 25-micron emission of the cloud must be produced by small grains with a 6-10 A radius, which also contribute about 50 percent to the observed 12-micron emission. The remaining 12 micron flux may be produced by the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The 60-and 100-micron radiation is dominated by emission from large grains heated under equilibrium conditions.

  20. Stability Dust-Ion-Acoustic Wave In Dusty Plasmas With Stream -Influence Of Charge Fluctuation Of Dust Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atamaniuk, Barbara; Zuchowski, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    There is a quickly increasing wealth of experimental data on so-called dusty plasmas i. e. ionized gases or usual plasmas that contain micron sized charged particles. Interest in these structures is driven both by their importance in many astrophysical as well as commercial situations. Among them are linear and nonlinear wave phenomena. We consider the influence of dust charge fluctuations on stability of the ion-acoustic waves when the stream of particles is present. It is assumed that all grains of dust have equal masses but charges are not constant in time-they may fluctuate in time. The dust charges are not really independent of the variations of the plasma potentials. All modes will influence the charging mechanism, and feedback will lead to several new interesting and unexpected phenomena. The charging of the grains depends on local plasma characteristics. If the waves disturb these characteristic, then charging of the grains is affected and the grain charge is modified, with a resulting feedback on the wave mode. In case considering here, when temperature of electrons is much greater then the temperature of the ions and temperature of electrons is not great enough for further ionization of the ions, we show that stability of the acoustic wave depends only one phenomenological coefficient

  1. Photoelectric Emission Measurements on the Analogs of Individual Cosmic Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.; Weingartner, J. C.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Nuth, J. a.; Camata, R. P.

    2006-01-01

    The photoelectric emission process is considered to be the dominant mechanism for charging of cosmic dust grains in many astrophysical environments. The grain charge and equilibrium potentials play an important role in the dynamical and physical processes that include heating of the neutral gas in the interstellar medium, coagulation processes in the dust clouds, and levitation and dynamical processes in the interplanetary medium and planetary surfaces and rings. An accurate evaluation of photoelectric emission processes requires knowledge of the photoelectric yields of individual dust grains of astrophysical composition as opposed to the values obtained from measurements on flat surfaces of bulk materials, as it is generally assumed on theoretical considerations that the yields for the small grains are much different from the bulk values. We present laboratory measurements of the photoelectric yields of individual dust grains of silica, olivine, and graphite of approx. 0.09-5 micrometer radii levitated in an electrodynamic balance and illuminated with ultraviolet radiation at 120-160 nm wavelengths. The measured yields are found to be substantially higher than the bulk values given in the literature and indicate a size dependence with larger particles having order-of-magnitude higher values than for submicron-size grains.

  2. LUNAR SURFACE AND DUST GRAIN POTENTIALS DURING THE EARTH’S MAGNETOSPHERE CROSSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaverka, J.; Richterová, I.; Pavlu, J.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z., E-mail: jana.safrankova@mff.cuni.cz [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-07-10

    Interaction between the lunar surface and the solar UV radiation and surrounding plasma environment leads to its charging by different processes like photoemission, collection of charged particles, or secondary electron emission (SEE). Whereas the photoemission depends only on the angle between the surface and direction to the Sun and varies only slowly, plasma parameters can change rapidly as the Moon orbits around the Earth. This paper presents numerical simulations of one Moon pass through the magnetospheric tail including the real plasma parameters measured by THEMIS as an input. The calculations are concentrated on different charges of the lunar surface itself and a dust grain lifted above this surface. Our estimations show that (1) the SEE leads to a positive charging of parts of the lunar surface even in the magnetosphere, where a high negative potential is expected; (2) the SEE is generally more important for isolated dust grains than for the lunar surface covered by these grains; and (3) the time constant of charging of dust grains depends on their diameter being of the order of hours for sub-micrometer grains. In view of these results, we discuss the conditions under which and the areas where a levitation of the lifted dust grains could be observed.

  3. EVIDENCE FOR H{sub 2} FORMATION DRIVEN DUST GRAIN ALIGNMENT IN IC 63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, B-G; De Buizer, J.; Charcos-Llorens, M. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, M.S. N211-3 Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Piirola, V. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Clemens, D. P. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Uomoto, A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Geballe, T. R. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Lazarian, A.; Hoang, T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Vornanen, T., E-mail: bg@sofia.usra.edu [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland)

    2013-10-01

    In the interstellar medium (ISM), molecular hydrogen is expected to form almost exclusively on the surfaces of dust grains. Due to that molecule's large formation energy (–4.5 eV), several dynamical effects are likely associated with the process, including the alignment of asymmetric dust grains with the ambient magnetic field. Such aligned dust grains are, in turn, believed to cause the broadband optical/infrared polarization observed in the ISM. Here, we present the first observational evidence for grain alignment driven by H{sub 2} formation, by showing that the polarization of the light from stars behind the reflection nebula IC 63 appears to correlate with the intensity of H{sub 2} fluorescence. While our results strongly suggest a role for 'Purcell rockets' in grain alignment, additional observations are needed to conclusively confirm their role. By showing a direct connection between H{sub 2} formation and a probe of the dust characteristics, these results also provide one of the first direct confirmations of the grain-surface formation of H{sub 2}. We compare our observations to ab initio modeling based on Radiative Torque Alignment (RAT) theory.

  4. Effect of non-Maxwellian particle trapping and dust grain charging on dust acoustic solitary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubab, N.; Murtaza, G.; Mushtaq, A.

    2006-01-01

    The role of adiabatic trapped ions on a small but finite amplitude dust acoustic wave, including the effect of adiabatic dust charge variation, is investigated in an unmagnetized three-component dusty plasma consisting of electrons, ions and massive micron sized negatively charged dust particulates. We have assumed that electrons and ions obey (r,q) velocity distribution while the dust species is treated fluid dynamically. It is found that the dynamics of dust acoustic waves is governed by a modified r dependent Korteweg-de Vries equation. Further, the spectral indices (r,q) affect the charge fluctuation as well as the trapping of electrons and ions and consequently modify the dust acoustic solitary wave

  5. The role of endotoxin in grain dust-induced lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D A; Thorne, P S; Yagla, S J; Burmeister, L F; Olenchock, S A; Watt, J L; Quinn, T J

    1995-08-01

    To identify the role of endotoxin in grain dust-induced lung disease, we conducted a population-based, cross-sectional investigation among grain handlers and postal workers. The study subjects were selected by randomly sampling all grain facilities and post offices within 100 miles of Iowa City. Our study population consisted of 410 grain workers and 201 postal workers. Grain workers were found to be exposed to higher concentrations of airborne dust (p = 0.0001) and endotoxin (p = 0.0001) when compared with postal workers. Grain workers had a significantly higher prevalence of work-related (cough, phlegm, wheezing, chest tightness, and dyspnea) and chronic (usual cough or phlegm production) respiratory symptoms than postal workers. Moreover, after controlling for age, gender, and cigarette smoking status, work-related respiratory symptoms were strongly associated with the concentration of endotoxin in the bioaerosol in the work setting. The concentration of total dust in the bioaerosol was marginally related to these respiratory problems. After controlling for age, gender, and cigarette smoking status, grain workers were found to have reduced spirometric measures of airflow (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25-75) and enhanced airway reactivity to inhaled histamine when compared with postal workers. Although the total dust concentration in the work environment appeared to have little effect on these measures of airflow obstruction, higher concentrations of endotoxin in the bioaerosol were associated with diminished measures of airflow and enhanced bronchial reactivity. Our results indicate that the concentration of endotoxin in the bioaerosol may be particularly important in the development of grain dust-induced lung disease.

  6. Experimental Investigations of the Physical and Optical Properties of Individual Micron/Submicron-Size Dust Grains in Astrophysical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.

    2014-01-01

    Dust grains constitute a significant component of matter in the universe, and play an important and crucial role in the formation and evolution of the stellar/planetary systems in interstellar dust clouds. Knowledge of physical and optical properties of dust grains is required for understanding of a variety of processes in astrophysical and planetary environments. The currently available and generally employed data on the properties of dust grains is based on bulk materials, with analytical models employed to deduce the corresponding values for individual small micron/submicron-size dust grains. However, it has been well-recognized over a long period, that the properties of individual smallsize dust grains may be very different from those deduced from bulk materials. This has been validated by a series of experimental investigations carried out over the last few years, on a laboratory facility based on an Electrodynamic Balance at NASA, which permits levitation of single small-size dust grains of desired composition and size, in vacuum, in simulated space environments. In this paper, we present a brief review of the results of a series of selected investigations carried out on the analogs of interstellar and planetary dust grains, as well as dust grains obtained by Apollo-l1-17 lunar missions. The selected investigations, with analytical results and discussions, include: (a) Direct measurements of radiation on individual dust grains (b) Rotation and alignments of dust grains by radiative torque (c) Charging properties of dust grains by: (i) UV Photo-electric emissions (ii) Electron Impact. The results from these experiments are examined in the light of the current theories of the processes involved.

  7. Coagulation of dielectric dust grains due to variable asymmetric charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manweiler, Jerry W.; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Cravens, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Observational evidence of electrical forces acting significantly on small solids is present for both the modern solar system in Saturn's rings and the ancient solar system in chondritic meteorites. It is likely that grain-grain coagulation rates are affected by the distribution of charges on small grains. Plasma particle impacts and photoelectric effects can provide the charges. It appears that some charging is inevitable and that plasma grain interactions need to be evaluated to determine the size of the effect on coagulation rates. We apply the results of our previous charging work to models of the protoplanetary nebula. It is expected that the protoplanetary nebula is weakly ionized except in certain instances and locations such as: solar flares in the interior, ultraviolet radiation at the outer boundary, and during enhanced luminosity of the star. Since the grains we study are non-conducting and show strong dipole moments in flowing plasma, we modify the geometric cross sections to include the effects of flowing plasma on non-conducting grains with plasma mediated shielding. This paper provides results showing how plasma flow affects the processes involved in charging the grains--total charge and charge distribution. We calculate the modifications to the cross sections and subsequent changes in the coagulation rates

  8. Presolar silicates in the matrix and fine-grained rims around chondrules in primitive CO3.0 chondrites: Evidence for pre-accretionary aqueous alteration of the rims in the solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenecour, Pierre; Floss, Christine; Zega, Thomas J.; Croat, Thomas K.; Wang, Alian; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Carpenter, Paul

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the origin of fine-grained rims around chondrules (FGRs), we compared presolar grain abundances, elemental compositions and mineralogies in fine-grained interstitial matrix material and individual FGRs in the primitive CO3.0 chondrites Allan Hills A77307, LaPaz Icefield 031117 and Dominion Range 08006. The observation of similar overall O-anomalous (∼155 ppm) and C-anomalous grain abundances (∼40 ppm) in all three CO3.0 chondrites suggests that they all accreted from a nebular reservoir with similar presolar grain abundances. The presence of presolar silicate grains in FGRs combined with the observation of similar estimated porosity between interstitial matrix regions and FGRs in LAP 031117 and ALHA77307, as well as the identification of a composite FGR (a small rimmed chondrule within a larger chondrule rim) in ALHA77307, all provide evidence for a formation of FGRs by accretion of dust grains onto freely-floating chondrules in the solar nebula before their aggregation into their parent body asteroids. Our study also shows systematically lower abundances of presolar silicate grains in the FGRs than in the matrix regions of CO3 chondrites, while the abundances of SiC grains are the same in all areas, within errors. This trend differs from CR2 chondrites in which the presolar silicate abundances are higher in the FGRs than in the matrix, but similar to each other within 2σ errors. This observation combined with the identification of localized (micrometer-scaled) aqueous alteration in a FGR of LAP 031117 suggests that the lower abundance of presolar silicates in FGRs reflects pre-accretionary aqueous alteration of the fine-grained material in the FGRs. This pre-accretionary alteration could be due to either hydration and heating of freely floating rimmed chondrules in icy regions of the solar nebula or melted water ice associated with 26Al-related heating inside precursor planetesimals, followed by aggregation of FGRs into the CO chondrite parent-body.

  9. Laboratory Experiments on Rotation of Micron Size Cosmic Dust Grains with Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Gallagher, D. L.; West, E.; Weingartner, J.; Witherow, W. K.

    2004-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains have been of great interest in astrophysics ever since the surprising discovery of the polarization of starlight more than half a century ago. Numerous theories, detailed mathematical models and numerical studies of grain rotation and alignment along the Galactic magnetic field have been presented in the literature. In particular, the subject of grain rotation and alignment by radiative torques has been shown to be of particular interest in recent years. However, despite many investigations, a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the processes involved in grain rotation and alignment has not been achieved. As there appears to be no experimental data available on this subject, we have carried out some unique experiments to illuminate the processes involved in rotation of dust grains in the interstellar medium. In this paper we present the results of some preliminary laboratory experiments on the rotation of individual micron/submicron size nonspherical dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance evacuated to pressures of approx. 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) torr. The particles are illuminated by laser light at 5320 A, and the grain rotation rates are obtained by analyzing the low frequency (approx. 0-100 kHz) signal of the scattered light detected by a photodiode detector. The rotation rates are compared with simple theoretical models to retrieve some basic rotational parameters. The results are examined in the light of the current theories of alignment.

  10. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: EVIDENCE FOR DUST GRAIN EVOLUTION IN PERSEUS STAR-FORMING CLUMPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Francesco, J. Di; Johnstone, D.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Sadavoy, S. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Hatchell, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Mottram, J. C.; Hogerheijde, M. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kirk, H. [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Buckle, J.; Salji, C. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Berry, D. S.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, HI-96720 (United States); Fich, M.; Tisi, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Nutter, D.; Quinn, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Pattle, K. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Pineda, J. E. [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching (Germany); and others

    2016-07-20

    The dust emissivity spectral index, β , is a critical parameter for deriving the mass and temperature of star-forming structures and, consequently, their gravitational stability. The β value is dependent on various dust grain properties, such as size, porosity, and surface composition, and is expected to vary as dust grains evolve. Here we present β , dust temperature, and optical depth maps of the star-forming clumps in the Perseus Molecular Cloud determined from fitting spectral energy distributions to combined Herschel and JCMT observations in the 160, 250, 350, 500, and 850 μ m bands. Most of the derived β and dust temperature values fall within the ranges of 1.0–2.7 and 8–20 K, respectively. In Perseus, we find the β distribution differs significantly from clump to clump, indicative of grain growth. Furthermore, we also see significant localized β variations within individual clumps and find low- β regions correlate with local temperature peaks, hinting at the possible origins of low- β grains. Throughout Perseus, we also see indications of heating from B stars and embedded protostars, as well evidence of outflows shaping the local landscape.

  11. Phototelectric Emission Measurements on the Analogs of Individual Cosmic Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.; Weingartner, J. C.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Nuth, J. A.; Camata, R. P.; hide

    2005-01-01

    The photoelectric emission process is considered to be the dominant mechanism for charging of cosmic dust grains in many astrophysical environments. The grain charge and the equilibrium potentials play an important role in the dynamical and physical processes that include heating of the neutral gas in the interstellar medium, coagulation processes in the dust clouds, and levitation and dynamical processes in the interplanetary medium and planetary surfaces and rings. An accurate evaluation of photoelectric emission processes requires knowledge of the photoelectric yields of individual dust grains of astrophysical composition as opposed to the values obtained from measurements on flat surfaces of bulk materials, as it is generally assumed on theoretical considerations that the yields for the small grains are much higher than the bulk values. We present laboratory measurements of the photoelectric yields of individual dust grains of silica, olivine, and graphite of approximately 0.09 to 8 microns radii levitated in an electrodynamic balance and illuminated with W radiation at 120 to 160 nm wavelengths. The measured values and the size dependence of the yields are found to be substantially different from the bulk values given in the literature.

  12. Infrared observations of an outburst of small dust grains from the nucleus of Comet P/Halley 1986 III at perihelion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Johnson, C. H.; Magnuson, S. D.; Ney, E. P.; Hayward, T. L.

    1995-01-01

    A close examination of the 0.7- to 23-micron infrared data base acquired by Gehrz and Ney (1992), suggests that the nucleus of Comet P/Halley 1986 III emitted a burst of small dust grains during a 3-day period commencing within hours of perihelion passage on 1986 February 9.46 UT. The outburst was characterized by significant increases in the coma's grain color temperature T(sub obs), temperature excess (superheat: S = T(sub obs)/T(sub BB)), infrared luminosity, albedo, and 10-micron silicate emission feature strength. These changes are all consistent with the sudden ejection from the nucleus of a cloud of grains with radii of approximately 0.5 micron. This outburst may have produced the dust that was responsible for some of the tail streamers photographed on 1986 February 22 UT. The peak of the dust outburst occurred about 3 days before a pronounced increase in the water production rate measured by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer. We suggest that jets that release large quantities of small particles may be largely responsible for some of the variable infrared behavior that has been reported for P/Halley and other comets during the past two decades. Such jets may also account for some of the differences IR Type I and IR Type II comets.

  13. Large dust grains in the wind of VY Canis Majoris

    OpenAIRE

    Scicluna, P.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Wesson, R.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L; Kasper, M.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Wolf, S.

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars live short lives, losing large amounts of mass through their stellar wind. Their mass is a key factor determining how and when they explode as supernovae, enriching the interstellar medium with heavy elements and dust. During the red supergiant phase, mass-loss rates increase prodigiously, but the driving mechanism has proven elusive. Here we present high-contrast optical polarimetric-imaging observations of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris and its clumpy, dusty, mass...

  14. Toxigenic Fusarium spp. as determinants of trichothecene mycotoxins in settled grain dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner; Elen, Oleif; Clasen, Per-Erik; Eduard, Wijnand

    2006-12-01

    Trichothecenes are immunosuppressive mycotoxins produced mainly by Fusarium spp. and often are detected as natural contaminants of grain and other agricultural products. Exposure to trichothecenes through inhalation during grain work may represent possible health risks for grain farmers. We aimed, therefore, to investigate the level of Fusarium spp. and trichothecenes in settled grain dust collected during work on 92 Norwegian farms. Mycotoxins were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, whereas the Fusarium spp. were identified and quantified both by species-specific semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by cultivation. All potential trichothecene-producing molds in the grain dust were quantified using a PCR assay specific for tri5, the gene coding for trichodiene synthase that catalyzes the first step in the trichothecene biosynthesis. We performed correlation analysis between mold-DNA and mycotoxins to assess whether the PCR-detected DNA could be used as indicators of the mycotoxins. The methodological problem of detecting small amounts of airborne mycotoxins during grain work may then be avoided. Whereas the trichothecene-producing Fusarium species in grain dust could not be identified or quantified to a sufficient extent by cultivation, all investigated Fusarium spp. could be specifically detected by PCR and quantified from the DNA agarose gel band intensities. Furthermore, we observed a strong correlation between the trichothecenes HT-2 toxin (HT-2) or T-2 toxin (T-2) and DNA specific for tri5 (r = 0.68 for HT-2 and r = 0.50 for T-2; p grain dust during work, but the use of Fusarium-DNA as indicators for trichothecenes should be used cautiously.

  15. Laboratory Experiments on Rotation and Alignment of the Analogs of Interstellar Dust Grains by Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Gallagher, D. L.; West, E. A.; Weingartner, J. C.; Witherow, W. K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2004-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains have been of great interest in astrophysics ever since the surprising discovery of the polarization of starlight more than half a century ago. Numerous theories, detailed mathematical models, and numerical studies of grain rotation and alignment with respect to the Galactic magnetic field have been presented in the literature. In particular, the subject of grain rotation and alignment by radiative torques has been shown to be of particular interest in recent years. However, despite many investigations, a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the processes involved in subject, we have carried out some unique experiments to illuminate the processes involved in the rotation of dust grains in the interstellar medium. In this paper we present the results of some preliminary laboratory experiments on the rotation of individual micron/submicron-sized, nonspherical dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance evacuated to pressures of approximately 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) torr. The particles are illuminated by laser light at 5320 A, and the grain rotation rates are obtained by analyzing the low-frequency (approximately 0 - 100 kHz) signal of the scattered light detected by a photodiode detector. The rotation rates are compared with simple theoretical models to retrieve some basic rotational parameters. The results are examined in light of the current theories of alignment.

  16. Formation of Hydroxylamine on Dust Grains via Ammonia Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiao; Vidali, Gianfranco; Lemaire, Jean-Louis; Garrod, Robin T.

    2015-01-01

    The quest to detect prebiotic molecules in space, notably amino acids, requires an understanding of the chemistry involving nitrogen atoms. Hydroxylamine (NH2OH) is considered a precursor to the amino acid glycine. Although not yet detected, NH2OH is considered a likely target of detection with ALMA. We report on an experimental investigation of the formation of hydroxylamine on an amorphous silicate surface via the oxidation of ammonia. The experimental data are then fed into a simulation of the formation of NH2OH in dense cloud conditions. On ices at 14 K and with a modest activation energy barrier, NH2OH is found to be formed with an abundance that never falls below a factor 10 with respect to NH3. Suggestions of conditions for future observations are provided.

  17. FORMATION OF HYDROXYLAMINE ON DUST GRAINS VIA AMMONIA OXIDATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiao; Vidali, Gianfranco [Physics Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Lemaire, Jean-Louis [Paris Observatory, F-75014 Paris (France); Garrod, Robin T., E-mail: gvidali@syr.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    The quest to detect prebiotic molecules in space, notably amino acids, requires an understanding of the chemistry involving nitrogen atoms. Hydroxylamine (NH{sub 2}OH) is considered a precursor to the amino acid glycine. Although not yet detected, NH{sub 2}OH is considered a likely target of detection with ALMA. We report on an experimental investigation of the formation of hydroxylamine on an amorphous silicate surface via the oxidation of ammonia. The experimental data are then fed into a simulation of the formation of NH{sub 2}OH in dense cloud conditions. On ices at 14 K and with a modest activation energy barrier, NH{sub 2}OH is found to be formed with an abundance that never falls below a factor 10 with respect to NH{sub 3}. Suggestions of conditions for future observations are provided.

  18. Dust grain dynamics due to nonuniform and nonstationary high-frequency radiations in cold magnetoplasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Nekrasov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A general nonlinear theory for low-frequency electromagnetic field generation due to high-frequency nonuniform and nonstationary electromagnetic radiations in cold, uniform, multicomponent, dusty magnetoplasmas is developed. This theory permits us to consider the nonlinear action of all waves that can exist in such plasmas. The equations are derived for the dust grain velocities in the low-frequency nonlinear electric fields arising due to the presence of electromagnetic cyclotron waves travelling along the background magnetic field. The dust grains are considered to be magnetized as well as unmagnetized. Different regimes for the dust particle dynamics, depending on the spatio-temporal change of the wave amplitudes and plasma parameters, are discussed. It is shown that induced nonlinear electric fields can have both an electrostatic and electromagnetic nature. Conditions for maximum dust acceleration are found. The results obtained may be useful for understanding the possible mechanisms of dust grain dynamics in astrophysical, cosmic and laboratory plasmas under the action of nonuniform and nonstationary electromagnetic waves.

  19. Neutrophilic respiratory tract inflammation and peripheral blood neutrophilia after grain sorghum dust extract challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, S G; O'Neill, D P; McGranaghan, S; Olenchock, S A; Rennard, S I

    1995-11-01

    To determine if inhalation of grain sorghum dust in the laboratory would cause neutrophilic upper and lower respiratory tract inflammation in human volunteers, as well as systemic signs of illness. Prospective. University of Nebraska Medical Center. Thirty normal volunteers. Inhalation challenge with 20 mL of a nebulized solution of filter-sterilized grain sorghum dust extract (GSDE). One group received prednisone, 20 mg for 2 days, prior to the challenge. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 24 h after challenge, with samples collected as bronchial and alveolar fractions. Findings included visible signs of airways inflammation, quantified as the bronchitis index. The percentage of bronchial neutrophils was significantly increased in those challenged with GSDE vs the control solution, Hanks' balanced salt solution (40.3 +/- 4.5% vs 14.3 +/- 5.1%, p grain dust extract. To explain the increase in peripheral blood neutrophil counts, the capacity of the peripheral blood neutrophils to migrate in chemotaxis experiments was examined. The results demonstrate an increase in peripheral blood neutrophils and an increase in chemotactic responsiveness. Inhalation challenge with a grain dust extract causes respiratory tract inflammation and a peripheral blood neutrophilia. One reason for this may be an increase in activated peripheral blood neutrophils.

  20. H2O grain size and the amount of dust in Mars' residual North polar cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    In Mars' north polar cap the probable composition of material residual from the annual condensation cycle is a mixture of fine dust and H2O grains of comparable size and abundance. However, metamorphism of such material will gradually lower its albedo by increasing the size of the H2O grains only. If the cap is undergoing net annual sublimation (as inferred from water vapor observations), late summer observations should be of old ice with H2O grain sizes of 100 ??m or more. Ice of this granularity containing 30% fine dust has a reflectivity similar to that of dust alone; the observed albedo and computed ice grain size imply dust concentrations of 1 part per 1000 or less. The brightness of the icy areas conflicts with what would be expected for a residual cap deposited by an annual cycle similar to that observed by Viking and aged for thousands of years. The residual cap surface cannot be "old dirty' ice. It could be old, coarse, and clean; or it could be young, fine, and dirty. This brings into question both the source of the late summer water vapor and the formation rate of laminated terrain. -Author

  1. [The status of the body protective systems in children in atmospheric pollution by grain dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhambetova, L Kh; Petrova, I V; Pinigin, M A; Leshchenko, G M; Shekhter, O V; Safiulin, A A; Astakhova, L F

    1998-01-01

    The use of noninvasive methods has revealed changes in the detoxification and immune systems in children exposed to grain dust-polluted ambient air. Impaired detoxification and immunity may be considered to be a manifestation of the common pathological mechanism responsible for reduced resistance to adverse factors and they lead to the increased risk of nonspecific infectious processes and allergy in the population.

  2. Effect of Ion Streaming on Diffusion of Dust Grains in Dissipative System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, M.; Das, N.

    2018-01-01

    The presence of strong electric fields in the sheath region of laboratory complex plasma induces an ion drift and perturbs the field around dust grains. The downstream focusing of ions leads to the formation of oscillatory kind of attractive wake potential which superimpose with the normal Debye-Hückel (DH) potential. The structural properties of complex plasma and diffusion coefficient of dust grains in the presence of such a wake potential have been investigated using Langevin dynamics simulation in the subsonic regime of ion flow. The study reveals that the diffusion of dust grains is strongly affected by the ion flow, so that the diffusion changes its character in the wake potential to the DH potential dominant regimes. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the parameters, such as the neutral pressure, dust grain size, ion flow velocity, and Coulomb coupling parameter, have been calculated for the subsonic regime by using the Green-Kubo expression, which is based on the integrated velocity autocorrelation function. It is found that the diffusion and the structural property of the system is intimately connected with the interaction potential and significantly get affected in the presence of ion flow in the subsonic regime.

  3. Laboratory Studies of the Optical Properties and Condensation Processes of Cosmic Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; West, E.; Sheldon, R.; Witherow, W. K.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory facility for conducting a variety of experiments on single isolated dust particles of astrophysical interest levitated in an electrodynamics balance has been developed at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. The objective of the research is to employ this experimental technique for studies of the physical and optical properties of individual cosmic dust grains of 0.1-100 micron size in controlled pressure/temperatures environments simulating astrophysical conditions. The physical and optical properties of the analogs of interstellar and interplanetary dust grains of known composition and size distribution will be investigated by this facility. In particular, we will carry out three classes of experiments to study the micro-physics of cosmic dust grains. (1) Charge characteristics of micron size single dust grains to determine the photoelectric efficiencies, yields, and equilibrium potentials when exposed to UV radiation. (2) Infrared optical properties of dust particles (extinction coefficients and scattering phase functions) in the 1-30 micron region using infrared diode lasers and measuring the scattered radiation. (3) Condensation experiments to investigate the condensation of volatile gases on colder nucleated particles in dense interstellar clouds and lower planetary atmospheres. The condensation experiments will involve levitated nucleus dust grains of known composition and initial mass (or m/q ratio), cooled to a temperature and pressure (or scaled pressure) simulating the astrophysical conditions, and injection of a volatile gas at a higher temperature from a controlled port. The increase in the mass due to condensation on the particle will be monitored as a function of the dust particle temperature and the partial pressure of the injected volatile gas. The measured data will permit determination of the sticking coefficients of volatile gases and growth rates of dust particles of astrophysical interest. Some preliminary results based on

  4. PHOTOELECTRIC CHARGING OF DUST GRAINS IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Andreas; Gomez de Castro, Ana I.

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of disks around young stellar objects (YSOs) is deeply affected by the YSOs' ultraviolet (UV) radiation field especially in the 500-1100 A spectral range. The two dominant processes are: the photodissociation of H 2 molecules in the Werner and Lyman bands, and the emission of photoelectrons from dust grains when high energy photons are absorbed. Photoelectrons are an important source of gas heating. In this paper, dust grain charging when exposed to various possible UV fields in the YSOs' environment is investigated. Numerical simulations of the evolution of photoelectrons in the electric field created by the charged dust grains are carried out to obtain the charging profile of dust grains. From the simulations it appears that the different spectra produce significant quantitative and qualitative differences in the charging processes. Both the UV background and the Ae-Herbig star radiation field produce a relatively slow charging of dust grains due to the low fraction of sufficiently energetic photons. The radiation field of T Tauri stars (TTSs) is harder due to the release of magnetic energy in the dense magnetospheric environment. These numerical results have been used to propose a new simple analytical model for grain charging in the atmosphere of protostellar disks around TTSs susceptible to be used in any disk modeling. It has been found that the yield decreases exponentially with the dust charge and that two populations of photoelectrons are produced: a low energy population with mean kinetic energy E = 2.5 eV and a high energy population with E = 5.5-6 eV; the energy dispersion within the populations is ∼1.3 eV (T ∼ 1.5 x 10 4 K). The high energy population is susceptible of dissociating the H 2 and ionizing some low ionization potential species, such as the Mg. These results add an additional role to dust on the chemistry of the layers just below the H 2 photoionization front. This photoelectic yield has been applied to a simple evaluation

  5. Growth and sedimentation of dust grains in the primitive solar nebular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, A.

    1987-01-01

    Formation of the planets in the solar system is envisioned to occur via a gravitational instability in a thin layer of dust located at the midplane of the primitive solar nebula. The break-up of the dust layer gives rise to seed plants (planetesimals) that, through successive collisions, eventually form the present-day planets. This thesis addresses the problem of the formation of the dust layer, beginning with a configuration in which the dust particles are uniformly mixed with the nebula's turbulent gas. To describe the properties of turbulence in the primitive solar nebula, models by Canuto et al. (1987) and by Cabot et al. (1987) are used. The available results concerning calculation of the velocity of particles embedded in a turbulent fluid were found to be unsatisfactory; therefore, a new formalism was developed to express the latter quantity in terms of the properties of the turbulence in the fluid. Following the space-time evolution of the grains, formalism was developed that simulates the simultaneous processes of collisions and sedimentation of the dust grains in the primitive solar nebula. It is concluded that, for the model of the primitive solar nebula considered, the formation of a dust layer at midplane is very unlikely

  6. Grain Size Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Metals in Outdoor Dust in Chengdu, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengqin; Pi, Lu; Luo, Yan; Geng, Meng; Hu, Wenli; Li, Zhi; Su, Shijun; Gan, Zhiwei; Ding, Sanglan

    2016-04-01

    A total of 27 outdoor dust samples from roads, parks, and high spots were collected and analyzed to investigate the contamination of 11 metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb) in Chengdu, China. The results showed that the samples from the high spots exhibited the highest heavy metal level compared with those from the roads and the parks, except for Ni, Cu, and Pb. The dust was classified into five grain size fractions. The mean loads of each grain size fraction of 11 determined metals displayed similar distribution, and the contribution of median size (63-125, 125-250, 250-500 μm) fractions accounted for more than 70% of overall heavy metal loads. The health risk posed by the determined metals to human via dust ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation was investigated. Oral and respiratory bioaccessible parts of the metals in dust were extracted using simulated stomach solution and composite lung serum. The mean bioaccessibilities of 11 investigated metals in the gastric solution were much higher than those in the composite lung serum, especially Zn, Cd, and Pb. Ingestion was the most important exposure pathway with percentage greater than 70% for both children and adults. Risk evaluation results illustrated that children in Chengdu might suffer noncarcinogenic risk when exposed to outdoor dust. Given that the cancer risk values of Pb and Cr larger than 1 × 10(-4), potential carcinogenic risk might occur for Chengdu residents through outdoor dust intake.

  7. Comparison of dust related respiratory effects in Dutch and Canadian grain handling industries: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelen, S J; Heederik, D; Dimich-Ward, H D; Chan-Yeung, M; Kennedy, S M

    1996-08-01

    Four previously conducted epidemiological studies in more than 1200 grain workers were used to compare exposure-response relations between exposure to grain dust and respiratory health. The studies included Dutch workers from an animal feed mill and a transfer grain elevator and Canadian workers from a terminal grain elevator and the docks. Relations between forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and exposure were analysed with multiple regression analysis corrected for smoking, age, and height. Exposure variables examined included cumulative and current dust exposure and the numbers of years a subject was employed in the industry. Sampling efficiencies of the Dutch and Canadian measurement techniques were compared in a pilot study. Results of this study were used to correct slopes of exposure-response relations for differences in dust fractions sampled by Dutch and Canadian personal dust samplers. Negative exposure-response relations were shown for regressions of FEV1 on cumulative and current exposure and years employed. Slopes of the exposure-response relations differed by a factor of three to five between industries, apart from results for cumulative exposure. Here the variation in slopes differed by a factor of 100, from -1 to -0.009 ml/mg.y/m3. The variation in slopes between industries reduced to between twofold to fivefold when the Dutch transfer elevator workers were not considered. There was evidence that the small exposure-response slope found for this group is caused by misclassification of exposure and a strong healthy worker effect. Alternative, but less likely explanations for the variation in slopes were differences in exposure concentrations, composition of grain dust, exposure characteristics, and measurement techniques. In conclusion, this study showed moderately similar negative exposure-response relations for four different populations from different countries, despite differences in methods of exposure assessment and exposure estimation.

  8. Airborne and Grain Dust Fungal Community Compositions Are Shaped Regionally by Plant Genotypes and Farming Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellissier, Loïc; Oppliger, Anne; Hirzel, Alexandre H; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Mbayo, Guilain; Mascher, Fabio; Kellenberger, Stefan; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène

    2016-01-29

    Chronic exposure to airborne fungi has been associated with different respiratory symptoms and pathologies in occupational populations, such as grain workers. However, the homogeneity in the fungal species composition of these bioaerosols on a large geographical scale and the different drivers that shape these fungal communities remain unclear. In this study, the diversity of fungi in grain dust and in the aerosols released during harvesting was determined across 96 sites at a geographical scale of 560 km(2) along an elevation gradient of 500 m by tag-encoded 454 pyrosequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Associations between the structure of fungal communities in the grain dust and different abiotic (farming system, soil characteristics, and geographic and climatic parameters) and biotic (wheat cultivar and previous crop culture) factors were explored. These analyses revealed a strong relationship between the airborne and grain dust fungal communities and showed the presence of allergenic and mycotoxigenic species in most samples, which highlights the potential contribution of these fungal species to work-related respiratory symptoms of grain workers. The farming system was the major driver of the alpha and beta phylogenetic diversity values of fungal communities. In addition, elevation and soil CaCO3 concentrations shaped the alpha diversity, whereas wheat cultivar, cropping history, and the number of freezing days per year shaped the taxonomic beta diversity of these communities. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Airborne and Grain Dust Fungal Community Compositions Are Shaped Regionally by Plant Genotypes and Farming Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellissier, Loïc; Oppliger, Anne; Hirzel, Alexandre H.; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Mbayo, Guilain; Mascher, Fabio; Kellenberger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to airborne fungi has been associated with different respiratory symptoms and pathologies in occupational populations, such as grain workers. However, the homogeneity in the fungal species composition of these bioaerosols on a large geographical scale and the different drivers that shape these fungal communities remain unclear. In this study, the diversity of fungi in grain dust and in the aerosols released during harvesting was determined across 96 sites at a geographical scale of 560 km2 along an elevation gradient of 500 m by tag-encoded 454 pyrosequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Associations between the structure of fungal communities in the grain dust and different abiotic (farming system, soil characteristics, and geographic and climatic parameters) and biotic (wheat cultivar and previous crop culture) factors were explored. These analyses revealed a strong relationship between the airborne and grain dust fungal communities and showed the presence of allergenic and mycotoxigenic species in most samples, which highlights the potential contribution of these fungal species to work-related respiratory symptoms of grain workers. The farming system was the major driver of the alpha and beta phylogenetic diversity values of fungal communities. In addition, elevation and soil CaCO3 concentrations shaped the alpha diversity, whereas wheat cultivar, cropping history, and the number of freezing days per year shaped the taxonomic beta diversity of these communities. PMID:26826229

  10. Mid-Infrared Spectrum of the Zodiacal Emission: Detection of Crystalline Silicates in Interplanetary Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ootsubo, T.; Onaka, T.; Yamamura, I.; Ishihara, D.; Tanabe, T.; Roellig, T. L.

    2003-01-01

    Within a few astronomical units of the Sun the solar system is filled with interplanetary dust, which is believed to be dust of cometary and asteroidal origin. Spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission with moderate resolution provide key information on the composition and size distribution of the dust in the interplanetary space. They can be compared directly to laboratory measurements of candidate materials, meteorites, and dust particles collected in the stratosphere. Recently mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission have been made by two instruments on board the Infrared Space Observatory; the camera (ISOCAM) and the spectrophotometer (ISOPHOT-S). A broad excess emission feature in the 9-11 micron range is reported in the ISOCAM spectrum, whereas the ISOPHOT-S spectra in 6-12 microns can be well fitted by a blackbody radiation without spectral features.

  11. New results in the theory of dust grain alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugnon, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    Two complementary approaches are used in an attempt to propose an appropriate formulation of the solution to the problem of magnetic alignment of grains in the diffuse and/or the more denser clouds, whatever the mechanism of rotational excitation can be. The interest of such a unified formulation is mainly that the same theoretical expression for polarization can be used everywhere, allowing for easier comparisons between regions where the physical conditions are highly different. The first consists in applying a Monte-Carlo method to a limited number of representative cases, for which all the torques acting on the grain are taken into account: impulsive random torques due to direct collisions with gas atoms, to evaporation of atoms from the surface, and to exo-energetic recombinations forming hydrogen molecules, followed by violent ejections from peculiar sites; magnetic torques. Three characteristic times are associated with these torques: the collisional damping time, the time necessary to change completely the actual sites configuration narrowly bound to the correlation time of the suprathermal torque; and the magnetic damping time. The second approach starts from a heuristic point of view. It consists in a generalization of results (Cugnon, 1983; see also Purcell and Spitzer, 1971; Greenberg, 1978) obtained for thermal alignment to the suprathermal case. It appears indeed that in two extreme cases, the thermal formulation may be used after redefinition of involved times and temperatures.

  12. New results in the theory of dust grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cugnon, P.

    1989-01-01

    Two complementary approaches are used in an attempt to propose an appropriate formulation of the solution to the problem of magnetic alignment of grains in the diffuse and/or the more denser clouds, whatever the mechanism of rotational excitation can be. The interest of such a unified formulation is mainly that the same theoretical expression for polarization can be used everywhere, allowing for easier comparisons between regions where the physical conditions are highly different. The first consists in applying a Monte-Carlo method to a limited number of representative cases, for which all the torques acting on the grain are taken into account: impulsive random torques due to direct collisions with gas atoms, to evaporation of atoms from the surface, and to exo-energetic recombinations forming hydrogen molecules, followed by violent ejections from peculiar sites; magnetic torques. Three characteristic times are associated with these torques: the collisional damping time, the time necessary to change completely the actual sites configuration narrowly bound to the correlation time of the suprathermal torque; and the magnetic damping time. The second approach starts from a heuristic point of view. It consists in a generalization of results (Cugnon, 1983; see also Purcell and Spitzer, 1971; Greenberg, 1978) obtained for thermal alignment to the suprathermal case. It appears indeed that in two extreme cases, the thermal formulation may be used after redefinition of involved times and temperatures

  13. Connecting the Interstellar Gas and Dust Properties in Distant Galaxies Using Quasar Absorption Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Monique C.; Dwek, Eliahu; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam; Lackey, Kyle; Dwek, Eli; Beiranvand, Nassim; hide

    2016-01-01

    Gas and dust grains are fundamental components of the interstellar medium and significantly impact many of the physical processes driving galaxy evolution, such as star-formation, and the heating, cooling, and ionization of the interstellar material. Quasar absorption systems (QASs), which trace intervening galaxies along the sightlines to luminous quasars, provide a valuable tool to directly study the properties of the interstellar gas and dust in distant, normal galaxies. We have established the presence of silicate dust grains in at least some gas-rich QASs, and find that they exist at higher optical depths than expected for diffuse gas in the Milky Way. Differences in the absorption feature shapes additionally suggest variations in the silicate dust grain properties, such as in the level of grain crystallinity, from system-to-system. We present results from a study of the gas and dust properties of QASs with adequate archival IR data to probe the silicate dust grain properties. We discuss our measurements of the strengths of the 10 and 18 micron silicate dust absorption features in the QASs, and constraints on the grain properties (e.g., composition, shape, crystallinity) based on fitted silicate profile templates. We investigate correlations between silicate dust abundance, reddening, and gas metallicity, which will yield valuable insights into the history of star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies.

  14. TEMPERATURE SPECTRA OF INTERSTELLAR DUST GRAINS HEATED BY COSMIC RAYS. I. TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalvāns, Juris, E-mail: juris.kalvans@venta.lv [Engineering Research Institute “Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Center” of Ventspils University College, Inzenieru 101, Ventspils, LV-3601 (Latvia)

    2016-06-01

    Heating of whole interstellar dust grains by cosmic-ray (CR) particles affects the gas–grain chemistry in molecular clouds by promoting molecule desorption, diffusion, and chemical reactions on grain surfaces. The frequency of such heating, f{sub T}, s{sup −1}, determines how often a certain temperature T{sub CR}, K, is reached for grains hit by CR particles. This study aims to provide astrochemists with a comprehensive and updated data set on CR-induced whole-grain heating. We present calculations of f{sub T} and T{sub CR} spectra for bare olivine grains with radius a of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 μ m and such grains covered with ice mantles of thickness 0.1 a and 0.3 a . Grain shape and structure effects are considered, as well as 30 CR elemental constituents with an updated energy spectrum corresponding to a translucent cloud with A{sub V} = 2 mag. Energy deposition by CRs in grain material was calculated with the srim program. We report full T{sub CR} spectra for all nine grain types and consider initial grain temperatures of 10 K and 20 K. We also provide frequencies for a range of minimum T{sub CR} values. The calculated data set can be simply and flexibly implemented in astrochemical models. The results show that, in the case of translucent clouds, the currently adopted rate for heating of whole grains to temperatures in excess of 70 K is underestimated by approximately two orders of magnitude in astrochemical numerical simulations. Additionally, grains are heated by CRs to modest temperatures (20–30 K) with intervals of a few years, which reduces the possibility of ice chemical explosions.

  15. A Van der Pol-Mathieu equation for the dynamics of dust grain charge in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M; Kourakis, I; Moslehi-Fard, M; Shukla, P K

    2007-01-01

    The chaotic profile of dust grain dynamics associated with dust-acoustic oscillations in a dusty plasma is considered. The collective behaviour of the dust plasma component is described via a multi-fluid model, comprising Boltzmann distributed electrons and ions, as well as an equation of continuity possessing a source term for the dust grains, the dust momentum and Poisson's equations. A Van der Pol-Mathieu-type nonlinear ordinary differential equation for the dust grain density dynamics is derived. The dynamical system is cast into an autonomous form by employing an averaging method. Critical stability boundaries for a particular trivial solution of the governing equation with varying parameters are specified. The equation is analysed to determine the resonance region, and finally numerically solved by using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The presence of chaotic limit cycles is pointed out. (fast track communication)

  16. Constraints on Circumstellar Dust Grain Sizes from High Spatial Resolution Observations in the Thermal Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Danen, R. M.; Gwinn, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    We describe how high spatial resolution imaging of circumstellar dust at a wavelength of about 10 micron, combined with knowledge of the source spectral energy distribution, can yield useful information about the sizes of the individual dust grains responsible for the infrared emission. Much can be learned even when only upper limits to source size are available. In parallel with high-resolution single-telescope imaging that may resolve the more extended mid-infrared sources, we plan to apply these less direct techniques to interpretation of future observations from two-element optical interferometers, where quite general arguments may be made despite only crude imaging capability. Results to date indicate a tendency for circumstellar grain sizes to be rather large compared to the Mathis-Rumpl-Nordsieck size distribution traditionally thought to characterize dust in the general interstellar medium. This may mean that processing of grains after their initial formation and ejection from circumstellar atmospheres adjusts their size distribution to the ISM curve; further mid-infrared observations of grains in various environments would help to confirm this conjecture.

  17. Laboratory Measurements on Charging of Individual Micron-Size Apollo-11 Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Observations made during Apollo missions, as well as theoretical models indicate that the lunar surface and dust grains are electrostatically charged, levitated and transported. Lunar dust grains are charged by UV photoelectric emissions on the lunar dayside and by the impact of the solar wind electrons on the nightside. The knowledge of charging properties of individual lunar dust grains is important for developing appropriate theoretical models and mitigating strategies. Currently, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size size lunar dust grains in particular by low energy electron impact. However, experimental results based on extensive laboratory measurements on the charging of individual 0.2-13 micron size lunar dust grains by the secondary electron emissions (SEE) have been presented in a recent publication. The SEE process of charging of micron-size dust grains, however, is found to be very complex phenomena with strong particle size dependence. In this paper we present some examples of the complex nature of the SEE properties of positively charged individual lunar dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB), and show that they remain unaffected by the variation of the AC field employed in the above mentioned measurements.

  18. Dust exposure in workers from grain storage facilities in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zamora, María G; Medina-Escobar, Lourdes; Mora, Glend; Zock, Jan-Paul; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Mora, Ana M

    2017-08-01

    About 12 million workers are involved in the production of basic grains in Central America. However, few studies in the region have examined the occupational factors associated with inhalable dust exposure. (i) To assess the exposure to inhalable dust in workers from rice, maize, and wheat storage facilities in Costa Rica; (ii) to examine the occupational factors associated with this exposure; and (iii) to measure concentrations of respirable and thoracic particles in different areas of the storage facilities. We measured inhalable (dust concentrations in 176 personal samples collected from 136 workers of eight grain storage facilities in Costa Rica. We also measured respirable (dust particles in several areas of the storage facilities. Geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) inhalable dust concentrations were 2.0mg/m 3 and 7.8 (range=dust concentrations were associated with job category [GM for category/GM for administrative staff and other workers (95% CI)=4.4 (2.6, 7.2) for packing; 20.4 (12.3, 34.7) for dehulling; 109.6 (50.1, 234.4) for unloading in flat bed sheds; 24.0 (14.5, 39.8) for unloading in pits; and 31.6 (18.6, 52.5) for drying], and cleaning task [15.8 (95% CI: 10.0, 26.3) in workers who cleaned in addition to their regular tasks]. Higher area concentrations of thoracic dust particles were found in wheat (GM and GSD=4.3mg/m 3 and 4.5) and maize (3.0mg/m 3 and 3.9) storage facilities, and in grain drying (2.3mg/m 3 and 3.1) and unloading (1.5mg/m 3 and 4.8) areas. Operators of grain storage facilities showed elevated inhalable dust concentrations, mostly above international exposure limits. Better engineering and administrative controls are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecules and dust in Cassiopeia A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biscaro, Chiara; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    We study the dust evolution in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. We follow the processing of dust grains that formed in the Type II-b supernova ejecta by modelling the sputtering of grains. The dust is located in dense ejecta clumps that are crossed by the reverse shock. We also investigate......-rich clumps that correspond to the outermost carbon-rich ejecta zone. We consider the various dust components that form in the supernova, several reverse shock velocities and inter-clump gas temperatures, and derive grain-size distributions and masses for the dust as a function of time. Both non...... and size, and the shock velocity in the clump. A Type II-b SN forms small grains that are sputtered within the clumps and in the inter-clump medium. For Cas A, silicate grains do not survive thermal sputtering in the inter-clump medium, while alumina, silicon carbide, and carbon dust may survive...

  20. DELIVERY OF DUST GRAINS FROM COMET C/2013 A1 (SIDING SPRING) TO MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricarico, Pasquale; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Sykes, Mark V.; Li, Jian-Yang; Farnham, Tony L.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnocchia, Davide; Stevenson, Rachel; Bauer, James M.; Lock, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will have a close encounter with Mars on 2014 October 19. We model the dynamical evolution of dust grains from the time of their ejection from the comet nucleus to the close encounter with Mars, and determine the flux at Mars. Constraints on the ejection velocity from Hubble Space Telescope observations indicate that the bulk of the grains will likely miss Mars, although it is possible that a few percent of the grains with higher velocities will reach Mars, peaking approximately 90-100 minutes after the close approach of the nucleus, and consisting mostly of millimeter-radius grains ejected from the comet nucleus at a heliocentric distance of approximately 9 AU or larger. At higher velocities, younger grains from submillimeter to several millimeters can also reach Mars, although an even smaller fraction of grains is expected have these velocities, with negligible effect on the peak timing. Using NEOWISE observations of the comet, we can estimate that the maximum fluence will be of the order of 10 –7 grains m –2 . We include a detailed analysis of how the expected fluence depends on the grain density, ejection velocity, and size-frequency distribution, to account for current model uncertainties and in preparation of possible refined model values in the near future

  1. Origins of GEMS Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the

  2. Measuring the Dust Grains and Distance to X Persei Via Its X-ray Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall

    2006-09-01

    We propose to observe the X-ray halo of the high mass X-ray binary pulsar X Per to measure interstellar dust grains along the line of sight (LOS) and to determine the distance to X Per. The X-ray halo is formed by scattering from grains along the LOS, which for X Per appear to be concentrated in one molecular cloud. Unlike many other X-ray halo observations, this low-absorption high-latitude sightline is well-characterized from absorption spectroscopy done with HST, Copernicus, and FUSE. This halo observation will measure the distance to the cloud and the dust size distribution in it. We will also be able to determine the distance to X Per by measuring the time delayed pulses in the X-ray halo.

  3. Atomic-scale simulation of dust grain collisions: Surface chemistry and dissipation beyond existing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadery, Abrar H.; Doan, Baochi D.; Tucker, William C.; Dove, Adrienne R.; Schelling, Patrick K.

    2017-10-01

    The early stages of planet formation involve steps where submicron-sized dust particles collide to form aggregates. However, the mechanism through which millimeter-sized particles aggregate to kilometer-sized planetesimals is still not understood. Dust grain collision experiments carried out in the environment of the Earth lead to the prediction of a 'bouncing barrier' at millimeter-sizes. Theoretical models, e.g., Johnson-Kendall-Roberts and Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov theories, lack two key features, namely the chemistry of dust grain surfaces, and a mechanism for atomic-scale dissipation of energy. Moreover, interaction strengths in these models are parameterized based on experiments done in the Earth's environment. To address these issues, we performed atomic-scale simulations of collisions between nonhydroxylated and hydroxylated amorphous silica nanoparticles. We used the ReaxFF approach which enables modeling chemical reactions using an empirical potential. We found that nonhydroxylated nanograins tend to adhere with much higher probability than suggested by existing theories. By contrast, hydroxylated nanograins exhibit a strong tendency to bounce. Also, the interaction between dust grains has the characteristics of a strong chemical force instead of weak van der Waals forces. This suggests that the formation of strong chemical bonds and dissipation via internal atomic vibration may result in aggregation beyond what is expected based on our current understanding. Our results also indicate that experiments should more carefully consider surface conditions to mimic the space environment. We also report results of simulations with molten silica nanoparticles. It is found that molten particles are more likely to adhere due to viscous dissipation, which supports theories that suggest aggregation to kilometer scales might require grains to be in a molten state.

  4. A grain of sand or a handful of dust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Fabian

    2013-03-01

    The recent paper by Girod et al (2013) analyses the implications of stringent global GHG mitigation targets for the intensities of, inter alia , broad consumption categories like food, shelter and transport. This type of scenario modeling analysis and inverse reasoning helps us to better understand the potential or required contribution of changes in consumption patterns to mitigation. This is welcome because while there is a growing literature on the behavioral and consumption dimensions of mitigation, there is still no widely accepted framework for studying systematically the interactions between supply and demand, behavior and technology, production and consumption. So we are left with the question: what do we need to do exactly to stabilize GHG concentrations? Intuitively, we take our cue from Aristotelian logic: if A implies B, then in order to avoid B we had better prevent A. At this level it is clear that we need either to decarbonize our energy systems to start with, or to suck out CO2 from the atmosphere. When multiple causes are at work, however, our neat Aristotelian picture is no longer appropriate (Cartwright 2003). Leaving capturing and storage aside, we need to decarbonize our systems, but we also need to reduce the energy intensity, change our personal habits, eat less meat, use more public transportation, etc. What is the right balance between these factors? Can we do just one thing, say, eat less meat, but not another, and still achieve some pretty ambitious mitigation goals? In other words, what are necessary and what are sufficient sets of measures to reach these goals? Let us first look at the question of necessary measures. This gets tricky when applied to individual consumers: it is somewhat akin to the notorious question whether a heap of sand is still a heap when you take away one grain (Sainsbury 2011). If you are inclined to say yes, think once more. What happens when you take away another one, and another one, and another one, and so

  5. Fluctuations of the charge on a dust grain in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, C.; Goree, J.

    1994-01-01

    A dust grain in a plasma acquires an electric charge by collecting electron and ion currents. These currents consist of discrete charges, causing the charge to fluctuate around an equilibrium value (Q). Electrons and ions are collected at random intervals and in a random sequence, with probabilities that depend on the grain's potential. The authors developed a model for these probabilities and implemented it in a numerical simulation of the collection of individual ions and electrons, yielding a time series Q(t) for the grain's charge. Electron emission from the grain is not included, although it could be added easily to the method. They obtained the power spectrum and the rms fluctuation level, as well as the distribution function of the charge. Most of the power in the spectrum lies at frequencies much lower than 1/τ, the inverse charging time. The rms fractional fluctuation level varies as 0.5 |left-angle N right-angle | -1/2 , where left-angle N right-angle = left-angle Q right-angle/e is the average number of electron charges on the grain. This inverse square-root scaling means that fluctuations are most important for small grains. They also show that very small grains can experience fluctuations to neutral and positive polarities, even in the absence of electron emission

  6. Experimental human exposure to inhaled grain dust and ammonia: towards a model of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur T; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T; Watt, Janet A; Kline, Joel N

    2004-10-01

    Ammonia and endotoxin-rich dust are present in high concentrations in swine confinement facilities; exposure to this environment is linked to workers' respiratory problems. We hypothesized that experimental exposure to ammonia and dust would impair pulmonary function, and that these exposures would be synergistic. We exposed six normal subjects and eight subjects with mild asthma to ammonia (16-25 ppm) and/or endotoxin-rich grain dust (4 mg/m3). Pulmonary function and exhaled NOx were measured before and after exposure. There was no significant change in pulmonary function in the normal subjects following any of the exposure conditions. Among asthmatics, a significant transient decrease in FEV1 was induced by grain dust, but was not altered by ammonia; increased bronchial hyperreactivity was also noted in this group. In a vulnerable population, exposure to grain dust results in transient airflow obstruction. Short-term exposure to ammonia does not increase this response.

  7. Charge and potential of a dust grain versus the intergrain distance and establishment of the latter in a low-pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sysun, A. V.; Sysun, V. I.; Khakhaev, A. D.; Shelestov, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    Results from experimental studies of ordered dust structures in plasma are reviewed. The experimental conditions and the data on the grain size and intergrain distance in plasma dust crystals are analyzed. It is shown that intergrain distance is a function of the grain size. The range of the ratio of the dust grain size to the Debye radius within which plasma dust crystals can form is determined. A volume cell surrounding a dust grain in plasma is considered. It is found that the potential and charge of the grain depend substantially on the intergrain distance. The charge, potential, and potential energy of a dust grain in a plasma dust crystal, as well as the electrostatic force exerted by the plasma field on the grain, are calculated by the method of molecular dynamics as functions of the intergrain distance. The corresponding analytic approximations and the criterion for the establishment of a steady-state intergrain distance are proposed.

  8. Onset of turbulence induced by electron nonthermality in a complex plasma in presence of positively charged dust grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Sarkar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper onset of turbulence has been detected from the study of non linear dust acoustic wave propagation in a complex plasma considering electrons nonthermal and equilibrium dust charge positive. Dust grains are charged by secondary electron emission process. Our analysis shows that increase in electron nonthermality makes the grain charging process faster by reducing the magnitude of the nonadiabaticity induced pseudo viscosity. Consequently nature of dust charge variation changes from nonadiabatic to adiabatic one. For further increase of electron nonthermality, this pseudo viscosity becomes negative and hence generates a turbulent grain charging behaviour. This turbulent grain charging phenomenon is exclusively the outcome of this nonlinear study which was not found in linear analysis.

  9. Wind-eroded silicate as a source of hydrogen peroxide on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Ebbe Norskov; Merrison, Jonathan P.; Jensen, Svend Knak

    -sists of silicates [4] that due to wind erosion has a very fine grained texture. Based on the composition of the surface material and investigations showing that crushing of silicates can give rise to reactive oxygen species [5], we hypothesized that wind erosion of silicates can explain the reactivity of Martian...... soil. Wind-erosion of silicate could thus be one of several causes of the soil’s reactivity. As our experiments show, the globally distributed wind eroded silicate dust can lead to the production of hydrogen peroxide which might explain the reactivity of the Martian soil. The reactivity of eroded...

  10. Planck early results. XX. New light on anomalous microwave emission from spinning dust grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, A.; Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.

    2011-01-01

    by a combination of free-free radiation, cosmic microwave background, thermal dust, and electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains. The spinning dust spectra are the most precisely measured to date, and show the high frequency side clearly for the first time. The spectra have a peak in the range 20......-40 GHz and are detected at high significances of 17.1σ for Perseus and 8.4σ for ρ Ophiuchi. In Perseus, spinning dust in the dense molecular gas can account for most of the AME; the low density atomic gas appears to play a minor role. In ρ Ophiuchi, the ~30 GHz peak is dominated by dense molecular gas......, but there is an indication of an extended tail at frequencies 50-100 GHz, which can be accounted for by irradiated low density atomic gas. The dust parameters are consistent with those derived from other measurements. We have also searched the Planck map at 28.5 GHz for candidate AME regions, by subtracting a simple model...

  11. Heavy metal speciation in various grain sizes of industrially contaminated street dust using multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Gülşen; Tokalıoğlu, Şerife

    2016-02-01

    A total of 36 street dust samples were collected from the streets of the Organised Industrial District in Kayseri, Turkey. This region includes a total of 818 work places in various industrial areas. The modified BCR (the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure was applied to evaluate the mobility and bioavailability of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in street dusts of the study area. The BCR was classified into three steps: water/acid soluble fraction, reducible and oxidisable fraction. The remaining residue was dissolved by using aqua regia. The concentrations of the metals in street dust samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Also the effect of the different grain sizes (dust samples on the mobility of the metals was investigated using the modified BCR procedure. The mobility sequence based on the sum of the first three phases (for grain size) was: Cd (71.3)>Cu (48.9)>Pb (42.8)=Cr (42.1)>Ni (41.4)>Zn (40.9)>Co (36.6)=Mn (36.3)>Fe (3.1). No significant difference was observed among metal partitioning for the three particle sizes. Correlation, principal component and cluster analysis were applied to identify probable natural and anthropogenic sources in the region. The principal component analysis results showed that this industrial district was influenced by traffic, industrial activities, air-borne emissions and natural sources. The accuracy of the results was checked by analysis of both the BCR-701 certified reference material and by recovery studies in street dust samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comet C2012 S1 (ISON): Observations of the Dust Grains From SOFIA and of the Atomic Gas From NSO Dunn and Mcmath-Pierce Solar Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Woodward, Charles E.; Harker, David E.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Sitko, Michael; Reach, William T.; De Pater, Imke; Gehrz, Robert D.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Cochran, Anita L.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) is unique in that it is a dynamically new comet derived from the Oort cloud reservoir of comets with a sun-grazing orbit. Infrared (IR) and visible wavelength observing campaigns were planned on NASA's Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and on National Solar Observatory Dunn (DST) and McMath-Pierce Solar Telescopes, respectively. We highlight our SOFIA (+FORCAST) mid- to far-IR images and spectroscopy (approx. 5-35 microns) of the dust in the coma of ISON are to be obtained by the ISON-SOFIA Team during a flight window 2013 Oct 21-23 UT (r_h approx. = 1.18 AU). Dust characteristics, identified through the 10 micron silicate emission feature and its strength, as well as spectral features from cometary crystalline silicates (Forsterite) at 11.05-11.2 microns, and near 16, 19, 23.5, 27.5, and 33 microns are compared with other Oort cloud comets that span the range of small and/or highly porous grains (e.g., C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) to large and/or compact grains (e.g., C/2007 N4 (Lulin) and C/2006 P1 (McNaught)). Measurement of the crystalline peaks in contrast to the broad 10 and 20 micron amorphous silicate features yields the cometary silicate crystalline mass fraction, which is a benchmark for radial transport in our protoplanetary disk. The central wavelength positions, relative intensities, and feature asymmetries for the crystalline peaks may constrain the shapes of the crystals. Only SOFIA can look for cometary organics in the 5-8 micron region. Spatially resolved measurements of atoms and simple molecules from when comet ISON is near the Sun (r_hmeasures 4 settings: Na I, K, C2 to sample cometary organics (along with Mg I), and [OI] as a proxy for activity from water (along with Si I and Fe I). State-of-the-art instruments that will also be employed include IBIS, which is a Fabry-Perot spectral imaging system that concurrently measures lines of Na, K, Ca II, or Fe, and ROSA (CSUN/QUB), which is a

  13. Development of a self-consistent model of dust grain charging at elevated pressures using the method of moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.V.; Dyatko, N.A.; Pal', A.F.; Starostin, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    A model of dust grain charging is constructed using the method of moments. The dust grain charging process in a weakly ionized helium plasma produced by a 100-keV electron beam at atmospheric pressure is studied theoretically. In simulations, the beam current density was varied from 1 to 10 6 μA/cm 2 . It is shown that, in a He plasma, dust grains of radius 5 μm and larger perturb the electron temperature only slightly, although the reduced electric field near the grain reaches 8 Td, the beam current density being 10 6 μA/cm 2 . It is found that, at distances from the grain that are up to several tens or hundreds of times larger than its radius, the electron and ion densities are lower than their equilibrium values. Conditions are determined under which the charging process may be described by a model with constant electron transport coefficients. The dust grain charge is shown to be weakly affected by secondary electron emission. In a beam-produced helium plasma, the dust grain potential calculated in the drift-diffusion model is shown to be close to that calculated in the orbit motion limited model. It is found that, in the vicinity of a body perturbing the plasma, there may be no quasineutral plasma presheath with an ambipolar diffusion of charged particles. The conditions for the onset of this presheath in a beam-produced plasma are determined

  14. Grain dust-induced lung inflammation is reduced by Rhodobacter sphaeroides diphosphoryl lipid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielo, P J; Quinn, T J; Qureshi, N; Schwartz, D A

    1998-01-01

    To further determine the importance of endotoxin in grain dust-induced inflammation of the lower respiratory tract, we evaluated the efficacy of pentaacylated diphosphoryl lipid A derived from the lipopolysaccharide of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RsDPLA) as a partial agonist of grain dust-induced airway inflammation. RsDPLA is a relatively inactive compound compared with lipid A derived from Escherichia coli (LPS) and has been demonstrated to act as a partial agonist of LPS-induced inflammation. To assess the potential stimulatory effect of RsDPLA in relation to LPS, we incubated THP-1 cells with RsDPLA (0.001-100 micrograms/ml), LPS (0.02 microgram endotoxin activity/ml), or corn dust extract (CDE; 0.02 microgram endotoxin activity/ml). Incubation with RsDPLA revealed a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha stimulatory effect at 100 micrograms/ml. In contrast, incubation with LPS or CDE resulted in TNF-alpha release at 0.02 microgram/ml. Pretreatment of THP-1 cells with varying concentrations of RsDPLA before incubation with LPS or CDE (0.02 microgram endotoxin activity/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the LPS- or CDE-induced release of TNF-alpha with concentrations of RsDPLA of up to 10 micrograms/ml but not at 100 micrograms/ml. To further understand the role of endotoxin in grain dust-induced airway inflammation, we utilized the unique LPS inhibitory property of RsDPLA to determine the inflammatory response to inhaled CDE in mice in the presence of RsDPLA. Ten micrograms of RsDPLA intratracheally did not cause a significant inflammatory response compared with intratracheal saline. However, pretreatment of mice with 10 micrograms of RsDPLA intratracheally before exposure to CDE (5.4 and 0.2 micrograms/m3) or LPS (7.2 and 0.28 micrograms/m3) resulted in significant reductions in the lung lavage concentrations of total cells, neutrophils, and specific proinflammatory cytokines compared with mice pretreated with sterile saline. These results confirm the LPS

  15. Physico-chemical characterization of grain dust in storage air of Bangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A K; Nag, D P; Kakde, Y; Babu, K R; Prdkash, M N; Rao, S R

    1998-06-01

    An Anderson personal cascade impactor was used to study the particle mass size distribution in the storage air of two major grain storage centers in Bangalore. Dust levels in storage air as well as the personal exposures of workers were determined along with a detailed study on the particle size distribution. Protein and carbohydrate content of the dust were also determined respectively in the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and water extracts by using the standard analytical techniques. Personal exposures in both of the grain storage centers have been found to be much above the limit prescribed by ACGIH (1995-96). But the results of particle size analysis showed a higher particle mass distribution in the non-respirable size range. The mass median diameters (MMD) of the storage air particulate of both the centers were found to be beyond the respirable range. Presence of protein and carbohydrate in the storage air dust is indicative of the existence of glyco-proteins, mostly of membrane origin.

  16. From Dust Grains to Planetesimals: The Importance of the Streaming Instability in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob B.; Armitage, Philip J.; Youdin, Andrew N.; Li, Rixin

    2016-01-01

    Planetesimals are the precursors to planets, and understanding their formation is an essential step towards developing a complete theory of planet formation. For small solid particles (e.g., dust grains) to coagulate into planetesimals, however, requires that these particles grow beyond centimeter sizes; with traditional coagulation physics, this is very difficult. The streaming instability, which is a clumping process akin to the pile-up of cars in a traffic jam, generates sufficiently high solid densities that the mutual gravity between the clumped particles eventually causes their collapse towards planetesimal mass and size scales. Exploring this transition from dust grains to planetesimals is still in its infancy but is extremely important if we want to understand the basics of planet formation. Here, I present a series of high resolution, first principles numerical simulations of protoplanetary disk gas and dust to study the clumping of particles via the streaming instability and the subsequent collapse towards planetesimals. These simulations have been employed to characterize the planetesimal population as a function of radius in protoplanetary disks. The results of these simulations will be crucial for planet formation models to correctly explain the formation and configuration of solar systems.

  17. [Effects of the grain size and thickness of dust deposits on soil water and salt movement in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Wei; Li, Sheng-Yu; Xu, Xin-Wen; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Li, Ying

    2009-08-01

    By using mcirolysimeter, a laboratory simulation experiment was conducted to study the effects of the grain size and thickness of dust deposits on the soil water evaporation and salt movement in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert. Under the same initial soil water content and deposition thickness condition, finer-textured (grain size of dust deposits on soil water evaporation had an inflection point at the grain size 0.20 mm, i. e., increased with increasing grain size when the grain size was 0.063-0.20 mm but decreased with increasing grain size when the grain size was > 0.20 mm. With the increasing thickness of dust deposits, its inhibition effect on soil water evaporation increased, and there existed a logarithmic relationship between the dust deposits thickness and water evaporation. Surface soil salt accumulation had a negative correlation with dust deposits thickness. In sum, the dust deposits in study area could affect the stability of arid desert ecosystem.

  18. Stochastic charging of dust grains in planetary rings: Diffusion rates and their effects on Lorentz resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, L.; Burns, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Dust grains in planetary rings acquire stochastically fluctuating electric charges as they orbit through any corotating magnetospheric plasma. Here we investigate the nature of this stochastic charging and calculate its effect on the Lorentz resonance (LR). First we model grain charging as a Markov process, where the transition probabilities are identified as the ensemble-averaged charging fluxes due to plasma pickup and photoemission. We determine the distribution function P(t;N), giving the probability that a grain has N excess charges at time t. The autocorrelation function tau(sub q) for the strochastic charge process can be approximated by a Fokker-Planck treatment of the evolution equations for P(t; N). We calculate the mean square response to the stochastic fluctuations in the Lorentz force. We find that transport in phase space is very small compared to the resonant increase in amplitudes due to the mean charge, over the timescale that the oscillator is resonantly pumped up. Therefore the stochastic charge variations cannot break the resonant interaction; locally, the Lorentz resonance is a robust mechanism for the shaping of etheral dust ring systems. Slightly stronger bounds on plasma parameters are required when we consider the longer transit times between Lorentz resonances.

  19. Downwind changes in grain size of aeolian dust; examples from marine and terrestrial archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuut, Jan-Berend; Prins, Maarten

    2013-04-01

    Aeolian dust in the atmosphere may have a cooling effect when small particles in the high atmosphere block incoming solar energy (e.g., Claquin et al., 2003) but it may also act as a 'greenhouse gas' when larger particles in the lower atmosphere trap energy that was reflected from the Earth's surface (e.g., Otto et al., 2007). Therefore, it is of vital importance to have a good understanding of the particle-size distribution of aeolian dust in space and time. As wind is a very size-selective transport mechanism, the sediments it carries typically have a very-well sorted grain-size distribution, which gradually fines from proximal to distal deposition sites. This fact has been used in numerous paleo-environmental studies to both determine source-to-sink changes in the particle size of aeolian dust (e.g., Weltje and Prins, 2003; Holz et al., 2004; Prins and Vriend, 2007) and to quantify mass-accumulation rates of aeolian dust (e.g., Prins and Weltje 1999; Stuut et al., 2002; Prins et al., 2007; Prins and Vriend, 2007; Stuut et al., 2007; Tjallingii et al., 2008; Prins et al., 2009). Studies on modern wind-blown particles have demonstrated that particle size of dust not only is a function of lateral but also vertical transport distance (e.g., Torres-Padron et al., 2002; Stuut et al., 2005). Nonetheless, there are still many unresolved questions related to the physical properties of wind-blown particles like e.g., the case of "giant" quartz particles found on Hawaii (Betzer et al., 1988) that can only originate from Asia but have a too large size for the distance they travelled through the atmosphere. Here, we present examples of dust particle-size distributions from terrestrial (loess) as well as marine (deep-sea sediments) sedimentary archives and their spatial and temporal changes. With this contribution we hope to provide quantitative data for the modelling community in order to get a better grip on the role of wind-blown particles in the climate system. Cited

  20. Effect of electron emission on the charge and shielding of a dust grain in a plasma: A continuum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yachkov, L. G.; Khrapak, A. G.; Khrapak, S. A.

    2008-01-01

    The continuum approximation is used to analyze the effect of electron emission from the surface of a spherical dust grain immersed in a plasma on the grain charge by assuming negligible ionization and recombination in the disturbed plasma region around the grain. A parameter is introduced that quantifies the emission intensity regardless of the emission mechanism (secondary, photoelectric, or thermionic emission). An analytical expression for the grain charge Z d is derived, and a criterion for change in the charge sign is obtained. The case of thermionic emission is examined in some detail. It is shown that the long-distance asymptotic behavior of the grain potential follows the Coulomb law with a negative effective charge Z eff , regardless of the sign of Z d . Thus, the potential changes sign and has a minimum if Z d > 0, which implies that attraction is possible between positively charged dust grains

  1. Developing ISM Dust Grain Models with Precision Elemental Abundances from IXO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencic, L. A.; Smith, R. K.; Juet, A.

    2009-01-01

    The exact nature of interstellar dust grains in the Galaxy remains mysterious, despite their ubiquity. Many viable models exist, based on available IR-UV data and assumed elemental abundances. However, the abundances, which are perhaps the most stringent constraint, are not well known: modelers must use proxies in the absence of direct measurements for the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). Recent revisions of these proxy values have only added to confusion over which is the best representative for the diffuse ISM, and highlighted the need for direct, high signal-to-noise measurements from the ISM itself. The International X-ray Observatory's superior facilities will enable high-precision elemental abundance measurements. We ill show how these results will measure both the overall ISM abundances and challenge dust models, allowing us to construct a more realistic picture of the ISM.

  2. Enforcing dust mass conservation in 3D simulations of tightly coupled grains with the PHANTOM SPH code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabio, G.; Dipierro, G.; Veronesi, B.; Lodato, G.; Hutchison, M.; Laibe, G.; Price, D. J.

    2018-06-01

    We describe a new implementation of the one-fluid method in the SPH code PHANTOM to simulate the dynamics of dust grains in gas protoplanetary discs. We revise and extend previously developed algorithms by computing the evolution of a new fluid quantity that produces a more accurate and numerically controlled evolution of the dust dynamics. Moreover, by limiting the stopping time of uncoupled grains that violate the assumptions of the terminal velocity approximation, we avoid fatal numerical errors in mass conservation. We test and validate our new algorithm by running 3D SPH simulations of a large range of disc models with tightly and marginally coupled grains.

  3. Interactions of Dust Grains with Coronal Mass Ejections and Solar Cycle Variations of the F-Coronal Brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragot, B. R.; Kahler, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    The density of interplanetary dust increases sunward to reach its maximum in the F corona, where its scattered white-light emission dominates that of the electron K corona above about 3 Solar Radius. The dust will interact with both the particles and fields of antisunward propagating coronal mass ejections (CMEs). To understand the effects of the CME/dust interactions we consider the dominant forces, with and without CMEs. acting on the dust in the 3-5 Solar Radius region. Dust grain orbits are then computed to compare the drift rates from 5 to 3 Solar Radius. for periods of minimum and maximum solar activity, where a simple CME model is adopted to distinguish between the two periods. The ion-drag force, even in the quiet solar wind, reduces the drift time by a significant factor from its value estimated with the Poynting-Robertson drag force alone. The ion-drag effects of CMEs result in even shorter drift times of the large (greater than or approx. 3 microns) dust grains. hence faster depletion rates and lower dust-pain densities, at solar maxima. If dominated by thermal emission, the near-infrared brightness will thus display solar cycle variations close to the dust plane of symmetry. While trapping the smallest of the grains, the CME magnetic fields also scatter the grains of intermediate size (0.1-3 microns) in latitude. If light scattering by small grains close to the Sun dominates the optical brightness. the scattering by the CME magnetic fields will result in a solar cycle variation of the optical brightness distribution not exceeding 100% at high latitudes, with a higher isotropy reached at solar maxima. A good degree of latitudinal isotropy is already reached at low solar activity since the magnetic fields of the quiet solar wind so close to the Sun are able to scatter the small (less than or approx. 3 microns) grains up to the polar regions in only a few days or less, producing strong perturbations of their trajectories in less than half their orbital

  4. The surface reactivity of acrylonitrile with oxygen atoms on an analogue of interstellar dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Helen J.; Toscano, Jutta; Price, Stephen D.

    2018-06-01

    Experiments designed to reveal the low-temperature reactivity on the surfaces of interstellar dust grains are used to probe the heterogeneous reaction between oxygen atoms and acrylonitrile (C2H3CN, H2C=CH-CN). The reaction is studied at a series of fixed surface temperatures between 14 and 100 K. After dosing the reactants on to the surface, temperature-programmed desorption, coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, reveals the formation of a product with the molecular formula C3H3NO. This product results from the addition of a single oxygen atom to the acrylonitrile reactant. The oxygen atom attack appears to occur exclusively at the C=C double bond, rather than involving the cyano(-CN) group. The absence of reactivity at the cyano site hints that full saturation of organic molecules on dust grains may not always occur in the interstellar medium. Modelling the experimental data provides a reaction probability of 0.007 ± 0.003 for a Langmuir-Hinshelwood style (diffusive) reaction mechanism. Desorption energies for acrylonitrile, oxygen atoms, and molecular oxygen, from the multilayer mixed ice their deposition forms, are also extracted from the kinetic model and are 22.7 ± 1.0 kJ mol-1 (2730 ± 120 K), 14.2 ± 1.0 kJ mol-1 (1710 ± 120 K), and 8.5 ± 0.8 kJ mol-1 (1020 ± 100 K), respectively. The kinetic parameters we extract from our experiments indicate that the reaction between atomic oxygen and acrylonitrile could occur on interstellar dust grains on an astrophysical time-scale.

  5. Dust Grains and the Luminosity of Circumnuclear Water Masers in Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Alan J.; Watson, William D.

    1995-01-01

    In previous calculations for the luminosities of 22 GHz water masers, the pumping is reduced and ultimately quenched with increasing depth into the gas because of trapping of the infrared (approximately equals 30-150 micrometers), spectral line radiation of the water molecule. When the absorption (and reemission) of infrared radiation by dust grains is included, we demonstrate that the pumping is no longer quenched but remains constant with increasing optical depth. A temperature difference between the grains and the gas is required. Such conditions are expected to occur, for example, in the circumnuclear masing environments created by X-rays in active galaxies. Here, the calculated 22 GHz maser luminosities are increased by more than an order of magnitude. Application to the well-studied, circumnuclear masing disk in the galaxy NGC 4258 yields a maser luminosity near that inferred from observations if the observed X-ray flux is assumed to be incident onto only the inner surface of the disk.

  6. Non-thermal desorption from interstellar dust grains via exothermic surface reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, R. T.; Wakelam, V.; Herbst, E.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:The gas-phase abundance of methanol in dark quiescent cores in the interstellar medium cannot be explained by gas-phase chemistry. In fact, the only possible synthesis of this species appears to be production on the surfaces of dust grains followed by desorption into the gas. Yet, evaporation is inefficient for heavy molecules such as methanol at the typical temperature of 10 K. It is necessary then to consider non-thermal mechanisms for desorption. But, if such mechanisms are considered for the production of methanol, they must be considered for all surface species. Methods: Our gas-grain network of reactions has been altered by the inclusion of a non-thermal desorption mechanism in which the exothermicity of surface addition reactions is utilized to break the bond between the product species and the surface. Our estimated rate for this process derives from a simple version of classical unimolecular rate theory with a variable parameter only loosely constrained by theoretical work. Results: Our results show that the chemistry of dark clouds is altered slightly at times up to 106 yr, mainly by the enhancement in the gas-phase abundances of hydrogen-rich species such as methanol that are formed on grain surfaces. At later times, however, there is a rather strong change. Instead of the continuing accretion of most gas-phase species onto dust particles, a steady-state is reached for both gas-phase and grain-surface species, with significant abundances for the former. Nevertheless, most of the carbon is contained in an undetermined assortment of heavy surface hydrocarbons. Conclusions: The desorption mechanism discussed here will be better constrained by observational data on pre-stellar cores, where a significant accretion of species such as CO has already occurred.

  7. Real-time PCR detection of toxigenic Fusarium in airborne and settled grain dust and associations with trichothecene mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Eduard, Wijnand; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner

    2006-12-01

    Inhalation of immunomodulating mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. that are commonly found in grain dust may imply health risks for grain farmers. Airborne Fusarium and mycotoxin exposure levels are mainly unknown due to difficulties in identifying Fusarium and mycotoxins in personal aerosol samples. We used a novel real-time PCR method to quantify the fungal trichodiene synthase gene (tri5) and DNA specific to F. langsethiae and F. avenaceum in airborne and settled grain dust, determined the personal inhalant exposure level to toxigenic Fusarium during various activities, and evaluated whether quantitative measurements of Fusarium-DNA could predict trichothecene levels in grain dust. Airborne Fusarium-DNA was detected in personal samples even from short tasks (10-60 min). The median Fusarium-DNA level was significantly higher in settled than in airborne grain dust (p dust (r(s) = 0.20, p = 0.003). Both F. langsethiae-DNA and tri5-DNA were associated with HT-2 and T-2 toxins (r(s) = 0.24-0.71, p dust, and could thus be suitable as indicators for HT-2 and T-2. The median personal inhalant exposure to specific toxigenic Fusarium spp. was less than 1 genome m(-3), but the exposure ranged from 0-10(5) genomes m(-3). This study is the first to apply real-time PCR on personal samples of inhalable grain dust for the quantification of tri5 and species-specific Fusarium-DNA, which may have potential for risk assessments of inhaled trichothecenes.

  8. Anomalous transport of charged dust grains in a magnetized collisional plasma: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezbaruah, Pratikshya; Das, Nilakshi

    2018-05-01

    Anomalous diffusion of charged dust grains immersed in a plasma in the presence of strong ion-neutral collision, flowing ions, and a magnetic field has been observed. Molecular Dynamics simulation confirms the deviation from normal diffusion in an ensemble of dust grains probed in laboratory plasma chambers. Collisional effects are significant in governing the nature of diffusion. In order to have a clear idea on the transport of particles in a real experimental situation, the contribution of streaming ions and the magnetic field along with collision is considered through the relevant interaction potential. The nonlinear evolution of Mean Square Displacement is an indication of the modification in particle trajectories due to several effects as mentioned above. It is found that strong collision and ion flow significantly affect the interparticle interaction potential in the presence of the magnetic field and lead to the appearance of the asymmetric type of Debye Hückel (D H) potential. Due to the combined effect of the magnetic field, ion flow, and collision, dusty plasma exhibits a completely novel behavior. The coupling parameter Γ enhances the asymmetric D H type potential arising due to ion flow, and this may drive the system to a disordered state.

  9. The turbulent life of dust grains in the supernova-driven, multiphase interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Thomas; Zhukovska, Svitlana; Naab, Thorsten; Girichidis, Philipp; Walch, Stefanie; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Clark, Paul C.; Seifried, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Dust grains are an important component of the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies. We present the first direct measurement of the residence times of interstellar dust in the different ISM phases, and of the transition rates between these phases, in realistic hydrodynamical simulations of the multiphase ISM. Our simulations include a time-dependent chemical network that follows the abundances of H+, H, H2, C+ and CO and take into account self-shielding by gas and dust using a tree-based radiation transfer method. Supernova explosions are injected either at random locations, at density peaks, or as a mixture of the two. For each simulation, we investigate how matter circulates between the ISM phases and find more sizeable transitions than considered in simple mass exchange schemes in the literature. The derived residence times in the ISM phases are characterized by broad distributions, in particular for the molecular, warm and hot medium. The most realistic simulations with random and mixed driving have median residence times in the molecular, cold, warm and hot phase around 17, 7, 44 and 1 Myr, respectively. The transition rates measured in the random driving run are in good agreement with observations of Ti gas-phase depletion in the warm and cold phases in a simple depletion model. ISM phase definitions based on chemical abundance rather than temperature cuts are physically more meaningful, but lead to significantly different transition rates and residence times because there is no direct correspondence between the two definitions.

  10. The colour of the solar corona and dust grains in it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajmanov, A.K.; Nikolsky, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    The photometry of coronal negatives is carried out. The films were obtained at the March 7, 1970 and July 10, 1972 eclipses. A distribution of the coronal brightness in the red (635 mm), green (545 nm), and blue (455 nm) wavelength intervals up to distances of (6-7)Rsub(sun) is deduced (Figure 1). Colour indexes of the corona (the emission ratio red/blue-Csub(rb) and green/blue-Csub(gb)) have been obtained. We assume Csub(rb) = Csub(gb) = 1 in the inner corona ( = 1 μm. RED brightness is evaluated to be 4 x 10 -10 anti Bsub(sun). There is 1 grain of dust in the elementary volume with cross section of 1 cm 2 along the line of sight. The intensity of dust emission in wavelength interval 10 μm deduced by the authors is approximately 1 μ W cm -2 sm -1 . That is in agreement with Mankin et al. (1974) and Lena et al. (1974) observations. The whole dust mass of RED is -11 cm -3 . Determination of the colour of the solar corona have been made by a number of scientists (Tikhov, 1940, 1957; Allen, 1946; Blackwell, 1952; Michard, 1956; Sharonov, 1958; Nay et al. 1961). The corona colour was found to be somewhat redder than the Sun's. However this question is not finally settled to date. (orig.)

  11. Work-related asthma in a population exposed to grain, flour and other ingredient dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T A; Lumley, K P

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and causation of work-related asthmatic symptoms in a population exposed to grain, flour and other ingredient dusts. Where workers complained of asthmatic symptoms which were the result of dust exposure, follow-up aimed to identify whether the symptoms were the result of sensitisation or of non-specific irritation. A questionnaire was presented to 3,450 workers who had exposure to dust during the course of flour milling (528), bread baking (1,756), cake baking (209) and other activities in food preparation (957). Those with positive responses were followed-up by taking a formal history, examination, skin prick testing and serial peak flow measurement. The overall prevalence of work-related asthmatic symptoms was 4.4% (153 out of 3,450). In the group who were followed-up (128 out of 153), non-specific respiratory irritation was thought to be the cause in 90 (2.6%), whilst sensitisation was responsible for symptoms in 12 (0.3%). Of the 12 cases due to sensitisation, the agents responsible were: fungal amylase (10 cases, all associated with bread baking), flour (one case, associated with flour packing), and grain (one case, associated with flour milling). Non-specific irritation is considerably more common than sensitisation as the cause of work-related asthmatic symptoms in flour milling, baking and other flour-based industries. The prevalence of sensitisation to flour is very low (less than 1 in 1,000) in all these industries. The principal sensitiser encountered in modern plant bakeries appears to be fungal amylase. The most important source of exposure to fungal amylase is probably the debagging, sieving, weighing and mixing of bread improvers.

  12. ORIGIN OF DUST AROUND V1309 SCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Chunhua; Lü, Guoliang; Wang, Zhaojun

    2013-01-01

    The origin of dust grains in the interstellar medium is still an unanswered problem. Nicholls et al. found the presence of a significant amount of dust around V1309 Sco, which may originate from the merger of a contact binary. We investigate the origin of dust around V1309 Sco and suggest that these dust grains are produced in the binary-merger ejecta. By means of the AGBDUST code, we estimate that ∼5.2 × 10 –4 M ☉ dust grains are produced with a radii of ∼10 –5 cm. These dust grains are mainly composed of silicate and iron grains. Because the mass of the binary merger ejecta is very small, the contribution of dust produced by binary merger ejecta to the overall dust production in the interstellar medium is negligible. However, it is important to note that the discovery of a significant amount of dust around V1309 Sco offers a direct support for the idea that common-envelope ejecta provides an ideal environment for dust formation and growth. Therefore, we confirm that common envelope ejecta can be important source of cosmic dust

  13. The Deep Impact Coma of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 as a Time-of-Flight Experiment Motivates DDSCAT Models for Porous Aggregate Grains with Silicate Crystal Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, S. S.; Harker, D. E.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodward, C. E.; Richard, D. T.; Kolokolova, L.; Moreno, F.

    2010-10-01

    Spitzer IRS spectra of short-period Ecliptic Comets (ECs) have silicate features, and many have distinct crystalline silicate peaks. These Spitzer spectra, when fitted with thermal models after subtraction of the relatively strong contribution of the nuclear flux to the IR spectrum (e.g., Harker et al. 2007), demonstrate ECs have weaker silicate features than long-period Nearly-Isotropic Comets (NICs). There are exceptions, however, as some NICs also have weak features like most ECs. Grains with lower porosities (lower fraction of vacuum) can explain weaker silicate features (Kelley and Wooden 2009; Kolokolova et al. 2007). Alternatively, omitting the smallest (submicron) solid grains can reduce the contrast of the silicate feature (Lisse et al. 2006). However, so far, only models for solid submicron crystals fit the crystalline peaks in spectra of comets with weak silicate features. This presents a dilemma: how can the coma be devoid of small grains except for the crystals? The Spitzer spectra of the Deep Impact event with EC 9P/Tempel 1 provides a data set to model larger porous grains with crystal inclusions because the post-impact coma was a time-of-flight experiment: an impulsive release of grains were size-sorted in time by their respective gas velocities so that the smaller grains departed the inner coma quicker than larger grains. A velocity law derived from fitting small beam Gemini spectra (Harker et al. 2007) indicates that at 20 hour post-impact the (pre-impact subtracted) Spitzer IRS spectrum contained grains larger than 10-20 micron radii, moving at 20 m/s, that produced a weak silicate feature with an 11.2 micron crystalline olivine peak. Furthermore, this feature looks like the silicate feature from the nominal coma. We present some results of a computational effort to model discrete crystals and mixed-mineral porous aggregate grains with silicate crystal inclusions using DDSCAT on the NAS Pleiades supercomputer.

  14. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part II--Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens--focus on grain dust, other agricultural dusts and wood dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czesława; Góra-Florek, Anna; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans, a Gram-negative bacterium developing in a variety of plants as epiphyte or endophyte is particularly common in grain and grain dust, and has been identified by an interdisciplinary group from Lublin, eastern Poland, as a causative agent of work-related diseases associated with exposure to grain dust and other agricultural dusts. The concentration of P. agglomerans in grain as well as in the settled grain and flour dust was found to be high, ranging from 10(4)-10(8) CFU/g, while in the air polluted with grain or flour dust it ranged from 10(3)-10(5) CFU/m(3) and formed 73.2-96% of the total airborne Gram-negative bacteria. The concentration of P. agglomerans was also relatively high in the air of the facilities processing herbs and other plant materials, while it was lower in animal farms and in wood processing facilities. Pantoea agglomerans produces a biologically-potent endotoxin (cell wall lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The significant part of this endotoxin occurs in dusts in the form of virus-sized globular nanoparticles measuring 10-50 nm that could be described as the 'endotoxin super-macromolecules'. A highly significant relationship was found (R=0.804, P=0.000927) between the concentration of the viable P. agglomerans in the air of various agricultural and wood industry settings and the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in the air, as assessed by the Limulus test. Although this result may be interfered by the presence of endotoxin produced by other Gram-negative species, it unequivocally suggests the primary role of the P. agglomerans endotoxin as an adverse agent in the agricultural working environment, causing toxic pneumonitis (ODTS). Numerous experiments by the inhalation exposure of animals to various extracts of P. agglomerans strains isolated from grain dust, including endotoxin isolated with trichloroacetic acid (LPS-TCA), endotoxin nanoparticles isolated in sucrose gradient (VECN), and mixture of proteins and endotoxin obtained

  15. Pantoea agglomerans : a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part II. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens – focus on grain dust, other agricultural dusts and wood dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pantoea agglomerans , a Gram-negative bacterium developing in a variety of plants as epiphyte or endophyte is particularly common in grain and grain dust, and has been identified by an interdisciplinary group from Lublin, eastern Poland, as a causative agent of work-related diseases associated with exposure to grain dust and other agricultural dusts. The concentration of [i]P. agglomerans[/i] in grain as well as in the settled grain and flour dust was found to be high, ranging from 10 4 –10 8 CFU/g, while in the air polluted with grain or flour dust it ranged from 10 3 –10 5 CFU/m 3 and formed 73.2–96% of the total airborne Gram-negative bacteria. The concentration of P. agglomerans was also relatively high in the air of the facilities processing herbs and other plant materials, while it was lower in animal farms and in wood processing facilities. Pantoea agglomerans produces a biologically-potent endotoxin (cell wall lipopolysaccharide, LPS. The significant part of this endotoxin occurs in dusts in the form of virus-sized globular nanoparticles measuring 10–50 nm that could be described as the ‘endotoxin super-macromolecules’. A highly significant relationship was found (R=0.804, P=0.000927 between the concentration of the viable P. agglomerans in the air of various agricultural and wood industry settings and the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in the air, as assessed by the Limulus test. Although this result may be interfered by the presence of endotoxin produced by other Gram-negative species, it unequivocally suggests the primary role of the P. agglomerans endotoxin as an adverse agent in the agricultural working environment, causing toxic pneumonitis (ODTS. Numerous experiments by the inhalation exposure of animals to various extracts of P. agglomerans strains isolated from grain dust, including endotoxin isolated with trichloroacetic acid (LPS-TCA, endotoxin nanoparticles isolated in sucrose gradient (VECN, and mixture of

  16. SILICATE EVOLUTION IN BROWN DWARF DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present a compositional analysis of the 10 μm silicate spectra for brown dwarf disks in the Taurus and Upper Scorpius (UppSco) star-forming regions, using archival Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph observations. A variety in the silicate features is observed, ranging from a narrow profile with a peak at 9.8 μm, to nearly flat, low-contrast features. For most objects, we find nearly equal fractions for the large-grain and crystalline mass fractions, indicating both processes to be active in these disks. The median crystalline mass fraction for the Taurus brown dwarfs is found to be 20%, a factor of ∼2 higher than the median reported for the higher mass stars in Taurus. The large-grain mass fractions are found to increase with an increasing strength in the X-ray emission, while the opposite trend is observed for the crystalline mass fractions. A small 5% of the Taurus brown dwarfs are still found to be dominated by pristine interstellar medium-like dust, with an amorphous submicron grain mass fraction of ∼87%. For 15% of the objects, we find a negligible large-grain mass fraction, but a >60% small amorphous silicate fraction. These may be the cases where substantial grain growth and dust sedimentation have occurred in the disks, resulting in a high fraction of amorphous submicron grains in the disk surface. Among the UppSco brown dwarfs, only usd161939 has a signal-to-noise ratio high enough to properly model its silicate spectrum. We find a 74% small amorphous grain and a ∼26% crystalline mass fraction for this object.

  17. Influence of synthetic calcium silicates on the strength properties of fine-grained concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarusova, S. B.; Gordienko, P. S.; Kozin, A. V.; Zhevtun, I. G.; Perfilev, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of additives based on acicular calcium hydrosilicates (xonotlite and tobermorite) and wollastonite, obtained from boric acid production waste in autoclave synthesis at a temperature of 220 °C, on the strength of fine-grained concrete, has been studied in this paper. It was shown that when the calcium hydrosilicates and wollastonite are introduced, an increase in the strength characteristics of concrete is observed. After heat and moisture treatment, the maximum increase in strength is observed with the addition of 4% of mass content of calcium hydrosilicates and 6% of mass content of wollastonite. After 28 days of hardening under normal conditions, the maximum increase in strength of concrete is observed with the addition of 4% of mass content of both types of additives. It was shown that the water absorption of concrete decreases with a maximum when 4% of mass content is added, as in the case of the introduction of calcium hydrosilicates, and wollastonite. With a further increase in the number of additives, the amount of water absorption increases, but these values remain below the values for the control sample without additives.

  18. Determination of parameters for hypervelocity dust grains encountered in near-Earth space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, William G.; Maag, Carl R.; Alexander, W. Merle; Sappenfield, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    Primarily interest was in the determination of the population of micrometeoroids and space debris and interpretation of the hole size in a thin film or in a micropore foam returned from space with theoretical calculations describing the event. In order to augment the significance of the theoretical calculations of the impact event, an experiment designed to analyze the charge production due to hypervelocity impacts on thin films also produced data which described the penetration properties of micron and sub-micron sized projectiles. The thin film penetration sites in the 500 A and 1000 A aluminum films were counted and a size distribution function was derived. In the case of the very smallest dust grains, there were no independent measurements of velocities like that which existed for the larger dust grains (d(sub p) is less than or equal to 1 micron). The primary task then became to assess the relationship between the penetration hole and the particle diameter of the projectile which made the hole. The most promising means to assess the measure of the diameters of impacting grains came in the form of comparing cratering mechanics to penetration mechanics. Future experimentation will produce measurements of the cratering as opposed to the penetrating event. Particles encountered by surfaces while being flown in space will degrade that surface in a systematic manner even when the impact is with small hypervelocity particles, d(sub p) is less than or equal to 10 microns. Though not to a degree which would precipitate a catastrophic failure of a system, the degradation of the materials comprising the interconnected system will occur. It is the degradation of the optical system and the subsequent embrittlement of other materials that can lead to degradation if not to failure. It is to this end that research was conducted to compare the primary consequences for experiments which will be flown to those which have been returned.

  19. Study of effect of grain size on dust charging in an RF plasma using three-dimensional PIC-MCC simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikkurthi, V. R.; Melzer, A.; Matyash, K.; Schneider, R.

    2008-01-01

    A 3-dimensional Particle-Particle Particle-Mesh (P 3 M) code is applied to study the charging process of micrometer size dust grains confined in a capacitive RF discharge. In our model, particles (electrons and ions) are treated kinetically (Particle-in-Cell with Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC-MCC)). In order to accurately resolve the plasma particles' motion close to the dust grain, the PIC technique is supplemented with Molecular Dynamics (MD), employing an an analytic electrostatic potential for the interaction with the dust grain. This allows to self-consistently resolve the dust grain charging due to absorption of plasma electrons and ions. The charging of dust grains confined above lower electrode in a capacitive RF discharge and its dependence on the size and position of the dust is investigated. The results have been compared with laboratory measurements

  20. The Evolution of Dust in the Multiphase ISM: Grain Destruction Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfire, Mark

    1999-01-01

    This proposal covered year one of a long term project in which we acquired the necessary hardware and softwaxe needed to calculate grain destruction processes in the interstellar medium (ISM). The long term goal of this research is to develop a model for the dust evolution in the ISM capable of explaining observations of elemental depletions, the grain size distribution, and the emission characteristics of the ISM from the X-ray through the FIR. We purchased a SUN Ultra 10 workstation and peripheral devices including an Exabyte Tape drive, HP Laser Printer, and Seagate External Hard Disk. The PI installed the hardware and Solaris operating system on the workstation and integrated the hardware into the network. Software was also purchased to enable connections to the workstation from a PC (Hummingbird Exceed). Additional freeware required to carry out the proposed program was installed on the system including compilers (g77, gcc, g++), editors (emacs), a markup language (LaTeX), and display programs (WIP, XV, SAOtng). We have also successfully modified the required plot files to work with our system which display the results of grain processing.

  1. Charged dust in planetary magnetospheres: Hamiltonian dynamics and numerical simulations for highly charged grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, L.; Burns, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We use a combination of analytical and numerical methods to investigate the dynamics of charged dust grains in planetary magnetospheres. Our emphasis is on obtaining results valid for particles that are not necessarily dominated either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces. A Hamiltonian formulation of the problem yields exact results, for all values of charge-to-mass ratio, when we introduce two constraints: particles remain in the equatorial plane and the magnetic field is taken as axially symmetric. In particular, we obtain locations of equilibrium points, the frequencies of stable periodic orbits, the topology of separatrices in phase space, and the rate of longitudinal drift. These results are significant for specific applications: motion in the nearly aligned dipolar field of Saturn, and the trajectories of arbitrarily charged particles in complex magnetic fields for limited periods of time after ejection from parent bodies. Since the model is restrictive, we also use numerical integrations of the full three-dimensional equations of motion and illustrate under what conditions the constrained problem yields reasonable results. We show that a large fraction of the intermediately charged and highly charged (gyrating) particles will always be lost to a planet's atmosphere within a few hundred hours, for motion through tilted-dipole magnetic fields. We find that grains must have a very high charge-to-mass ratio in order to be mirrored back to the ring plane. Thus, except perhaps at Saturn where the dipole tilt is very small, the likely inhabitants of the dusty ring systems are those particles that are either nearly Keplerian (weakly charged) grains or grains whose charges place them in the lower end of the intermediate charge zone. Fianlly, we demonstrate the effect of plasma drag on the orbits of gyrating particles to be a rapid decrease in gyroradius followed by a slow radial evolution of the guiding center.

  2. A Monte Carlo model for the exposure history of lunar dust grains in the ancient solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, J.; Comstock, G.M.; Langevin, Y.; Maurette, M.; Jouffrey, B.; Jouret, C.

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical motion of the individual dust grains in the lunar regolith is analyzed by using a Monte Carlo statistical code where the variables are the mass and speed distribution of meteorites at the lunar surface and the geometrical shape of impact craters. From these computations the detailed irradiation history of the grains in the ancient solar wind is traced back, over a period of 4 billion years, as a function of the grain-size. Then by combining this irradiation scheme with the results of solar wind simulation experiments, the time and depth dependent accumulation of solar wind effects in the theoretical grains (solar wind maturation) is inferred. Finally, the validity of these predictions is tentatively checked by discussing a variety of physical and chemical solar wind effects which are registered in the surface layers of lunar dust grains. Therefore these studies give a tentative scenario for the 'maturation' of the lunar regolith with respect to solar wind effects, but they also reveal useful guidelines to deduce meaningful information from such effects. In particular, they suggest a 'lunar skin' sampling technique for extracting dust grains in lunar core tubes which could help in deciphering the past activity of the ancient solar wind over a time scale of several billion years. (Auth.)

  3. DUST DESTRUCTION RATES AND LIFETIMES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Boyer, Martha L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Meixner, Margaret [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gall, Christa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Roman-Duval, Julia, E-mail: tea.temim@nasa.gov [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The dust budget in galaxies depends on the rate at which dust grains are created in different stellar sources and destroyed by interstellar shocks. Because of their extensive wavelength coverage, proximity, and nearly face-on geometry, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) provide a unique opportunity to study these processes in great detail. In this paper, we use the complete sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the MCs to calculate the lifetimes and destruction efficiencies of silicate and carbon dust. We find dust lifetimes of 22 ± 13 Myr (30 ± 17 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC, and 54 ± 32 Myr (72 ± 43 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the SMC. The corresponding dust destruction rates are 2.3 × 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (5.9 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) and 3.0 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (5.6 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC and SMC, respectively. The significantly shorter lifetimes in the MCs, as compared to the Milky Way, are explained as the combined effect of their lower total dust mass and preferentially higher dust-to-gas (D2G) mass ratios in the vicinity of the SNRs. We find that the maximum dust injection rates by asymptotic giant branch stars and core collapse supernovae are an order of magnitude lower than the dust destruction rates by the SNRs, suggesting that most of the dust may be reconstituted in dense molecular clouds. We also discuss the dependence of the dust destruction rate on the local D2G mass ratio, ambient gas density, and metallicity, as well as the application of our results to other galaxies and dust evolution models.

  4. DUST DESTRUCTION RATES AND LIFETIMES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Boyer, Martha L.; Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Meixner, Margaret; Gall, Christa; Roman-Duval, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The dust budget in galaxies depends on the rate at which dust grains are created in different stellar sources and destroyed by interstellar shocks. Because of their extensive wavelength coverage, proximity, and nearly face-on geometry, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) provide a unique opportunity to study these processes in great detail. In this paper, we use the complete sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the MCs to calculate the lifetimes and destruction efficiencies of silicate and carbon dust. We find dust lifetimes of 22 ± 13 Myr (30 ± 17 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC, and 54 ± 32 Myr (72 ± 43 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the SMC. The corresponding dust destruction rates are 2.3 × 10 –2 M ☉  yr –1 (5.9 × 10 –3 M ☉  yr –1 ) and 3.0 × 10 –3 M ☉  yr –1 (5.6 × 10 –4 M ☉  yr –1 ) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC and SMC, respectively. The significantly shorter lifetimes in the MCs, as compared to the Milky Way, are explained as the combined effect of their lower total dust mass and preferentially higher dust-to-gas (D2G) mass ratios in the vicinity of the SNRs. We find that the maximum dust injection rates by asymptotic giant branch stars and core collapse supernovae are an order of magnitude lower than the dust destruction rates by the SNRs, suggesting that most of the dust may be reconstituted in dense molecular clouds. We also discuss the dependence of the dust destruction rate on the local D2G mass ratio, ambient gas density, and metallicity, as well as the application of our results to other galaxies and dust evolution models

  5. Changes in the Silicate Dust Features of the Symbiotic Star R Aquarii Prior to the Upcoming 2022 Eclipse and Periastron Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelian, Eric; Sankrit, Ravi; Helton, Andrew; Gorti, Uma; Wagner, R. Mark

    2018-01-01

    The symbiotic star, R Aquarii (R Aqr) consists of a dusty, pulsating Mira (period 387 days) and a hot white dwarf (WD) that orbit each other with a period of about 44 years. Based on the light curve from ca. 1890 CE onwards, and associated nebular and jet activity, it has been established (with a high degree of confidence) that the WD eclipses the Mira around the time of the periastron passage. One of the phenomena associated with this phase in the orbit is enhanced accretion onto the WD, which in turn energizes the jet outflow. The next eclipse is imminent, and it is estimated that periastron will occur in 2022. Infrared observations of R Aqr have established that the emission consists of a thermal spectrum with an effective temperature of about 2500 K with superposed silicate dust features. These silicate features are known to vary with time, and UKIRT spectra taken within a single Mira phase have shown that some of the variation is correlated with the pulsation of the dust envelope of the AGB star.We have used the FORCAST instrument on SOFIA to observe R Aqr during Cycles 4 and 5 as part of an ongoing monitoring of the system as it goes through eclipse and periastron. Photometry between 6 and 37 μm, and spectra covering the 10 and 18 μm silicate features have shown significant changes in the spectrum compared with earlier data in the same wavelength range obtained by ISO at an epoch closer to apastron. We present our data along with archival data from other IR observatories and use them to characterize the changes in the silicate emission. These data are presented along with model calculations using DUSTY and RADMC-3D that we have used to explore the changes in dust properties that are necessary to explain the differences in the emission profiles. We also present our plans for continued monitoring of R Aqr through the upcoming eclipse, which is required in order to separate the effects of pulsation from the longer-term orbital effects on the dust profiles.

  6. Separation of mycotoxin-containing sources in grain dust and determination of their mycotoxin potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, M S; Lee, L S

    1986-01-01

    Two distinct reservoirs of mycotoxins exist in fungal-infected cereal grains--the fungal spores and the spore-free mycelium-substrate matrix. Many fungal spores are of respirable size and the mycelium-substrate matrix can be pulverized to form particles of respirable size during routine handling of grain. In order to determine the contribution of each source to the level of mycotoxin contamination of dust, we developed techniques to harvest and separate mycelium-substrate matrices from spores of fungi. Conventional quantitative chromatographic analyses of separated materials indicated that aflatoxin from Aspergillus parasiticus, norsolorinic acid from a mutant of A. parasiticus, and secalonic acid D from Penicillium oxalicum were concentrated in the mycelium-substrate matrices and not in the spores. In contrast, spores of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus contained significant concentrations of aurasperone C and fumigaclavine C, respectively; only negligible amounts of the toxins were detected in the mycelium-substrate matrices of these two fungi. PMID:3709472

  7. IMPROVING THE MODEL OF EMISSION FROM SPINNING DUST: EFFECTS OF GRAIN WOBBLING AND TRANSIENT SPIN-UP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A.; Draine, B. T.

    2010-01-01

    Observations continue to support the interpretation of the anomalous microwave foreground as electric dipole radiation from spinning dust grains as proposed by Draine and Lazarian. In this paper, we present a refinement of the original model by improving the treatment of a number of physical effects. First, we consider a disk-like grain rotating with angular velocity at an arbitrary angle with respect to the grain symmetry axis (i.e., grain wobbling) and derive the rotational damping and excitation coefficients arising from infrared emission, plasma-grain interactions, and electric dipole emission. The angular velocity distribution and the electric dipole emission spectrum for disk-like grains is calculated using the Langevin equation, for cases both with and without fast internal relaxation. Our results show that for fast internal relaxation, the peak emissivity of spinning dust, compared to earlier studies, increases by a factor of ∼2 for the warm neutral medium (WNM), the warm ionized medium (WIM), the cold neutral medium (CNM), and the photodissociation region, and by a factor ∼4 for reflection nebulae. The frequency at the emission peak also increases by factors ∼1.4 to ∼2 for these media. Without internal relaxation, the increase of emissivity is comparable, but the emission spectrum is more extended to higher frequency. The increased emission results from the non-sphericity of grain shape and from the anisotropy in damping and excitation along directions parallel and perpendicular to the grain symmetry axis. Second, we provide a detailed numerical study including transient spin-up of grains by single-ion collisions. The range of grain size in which single-ion collisions are important is identified. The impulses broaden the emission spectrum and increase the peak emissivity for the CNM, WNM, and WIM, although the increases are not as large as those due to the grain wobbling. In addition, we present an improved treatment of rotational excitation and

  8. Grain elevator workers show work-related pulmonary function changes and dose-effect relationships with dust exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, P; Hutcheon, M; Broder, I; Mintz, S

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether grain handlers underwent work-related changes in their pulmonary function and, if so, to examine the dose-effect relationships with dust exposure. The pulmonary function of grain handlers was measured at the beginning and end of work shifts over a period of one week, during which their exposure to dust was measured daily. The results showed changes indicative of a within-day obstructive change, in addition to a small restrictive defect occurring over the course of a week. Civic outside labourers who were examined as a control group showed a similar within-week obstructive change without any associated restriction of lung volume. The data on the grain handlers were also used to examine the dose-effect relationships of dust exposure, both on baseline pulmonary function and on within-day changes in these measurements. The baseline flow rates of workers who did not wear a mask were found to vary inversely with their average exposure to respirable dust. In addition, the flow rates underwent a within-day decrease that varied directly with their corresponding exposure to respirable dust and was unrelated to mask wearing. The median of the slopes for this relationship indicated that 50% of the subjects had a decrease of at least 923 ml/s in the value of their Vmax50%VC for each 1 mg/m3 increase in the concentration of respirable dust. Non-respirable dust did not have a measurable effect either on the baseline or the within-day changes in pulmonary function. The acute changes were unaffected by age, duration of employment, or extent of smoking. PMID:7138793

  9. Dust evolution, a global view: III. Core/mantle grains, organic nano-globules, comets and surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of The Heterogeneous dust Evolution Model for Interstellar Solids (THEMIS), this work explores the surface processes and chemistry relating to core/mantle interstellar and cometary grain structures and their influence on the nature of these fascinating particles. It appears that a realistic consideration of the nature and chemical reactivity of interstellar grain surfaces could self-consistently and within a coherent framework explain: the anomalous oxygen depletion, the nature of the CO dark gas, the formation of ‘polar ice’ mantles, the red wing on the 3 μm water ice band, the basis for the O-rich chemistry observed in hot cores, the origin of organic nano-globules and the 3.2 μm ‘carbonyl’ absorption band observed in comet reflectance spectra. It is proposed that the reaction of gas phase species with carbonaceous a-C(:H) grain surfaces in the interstellar medium, in particular the incorporation of atomic oxygen into grain surfaces in epoxide functional groups, is the key to explaining these observations. Thus, the chemistry of cosmic dust is much more intimately related with that of the interstellar gas than has previously been considered. The current models for interstellar gas and dust chemistry will therefore most likely need to be fundamentally modified to include these new grain surface processes. PMID:28083090

  10. Effects of exposure to grain dust in Polish farmers: work-related symptoms and immunologic response to microbial antigens associated with dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórska, C; Mackiewicz, B; Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Milanowski, J; Feltovich, H; Lange, J; Thorne, P

    1998-01-01

    Medical examinations were performed in a group of 76 Polish farmers heavily exposed to grain dust during harvesting and threshing, and in a group of 63 healthy urban dwellers not exposed to organic dusts (controls). The examinations included: interview concerning the occurrence of respiratory disorders and work-related symptoms, physical examination, lung function tests, and allergological tests comprising skin prick test with 4 microbial antigens associated with grain dust and agar-gel precipitation test with 12 microbial antigens. As many as 34 farmers (44.7%) reported the occurrence of work-related symptoms during harvesting and threshing. The most common was dry cough reported by 20 individuals (26.3%). Dyspnoea was reported by 15 farmers (19.7%), tiredness by 12 (15.7%), chest tightness by 8 (10.5%), plugging of nose and hoarseness by 5 each (6. 5%). No control subjects reported these work-related symptoms. The mean spirometric values in the examined group of farmers were within the normal range, but a significant post-shift decrease of these values was observed after work with grain. The farmers showed a frequency of the positive early skin reactions to environmental allergens in the range of 10.8 - 45.5%, and a frequency of positive precipitin reactions in range of 3.9 - 40.8%. The control group responded to the majority of allergens with a significantly lower frequency of positive results compared to the farmers. The obtained results showed a high response of grain farmers to inhalant microbial allergens and indicate a potential risk of occupational respiratory diseases (such as allergic alveolitis, asthma, Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome) among this population

  11. ION-INDUCED PROCESSING OF COSMIC SILICATES: A POSSIBLE FORMATION PATHWAY TO GEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jäger, C.; Sabri, T. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Laboratory Astrophysics and Cluster Physics Group, Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Wendler, E. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Henning, Th., E-mail: cornelia.jaeger@uni-jena.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Ion-induced processing of dust grains in the interstellar medium and in protoplanetary and planetary disks plays an important role in the entire dust cycle. We have studied the ion-induced processing of amorphous MgFeSiO{sub 4} and Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} grains by 10 and 20 keV protons and 90 keV Ar{sup +} ions. The Ar{sup +} ions were used to compare the significance of the light protons with that of heavier, but chemically inert projectiles. The bombardment was performed in a two-beam irradiation chamber for in situ ion-implantation at temperatures of 15 and 300 K and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy to monitor the alteration of the silicate composition under ion irradiation. A depletion of oxygen from the silicate structure by selective sputtering of oxygen from the surface of the grains was observed in both samples. The silicate particles kept their amorphous structure, but the loss of oxygen caused the reduction of ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) ions and the formation of iron inclusions in the MgFeSiO{sub 4} grains. A few Si inclusions were produced in the iron-free magnesium silicate sample pointing to a much less efficient reduction of Si{sup 4+} and formation of metallic Si inclusions. Consequently, ion-induced processing of magnesium-iron silicates can produce grains that are very similar to the glassy grains with embedded metals and sulfides frequently observed in interplanetary dust particles and meteorites. The metallic iron inclusions are strong absorbers in the NIR range and therefore a ubiquitous requirement to increase the temperature of silicate dust grains in IR-dominated astrophysical environments such as circumstellar shells or protoplanetary disks.

  12. Analysis of "Midnight" Tracks in the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector: Possible Discovery of a Contemporary Interstellar Dust Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajit, S.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; hide

    2010-01-01

    In January 2006, the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2) day. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques.

  13. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination X: Impact Speeds and Directions of Interstellar Grains on the Stardust Dust Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Veerle J.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Altobelli, Nicolas; Grun, Eberhard; Hillier, Jon K.; Postberg, Frank; Allen, Carlton; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Sandford, S. A.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of an interstellar dust model compatible with Ulysses and Galileo observations, we calculate and predict the trajectories of interstellar dust (ISD) in the solar system and the distribution of the impact speeds, directions, and flux of ISD particles on the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector during the two collection periods of the mission. We find that the expected impact velocities are generally low (less than 10 km per second) for particles with the ratio of the solar radiation pressure force to the solar gravitational force beta greater than 1, and that some of the particles will impact on the cometary side of the collector. If we assume astronomical silicates for particle material and a density of 2 grams per cubic centimeter, and use the Ulysses measurements and the ISD trajectory simulations, we conclude that the total number of (detectable) captured ISD particles may be on the order of 50. In companion papers in this volume, we report the discovery of three interstellar dust candidates in the Stardust aerogel tiles. The impact directions and speeds of these candidates are consistent with those calculated from our ISD propagation model, within the uncertainties of the model and of the observations.

  14. Nitrogen chemistry on dust grains: the formation of hydroxylamine, precursor to glycine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidali, Gianfranco; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Shi, Jianming; Hopkins, Tyler; Garrod, Rob; He, Jiao

    2015-08-01

    In ices coating dust grains in molecular clouds, nitrogen-containing molecules - mostly NH3 - are present in sizable quantity, up to 15-20% with respect to water ice, the largest component. We studied the oxidation of ammonia in a series of experiments using beams of oxygen and ammonia in various configurations (co-deposition and sequential deposition with various NH3:O ratios). We detected the formation of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and other products, depending on the degree of oxidation. A simulation of a dense cloud with input from experimental data shows that on and in ices at 14 K and with modest activation energy for reaction, NH2OH is easily formed and its abundance never falls below a tenth of the NH3 abundance. Strategies for detection of hydroxylamine in the ISM will be presented.This work is supported by the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Division (grant No.1311958 to G.V.). R.T.G. acknowledges the support of the NASA Astrophysics Theory Program (grant No. NNX11AC38G).

  15. Study of the Effects of the Electric Field on Charging Measurements on Individual Micron-size Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    The dust charging by electron impact is an important dust charging process in Astrophysical, Planetary, and the Lunar environments. Low energy electrons are reflected or stick to the grains charging the dust grains negatively. At sufficiently high energies electrons penetrate the grain leading to excitation and emission of electrons referred to as secondary electron emission (SEE). Available theoretical models for the calculation of SEE yield applicable for neutral, planar or bulk surfaces are generally based on Sternglass Equation. However, viable models for charging of individual dust grains do not exist at the present time. Therefore, the SEE yields have to be obtained by some experimental methods at the present time. We have conducted experimental studies on charging of individual micron size dust grains in simulated space environments using an electrodynamic balance (EDB) facility at NASA-MSFC. The results of our extensive laboratory study of charging of individual micron-size dust grains by low energy electron impact indicate that the SEE by electron impact is a very complex process expected to be substantially different from the bulk materials. It was found that the incident electrons may lead to positive or negative charging of dust grains depending upon the grain size, surface potential, electron energy, electron flux, grain composition, and configuration. In this paper we give a more elaborate discussion about the possible effects of the AC field in the EDB on dust charging measurements by comparing the secondary electron emission time-period (tau (sub em) (s/e)) with the time-period (tau (sub ac) (ms)) of the AC field cycle in the EDB that we have briefly addressed in our previous publication.

  16. Variable extinction in HD 45677 and the evolution of dust grains in pre-main-sequence disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Halbedel, Elaine M.; Lawrence, Geoffrey F.; Smith, J. Allyn; Yanow, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the UV extinction and IR emission were sought in the Herbig Ae/Be star candidate HD 45677 (= FS CMa) by comparing UV, optical, and IR observations made approximately 10 yr apart. HD 45677 varied significantly, becoming more than 50% brighter in the UV and optical than it was a decade ago. A comparison of the observations between epochs indicates that if the variations are due to changes in dust obscuration, the dust acts as a gray absorber into the near-IR and must be depleted in grains smaller than 1 micron. This is similar to the results obtained on the circumstellar disks of stars like Vega and Beta Pic, and suggests that radiation pressure may be responsible for the small-grain depletion. In addition, the total IR flux seems to have declined, indicating a decrease in the total mass of the dust envelope that contributes to the IR emission in this part of the spectrum. Due to the anomalous nature of the extinction, the use of normal extinction curves to deredden the spectral energy distributions of stars with circumstellar dust may lead to significant errors and should be used with great caution.

  17. CHARGED DUST GRAIN DYNAMICS SUBJECT TO SOLAR WIND, POYNTING–ROBERTSON DRAG, AND THE INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhotka, Christoph; Bourdin, Philippe; Narita, Yasuhito, E-mail: christoph.lhotka@oeaw.ac.at, E-mail: philippe.bourdin@oeaw.ac.at, E-mail: yasuhito.narita@oeaw.ac.at [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the combined effect of solar wind, Poynting–Robertson drag, and the frozen-in interplanetary magnetic field on the motion of charged dust grains in our solar system. For this reason, we derive a secular theory of motion by the means of an averaging method and validate it with numerical simulations of the unaveraged equations of motions. The theory predicts that the secular motion of charged particles is mainly affected by the z -component of the solar magnetic axis, or the normal component of the interplanetary magnetic field. The normal component of the interplanetary magnetic field leads to an increase or decrease of semimajor axis depending on its functional form and sign of charge of the dust grain. It is generally accepted that the combined effects of solar wind and photon absorption and re-emmision (Poynting–Robertson drag) lead to a decrease in semimajor axis on secular timescales. On the contrary, we demonstrate that the interplanetary magnetic field may counteract these drag forces under certain circumstances. We derive a simple relation between the parameters of the magnetic field, the physical properties of the dust grain, as well as the shape and orientation of the orbital ellipse of the particle, which is a necessary conditions for the stabilization in semimajor axis.

  18. Effects of polymorphic variations in tumor necrosis factor alpha and occupational exposure to grain dust on longitudinal decline in pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Punam; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Koehncke, Niels; McDuffie, Helen H

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal declines in pulmonary function are associated with individuals experiencing occupational exposure to organic dusts in combination with lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking and with genetic factors, and interactions between these factors. To investigate the relationship between polymorphism of genes encoding Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-alpha) and longitudinal lung function decline in grain workers exposed to grain dust. Male grain handlers who participated in the Saskatchewan Grain Workers Surveillance Program from 2002 through 2005 provided demographic, occupational, lifestyle, and respiratory symptoms information as well as pulmonary function measurements and DNA for genotyping. Marginal models using the generalized estimating equations approach were fitted by using a SAS PROC GENMOD to predict the annual decline in Forced Expired Volume in one second (FEV(1)) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). Smoking intensity contributed to the decline in FEV(1.)Among *1/*1 homozygotes and *1/*2 heterozygotes, grain workers with grain industry had significantly lower FEV(1)declines compared to those of the other two exposure groups (>10 and 20 years in the grain industry). The annual declines in FEV(1)for grain workers who were either *1/*1 homozygote or *1/*2 heterozygote and had been in the grain industry for grain workers who were *2/*2 genotype and had been in the industry for grain industry is an effect modifier between TNF-alpha 308 genotype and longitudinal decline in FEV(1)in male subjects exposed to grain dust.

  19. Comet Dust After Deep Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Harker, David E.; Woodward, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    When the Deep Impact Mission hit Jupiter Family comet 9P/Tempel 1, an ejecta crater was formed and an pocket of volatile gases and ices from 10-30 m below the surface was exposed (A Hearn et aI. 2005). This resulted in a gas geyser that persisted for a few hours (Sugita et al, 2005). The gas geyser pushed dust grains into the coma (Sugita et a1. 2005), as well as ice grains (Schulz et al. 2006). The smaller of the dust grains were submicron in radii (0-25.3 micron), and were primarily composed of highly refractory minerals including amorphous (non-graphitic) carbon, and silicate minerals including amorphous (disordered) olivine (Fe,Mg)2SiO4 and pyroxene (Fe,Mg)SiO3 and crystalline Mg-rich olivine. The smaller grains moved faster, as expected from the size-dependent velocity law produced by gas-drag on grains. The mineralogy evolved with time: progressively larger grains persisted in the near nuclear region, having been imparted with slower velocities, and the mineralogies of these larger grains appeared simpler and without crystals. The smaller 0.2-0.3 micron grains reached the coma in about 1.5 hours (1 arc sec = 740 km), were more diverse in mineralogy than the larger grains and contained crystals, and appeared to travel through the coma together. No smaller grains appeared at larger coma distances later (with slower velocities), implying that if grain fragmentation occurred, it happened within the gas acceleration zone. These results of the high spatial resolution spectroscopy (GEMINI+Michelle: Harker et 4. 2005, 2006; Subaru+COMICS: Sugita et al. 2005) revealed that the grains released from the interior were different from the nominally active areas of this comet by their: (a) crystalline content, (b) smaller size, (c) more diverse mineralogy. The temporal changes in the spectra, recorded by GEMIM+Michelle every 7 minutes, indicated that the dust mineralogy is inhomogeneous and, unexpectedly, the portion of the size distribution dominated by smaller grains has

  20. Grain dust induces IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells: effect on neutrophil recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Suh, J H; Kim, S S; Kwon, O J

    2000-06-01

    There have been several investigations suggesting an involvement of activated neutrophils in the development of grain dust (GD)-induced occupational asthma. Interleukin-8 in the sputa from GD-induced asthmatic patients increased significantly after the exposure to GD. To confirm IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells when exposed to GD, and to evaluate the role of IL-8 on neutrophil recruitment. We cultured Beas-2B, a bronchial epithelial cell line. To observe GD-induced responses, four different concentrations ranging from 1 to 200 microg/mL of GD were incubated for 24 hours and compared with those without incubation of GD. To evaluate the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on IL-8 production and neutrophil chemotaxis, epithelial cells were incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture supernatant derived from subjects with GD-induced asthma exposed to 10 microg/mL of GD, and then compared with those without addition of PBMC supernatant. The level of released IL-8 in the supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neutrophil chemotactic activity of the culture supernatant was determined by modified Boyden chamber method. Interleukin-8 production and neutrophil chemotactic activity from bronchial epithelial cells significantly increased with additions of GD in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05, respectively), and were significantly augmented with additions of PBMC supernatant (P < .05, respectively) at each concentration. Close correlation was noted between neutrophil chemotactic activity and IL-8 level (r = 0.87, P < .05). Compared with the untreated sample, pre-treatment of anti-IL-8 antibody induced a significant suppression (up to 67.2%) of neutrophil chemotactic activity in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that IL-8 produced from bronchial epithelial cells may be a major cytokine, which induces neutrophil migration into the airways when exposed to GD.

  1. Enhanced basophil histamine release and neutrophil chemotactic activity predispose grain dust-induced airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H; Jung, K; Kang, K; Nahm, D; Cho, S; Kim, Y

    1999-04-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of grain dust (GD)-induced occupational asthma (OA) remains unclear. To understand further the mechanism of GD-induced OA. Fifteen employees working in a same GD industry, complaining of work-related respiratory symptoms, were enrolled and were divided into two groups according to the GD-bronchoprovocation test (BPT) result: six positive responders were grouped as group III, nine negative responders as group II and five healthy controls as group I. Serum GD-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E (sIgE), specific IgG (sIgG) and specific IgG4 (sIgG4) antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Basophil histamine release was measured by the autofluorometric method, and changes of serum neutrophil chemotactic activity were observed by the Boyden chamber method. For clinical parameters such as degree of airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, duration of respiratory symptoms, exposure duration, and prevalences of serum sIgE, sIgG and sIgG4 antibodies, there were no significant differences between group II and III (P > 0.05, respectively). Serum neutrophil chemotactic activity increased significantly at 30 min and decreased at 240 min after the GD-BPT in group III subjects (P 0.05). Basophil histamine release induced by GD was significantly higher in group III than those of group I or group II (P < 0.05, respectively), while minimal release of anti-IgG4 antibodies was noted in all three groups. These results suggest that enhanced basophil histamine release and serum neutrophil chemotactic activity might contribute to the development of GD-induced occupational asthma.

  2. Parameterizing the interstellar dust temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocuk, S.; Szűcs, L.; Caselli, P.; Cazaux, S.; Spaans, M.; Esplugues, G. B.

    2017-08-01

    The temperature of interstellar dust particles is of great importance to astronomers. It plays a crucial role in the thermodynamics of interstellar clouds, because of the gas-dust collisional coupling. It is also a key parameter in astrochemical studies that governs the rate at which molecules form on dust. In 3D (magneto)hydrodynamic simulations often a simple expression for the dust temperature is adopted, because of computational constraints, while astrochemical modelers tend to keep the dust temperature constant over a large range of parameter space. Our aim is to provide an easy-to-use parametric expression for the dust temperature as a function of visual extinction (AV) and to shed light on the critical dependencies of the dust temperature on the grain composition. We obtain an expression for the dust temperature by semi-analytically solving the dust thermal balance for different types of grains and compare to a collection of recent observational measurements. We also explore the effect of ices on the dust temperature. Our results show that a mixed carbonaceous-silicate type dust with a high carbon volume fraction matches the observations best. We find that ice formation allows the dust to be warmer by up to 15% at high optical depths (AV> 20 mag) in the interstellar medium. Our parametric expression for the dust temperature is presented as Td = [ 11 + 5.7 × tanh(0.61 - log 10(AV) ]χuv1/5.9, where χuv is in units of the Draine (1978, ApJS, 36, 595) UV field.

  3. Assessment of Workers' Exposure to Grain Dust and Bioaerosols During the Loading of Vessels' Hold: An Example at a Port in the Province of Québec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Geneviève; Gardette, Marie; Nguyen, Kiet; Amano, Valérie; Neesham-Grenon, Eve; Debia, Maximilien

    2017-08-01

    Longshoremen are exposed to large amounts of grain dust while loading of grain into the holds of vessels. Grain dust inhalation has been linked to respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, hypersensitivity, pneumonitis, and toxic pneumonitis. Our objective was to characterize the exposure of longshoremen to inhalable and total dust, endotoxins, and cultivable bacteria and fungi during the loading of grain in a vessel's hold at the Port of Montreal in order to assess the potential health risks. Sampling campaigns were conducted during the loading of two different types of grain (wheat and corn). Environmental samples of microorganisms (bacteria, fungus, and actinomycetes) were taken near the top opening of the ship's holds while personal breathing zone measurements of dust and endotoxins were sampled during the worker's 5-hour shifts. Our study show that all measurements are above the recommendations with concentration going up to 390 mg m-3 of total dust, 89 mg m-3 of inhalable fraction, 550 000 EU m-3 of endotoxins, 20 000 CFU m-3 of bacteria, 61 000 CFU m-3 of fungus and 2500 CFU m-3 of actinomycetes. In conclusion, longshoremen are exposed to very high levels of dust and of microorganisms and their components during grain loading work. Protective equipment needs to be enforced for all workers during such tasks in order to reduce their exposure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  4. Charging and heat collection by a positively charged dust grain in a plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2014-07-18

    Dust particulates immersed in a quasineutral plasma can emit electrons in several important applications. Once electron emission becomes strong enough, the dust enters the positively charged regime where the conventional orbital-motion-limited (OML) theory can break down due to potential-well effects on trapped electrons. A minimal modification of the trapped-passing boundary approximation in the so-called OML(+) approach is shown to accurately predict the dust charge and heat collection flux for a wide range of dust size and temperature.

  5. SPITZER survey of dust grain processing in stable discs around binary post-AGB stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, C.; van Winckel, H.; Min, M.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Lloyd Evans, T.

    2008-01-01

    Aims. We investigate the mineralogy and dust processing in the circumbinary discs of binary post-AGB stars using high-resolution TIMMI2 and SPITZER infrared spectra. Methods: We perform a full spectral fitting to the infrared spectra using the most recent opacities of amorphous and crystalline dust

  6. On the role of electron quantum tunneling in charging of dust grains in complex plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyshetskiy, Yu.O.; Vladimirov, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is calculate ion additional current associated with the quantum tunneling of plasma electrons, that are classically forbidden to overcome the repulsive potential barrier, onto the negatively charged grain. We compare this additional quantum tunneling current with the classical electron current from plasma onto the grain and analyze how this additional current affects the self-consistent equilibrium grain charge for different plasma parameters and grain sizes.

  7. Bistable intrinsic charge fluctuations of a dust grain subject to secondary electron emission in a plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotorban, B

    2015-10-01

    A master equation was formulated to study intrinsic charge fluctuations of a grain in a plasma as ions and primary electrons are attached to the grain through collisional collection, and secondary electrons are emitted from the grain. Two different plasmas with Maxwellian and non-Maxwellian distributions were considered. The fluctuations could be bistable in either plasma when the secondary electron emission is present, as two stable macrostates, associated with two stable roots of the charge net current, may exist. Metastablity of fluctuations, manifested by the passage of the grain charge between two macrostates, was shown to be possible.

  8. THE STRUCTURE OF PRE-TRANSITIONAL PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. AZIMUTHAL ASYMMETRIES, DIFFERENT RADIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF LARGE AND SMALL DUST GRAINS IN PDS 70 {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, J.; Wisniewski, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Tsukagoshi, T. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Brown, J. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dong, R. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Muto, T. [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2, Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan); Zhu, Z. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ohashi, N.; Kudo, T.; Egner, S.; Guyon, O. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kusakabe, N.; Akiyama, E. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Abe, L. [Laboratoire Hippolyte Fizeau, UMR6525, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, 28, avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 02 (France); Brandner, W.; Carson, J.; Feldt, M. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brandt, T. [Astrophysics Department, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Currie, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON (Canada); Grady, C. A., E-mail: jun.hashimoto@ou.edu [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); and others

    2015-01-20

    The formation scenario of a gapped disk, i.e., transitional disk, and its asymmetry is still under debate. Proposed scenarios such as disk-planet interaction, photoevaporation, grain growth, anticyclonic vortex, eccentricity, and their combinations would result in different radial distributions of the gas and the small (sub-μm size) and large (millimeter size) dust grains as well as asymmetric structures in a disk. Optical/near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations and (sub-)millimeter interferometry can trace small and large dust grains, respectively; therefore multi-wavelength observations could help elucidate the origin of complicated structures of a disk. Here we report Submillimeter Array observations of the dust continuum at 1.3 mm and {sup 12}CO J = 2 → 1 line emission of the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk around the solar-mass star PDS 70. PDS 70, a weak-lined T Tauri star, exhibits a gap in the scattered light from its disk with a radius of ∼65 AU at NIR wavelengths. However, we found a larger gap in the disk with a radius of ∼80 AU at 1.3 mm. Emission from all three disk components (the gas and the small and large dust grains) in images exhibits a deficit in brightness in the central region of the disk, in particular, the dust disk in small and large dust grains has asymmetric brightness. The contrast ratio of the flux density in the dust continuum between the peak position to the opposite side of the disk reaches 1.4. We suggest the asymmetries and different gap radii of the disk around PDS 70 are potentially formed by several (unseen) accreting planets inducing dust filtration.

  9. The Structure of Pre-Transitional Protoplanetary Disks. II Azimuthal Asymmetries, Different Radial Distributions of Large and Small Dust Grains in PDS 70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, J.; Tsukagoshi, T.; Brown, J. M.; Dong, R.; Muto, T.; Zhu, Z.; Wisniewski, J.; Ohashi, N.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The formation scenario of a gapped disk, i.e., transitional disk, and its asymmetry is still under debate. Proposed scenarios such as disk-planet interaction, photoevaporation, grain growth, anticyclonic vortex, eccentricity, and their combinations would result in different radial distributions of the gas and the small (sub-micron size) and large (millimeter size) dust grains as well as asymmetric structures in a disk. Optical/near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations and (sub-)millimeter interferometry can trace small and large dust grains, respectively; therefore multi-wavelength observations could help elucidate the origin of complicated structures of a disk. Here we report Submillimeter Array observations of the dust continuum at 1.3 mm and CO-12 J = 2 yields 1 line emission of the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk around the solar-mass star PDS 70. PDS 70, a weak-lined T Tauri star, exhibits a gap in the scattered light from its disk with a radius of approx. 65 AU at NIR wavelengths. However, we found a larger gap in the disk with a radius of approx. 80 AU at 1.3 mm. Emission from all three disk components (the gas and the small and large dust grains) in images exhibits a deficit in brightness in the central region of the disk, in particular, the dust disk in small and large dust grains has asymmetric brightness. The contrast ratio of the flux density in the dust continuum between the peak position to the opposite side of the disk reaches 1.4. We suggest the asymmetries and different gap radii of the disk around PDS 70 are potentially formed by several (unseen) accreting planets inducing dust filtration.

  10. Investigations of the Formation of Molecular Hydrogen on Dust Grain Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidali, Gianfranco; Roser, Joseph E.; Manico, Giulio; Pirronello, Valerio

    2002-01-01

    In the last four years we have been working to investigate the formation of molecular hydrogen on surfaces of materials of astrophysical interest, such as silicates, carbonaceous particles and ices, and in conditions approximating the ones present in a variety of astrophysical environments. Our experimental studies - the first of their kind and complemented with computer simulations and theoretical analyses - have given not only hydrogen recombination rates under different ISM conditions, but they have also offered new insights into this fundamental astrophysical problem. Here we summarize our experimental methods and most significant results.

  11. DESTRUCTION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST IN EVOLVING SUPERNOVA REMNANT SHOCK WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however, that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al., we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities ≳200 km s −1 for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of ∼2 compared to those of Jones et al., who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of ∼3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of ∼2–3 Gyr. These increases, while not able to resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step toward understanding the origin and evolution of dust in the ISM

  12. Dust in the small Magellanic Cloud. 2: Dust models from interstellar polarization and extinction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, C. V.; Magalhaes, A. M.; Coyne, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    We study the dust in the Small Magellanic Cloud using our polarization and extinction data (Paper 1) and existing dust models. The data suggest that the monotonic SMC extinction curve is related to values of lambda(sub max), the wavelength of maximum polarization, which are on the average smaller than the mean for the Galaxy. On the other hand, AZV 456, a star with an extinction similar to that for the Galaxy, shows a value of lambda(sub max) similar to the mean for the Galaxy. We discuss simultaneous dust model fits to extinction and polarization. Fits to the wavelength dependent polarization data are possible for stars with small lambda(sub max). In general, they imply dust size distributions which are narrower and have smaller mean sizes compared to typical size distributions for the Galaxy. However, stars with lambda(sub max) close to the Galactic norm, which also have a narrower polarization curve, cannot be fit adequately. This holds true for all of the dust models considered. The best fits to the extinction curves are obtained with a power law size distribution by assuming that the cylindrical and spherical silicate grains have a volume distribution which is continuous from the smaller spheres to the larger cylinders. The size distribution for the cylinders is taken from the fit to the polarization. The 'typical', monotonic SMC extinction curve can be fit well with graphite and silicate grains if a small fraction of the SMC carbon is locked up in the grain. However, amorphous carbon and silicate grains also fit the data well. AZV456, which has an extinction curve similar to that for the Galaxy, has a UV bump which is too blue to be fit by spherical graphite grains.

  13. Interstellar and ejecta dust in the cas a supernova remnant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Richard G. [CRESST, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Dwek, Eli; Kober, Gladys [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rho, Jeonghee [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Hwang, Una, E-mail: Richard.G.Arendt@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Infrared continuum observations provide a means of investigating the physical composition of the dust in the ejecta and swept up medium of the Cas A supernova remnant (SNR). Using low-resolution Spitzer IRS spectra (5-35 μm), and broad-band Herschel PACS imaging (70, 100, and 160 μm), we identify characteristic dust spectra, associated with ejecta layers that underwent distinct nuclear burning histories. The most luminous spectrum exhibits strong emission features at ∼9 and 21 μm and is closely associated with ejecta knots with strong Ar emission lines. The dust features can be reproduced by magnesium silicate grains with relatively low Mg to Si ratios. Another dust spectrum is associated with ejecta having strong Ne emission lines. It has no indication of any silicate features and is best fit by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dust. A third characteristic dust spectrum shows features that are best matched by magnesium silicates with a relatively high Mg to Si ratio. This dust is primarily associated with the X-ray-emitting shocked ejecta, but it is also evident in regions where shocked interstellar or circumstellar material is expected. However, the identification of dust composition is not unique, and each spectrum includes an additional featureless dust component of unknown composition. Colder dust of indeterminate composition is associated with emission from the interior of the SNR, where the reverse shock has not yet swept up and heated the ejecta. Most of the dust mass in Cas A is associated with this unidentified cold component, which is ≲ 0.1 M {sub ☉}. The mass of warmer dust is only ∼0.04 M {sub ☉}.

  14. Nonlinear ion acoustic waves in a quantum degenerate warm plasma with dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinov, A. E.; Kolotkov, D. Yu.; Sazonkin, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    A study is made of the propagation of ion acoustic waves in a collisionless unmagnetized dusty plasma containing degenerate ion and electron gases at nonzero temperatures. In linear theory, a dispersion relation for isothermal ion acoustic waves is derived and an exact expression for the linear ion acoustic velocity is obtained. The dependence of the linear ion acoustic velocity on the dust density in a plasma is calculated. An analysis of the dispersion relation reveals parameter ranges in which the problem has soliton solutions. In nonlinear theory, an exact solution to the basic equations is found and examined. The analysis is carried out by Bernoulli’s pseudopotential method. The ranges of the phase velocities of periodic ion acoustic waves and the velocities of solitons are determined. It is shown that these ranges do not overlap and that the soliton velocity cannot be lower than the linear ion acoustic velocity. The profiles of the physical quantities in a periodic wave and in a soliton are evaluated, as well as the dependence of the critical velocity of solitons on the dust density in a plasma.

  15. On Dust Charging Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N.

    2008-01-01

    A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed.

  16. A Massive Shell of Supernova-formed Dust in SNR G54.1+0.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temim, Tea [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Slane, Patrick; Raymond, John C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gelfand, Joseph D. [New York University, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2017-02-10

    While theoretical models of dust condensation predict that most refractory elements produced in core-collapse supernovae (SNe) efficiently condense into dust, a large quantity of dust has so far only been observed in SN 1987A. We present an analysis of observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope , Herschel Space Observatory , Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, and AKARI of the infrared shell surrounding the pulsar wind nebula in the supernova remnant G54.1+0.3. We attribute a distinctive spectral feature at 21 μ m to a magnesium silicate grain species that has been invoked in modeling the ejecta-condensed dust in Cas A, which exhibits the same spectral signature. If this species is responsible for producing the observed spectral feature and accounts for a significant fraction of the observed infrared continuum, we find that it would be the dominant constituent of the dust in G54.1+0.3, with possible secondary contributions from other compositions, such as carbon, silicate, or alumina grains. The total mass of SN-formed dust required by this model is at least 0.3 M {sub ⊙}. We discuss how these results may be affected by varying dust grain properties and self-consistent grain heating models. The spatial distribution of the dust mass and temperature in G54.1+0.3 confirms the scenario in which the SN-formed dust has not yet been processed by the SN reverse shock and is being heated by stars belonging to a cluster in which the SN progenitor exploded. The dust mass and composition suggest a progenitor mass of 16–27 M {sub ⊙} and imply a high dust condensation efficiency, similar to that found for Cas A and SN 1987A. The study provides another example of significant dust formation in a Type IIP SN explosion and sheds light on the properties of pristine SN-condensed dust.

  17. EVOLUTION OF THE DUST IN V4332 SAGITTARII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Dipankar P. K.; Ashok, N. M. [Astronomy and Astrophysics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); Nuth, Joseph A. III [NASA/GSFC, Mail Code: 690, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Misselt, Karl A.; Su, K. Y. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Varricatt, Watson P. [United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, 660 N. Aohoku Place, University Park Hilo, Hawaii-96720 (United States); Sand, David [Physics Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Marion, G. H. [University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Marengo, Massimo [Physics and Astronomy Department, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    An eruptive nova-like event took place in 1994 in the stellar-merger candidate V4332 Sgr. Following the eruption, dust consisting of refractory silicate-rich dust grains containing a significant component of AlO bonding was formed sometime between 1998 and 2003. Observations using Spitzer between 2005 and 2009 show significant changes in the 10 μm silicate stretch feature. There is a deepening of the 10 μm silicate stretch as well as the development of a feature between about 13 and 20 μm consistent with a blend of the MgO and FeO stretching features and the O–Si–O bending mode of increasingly ordered silicate dust. Near-infrared observations show the presence of AlO and water vapor in the outflow in 2003, 2004, and 2005: the AlO has significantly decreased in spectra obtained in 2014 while the water vapor remains largely unchanged. An attempt is made to correlate these observations and understand the significance of these changes using DUSTY modeling. The observations appear consistent with the kinetically controlled condensation of highly underoxidized SiO/AlO/Fe/Mg dust grains in the outflow followed by the continuous evolution of the initial condensate due to thermal annealing and oxidation of the dust via reaction with ambient O, OH, and H{sub 2}O in the expanding, cooling shell. Periodic monitoring of this dust shell over the mid-infrared spectral range could yield useful information on the evolution of underoxidized silicate condensates exposed to hot water vapor in more conventional circumstellar environments.

  18. Small vs. large dust grains in transitional disks: do different cavity sizes indicate a planet?. SAO 206462 (HD 135344B) in polarized light with VLT/NACO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garufi, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Avenhaus, H.; Buenzli, E.; Dominik, C.; Meru, F.; Meyer, M. R.; Pinilla, P.; Schmid, H. M.; Wolf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Transitional disks represent a short stage of the evolution of circumstellar material. Studies of dust grains in these objects can provide pivotal information on the mechanisms of planet formation. Dissimilarities in the spatial distribution of small (μm-size) and large (mm-size) dust grains have recently been pointed out. Aims: Constraints on the small dust grains can be obtained by imaging the distribution of scattered light at near-infrared wavelengths. We aim at resolving structures in the surface layer of transitional disks (with particular emphasis on the inner 10-50 AU), thus increasing the scarce sample of high-resolution images of these objects. Methods: We obtained VLT/NACO near-IR high-resolution polarimetric differential imaging observations of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). This technique allows one to image the polarized scattered light from the disk without any occulting mask and to reach an inner working angle of ~0.1″. Results: A face-on disk is detected in H and Ks bands between 0.1″ and 0.9″. No significant differences are seen between the H and Ks images. In addition to the spiral arms, these new data allow us to resolve for the first time an inner disk cavity for small dust grains. The cavity size (≃28 AU) is much smaller than what is inferred for large dust grains from (sub-)mm observations (39 to 50 AU). This discrepancy cannot be ascribed to any resolution effect. Conclusions: The interaction between the disk and potential orbiting companion(s) can explain both the spiral arm structure and the discrepant cavity sizes for small and large dust grains. One planet may be carving out the gas (and, thus, the small grains) at 28 AU, and generating a pressure bump at larger radii (39 AU), which holds back the large grains. We analytically estimate that, in this scenario, a single giant planet (with a mass between 5 and 15 MJ) at 17 to 20 AU from the star is consistent with the observed cavity sizes. Based on observations collected at the

  19. THE FORMATION OF THE PRIMITIVE STAR SDSS J102915+172927: EFFECT OF THE DUST MASS AND THE GRAIN-SIZE DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovino, S.; Banerjee, R.; Grassi, T.; Schleicher, D. R. G.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the formation of the extremely metal-poor star SDSS J102915+172927 is of fundamental importance to improve our knowledge on the transition between the first and second generation of stars in the universe. In this paper, we perform three-dimensional cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of dust-enriched halos during the early stages of the collapse process including a detailed treatment of the dust physics. We employ the astrochemistry package krome coupled with the hydrodynamical code enzo assuming grain-size distributions produced by the explosion of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) of 20 and 35 M ⊙ primordial stars, which are suitable to reproduce the chemical pattern of the SDSS J102915+172927 star. We find that the dust mass yield produced from Population III SNe explosions is the most important factor that drives the thermal evolution and the dynamical properties of the halos. Hence, for the specific distributions relevant in this context, the composition, the dust optical properties, and the size range have only minor effects on the results due to similar cooling functions. We also show that the critical dust mass to enable fragmentation provided by semi-analytical models should be revised, as we obtain values one order of magnitude larger. This determines the transition from disk fragmentation to a more filamentary fragmentation mode, and suggests that likely more than one single SN event or efficient dust growth should be invoked to get such high dust content.

  20. THE FORMATION OF THE PRIMITIVE STAR SDSS J102915+172927: EFFECT OF THE DUST MASS AND THE GRAIN-SIZE DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovino, S.; Banerjee, R. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Grassi, T. [Niels Bohr Institute and Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark); Schleicher, D. R. G., E-mail: stefano.bovino@uni-hamburg.de [Departamento de Astronomía, Facultad Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Av. Esteban Iturra s/n Barrio Universitario, Casilla 160, Concepción (Chile)

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the formation of the extremely metal-poor star SDSS J102915+172927 is of fundamental importance to improve our knowledge on the transition between the first and second generation of stars in the universe. In this paper, we perform three-dimensional cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of dust-enriched halos during the early stages of the collapse process including a detailed treatment of the dust physics. We employ the astrochemistry package krome coupled with the hydrodynamical code enzo assuming grain-size distributions produced by the explosion of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) of 20 and 35 M {sub ⊙} primordial stars, which are suitable to reproduce the chemical pattern of the SDSS J102915+172927 star. We find that the dust mass yield produced from Population III SNe explosions is the most important factor that drives the thermal evolution and the dynamical properties of the halos. Hence, for the specific distributions relevant in this context, the composition, the dust optical properties, and the size range have only minor effects on the results due to similar cooling functions. We also show that the critical dust mass to enable fragmentation provided by semi-analytical models should be revised, as we obtain values one order of magnitude larger. This determines the transition from disk fragmentation to a more filamentary fragmentation mode, and suggests that likely more than one single SN event or efficient dust growth should be invoked to get such high dust content.

  1. Hard X-ray irradiation of cosmic silicate analogs: structural evolution and astrophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, L.; Jäger, C.; Simionovici, A.; Lemaire, J. L.; Sabri, T.; Foy, E.; Yagoubi, S.; Henning, T.; Salomon, D.; Martinez-Criado, G.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Protoplanetary disks, interstellar clouds, and active galactic nuclei contain X-ray-dominated regions. X-rays interact with the dust and gas present in such environments. While a few laboratory X-ray irradiation experiments have been performed on ices, X-ray irradiation experiments on bare cosmic dust analogs have been scarce up to now. Aims: Our goal is to study the effects of hard X-rays on cosmic dust analogs via in situ X-ray diffraction. By using a hard X-ray synchrotron nanobeam, we seek to simulate cumulative X-ray exposure on dust grains during their lifetime in these astrophysical environments and provide an upper limit on the effect of hard X-rays on dust grain structure. Methods: We prepared enstatite (MgSiO3) nanograins, which are analogs to cosmic silicates, via the melting-quenching technique. These amorphous grains were then annealed to obtain polycrystalline grains. These were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) before irradiation. Powder samples were prepared in X-ray transparent substrates and were irradiated with hard X-rays nanobeams (29.4 keV) provided by beamline ID16B of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble). X-ray diffraction images were recorded in transmission mode, and the ensuing diffractograms were analyzed as a function of the total X-ray exposure time. Results: We detected the amorphization of polycrystalline silicates embedded in an organic matrix after an accumulated X-ray exposure of 6.4 × 1027 eV cm-2. Pure crystalline silicate grains (without resin) do not exhibit amorphization. None of the amorphous silicate samples (pure and embedded in resin) underwent crystallization. We analyze the evolution of the polycrystalline sample embedded in an organic matrix as a function of X-ray exposure. Conclusions: Loss of diffraction peak intensity, peak broadening, and the disappearance of discrete spots and arcs reveal the amorphization

  2. Dust Evolution in Galaxy Cluster Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjergo, Eda; Granato, Gian Luigi; Murante, Giuseppe; Ragone-Figueroa, Cinthia; Tornatore, Luca; Borgani, Stefano

    2018-06-01

    We implement a state-of-the-art treatment of the processes affecting the production and Interstellar Medium (ISM) evolution of carbonaceous and silicate dust grains within SPH simulations. We trace the dust grain size distribution by means of a two-size approximation. We test our method on zoom-in simulations of four massive (M200 ≥ 3 × 1014M⊙) galaxy clusters. We predict that during the early stages of assembly of the cluster at z ≳ 3, where the star formation activity is at its maximum in our simulations, the proto-cluster regions are rich in dusty gas. Compared to the case in which only dust production in stellar ejecta is active, if we include processes occurring in the cold ISM,the dust content is enhanced by a factor 2 - 3. However, the dust properties in this stage turn out to be significantly different from those observationally derived for the average Milky Way dust, and commonly adopted in calculations of dust reprocessing. We show that these differences may have a strong impact on the predicted spectral energy distributions. At low redshift in star forming regions our model reproduces reasonably well the trend of dust abundances over metallicity as observed in local galaxies. However we under-produce by a factor of 2 to 3 the total dust content of clusters estimated observationally at low redshift, z ≲ 0.5 using IRAS, Planck and Herschel satellites data. This discrepancy does not subsist by assuming a lower sputtering efficiency, which erodes dust grains in the hot Intracluster Medium (ICM).

  3. Neutrophil infiltration and release of IL-8 in airway mucosa from subjects with grain dust-induced occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Jung, K S; Hwang, S C; Nahm, D H; Yim, H E

    1998-06-01

    The immuno-pathological mechanism for occupational asthma induced by grain dust (GD) remains to be clarified. There have been few reports suggesting the involvement of neutrophils inducing bronchoconstriction after inhalation of GD. To further understand the role of neutrophil in the pathogenesis of GD-induced asthma. We studied the phenotype of leucocytes of the bronchial mucosa in patients with GD-induced asthma. Bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained by fibreoptic bronchoscopy from six subjects with GD-induced asthma. Six allergic asthma patients sensitive to house dust mite were enrolled as controls. Bronchial biopsy specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to tryptase-containing mast cell (AA1), activated eosinophil (EG2), pan T-lymphocyte (CD3) and neutrophil elastase (NE). Induced sputum was collected before and after the GD-bronchoprovocation test. The IL-8 level in the sputum was measured using ELISA. There was a significant increase in the number of AA1+ and NE+ cells in bronchial mucosa of GD-induced asthma, compared with those of allergic asthma (P=0.01, P=0.01, respectively). No significant differences were observed in the number of EG2+ and CD3+ cells (P = 0.13, P=0.15, respectively). IL-8 was abundant in the sputum of all GD-induced asthma patients and significantly increased after the bronchial challenges compared with the baseline value (P = 0.03). These findings support the view that neutrophil recruitment together with mast cells may contribute to the bronchoconstriction induced by GD. A possible involvement of IL-8 was suggested.

  4. A comparative study of the grain-size distribution of surface dust and stormwater runoff quality on typical urban roads and roofs in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhenyao; Liu, Jin; Aini, Guzhanuer; Gong, Yongwei

    2016-02-01

    The deposition of pollutants on impervious surfaces is a serious problem associated with rapid urbanization, which results in non-point-source pollution. Characterizing the build-up and wash-off processes of pollutants in urban catchments is essential for urban planners. In this paper, the spatial variation and particle-size distributions of five heavy metals and two nutrients in surface dust were analyzed, and the runoff water first-flush effect (FF30) and event-mean concentrations (EMCs) of 10 common constituents were characterized. The relationships between runoff variables and stormwater characteristics were examined from three typical urban impervious surfaces in Beijing, China. Dust on road surfaces with smaller grain sizes had higher pollutant concentrations, whereas concentrations of Mn, Zn, Fe, and TP in roof surface dust increased with grain size. Particles with grain sizes of 38-74 and 125-300 μm contributed most to the total pollutant load in roads, while particles with the smallest grain sizes (roads. The maximum intensity (I max) and the antecedent dry days (ADD) were critical parameters for EMCs in roads, while ADD was the only dominant parameter for EMCs on our studied roof. The rainfall intensity (RI) and maximum intensity (I max) were found to be the parameters with the strongest correlation to the first-flush effect on both roads and roofs. Significant correlations of total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in runoff with grain-size fractions of surface dust indicated that coarser particles (74-300 μm) are most likely to contribute to the solid-phase pollutants, and finer particles (<38 μm) are likely the main source of dissolved pollutants.

  5. Silicates in Alien Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescopes shows that asteroid dust around a dead 'white dwarf' star contains silicates a common mineral on Earth. The data were taken primarily by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that breaks light apart into its basic constituents. The yellow dots show averaged data from the spectrograph, while the orange triangles show older data from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The white dwarf is called GD 40.

  6. Spectrophotometry of Dust in Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Comets, such as Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1), are frozen reservoirs of primitive solar nebula dust grains and ices. Analysis of the composition of cometary dust grains from infrared spectroscopic techniques permits an estimation of the types of organic and inorganic materials that constituted the early primitive solar nebula. In addition, the cometary bombardment of the Earth (approximately 3.5 Gy ago) supplied the water for the oceans and brought organic materials to Earth which may have been biogenic. Spectroscopic observations of comet Hale-Bopp suggest the possible presence of organic hydrocarbon species, silicate and olivine dust grains, and water ice. Spectroscopy near 3 microns obtained in Nov 1996 r=2.393 AU, delta=3.034 AU) shows a feature which we attribute to PAH emission. The spatial morphology of the 3.28 microns PAH feature is also presented. Optical and infrared spectrophotometric observations of comets convey valuable information about the spatial distribution and properties of dust and gas within the inner coma. In the optical and NIR shortward of 2 microns, the observed light is primarily scattered sunlight from the dust grains. At longer wavelengths, particularly in the 10 gm window, thermal emission from these grains dominates the radiation allowing an accurate estimate of grain sizes and chemical composition. Here we present an initial analysis of spectra taken with the NASA HIFOGS at 7-14 microns as part of a multiwavelength temporal study of the "comet of the century".

  7. PROTOPLANETARY DISK MASSES IN IC348: A RAPID DECLINE IN THE POPULATION OF SMALL DUST GRAINS AFTER 1 Myr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nicholas; Williams, Jonathan P.; Cieza, Lucas A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a 1.3 mm continuum survey of protoplanetary disks in the 2-3 Myr old cluster, IC348, with the Submillimeter Array. We observed 85 young stellar objects and detected 10 with 1.3 mm fluxes greater than 2 mJy. The brightest source is a young embedded protostar driving a molecular outflow. The other nine detections are dusty disks around optically visible stars. Our millimeter flux measurements translate into total disk masses ranging from 2 to 6 Jupiter masses. Each detected disk has strong mid-infrared emission in excess of the stellar photosphere and has Hα equivalent widths larger than the average in the cluster and indicative of ongoing gas accretion. The disk mass distribution, however, is shifted by about a factor of 20 to lower masses, compared to that in the ∼1 Myr old Taurus and Ophiuchus regions. These observations reveal the rapid decline in the number of small dust grains in disks with time and probably their concomitant growth beyond millimeter sizes. Moreover, if IC348 is to form planets in the same proportion as detected in the field, these faint millimeter detections may represent the best candidates in the cluster to study the progression from planetesimals to planets.

  8. PROBING EXTRAGALACTIC DUST THROUGH NEARBY GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, S. L.; Li Aigen

    2010-01-01

    The quantities and wavelength dependencies of the dust extinction along the lines of sight toward 33 nearby gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with redshifts z V derived from the Drude approach is generally larger by a factor of ∼2-5 than that inferred by assuming a SMC-type template extinction law. Consistent with previous studies, the extinction-to-gas ratio is mostly smaller than that of the MW, and does not seem to correlate with the shape of the extinction curve. It is shown that the standard silicate-graphite interstellar grain model closely reproduces the extinction curves of all 33 GRBs host galaxies. For these 33 bursts at z < 2, we find no evidence for the evolution of the dust extinction, dust sizes, and relative abundances of silicate to graphite on redshifts.

  9. Chemical evolution of interstellar dust, comets and the origins of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.; Zhao, N.; Hage, J.

    1989-01-01

    The chemistry and morphological structure of a comet nucleus as an aggregate of interstellar dust is used to provide comparisons with a variety of comet Halley results: the density of the nucleus and of the dust; the dust cloud model and its consequences on the production of C + and CN in the coma by small organic grains; the surface albedo and the low nucleus heat conductivity and high surface temperature; the appearance of 10 -14 g and 10 -17 g dust particles along with higher masses; the mass spectra of dust and infrared spectroscopy as evidence for complex organic grain mantles and of very small carbonaceous and silicate grains; the appearence of small grains resulting from breakup of larger grains. The cosmic ray dosage of a comet nucleus during its 4.5 billion years in the Oort cloud appears to be many orders of magnitude less than the dosage of the preaggregated interstellar dust by ultraviolet photons except perhaps in the outer few meters of the nucleus of a new comet. The heat conductivity calculated for aggregated dust is certainly less than 10 -4 that of crystalline ice. This, in combination with the interstellar dust microstructure, provide a basis for showing that solar heating of the interior of a nucleus is lower than previously estimated

  10. Dust around the Cool Component of D-Type Symbiotic Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkic, Tomislav; Kotnik-Karuza, Dubravka

    2018-04-01

    D type symbiotic binaries are an excellent astrophysical laboratory for investigation of the dust properties and dust formation under the influence of theMira stellar wind and nova activity and of the mass loss and mass transfer between components in such a widely separated system. We present a study of the properties of circumstellar dust in symbiotic Miras by use of long-term near-IR photometry and colour indices. The published JHKL magnitudes of o Ceti, RX Pup, KM Vel, V366 Car, V835 Cen, RR Tel, HM Sge and R Aqr have been collected, analyzed and corrected for short-term variations caused by Mira pulsations. Assuming spherical temperature distribution of the dust in the close neighbourhood of the Mira, the DUSTY code was used to solve the radiative transfer in order to determine the dust temperature and its properties in each particular case. Common dust properties of the symbiotic Miras have been found, suggesting similar conditions in the condensation region of the studied symbiotic Miras. Silicate dust with the inner dust shell radius determined by the dust condensation and with the dust temperature of 900-1200 K can fully explain the observed colour indices. R Aqr is an exception and showed lower dust temperature of 650 K. Obscuration events visible in light curves can be explained by variable dust optical depth with minimal variations of other dust properties. More active symbioticMiras that underwent recent nova outbursts showed higher dust optical depths and larger maximum grain sizes of the order of μm, which means that the post-nova activity could stimulate the dust formation and the grain growth. Optically thicker dust shells and higher dust condensation temperatures have been found in symbiotic Miras compared to their single counterparts, suggesting different conditions for dust production.

  11. Grain dust induces IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells: the effect of dexamethasone on IL-8 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Suh, J H; Kim, H Y; Kwon, O J; Choi, D C

    1999-04-01

    Recent publications have suggested an active participation of neutrophils to induce bronchoconstriction after inhalation of grain dust (GD). To further understand the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of GD-induced asthma, this investigation was designed to determine whether human bronchial epithelial cells could produce IL-8 production and to observe the effect of dexamethasone on IL-8 production. We cultured Beas-2B, a bronchial epithelial cell line. To observe GD-induced responses, four concentrations (1 to 200 microg/mL) of GD were incubated for 24 hours and compared with those without incubation of GD. To evaluate the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on IL-8 production, epithelial cells were incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture supernatant, which was derived from the culture of PBMC from a GD-induced asthmatic subject under the exposure to 10 microg/mL of GD, and compared with those cultured without addition of PBMC supernatant. The level of released IL-8 in the supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To evaluate the effect of dexamethasone on IL-8 production, four concentrations (5 to 5000 ng/mL) of dexamethasone were pre-incubated for 24 hours and the same experiments were repeated. There was significant production of IL-8 from bronchial epithelial cells with additions of GD in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05), which was significantly augmented with additions of PBMC supernatant (P < .05) at each concentration. Compared with the untreated sample, pretreatment of dexamethasone could induced a remarkable inhibitions (15% to 55%) of IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells may contribute to neutrophil recruitment occurring in GD-induced airway inflammation. The downregulation of IL-8 production by dexamethasone from bronchial epithelial cells may contribute to the efficacy of this compound in

  12. Segregation of O2 and CO on the surface of dust grains determines the desorption energy of O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, J. A.; Diana, S.; Dulieu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Selective depletion towards pre-stellar cores is still not understood. The exchange between the solid and gas phases is central to this mystery. The aim of this paper is to show that the thermal desorption of O2 and CO from a submonolayer mixture is greatly affected by the composition of the initial surface population. We have performed thermally programmed desorption (TPD) experiments on various submonolayer mixtures of O2 and CO. Pure O2 and CO exhibit almost the same desorption behaviour, but their desorption differs strongly when mixed. Pure O2 is slightly less volatile than CO, while in mixtures, O2 desorbs earlier than CO. We analyse our data using a desorption law linking competition for binding sites with desorption, based on the assumption that the binding energy distribution of both molecules is the same. We apply Fermi-Dirac statistics in order to calculate the adsorption site population distribution, and derive the desorbing fluxes. Despite its simplicity, the model reproduces the observed desorption profiles, indicating that competition for adsorption sites is the reason for lower temperature O2 desorption. CO molecules push-out or `dislodge' O2 molecules from the most favourable binding sites, ultimately forcing their early desorption. It is crucial to consider the surface coverage of dust grains in any description of desorption. Competition for access to binding sites results in some important discrepancies between similar kinds of molecules, such as CO and O2. This is an important phenomenon to be investigated in order to develop a better understanding of the apparently selective depletion observed in dark molecular clouds.

  13. Comet Grains: Their IR Emission and Their Relation to ISM Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Comets and the chodritic, porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) that they shed in their comae are reservoirs of primitive solar nebula materials. The high porosity and fragility of cometary grains and CP IDPs, and anomalously high deuterium contents of highly fragile, pyroxene-rich Cluster IDPs imply these aggregate particles contain significant abundances of grains from the interstellar medium (ISM). IR spectra of comets (3 - 40 micron) reveal the presence of a warm (nearIR) featureless emission modeled by amorphous carbon grains. Broad and narrow resonances near 10 and 20 microns are modeled by warm chondritic (50% Fe and 50% Mg) amorphous silicates and cooler Mg-rich crystalline silicate minerals, respectively. Cometary amorphous silicates resonances are well matched by IR spectra of CP IDPs dominated by GEMS (0.1 micron silicate spherules) that are thought to be the interstellar Fe-bearing amorphous silicates produced in AGB stars. Acid-etched ultramicrotomed CP IDP samples, however, show that both the carbon phase (amorphous and aliphatic) and the Mg-rich amorphous silicate phase in GEMS are not optically absorbing. Rather, it is Fe and FeS nanoparticles embedded in the GEMS that makes the CP IDPs dark. Therefore, CP IDPs suggest significant processing has occurred in the ISM. ISM processing probably includes in He' ion bombardment in supernovae shocks. Laboratory experiments show He+ ion bombardment amorphizes crystalline silicates, increases porosity, and reduces Fe into nanoparticles. Cometary crystalline silicate resonances are well matched by IR spectra of laboratory submicron Mg-rich olivine crystals and pyroxene crystals. Discovery of a Mg-pure olivine crystal in a Cluster IDP with isotopically anomalous oxygen indicates that a small fraction of crystalline silicates may have survived their journey from AGB stars through the ISM to the early solar nebula. The ISM does not have enough crystalline silicates (ISM Mg-rich crystals leads to the

  14. Cross-shift changes in blood inflammatory markers occur in the absence of airway obstruction in workers exposed to grain dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borm, P J; Schins, R P; Derhaag, T J; Kant, I; Jorna, T H

    1996-04-01

    Grain dust is well known to cause both acute and chronic respiratory disorders, and endotoxins are considered key components in this. Since endotoxins are known to elicit proinflammatory mediators, we investigated cytokine (tumor necrosis factor [TNF], interleukin-6, interleukin-8) release and a number of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory proteins (soluble TNF receptors, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding protein, bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI), C-reactive protein) in plasma of workers exposed to grain dust. In two surveys during 1 week, lung function was measured daily before and after the shift, using flow-volume curves and/or forced oscillation measurements. On Monday and Friday, blood samples (30 mL) were drawn and cytokine release was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in supernatant of isolated monocytes or whole blood culture, either unstimulated or on the ex vivo stimulation with 3 ng/mL or 1,000 ng/mL endotoxin. Individual exposures were determined from stationary dust measurements at every workplace combined with personal task analysis during all shifts. In both surveys, no cross-week change in lung function parameters was observed. In the first survey (average exposure: 20.2 mg/m3), monocyte spontaneous TNF release was increased sevenfold cross week (pdust exposure (r=0.62) of that week and the increase in soluble TNF receptor 75 kD (r=0.85). In the second survey, where average exposure was much lower (3.67 mg/m3), impedance parameters indicated a significant improvement of airway function, and cross-week changes in inflammatory markers were minimal. Therefore, we conclude that inflammatory events can be used to monitor adverse respiratory effects of moderate grain dust exposure.

  15. Guilt by Association: The 13 micron Dust Feature in Circumstellar Shells and Related Spectral Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, G. C.; Kraemer, K. E.; Goebel, J. H.; Price, S. D.

    A study of spectra from the SWS on ISO of optically thin oxygen-rich dust shells shows that the strength of the 13 micron dust emission feature is correlated with the CO2 bands (13--17 microns) and dust emission features at 19.8 and 28.1 microns. SRb variables tend to show stronger 13 micron features than Mira variables, suggesting that the presence of the 13 micron and related features depends on pulsation mode and mass-loss rate. The absence of any correlation to dust emission features at 16.8 and 32 microns makes spinel an unlikely carrier. The most plausible carrier of the 13 micron feature remains crystalline alumina, and we suggest that the related dust features may be crystalline silicates. When dust forms in regions of low density, it may condense into crystalline grain structures.

  16. Reduction experiment of FeO-bearing amorphous silicate: application to origin of metallic iron in GEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuno, Junya; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Miyake, Akira [Department of Geology and Mineralogy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Noguchi, Ryo [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ichikawa, Satoshi, E-mail: jmatsuno@kueps.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute for Nano-science Design, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2014-09-10

    Glass with embedded metal and sulfides (GEMS) are amorphous silicates included in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and can provide information about material evolution in our early solar system. Several formation processes for GEMS have been proposed so far, but these theories are still being debated. To investigate a possible GEMS origin by reduction of interstellar silicates, we synthesized amorphous silicates with a mean GEMS composition and performed heating experiments in a reducing atmosphere. FeO-bearing amorphous silicates were heated at 923 K and 973 K for 3 hr, and at 1023 K for 1-48 hr at ambient pressure in a reducing atmosphere. Fe grains formed at the interface between the silicate and the reducing gas through a reduction. In contrast, TEM observations of natural GEMS show that metallic grains are uniformly embedded in amorphous silicates. Therefore, the present study suggests that metallic inclusions in GEMS could not form as reduction products and that other formation process such as condensation or irradiation are more likely.

  17. Dust Processing in Supernova Remnants: Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, John W.; Petre, Robert; Katsuda Satoru; Andersen, M.; Rho, J.; Reach, W. T.; Bernard, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS observations of 14 Galactic Supernova Remnants previously identified in the GLIMPSE survey. We find evidence for SNR/molecular cloud interaction through detection of [OI] emission, ionic lines, and emission from molecular hydrogen. Through black-body fitting of the MIPS SEDs we find the large grains to be warm, 29-66 K. The dust emission is modeled using the DUSTEM code and a three component dust model composed of populations of big grains, very small grains, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We find the dust to be moderately heated, typically by 30-100 times the interstellar radiation field. The source of the radiation is likely hydrogen recombination, where the excitation of hydrogen occurred in the shock front. The ratio of very small grains to big grains is found for most of the molecular interacting SNRs to be higher than that found in the plane of the Milky Way, typically by a factor of 2--3. We suggest that dust shattering is responsible for the relative over-abundance of small grains, in agreement with prediction from dust destruction models. However, two of the SNRs are best fit with a very low abundance of carbon grains to silicate grains and with a very high radiation field. A likely reason for the low abundance of small carbon grains is sputtering. We find evidence for silicate emission at 20 $\\mu$m in their SEDs, indicating that they are young SNRs based on the strong radiation field necessary to reproduce the observed SEDs.

  18. Application of Principal Component Analysis in Assessment of Relation Between the Parameters of Technological Quality of Wheat Grains Treated with Inert Dusts Against Rice Weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bodroža-Solarov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters of several wheat grain lots (low vitreous and high vitreous grains,non-infested and infested with rice weevils, (Sitophilus oryzae L. treated with inert dusts(natural zeolite, two diatomaceous earths originating from Serbia and a commercial productProtect-It® were investigated. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to investigatethe classification of treated grain lots and to assess how attributes of technological qualitycontribute to this classification. This research showed that vitreousness (0.95 and test weight(0.93 contributed most to the first principal component whereas extensigraph area (-0.76contributed to the second component. The determined accountability of the total variabilityby the first component was around 55%, while with the second it was 18%, which meansthat those two dimensions together account for around 70% of total variability of the observedset of variables. Principal component analysis (PCA of data set was able to distinguishamong the various treatments of wheat lots. It was revealed that inert dust treatments producedifferent effects depending on the degree of endosperm vitreousness.

  19. Dust Formation, Evolution, and Obscuration Effects in the Very High-Redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacs, Attila; Su, Ting; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z > or approx. 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally-condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production comported to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This "silicate-UV break" may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxies' photometric redshift. In this paper we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high redshift universe. Subject headings: galaxies: high-redshift - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: individual (MACS1149- JD) - Interstellar medium (ISM), nebulae: dust, extinction - physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances.

  20. Measurements, characterizing and reduction of dust during combustion of energy grain; Maetning, karaktaerisering och reduktion av stoft vid eldning av spannmaal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennbaeck, Marie; Johansson, Linda; Claesson, Frida; Johansson, Mathias

    2008-07-01

    There is a potential for cereal grain for combustion use in Sweden, as well as for other agricultural fuels with similar qualities. Today, grain is combusted mainly in small-scale appliances. As all fast growing crops, the ash content is higher compared to wood fuels, resulting in a higher emission of particles. There are no limits for particle emission from appliances smaller than 500 kW in Sweden today. Nevertheless, it is important to consider these emissions because dust from small scale combustion of biofuels is one of the larger sources of particles to air in Sweden and in Europe today. Lately, is has been observed that the ultra fine particles (< 0.1 mum) is a cause of increased mortality. During large-scale combustion, the flue gas is cleaned from particles by electrostatic or fabric filters. During small-scale combustion primary measures is preferred by economical reasons. Particles can be reduced by design of the appliances or control of the combustion process. It might also be possible to reduce particles by use of additives that ties the volatile matters to the bottom ash and/or causes them leave as gas instead of particles. The aim of this project is to characterize and reduce particle emissions from combustion of cereal grain by use of additives. Limestone and kaolin were tested in a burner for oat grain. Particle emission was measured as total dust, as mass size distributed and as number size distributed. Fuel, bottom ash and dust were characterized chemically. In the flue gas carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide and hydrogen chloride was measured. Equilibrium calculations were performed for combustion with and without additives. The combustion was not negatively influenced by the additives. The results confirm that lime stone reduces emissions of acidifying and corrosive gases such as sulphur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Both lime stone and kaolin increase the ash fusion temperature. Results from

  1. Will Organic Synthesis Within Icy Grains or on Dust Surfaces in the Primitive Solar Nebula Completely Erase the Effects of Photochemical Self Shielding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2012-01-01

    There are at least 3 separate photochemical self-shielding models with different degrees of commonality. All of these models rely on the selective absorption of (12))C(16)O dissociative photons as the radiation source penetrates through the gas allowing the production of reactive O-17 and O-18 atoms within a specific volume. Each model also assumes that the undissociated C(16)O is stable and does not participate in the chemistry of nebular dust grains. In what follows we will argue that this last, very important assumption is simply not true despite the very high energy of the CO molecular bond.

  2. Physics of interstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Krugel, Endrik

    2002-01-01

    The dielectric permeability; How to evaluate grain cross sections; Very small and very big particles; Case studies of Mie calculus; Particle statistics; The radiative transition probability; Structure and composition of dust; Dust radiation; Dust and its environment; Polarization; Grain alignment; PAHs and spectral features of dust; Radiative transport; Diffuse matter in the Milky Way; Stars and their formation; Emission from young stars. Appendices Mathematical formulae; List of symbols.

  3. Exposure to field vs. storage wheat dust: different consequences on respiratory symptoms and immune response among grain workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Coralie; Wild, Pascal; Dorribo, Victor; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Laboissière, Audrey; Pralong, Jacques A; Danuser, Brigitta; Krief, Peggy; Millon, Laurence; Reboux, Gabriel; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène

    2018-05-26

    The aim of this study was to understand the differential acute effects of two distinct wheat-related dusts, such as field or stored wheat dust handling, on workers' health and how those effects evolved at 6 month intervals. Exposure, work-related symptoms, changes in lung function, and blood samples of 81 workers handling wheat and 61 controls were collected during the high exposure season and 6 months after. Specific IgG, IgE, and precipitins against 12 fungi isolated from wheat dust were titrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay, and electrosyneresis. The level of fungi was determined in the workers' environment. Levels of exhaled fraction of nitrogen monoxide (F E NO) and total IgE were obtained. Exposure response associations were investigated by mixed logistic and linear regression models. The recent exposure to field wheat dust was associated with a higher prevalence for five of six self-reported airway symptoms and with a lower F E NO than those in the control population. Exposure to stored wheat dust was only associated with cough. No acute impact of exposure on respiratory function was observed. Exposure to field wheat dust led to workers' sensitization against the three field fungi Aureobasidum, Cryptococcus, and Phoma, although exposure to storage wheat dust was associated with tolerance. The level of Ig remained stable 6 months after exposure. The clinical picture of workers exposed to field or storage wheat dust differed. The systematic characterization of the aerosol microbial profile may help to understand the reasons for those differences.

  4. Infrared dust emission from globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, L.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.; Giannone, P.; Blanco, A.; Bussoletti, E.

    1982-01-01

    The implications of the presence of a central cloud in the cores of globular clusters were investigated recently. A possible mechanism of confinement of dust in the central region of our cluster models was also explored. The grain temperature and infrared emission have now been computed for rather realistic grain compositions. The grain components were assumed to be graphite and/or silicates. The central clouds turned out to be roughly isothermal. The wavelengths of maximum emission came out to be larger than 20 μm in all studied cases. An application of the theoretical results to five globular clusters showed that the predictable infrared emission for 47 Tuc, M4 and M22 should be detectable by means of present instrumentation aboard flying platforms. (author)

  5. Infrared dust emission from globular clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeletti, L; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R; Giannone, P. (Rome Univ. (Italy). Osservatorio Astronomico); Blanco, A; Bussoletti, E [Lecce Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1982-05-01

    The implications of the presence of a central cloud in the cores of globular clusters were investigated recently. A possible mechanism of confinement of dust in the central region of our cluster models was also explored. The grain temperature and infrared emission have now been computed for rather realistic grain compositions. The grain components were assumed to be graphite and/or silicates. The central clouds turned out to be roughly isothermal. The wavelengths of maximum emission came out to be larger than 20 ..mu..m in all studied cases. An application of the theoretical results to five globular clusters showed that the predictable infrared emission for 47 Tuc, M4 and M22 should be detectable by means of present instrumentation aboard flying platforms.

  6. Effects of Chemistry on Vertical Dust Motion in Early Protoplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Yoshinori; Korenaga, Jun [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-11-01

    We propose the possibility of a new phenomenon affecting the settling of dust grains at the terrestrial region in early protoplanetary disks. Sinking dust grains evaporate in a hot inner region during the early stage of disk evolution, and the effects of condensation and evaporation on vertical dust settling can be significant. A 1D dust settling model considering both physical and chemical aspects is presented in this paper. Modeling results show that dust grains evaporate as they descend into the hotter interior and form a condensation front, above which dust-composing major elements, Mg, Si, and Fe, accumulate, creating a large temperature gradient. Repeated evaporation at the front inhibits grain growth, and small grain sizes elevate the opacity away from the midplane. Self-consistent calculations, including radiative heat transfer and condensation theory, suggest that the mid-disk temperature could be high enough for silicates to remain evaporated longer than previous estimates. The formation of a condensation front leads to contrasting settling behaviors between highly refractory elements, such as Al and Ca, and moderately refractory elements, such as Mg, Si, and Fe, suggesting that elemental abundance in planetesimals may not be a simple function of volatility.

  7. THE REINCARNATION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST: THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC REFRACTORY MATERIAL IN INFRARED SPECTRA OF COMETARY COMAE AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Hiroshi, E-mail: hiroshi_kimura@cps-jp.org [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, c/o CPS (Center for Planetary Science), Chuo-ku Minatojima Minamimachi 7-1-48, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    We consider the reincarnation of interstellar dust to be reborn in protoplanetary disks as aggregates consisting of submicron-sized grains with a crystalline or amorphous silicate core and an organic-rich carbonaceous mantle. We find that infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust reproduce emission peaks at correct wavelengths where the peaks were observed in cometary comae, debris disks, and protoplanetary disks if the volume fraction of organic refractory meets the constraints on elemental abundances. We discuss what we can learn from the infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust in cometary comae and circumstellar disks.

  8. The Reincarnation of Interstellar Dust: The Importance of Organic Refractory Material in Infrared Spectra of Cometary Comae and Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    We consider the reincarnation of interstellar dust to be reborn in protoplanetary disks as aggregates consisting of submicron-sized grains with a crystalline or amorphous silicate core and an organic-rich carbonaceous mantle. We find that infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust reproduce emission peaks at correct wavelengths where the peaks were observed in cometary comae, debris disks, and protoplanetary disks if the volume fraction of organic refractory meets the constraints on elemental abundances. We discuss what we can learn from the infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust in cometary comae and circumstellar disks.

  9. THE REINCARNATION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST: THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC REFRACTORY MATERIAL IN INFRARED SPECTRA OF COMETARY COMAE AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    We consider the reincarnation of interstellar dust to be reborn in protoplanetary disks as aggregates consisting of submicron-sized grains with a crystalline or amorphous silicate core and an organic-rich carbonaceous mantle. We find that infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust reproduce emission peaks at correct wavelengths where the peaks were observed in cometary comae, debris disks, and protoplanetary disks if the volume fraction of organic refractory meets the constraints on elemental abundances. We discuss what we can learn from the infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust in cometary comae and circumstellar disks

  10. Metal-silicate fractionation in the surface dust layers of accreting planetesimals: Implications for the formation of ordinary chondrites and the nature of asteroid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoxiong; Akridge, Glen; Sears, Derek W. G.

    Some of the most primitive solar system materials available for study in the laboratory are the ordinary chondrites, the largest meteorite class. The size and distribution of the chondrules (silicate beads) and metal, which leads to the definition of the H, L, and LL classes, suggest sorting before or during aggregation. We suggest that meteorite parent bodies (probably asteroids) had thick dusty surfaces during their early evolution that were easily mobilized by gases evolving from their interiors. Density and size sorting would have occurred in the surface layers as the upward drag forces of the gases (mainly water) acted against the downward force of gravity. The process is analogous to the industrially important process of fluidization and sorting in pyroclastic volcanics. We calculate that gas flow velocities and gas fluxes for the regolith of an asteroid-sized object heated by the impact of accreting objects or by 26Al would have been sufficient for fluidization. It can also explain, quantitatively in some cases, the observed metal-silicate sorting of ordinary chondrites, which has long been ascribed to processes occurring in the primordial solar nebula. Formation of the chondrites in the thick dynamic regolith is consistent with the major properties of chondritic meteorites (i.e., redox state, petrologic type, cooling rate, matrix abundance). These ideas have implications for the nature of asteroid surfaces and the virtual lack of asteroids with ordinary chondrite-like surfaces.

  11. Influência da escória silicatada na acidez do solo e na produtividade de grãos do arroz de terras altas Influence of calcium silicate slag on soil acidity and upland rice grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Pereira Barbosa Filho

    2004-04-01

    this investigation were to evaluate in two consecutive years, soil acidity correction, grain yield and Si uptake in upland rice. Six doses of calcium silicate slag with 20% of total SiO2 (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 t ha-1 in form of calcium silicate slag, a subproduct of phosphorus processed in electric furnace was applied to oxisoil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with five repetitions. Application of calcium silicate slag resulted in significant grain yield increase, tissue silicon content and silicon accumulation in straw and the filled grain percentage in the first and in the second year of rice cultivation. The critical Si level in the rice straw required for obtaining satisfactory yield was 2,25 g kg-1 of dry matter. In soil, the application of calcium silicate slag reduced soil acidity and increased available P, Si, exchangeable Ca, and saturation of bases. There was significant correlation between soluble Si extracted in acetic acid extraction 0.5 mol L-1 and water, in relation to soluble Si content found in soil after rice cultivation.

  12. Constraints on interstellar dust models from extinction and spectro-polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenmorgen, R.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Bagnulo, S.; Cox, N. L. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present polarisation spectra of seven stars in the lines-of-sight towards the Sco OB1 association. Our spectra were obtained within the framework of the Large Interstellar Polarization Survey carried out with the FORS instrument of the ESO VLT. We have modelled the wavelength-dependence of extinction and linear polarisation with a dust model for the diffuse interstellar medium which consists of a mixture of particles with size ranging from the molecular domain of 0.5 nm up to 350 nm. We have included stochastically heated small dust grains with radii between 0.5 and 6 nm made of graphite and silicate, as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs), and we have assumed that larger particles are prolate spheroids made of amorphous carbon and silicate. Overall, a dust model with eight free parameters best reproduces the observations, and is in agreement with cosmic abundance constraints. Reducing the number of free parameters leads to results that are inconsistent with the cosmic abundances of silicate and carbon. We found that aligned silicates are the dominant contributor to the observed polarisation, and that the polarisation spectra are best-fit by a lower limit of the equivolume sphere radius of aligned grains of 70-200 nm.

  13. Constraint on the polarization of electric dipole emission from spinning dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Thiem; Martin, P. G. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    Planck results have revealed that the electric dipole emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is the most reliable explanation for the anomalous microwave emission that interferes with cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation experiments. The emerging question is to what extent this emission component contaminates the polarized CMB radiation. We present constraints on polarized dust emission for the model of grain-size distribution and grain alignment that best fits the observed extinction and polarization curves. Two stars with a prominent polarization feature at λ = 2175 Å—HD 197770 and HD 147933-4—are chosen for our study. For HD 197770, we find that the model with aligned silicate grains plus weakly aligned PAHs can successfully reproduce the 2175 Å polarization feature; in contrast, for HD 147933-4, we find that the alignment of only silicate grains can account for that feature. The alignment function of PAHs for the best-fit model to the HD 197770 data is used to constrain polarized spinning dust emission. We find that the degree of polarization of spinning dust emission is about 1.6% at frequency ν ≈ 3 GHz and declines to below 0.9% for ν > 20 GHz. We also predict the degree of polarization of thermal dust emission at 353 GHz to be P {sub em} ≈ 11% and 14% for the lines of sight to the HD 197770 and HD 147933-4 stars, respectively.

  14. Planck intermediate results. XXII. Frequency dependence of thermal emission from Galactic dust in intensity and polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, J. F.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.

    2015-01-01

    )% from 353 to 70 GHz. We discuss this result within the context of existing dust models. The decrease in p could indicate differences in polarization efficiency among components of interstellar dust (e.g., carbon versus silicate grains). Our observational results provide inputs to quantify and optimize......Planck has mapped the intensity and polarization of the sky at microwave frequencies with unprecedented sensitivity. We use these data to characterize the frequency dependence of dust emission. We make use of the Planck 353 GHz I, Q, and U Stokes maps as dust templates, and cross-correlate them...... of the cosmic microwave background. We use a mask that focuses our analysis on the diffuse interstellar medium at intermediate Galactic latitudes. We determine the spectral indices of dust emission in intensity and polarization between 100 and 353 GHz, for each sky patch. Both indices are found to be remarkably...

  15. A spectroscopic study of absorption and emission features of interstellar dust components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwet, G.P. van der.

    1986-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of silicate interstellar dust grains are the subject of this thesis. The process of accretion and photolysis is simulated in the laboratory by condensing mixtures of gases onto a cold substrate (T ∼ 12 K) in a vacuum chamber and photolyzing these mixtures with a vacuum ultraviolet source. Alternatively, the gas mixtures may be passed through a microwave discharge first, before deposition. The spectroscopic properties of the ices are investigated using ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectroscopy. (Auth.)

  16. Grain dust originating from organic and conventional farming as a potential source of biological agents causing respiratory diseases in farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta A; Cholewa, Grażyna; Krasowska, Ewelina; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Zwoliński, Jacek; Sobczak, Paweł

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural producers are exposed to a number of different health risks associated with their work environment. The objective of the study was to assess the degree of colonization by fungi in terms of quantity and in terms of variety of species the samples taken from the settled dust from combine threshing of rye cultivation from organic and conventional farms in the Province of Lublin. This paper is a preliminary quantitative assessment of the species of fungi colonizing the samples of settled dust collected during combine threshing from organic and conventional farms in the Province of Lublin. One of the stages of the project was the classification of biosafety BSL (biosafety level) of selected isolates and API ZYM tests to evaluate the potential ability of isolates to cause adverse health effects. To determine the concentration and composition of fungi in collected samples plate dilution method was used with two media: Malt Agar and Potato Dextrose Agar. MOST COMMONLY ISOLATED FUNGI IN SETTLED DUST SAMPLES COLLECTED DURING COMBINE THRESHING FROM ORGANIC FARMS, ON PDA MEDIUM WERE: Alternaria alternata and Aureobasidium pullulans. Cultures on MA medium were dominated by Alternaria alternata, Mycelia sterilia and Fusarium poae. In samples of dust from conventional crops, the predominant species was Alternaria alternata on PDA medium and on MA medium. The obtained results show a potential risk of people involved in agricultural work.

  17. From dust to life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    After initially challenging the dirty-ice theory of interstellar grains, Fred Hoyle and the present author proposed carbon (graphite) grains, mixtures of refractory grains, organic polymers, biochemicals and finally bacterial grains as models of interstellar dust. The present contribution summarizes this trend and reviews the main arguments supporting a modern version of panspermia.

  18. Origins of amorphous interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of amorphous interstellar grains has been suggested from infrared observations. Some carbon stars show the far infrared emission with a lambda -1 wavelength dependence. Far infrared emission supposed to be due to silicate grains often show the lambda -1 wavelength dependence. Mid infrared spectra around 10 μm have broad structure. These may be due to the amorphous silicate grains. The condition that the condensed grains from the cosmic gas are amorphous is discussed. (author)

  19. Impact fracture experiments simulating interstellar grain-grain collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann; Chang, Sherwood; Dickinson, J. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Oxide and silicate grains condensing during the early phases of the formation of the solar system or in the outflow of stars are exposed to high partial pressures of the low-z elements H, C, N and O and their simple gaseous compounds. Though refractory minerals are nominally anhydrous and non-carbonate, if they crystallize in the presence of H2O, N2 and CO or CO2 gases, they dissolve traces of the gaseous components. The question arises: How does the presence of dissolved gases or gas components manifest itself when grain-grain collisions occur. What are the gases emitted when grains are shattered during a collision event. Researchers report on fracture experiments in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV, approximately less than 10 to the -8th power mbar) designed to measure (by means of a quadrupole mass spectrometer, QMS, with microns to ms time resolution) the emission of gases and vapors during and after impact (up to 1.5 sec). Two terrestrial materials were chosen which represent structural and compositional extremes: olivine (San Carlos, AZ), a densely packed Mg-Fe(2+) silicate from the upper mantle, available as 6 to 12 mm single crystals, and obsidian (Oregon), a structurally open, alkaline-SiO2-rich volcanic glass. In the olivine crystals OH- groups have been identified spectroscopically, as well as H2 molecules. Obsidian is a water-rich glass containing OH- besides H2O molecules. Olivine from the mantle often contains CO2, either as CO2-rich fluid in fluid inclusions or structurally dissolved or both. By analogy to synthetic glasses CO2 in the obsidian may be present in form of CO2 molecules in voids of molecular dimensions, or as carbonate anions, CO3(2-). No organic molecules have been detected spectroscopically in either material. Results indicate that refractory oxide/silicates which contain dissolved traces of the H2O and CO/CO2 components but no spectroscopically detectable traces of organics may release complex H-C-O (possibly H-C-N-O) molecules upon fracture

  20. Infrared astronomy and the galactic dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecker, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The existence, in the Galaxy, of small absorbing dust grains has been known for a long time, as they redden the light of stars located behind them, and obscure by amounts which can often even be several magnitudes... In the infrared, where absorption is smaller, one can see through the dust, while at the same time, one can observe the emission of cold dust clouds. After a brief review of technical developments, the reasons for studying the infrared, and the principles of diagnostics, are given. The analysis of the spectral features leads to identification of ice, graphite, and various silicates, as main constituents of the dust. In the fifth section, examples are given of the various sources that one meets when travelling in the Galaxy: protostars, cold and dilute, dense envelopes of young stars (cold or hot), dilute envelopes of not so young stars, and ejected clouds surrounding evolved objects... The simultaneous observation of dust, molecules and atoms, in the same regions, shows that the knowledge of the circumstellar dense regions might be of a great interest, in the study of the origin of life, and of the evolution of the Universe. (Auth.)

  1. Glacial and interglacial eolian dust dispersal patterns across the Chinese Loess Plateau inferred from decomposed loess grain-size records.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.A.; Vriend, M.G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that a genetically meaningful decomposition (unmixing) of loess grainsize distributions can be accomplished with the end-member modeling algorithm EMMA. The independent decomposition of two series of loess grain-size records from the NE Tibetan Plateau and Loess

  2. Formation and dissociation of dust molecules in dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jia; Feng Fan; Liu Fucheng; Dong Lifang; He Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    Dust molecules are observed in a dusty plasma experiment. By using measurements with high spatial resolution, the formation and dissociation of the dust molecules are studied. The ion cloud in the wake of an upper dust grain attracts the lower dust grain nearby. When the interparticle distance between the upper dust grain and the lower one is less than a critical value, the two dust grains would form a dust molecule. The upper dust grain always leads the lower one as they travel. When the interparticle distance between them is larger than the critical value, the dust molecule would dissociate. (paper)

  3. Constraining the Dust Opacity Law in Three Small and Isolated Molecular Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, K. A.; Thanjavur, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3800 Finnerty Road, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada); Di Francesco, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Sadavoy, S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Launhardt, R.; Vicente, J. Abreu; Kainulainen, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Shirley, Y. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stutz, A., E-mail: kawebb@uvic.ca [Departmento de Astronomìa, Facultad Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Av. Esteban Iturra s/n Barro Universitario, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2017-11-01

    Density profiles of isolated cores derived from thermal dust continuum emission rely on models of dust properties, such as mass opacity, that are poorly constrained. With complementary measures from near-infrared extinction maps, we can assess the reliability of commonly used dust models. In this work, we compare Herschel -derived maps of the optical depth with equivalent maps derived from CFHT WIRCAM near-infrared observations for three isolated cores: CB 68, L 429, and L 1552. We assess the dust opacities provided from four models: OH1a, OH5a, Orm1, and Orm4. Although the consistency of the models differs between the three sources, the results suggest that the optical properties of dust in the envelopes of the cores are best described by either silicate and bare graphite grains (e.g., Orm1) or carbonaceous grains with some coagulation and either thin or no ice mantles (e.g., OH5a). None of the models, however, individually produced the most consistent optical depth maps for every source. The results suggest that either the dust in the cores is not well-described by any one dust property model, the application of the dust models cannot be extended beyond the very center of the cores, or more complex SED fitting functions are necessary.

  4. Inverse Relationship of Marine Aerosol and Dust in Antarctic Ice with Fine-Grained Sediment in the South Atlantic Ocean: Implications for Sea-Ice Coverage and Wind Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Kanfoush

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to test the hypothesis that natural gamma radiation (NGR from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1094, which displays variability over the last glacial-interglacial cycle similar to dust in the Vostok ice core, reflects fine-grained terrigenous sediment delivered by eolian processes. Grain size was measured on 400 samples spanning 0–20 m in a composite core. Accumulation of the <63μ size fraction at Site 1094 and dust in Vostok exhibit a negative correlation, suggesting the fine sediments are not dominantly eolian. However the technique used for grain size measurements cannot distinguish between terrigenous and biogenous materials; therefore it is possible much fine-grained material is diatoms. An inverse correlation between fine sediments and NGR supports this interpretation, and implies terrigenous materials were at times diluted by microfossils from high biological productivity. Fine marine sediments correlate positively with temperature and negatively with marine aerosol Na+ in Vostok. One plausible explanation is extensive sea-ice of cold intervals steepened ocean-continent temperature gradients, intensified winds, and led to increased transport of dust and marine aerosol to Antarctica yet also reduced biological productivity at Site 1094. Such a reduction despite increases in NGR, potentially representing Fe-rich dust influx, would require light limitation or stratification associated with sea-ice.

  5. Physical Alteration of Martian Dust Grains, Its Influence on Detection of Clays and Identification of Aqueous Processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Drief, Ahmed; Dyar, Darby

    2003-01-01

    Clays, if present on Mars, have been illusive. Determining whether or not clay minerals and other aqueous alteration species are present on Mars provides key information about the extent and duration of aqueous processes on Mars. The purpose of this study is to characterize in detail changes in the mineral grains resulting from grinding and to assess the influence of physical processes on clay minerals on the surface of Mars. Physical alteration through grinding was shown to greatly affect the structure and a number of properties of antigorite and kaolinite. This project builds on an initial study and includes a combination of SEM, HRTEM, reflectance and M ssbauer spectroscopies. Grain size was found to decrease, as expected, with grinding. In addition, nanophase carbonate, Si-OH and iron oxide species were formed.

  6. Water and organics in interplanetary dust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, John

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and larger micrometeorites (MMs) impinge on the upper atmosphere where they decelerate at 90 km altitude and settle to the Earths surface. Comets and asteroids are the major sources and the flux, 30,000-40,000 tons/yr, is comparable to the mass of larger meteorites impacting the Earths surface. The sedimentary record suggests that the flux was much higher on the early Earth. The chondritic porous (CP) subset of IDPs together with their larger counterparts, ultracarbonaceous micrometeorites (UCMMs), appear to be unique among known meteoritic materials in that they are composed almost exclusively of anhydrous minerals, some of them contain >> 50% organic carbon by volume as well as the highest abundances of presolar silicate grains including GEMS. D/H and 15N abundances implicate the Oort Cloud or presolar molecular cloud as likely sources of the organic carbon. Prior to atmospheric entry, IDPs and MMs spend 104-105 year lifetimes in solar orbit where their surfaces develop amorphous space weathered rims from exposure to the solar wind (SW). Similar rims are observed on lunar soil grains and on asteroid Itokawa regolith grains. Using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) we have detected radiolytic water in the rims on IDPs formed by the interaction of solar wind protons with oxygen in silicate minerals. Therefore, IDPs and MMs continuously deliver both water and organics to the earth and other terrestrial planets. The interaction of protons with oxygen-rich minerals to form water is a universal process.

  7. Dust Evolution in Protoplanetary Discs and the Formation of Planetesimals. What Have We Learned from Laboratory Experiments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jürgen

    2018-03-01

    After 25 years of laboratory research on protoplanetary dust agglomeration, a consistent picture of the various processes that involve colliding dust aggregates has emerged. Besides sticking, bouncing and fragmentation, other effects, like, e.g., erosion or mass transfer, have now been extensively studied. Coagulation simulations consistently show that μm-sized dust grains can grow to mm- to cm-sized aggregates before they encounter the bouncing barrier, whereas sub-μm-sized water-ice particles can directly grow to planetesimal sizes. For siliceous materials, other processes have to be responsible for turning the dust aggregates into planetesimals. In this article, these processes are discussed, the physical properties of the emerging dusty or icy planetesimals are presented and compared to empirical evidence from within and without the Solar System. In conclusion, the formation of planetesimals by a gravitational collapse of dust "pebbles" seems the most likely.

  8. Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope images of the reflection nebula NGC 7023 - Derivation of ultraviolet scattering properties of dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Adolf N.; Petersohn, Jens K.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1992-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope as part of the Astro-1 mission, was used to obtain high-resolution surface brightness distribution data in six ultraviolet wavelength bands for the bright reflection nebula NGC 7023. From the quantitative comparison of the measured surface brightness gradients ratios of nebular to stellar flux, and detail radial surface brightness profiles with corresponding data from the visible, two major conclusions results: (1) the scattering in the near- and far-ultraviolet in this nebula is more strongly forward-directed than in the visible; (2) the dust albedo in the ultraviolet for wavelengths not less than 140 nm is identical to that in the visible, with the exception of the 220 nm bump in the extinction curve. In the wavelengths region of the bump, the albedo is reduced by 25 to 30 percent in comparison with wavelengths regions both shorter and longer. This lower albedo is expected, if the bump is a pure absorption feature.

  9. Comet C2012 S1 (ISON)s Carbon-rich and Micron-size-dominated Coma Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, D.; De Buizer, J.; Kelley, M.; Sitko, M.; Woodward, C.; Harker, D.; Reach, W.; Russell, R.; Kim, D.; Yanamadra-Fisher, P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was unique in that it was a dynamically new comet derived from the Nearly Isotropic Oort cloud reservoir of comets with a sun-grazing orbit. We present thermal models for comet ISON (rh approx.1.15 AU, 2013-Oct-25 11:30 UT) that reveal comet ISON's dust was carbon-rich and dominated by a narrow size distribution dominated by approx. micron-sized grains. We constrained the models by our SOFIA FORCAST photometry at 11.1, 19.7 and 31.5 microns and by a silicate feature strength of approx.1.1 and an 8-13microns continuum greybody color temperature of approx. 275-280 K (using Tbb ? r-0.5 h and Tbb approx. 260-265 K from Subaru COMICS, 2013-Oct-19 UT)[1,2]. N-band spectra of comet ISON with the BASS instrument on the NASA IRTF (2013-Nov-11-12 UT) show a silicate feature strength of approx. 1.1 and an 11.2microns forsterite peak.[3] Our thermal models yield constraints the dust composition as well as grain size distribution parameters: slope, peak grain size, porosity. Specifically, ISON's dust has a low silicate-to- amorphous carbon ratio (approx. 1:9), and the coma size distribution has a steep slope (N4.5) such that the coma is dominated by micron-sized, moderately porous, carbon-rich dust grains. The N-band continuum color temperature implies submicronto micron-size grains and the steep fall off of the SOFIA far-IR photometry requires the size distribution to have fewer relative numbers of larger and cooler grains compared to smaller and hotter grains. A proxy for the dust production rate is f? approx.1500 cm, akin to Af?. ISON has a moderate-to-low dust-to-gas ratio. Comet ISON's dust grain size distribution does not appear similar to the few well-studied long-period Nearly Isotropic Comets (NICs), namely C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) that had smaller and/or more highly porous grains and larger sizes, or C/2007 N4 (Lulin) and C/2006 P1 (McNaught) that had large and/or compact grains. Radial transport to comet-forming disk distances

  10. Silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.

    1988-01-01

    Vitrification of liquid high-level radioactive wastes has received the greatest attention, world-wide, compared to any other HLW solidification process. The waste form is a borosilicate-based glass. The production of phosphate-based glass has been abandoned in the western world. Only in the Soviet Union are phosphate-based glasses still being developed. Vitrification techniques, equipment and processes and their remote operation have been developed and studied for almost thirty years and have reached a high degree of technical maturity. Industrial demonstration of the vitrification process has been in progress since 1978. This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e., borosilicate glasses

  11. DustEM: Dust extinction and emission modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compiègne, M.; Verstraete, L.; Jones, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Boulanger, F.; Flagey, N.; Le Bourlot, J.; Paradis, D.; Ysard, N.

    2013-07-01

    DustEM computes the extinction and the emission of interstellar dust grains heated by photons. It is written in Fortran 95 and is jointly developed by IAS and CESR. The dust emission is calculated in the optically thin limit (no radiative transfer) and the default spectral range is 40 to 108 nm. The code is designed so dust properties can easily be changed and mixed and to allow for the inclusion of new grain physics.

  12. Radiative transfer in dust clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Harris, S.

    1983-01-01

    The infrared emission has been modelled from 85 late-type M stars, essentially all such stars in the AFGL catalogue with substantial circumstellar dust shells and for which adequate observational data are currently available. The dependence of the emergent spectrum on the temperature of the stars, the condensation temperature of the grains, and the density distribution, optical depth and extent of the shell have been investigated. Consistent models for most stars have been found using dirty silicate grains, with an n(r) proportional to r - 2 density distribution and a grain melting temperature of 1000 K. Allowance has been made for the effect of molecular bands. Although these bands have a dramatic effect on the spectrum of late-type stars at visual wavelengths, there is little effect on the infrared emission from the circumstellar shell. All stars in the study except GL 915, VY CMa and NML Cyg are consistent with having spherically symmetric shells. Except for VY CMa and NML Cyg, for which other evidence suggests a disc geometry, the intensity distributions predicted by the models are consistent with interferometric measurements at infrared wavelengths. (author)

  13. Exobiological implications of dust aggregation in planetary atmospheres: An experiment for the gas-grain simulation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, J. L.; Schwartz, D. E.; Marshall, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    The Gas-Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF) will provide a microgravity environment where undesirable environmental effects are reduced, and thus, experiments involving interactions between small particles and grains can be more suitably performed. Slated for flight aboard the Shuttle in 1992, the ESA glovebox will serve as a scientific and technological testbed for GGSF exobiology experiments as well as generating some basic scientific data. Initial glovebox experiments will test a method of generating a stable, mono-dispersed cloud of fine particles using a vibrating sprinkler system. In the absence of gravity and atmospheric turbulence, it will be possible to determine the influence of interparticle forces in controlling the rate and mode of aggregation. The experimental chamber can be purged of suspended matter to enable multiple repetitions of the experiments. Of particular interest will be the number of particles per unit volume of the chamber, because it is suspected that aggregation will occur extremely rapidly if the number exceeds a critical value. All aggregation events will be recorded on high-resolution video film. Changes in the experimental procedure as a result of surprise events will be accompanied by real-time interaction with the mission specialist during the Shuttle flight.

  14. Iron: A Key Element for Understanding the Origin and Evolution of Interstellar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2016-01-01

    The origin and depletion of iron differ from all other abundant refractory elements that make up the composition of the interstellar dust. Iron is primarily synthesized in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and in core collapse supernovae (CCSN), and is present in the outflows from AGB (Asymptotic Giant Branch) stars. Only the latter two are observed to be sources of interstellar dust, since searches for dust in SN Ia have provided strong evidence for the absence of any significant mass of dust in their ejecta. Consequently, more than 65 percent of the iron is injected into the ISM (Inter-Stellar Matter) in gaseous form. Yet, ultraviolet and X-ray observations along many lines of sight in the ISM show that iron is severely depleted in the gas phase compared to expected solar abundances. The missing iron, comprising about 90 percent of the total, is believed to be locked up in interstellar dust. This suggests that most of the missing iron must have precipitated from the ISM gas by cold accretion onto preexisting silicate, carbon, or composite grains. Iron is thus the only element that requires most of its growth to occur outside the traditional stellar condensation sources. This is a robust statement that does not depend on our evolving understanding of the dust destruction efficiency in the ISM. Reconciling the physical, optical, and chemical properties of such composite grains with their many observational manifestations is a major challenge for understanding the nature and origin of interstellar dust.

  15. The nature of cometary dust as determined from infrared observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, K. S. Krishna; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Witteborn, Fred C.; Bregman, Jesse D.

    1989-01-01

    The infrared measurements of comets, the compositional information available from interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and the recent results of flybys to Comet Halley can help in restricting the nature and composition of cometary dust models (c.f., Proceedings of the 20th ESLAB Symposium on Exploration of Halley's Comet, 1986). Researchers tried to incorporate some of these results into a coherent model to account for the observed cometary infrared emission. The presence of 10 and 3.4 micron features in Comet Halley (c.f. Bregman et al. 1987; Wickramasinghe and Allen 1986) indicated the presence of at least two components in the grain material, namely silicates and some form of amorphous carbon. These two components could reside in separate grains or may be parts of composite particles. Both these cases have been considered (see Krishna Swamy el a. 1988a, 1988b). In the absence of refractive index data for cometary analogs, the authors used the optical constants of olivine-rich lunar material 12009.48 (Perry et al. 1972) for the infrared region and that of alpha:C-H film for amorphous carbon (angus et al. 1986). For the visible region, a value of m = 1.38-0.39i was used for the silicates, and values published by Arakawa et al. (1985) were used for the amorphous carbon. These materials should give a representative behavior of the expected results. The model results were compared to observational data. The strength of the 3.4 micron and 10 micron features relative to the adjacent continuum, as well as the slope of the continuum between 2500 and 1250 cm(exp -1) (4 to 8 microns), were used as criteria for comparison. Model calculations with alpha approx. equals -3.5, and also the size distribution function inferred for Comet Halley, with a mass fraction (X) of silicate to amorphous carbon grains of about 40 to 1 can fit the data. A good match is obtained for the infrared spectra of Comets Halley and West from a 40 to 1 mixture of silicate and amorphous carbon grains

  16. Environmental impact study of Orion Nebula dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardelli, J.A.; Clayton, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, new high-quality extinction curves are presented for Theta-1 Ori A, C, and D, and Theta-2 Ori A and B, over the wavelength range 3300-6000 A. These are coupled with near-infrared and ultraviolet data to produce extinction curves from 0.12 to 3.5 microns. The Orion Nebula region is interesting in that most of the known processes of dust-grain growth, processing, and destruction may be operating nearly simultaneously in close proximity to one another. Each of these processes is considered with respect to the observed extinction curves and environmental conditions in the Orion Nebula and its associated molecular cloud. Plausible grain populations are fit to the observed extinction curves. A good fit to the average Theta Ori extinction curve can be obtained with: (1) a combination of larger than normal silicate grains produced through coagulation and accretion; (2) evaporation of volatile mantles; and (3) a reduction in the column density of small (smaller than 0.01 micron) grains responsible for the bump and far-ultraviolet extinction through differential acceleration due to radiation pressure and possible evaporation. It seems plausible to explain the observed peculiar extinction in the Orion Nebula simply by environmental effects on otherwise normal grains. 59 references

  17. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DEBRIS DISK CATALOG. II. SILICATE FEATURE ANALYSIS OF UNRESOLVED TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Tushar [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States); Chen, Christine H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jang-Condell, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Sargent, Benjamin A. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Watson, Dan M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Lisse, Carey M., E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, astronomers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates that have been compiled in the Spitzer IRS Debris Disk Catalog. We have discovered 10 and/or 20 μm silicate emission features toward 120 targets in the catalog and modeled the IRS spectra of these sources, consistent with MIPS 70 μm observations, assuming that the grains are composed of silicates (olivine, pyroxene, forsterite, and enstatite) and are located either in a continuous disk with power-law size and surface density distributions or thin rings that are well-characterized using two separate dust grain temperatures. For systems better fit by the continuous disk model, we find that (1) the dust size distribution power-law index is consistent with that expected from a collisional cascade, q = 3.5-4.0, with a large number of values outside this range, and (2) the minimum grain size, a {sub min}, increases with stellar luminosity, L {sub *}, but the dependence of a {sub min} on L {sub *} is weaker than expected from radiation pressure alone. In addition, we also find that (3) the crystalline fraction of dust in debris disks evolves as a function of time with a large dispersion in crystalline fractions for stars of any particular stellar age or mass, (4) the disk inner edge is correlated with host star mass, and (5) there exists substantial variation in the properties of coeval disks in Sco-Cen, indicating that the observed variation is probably due to stochasticity and diversity in planet formation.

  18. VARIATIONS OF THE 10 μm SILICATE FEATURES IN THE ACTIVELY ACCRETING T TAURI STARS: DG Tau AND XZ Tau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bary, Jeffrey S.; Leisenring, Jarron M.; Skrutskie, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Using the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed multiple epochs of 11 actively accreting T Tauri stars in the nearby Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. In total, 88 low-resolution mid-infrared spectra were collected over 1.5 years in Cycles 2 and 3. The results of this multi-epoch survey show that the 10 μm silicate complex in the spectra of two sources-DG Tau and XZ Tau-undergoes significant variations with the silicate feature growing both weaker and stronger over month- and year-long timescales. Shorter timescale variations on day- to week-long timescales were not detected within the measured flux errors. The time resolution coverage of this data set is inadequate for determining if the variations are periodic. Pure emission compositional models of the silicate complex in each epoch of the DG Tau and XZ Tau spectra provide poor fits to the observed silicate features. These results agree with those of previous groups that attempted to fit only single-epoch observations of these sources. Simple two-temperature, two-slab models with similar compositions successfully reproduce the observed variations in the silicate features. These models hint at a self-absorption origin of the diminution of the silicate complex instead of a compositional change in the population of emitting dust grains. We discuss several scenarios for producing such variability including disk shadowing, vertical mixing, variations in disk heating, and disk wind events associated with accretion outbursts.

  19. Are the Formation and Abundances of Metal-poor Stars the Result of Dust Dynamics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Philip F. [TAPIR, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Conroy, Charlie, E-mail: phopkins@caltech.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Large dust grains can fluctuate dramatically in their local density, relative to the gas, in neutral turbulent disks. Small, high-redshift galaxies (before reionization) represent ideal environments for this process. We show via simple arguments and simulations that order-of-magnitude fluctuations are expected in local abundances of large grains (>100 Å) under these conditions. This can have important consequences for star formation and stellar metal abundances in extremely metal-poor stars. Low-mass stars can form in dust-enhanced regions almost immediately after some dust forms even if the galaxy-average metallicity is too low for fragmentation to occur. We argue that the metal abundances of these “promoted” stars may contain interesting signatures as the CNO abundances (concentrated in large carbonaceous grains and ices) and Mg and Si (in large silicate grains) can be enhanced and/or fluctuate almost independently. Remarkably, the otherwise puzzling abundance patterns of some metal-poor stars can be well fit by standard IMF-averaged core-collapse SNe yields if we allow for fluctuating local dust-to-gas ratios. We also show that the observed log-normal distribution of enhancements in pure SNe yields, shows very large enhancements and variations up to factors of ≳100 as expected in the dust-promoted model, preferentially in the [C/Fe]-enhanced metal-poor stars. Together, this suggests that (1) dust exists in second-generation star formation, (2) local dust-to-gas ratio fluctuations occur in protogalaxies and can be important for star formation, and (3) the light element abundances of these stars may be affected by the local chemistry of dust where they formed, rather than directly tracing nucleosynthesis from earlier populations.

  20. Are the Formation and Abundances of Metal-poor Stars the Result of Dust Dynamics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Conroy, Charlie

    2017-01-01

    Large dust grains can fluctuate dramatically in their local density, relative to the gas, in neutral turbulent disks. Small, high-redshift galaxies (before reionization) represent ideal environments for this process. We show via simple arguments and simulations that order-of-magnitude fluctuations are expected in local abundances of large grains (>100 Å) under these conditions. This can have important consequences for star formation and stellar metal abundances in extremely metal-poor stars. Low-mass stars can form in dust-enhanced regions almost immediately after some dust forms even if the galaxy-average metallicity is too low for fragmentation to occur. We argue that the metal abundances of these “promoted” stars may contain interesting signatures as the CNO abundances (concentrated in large carbonaceous grains and ices) and Mg and Si (in large silicate grains) can be enhanced and/or fluctuate almost independently. Remarkably, the otherwise puzzling abundance patterns of some metal-poor stars can be well fit by standard IMF-averaged core-collapse SNe yields if we allow for fluctuating local dust-to-gas ratios. We also show that the observed log-normal distribution of enhancements in pure SNe yields, shows very large enhancements and variations up to factors of ≳100 as expected in the dust-promoted model, preferentially in the [C/Fe]-enhanced metal-poor stars. Together, this suggests that (1) dust exists in second-generation star formation, (2) local dust-to-gas ratio fluctuations occur in protogalaxies and can be important for star formation, and (3) the light element abundances of these stars may be affected by the local chemistry of dust where they formed, rather than directly tracing nucleosynthesis from earlier populations.

  1. Time-Dependent Dust Formation in Novae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The dust formation processes in novae are investigated with close attention to recent infrared observations. Using mainly the classical nucleation theory, we have calculated the time scales of dust formation and growth in the environments of novae. Those time scales roughly resemble the typical observations. We have classified the dust-forming novae into three classes according to their explosion properties and the thermodynamic properties of dust grains. Oxygen grains from much later than carbon grains because of their thermodynamic properties. The effect of grain formation to the efficiency of stellar winds to drive the material outward is tested with newly obtained Planck mean values of dust grains.

  2. ICE AND DUST IN THE PRESTELLAR DARK CLOUD LYNDS 183: PREPLANETARY MATTER AT THE LOWEST TEMPERATURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D. C. B.; Poteet, C. A.; Bajaj, V. M.; Horne, D.; Chiar, J. E.; Pagani, L.; Shenoy, S. S.; Adamson, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Dust grains are nucleation centers and catalysts for the growth of icy mantles in quiescent interstellar clouds, the products of which may accumulate into preplanetary matter when new stars and solar systems form within the clouds. In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic detections of silicate dust and the molecular ices H 2 O, CO, and CO 2 in the vicinity of the prestellar core L183 (L134N). An infrared photometric survey of the cloud was used to identify reddened background stars, and we present spectra covering solid-state absorption features in the wavelength range 2-20 μm for nine of them. The mean composition of the ices in the best-studied line of sight (toward J15542044–0254073) is H 2 O:CO:CO 2 ≈ 100:40:24. The ices are amorphous in structure, indicating that they have been maintained at low temperature (∼ 2 O) correlates with reddening by dust, exhibiting a threshold effect that corresponds to the transition from unmantled grains in the outer layers of the cloud to ice-mantled grains within, analogous to that observed in other dark clouds. A comparison of results for L183 and the Taurus and IC 5146 dark clouds suggests common behavior, with mantles first appearing in each case at a dust column corresponding to a peak optical depth τ 9.7 = 0.15 ± 0.03 in the silicate feature. Our results support a previous conclusion that the color excess E J–K does not obey a simple linear correlation with the total dust column in lines of sight that intercept dense clouds. The most likely explanation is a systematic change in the optical properties of the dust as the density increases

  3. ICE AND DUST IN THE PRESTELLAR DARK CLOUD LYNDS 183: PREPLANETARY MATTER AT THE LOWEST TEMPERATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittet, D. C. B.; Poteet, C. A.; Bajaj, V. M.; Horne, D. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy and New York Center for Astrobiology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Chiar, J. E. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Pagani, L. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Shenoy, S. S. [SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Adamson, A. J. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2013-09-10

    Dust grains are nucleation centers and catalysts for the growth of icy mantles in quiescent interstellar clouds, the products of which may accumulate into preplanetary matter when new stars and solar systems form within the clouds. In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic detections of silicate dust and the molecular ices H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2} in the vicinity of the prestellar core L183 (L134N). An infrared photometric survey of the cloud was used to identify reddened background stars, and we present spectra covering solid-state absorption features in the wavelength range 2-20 {mu}m for nine of them. The mean composition of the ices in the best-studied line of sight (toward J15542044-0254073) is H{sub 2}O:CO:CO{sub 2} Almost-Equal-To 100:40:24. The ices are amorphous in structure, indicating that they have been maintained at low temperature ({approx}< 15 K) since formation. The ice column density N(H{sub 2}O) correlates with reddening by dust, exhibiting a threshold effect that corresponds to the transition from unmantled grains in the outer layers of the cloud to ice-mantled grains within, analogous to that observed in other dark clouds. A comparison of results for L183 and the Taurus and IC 5146 dark clouds suggests common behavior, with mantles first appearing in each case at a dust column corresponding to a peak optical depth {tau}{sub 9.7} = 0.15 {+-} 0.03 in the silicate feature. Our results support a previous conclusion that the color excess E{sub J-K} does not obey a simple linear correlation with the total dust column in lines of sight that intercept dense clouds. The most likely explanation is a systematic change in the optical properties of the dust as the density increases.

  4. Pre-accretional sorting of grains in the outer solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Ishii, H. A.; Price, M. C.; Brownlee, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite their micrometer-scale dimensions and nanogram masses, chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) are an important class of extraterrestrial material since their properties are consistent with a cometary origin and they show no evidence of significant post-accretional parent body alteration. Consequently, they can provide information about grain accretion in the comet-forming region of the outer solar nebula. We have previously reported our comparative study of the sizes and size distributions of crystalline silicate and sulfide grains in CP IDPs, in which we found these components exhibit a size-density relationship consistent with having been sorted together prior to accretion. Here we extend our data set and include GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfide), the most abundant amorphous silicate phase observed in CP IDPs. We find that while the silicate and sulfide sorting trend previously observed is maintained, the GEMS size data do not exhibit any clear relationship to these crystalline components. Therefore, GEMS do not appear to have been sorted with the silicate and sulfide crystals. The disparate sorting trends observed in GEMS and the crystalline grains in CP IDPs present an interesting challenge for modeling early transport and accretion processes. They may indicate that several sorting mechanisms operated on these CP IDP components, or alternatively, they may simply be a reflection of different source environments.

  5. Preparation, analysis, and release of simulated interplanetary grains into low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.R.; Strong, I.B.; Kunkle, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Astronomical observations which reflect the optical and dynamical properties of interstellar and interplanetary grains are the primary means of identifying the shape, size, and the chemistry of extraterrestrial grain materials and is a major subject of this workshop. Except for recent samplings of extraterrestrial particles in near-Earth orbit and in the stratosphere, observations have been the only method of deducing the properties of extraterrestrial particles. Terrestrial laboratory experiments typically seek not to reproduce astrophysical conditions but to illuminate fundamental dust processes and properties which must be extrapolated to interesting astrophysical conditions. In this report, we discuss the formation and optical characterization of simulated interstellar and interplanetary dust with particular emphasis on studying the properties on irregularly shaped particles. We also discuss efforts to develop the techniques to allow dust experiments to be carried out in low-Earth orbit, thus extending the conditions under which dust experiments may be performed. The objectives of this study are threefold: (1) Elucidate the optical properties, including scattering and absorption, of simulated interstellar grains including SiC, silicates, and carbon grains produced in the laboratory. (2) Develop the capabilities to release grains and volatile materials into the near-Earth environment and study their dynamics and optical properties. (3) Study the interaction of released materials with the near-Earth environment to elucidate grain behavior in astrophysical environments. Interaction of grains with their environment may, for example, lead to grain alignment or coagulation, which results in observable phenomena such as polarization of lighter or a change of the scattering properties of the grains

  6. SOFIA/FORCAST OBSERVATIONS OF WARM DUST IN S106: A FRAGMENTED ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J. D. [Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, Universities Space Research Association, NASA/Armstrong Flight Research Center, 2825 East Avenue P, Palmdale, CA 93550 (United States); Herter, T. L.; Lau, R. M.; Hankins, M. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G. G.; Fernandez, A. Guzman; Keto, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schneider, N.; Simon, R. [KOSMA, I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Staguhn, J. G. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Smith, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Gehrz, R. D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bontemps, S. [Université Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, CNRS, F-33270, Floirac (France); Carey, S. J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, LGRT-B 619E, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Hill, T. [Joint ALMA Observatory, 3107 Alonso de Cordova, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Koenig, X. P. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Kraemer, K. E. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); and others

    2015-11-20

    We present mid-IR (19–37 μm) imaging observations of S106 from SOFIA/FORCAST, complemented with IR observations from Spitzer/IRAC (3.6–8.0 μm), IRTF/MIRLIN (11.3 and 12.5 μm), and Herschel/PACS (70 and 160 μm). We use these observations, observations in the literature, and radiation transfer modeling to study the heating and composition of the warm (∼100 K) dust in the region. The dust is heated radiatively by the source S106 IR, with little contributions from grain–electron collisions and Lyα radiation. The dust luminosity is ≳(9.02 ± 1.01) × 10{sup 4} L{sub ⊙}, consistent with heating by a mid- to late-type O star. We find a temperature gradient (∼75–107 K) in the lobes, which is consistent with a dusty equatorial geometry around S106 IR. Furthermore, the SOFIA observations resolve several cool (∼65–70 K) lanes and pockets of warmer (∼75–90 K) dust in the ionization shadow, indicating that the environment is fragmented. We model the dust mass as a composition of amorphous silicates, amorphous carbon, big grains, very small grains, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We present the relative abundances of each grain component for several locations in S106.

  7. A TALE OF THREE GALAXIES: ANOMALOUS DUST PROPERTIES IN IRAS F10398+1455, IRAS F21013–0739, AND SDSS J0808+3948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yanxia; Hao, Lei [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li, Aigen, E-mail: haol@shao.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    On a galactic scale, the 9.7 μm silicate emission is usually only seen in type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). They usually also display a flat emission continuum at ∼5-8 μm and the absence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission bands. In contrast, starburst galaxies, luminous infrared (IR) galaxies, and ultraluminous IR galaxies exhibit a red 5-8 μm emission continuum, strong 9.7 μm and 18 μm silicate absorption features, and strong PAH emission bands. Here, we report the detection of anomalous dust properties by the Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph in three galaxies (IRAS F10398+1455, IRAS F21013-0739, and SDSS J0808+3948) which are characterized by the simultaneous detection of a red 5-8 μm emission continuum, the 9.7 and 18 μm silicate emission features, as well as strong PAH emission bands. These apparently contradictory dust IR emission properties are discussed in terms of iron-poor silicate composition, carbon dust deficit, small grain size, and low dust temperature in the young AGN phase of these three galaxies.

  8. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1980-01-01

    A two-component dust model is suggested to explain the infrared emission from planetary nebulae. A cold dust component located in the extensive remnant of the red-giant envelope exterior to the visible nebula is responsible for the far-infrared emission. A ward dust component, which is condensed after the formation of the planetary nebula and confined within the ionized gas shell, emits most of the near- and mid-infrared radiation. The observations of NGC 7027 are shown to be consisten with such a model. The correlation of silicate emission in several planetary nebulae with an approximately +1 spectral index at low radio frequencies suggests that both the silicate and radio emissions originate from the remnant of the circumstellar envelope of th precursor star and are observable only while the planetary nebula is young. It is argued that oxygen-rich stars as well as carbon-rich stars can be progenitors of planetary nebulae

  9. Star Formation in High Pressure, High Energy Density Environments: Laboratory Experiments of ISM Dust Analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breugel, W. van; Bajt, S.; Bradley, J.; Bringa, E.; Dai, Z.; Felter, T.; Graham, G.; Kucheyev, S.; Torres, D.; Tielens, A.; Baragiola, R.; Dukes, C.; Loeffler, M.

    2005-01-01

    Dust grains control the chemistry and cooling, and thus the gravitational collapse of interstellar clouds. Energetic particles, shocks and ionizing radiation can have a profound influence on the structure, lifetime and chemical reactivity of the dust, and therefore on the star formation efficiency. This would be especially important in forming galaxies, which exhibit powerful starburst (supernovae) and AGN (active galactic nucleus) activity. How dust properties are affected in such environments may be crucial for a proper understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The authors present the results of experiments at LLNL which show that irradiation of the interstellar medium (ISM) dust analog forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ) with swift heavy ions (10 MeV Xe) and a large electronic energy deposition amorphizes its crystalline structure, without changing its chemical composition. From the data they predict that silicate grains in the ISM, even in dense and cold giant molecular clouds, can be amorphized by heavy cosmic rays (CR's). This might provide an explanation for the observed absence of crystalline dust in the ISM clouds of the Milky Way galaxy. This processing of dust by CR's would be even more important in forming galaxies and galaxies with active black holes

  10. Spectro-Polarimetry of Fine-Grained Ice and Dust Surfaces Measured in the Laboratory to Study Solar System Objects and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, O.; Cerubini, R.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Schmid, H. M.; Potin, S.; Beck, P.; Schmitt, B.; Brissaud, O.; Carrasco, N.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.

    2017-12-01

    The polarization of the light is very sensitive to the size, morphology, porosity and composition of the scattering particles. As a consequence, polarimetric observations could significantly complement observations performed in total light intensity, providing additional constraints to interpret remote sensing observations of Solar System and extra-solar objects. This presentation will focus on measurements performed in the laboratory on carefully characterized surface samples, providing reference data that can be used to test theoretical models and predict or interpret spectro-polarimetric observations. Using methods developed in the Laboratory for Outflow Studies of Sublimating Materials (LOSSy) at the University of Bern, we produce well-characterized and reproducible surfaces made of water ice particles having different grain sizes and porosities, as well as mineral/organic dusts, pure or mixed together, as analogues of planetary or small bodies surfaces. These surface samples are illuminated with a randomly polarized light source simulating the Sun. The polarization of their scattered light is measured at multiple phase angles and wavelengths, allowing to study the shape of the polarimetric phase curves and their spectral dependence, with two recently developed setups: The POLarimeter for Icy Samples (POLICES), at the University of Bern, allows the measurement of the weak polarization of ice surfaces from 400 to 800 nm, with direct application to icy satellites. Using a precision Stokes polarimeter, this setup is also used to study the spectral variations of circular polarization in the light scattered by biotic versus abiotic surfaces. The Spectrogonio radiometer with cHanging Angles for Detection Of Weak Signals (SHADOWS), at IPAG (University of Grenoble Alpes), measures linear polarization spectra from 0.35 to 5 μm in the light scattered by dark meteorite powders or icy samples, with application to primitive objects of the Solar System (asteroids, comets).

  11. A UNIFIED MODEL OF GRAIN ALIGNMENT: RADIATIVE ALIGNMENT OF INTERSTELLAR GRAINS WITH MAGNETIC INCLUSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Thiem [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The radiative torque (RAT) alignment of interstellar grains with ordinary paramagnetic susceptibilities has been supported by earlier studies. The alignment of such grains depends on the so-called RAT parameter q {sup max}, which is determined by the grain shape. In this paper, we elaborate on our model of RAT alignment for grains with enhanced magnetic susceptibility due to iron inclusions, such that RAT alignment is magnetically enhanced, which we term the MRAT mechanism. Such grains can be aligned with high angular momentum at the so-called high- J attractor points, achieving a high degree of alignment. Using our analytical model of RATs, we derive the critical value of the magnetic relaxation parameter δ {sub m} to produce high- J attractor points as functions of q {sup max} and the anisotropic radiation angle relative to the magnetic field ψ . We find that if about 10% of the total iron abundance present in silicate grains is forming iron clusters, this is sufficient to produce high- J attractor points for all reasonable values of q {sup max}. To calculate the degree of grain alignment, we carry out numerical simulations of MRAT alignment by including stochastic excitations from gas collisions and magnetic fluctuations. We show that large grains can achieve perfect alignment when the high- J attractor point is present, regardless of the values of q {sup max}. Our obtained results pave the way for the physical modeling of polarized thermal dust emission as well as magnetic dipole emission. We also find that millimeter-sized grains in accretion disks may be aligned with the magnetic field if they are incorporated with iron nanoparticles.

  12. Hyperactivity and Dust Composition of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 During the EPOXI Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, David E.; Woodward, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Wooden, Diane H.

    2018-05-01

    Short-period comet 103P/Hartley 2 (103P) was the flyby target of the Deep Impact eXtended Investigation on 2010 November 4 UT. This comet has a small hyperactive nucleus, i.e., it has a high water production rate for its surface area. The underlying cause of the hyperactivity is unknown; the relative abundances of volatiles in the coma of 103P are not unusual. However, the dust properties of this comet have not been fully explored. We present four epochs of mid-infrared spectra and images of comet 103P observed from Gemini-South +T-ReCS on 2010 November 5, 7, 21 and December 13 UT, near and after the spacecraft encounter. Comet 103P exhibited a weak 10 μm emission feature ≃1.14 ± 0.01 above the underlying local 10 μm continuum. Thermal dust grain modeling of the spectra shows the grain composition (mineralogy) was dominated by amorphous carbon and amorphous pyroxene with evidence for Mg-rich crystalline olivine. The grain size has a peak grain radius range of a peak ∼ 0.5–0.9 μm. On average, the crystalline silicate mass fraction is ≃0.24, fairly typical of other short-period comets. In contrast, the silicate-to-carbon ratio of ≃0.48–0.64 is lower compared to other short-period comets, which indicates that the flux measured in the 10 μm region of 103P was dominated by amorphous carbon grains. We conclude that the hyperactivity in comet 103P is not revealing dust properties similar to the small grains seen with the Deep Impact experiment on comet 9P/Tempel 1 or from comet C/1995 O1 (Hale–Bopp).

  13. Modelling dust transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.D.; Martin, J.D.; Bacharis, M.; Coppins, M.; Counsell, G.F.; Allen, J.E.; Counsell, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The DTOKS code, which models dust transport through tokamak plasmas, is described. The floating potential and charge of a dust grain in a plasma and the fluxes of energy to and from it are calculated. From this model, the temperature of the dust grain can be estimated. A plasma background is supplied by a standard tokamak edge modelling code (B2SOLPS5.0), and dust transport through MAST (the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak) and ITER plasmas is presented. We conclude that micron-radius tungsten dust can reach the separatrix in ITER. (authors)

  14. COSMIC DUST AGGREGATION WITH STOCHASTIC CHARGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.; Shotorban, Babak

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation of cosmic dust grains is a fundamental process which takes place in astrophysical environments, such as presolar nebulae and circumstellar and protoplanetary disks. Cosmic dust grains can become charged through interaction with their plasma environment or other processes, and the resultant electrostatic force between dust grains can strongly affect their coagulation rate. Since ions and electrons are collected on the surface of the dust grain at random time intervals, the electrical charge of a dust grain experiences stochastic fluctuations. In this study, a set of stochastic differential equations is developed to model these fluctuations over the surface of an irregularly shaped aggregate. Then, employing the data produced, the influence of the charge fluctuations on the coagulation process and the physical characteristics of the aggregates formed is examined. It is shown that dust with small charges (due to the small size of the dust grains or a tenuous plasma environment) is affected most strongly

  15. State selective reactions of cosmic dust analogues at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, James Samuel Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) is the most abundant molecule in interstellar space. It is crucial for initiating all of the chemistry in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and consequently plays an important role in star formation. However, the amount of H 2 believed to exist in the ISM cannot be accounted for by formation through gas-phase reactions alone. The current, widely accepted theory, is that H 2 forms on the surface of cosmic dust grains. These grains are thought to be composed of amorphous forms of carbon or silicates with temperatures of around 10 K. This thesis describes a new experiment that has been constructed to study H 2 formation on the surface of cosmic dust analogues and presents the initial experimental results. The experiment simulates, through ultra-high vacuum and the use of cryogenics, the conditions of the ISM where cosmic dust grains and H 2 molecules exist. During the experiment, a beam of atomic hydrogen is aimed at a cosmic dust analogue target. H 2 formed on the target's surface is ionised using a laser spectroscopy technique known as Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton lonisation (REMPI) and detected using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The sensitivity of REMPI is such that H 2 molecules can be ionised in selective internal energy states. This allows the rovibrational populations of the H 2 molecules desorbing from the cosmic dust targets to be determined, providing information on the energy budget of the H 2 formation process in the ISM. Preliminary results from the experiment show that H 2 molecules formed on a diamond-like-carbon surface have a significant non-thermal population of excited vibrational and rotational energy states. (author)

  16. Astronomical and Meteoritic Evidence for the Nature of Interstellar Dust and Its Processing in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Boss, A. P.; Keller, L. P.; Nuth, J. A.; Weinberger, A.

    Here we compare the astronomical and meteoritic evidence for the nature and origin of interstellar dust, and how it is processed in protoplanetary disks. The relative abundances of circumstellar grains in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are broadly consistent with most astronomical estimates of galactic dust production, although graphite/amorphous C is highly underabundant. The major carbonaceous component in meteorites and IDPs is an insoluble organic material (IOM) that probably formed in the interstellar medium, but a solar origin cannot be ruled out. GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfide) that are isotopically solar within error are the best candidates for interstellar silicates, but it is also possible that they are solar system condensates. No dust from young stellar objects has been identified in IDPs, but it is difficult to differentiate them from solar system material or indeed some circumstellar condensates. The crystalline silicates in IDPs are mostly solar condensates, with lesser amounts of annealed GEMS. The IOM abundances in IDPs are roughly consistent with the degree of processing indicated by their crystallinity if the processed material was ISM dust. The IOM contents of meteorites are much lower, suggesting that there was a gradient in dust processing in the solar system. The microstructure of much of the pyroxene in IDPs suggests that it formed at temperatures >1258 K and cooled relatively rapidly (~1000 K/h). This cooling rate favors shock heating rather than radial transport of material annealed in the hot inner disk as the mechanism for producing crystalline dust in comets and IDPs. Shock heating is also a likely mechanism for producing chondrules in meteorites, but the dust was probably heated at a different time and/or location to chondrules.

  17. Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters L.B.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in the solar neighborhood of our galaxy; this number may differ substantially in other galaxies that interstellar grains represent of the total mass budget of interstellar matter, dust grains play an important role in the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter. This is because of the opacity dust grains at short (optical, UV wavelengths, and the surface they provide for chemical reactions. In addition, dust grains play a pivotal role in the planet formation process: in the core accretion model of planet formation, the growth of dust grains from the microscopic size range to large, cm-sized or larger grains is the first step in planet formation. Not only the grain size distribution is affected by planet formation. Chemical and physical processes alter the structure and chemical composition of dust grains as they enter the protoplanetary disk and move closer to the forming star. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the way stars and planets are formed by observations of dust in protoplanetary disks. Ideally, one would like to measure the dust mass, the grain size distribution, grain structure (porosity, fluffiness, the chemical composition, and all of these as a function of position in the disk. Fortunately, several observational diagnostics are available to derive constrains on these quantities. In combination with rapidly increasing quality of the data (spatial and spectral resolution, a lot of progress has been made in our understanding of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. An excellent review of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks can be found in Testi et al. (2014.

  18. A Dust Grain Photoemission Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, C. C.; Spann, J. F., Jr.; Abbas, M. M.; Comfort, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    A laboratory experiment has been developed at Marshall Space Flight Center to study the interaction of micron-sized particles with plasmas and FUV radiation. The intent is to investigate the conditions under which particles of various compositions and sizes become charged, or discharged, while exposed to an electron beam and/or UV radiation. This experiment uses a unique laboratory where a single charged micron size particle is suspended in a quadrupole trap and then subjected to a controlled environment. Tests are performed using different materials and sizes, ranging from 10 microns to 1 micron, to determine the particle's charge while being subjected to an electron beam and /or UV radiation. The focus of this presentation will be on preliminary results from UV photoemission tests, but past results from electron beam, secondary electron emission tests will also be highlighted. A monochromator is used to spectrally resolve UV in the 120 nm to 300 nm range. This enables photoemission measurements as a function of wavelength. Electron beam tests are conducted using I to 3 micron sized aluminum oxide particles subjected to energies between 100 eV to 3 KeV. It was found that for both positive and negative particles the potential tended toward neutrality over time with possible equilibrium potentials between -0.8 Volts and 0.8 Volts.

  19. A SPITZER SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISK DUST IN THE YOUNG SERPENS CLOUD: HOW DO DUST CHARACTERISTICS EVOLVE WITH TIME?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Isa; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Lahuis, Fred; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; MerIn, Bruno; Geers, Vincent C.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Olofsson, Johan; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Brown, Joanna M.

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) mid-infrared (5-35 μm) spectra of a complete flux-limited sample (≥3 mJy at 8 μm) of young stellar object (YSO) candidates selected on the basis of their infrared colors in the Serpens Molecular Cloud. Spectra of 147 sources are presented and classified. Background stars (with slope consistent with a reddened stellar spectrum and silicate features in absorption), galaxies (with redshifted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features), and a planetary nebula (with high ionization lines) amount to 22% of contamination in this sample, leaving 115 true YSOs. Sources with rising spectra and ice absorption features, classified as embedded Stage I protostars, amount to 18% of the sample. The remaining 82% (94) of the disk sources are analyzed in terms of spectral energy distribution shapes, PAHs, and silicate features. The presence, strength, and shape of these silicate features are used to infer disk properties for these systems. About 8% of the disks have 30/13 μm flux ratios consistent with cold disks with inner holes or gaps, and 3% of the disks show PAH emission. Comparison with models indicates that dust grains in the surface of these disks have sizes of at least a few μm. The 20 μm silicate feature is sometimes seen in the absence of the 10 μm feature, which may be indicative of very small holes in these disks. No significant difference is found in the distribution of silicate feature shapes and strengths between sources in clusters and in the field. Moreover, the results in Serpens are compared with other well-studied samples: the c2d IRS sample distributed over five clouds and a large sample of disks in the Taurus star-forming region. The remarkably similar distributions of silicate feature characteristics in samples with different environment and median ages-if significant-imply that the dust population in the disk surface results from an equilibrium between dust growth and destructive collision processes

  20. The Lunar Dust Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Jamey Robert

    Planetary bodies throughout the solar system are continually bombarded by dust particles, largely originating from cometary activities and asteroidal collisions. Surfaces of bodies with thick atmospheres, such as Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan are mostly protected from incoming dust impacts as these particles ablate in their atmospheres as 'shooting stars'. However, the majority of bodies in the solar system have no appreciable atmosphere and their surfaces are directly exposed to the flux of high speed dust grains. Impacts onto solid surfaces in space generate charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as solid secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds forming dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and had not yet been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces before NASA's Lunar Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission. In this thesis, we first present the measurements taken by the Lunar Dust Explorer (LDEX), aboard LADEE, which discovered a permanently present, asymmetric dust cloud surrounding the Moon. The global characteristics of the lunar dust cloud are discussed as a function of a variety of variables such as altitude, solar longitude, local time, and lunar phase. These results are compared with models for lunar dust cloud generation. Second, we present an analysis of the groupings of impacts measured by LDEX, which represent detections of dense ejecta plumes above the lunar surface. These measurements are put in the context of understanding the response of the lunar surface to meteoroid bombardment and how to use other airless bodies in the solar system as detectors for their local meteoroid environment. Third, we present the first in-situ dust measurements taken over the lunar sunrise terminator. Having found no excess of small grains in this region, we discuss its implications for the putative population of electrostatically lofted dust.

  1. DUST TRANSPORT IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS THROUGH TURBULENCE AND SETTLING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, N. J.; Carballido, A.; Sano, T.

    2010-01-01

    We apply ionization balance and magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) calculations to investigate whether magnetic activity moderated by recombination on dust grains can account for the mass accretion rates and the mid-infrared spectra and variability of protostellar disks. The MHD calculations use the stratified shearing-box approach and include grain settling and the feedback from the changing dust abundance on the resistivity of the gas. The two-decade spread in accretion rates among solar-mass T Tauri stars is too large to result solely from variations in the grain size and stellar X-ray luminosity, but can plausibly be produced by varying these parameters together with the disk magnetic flux. The diverse shapes and strengths of the mid-infrared silicate bands can come from the coupling of grain settling to the distribution of the magnetorotational turbulence, through the following three effects. First, recombination on grains 1 μm or smaller yields a magnetically inactive dead zone extending more than two scale heights from the midplane, while turbulent motions in the magnetically active disk atmosphere overshoot the dead zone boundary by only about one scale height. Second, grains deep in the dead zone oscillate vertically in wave motions driven by the turbulent layer above, but on average settle at the rates found in laminar flow, so that the interior of the dead zone is a particle sink and the disk atmosphere will become dust-depleted unless resupplied from elsewhere. Third, with sufficient depletion, the dead zone is thinner and mixing dredges grains off the midplane. The last of these processes enables evolutionary signatures such as the degree of settling to sometimes decrease with age. The MHD results also show that the magnetic activity intermittently lifts clouds of small grains into the atmosphere. Consequently the photosphere height changes by up to one-third over timescales of a few orbits, while the extinction along lines of sight grazing the disk surface

  2. Dust in H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, S.

    1977-01-01

    Several pieces of evidence indicate that H II regions may contain dust: 1) the continuum light scattered by dust grains (O'Dell and Hubbard, 1965), 2) thermal radiation from dust grains at infrared wavelengths (Ney and Allen, 1969), 3) the abnormal helium abundance in some H II regions (Peimbert and Costero, 1969), etc. Although observations of the scattered continuum suggest that the H II region cores may be dust-free, dust grains and gas must be well mixed in view of the infrared observations. This difficulty may be solved by introducing globules with sizes approximately 0.001 pc. These globules and the molecular clouds adjacent to H II regions are the main sources supplying dust to H II regions. (Auth.)

  3. Evolution of interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The principal aim of this chapter is to derive the properties of interstellar grains as a probe of local physical conditions and as a basis for predicting such properties as related to infrared emissivity and radiative transfer which can affect the evolution of dense clouds. The first sections will develop the criteria for grain models based directly on observations of gas and dust. A summary of the chemical evolution of grains and gas in diffuse and dense clouds follows. (author)

  4. THE CHEMISTRY OF POPULATION III SUPERNOVA EJECTA. II. THE NUCLEATION OF MOLECULAR CLUSTERS AS A DIAGNOSTIC FOR DUST IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherchneff, Isabelle; Dwek, Eli

    2010-01-01

    . III SNe chiefly form silica and/or silicates, and pure silicon grains whereas their lower mass counterparts form a dust mixture dominated by silica and/or silicates, pure silicon, and iron sulfides. Amorphous carbon can only condense via the nucleation of carbon chains and rings characteristic of the synthesis of fullerenes when the ejecta carbon-rich zone is deprived of He + . The first dust enrichment to the primordial gas in the early universe from Pop. III massive SN comprises primarily pure silicon, silica, and silicates. If carbon dust is present at redshift z > 6, alternative dust sources must be considered.

  5. The Chemistry of Population III Supernova Ejecta. II. The Nucleation of Molecular Clusters as a Diagnostic for Dust in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchneff, Isabelle; Dwek, Eli

    2010-04-01

    chiefly form silica and/or silicates, and pure silicon grains whereas their lower mass counterparts form a dust mixture dominated by silica and/or silicates, pure silicon, and iron sulfides. Amorphous carbon can only condense via the nucleation of carbon chains and rings characteristic of the synthesis of fullerenes when the ejecta carbon-rich zone is deprived of He+. The first dust enrichment to the primordial gas in the early universe from Pop. III massive SN comprises primarily pure silicon, silica, and silicates. If carbon dust is present at redshift z > 6, alternative dust sources must be considered.

  6. Bounded dust-acoustic waves in a cylindrically bounded collisional dusty plasma with dust charge variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Nanxia; Xue Jukui

    2006-01-01

    Taking into account the boundary, particle collisions, and dust charging effects, dust-acoustic waves in a uniform cylindrically bounded dusty plasma is investigated analytically, and the dispersion relation for the dust-acoustic wave is obtained. The effects of boundary, dust charge variation, particle collision, and dust size on the dust-acoustic wave are discussed in detail. Due to the bounded cylindrical boundary effects, the radial wave number is discrete, i.e., the spectrum is discrete. It is shown that the discrete spectrum, the adiabatic dust charge variation, dust grain size, and the particle collision have significant effects on the dust-acoustic wave

  7. Charged dust structures in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N.F.; Vladimirov, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    We report here on theoretical investigations of the mechanical-electrostatic modes of vibration of a dust-plasma crystal, extending earlier work on the transverse modes of a horizontal line of grains (where the ions flow vertically downward to a plane horizontal cathode), the modes of two such lines of grains, and the modes of a vertical string of grains. The last two arrangements have the unique feature that the effect of the background plasma on the mutual grain interaction is asymmetric because of the wake downstream of the grains studied in. The characteristic frequencies of the vibrations are dependent on the parameters of the plasma and the dust grains, such as the Debye length and the grain charge, and so measurement of the frequencies could provide diagnostics of these quantities. Although the current boom in dusty plasma research is driven mainly by such industrial applications as plasma etching, sputtering and deposition, the physical outcomes of investigations in this rapidly expanding field cover many important topics in space physics and astrophysics as well. Examples are the interaction of dust with spacecraft, the structure of planetary rings, star formation, supernova explosions and shock waves. In addition, the study of the influence of dust in environmental research, such as in the Earth's ionosphere and atmosphere, is important. The unique binding of dust particles in a plasma opens possibilities for so-called super-chemistry, where the interacting bound elements are not atoms but dust grains

  8. Transformation of Graphitic and Amorphous Carbon Dust to Complex Organic Molecules in a Massive Carbon Cycle in Protostellar Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2012-01-01

    More than 95% of silicate minerals and other oxides found in meteorites were melted, or vaporized and recondensed in the Solar Nebula prior to their incorporation into meteorite parent bodies. Gravitational accretion energy and heating via radioactive decay further transformed oxide minerals accreted into planetesimals. In such an oxygen-rich environment the carbonaceous dust that fell into the nebula as an intimate mixture with oxide grains should have been almost completely converted to CO. While some pre-collapse, molecular-cloud carbonaceous dust does survive, much in the same manner as do pre-solar oxide grains, such materials constitute only a few percent of meteoritic carbon and are clearly distinguished by elevated D/H, N-15/N-16, C-13/C-12 ratios or noble gas patterns. Carbonaceous Dust in Meteorites: We argue that nearly all of the carbon in meteorites was synthesized in the Solar Nebula from CO and that this CO was generated by the reaction of carbonaceous dust with solid oxides, water or OH. It is probable that some fraction of carbonaceous dust that is newly synthesized in the Solar Nebula is also converted back into CO by additional thermal processing. CO processing might occur on grains in the outer nebula through irradiation of CO-containing ice coatings or in the inner nebula via Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) reactions on grain surfaces. Large-scale transport of both gaseous reaction products and dust from the inner nebula out to regions where comets formed would spread newly formed carbonaceous materials throughout the solar nebula. Formation of Organic Carbon: Carbon dust in the ISM might easily be described as inorganic graphite or amorphous carbon, with relatively low structural abundances of H, N, O and S . Products of FTT reactions or organics produced via irradiation of icy grains contain abundant aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. aldehydes, keytones, acids, amines and amides.. The net result of the massive nebular carbon cycle is to convert

  9. The actual prevention of fibrogenic effect of mineral dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobro Milan

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The dustiness occurs in the mining work environment during the process of disintegration of rocks by drilling, explosion and dislocation. The dust contains minerals forming the massif, under Slovak mining conditions, it was usually quartz and some other minerals. They usually accompanied utility minerals. The characteristic mining aerosol is created during disintegration process. It was inhaled by miners and due to the most dangerous fibrogenic mineral – quartz – it caused that employees suffered from the so far incurable industrial disease. From that reason a long-term research of reaction qualities of quartz dust was carried out and the possibility to decrease its fibrogenic properties was researched. The prevention vested in the elimination of these properties on the surface of quartz grain or other silicate before entering, i.e. being inhaled by lungs, using water soluble aluminium hydroxide compound. This water was used for flushing in drilling process and to decrease dustiness by spraying it directly in the mining workplace. The aluminium hydroxide agent reacted with mineral dust directly in aerosol before being inhaled. The principle vested in the reaction of one mole of agent with two moles of surface structures of quartz particle forming a thermostatic layer of a new mineral type, in this case aluminium silicate of kaolinite. The required concentration of aluminium hydroxide compound solution for pure quartz dust was determined by experimental works and calculation with a required reserve or even slight excess of agent. If the fibrogenity of quartz not influenced in this manner was considered as 100%, its cytostatic and consequently fibrogenic effect would be decreased by the influence of this agent minimally by 60%. The method has been tested directly in mines, but due to recession of mining industry, it was not introduced in practice, however, it is currently getting a certain significance in tunnelling of transport tunnels in

  10. Grain Formation Processes in Oxygen-Rich Circumstellar Outflows: Testing the Metastable Eutectic Condensation Hypothesis and Measuring Atom-Grain & Grain-Grain Sticking Coefficients (A Sub-orbital Investigation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph

    An experimentally-based model of grain formation in oxygen-rich circumstellar outflows that includes vapor-solid nucleation, grain growth, thermal annealing and grain aggregation in sufficient detail to predict the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the shells for comparison with observations of a wide range of stellar sources still lacks critical data. In order to gather this data we propose to conduct a series of laboratory experiments using our proven experimental system and microgravity condensation, growth and grain aggregation experiments on sounding rockets with a flight-proven payload provided by Dr. Yuki Kimura of Hokkaido University. We have proposed that solids from a hydrogen-rich, supersaturated, Fe-Mg-SiO vapor condense at metastable eutectic points in this ternary phase diagram. Because the FeOMgO system is totally miscible (has no eutectic or metastable eutectic compositions), this predicts that condensates will be pure Mg-silicate or Fe-silicate grains and that no primary condensate will be a mixed Fe-Mg-silicate. We have shown that this observation leads to a logical explanation as to why pure magnesium olivine and enstatite minerals are detected in circumstellar winds rather than the mixed Mg-Fe-silicate grains that might otherwise be expected (Rietmeijer, Nuth & Karner, 1999). This simplifying hypothesis has been built into our models of circumstellar condensation and growth. However, these experimental results require confirmation and testing since they should apply to other, quite similar condensable systems. We propose to test this hypothesis by condensing solids from the Fe-Mg-AlO ternary vapor system. Since FeO-MgO miscibility also applies to this system, the primary condensates from such a vapor should consist of pure amorphous Fe-aluminates and Mg-aluminates. No mixed Fe-Mg-spinels should be detected as primary condensates if this hypothesis is correct, just as none were detected for the FeO-MgO-SiO system. Confirmation of this

  11. Nanostructured silicate polymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figovskiy Oleg L'vovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that acid-resistant concretes on the liquid glass basis have high porosity (up to 18~20 %, low strength and insufficient water resistance. Significant increasing of silicate matrix strength and density was carried out by incorporation of special liquid organic alkali-soluble silicate additives, which block superficial pores and reduce concrete shrinkage deformation. It was demonstrated that introduction of tetrafurfuryloxisilane additive sharply increases strength, durability and shock resistance of silicate polymer concrete in aggressive media. The experiments showed, that the strength and density of silicate polymer concrete increase in case of decreasing liquid glass content. The authors obtained optimal content of silicate polymer concrete, which possesses increased strength, durability, density and crack-resistance. Diffusive permeability of concrete and its chemical resistance has been investigated in various corroding media.

  12. Formation and dissociation of dust molecules in dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jia; Feng, Fan; Liu, Fucheng; Dong, Lifang; He, Yafeng

    2016-09-01

    Dust molecules are observed in a dusty plasma experiment. By using measurements with high spatial resolution, the formation and dissociation of the dust molecules are studied. The ion cloud in the wake of an upper dust grain attracts the lower dust grain nearby. When the interparticle distance between the upper dust grain and the lower one is less than a critical value, the two dust grains would form a dust molecule. The upper dust grain always leads the lower one as they travel. When the interparticle distance between them is larger than the critical value, the dust molecule would dissociate. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11205044 and 11405042), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. A2011201006 and A2012201015), the Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. Y2012009), the Program for Young Principal Investigators of Hebei Province, China, and the Midwest Universities Comprehensive Strength Promotion Project, China.

  13. A COOL DUST FACTORY IN THE CRAB NEBULA: A HERSCHEL STUDY OF THE FILAMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, H. L.; Clark, C. J. R.; Gomez, E. L.; Gear, W. K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Krause, O.; Besel, M.-A.; Bouwman, J.; Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Barlow, M. J.; Swinyard, B. M.; Owen, P. J.; Matsuura, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Rho, J. [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ivison, R. J.; Sibthorpe, B. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Polehampton, E. T. [Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-20

    Whether supernovae are major sources of dust in galaxies is a long-standing debate. We present infrared and submillimeter photometry and spectroscopy from the Herschel Space Observatory of the Crab Nebula between 51 and 670 {mu}m as part of the Mass Loss from Evolved StarS program. We compare the emission detected with Herschel with multiwavelength data including millimeter, radio, mid-infrared, and archive optical images. We carefully remove the synchrotron component using the Herschel and Planck fluxes measured in the same epoch. The contribution from line emission is removed using Herschel spectroscopy combined with Infrared Space Observatory archive data. Several forbidden lines of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are detected where multiple velocity components are resolved, deduced to be from the nitrogen-depleted, carbon-rich ejecta. No spectral lines are detected in the SPIRE wavebands; in the PACS bands, the line contribution is 5% and 10% at 70 and 100 {mu}m and negligible at 160 {mu}m. After subtracting the synchrotron and line emission, the remaining far-infrared continuum can be fit with two dust components. Assuming standard interstellar silicates, the mass of the cooler component is 0.24{sup +0.32} {sub -0.08} M {sub Sun} for T = 28.1{sup +5.5} {sub -3.2} K. Amorphous carbon grains require 0.11 {+-} 0.01 M {sub Sun} of dust with T = 33.8{sup +2.3} {sub -1.8} K. A single temperature modified blackbody with 0.14 M {sub Sun} and 0.08 M {sub Sun} for silicate and carbon dust, respectively, provides an adequate fit to the far-infrared region of the spectral energy distribution but is a poor fit at 24-500 {mu}m. The Crab Nebula has condensed most of the relevant refractory elements into dust, suggesting the formation of dust in core-collapse supernova ejecta is efficient.

  14. A COMPREHENSIVE DUST MODEL APPLIED TO THE RESOLVED BETA PICTORIS DEBRIS DISK FROM OPTICAL TO RADIO WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballering, Nicholas P.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Rieke, George H.; Gáspár, András, E-mail: ballerin@email.arizona.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    We investigate whether varying the dust composition (described by the optical constants) can solve a persistent problem in debris disk modeling—the inability to fit the thermal emission without overpredicting the scattered light. We model five images of the β Pictoris disk: two in scattered light from the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST )/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph at 0.58 μ m and HST /Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC 3) at 1.16 μ m, and three in thermal emission from Spitzer /Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) at 24 μ m, Herschel /PACS at 70 μ m, and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at 870 μ m. The WFC3 and MIPS data are published here for the first time. We focus our modeling on the outer part of this disk, consisting of a parent body ring and a halo of small grains. First, we confirm that a model using astronomical silicates cannot simultaneously fit the thermal and scattered light data. Next, we use a simple generic function for the optical constants to show that varying the dust composition can improve the fit substantially. Finally, we model the dust as a mixture of the most plausible debris constituents: astronomical silicates, water ice, organic refractory material, and vacuum. We achieve a good fit to all data sets with grains composed predominantly of silicates and organics, while ice and vacuum are, at most, present in small amounts. This composition is similar to one derived from previous work on the HR 4796A disk. Our model also fits the thermal spectral energy distribution, scattered light colors, and high-resolution mid-IR data from T-ReCS for this disk. Additionally, we show that sub-blowout grains are a necessary component of the halo.

  15. Time Variability of the Dust Sublimation Zones in Pre-Main Sequence Disk Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Carpenter, W. J.; Grady, C. A.; Russel, R. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Rudy, R. J.; Mazuk, S. M.; Venturini, C. C.; Kimes, R. L.; Beerman, L. C.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The dust sublimation zone (DSZ) is the region of pre-main sequence (PMS) disks where dust grains most easily anneal, sublime, and condense out of the gas. Because of this, it is a location where crystalline material may be enhanced and redistributed throughout the rest of the disk. A decade-long program to monitor the thermal emission of the grains located in this region demonstrates that large changes in emitted flux occur in many systems. Changes in the thermal emission between 3 and 13.5 microns were observed in HD 31648 (MWC 480), HD 163296 (MWC 275), and DG Tau. This emission is consistent with it being produced at the DSZ, where the transition from a disk of gas to one of gas+dust occurs. In the case of DG Tau, the outbursts were accompanied by increased emission on the 10 micron silicate band on one occasion, while on another occasion it went into absorption. This requires lofting of the material above the disk into the line of sight. Such changes will affect the determination of the inner disk structure obtained through interferometry measurements, and this has been confirmed in the case of HD 163296. Cyclic variations in the heating of the DSZ will lead to the annealing of large grains, the sublimation of smaller grains, possibly followed by re-condensation as the zone enters a cooling phase. Lofting of dust above the disk plane, and outward acceleration by stellar winds and radiation pressure, can re-distribute the processed material to cooler regions of the disk, where cometesimals form. This processing is consistent with the detection of the preferential concentration of large crystalline grains in the inner few AU of PMS disks using interferometric spectroscopy with the VLTI.

  16. The 9.7 and 18 µm silicate absorption profiles towards diffuse and molecular cloud lines-of-sight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breemen, J.M.; Min, M.; Chiar, J.E.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Kemper, F.; Boogert, A.C.A.; Cami, J.; Decin, L.; Knez, C.; Sloan, G.C.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Studying the composition of dust in the interstellar medium (ISM) is crucial for understanding the cycle of dust in our galaxy. Aims. The mid-infrared spectral signature of amorphous silicates, the most abundant dust species in the ISM, is studied in different lines-of-sight through the

  17. A SOFIA FORCAST Grism Study of the Mineralogy of Dust in the Winds of Proto-planetary Nebulae: RV Tauri Stars and SRd Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneson, R. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Woodward, C. E.; Shenoy, D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 106 Pleasant Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Helton, L. A. [USRA-SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Evans, A. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard Jones Laboratory, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Keller, L. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 264 Center for Natural Sciences, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Hinkle, K. H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Jura, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lebzelter, T. [Institute for Astrophysics (IfA), University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Lisse, C. M. [Solar System Exploration Branch, Space Department, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Rushton, M. T. [Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, Str. Cutitul de Argint 5, Bucharest, 040557 (Romania); Mizrachi, J., E-mail: arneson@astro.umn.edu [Biomedical Engineering Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We present a SOFIA FORCAST grism spectroscopic survey to examine the mineralogy of the circumstellar dust in a sample of post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) yellow supergiants that are believed to be the precursors of planetary nebulae. Our mineralogical model of each star indicates the presence of both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich dust species—contrary to simple dredge-up models—with a majority of the dust in the form of amorphous carbon and graphite. The oxygen-rich dust is primarily in the form of amorphous silicates. The spectra do not exhibit any prominent crystalline silicate emission features. For most of the systems, our analysis suggests that the grains are relatively large and have undergone significant processing, supporting the hypothesis that the dust is confined to a Keplerian disk and that we are viewing the heavily processed, central regions of the disk from a nearly face-on orientation. These results help to determine the physical properties of the post-AGB circumstellar environment and to constrain models of post-AGB mass loss and planetary nebula formation.

  18. Dust around young stars. Observations of the polarization of UX Ori in deep minima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voshchinnikov, N.V.; Grinin, V.P.; Kiselev, N.N.; Minikulov, N.K.

    1988-01-01

    Photometric and polarimetric monitoring observations of UX Ori begun in 1986 in the Crimea and Bolivia have resulted in the observation of two deep minima of the brightness during which a growth of the linear polarization (to ≅7%) was observed, together with a tendency for the circular polarization to increase (up to ≅1%). Analysis of the observational data shows that the main source of the polarized radiation in the deep minima is the emission of the star scattered by grains of circumstellar dust. On the basis of Mie's theory for a polydisperse graphite-silicate mixtures of particles the optical properties of ellipsoidal dust envelopes have been calculated and a model of the Algol-like minimum constructed

  19. The effect of dust size distribution on the damping of the solitary waves in a dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xue; Xu, Yan-Xia; Qi, Xin; Wang, Cang-Long; Duan, Wen-Shan; Yang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the dust size distribution on the damping rate of the solitary wave in a dusty plasma is investigated in the present paper. It is found that the damping rate increases as either the mean radius of dust grains increases or as the total number density of the dust grains increases. The damping rate is less for usual dusty plasma (about which the number density of the smaller dust grains is larger than that of the larger dust grains) than that of the unusual dusty plasma (about which the number density of the larger dust grains is larger than that of the smaller dust grains)

  20. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Marelene

    2005-01-01

    Our theoretical research on dust-plasma interactions has concentrated on three main areas: (a)studies of grain charging and applications; (b) waves and instabilities in weakly correlated dusty plasma with applications to space and laboratory plasmas; (c) waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

  1. Heterodyne spatial interferometry of circumstellar dust shells at a wavelength of 11 microns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, E.C.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the 11 micron thermal emission from circumstellar dust envelopes has been studied using an infrared heterodyne interferometer. Circumstellar dust envelopes often exist around cool, late-type stars. These envelopes radiate strongly at 11 microns, particularly if they are composed of silicate grains, which have a strong emission feature near this wavelength. By measuring the spatial distribution of this dust emission it is possible to probe the temperatures and densities of the circumstellar material and thereby to gain an understanding of the structures of circumstellar envelopes. Among the sources which have been observed with this interferometer are α Orionis, o Ceti, VY Canis Majoris, and IRC + 10216. The 11 micron brightness distributions of these objects all have spatially extended dust-emission components which are resolved in these measurements. The dust envelopes of α Orionis and o Ceti are optically thin, having optical depths at 11 microns of 0.02 and 0.04, respectively. In addition, variations are seen in the 11 micron brightness distribution of o Ceti which correlate with the stellar variability. These variations primarily represent changes in the relative amount of spatially compact photospheric emission and spatially extended dust emission. The source VY Canis Majoris, on the other had, has a dust envelope which is optically thick at 11 microns. The dust envelope of IRC + 10216, although optically thick at visible wavelengths, does not seem to be optically thick at 11 microns since there is a spatially compact component of the 11 micron brightness distribution which presumably represents emission from the central star

  2. Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of the Properties of Dust in the Ejecta of Galactic Oxygen-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Srinivasan, Sundar; Kastner, Joel; Meixner, Margaret; Riley, Allyssa

    2018-06-01

    We are conducting a series of infrared studies of large samples of mass-losing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to explore the relationship between the composition of evolved star ejecta and host galaxy metallicity. Our previous studies focused on mass loss from evolved stars in the relatively low-metallicity Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. In our present study, we analyze dust in the mass-losing envelopes of AGB stars in the Galaxy, with special focus on the ejecta of oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB stars. We have constructed detailed dust opacity models of AGB stars in the Galaxy for which we have infrared spectra from, e.g., the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). This detailed modeling of dust features in IRS spectra informs our choice of dust properties to use in radiative transfer modeling of the broadband SEDs of Bulge AGB stars. We investigate the effects of dust grain composition, size, shape, etc. on the AGB stars' infrared spectra, studying both the silicate dust and the opacity source(s) commonly attributed to alumina (Al2O3). BAS acknowledges funding from NASA ADAP grant 80NSSC17K0057.

  3. Interstellar and Solar Nebula Materials in Cometary Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Keller, Lindsay; Nguyen, Ann; Clemett, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory studies of cometary dust collected in the stratosphere and returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft have revealed ancient interstellar grains and molecular cloud organic matter that record a range of astrophysical processes and the first steps of planetary formation. Presolar materials are rarer meteorites owing to high temperature processing in the solar nebula and hydrothermal alteration on their asteroidal parent bodies. The greater preservation of presolar materials in comets is attributed to their low accretion temperatures and limited planetary processing. Yet, comets also contain a large complement of high temperature materials from the inner Solar System. Owing to the limited and biased sampling of comets to date, the proportions of interstellar and Solar System materials within them remains highly uncertain. Interstellar materials are identified by coordinated isotopic, mineralogical, and chemical measurements at the scale of individual grains. Chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) that likely derive from comets are made up of 0.1 - 10 micron-sized silicates, Fe-Ni-sulfides, oxides, and other phases bound by organic material. As much as 1% of the silicates are interstellar grains that have exotic isotopic compositions imparted by nucleosynthetic processes in their parent stars. Crystalline silicates in CP IDPs dominantly have normal isotopic compositions and probably formed in the Solar System. 81P samples include isotopically normal refractory minerals that resemble Ca-Al rich inclusions and chondrules common in meteorites. The origins of sub-micron amorphous silicates in IDPs are not certain, but at least a few % of them are interstellar grains. The remainder have isotopic compositions consistent with Solar System origins and elemental compositions that are inconsistent with interstellar grain properties, thus favoring formation in the solar nebula [4]. The organic component in comets and primitive

  4. Leaf application of silicic acid to upland rice and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Si (stabilized silicic acid, Silamol® leaf application on mineral nutrition and yield in upland rice and corn crops. The treatments were the control (without Si and Si foliar split spraying using 2 L ha-1 of the Silamol® commercial product, with 0.8% soluble Si as concentrated stabilized silicic acid. Silicon leaf application increased the concentrations of K, Ca and Si in rice and corn leaves, the number of panicles per m2 of rice and the number of grains per ear of corn; accordingly, the Si leaf application provided a higher grain yield in both crops.

  5. Cosmological simulation with dust formation and destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Shohei; Hou, Kuan-Chou; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Nagamine, Kentaro; Shimizu, Ikkoh

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the evolution of dust in a cosmological volume, we perform hydrodynamic simulations, in which the enrichment of metals and dust is treated self-consistently with star formation and stellar feedback. We consider dust evolution driven by dust production in stellar ejecta, dust destruction by sputtering, grain growth by accretion and coagulation, and grain disruption by shattering, and treat small and large grains separately to trace the grain size distribution. After confirming that our model nicely reproduces the observed relation between dust-to-gas ratio and metallicity for nearby galaxies, we concentrate on the dust abundance over the cosmological volume in this paper. The comoving dust mass density has a peak at redshift z ˜ 1-2, coincident with the observationally suggested dustiest epoch in the Universe. In the local Universe, roughly 10 per cent of the dust is contained in the intergalactic medium (IGM), where only 1/3-1/4 of the dust survives against dust destruction by sputtering. We also show that the dust mass function is roughly reproduced at ≲ 108 M⊙, while the massive end still has a discrepancy, which indicates the necessity of stronger feedback in massive galaxies. In addition, our model broadly reproduces the observed radial profile of dust surface density in the circum-galactic medium (CGM). While our model satisfies the observational constraints for the dust extinction on cosmological scales, it predicts that the dust in the CGM and IGM is dominated by large (>0.03 μm) grains, which is in tension with the steep reddening curves observed in the CGM.

  6. The Suborbital Particle Aggregation and Collision Experiment (SPACE): studying the collision behavior of submillimeter-sized dust aggregates on the suborbital rocket flight REXUS 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, Julie; Heißelmann, Daniel; Kothe, Stefan; Weidling, René; Blum, Jürgen

    2013-09-01

    The Suborbital Particle Aggregation and Collision Experiment (SPACE) is a novel approach to study the collision properties of submillimeter-sized, highly porous dust aggregates. The experiment was designed, built, and carried out to increase our knowledge about the processes dominating the first phase of planet formation. During this phase, the growth of planetary precursors occurs by agglomeration of micrometer-sized dust grains into aggregates of at least millimeters to centimeters in size. However, the formation of larger bodies from the so-formed building blocks is not yet fully understood. Recent numerical models on dust growth lack a particular support by experimental studies in the size range of submillimeters, because these particles are predicted to collide at very gentle relative velocities of below 1 cm/s that can only be achieved in a reduced-gravity environment. The SPACE experiment investigates the collision behavior of an ensemble of silicate-dust aggregates inside several evacuated glass containers which are being agitated by a shaker to induce the desired collisions at chosen velocities. The dust aggregates are being observed by a high-speed camera, allowing for the determination of the collision properties of the protoplanetary dust analog material. The data obtained from the suborbital flight with the REXUS (Rocket Experiments for University Students) 12 rocket will be directly implemented into a state-of-the-art dust growth and collision model.

  7. The simplest model of a dust cloud in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    A cloud consisting of a finite number of dust grains in a plasma is considered. It is shown that the absorption of the plasma by the dust grains gives rise to the formation of a plasma flow toward to the cloud. The drag force produced by this flow acts upon the dust grains and counterbalances the electrostatic repulsing force. The distribution of the grain density inside the cloud is determined. The characteristic size of the cloud is estimated as r D 3/2 /a 1/2 , where r D is the plasma Debye radius, and a is the size of the dust grains

  8. Comparison of the Mineralogy of Comet Wild 2 Coma Grains to Other Astromaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David; Zolensky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We propose that Kuiper Belt samples (in this case comet coma grains from the Jupiter family comet Wild 2) are recognizably different from the bulk of materials in outer belt asteroids, because of their different formation positions and times in the early solar system. We believe this despite similarities found between some Wild 2 grains and components of carbonaceous chondrites (i.e. some CAI and chondrules). Kuiper Belt samples must preserve measurable mineralogical and compositional evidence of formation at unique positions and times in the early solar nebula, and these formational differences must have imparted recognizable special characteristics. We hypothesize that these characteristics include: (1) Unique major element compositional ranges of common astromaterial minerals, especially olivine and pyroxene; (2) Unique minor element compositions of major silicate phases, especially olivine and low-Ca pyroxene; (3) Degree and effects of radiation processing -- including amorphous rims, metal coatings, and Glass with Embedded Metal and Sulfides (GEMS); (4) Presence of abundant presolar silicate grains as recognized by anomalous oxygen in silicates; (5) Oxidation state of the mineral assemblage. We are working our way through all available Wild 2 samples, selecting 1-2 non-consecutive viable TEM grids from each possible extracted Wild 2 grain. We especially prefer TEM grids from grains for which complete mineralogical details have not been published (which is to say the majority of the extracted grains). We are performing a basic mineralogic survey by E-beam techniques, to establish the essential features of the extracted Wild 2 grains. We are making a particular effort to carefully and accurately measure minor elements of olivine and pyroxene, as these minerals are widespread in astromaterials, and comparisons of their compositions will serve to place the Wild 2 silicates in contact with asteroids, meteorites and chondritic interplanetary dust particles

  9. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years On

    OpenAIRE

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewed publications by the author and/or Fred Hoyle. The prevailing reluctance to accept these clear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work tha...

  10. Dust Destruction in the ISM: A Re-Evaluation of Dust Lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.; Nuth, J. A., III

    2011-01-01

    There is a long-standing conundrum in interstellar dust studies relating to the discrepancy between the time-scales for dust formation from evolved stars and the apparently more rapid destruction in supernova-generated shock waves. Aims. We re-examine some of the key issues relating to dust evolution and processing in the interstellar medium. Methods. We use recent and new constraints from observations, experiments, modelling and theory to re-evaluate dust formation in the interstellar medium (ISM). Results. We find that the discrepancy between the dust formation and destruction time-scales may not be as significant as has previously been assumed because of the very large uncertainties involved. Conclusions. The derived silicate dust lifetime could be compatible with its injection time-scale, given the inherent uncertainties in the dust lifetime calculation. The apparent need to re-form significant quantities of silicate dust in the tenuous interstellar medium may therefore not be a strong requirement. Carbonaceous matter, on the other hand, appears to be rapidly recycled in the ISM and, in contrast to silicates, there are viable mechanisms for its re-formation in the ISM.

  11. A Microphysically-based Approach to Inferring Porosity, Grain Size, and Dust Abundance in the Seasonal Caps from Atmospherically-corrected TES Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluszkiewicz, J.; Titus, T. N.

    2003-01-01

    One of the highlights of the TES observations in the polar regions has been the identification of a "cryptic" region in the south where CO2 appears to be in the form of a solid slab rather than a fluffy frost. While the exact mechanism(s) by which the cryptic region is formed are still subject of some debate, it appears certain that a type of rapid metamorphism related to the high volatility of CO2 ice is involved. The high volatility of CO2 ice under martian conditions has several Solar System analogs (N2 on Triton and Pluto, SO2 on Io), thus making the martian cryptic region somewhat less cryptic and certainly non-unique among planetary objects. In an endmember scenario, both the formation and the spectral properties of the cryptic region (and of other areas in the seasonal caps) can be quantitatively modeled by considering sintering of an ensemble of quasi-spherical CO2 grains. This model includes the special case of instanteneous slab formation, which occurs when the grains are sufficiently small (in the submicron range) so that their sintering timescale is short relative to the deposition timescale (a situation analogous to the "sintering" of water droplets falling into a pond).

  12. Dynamic vortex dust structures in a nuclear-track plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykov, V A; Khudyakov, A V; Filinov, V S; Vladimirov, V I; Deputatova, L V; Krutov, D V; Fortov, V E

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented from Monte Carlo calculations of the electric charge on dust grains in a plasma produced during the slowing down of radioactive decay products of californium nuclei in neon. The dust grain charging is explained as being due to the drift of electrons and ions in an external electric field. It is shown that the charges of the grains depend on their coordinates and strongly fluctuate with time. The time-averaged grain charges agree with the experimental data obtained on ordered liquid-like dust structures in a nuclear-track plasma. The time-averaged dust grain charges are used to carry out computer modelling of the formation of dynamic vortex structures observed in experiments. Evidence is obtained for the fact that the electrostatic forces experienced by the dust grains are potential in character. The paper is supplemented by a video clip showing the typical dynamics of the simulated vortex dust structure

  13. Hypervelocity Dust Injection for Plasma Diagnostic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticos, Catalin

    2005-10-01

    Hypervelocity micron-size dust grain injection was proposed for high-temperature magnetized plasma diagnosis. Multiple dust grains are launched simultaneously into high temperature plasmas at several km/s or more. The hypervelocity dust grains are ablated by the electron and ion fluxes. Fast imaging of the resulting luminous plumes attached to each grain is expected to yield local magnetic field vectors. Combination of multiple local magnetic field vectors reproduces 2D or even 3D maps of the internal magnetic field topology. Key features of HDI are: (1) a high spatial resolution, due to a relatively small transverse size of the elongated tail, and (2) a small perturbation level, as the dust grains introduce negligible number of particles compared to the plasma particle inventory. The latter advantage, however, could be seriously compromised if the gas load from the accelerator has an unobstructed access to the diagnosed plasma. Construction of a HDI diagnostic for National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), which includes a coaxial plasma gun for dust grain acceleration, is underway. Hydrogen and deuterium gas discharges inside accelerator are created by a ˜ 1 mF capacitor bank pre-charged up to 10 kV. The diagnostic apparatus also comprises a dust dispenser for pre-loading the accelerator with dust grains, and an imaging system that has a high spatial and temporal resolution.

  14. On the Relation of Silicates and SiO Maser in Evolved Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiaming; Jiang, Biwei, E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2017-04-01

    The SiO molecule is one of the candidates for the seed of silicate dust in the circumstellar envelope of evolved stars, but this opinion is challenged. In this work we investigate the relation of the SiO maser emission power and the silicate dust emission power. With both our own observation by using the PMO/Delingha 13.7 m telescope and archive data, a sample is assembled of 21 SiO v  = 1, J  = 2 − 1 sources and 28 SiO v  = 1, J  = 1 − 0 sources that exhibit silicate emission features in the ISO /SWS spectrum as well. The analysis of their SiO maser and silicate emission power indicates a clear correlation, which is not against the hypothesis that the SiO molecules are the seed nuclei of silicate dust. On the other hand, no correlation is found between SiO maser and silicate crystallinity, which may imply that silicate crystallinity does not correlate with mass-loss rate.

  15. GPU-BASED MONTE CARLO DUST RADIATIVE TRANSFER SCHEME APPLIED TO ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymann, Frank; Siebenmorgen, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional parallel Monte Carlo (MC) dust radiative transfer code is presented. To overcome the huge computing-time requirements of MC treatments, the computational power of vectorized hardware is used, utilizing either multi-core computer power or graphics processing units. The approach is a self-consistent way to solve the radiative transfer equation in arbitrary dust configurations. The code calculates the equilibrium temperatures of two populations of large grains and stochastic heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Anisotropic scattering is treated applying the Heney-Greenstein phase function. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of the object is derived at low spatial resolution by a photon counting procedure and at high spatial resolution by a vectorized ray tracer. The latter allows computation of high signal-to-noise images of the objects at any frequencies and arbitrary viewing angles. We test the robustness of our approach against other radiative transfer codes. The SED and dust temperatures of one- and two-dimensional benchmarks are reproduced at high precision. The parallelization capability of various MC algorithms is analyzed and included in our treatment. We utilize the Lucy algorithm for the optical thin case where the Poisson noise is high, the iteration-free Bjorkman and Wood method to reduce the calculation time, and the Fleck and Canfield diffusion approximation for extreme optical thick cells. The code is applied to model the appearance of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at optical and infrared wavelengths. The AGN torus is clumpy and includes fluffy composite grains of various sizes made up of silicates and carbon. The dependence of the SED on the number of clumps in the torus and the viewing angle is studied. The appearance of the 10 μm silicate features in absorption or emission is discussed. The SED of the radio-loud quasar 3C 249.1 is fit by the AGN model and a cirrus component to account for the far-infrared emission.

  16. The 9.7 and 18 μm silicate absorption profiles towards diffuse and molecular cloud lines-of-sight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breemen, J.M.; Min, M.; Chiar, J.E.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Kemper, F.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Cami, J.; Decin, L.; Knez, C.; Sloan, G.C.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Studying the composition of dust in the interstellar medium (ISM) is crucial for understanding the cycle of dust in our galaxy. Aims. The mid-infrared spectral signature of amorphous silicates, the most abundant dust species in the ISM, is studied in different lines-of-sight through the

  17. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  18. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Lai, Zhongping; Han, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2016-09-02

    Due to lack of reliable proxies from the Westerlies-dominant region, the strength change of Northern Hemisphere Westerlies remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to provide a reliable paleoclimatic proxy about the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies change. Here we report a 30.7 m thick loess section from the Ili basin directly controlled by the Westerlies. Based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and high resolution grain-size records, we reconstruct the change history of the Westerlies strength during the last glacial period (mainly Marine Isotope Stages 2, MIS2), being similar with the Westerlies index recorded in the Qinghai Lake sediments. Within error limits, all ages are in stratigraphic order. We further compare the climatic records among the Ili loess, Qinghai Lake and the NGRIP, their similarity shows a good climatic coupling relationship among the Central Asia, East Asia and the North Atlantic, and the Westerlies plays a critical influence in transporting the North Atlantic signal to Central and East Asia.

  19. Collisionless damping of nonlinear dust ion acoustic wave due to dust charge fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Samiran; Chaudhuri, Tushar K.; Sarkar, Susmita; Khan, Manoranjan; Gupta, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    A dissipation mechanism for the damping of the nonlinear dust ion acoustic wave in a collisionless dusty plasma consisting of nonthermal electrons, ions, and variable charge dust grains has been investigated. It is shown that the collisionless damping due to dust charge fluctuation causes the nonlinear dust ion acoustic wave propagation to be described by the damped Korteweg-de Vries equation. Due to the presence of nonthermal electrons, the dust ion acoustic wave admits both positive and negative potential and it suffers less damping than the dust acoustic wave, which admits only negative potential

  20. Dust formation and ionization in novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Sato, Shuji; Nariai, Kyoji.

    1979-01-01

    In order to explain the fact that some novae show the increase of infrared radiation indicating the formation of circumstellar dust grains while some others do not, the theory that the formation of dust in the circumstellar envelope of a nova depends on the intensity of ultraviolet radiation from a central star has been presented. It is known that the central star of a nova emits radiation at nearly constant rate, and its effective temperature rises. It was concluded that the novae with higher emission than a certain value are the poor candidates for dust formation because the whole envelope is ionized before dust is formed. But this conclusion is misleading. The evolution of the ultraviolet radiation emanating from a central star is summarized. The condensation of grains is possible when the partial pressure of the vapor, from which the grains are formed, becomes higher than the saturation vapor pressure. The temperature of grains can be estimated by equating the radiations absorbed and emitted. The grains evaporate if the grain temperature is higher than the condensation temperature. The formation of a Stroemgren sphere in the exploding envelope of a nova is discussed. For the formation of grains, it is necessary that temperature drops below the condensation temperature before the whole envelope is ionized. Hence dust grains do not grow if the grain temperature at a phase is higher than the condensation temperature. (Kako, I.)

  1. Formation of GEMS from shock-accelerated crystalline dust in Superbubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, A; Bradley, J P

    2004-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) contain enigmatic sub-micron components called GEMS (Glass with Embedded Metal and Sulfides). The compositions and structures of GEMS indicate that they have been processed by exposure to ionizing radiation but details of the actual irradiation environment(s) have remained elusive. Here we propose a mechanism and astrophysical site for GEMS formation that explains for the first time the following key properties of GEMS; they are stoichiometrically enriched in oxygen and systematically depleted in S, Mg, Ca and Fe (relative to solar abundances), most have normal (solar) oxygen isotopic compositions, they exhibit a strikingly narrow size distribution (0.1-0.5 (micro)m diameter), and some of them contain ''relict'' crystals within their silicate glass matrices. We show that the compositions, size distribution, and survival of relict crystals are inconsistent with amorphization by particles accelerated by diffusive shock acceleration. Instead, we propose that GEMS are formed from crystalline grains that condense in stellar outflows from massive stars in OB associations, are accelerated in encounters with frequent supernova shocks inside the associated superbubble, and are implanted with atoms from the hot gas in the SB interior. We thus reverse the usual roles of target and projectile. Rather than being bombarded at rest by energetic ions, grains are accelerated and bombarded by a nearly monovelocity beam of atoms as viewed in their rest frame. Meyer, Drury and Ellison have proposed that galactic cosmic rays originate from ions sputtered from such accelerated dust grains. We suggest that GEMS are surviving members of a population of fast grains that constitute the long-sought source material for galactic cosmic rays. Thus, representatives of the GCR source material may have been awaiting discovery in cosmic dust labs for the last thirty years

  2. The effect of dust charge inhomogeneity on low-frequency modes in a strongly coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid, T.; Mamun, A.A.; Shukla, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of low-frequency modes accounting for dust grain charge fluctuation and equilibrium grain charge inhomogeneity in a strongly coupled dusty plasma is presented. The existence of an extremely low frequency mode, which is due to the inhomogeneity in the equilibrium dust grain charge, is reported. Besides, the equilibrium dust grain charge inhomogeneity makes the dust-acoustic mode unstable. The strong correlations in the dust fluid significantly drive a new mode as well as the existing dust-acoustic mode. The applications of these results to recent experimental and to some space and astrophysical situations are discussed

  3. Hydrodynamic model of a self-gravitating optically thick gas and dust cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, E. V.; Zankovich, A. M.; Kovalenko, I. G.; Firsov, K. M.

    2015-10-01

    We propose an original mechanism of sustained turbulence generation in gas and dust clouds, the essence of which is the consistent provision of conditions for the emergence and maintenance of convective instability in the cloud. We considered a quasi-stationary one-dimensional model of a selfgravitating flat cloud with stellar radiation sources in its center. The material of the cloud is considered a two-component two-speed continuous medium, the first component of which, gas, is transparent for stellar radiation and is supposed to rest being in hydrostatic equilibrium, and the second one, dust, is optically dense and is swept out by the pressure of stellar radiation to the periphery of the cloud. The dust is specified as a set of spherical grains of a similar size (we made calculations for dust particles with radii of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 μm). The processes of scattering and absorption of UV radiation by dust particles followed by IR reradiation, with respect to which the medium is considered to be transparent, are taken into account. Dust-driven stellar wind sweeps gas outwards from the center of the cloud, forming a cocoon-like structure in the gas and dust. For the radiation flux corresponding to a concentration of one star with a luminosity of about 5 ×104 L ⊙ per square parsec on the plane of sources, sizes of the gas cocoon are equal to 0.2-0.4 pc, and for the dust one they vary from tenths of a parsec to six parsecs. Gas and dust in the center of the cavity are heated to temperatures of about 50-60 K in the model with graphite particles and up to 40 K in the model with silicate dust, while the background equilibrium temperature outside the cavity is set equal to 10 K. The characteristic dust expansion velocity is about 1-7 kms-1. Three structural elements define the hierarchy of scales in the dust cocoon. The sizes of the central rarefied cavity, the dense shell surrounding the cavity, and the thin layer inside the shell in which dust is settling provide

  4. Interstellar dust and extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    It is noted that the term interstellar dust refers to materials with rather different properties, and that the mean extinction law of Seaton (1979) or Savage and Mathis (1979) should be replaced by the expression given by Cardelli et al. (1989), using the appropriate value of total-to-selective extinction. The older laws were appropriate for the diffuse ISM but dust in clouds differs dramatically in its extinction law. Dust is heavily processed while in the ISM by being included within clouds and cycled back into the diffuse ISM many times during its lifetime. Hence, grains probably reflect only a trace of their origin, although meteoritic inclusions with isotopic anomalies demonstrate that some tiny particles survive intact from a supernova origin to the present. 186 refs

  5. Towards a physical model of dust tori in Active Galactic Nuclei. Radiative transfer calculations for a hydrostatic torus model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartmann, M.; Meisenheimer, K.; Camenzind, M.; Wolf, S.; Henning, Th.

    2005-07-01

    We explore physically self-consistent models of dusty molecular tori in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) with the goal of interpreting VLTI observations and fitting high resolution mid-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The input dust distribution is analytically calculated by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium between pressure forces - due to the turbulent motion of the gas clouds - and gravitational and centrifugal forces as a result of the contribution of the nuclear stellar distribution and the central black hole. For a fully three-dimensional treatment of the radiative transfer problem through the tori we employ the Monte Carlo code MC3D. We find that in homogeneous dust distributions the observed mid-infrared emission is dominated by the inner funnel of the torus, even when observing along the equatorial plane. Therefore, the stratification of the distribution of dust grains - both in terms of size and composition - cannot be neglected. In the current study we only include the effect of different sublimation radii which significantly alters the SED in comparison to models that assume an average dust grain property with a common sublimation radius, and suppresses the silicate emission feature at 9.7~μm. In this way we are able to fit the mean SED of both type I and type II AGN very well. Our fit of special objects for which high angular resolution observations (≤0.3´´) are available indicates that the hottest dust in NGC 1068 reaches the sublimation temperature while the maximum dust temperature in the low-luminosity AGN Circinus falls short of 1000 K.

  6. Self-confinement of finite dust clusters in isotropic plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloshevsky, G V; Hassanein, A

    2012-05-01

    Finite two-dimensional dust clusters are systems of a small number of charged grains. The self-confinement of dust clusters in isotropic plasmas is studied using the particle-in-cell method. The energetically favorable configurations of grains in plasma are found that are due to the kinetic effects of plasma ions and electrons. The self-confinement phenomenon is attributed to the change in the plasma composition within a dust cluster resulting in grain attraction mediated by plasma ions. This is a self-consistent state of a dust cluster in which grain's repulsion is compensated by the reduced charge and floating potential on grains, overlapped ion clouds, and depleted electrons within a cluster. The common potential well is formed trapping dust clusters in the confined state. These results provide both valuable insights and a different perspective to the classical view on the formation of boundary-free dust clusters in isotropic plasmas.

  7. Study of the inner part of the β pictoris dust disk: deconvolution of 10 microns images and modelization of the dust emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantin, Eric

    1996-01-01

    In 1984, the observations of the infrared satellite IRAS showed that numerous main-sequence stars are surrounded by a relatively tenuous dust disk. The most studied example is the disk of the star Beta Pictoris. The corono-graphic observations are limited to the most outer regions of the disk. In infrared, it is not the case. We have used an infrared camera to obtain 10 microns images of the central regions. In order to be able to deduce the dust density, one has to fulfil some requirements. First, we had to de-convolute these images degraded by a combination of diffraction and seeing. We initially used standard methods (Richardson-Lucy, Maximum Entropy etc..), then we have developed a new method of astronomical images deconvolution and filtering based on a regularization by Multi-Scales Maximum Entropy. Then we have built a model of thermal emission of the dust to calculate the temperature of the grains. The resulting density shows a region between the star and 50-60 Astronomical Units, depleted of dust. The density is compatible with models simulating the gravitational interactions between such a disk and a planet having a mass the half of Saturn's mass. We have refined the models of the particles' emission: mixture of several materials, porous particles or not, coated with ice or not, to build a global model of the disk taking into account all the observables: IRAS infrared fluxes, 10 and 20 microns fluxes, 10 microns spectrum, scattered fluxes in the visible. In our best model, the particles are porous silicate grains (mixture of olivine and pyroxene) coate