WorldWideScience

Sample records for silica-polyn-isopropylacrylamide nanocomposite particles

  1. Unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malwela, T

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports a unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite. A nanocomposite of poly[butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) with 3 wt% of organically modified montmorillonite was prepared by melt...

  2. Polymer nanocomposites: polymer and particle dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing nanoparticles smaller than the random coil size of their host polymer chains are known to exhibit unique properties, such as lower viscosity and glass transition temperature relative to the neat polymer melt. It has been hypothesized that these unusual properties result from fast diffusion of the nanostructures in the host polymer, which facilitates polymer chain relaxation by constraint release and other processes. In this study, the effects of addition of sterically stabilized inorganic nanoparticles to entangled cis-1,4-polyisoprene and polydimethylsiloxane on the overall rheology of nanocomposites are discussed. In addition, insights about the relaxation of the host polymer chains and transport properties of nanoparticles in entangled polymer nanocomposites are presented. The nanoparticles are found to act as effective plasticizers for their entangled linear hosts, and below a critical, chemistry and molecular-weight dependent particle volume fraction, lead to reduced viscosity, glass transition temperature, number of entanglements, and polymer relaxation time. We also find that the particle motions in the polymer host are hyperdiffusive and at the nanoparticle length scale, the polymer host acts like a simple, ideal fluid and the composites\\' viscosity rises with increasing particle concentration. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Polymer nanocomposites: polymer and particle dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Narayanan, Suresh; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing nanoparticles smaller than the random coil size of their host polymer chains are known to exhibit unique properties, such as lower viscosity and glass transition temperature relative to the neat polymer melt. It has

  4. Interphase and particle dispersion correlations in polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senses, Erkan

    Particle dispersion in polymer matrices is a major parameter governing the mechanical performance of polymer nanocomposites. Controlling particle dispersion and understanding aging of composites under large shear and temperature variations determine the processing conditions and lifetime of composites which are very important for diverse applications in biomedicine, highly reinforced materials and more importantly for the polymer composites with adaptive mechanical responses. This thesis investigates the role of interphase layers between particles and polymer matrices in two bulk systems where particle dispersion is altered upon deformation in repulsive composites, and good-dispersion of particles is retained after multiple oscillatory shearing and aging cycles in attractive composites. We demonstrate that chain desorption and re-adsorption processes in attractive composites under shear can effectively enhance the bulk microscopic mechanical properties, and long chains of adsorbed layers lead to a denser entangled interphase layer. We further designed experiments where particles are physically adsorbed with bimodal lengths of homopolymer chains to underpin the entanglement effect in interphases. Bimodal adsorbed chains are shown to improve the interfacial strength and used to modulate the elastic properties of composites without changing the particle loading, dispersion state or polymer conformation. Finally, the role of dynamic asymmetry (different mobilities in polymer blends) and chemical heterogeneity in the interphase layer are explored in systems of poly(methyl methacrylate) adsorbed silica nanoparticles dispersed in poly(ethylene oxide) matrix. Such nanocomposites are shown to exhibit unique thermal-stiffening behavior at temperatures above glass transitions of both polymers. These interesting findings suggest that the mobility of the surface-bound polymer is essential for reinforcement in polymer nanocomposites, contrary to existing glassy layer theories

  5. Polymer-Particle Nanocomposites: Size and Dispersion Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Joseph

    Polymer-particle nanocomposites are used in industrial processes to enhance a broad range of material properties (e.g. mechanical, optical, electrical and gas permeability properties). This dissertation will focus on explanation and quantification of mechanical property improvements upon the addition of nanoparticles to polymeric materials. Nanoparticles, as enhancers of mechanical properties, are ubiquitous in synthetic and natural materials (e.g. automobile tires, packaging, bone), however, to date, there is no thorough understanding of the mechanism of their action. In this dissertation, silica (SiO2) nanoparticles, both bare and grafted with polystyrene (PS), are studied in polymeric matrices. Several variables of interest are considered, including particle dispersion state, particle size, length and density of grafted polymer chains, and volume fraction of SiO2. Polymer grafted nanoparticles behave akin to block copolymers, and this is critically leveraged to systematically vary nanoparticle dispersion and examine its role on the mechanical reinforcement in polymer based nanocomposites in the melt state. Rheology unequivocally shows that reinforcement is maximized by the formation of a transient, but long-lived, percolating polymer-particle network with the particles serving as the network junctions. The effects of dispersion and weight fraction of filler on nanocomposite mechanical properties are also studied in a bare particle system. Due to the interest in directional properties for many different materials, different means of inducing directional ordering of particle structures are also studied. Using a combination of electron microscopy and x-ray scattering, it is shown that shearing anisotropic NP assemblies (sheets or strings) causes them to orient, one in front of the other, into macroscopic two-dimensional structures along the flow direction. In contrast, no such flow-induced ordering occurs for well dispersed NPs or spherical NP aggregates! This work

  6. Synthesis and properties of unagglomerated nanocomposite particles for nanomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Sarah M.

    2005-11-01

    Methods have been developed to prepare stable, unagglomerated active-medical-agent nanoparticles in a range of sizes, based on reverse-micelle microemulsion techniques. The process used to prepare monodisperse, spherical nanocomposite particles is based on methods originally outlined in detail by Adair et al. and Li et al. The "Molecular Dot" (MD) nanoparticles incorporate a variety of medically-active substances, such as organic fluorophores and therapeutic drugs, internally distributed in silica, titania, calcium phosphate, or calcium phospho-silicate matrices. The synthesis techniques have also been modified to produce nanoparticles containing combinations of fluorophores and medicinal agents, in order to monitor drug release and location. The specific biomedical application for the nanocomposite particles dictates the selection of core and shell-matrix materials. For example, the protective shell-matrices of the silica and titania MDs shield the active-medical agents from damage due to changes in pH, temperature, and other environmental effects. Conversely, the calcium phosphate and calcium phospho-silicate shell-matrix nanoparticles can potentially be engineered to dissolve in physiological environments. The method used to remove residual precursor materials while maintaining a well-dispersed assembly of nanoparticles is critical to the use of nanocolloids in medical applications. The dispersion approach is based on protection-dispersion theory tailored to accommodate the high surface areas and reactivity of sub-50 nm particles in aqueous or water/ethanol mixtures. Dispersion of the nanocomposite particles is further enhanced with the use of size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to simultaneously wash and disperse the nanocomposite particle suspensions. The state of dispersion of the nanosuspensions is evaluated using the average agglomeration number (AAN) approach in conjunction with other characterization techniques. The formulation of

  7. Polypyrrole-palladium nanocomposite coating of micrometer-sized polymer particles toward a recyclable catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Syuji; Matsuzawa, Soichiro; Hamasaki, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Bouleghlimat, Azzedine; Buurma, Niklaas J

    2012-02-07

    A range of near-monodisperse, multimicrometer-sized polymer particles has been coated with ultrathin overlayers of polypyrrole-palladium (PPy-Pd) nanocomposite by chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole using PdCl(2) as an oxidant in aqueous media. Good control over the targeted PPy-Pd nanocomposite loading is achieved for 5.2 μm diameter polystyrene (PS) particles, and PS particles of up to 84 μm diameter can also be efficiently coated with the PPy-Pd nanocomposite. The seed polymer particles and resulting composite particles were extensively characterized with respect to particle size and size distribution, morphology, surface/bulk chemical compositions, and conductivity. Laser diffraction studies of dilute aqueous suspensions indicate that the polymer particles disperse stably before and after nanocoating with the PPy-Pd nanocomposite. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of the PS particles coated with the PPy-Pd nanocomposite overlayer is dominated by the underlying particle, since this is the major component (>96% by mass). Thermogravimetric and elemental analysis indicated that PPy-Pd nanocomposite loadings were below 6 wt %. The conductivity of pressed pellets prepared with the nanocomposite-coated particles increased with a decrease of particle diameter because of higher PPy-Pd nanocomposite loading. "Flattened ball" morphologies were observed by scanning/transmission electron microscopy after extraction of the PS component from the composite particles, which confirmed a PS core and a PPy-Pd nanocomposite shell morphology. X-ray diffraction confirmed the production of elemental Pd and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicated the existence of elemental Pd on the surface of the composite particles. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that nanometer-sized Pd particles were distributed in the shell. Near-monodisperse poly(methyl methacrylate) particles with diameters ranging between 10 and 19 μm have been also successfully

  8. Impact of in situ polymer coating on particle dispersion into solid laser-generated nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Philipp; Brandes, Gudrun; Schwenke, Andreas; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2011-03-21

    The crucial step in the production of solid nanocomposites is the uniform embedding of nanoparticles into the polymer matrix, since the colloidal properties or specific physical properties are very sensitive to particle dispersion within the nanocomposite. Therefore, we studied a laser-based generation method of a nanocomposite which enables us to control the agglomeration of nanoparticles and to increase the single particle dispersion within polyurethane. For this purpose, we ablated targets of silver and copper inside a polymer-doped solution of tetrahydrofuran by a picosecond laser (using a pulse energy of 125 μJ at 33.3 kHz repetition rate) and hardened the resulting colloids into solid polymers. Electron microscopy of these nanocomposites revealed that primary particle size, agglomerate size and particle dispersion strongly depend on concentration of the polyurethane added before laser ablation. 0.3 wt% polyurethane is the optimal polymer concentration to produce nanocomposites with improved particle dispersion and adequate productivity. Lower polyurethane concentration results in agglomeration whereas higher concentration reduces the production rate significantly. The following evaporation step did not change the distribution of the nanocomposite inside the polyurethane matrix. Hence, the in situ coating of nanoparticles with polyurethane during laser ablation enables simple integration into the structural analogue polymer matrix without additives. Furthermore, it was possible to injection mold these in situ-stabilized nanocomposites without affecting particle dispersion. This clarifies that sufficient in situ stabilization during laser ablation in polymer solution is able to prevent agglomeration even in a hot polymer melt.

  9. Poly(2-aminothiazole)-silica nanocomposite particles: Synthesis and morphology control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hua; Wu, Di; Sun, Hao; Chen, Suwu; Wang, Xia

    2018-04-01

    Synthesis of conducting polymer-silica colloidal nanocomposites has been recognized as an effective method to overcome the poor processability of heterocyclic conducting polymers prepared by chemical oxidative method. However, the morphology control of such conducting polymer-silica nanocomposites was seldomly reported in the literature. Novel poly(2-aminothiazole)(PAT)-silica nanocomposite particles can be conveniently prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization of 2-aminothiazole using CuCl2 oxidant in the presence of ∼20 nm silica nanoparticles. The effects of varying the oxidant/monomer ratio and silica sol concentration on the morphology and size of the resulting PAT-silica nanocmposites have been studied. Optimization of the oxidant/monomer molar ratio and initial silica sol concentration allows relatively round spherical particles of 150-350 nm in diameter to be achieved. The nanocomposite particles have a well-defined raspberry-like morphology with a silica-rich surface, but a significant fraction of PAT component still exists on the surface and, which is beneficial for its applications. Furthermore, the surface compositions of the colloidal nanocomposites could be regulated to some extent. Based on the above results, a possible formation mechanism of the spherical nanocomposite particles is proposed.

  10. Flexible high-loading particle-reinforced polyurethane magnetic nanocomposite fabrication through particle-surface-initiated polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhanhu; Park, Sung; Wei Suying; Pereira, Tony; Moldovan, Monica; Karki, Amar B; Young, David P; Hahn, H Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Flexible high-loading nanoparticle-reinforced polyurethane magnetic nanocomposites fabricated by the surface-initiated polymerization (SIP) method are reported. Extensive field emission scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and atomic force microscopic (AFM) observations revealed a uniform particle distribution within the polymer matrix. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) revealed a strong chemical bonding between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix. The elongation of the SIP nanocomposite under tensile test was about four times greater than that of the composite fabricated by a conventional direct mixing fabrication method. The nanocomposite shows particle-loading-dependent magnetic properties, with an increase of coercive force after the magnetic nanoparticles were embedded into the polymer matrix, arising from the increased interparticle distance and the introduced polymer-particle interactions

  11. Synthesis of Co/Co3O4 Nanocomposite Particles Relevant to Magnetic Field Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Madhavi, S.; Menon, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Co/Co3O4 nanocomposite particles of various morphologies were synthesized by the reverse micelle technique. Equiaxed, rod and faceted crystals with rectangular, pentagonal and hexagonal cross sections were observed. Annealing resulted in the formation of a composite of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and fc...... cobalt (Co). Removal of boron residues from the final product was established by surface characterization. Magnetic moment of these nanocomposite particles is relevant to magnetic field processing.......Co/Co3O4 nanocomposite particles of various morphologies were synthesized by the reverse micelle technique. Equiaxed, rod and faceted crystals with rectangular, pentagonal and hexagonal cross sections were observed. Annealing resulted in the formation of a composite of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and fcc...

  12. Prediction of elastic properties for polymer-particle nanocomposites exhibiting an interphase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fei; Van Vliet, Krystyn J

    2011-01-01

    Particle-polymer nanocomposites often exhibit mechanical properties described poorly by micromechanical models that include only the particle and matrix phases. Existence of an interfacial region between the particle and matrix, or interphase, has been posited and indirectly demonstrated to account for this effect. Here, we present a straightforward analytical approach to estimate effective elastic properties of composites comprising particles encapsulated by an interphase of finite thickness and distinct elastic properties. This explicit solution can treat nanocomposites that comprise either physically isolated nanoparticles or agglomerates of such nanoparticles; the same framework can also treat physically isolated nanoparticle aggregates or agglomerates of such aggregates. We find that the predicted elastic moduli agree with experiments for three types of particle-polymer nanocomposites, and that the predicted interphase thickness and stiffness of carbon black-rubber nanocomposites are consistent with measured values. Finally, we discuss the relative influence of the particle-polymer interphase thickness and stiffness to identify maximum possible changes in the macroscale elastic properties of such materials.

  13. Decomposition and particle release of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Functional Polymers (Switzerland); Kuo, Yu-Ying; Bahk, Yeon Kyoung [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Analytical Technologies (Switzerland); Nüesch, Frank [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Functional Polymers (Switzerland); Wang, Jing, E-mail: Jing.Wang@ifu.baug.ethz.ch [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Analytical Technologies (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as fillers in nanocomposites have attracted significant attention, and one of the applications is to use the CNTs as flame retardants. For such nanocomposites, possible release of CNTs at elevated temperatures after decomposition of the polymer matrix poses potential health threats. We investigated the airborne particle release from a decomposing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy nanocomposite in order to measure a possible release of MWCNTs. An experimental set-up was established that allows decomposing the samples in a furnace by exposure to increasing temperatures at a constant heating rate and under ambient air or nitrogen atmosphere. The particle analysis was performed by aerosol measurement devices and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of collected particles. Further, by the application of a thermal denuder, it was also possible to measure non-volatile particles only. Characterization of the tested samples and the decomposition kinetics were determined by the usage of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The particle release of different samples was investigated, of a neat epoxy, nanocomposites with 0.1 and 1 wt% MWCNTs, and nanocomposites with functionalized MWCNTs. The results showed that the added MWCNTs had little effect on the decomposition kinetics of the investigated samples, but the weight of the remaining residues after decomposition was influenced significantly. The measurements with decomposition in different atmospheres showed a release of a higher number of particles at temperatures below 300 °C when air was used. Analysis of collected particles by TEM revealed that no detectable amount of MWCNTs was released, but micrometer-sized fibrous particles were collected.

  14. Decomposition and particle release of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Bahk, Yeon Kyoung; Nüesch, Frank; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as fillers in nanocomposites have attracted significant attention, and one of the applications is to use the CNTs as flame retardants. For such nanocomposites, possible release of CNTs at elevated temperatures after decomposition of the polymer matrix poses potential health threats. We investigated the airborne particle release from a decomposing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy nanocomposite in order to measure a possible release of MWCNTs. An experimental set-up was established that allows decomposing the samples in a furnace by exposure to increasing temperatures at a constant heating rate and under ambient air or nitrogen atmosphere. The particle analysis was performed by aerosol measurement devices and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of collected particles. Further, by the application of a thermal denuder, it was also possible to measure non-volatile particles only. Characterization of the tested samples and the decomposition kinetics were determined by the usage of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The particle release of different samples was investigated, of a neat epoxy, nanocomposites with 0.1 and 1 wt% MWCNTs, and nanocomposites with functionalized MWCNTs. The results showed that the added MWCNTs had little effect on the decomposition kinetics of the investigated samples, but the weight of the remaining residues after decomposition was influenced significantly. The measurements with decomposition in different atmospheres showed a release of a higher number of particles at temperatures below 300 °C when air was used. Analysis of collected particles by TEM revealed that no detectable amount of MWCNTs was released, but micrometer-sized fibrous particles were collected

  15. Decomposition and particle release of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Bahk, Yeon Kyoung; Nüesch, Frank; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as fillers in nanocomposites have attracted significant attention, and one of the applications is to use the CNTs as flame retardants. For such nanocomposites, possible release of CNTs at elevated temperatures after decomposition of the polymer matrix poses potential health threats. We investigated the airborne particle release from a decomposing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy nanocomposite in order to measure a possible release of MWCNTs. An experimental set-up was established that allows decomposing the samples in a furnace by exposure to increasing temperatures at a constant heating rate and under ambient air or nitrogen atmosphere. The particle analysis was performed by aerosol measurement devices and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of collected particles. Further, by the application of a thermal denuder, it was also possible to measure non-volatile particles only. Characterization of the tested samples and the decomposition kinetics were determined by the usage of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The particle release of different samples was investigated, of a neat epoxy, nanocomposites with 0.1 and 1 wt% MWCNTs, and nanocomposites with functionalized MWCNTs. The results showed that the added MWCNTs had little effect on the decomposition kinetics of the investigated samples, but the weight of the remaining residues after decomposition was influenced significantly. The measurements with decomposition in different atmospheres showed a release of a higher number of particles at temperatures below 300 °C when air was used. Analysis of collected particles by TEM revealed that no detectable amount of MWCNTs was released, but micrometer-sized fibrous particles were collected.

  16. Polymer nanocomposite particles of S-nitrosoglutathione: A suitable formulation for protection and sustained oral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Gaucher, Caroline; Fries, Isabelle; Hu, Xian-Ming; Maincent, Philippe; Sapin-Minet, Anne

    2015-11-10

    S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is a nitric oxide (NO) donor with therapeutic potential for cardiovascular disease treatment. Chronic oral treatment with GSNO is limited by high drug sensitivity to the environment and limited oral bioavailability, requiring the development of delivery systems able to sustain NO release. The present work describes new platforms based on polymer nanocomposite particles for the delivery of GSNO. Five types of optimized nanocomposite particles have been developed (three based on chitosan, two based on alginate sodium). Those nanocomposite particles encapsulate GSNO with high efficiency from 64% to 70% and an average size of 13 to 61 μm compatible with oral delivery. Sustained release of GSNO in vitro was achieved. Indeed, chitosan nanocomposites discharged their payload within 24h; whereas alginate nanocomposites released GSNO more slowly (10% of GSNO was still remaining in the dosage form after 24h). Their cytocompatibility toward intestinal Caco-2 cells (MTT assay) was acceptable (IC50: 6.07 ± 0.07-9.46 ± 0.08 mg/mL), demonstrating their suitability as oral delivery systems for GSNO. These delivery systems presented efficient GSNO loading and sustained release as well as cytocompatibility, showing their promise as a means of improving the oral bioavailability of GSNO and as a potential new treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanodiamond particles/PVDF nanocomposite flexible films: thermal, mechanical and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleh, Babak; Sodagar, Shima; Momeni, Amir; Jabbari, Ameneh

    2016-08-01

    Recently, polymer nanocomposites reinforced with nanoparticles have attracted a lot of attention due to their unique physical and mechanical properties. In this work, poly (vinylidene fluoride)/nanodiamond particles nanocomposite films were prepared by solution casting method with various nanodiamond particles contents. The samples were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction technique. The results revealed an obvious α to β-phase transformation compared to pure PVDF. The most (or the maximum) phase transformation from α to β-phase (>90%) was found for nanocomposite film with 8% wt nanodiamond particles. Scanning electron micrographs showed considerable decrease in the size of spherulitic crystal structure of PVDF with adding nanoparticles. The photoluminescence property of nanocomposite films was investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy and the optical band gap value was calculated from the UV-visible absorption spectra. The results showed that after the incorporation of nanoparticles into PVDF, the value of optical band gap decreased. Thermal stability of samples was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Due to an increase in the electroactive phase (β) percentage by adding nanoparticles, the resistance of samples to thermal degradation improved. The mechanical properties of samples were investigated by tensile test and hardness measurements. The elastic modulus and hardness of samples were enhanced by adding nanodiamond particles and elongation to fracture decreased.

  18. Multiscale Micromechanical Modeling of Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites and the Effective Clay Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Nuo; Boyce, Mary C.; Parks, David M.; Manovitch, Oleg; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Lee, Hojun; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2003-03-01

    Polymer/clay nanocomposites have been observed to exhibit enhanced mechanical properties at low weight fractions (Wp) of clay. Continuum-based composite modeling reveals that the enhanced properties are strongly dependent on particular features of the second-phase ¡°particles¡+/-; in particular, the particle volume fraction (fp), the particle aspect ratio (L/t), and the ratio of particle mechanical properties to those of the matrix. However, these important aspects of as-processed nanoclay composites have yet to be consistently and accurately defined. A multiscale modeling strategy was developed to account for the hierarchical morphology of the nanocomposite: at a lengthscale of thousands of microns, the structure is one of high aspect ratio particles within a matrix; at the lengthscale of microns, the clay particle structure is either (a) exfoliated clay sheets of nanometer level thickness or (b) stacks of parallel clay sheets separated from one another by interlayer galleries of nanometer level height. Here, quantitative structural parameters extracted from XRD patterns and TEM micrographs are used to determine geometric features of the as-processed clay ¡°particles¡+/-, including L/t and the ratio of fp to Wp. These geometric features, together with estimates of silicate lamina stiffness obtained from molecular dynamics simulations, provide a basis for modeling effective mechanical properties of the clay particle. The structure-based predictions of the macroscopic elastic modulus of the nanocomposite as a function of clay weight fraction are in excellent agreement with experimental data. The adopted methodology offers promise for study of related properties in polymer/clay nanocomposites.

  19. Encapsulation of Single Nanoparticle in Fast-Evaporating Micro-droplets Prevents Particle Agglomeration in Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ming; Shi, Xinjian; Lyu, Fengjiao; Levy-Wendt, Ben Louis; Zheng, Xiaolin; Tang, Sindy K Y

    2017-08-09

    This work describes the use of fast-evaporating micro-droplets to finely disperse nanoparticles (NPs) in a polymer matrix for the fabrication of nanocomposites. Agglomeration of particles is a key obstacle for broad applications of nanocomposites. The classical approach to ensure the dispersibility of NPs is to modify the surface chemistry of NPs with ligands. The surface properties of NPs are inevitably altered, however. To overcome the trade-off between dispersibility and surface-functionality of NPs, we develop a new approach by dispersing NPs in a volatile solvent, followed by mixing with uncured polymer precursors to form micro-droplet emulsions. Most of these micro-droplets contain no more than one NP per drop, and they evaporate rapidly to prevent the agglomeration of NPs during the polymer curing process. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of TiO 2 NP@PDMS nanocomposites for solar fuel generation reactions with high photocatalytic efficiency and recyclability arising from the fine dispersion of TiO 2 . Our simple method eliminates the need for surface functionalization of NPs. Our approach is applicable to prepare nanocomposites comprising a wide range of polymers embedded with NPs of different composition, sizes, and shapes. It has the potential for creating nanocomposites with novel functions.

  20. The One-Step Pickering Emulsion Polymerization Route for Synthesizing Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Rege

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene-silica core-shell nanocomposite particles are successfully prepared via one-step Pickering emulsion polymerization. Possible mechanisms of Pickering emulsion polymerization are addressed in the synthesis of polystyrene-silica nanocomposite particles using 2,2-azobis(2-methyl-N-(2-hydroxyethylpropionamide (VA-086 and potassium persulfate (KPS as the initiator. Motivated by potential applications of “smart” composite particles in controlled drug delivery, the one-step Pickering emulsion polymerization route is further applied to synthesize polystyrene/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAm-silica core-shell nanoparticles with N-isopropylacrylamide incorporated into the core as a co-monomer. The polystyrene/PNIPAAm-silica composite nanoparticles are temperature sensitive and can be taken up by human prostate cancer (PC3-PSMA cells.

  1. Dielectric properties of polymer-particle nanocomposites influenced by electronic nature of filler surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddabattuni, Sasidhar; Schuman, Thomas P; Dogan, Fatih

    2013-03-01

    The interface between the polymer and the particle has a critical role in altering the properties of a composite dielectric. Polymer-ceramic nanocomposites are promising dielectric materials for many electronic and power devices, combining the high dielectric constant of ceramic particles with the high dielectric breakdown strength of a polymer. Self-assembled monolayers of electron rich or electron poor organophosphate coupling groups were applied to affect the filler-polymer interface and investigate the role of this interface on composite behavior. The interface has potential to influence dielectric properties, in particular the leakage and breakdown resistance. The composite films synthesized from the modified filler particles dispersed into an epoxy polymer matrix were analyzed by dielectric spectroscopy, breakdown strength, and leakage current measurements. The data indicate that significant reduction in leakage currents and dielectric losses and improvement in dielectric breakdown strengths resulted when electropositive phenyl, electron-withdrawing functional groups were located at the polymer-particle interface. At a 30 vol % particle concentration, dielectric composite films yielded a maximum energy density of ~8 J·cm(-3) for TiO2-epoxy nanocomposites and ~9.5 J·cm(-3) for BaTiO3-epoxy nanocomposites.

  2. Influence of nanoclay particles modification by polyester-amide hyperbranched polymer on the corrosion protective performance of the epoxy nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganjaee Sari, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Shahbazi, M.; Pakdel, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanoclay particles were modified with polyester-amide hyperbranched polymer. • Epoxy/clay nanocomposites were prepared using modified clay particles. • Surface modification enhanced the clay particles exfoliation properties. • Surface modified clay particles enhanced corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating. - Abstract: Surface modification of nanoclay particles was carried out by various amounts of polyester-amide hyperbranched polymer (HBP). Thermal gravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to estimate the efficiency of the HPB grafting on the clay particles. Epoxy/clay nanocomposites were prepared by addition of 1 wt.% unmodified and modified clays. The corrosion protection properties of the nanocomposites were evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results revealed that surface modification of the clay particles by HBP caused significant enhancement of the epoxy coating corrosion resistance especially when the ‘polymer/clay’ ratios were 10/1 and 5/1

  3. The effect of particle aspect ratio on the electroelastic properties of piezoelectric nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, C; Lin, Y; Sodano, H A

    2010-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials offer exceptional sensing and actuation properties; however, they are prone to breakage and difficult to apply on curved surfaces in their monolithic form. One method of alleviating these issues is through the use of 0–3 nanocomposites, which are formed by embedding piezoelectric particles into a polymer matrix. Material of this class offers certain advantages over monolithic materials; however, it has seen little use due to its low coupling. Here we develop micromechanics and finite element models to study the electroelastic properties of an active nanocomposite, as a function of the aspect ratio and alignment of the piezoelectric filler. Our results show that the aspect ratio is critical for achieving high electromechanical coupling, and with an increase from 1 to 10 at 30% volume fraction of piezoelectric filler the coupling can increase to 60 times its initial value and achieve a bulk composite coupling as high as 90% for a pure PZT-7A piezoelectric constituent

  4. Influence of particle surface properties on the dielectric behavior of silica/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lihong; Zheng Liaoying; Li Guorong; Zeng Jiangtao; Yin Qingrui

    2008-01-01

    Silica/epoxy composites have been widely used in functional electric device applications. Silica nanoparticles, both unmodified and modified with the coupling agent KH-550, were used to prepare epoxy composites. Dielectric measurements showed that nanocomposites exhibit a higher dielectric constant than the control sample, and had more obvious dielectric relaxation characteristics. Results showed that particle surface properties have a profound effect on the dielectric behavior of the nanocomposites. These characteristics are attributed to the local ununiformity of the microstructure caused by the large interface area and the interaction between the filler and the matrix. This phenomenon is explained in terms of prolonging chemical chains created during the curing process. The mechanism is discussed with measurements of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Polystyrene-Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Particles Using an Anionic-Surfactant-Modified Clay and Their Friction Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Yu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene-organo-montmorillonite (PS-OMMT nanocomposite particles were prepared via emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of montmorillonite modified with an anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfonate (SLS, and its tribological properties as an additive to polyalphaolefin (PAO were tested. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA showed that SLS molecules resided in the montmorillonite (MMT interlayer space. The effects of OMMT on the morphology and properties of the nanocomposites were also investigated. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC and dynamic light scattering (DLS demonstrate that the presence of OMMT can effectively reduce the average molecular weight and average particle size of PS. XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM of the PS-OMMT nanocomposites indicate that exfoliated and intercalated structures form and that the MMT layers either are partly embedded inside the PS particles or remain on their surface. Compared with pure PS, the PS-OMMT nanocomposites possessed higher stability to thermal decomposition and higher glass transition temperatures. Adding nanocomposite particles reduces the friction coefficient, and thus, the antiwear properties of the PAO are significantly improved. The PS-OMMT-3 (3 wt % of OMMT based on styrene particles have the best tribological performance and maintained a stable, very low coefficient of friction of 0.09.

  6. Drug-Carrying Magnetic Nanocomposite Particles for Potential Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Asmatulu

    2009-01-01

    nanoparticles and poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA for the purpose of magnetic targeted drug delivery. Magnetic nanoparticles (∼13 nm on average of magnetite were prepared by a chemical coprecipitation of ferric and ferrous chloride salts in the presence of a strong basic solution (ammonium hydroxide. An oil-in-oil emulsion/solvent evaporation technique was conducted at 7000 rpm and 1.5–2 hours agitation for the synthesis of nanocomposite spheres. Specifically, PLGA and drug were first dissolved in acetonitrile (oily phase I and combined with magnetic nanoparticles, then added dropwise into viscous paraffin oil combined with Span 80 (oily phase II. With different contents (0%, 10%, 20%, and 25% of magnetite, the nanocomposite spheres were evaluated in terms of particle size, morphology, and magnetic properties by using dynamic laser light scattering (DLLS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID. The results indicate that nanocomposite spheres (200 nm to 1.1 μm in diameter are superparamagnetic above the blocking temperature near 40 K and their magnetization saturates above 5 000 Oe at room temperature.

  7. Effect of aluminium particles on mechanical and morphological properties of epoxy nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Sefiu A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bumper is a front or rear part of automobiles. It is designed and shaped to be impact absorbing and protecting automobiles from damage in low impact collisions. Initially, they were made from heavy steels, increasing the weight of automobiles and fuel consumption. Also, high impacts of steel bumpers on pedestrians during accidental collision cause fatalities and or disabilities. An effort to enhance fuel efficiency, safety, freedom of design and shape detailing, heavy alloys for automobile applications are now being replaced with polymeric composites. Aluminium micro particles and nanoparticles were prepared from aluminium cans through sand casting, lathe machine spinning, and ball milling techniques. Both types of aluminium particles were incorporated into a mixture of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, epoxy resin cured with amine base hardener (ABH. Phases of the epoxy polymer and composites were identified using Xray Diffraction (XRD. Spatial arrangement of the phases within the matrix and their elemental composition were examined using Scanning Electron Microscope with attached energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX. Tensile, impact and micro hardness tests were conducted on the prepared epoxy/aluminium composites. Results of the XRD showed the presence of aluminium compounds/phases due to chemical reactions between aluminium particles and DGEBA/ABH system. SEM confirmed a homogeneous distribution of the phases within the epoxy matrix, and that there is a strong adhesion between the epoxy matrix and aluminium particles. Correlation between the mechanical properties of the prepared nanocomposite and the procured bumper materials exhibited a fair suitability of the prepared nanocomposites for automobile applications.

  8. The filler-rubber interface in styrene butadiene nanocomposites with anisotropic silica particles: morphology and dynamic properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tadiello, L.; D´Arienzo, M.; Di Credico, B.; Hanel, T.; Matějka, Libor; Mauri, M.; Morazzoni, F.; Simonutti, R.; Špírková, Milena; Scotti, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 20 (2015), s. 4022-4033 ISSN 1744-683X Grant - others:European Commission(XE) COST Action MP1202 HINT Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanocomposites * silica particles * polymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.798, year: 2015

  9. Weathering of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite under UV light and in water bath: impact on abraded particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Kianfar, Bahareh; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Wichser, Adrian; Nüesch, Frank; Wick, Peter; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Weathering processes can influence the surface properties of composites with incorporated nanoparticles. These changes may affect the release behavior of nanoparticles when an abrasion process is applied. Therefore, the influence of two different weathering processes, immersion in water and exposure to UV light, on the properties of abraded particles from a carbon nanotube (CNT)/epoxy nanocomposite was investigated. The investigation included the measurement of the weathering impact on the surface chemistry of the exposed samples, the particle size of abraded particles, the quantity of exposed CNTs in the respirable part of the abraded particles, and the toxicity of abraded particles, measured by in vitro toxicity tests using the THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. The results showed that weathering by immersion in water had no influence on the properties of abraded particles. The exposure to UV light caused a degradation of the epoxy on the surface, followed by delamination of an approx. 2.5 μm thick layer. An increased quantity of exposed CNTs in abraded particles was not found; on the contrary, longer UV exposure times decreased the released fraction of CNTs from 0.6% to 0.4%. The toxicity tests revealed that abraded particles from the nanocomposites did not induce additional acute cytotoxic effects compared to particles from the neat epoxy.Weathering processes can influence the surface properties of composites with incorporated nanoparticles. These changes may affect the release behavior of nanoparticles when an abrasion process is applied. Therefore, the influence of two different weathering processes, immersion in water and exposure to UV light, on the properties of abraded particles from a carbon nanotube (CNT)/epoxy nanocomposite was investigated. The investigation included the measurement of the weathering impact on the surface chemistry of the exposed samples, the particle size of abraded particles, the quantity of exposed CNTs in the respirable part of

  10. Mechanism of Particle Formation in Silver/Epoxy Nanocomposites Obtained through a Visible-Light-Assisted in Situ Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dell'Erba, Ignacio E; Martínez, Francisco D; Hoppe, Cristina E; Eliçabe, Guillermo E; Ceolín, Marcelo; Zucchi, Ileana A; Schroeder, Walter F

    2017-10-03

    A detailed understanding of the processes taking place during the in situ synthesis of metal/polymer nanocomposites is crucial to manipulate the shape and size of nanoparticles (NPs) with a high level of control. In this paper, we report an in-depth time-resolved analysis of the particle formation process in silver/epoxy nanocomposites obtained through a visible-light-assisted in situ synthesis. The selected epoxy monomer was based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, which undergoes relatively slow cationic ring-opening polymerization. This feature allowed us to access a full description of the formation process of silver NPs before this was arrested by the curing of the epoxy matrix. In situ time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering investigation was carried out to follow the evolution of the number and size of the silver NPs as a function of irradiation time, whereas rheological experiments combined with near-infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies were performed to interpret how changes in the rheological properties of the matrix affect the nucleation and growth of particles. The analysis of the obtained results allowed us to propose consistent mechanisms for the formation of metal/polymer nanocomposites obtained by light-assisted one-pot synthesis. Finally, the effect of a thermal postcuring treatment of the epoxy matrix on the particle size in the nanocomposite was investigated.

  11. Polystyrene/magnesium hydroxide nanocomposite particles prepared by surface-initiated in-situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hui; Yi Jianhong

    2009-01-01

    In order to avoid their agglomeration and incompatibility with hydrophobic polystyrene substrate, magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles were encapsulated by surface-initiated in-situ polymerization of styrene. The process contained two steps: electrostatic adsorption of initiator and polymerization of monomer on the surface of magnesium hydroxide. It was found that high adsorption ratio in the electrostatic adsorption of initiator could be attained only in acidic region, and the adsorption belonged to typical physical process. Compared to traditional in-situ polymerization, higher grafting ratio was obtained in surface-initiated in-situ polymerization, which can be attributed to weaker steric hindrance. Both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that polystyrene/magnesium hydroxide nanocomposite particles had been successfully prepared by surface-initiated in-situ polymerization. The resulting samples were also analyzed and characterized by means of contact angle testing, dispersibility evaluation and thermogravimetric analysis

  12. Particle size modeling and morphology study of chitosan/gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite nanocomposite microspheres for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Khoulenjani, Shadab; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Etrati-Khosroshahi, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2013-06-01

    In this study, nanocomposite microspheres based on chitosan/gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite were fabricated, and effects of the nanohydroxyapatite/biopolymer (chitosan/gelatin) weight ratio (nHA/P), stirring rate, chitosan concentration and biopolymer concentration on the particle size, and morphology of nanocomposite microspheres were investigated. Particle size of microspheres was modeled by design of experiments using the surface response method. Particle size, morphology of microspheres, and distribution of nanoparticles within the composite microspheres were evaluated using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were applied to study the physical and chemical characteristics of microspheres. Results showed that by modulating the nHA/P ratio, chitosan concentration, polymer concentration, and stirring rate, it is possible to fabricate microspheres in wide rages of particle size (5-150 μm). Analysis of variance confirmed that the modified quadratic model can be used to predict the particle size of nanocomposite microspheres within the design space. SEM studies showed that microspheres with different compositions had totally different morphologies from dense morphologies to porous ones. TEM images demonstrated that nanoparticles were distributed uniformly within the polymeric matrix. MTT assay and cell culture studies showed that microspheres with different compositions possessed good biocompatibility. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of new functionalized polymer-Fe3O4 nanocomposite particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bukowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs were functionalized with copolymer or terpolymer bearing glycidyl methacrylate (GMA moieties making them suitable for potential applications as drug delivery systems (DDS. For this purpose, the surface of magnetic nanoparticles was first coated with 3-(trimethoxysilyl propyl methacrylate (MPS by a silanization reaction to introduce reactive methacrylate groups onto the surface. Subsequently, monomers were grafted onto the surface of modified-MPS particles via two polymerization methods: seed emulsion (GMA, divinylbenzene, DVB, and styrene, S and distillation – precipitation (GMA and DVB. The obtained nanocomposite particles were characterized by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, DR UV-Vis (diffuse reflectance ultraviolet – visible spectroscopy, TEM (transmission electron microscopy combined with EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis and DLS (dynamic light scattering. FTIR spectroscopy showed that indeed a polymer – Fe3O4@MPS composite was obtained. TEM and EDS analysis showed that the seed emulsion method resulted in nanosized, 100 nm Fe3O4@MPS core/polymer shell NPs, forming long chains. On the contrary, the distillation – precipitation method caused the formation of an inverted structure, i.e. polymer core coated by a Fe3O4@MPS shell, which exhibited a very coarse size distribution varying from several hundreds to over 2 µm.

  14. Preparation of polymer-blended quinine nanocomposite particles by spray drying and assessment of their instrumental bitterness-masking effect using a taste sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Moeko; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Ozeki, Tetsuya

    2017-05-01

    The development of taste-masking technologies for foods and drugs is essential because it would enable people to consume and receive healthy and therapeutic effect without distress. In the current study, in order to develop a novel method to prepare nanocomposite particles (microparticles containing bitter nanoparticles) in only one step, by using spray drying, a two-solution mixing nozzle-equipped spray dryer that we previously reported was used. The nanocomposite particles with or without poorly water-soluble polymers prepared using our spray-drying technique were characterized. (1) The organic solution containing quinine, a model of bitter compound and poorly water-soluble polymers and (2) sugar alcohol (mannitol) aqueous solution were separately flown in tubes and two solutions were spray dried through two-solution type spray nozzle to prepare polymer-blended quinine nanocomposite particles. Mean diameters of nanoparticles, taste-masking effect and dissolution rate of quinine were evaluated. The results of taste masking by taste sensor suggested that the polymer (Eudragit EPO, Eudragit S100 or Ethyl cellulose)-blended quinine nanocomposite particles exhibited marked masking of instrumental quinine bitterness compared with the quinine nanocomposite particles alone. Quinine nanocomposite formulations altered the quinine dissolution rate, indicating that they can control intestinal absorption of quinine. These results suggest that polymer-blended quinine composite particles prepared using our spray-drying technique are useful for masking bitter tastes in the field of food and pharmaceutical industry.

  15. Preparation, microstructure and magnetic properties of Sm(Co,Hf){sub 7}/Co nanocomposite particles by polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Shao-Jing; Duan, Xiu-Li; Han, Xu-Hao; Sun, Ji-Bing, E-mail: hbgdsjb@126.com; Chi, Xiang; Cui, Chun-Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Hard/soft Sm-Co/Co nanocomposite particles were prepared by reducing CoCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O in the solution containing ball-milled Sm(Co, Hf){sub 7} particles by a simple polyol method with ethylene glycol as the solvent. Phase composition, microstructure and magnetic properties of the particles were analyzed by XRD, TEM (HRTEM) and VSM, respectively. It has been found that Sm-Co/Co core/shell structure is formed in which the Co shell is 3–5 nm in thickness and mainly exists in hcp-Co phase. At the same time, fcc-Co tends to nucleate and grow independently between Sm-Co particles. The formation mechanism of Sm-Co/Co composite particles is discussed and corresponding model is established. Sm-Co/Co composite particles perform obvious remanence enhancement effects especially after being heated at 450 °C for 15 min.

  16. Omega-3 PUFA concentration by a novel PVDF nano-composite membrane filled with nano-porous silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemian, Samaneh; Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hasan

    2017-09-01

    In this study, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and nano-porous silica particle were used to fabricate an asymmetric nano-composite membrane. Silica particles enhanced the thermal stability of PVDF/SiO 2 membranes; increasing the decomposition temperature from 371°C to 408°C. Cross sectional morphology showed that silica particles were dispersed in polymer matrix uniformly. However, particle agglomeration was found at higher loading of silica (i.e., 20 by weight%). The separation performance of nano-composite membranes was also evaluated using the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentration at a temperature and pressure of 30°C and 4bar, respectively. Silica particle increased the omega-3PUFA concentration from 34.8 by weight% in neat PVDF to 53.9 by weight% in PVDF with 15 by weight% of silica. Moreover, PVDF/SiO 2 nano-composite membranes exhibited enhanced anti-fouling property compared to neat PVDF membrane. Fouling mechanism analysis revealed that complete pore blocking was the predominant mechanism occurring in oil filtration. The concentration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important in the oil industries. While the current methods demand high energy consumptions in concentrating the omega-3, membrane separation technology offers noticeable advantages in producing pure omega-3 PUFA. Moreover, concentrating omega-3 via membrane separation produces products in the triacylglycerol form which possess better oxidative stability. In this work, the detailed mechanisms of fouling which limits the performance of membrane separation were investigated. Incorporating silica particles to polymeric membrane resulted in the formation of mixed matrix membrane with improved anti-fouling behaviour compared to the neat polymeric membrane. Hence, the industrial potential of membrane processing to concentrate omega-3 fatty acids is enhanced. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Computational analysis of particle reinforced viscoelastic polymer nanocomposites - statistical study of representative volume element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anqi; Li, Xiaolin; Ajdari, Amin; Jiang, Bing; Burkhart, Craig; Chen, Wei; Brinson, L. Catherine

    2018-05-01

    The concept of representative volume element (RVE) is widely used to determine the effective material properties of random heterogeneous materials. In the present work, the RVE is investigated for the viscoelastic response of particle-reinforced polymer nanocomposites in the frequency domain. The smallest RVE size and the minimum number of realizations at a given volume size for both structural and mechanical properties are determined for a given precision using the concept of margin of error. It is concluded that using the mean of many realizations of a small RVE instead of a single large RVE can retain the desired precision of a result with much lower computational cost (up to three orders of magnitude reduced computation time) for the property of interest. Both the smallest RVE size and the minimum number of realizations for a microstructure with higher volume fraction (VF) are larger compared to those of one with lower VF at the same desired precision. Similarly, a clustered structure is shown to require a larger minimum RVE size as well as a larger number of realizations at a given volume size compared to the well-dispersed microstructures.

  18. Nanocomposite YSZ-NiO Particles with Tailored Structure Synthesized in a Two-Stage Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Philipp; Xu, Yu; Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    core-shell structures or surface decorated particles could exhibit better performance compared with single phase materials. To obtain such advanced structures is the aim of the ProEco project (www.proeco.dk). In this project, a two-stage continuous reactor is built and used to synthesize such nano...... the performance of energy storage and conversion devices such as fuel cells, electrolyzers and batteries is important. One promising approach to further improve these devices is the use of carefully structured nanosized materials. Nano-composite particles combining different materials in advanced geometries like......-of-the-art solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells. The prepared particles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, (high resolution) transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunnel transmission microscopy and Raman spectroscopy in order to determine crystal structure, particle size, surface morphology...

  19. Chemical modification of magnetite nanoparticles and preparation of acrylic-base magnetic nanocomposite particles via miniemulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdieh, Athar; Mahdavian, Ali Reza, E-mail: a.mahdavian@ippi.ac.ir; Salehi-Mobarakeh, Hamid

    2017-03-15

    Nowadays, magnetic nanocomposite particles have attracted many interests because of their versatile applications. A new method for chemical modification of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with polymerizable groups is presented here. After synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles by co-precipitation method, they were modified sequentially with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES), acryloyl chloride (AC) and benzoyl chloride (BC) and all were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and TGA analyses. Then the modified magnetite nanoparticles with unsaturated acrylic groups were copolymerized with methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA) and acrylic acid (AA) through miniemulsion polymerization. Although several reports exist on preparation of magnetite-base polymer particles, but the efficiency of magnetite encapsulationwith reasonable content and obtaining final stable latexes with limited aggregation ofFe{sub 3}O{sub 4} are still important issues. These were considered here by controlling reaction parameters. Hence, a seriesofmagneticnanocomposites latex particlescontaining different amounts of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (0–10 wt%) were prepared with core-shell morphology and diameter below 200 nm and were characterized by FT-IR, DSC and TGA analyses. Their morphology and size distribution were studied by SEM, TEM and DLS analyses too. Magnetic properties of all products were also measuredby VSM analysis and the results revealed almost superparamagnetic properties for the obtained nanocomposite particles. - Highlights: • Chemical modification of magnetite nanoparticles. • Encapsulation of modified magnetite with acrylic copolymer. • Superparamagnetic Fe3O4/polyacrylic nanocomposite particles.

  20. Synthesis of Co/MFe(2)O(4) (M = Fe, Mn) Core/Shell Nanocomposite Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sheng; Xie, Jin; Sun, Shouheng

    2008-01-01

    Monodispersed cobalt nanoparticles (NPs) with controllable size (8-14 nm) have been synthesized using thermal decomposition of dicobaltoctacarbonyl in organic solvent. The as-synthesized high magnetic moment (125 emu/g) Co NPs are dispersible in various organic solvents, and can be easily transferred into aqueous phase by surface modification using phospholipids. However, the modified hydrophilic Co NPs are not stable as they are quickly oxidized, agglomerated in buffer. Co NPs are stabilized by coating the MFe(2)O(4) (M = Fe, Mn) ferrite shell. Core/shell structured bimagnetic Co/MFe(2)O(4) nanocomposites are prepared with tunable shell thickness (1-5 nm). The Co/MFe(2)O(4) nanocomposites retain the high magnetic moment density from the Co core, while gaining chemical and magnetic stability from the ferrite shell. Comparing to Co NPs, the nanocomposites show much enhanced stability in buffer solution at elevated temperatures, making them promising for biomedical applications.

  1. Void initiation from interfacial debonding of spherical silicon particles inside a silicon-copper nanocomposite: a molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yi; Chen, Zengtao

    2017-02-01

    Silicon particles with diameters from 1.9 nm to 30 nm are embedded in a face-centered-cubic copper matrix to form nanocomposite specimens for simulation. The interfacial debonding of silicon particles from the copper matrix and the subsequent growth of nucleated voids are studied via molecular dynamics (MD). The MD results are examined from several different perspectives. The overall mechanical performance is monitored by the average stress-strain response and the accumulated porosity. The ‘relatively farthest-traveled’ atoms are identified to characterize the onset of interfacial debonding. The relative displacement field is plotted to illustrate both subsequent interfacial debonding and the growth of a nucleated void facilitated by a dislocation network. Our results indicate that the initiation of interfacial debonding is due to the accumulated surface stress if the matrix is initially dislocation-free. However, pre-existing dislocations can make a considerable difference. In either case, the dislocation emission also contributes to the subsequent debonding process. As for the size effect, the debonding of relatively larger particles causes a drop in the stress-strain curve. The volume fraction of second-phase particles is found to be more influential than the size of the simulation box on the onset of interfacial debonding. The volume fraction of second-phase particles also affects the shape of the nucleated void and, therefore, influences the stress response of the composite.

  2. Gold surface supported spherical liposome-gold nano-particle nano-composite for label free DNA sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvana, M; Narayanan, J Shankara; Dharuman, V; Teng, W; Hahn, J H; Jayakumar, K

    2013-03-15

    Immobilization of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) liposome-gold nano-particle (DOPE-AuNP) nano-composite covalently on 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on gold surface is demonstrated for the first time for electrochemical label free DNA sensing. Spherical nature of the DOPE on the MPA monolayer is confirmed by the appearance of sigmoidal voltammetric profile, characteristic behavior of linear diffusion, for the MPA-DOPE in presence of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) and [Ru(NH(3))(6)](3+) redox probes. The DOPE liposome vesicle fusion is prevented by electroless deposition of AuNP on the hydrophilic amine head groups of the DOPE. Immobilization of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) is made via simple gold-thiol linkage for DNA hybridization sensing in the presence of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-). The sensor discriminates the hybridized (complementary target hybridized), un-hybridized (non-complementary target hybridized) and single base mismatch target hybridized surfaces sensitively and selectively without signal amplification. The lowest target DNA concentration detected is 0.1×10(-12)M. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance (EIS), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) techniques are used for DNA sensing on DOPE-AuNP nano-composite. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV) spectroscopic techniques are used to understand the interactions between the DOPE, AuNP and ssDNA. The results indicate the presence of an intact and well defined spherical DOPE-AuNP nano-composite on the gold surface. The method could be applied for fabrication of the surface based liposome-AuNP-DNA composite for cell transfection studies at reduced reagents and costs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The improvement of corrosion resistance of fluoropolymer coatings by SiO{sub 2}/poly(styrene-co-butyl acrylate) nanocomposite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu (China); Song, R.G., E-mail: songrg@hotmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu (China); Li, X.W.; Guo, Y.Q.; Wang, C.; Jiang, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • We first proposed the feasibility of organic-inorganic hybrid particles can be used to reduce free space of the fluoropolymer coatings. • By grafting poly(styrene-co-butyl acrylate), nano-silica particles can be better dispersed in the fluoropolymer coatings system. • The coating-substrates bound strength could be obviously seen in the FESEM cross-section images. • The effects of the corrosion resistance of fluoropolymer-coated steel were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and EIS. • Using models to analysis the anticorrosion mechanism of nanocomposite coatings. - Abstract: The effects of nano-silica particles on the anticorrosion properties of fluoropolymer coatings on mild steel have been investigated in this paper. In order to enhance the dispersibility of nano-silica in fluoropolymer coatings, we treated the surface of nano-silica with poly(styrene-co-butyl acrylate) (P(St-BA)). The surface grafting of P(St-BA) on the nanoparticles were detected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface of nanocomposite coatings and the coating-substrates bond texture were detected by FE-SEM. We also used energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to analyze whether the nanocomposite particles were added into the fluoropolymer coatings. In addition, the influences of various nanoparticles on the corrosion resistance of fluoropolymer-coated steel were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results shown that nanocomposite particles can be dispersed better in fluoropolymer coatings, and the electrochemical results clearly shown the improvement of the protective properties of the nanocomposite coatings when 4 wt.% SiO{sub 2}/P(St-BA) was added to the fluoropolymer coatings.

  4. Synthesis of nano-composite surfaces via the co-deposition of metallic salts and nano particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, J.W.; Tesh, S.J.; Crane, R.A.; Hallam, K.R.; Scott, T.B.

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Nanofaceted surfaces are prepared by a low current density (<0.1 A cm{sup 2}) electrodeposition method. • Surfaces are formed of nanoparticles anchored to a conductive (carbon) substrate. • Formed surfaces show a high nano-reactivity and surface area. • Demonstration of INP/FeCl{sub 3} nanocomposite for water filtration effectively removing BTEX contamination. -- Abstract: A novel, low energy method for coating different nano-particles via electro-deposition to a recyclable carbon glass supporting structure is demonstrated. In the resulting composite, the nano-material is bound to the substrate surface, thereby removing the potential for causing harmful interactions with the environment. Nano-particles were suspended in a salt solution and deposited at low current densities (<0.1 A cm{sup −2}) producing thin (<100 nm), uniform nano-faceted surfaces. A co-deposition mechanism of nano-particles and cations from the salt solution is proposed and explored. This has been successfully demonstrated for iron, sliver, titanium in the current work. Furthermore, the removal of the surface coatings can be achieved via a reversed current applied over the system, allowing for the recovery of surface bound metal contaminants. The demonstrated applicability of this coating method to different nano-particle types, is useful in many areas within the catalysis and water treatment industries. One such example, is demonstrated, for the treatment of BTEX contamination and show a greatly improved efficiency to current leading remediation agents.

  5. Prolate spheroidal hematite particles equatorially belt with drug-carrying layered double hydroxide disks: Ring Nebula-like nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Ay Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new nanocomposite architecture is reported which combines prolate spheroidal hematite nanoparticles with drug-carrying layered double hydroxide [LDH] disks in a single structure. Spindle-shaped hematite nanoparticles with average length of 225 nm and width of 75 nm were obtained by thermal decomposition of hydrothermally synthesized hematite. The particles were first coated with Mg-Al-NO3-LDH shell and then subjected to anion exchange with salicylate ions. The resulting bio-nanohybrid displayed a close structural resemblance to that of the Ring Nebula. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the LDH disks are stacked around the equatorial part of the ellipsoid extending along the main axis. This geometry possesses great structural tunability as the composition of the LDH and the nature of the interlayer region can be tailored and lead to novel applications in areas ranging from functional materials to medicine by encapsulating various guest molecules.

  6. Prolate spheroidal hematite particles equatorially belt with drug-carrying layered double hydroxide disks: Ring Nebula-like nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedim Ay, Ahmet; Konuk, Deniz; Zümreoglu-Karan, Birgul

    2011-02-03

    A new nanocomposite architecture is reported which combines prolate spheroidal hematite nanoparticles with drug-carrying layered double hydroxide [LDH] disks in a single structure. Spindle-shaped hematite nanoparticles with average length of 225 nm and width of 75 nm were obtained by thermal decomposition of hydrothermally synthesized hematite. The particles were first coated with Mg-Al-NO3-LDH shell and then subjected to anion exchange with salicylate ions. The resulting bio-nanohybrid displayed a close structural resemblance to that of the Ring Nebula. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the LDH disks are stacked around the equatorial part of the ellipsoid extending along the main axis. This geometry possesses great structural tunability as the composition of the LDH and the nature of the interlayer region can be tailored and lead to novel applications in areas ranging from functional materials to medicine by encapsulating various guest molecules.

  7. Highly porous nanocomposites based on TiO2-noble metal particles for sensitive detection of water pollutants by SERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baia, M; Melinte, G; Iancu, V; Baia, L; Barbu-Tudoran, L; Diamandescu, L; Cosoveanu, V; Danciu, V

    2011-01-01

    Highly porous nanocomposites based on TiO2 aerogel and silver colloidal particles were prepared by different methods in order to study their capacity to detect pollutant species adsorbed on metallic nanoparticles surface from aqueous solution. The efficiency of the obtained composites to detect contaminants from water by means of SERS was evaluated using acrylamide and crystal violet as test molecules. It was found that the detection limits depend both on pollutant and composite type, and were determined to be in the range of 10 -1 -10 -4 M for acrylamide and around 10 -5 M for the dye molecule. These results prove the potential of the prepared porous composites for further use in the development of new SERS-based sensors devices.

  8. Highly porous nanocomposites based on TiO2-noble metal particles for sensitive detection of water pollutants by SERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baia, M; Melinte, G; Iancu, V; Baia, L [Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, 400084, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Barbu-Tudoran, L [Faculty of Biology and Geology, Babes-Bolyai University, 400015, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Diamandescu, L [National Institute of Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Cosoveanu, V; Danciu, V, E-mail: lucian.baia@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2011-07-06

    Highly porous nanocomposites based on TiO2 aerogel and silver colloidal particles were prepared by different methods in order to study their capacity to detect pollutant species adsorbed on metallic nanoparticles surface from aqueous solution. The efficiency of the obtained composites to detect contaminants from water by means of SERS was evaluated using acrylamide and crystal violet as test molecules. It was found that the detection limits depend both on pollutant and composite type, and were determined to be in the range of 10{sup -1}-10{sup -4} M for acrylamide and around 10{sup -5} M for the dye molecule. These results prove the potential of the prepared porous composites for further use in the development of new SERS-based sensors devices.

  9. Magnetic resonance and antiresonance in microwave transmission through nanocomposites with Fe{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} and FeNi{sub 3} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinkevich, A.B. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics Ural Branch of RAS, 18 S.Kovalevskaya St, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Samoylovich, M.I. [OAO TsNITI “TEKHNOMASH”, 4 Ivana Franko St, Moscow 121108 (Russian Federation); Nemytova, O.V., E-mail: mif-83@mail.ru [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics Ural Branch of RAS, 18 S.Kovalevskaya St, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, E.A. [Nizhny Tagil branch of the Ekaterinburg state social-pedagogical university, 57 Krasnogvardeyskaya St, Nizhny Tagil 622031 (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-15

    Investigation of magnetic properties and microwave resonance phenomena in nanocomposites based on opal matrices containing the particles of intermetallide of Fe{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} and FeNi{sub 3} is carried out. The interactions which lead to the resonance changes of transmission and reflection coefficients are determined. Electromagnetic properties are measured in the millimeter frequency range. Special attention is paid to comparison between static and dynamic magnetic properties of nanocomposites. Frequency dependences of magnitude of lines of resonance features are obtained. Spectra of resonance and antiresonance are studied. The conditions when the magnetic antiresonance is observed are clarified. The X-ray phase analysis of the nanocomposites is performed and their structure is studied.

  10. Effect of 10Ce-TZP/Al2O3 nanocomposite particle amount and sintering temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/(10Ce-TZP/Al2O3) nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, N.; Pech-Canul, M.I.; Bahrami, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Increasing the 10Ce-TZP/Al 2 O 3 content up to 7 wt.%, enhanced composites’ hardness. • Significant enhancement in compressive strength is obtained with 7% 10Ce-TZP/Al 2 O 3 . • Sintering at 450 °C, hardness and compressive strength are higher than at 400 °C. - Abstract: A zirconia/alumina nanocomposite stabilized with cerium oxide (Ce-TZP/Al 2 O 3 nanocomposite) can be a good substitute as reinforcement in metal matrix composites. In the present study, the effect of the amount of 10Ce-TZP/Al 2 O 3 particles on the microstructure and properties of Al/(10Ce-TZP/Al 2 O 3 ) nanocomposites was investigated. For this purpose, aluminum powders with average size of 30 μm were ball-milled with 10Ce-TZP/Al 2 O 3 nanocomposite powders (synthesized by aqueous combustion) in varying amounts of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 wt.%. Cylindrical-shape samples were prepared by pressing the powders at 600 MPa for 60 min while heating at 400–450 °C. The specimens were then characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) in addition to different physical and mechanical testing methods in order to establish the optimal processing conditions. The highest compression strength was obtained in the composite with 7 wt.% (10Ce-TZP/Al 2 O 3 ) sintered at 450 °C

  11. Magnetic Hysteresis in Nanocomposite Films Consisting of a Ferromagnetic AuCo Alloy and Ultrafine Co Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Chinni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One fundamental requirement in the search for novel magnetic materials is the possibility of predicting and controlling their magnetic anisotropy and hence the overall hysteretic behavior. We have studied the magnetism of Au:Co films (~30 nm thick with concentration ratios of 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2, grown by magnetron sputtering co-deposition on natively oxidized Si substrates. They consist of a AuCo ferromagnetic alloy in which segregated ultrafine Co particles are dispersed (the fractions of Co in the AuCo alloy and of segregated Co increase with decreasing the Au:Co ratio. We have observed an unexpected hysteretic behavior characterized by in-plane anisotropy and crossed branches in the loops measured along the hard magnetization direction. To elucidate this phenomenon, micromagnetic calculations have been performed for a simplified system composed of two exchange-coupled phases: a AuCo matrix surrounding a Co cluster, which represents an aggregate of particles. The hysteretic features are qualitatively well reproduced provided that the two phases have almost orthogonal anisotropy axes. This requirement can be plausibly fulfilled assuming a dominant magnetoelastic character of the anisotropy in both phases. The achieved conclusions expand the fundamental knowledge on nanocomposite magnetic materials, offering general guidelines for tuning the hysteretic properties of future engineered systems.

  12. Influence of the Surfactant Nature on the Occurrence of Self-Assembly between Rubber Particles and Thermally Reduced Graphite Oxide during the Preparation of Natural Rubber Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Aguilar-Bolados

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural rubber (NR latex consists of polymer particles charged negatively due to the adsorbed phospholipids and proteins molecules. The addition of stable aqueous suspension of thermally reduced graphite oxide (TRGO stabilized by ionic surfactants to NR latex can favor the occurrence of interaction between the stabilized TRGO and NR particles. Herein, the use of two surfactants of different nature, namely, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB, for the preparation of (TRGO/NR nanocomposites, is reported. Zeta potential and particle size measurements indicated that the use of DTAB as cationic surfactant results in the flocculation of NR particles and promoted the formation of ion-pair interactions between TRGO and the proteins and/or phospholipids present on the NR surface. This indicates that the use of DTAB can promote a self-assembly phenomenon between TRGO with adsorbed DTAB molecules and NR particles. The occurrence of self-assembly phenomenon allows obtaining homogenous dispersion of TRGO particles in the polymer matrix. The TRGO/NR nanocomposites prepared by the use of DTAB exhibited superior mechanical properties and excellent electrical conductivities reaching values of stress at 500% strain of 3.02 MPa and 10−4 S/cm, respectively.

  13. Nanocomposite coatings of Ti/C:H plasma polymer particles providing a surface with variable nanoroughness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Solař, P.; Kylián, O.; Polonskyi, O.; Artemenko, A.; Arzhakov, D.; Drábik, M.; Slavínská, D.; Vandrovcová, Marta; Bačáková, Lucie; Biederman, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 206, č. 21 (2012), s. 4335-4342 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN101120701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : plasma polymer particles * composite film * cell adhesion Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.941, year: 2012

  14. Aerosol formation of Sea-Urchin-like nanostructures of carbon nanotubes on bimetallic nanocomposite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Wang, C.; Zachariah, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    With the advantage of continuous production of pure carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a new simple aerosol process for the formation of CNTs was developed. A combination of conventional spray pyrolysis and thermal chemical vapor deposition enabled the formation unusual sea-urchin-like carbon nanostructures composed of multi-walled CNTs and metal composite nanoparticles. The CNTs formed were relatively untangled and uniform with a diameter of less than∼10 nm. The key to the formation of CNTs in this way was to create a substrate particle containing both a catalytic and non-catalytic component, which prevented coking. The density of the CNTs grown on the spherical metal nanoparticles could be controlled by perturbing the density of the metal catalysts (Fe) in the host non-catalytic metal particle matrix (Al). Mobility size measurement was identified as a useful technique to real-time characterization of either the catalytic formation of thin carbon layer or CNTs on the surface of the metal aerosol. These materials have shown unique properties in enhancing the thermal conductivity of fluids. Other potential advantages are that the as-produced material can be manipulated easily without the concern of high mobility of conventional nanowires, and then subsequently released at the desired time in an unagglomerated state.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of bioresorbable calcium phosphosilicate nanocomposite particles for fluorescence imaging and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas T.

    Organically doped calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles (CPSNPs) were developed and characterized, driven by the need for non-toxic vectors for drug delivery and fluorescence biological imaging applications. In particular, advancement in drug delivery for the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancers is required to increase drug efficacy and improve patient quality of life. Additionally, brighter and more photostable fluorophores are needed to meet demands for improved sensitivity and experimental diversity, which may lead to improvements in early detection of solid tumors and advancement in understanding of biological processes. A literature survey on the state of the field for nanoparticle based biological fluorescence imaging and drug delivery is presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 focuses on the characterization techniques used in this work. The development and optical characterization of 20-40 nm diameter, citrate functionalized Cy3 amidite doped calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles (Cy3 CPSNPs) for in vitro fluorescence imaging is outlined in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. In particular, sodium citrate was used to functionalize the surface and provide electrosteric dispersion of these particles. CPSNPs stabilized with sodium citrate routinely exhibited highly negative zeta potentials greater than -25 mV in magnitude. Furthermore, the fluorescence quantum yield of the encapsulated fluorophore was improved by more than 4.5-fold when compared to the unencapsulated dye. The bioimaging and drug delivery capability of CPSNPs was explored. Cy3 CPSNPs dissolved quickly in the acidic environment experienced during endocytosis, releasing the encapsulated fluorophore. This is consistent with solution phase experiments that show the particles are dissolved at pH 5. CPSNPs loaded with fluorescein and a hydrophobic growth inhibitor, ceramide C6, proved the ability to simultaneously image and delivery of the hydrophobic drug to cells in vitro. Chapter 5 examined the colloidal

  16. A gold electrode modified with hemoglobin and the chitosan Fe3O4 nanocomposite particles for direct electrochemistry of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuan-Hong; Yu, Chun-Mei; Pan, Zhong-Qin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Guo, Jian-Wei; Gu, Hai-Ying

    2013-01-01

    We report on a novel electrochemical biosensor that was fabricated by immobilizing hemoglobin (Hb) onto the surface of a gold electrode modified with a chitosan Fe 3 O 4 nano-composite. The Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation and have an average size of 25 nm. They were dispersed in chitosan solution to obtain the chitosan Fe 3 O 4 nano-composite particles with an average diameter of 35 nm as verified by transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy confirmed that the crystallite structure of the Fe 3 O 4 particles in the nano-composite has remained unchanged. At pH 7.0, Hb gives a pair of redox peaks with a potential of about −0.21 V and −0.36 V. The Hb on the film maintained its biological activity and displays good electrocatalytic reduction activity towards hydrogen peroxide. The linear range for the determination of H 2 O 2 is from 2.3 μM to 9.6 mM, with a detection limit at 1.1 μM concentration (at S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant is 3.7 mM and indicates the high affinity of Hb for H 2 O 2 . This biosensor also exhibits good reproducibility and long-term stability. Thus, it is expected to possess potential applications in the development of the third-generation electrochemical biosensors (author)

  17. Ziegler-Natta Catalyst Based on MgCl₂/Clay/ID/TiCl₄ for the Synthesis of Spherical Particles of Polypropylene Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Renata da Silva; Oliveira, Jaqueline da Silva; Ramis, Luciana Bortolin; Marques, Maria de Fátima V

    2018-07-01

    In the present work, we have designed MgCl2/clay/internal donor (ID)/TiCl4 based bisupported Ziegler-Natta catalysts containing varying amounts of organoclay (montmorillonite) in order to synthesize spherical particles of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites (PCN). The organoclay was introduced into the catalyst support formulation and PCN was obtained using the in situ polymerization technique. Decreasing the reaction time, it was possible to obtain nanocomposites with high concentrations of clay (masterbatches). Micrographs of SEM confirmed the spherical morphology of the catalysts. In addition, XRD patterns show that the active sites for polymerization were inserted in the clay galleries. The catalytic performance was evaluated in slurry propylene polymerization using triethylaluminium as cocatalyst and silane as external electron donor at 70 °C, 4 bar, and different reaction times. The PCNs obtained containing different clay amounts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses, transmission electronic microscopy, and extractables in heptane. The results revealed that the synthesized PP/clay particles were also spherical showing that the morphological control is possible even using catalysts containing high amounts of clay. The PCN presented high degradation temperature (459 °C). The XRD peak related to the clay interlamellar distance has shifted to lower angles, and TEM images confirmed the formation of exfoliated/intercalated clay on the PP matrix and absence of microparticles of clay.

  18. Effect of reinforcing particle type on morphology and age-hardening behavior of Al–4.5 wt.% Cu based nanocomposites synthesized through mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostaed, A., E-mail: alimostaed@yahoo.com [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, 16765-3381 Pardis Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saghafian, H.; Mostaed, E. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokuhfar, A. [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, 16765-3381 Pardis Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaie, H.R. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The effects of reinforcing particle type (SiC and TiC) on morphology and precipitation hardening behavior of Al–4.5%Cu based nanocomposites synthesized via mechanical milling were investigated in the current work. In order to study the microstructure and morphology of mechanically milled powder, X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy were utilized. Results revealed that at the early stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are polycrystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the TiC particles as reinforcement. But, at the final stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are single crystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the SiC ones. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that Al–4.5 wt.%Cu based nanocomposite powders were synthesized and confirmed that the mutual diffusion of aluminum and copper occurs through the interfacial plane of (200). The hardness results showed that not only does introducing 4 vol.% of reinforcing particles (SiC or TiC) considerably decrease the porosity of the bulk composite samples, but also it approximately doubles the hardness of Al–4.5 wt.%Cu alloy (53.4 HB). Finally, apart from TEM and scanning electron microscopy observation which are localized, a decline in hardness in the TiC and SiC contained samples, respectively, after 1.5 and 2 h aging time at 473 K proves the fact that the size of SiC particles is smaller than the size of the TiC ones. - Highlights: ► HRTEM results show mutual diffusion of Al and Cu occurs through the (200) planes. ► TiC particles enhance alloying process more than the SiC ones at the early stages of MM. ► SiC particles enhance alloying process more than the TiC ones at the final stages of MM.

  19. Effect of reinforcing particle type on morphology and age-hardening behavior of Al–4.5 wt.% Cu based nanocomposites synthesized through mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostaed, A.; Saghafian, H.; Mostaed, E.; Shokuhfar, A.; Rezaie, H.R.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of reinforcing particle type (SiC and TiC) on morphology and precipitation hardening behavior of Al–4.5%Cu based nanocomposites synthesized via mechanical milling were investigated in the current work. In order to study the microstructure and morphology of mechanically milled powder, X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy were utilized. Results revealed that at the early stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are polycrystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the TiC particles as reinforcement. But, at the final stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are single crystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the SiC ones. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that Al–4.5 wt.%Cu based nanocomposite powders were synthesized and confirmed that the mutual diffusion of aluminum and copper occurs through the interfacial plane of (200). The hardness results showed that not only does introducing 4 vol.% of reinforcing particles (SiC or TiC) considerably decrease the porosity of the bulk composite samples, but also it approximately doubles the hardness of Al–4.5 wt.%Cu alloy (53.4 HB). Finally, apart from TEM and scanning electron microscopy observation which are localized, a decline in hardness in the TiC and SiC contained samples, respectively, after 1.5 and 2 h aging time at 473 K proves the fact that the size of SiC particles is smaller than the size of the TiC ones. - Highlights: ► HRTEM results show mutual diffusion of Al and Cu occurs through the (200) planes. ► TiC particles enhance alloying process more than the SiC ones at the early stages of MM. ► SiC particles enhance alloying process more than the TiC ones at the final stages of MM

  20. Proton Conductivity of Nafion/Ex-Situ Sulfonic Acid-Modified Stöber Silica Nanocomposite Membranes As a Function of Temperature, Silica Particles Size and Surface Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriithi, Beatrice; Loy, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of sulfonic acid modified silica in Nafion nanocomposite membranes is a good method of improving the Nafion performance at high temperature and low relative humidity. Sulfonic acid-modified silica is bifunctional, with silica phase expected to offer an improvement in membranes hydration while sulfonic groups enhance proton conductivity. However, as discussed in this paper, this may not always be the case. Proton conductivity enhancement of Nafion nanocomposite membranes is very dependent on silica particle size, sometimes depending on experimental conditions, and by surface modification. In this study, Sulfonated Preconcentrated Nafion Stober Silica composites (SPNSS) were prepared by modification of Stober silica particles with mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane, dispersing the particles into a preconcentrated solution of Nafion, then casting the membranes. The mercapto groups were oxidized to sulfonic acids by heating the membranes in 10 wt % hydrogen peroxide for 1 h. At 80 °C and 100% relative humidity, a 20%–30% enhancement of proton conductivity was only observed when sulfonic acid modified particle less than 50 nm in diameter were used. At 120 °C, and 100% humidity, proton conductivity increased by 22%–42% with sulfonated particles with small particles showing the greatest enhancement. At 120 °C and 50% humidity, the sulfonated particles are less efficient at keeping the membranes hydrated, and the composites underperform Nafion and silica-Nafion nanocomposite membranes. PMID:26828525

  1. Synthesis of polyanthranilic acid–Au nanocomposites by emulsion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    PANA–Au nanocomposites are characterized by SEM, equipped with EDS, TGA, FT–IR, XRD and electrochemical techniques. XRD of ... Polyanthranilic acid; nanocomposite; in situ polymerization; emulsion polymerization; nano- particles. 1.

  2. Influence of particle size and fluorination ratio of CFx precursor compounds on the electrochemical performance of C–FeF2 nanocomposites for reversible lithium storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Breitung

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Systematical studies of the electrochemical performance of CFx-derived carbon–FeF2 nanocomposites for reversible lithium storage are presented. The conversion cathode materials were synthesized by a simple one-pot synthesis, which enables a reactive intercalation of nanoscale Fe particles in a CFx matrix, and the reaction of these components to an electrically conductive C–FeF2 compound. The pretreatment and the structure of the utilized CFx precursors play a crucial role in the synthesis and influence the electrochemical behavior of the conversion cathode material. The particle size of the CFx precursor particles was varied by ball milling as well as by choosing different C/F ratios. The investigations led to optimized C–FeF2 conversion cathode materials that showed specific capacities of 436 mAh/g at 40 °C after 25 cycles. The composites were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction measurements, electron energy loss spectroscopy and TEM measurements. The electrochemical performances of the materials were tested by galvanostatic measurements.

  3. Effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) particle morphology on dispersion and rheological and mechanical properties of polypropylene/CNC nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshkava, Vahid; Kamal, Musa R

    2014-06-11

    Polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites containing spray-dried cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), freeze-dried CNC, and spray-freeze-dried CNC (CNCSFD) were prepared via melt mixing in an internal batch mixer. Polarized light, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopy showed significantly better dispersion of CNCSFD in PP/CNC nanocomposites compared with the spray-dried and freeze-dried CNCs. Rheological measurements, including linear and nonlinear viscoelastic tests, were performed on PP/CNC samples. The microscopy results were supported by small-amplitude oscillatory shear tests, which showed substantial rises in the magnitudes of key rheological parameters of PP samples containing CNCSFD. Steady-shear results revealed a strong shear thinning behavior of PP samples containing CNCSFD. Moreover, PP melts containing CNCSFD exhibited a yield stress. The magnitude of the yield stress and the degree of shear thinning behavior increased with CNCSFD concentration. It was found that CNCSFD agglomerates with a weblike structure were more effective in modifying the rheological properties. This effect was attributed to better dispersion of the agglomerates with the weblike structure. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed considerable improvement in the modulus of samples containing CNCSFD agglomerates. The percolation mechanical model with modified volume percolation threshold and filler network strength values and the Halpin-Kardos model were used to fit the experimental results.

  4. Microstructural analysis and mechanical characterization of aluminum matrix nanocomposites reinforced with uncoated and Cu-coated alumina particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beygi, H., E-mail: hossein.beygi@stu-mail.um.ac.ir; Sajjadi, S.A.; Zebarjad, S.M.

    2014-06-01

    Aluminum matrix composites used in the aerospace, military and automotive industries are typically fabricated by a stir casting method. However, when nanoparticles are used for reinforcement, fabrication of composite materials by this method leads to the formation of a large number of structural defects. In this study, copper coating of alumina reinforcement particles is investigated as a technique for improving the structure of Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites. Microstructural investigations by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the alumina particles were coated uniformly with copper shells. Copper coating of the reinforcing particles significantly increased their wettability in the molten aluminum alloy, strengthened the matrix-particle interfaces and improved the distribution of reinforcing particles within the matrix. Due to these microstructural improvements, the hardness, compressive strength, yield stress, tensile strength and elongation of the composites were enhanced by copper coating of the alumina particles.

  5. Microstructural analysis and mechanical characterization of aluminum matrix nanocomposites reinforced with uncoated and Cu-coated alumina particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beygi, H.; Sajjadi, S.A.; Zebarjad, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum matrix composites used in the aerospace, military and automotive industries are typically fabricated by a stir casting method. However, when nanoparticles are used for reinforcement, fabrication of composite materials by this method leads to the formation of a large number of structural defects. In this study, copper coating of alumina reinforcement particles is investigated as a technique for improving the structure of Al-Al 2 O 3 composites. Microstructural investigations by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the alumina particles were coated uniformly with copper shells. Copper coating of the reinforcing particles significantly increased their wettability in the molten aluminum alloy, strengthened the matrix-particle interfaces and improved the distribution of reinforcing particles within the matrix. Due to these microstructural improvements, the hardness, compressive strength, yield stress, tensile strength and elongation of the composites were enhanced by copper coating of the alumina particles

  6. The effect of particle size on the in vivo degradation of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)/α-tricalcium phosphate micro- and nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sarah M; Arumugam, Meera; Wilberforce, Samuel; Enea, Davide; Rushton, Neil; Zhang, Xiang C; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E; Brooks, Roger A

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the effect of particle size within a resorbable composite on the in vivo degradation rate and host response. Resorbable composites based on poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) reinforced with tricalcium phosphate (TCP) have shown suitable degradation, biological and mechanical properties for bone repair. Composites with nano-sized TCP particles degrade more homogenously in vitro than equivalent composites with micro-sized particles. In this study, PLGA and PLGA/TCP composites containing micro- or nano-sized α-TCP particles were implanted into an ovine distal femoral condyle defect and harvested at 6, 12, 18 and 24weeks. An intimate interface was observed between the new bone tissue and degrading implants. Visual scoring of histological images and semi-automated segmentation of X-ray images were used to quantify implant degradation and the growth of new bone tissue in the implant site. Bone growth into the implant site occurred at a similar rate for both composites and the PLGA control. However, the in vivo degradation rate of the nanocomposite was slower than that of the microcomposite and consequently more closely matched the rate of bone growth. For the first 6weeks, the rate of in vivo degradation matched that of in vitro degradation, but lagged significantly at longer time points. These results point to the potential use of ceramic particle size in controlling composite degradation whilst maintaining good bone formation. This paper concerns degradable composites for orthopaedic application. The effect of particle size on implant degradation in vivo is not yet well characterised and these results give the first opportunity to directly compare in vitro and in vivo degradation rates for composites with micro- and nano-sized particles. This type of data is vital for the validation of models of composite degradation behaviour, which will lead to the design and manufacture of composites with a tailored, predictable degradation profile. The

  7. Environmental Particle Emissions due to Automated Drilling of Polypropylene Composites and Nanocomposites Reinforced with Talc, Montmorillonite and Wollastonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starost, K.; Frijns, E.; Laer, J. V.; Faisal, N.; Egizabal, A.; Elizextea, C.; Nelissen, I.; Blazquez, M.; Njuguna, J.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the effect on nanoparticle emissions due to drilling on Polypropylene (PP) reinforced with 20% talc, 5% montmorillonite (MMT) and 5% Wollastonite (WO) is investigated. The study is the first to explore the nanoparticle release from WO and talc reinforced composites and compares the results to previously researched MMT. With 5% WO, equivalent tensile properties with a 10 % weight reduction were obtained relative to the reference 20% talc sample. The materials were fabricated through injection moulding. The nanorelease studies were undertaken using the controlled drilling methodology for nanoparticle exposure assessment developed within the European Commission funded SIRENA Life 11 ENV/ES/506 project. Measurements were taken using CPC and DMS50 equipment for real-time characterization and measurements. The particle number concentration (of particles <1000nm) and particle size distribution (4.87nm - 562.34nm) of the particles emitted during drilling were evaluated to investigate the effect of the silicate fillers on the particles released. The nano-filled samples exhibited a 33% decrease (MMT sample) or a 30% increase (WO sample) on the average particle number concentration released in comparison to the neat polypropylene sample. The size distribution data displayed a substantial percentage of the particles released from the PP, PP/WO and PP/MMT samples to be between 5-20nm, whereas the PP/talc sample emitted larger particle diameters.

  8. Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanocomposites of iron oxide with conducting polymer in the form of powders of varying compositions have been studied to understand the effects of particle size, cluster size and magnetic inter-particle interactions. The sizes of the nanoparticles were estimated to be ∼ 10–20 nm from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the ...

  9. A simple route to synthesize conductive stimuli-responsive polypyrrole nanocomposite hydrogel particles with strong magnetic properties and their performance for removal of hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Hasan, E-mail: samarhass@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mohammad Mostafizar; Ali, Mohammad Azgar [Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Minami, Hideto [Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Tauer, Klaus [Max Planck Institute of Colloid and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg, 14476 Golm (Germany); Gafur, Mohammad Abdul [Pilot Plant and Process Development Centre, BCSIR, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubor [Department of Chemistry, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh)

    2016-08-15

    A combination of maghemite polypyrrole (PPy/γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and stimuli-responsive properties in the same hydrogel microspheres is expected to enhance their application potential in various fields such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, biosensors, biomedical applications and removal of heavy metals from waste water, catalysis etc. In this investigation a simple two step process is used to prepare conductive stimuli-responsive polypyrrole (PPy) composite hydrogel particles with strong magnetic properties. Poly(styrene-methacrylic acid-N-isopropylacrylamide-polyethelene glycol methacrylate) or P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel seed particles are first prepared by soap-free precipitation copolymerization. The copolymer hydrogel particles exhibited both temperature- and pH-responsive volume phase transition. Conductive P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA)/PPy/γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite hydrogel particles are then prepared by seeded chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel seed particles using FeCl{sub 3} as a oxidant and p-toluene sulfonic acid ( p-TSA) as a dopant. In the reaction system FeCl{sub 3} functioned as a source of Fe(III) for the formation of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This reaction also requires the initial presence of Fe(II) provided by the addition of FeCl{sub 2}. The size and size distribution, surface structure, and morphology of the prepared conductive composite hydrogel particles are confirmed by FTIR, electron micrographs, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV–visible spectroscopy. The performance of nanocomposite hydrogel particles has been evaluated for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr) ions from water. - Highlights: • P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA) hydrogel particles were prepared. • P(S-NIPAM-MAA-PEGMA)/PPy/γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite hydrogel particles were prepared. • Oxidative polymerization of pyrrole and precipitation of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3

  10. Pure titanium particle loaded nanocomposites: study on the polymer/filler interface and hMSC biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Roberto; D'Albore, Marietta; Guarino, Vincenzo; Gentile, Gennaro; Cocca, Maria Cristina; Zeppetelli, Stefania; Errico, Maria Emanuela; Avella, Maurizio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    The integration of inorganic nanoparticles into polymer matrices allows for the modification of physical properties as well as the implementation of new features for unexplored application fields. Here, we propose the study of a new metal/polymer nanocomposite fabricated by dispersing pure Ti nanoparticles into a poly(methylmetacrilate) matrix via solvent casting process, to investigate its potential use as new biomaterial for biomedical applications. We demonstrated that Ti nanoparticles embedded in the poly(methylmetacrilate) matrix can act as reinforcing agent, not negatively influencing the biological response of human mesenchymal stem cell in terms of cytotoxicity and cell viability. As a function of relative amount and surface treatment, Ti nanoparticles may enhance mechanical strength of the composite-ranging from 31.1 ± 2.5 to 43.7 ± 0.7 MPa-also contributing to biological response in terms of adhesion and proliferation mechanisms. In particular, for 1 wt% Ti, treated Ti nanoparticles improve cell materials recognition, as confirmed by higher cell spreading-quantified in terms of cell area via image analysis-locally promoting stronger interactions at cell matrix interface. At this stage, these preliminary results suggest a promising use of pure Ti nanoparticles as filler in polymer composites for biomedical applications.

  11. Polymer Nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methods for the synthesis of polymer nanocomposites. In this article we .... ers, raw materials recovery, drug delivery and anticorrosion .... region giving rise to dose-packed absorption bands called an IR ... using quaternary ammonium salts.

  12. Synthesis of Barium Titanate (BT) Nano Particles via Hydrothermal Route for the Production of BT-Polymer Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, A.; Haubner, R.; Jakopic, G.; Stelzer, N.

    2007-08-01

    Barium titanate (high-k dielectric material) nano-powders (approx. 30 nm to 60 nm) were synthesised using hydrothermal route under moderate conditions. Effect of temperature and time was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction techniques. Obtained barium titanate nano-powders were dispersed in thermoplastic polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) to get homogeneous dispersions. Thin layers were obtained using these dispersions to achieve BaTiO3 endorsed polymer layers by dip-coating for improved polymer insulators on various substrates e.g., glass, and Au sputtered silicon wafers. SEM and focused ion beam (FIB) techniques were used to study the dispersion of barium titanate nano-particles in PMMA. The layers obtained showed homogenous distribution of BaTiO3 nano particles with no agglomeration.

  13. Silica-Polystyrene Nanocomposite Particles Synthesized by Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerization and Their Encapsulation through Miniemulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérangère Bailly

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene (PS chains with molecular weights comprised between 8000 and 64000 g⋅mol-1 and narrow polydispersities were grown from the surface of silica nanoparticles (Aerosil A200 fumed silica and Stöber silica, resp. through nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP. Alkoxyamine initiators based on N-tert-butyl-1-diethylphosphono-2,2-dimethylpropyl nitroxide (DEPN and carrying a terminal functional group have been synthesized in situ and grafted to the silica surface. The resulting grafted alkoxyamines have been employed to initiate the growth of polystyrene chains from the inorganic surface. The maximum grafting density of the surface-tethered PS chains was estimated and seemed to be limited by initiator confinement at the interface. Then, the PS-grafted Stöber silica nanoparticles were entrapped inside latex particles via miniemulsion polymerization. Transmission electron microscopy indicated the successful formation of silica-polystyrene core-shell particles.

  14. Ingenious route for ultraviolet-induced graft polymerization achieved on inorganic particle: Fabricating magnetic poly(acrylic acid) densely grafted nanocomposites for Cu{sup 2+} removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qi, E-mail: roundzking@163.com [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 333 Nanchen Road, Shanghai, 200444 (China); Luo, Wenjun [Faculty of Material and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Zhang, Xing [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 333 Nanchen Road, Shanghai, 200444 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • A novel PAA brushes-decorated magnetic adsorbent was prepared successfully. • The preparation approach was simple, rapid, and efficient. • Densely polymer grafting can be achieved on inorganic substrate by the method. • The g-MNPs exhibits an outstanding adsorption performance for Cu{sup 2+}. • The Cu{sup 2+}-saturated adsorbent can be separated and regenerated easily. - Abstract: In this study, ultraviolet (UV)-induced graft technology is improved to be successfully applied on inorganic substrate for fabricating a novel poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes-decorated magnetic nano-composite particles (g-MNPs) as a potential adsorbent toward Cu{sup 2+} ion. The most fascinating features of the resultant g-MNPs are the abundant and highly accessible carboxyl groups present in PAA brushes and the rapid separation from the medium by magnetic field after adsorption. Through the new and high-efficiency surface-initiated polymerization route, the densely PAA brushes was successfully immobilized on the MNPs surface with a high grafting yield of 88.3%. Excitingly, the g-MNPs exhibited an exceptional performance for Cu{sup 2+} adsorption, e.g., ultrahigh adsorption capacity (up to 152.1 mg g{sup −1}), rapid adsorption rate (within 30 min) and low residual concentration (below 1.3 ppm). Full kinetic and isotherm analysis as well as thermodynamic study were also undertaken, the results showed that Cu{sup 2+} adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, the adsorption rate was controlled by two sequential periods of external and intraparticle diffusion. According to the calculated value of thermodynamic parameters, the Cu{sup 2+} adsorption onto g-MNPs was a spontaneous endothermic process. Furthermore, the excellent reusability of the resultant adsorbent was also confirmed, which can keep above 95% adsorption capacity and desorption rate in 8 consecutive cycles.

  15. Electric properties of polymeric nanocomposites filler with copper particles polymerized in situ by means of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblete, V.H; Alvarez, M; Pilleux, M.E

    2002-01-01

    Different concentrations of copper metallic nanoparticles (80-120 diameter nm) were distributed in a methyl metacrilate (MMA) matrix. The polymerization of the mixture was carried out by means of gamma radiation using 16 kGy (2 kGy/hour) dose, applied in situ, obtaining an homogeneous and resistant mechanically samples. For comparison the same experience was carried out using 3,25-4,5 um of copper particles diameter. The morphology and the composite formation was studied by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy for the different concentrations of the conductive metal into the polymeric matrix (5-30 vol. copper%). The electric resistance observed was analyzed in function of the distance between electric contacts. The strong lineal dependence show a homogeneous distribution of the metal in the composite. The specific resistivities obtained in function of the concentration of the conductive metal is in the range from the 12 to 42 Ωm for 10 vol.% concentrations. This results is in agreement with the threshold limit of the system. Also, the dependence of the resistivity with the particle size is showed (author)

  16. Metal Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Søren Vang; Uthuppu, Basil; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2014-01-01

    We have made SU-8 gold nanoparticle composites in two ways, ex situ and in situ, and found that in both methods nanoparticles embedded in the polymer retained their plasmonic properties. The in situ method has also been used to fabricate a silver nanocomposite which is electrically conductive. Th...

  17. clay nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present work deals with the synthesis of specialty elastomer [fluoroelastomer and poly (styrene--ethylene-co-butylene--styrene (SEBS)]–clay nanocomposites and their structure–property relationship as elucidated from morphology studies by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray ...

  18. Highly Conductive Multifunctional Graphene Polycarbonate Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoonessi, Mitra; Gaier, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Graphene nanosheet bisphenol A polycarbonate nanocomposites (0.027 2.2 vol %) prepared by both emulsion mixing and solution blending methods, followed by compression molding at 287 C, exhibited dc electrical percolation threshold of approx.0.14 and approx.0.38 vol %, respectively. The conductivities of 2.2 vol % graphene nanocomposites were 0.512 and 0.226 S/cm for emulsion and solution mixing. The 1.1 and 2.2 vol % graphene nanocomposites exhibited frequency-independent behavior. Inherent conductivity, extremely high aspect ratio, and nanostructure directed assembly of the graphene using PC nanospheres are the main factors for excellent electrical properties of the nanocomposites. Dynamic tensile moduli of nanocomposites increased with increasing graphene in the nanocomposite. The glass transition temperatures were decreased with increasing graphene for the emulsion series. High-resolution electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) showed isolated graphene with no connectivity path for insulating nanocomposites and connected nanoparticles for the conductive nanocomposites. A stacked disk model was used to obtain the average particle radius, average number of graphene layers per stack, and stack spacing by simulation of the experimental SANS data. Morphology studies indicated the presence of well-dispersed graphene and small graphene stacking with infusion of polycarbonate within the stacks.

  19. Fabrication of nanocomposite mat through incorporating bioactive glass particles into gelatin/poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibers by using Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönen, Seza Özge; Erol Taygun, Melek; Aktürk, Ayşen; Küçükbayrak, Sadriye

    2016-10-01

    The current research was conducted to propose a nanocomposite material, which could be suitable to be used as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. For this purpose, nanocomposite fibers of gelatin, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and bioactive glass were successfully fabricated via electrospinning process. In this context, response surface methodology based on a three-level, four-variable Box-Behnken design was adopted as an optimization tool to choose the most appropriate parameter settings to obtain the desired fiber diameter. The investigation, based on a second order polynomial model, focused on the analysis of the effect of both solution and processing parameters on the fiber diameter and its standard deviation. In optimum conditions (bioactive glass content of 7.5% (w/v), applied voltage of 25kV, tip-to-collector distance of 12.5cm, and flow rate of 1mL/h), the fiber diameter was found to be 584±337nm which was in good agreement with the predicted value by the developed models (523±290nm). Analytical tools such as scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential thermal analyzer were used for further evaluation of the optimized nanocomposite mat. The overall results showed that nanocomposite scaffolds could be promising candidates for tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Fatigue-free PZT-based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H J; Sando, M [Nat. Ind. Res. Inst., Nagoya (Japan); Tajima, K [Synergy Ceramics Lab., Fine Ceramics Research Association, Nagoya (Japan); Niihara, K [ISIR, Osaka Univ., Mihogaoka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    The goal of this study is to fabricate fatigue-free piezoelectrics-based nanocomposites. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and metallic platinum (Pt) were selected as a matrix and secondary phase dispersoid. Fine Pt particles were homogeneously dispersed in the PZT matrix. Fatigue properties of the unpoled PZT-based nanocomposite under electrical cyclic loading were investigated. The electrical-field-induced crack growth was monitored by an optical microscope, and it depended on the number of cycles the sample was subjected to. Resistance to fatigue was significantly enhanced in the nanocomposite. The excellent fatigue behavior of the PZT/Pt nanocomposites may result from the grain boundary strenghtening due to the interaction between the matrix and Pt particles. (orig.) 8 refs.

  1. Fabrication of nanocomposite mat through incorporating bioactive glass particles into gelatin/poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibers by using Box–Behnken design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gönen, Seza Özge, E-mail: gonens@itu.edu.tr; Erol Taygun, Melek; Aktürk, Ayşen; Küçükbayrak, Sadriye

    2016-10-01

    The current research was conducted to propose a nanocomposite material, which could be suitable to be used as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. For this purpose, nanocomposite fibers of gelatin, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and bioactive glass were successfully fabricated via electrospinning process. In this context, response surface methodology based on a three-level, four-variable Box-Behnken design was adopted as an optimization tool to choose the most appropriate parameter settings to obtain the desired fiber diameter. The investigation, based on a second order polynomial model, focused on the analysis of the effect of both solution and processing parameters on the fiber diameter and its standard deviation. In optimum conditions (bioactive glass content of 7.5% (w/v), applied voltage of 25 kV, tip-to-collector distance of 12.5 cm, and flow rate of 1 mL/h), the fiber diameter was found to be 584 ± 337 nm which was in good agreement with the predicted value by the developed models (523 ± 290 nm). Analytical tools such as scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential thermal analyzer were used for further evaluation of the optimized nanocomposite mat. The overall results showed that nanocomposite scaffolds could be promising candidates for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Nanocomposite fibers of gelatin, PCL, and bioactive glass were successfully fabricated. • Three-level, four-variable Box-Behnken design was adopted as an optimization tool. • The individual and interactive effects of the electrospinning parameters were determined. • Quadratic models were used to adjust the fiber diameter and its standard deviation.

  2. Fabrication of nanocomposite mat through incorporating bioactive glass particles into gelatin/poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibers by using Box–Behnken design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gönen, Seza Özge; Erol Taygun, Melek; Aktürk, Ayşen; Küçükbayrak, Sadriye

    2016-01-01

    The current research was conducted to propose a nanocomposite material, which could be suitable to be used as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. For this purpose, nanocomposite fibers of gelatin, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and bioactive glass were successfully fabricated via electrospinning process. In this context, response surface methodology based on a three-level, four-variable Box-Behnken design was adopted as an optimization tool to choose the most appropriate parameter settings to obtain the desired fiber diameter. The investigation, based on a second order polynomial model, focused on the analysis of the effect of both solution and processing parameters on the fiber diameter and its standard deviation. In optimum conditions (bioactive glass content of 7.5% (w/v), applied voltage of 25 kV, tip-to-collector distance of 12.5 cm, and flow rate of 1 mL/h), the fiber diameter was found to be 584 ± 337 nm which was in good agreement with the predicted value by the developed models (523 ± 290 nm). Analytical tools such as scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential thermal analyzer were used for further evaluation of the optimized nanocomposite mat. The overall results showed that nanocomposite scaffolds could be promising candidates for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Nanocomposite fibers of gelatin, PCL, and bioactive glass were successfully fabricated. • Three-level, four-variable Box-Behnken design was adopted as an optimization tool. • The individual and interactive effects of the electrospinning parameters were determined. • Quadratic models were used to adjust the fiber diameter and its standard deviation.

  3. Probing polymer nanocomposite morphology by small angle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyamide nanocomposite films were prepared from nanometer-sized silica particles having particle radius of gyration (g) of about 66 Å and trimesoyl chloride--phenylene diamine-based polyamides having macromolecular units of about 100-140 Å. The nanoscale morphology of the samples was characterized using ...

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite/Fullerenol Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Aleksandar; Ignjatovic, Nenad; Seke, Mariana; Jovic, Danica; Uskokovic, Dragan; Rakocevic, Zlatko

    2015-02-01

    Fullerenols are polyhydroxylated, water soluble derivatives of fullerene C60, with potential application in medicine as diagnostic agents, antioxidants or nano drug carriers. This paper describes synthesis and physical characterization of a new nanocomposite hydroxyapatite/fullerenol. Surface of the nanocomposite hydroxyapatite/fullerenol is inhomogeneous with the diameter of the particles in the range from 100 nm to 350 nm. The ζ potential of this nanocomposite is ten times lower when compared to hydroxyapatite. Surface phosphate groups of hydroxyapatite are prone to forming hydrogen bonds, when in close contact with hydroxyl groups, which could lead to formation of hydrogen bonds between hydroxyapatite and hydroxyl groups of fullerenol. The surface of hydroxyapatite particles (-2.5 mV) was modified by fullerenol particles, as confirmed by the obtained ζ potential value of the nanocomposite biomaterial hydroxyapatite/fullerenol (-25.0 mV). Keywords: Hydroxyapatite, Fullerenol, Nanocomposite, Surface Analysis.

  5. Improved Dielectric Properties of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Nanocomposite Embedded with Poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-Coated Gold Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Toor, Anju

    2017-01-25

    A novel nanocomposite dielectric was developed by embedding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-encapsulated gold (Au) nanoparticles in the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer matrix. The surface functionalization of Au nanoparticles with PVP facilitates favorable interaction between the particle and polymer phase, enhancing nanoparticle dispersion. To study the effect of entropic interactions on particle dispersion, nanocomposites with two different particle sizes (5 and 20 nm in diameter) were synthesized and characterized. A uniform particle distribution was observed for nanocomposite films consisting of 5 nm Au particles, in contrast to the film with 20 nm particles. The frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent were studied for the nanocomposite films. These results showed the effectiveness of PVP ligand in controlling the agglomeration of Au particles in the PVDF matrix. Moreover, the study showed the effect of particle concentration on their spatial distribution in the polymer matrix and the dielectric properties of nanocomposite films.

  6. Improved Dielectric Properties of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Nanocomposite Embedded with Poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-Coated Gold Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Toor, Anju; So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P.

    2017-01-01

    A novel nanocomposite dielectric was developed by embedding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-encapsulated gold (Au) nanoparticles in the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer matrix. The surface functionalization of Au nanoparticles with PVP facilitates favorable interaction between the particle and polymer phase, enhancing nanoparticle dispersion. To study the effect of entropic interactions on particle dispersion, nanocomposites with two different particle sizes (5 and 20 nm in diameter) were synthesized and characterized. A uniform particle distribution was observed for nanocomposite films consisting of 5 nm Au particles, in contrast to the film with 20 nm particles. The frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent were studied for the nanocomposite films. These results showed the effectiveness of PVP ligand in controlling the agglomeration of Au particles in the PVDF matrix. Moreover, the study showed the effect of particle concentration on their spatial distribution in the polymer matrix and the dielectric properties of nanocomposite films.

  7. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of PMMA/clay nanocomposites: Study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Young's modulus, breaking stress, elongation at break, toughness, yield stress and yield strain of the nanocomposites as a function of different clay concentrations and ultrasonic power were measured. Particle diameter of the nanocomposites was measured by laser diffraction technique. Oxygen permeability of the ...

  8. Effect of tungsten metal particle sizes on the solubility of molten alloy melt: Experimental observation of Gibbs-Thomson effect in nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. H.; Das, J.; Sordelet, D. J.; Eckert, J.; Hurd, A. J.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the effect of tungsten particle sizes on the thermal stability and reactivity of uniformly dispersed W particles in molten Hf-based alloy melt at elevated temperature (1673 K). The solubility of particles less than 100 nm in radius is significantly enhanced. In case of fine W particles with 20 nm diameter, their solubility increases remarkably around 700% compared to that of coarse micrometer-scale particles. The mechanisms and kinetics of this dynamic growth of particle are discussed as well as techniques developed to obtain frozen microstructure of particle-reinforced composites by rapid solidification.

  9. Polyaniline-CuO hybrid nanocomposite with enhanced electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vânia S.; da Frota, Hidembergue O.; Sanches, Edgar A.

    2018-02-01

    A hybrid nanocomposite based on a polymer matrix constituted of Polyaniline Emeraldine-salt form (PANI-ES) reinforced by copper oxide II (CuO) particles was obtained by in situ polymerization. Structural, morphological and electrical properties of the pure materials and nanocomposite form were investigated. The presence of CuO particles in the nanocomposite material affected the natural alignment of the polymer chains. XRD technique allowed the visualization of the polymer amorphization in the nanocomposite form, suggesting an interaction between both phases. The FTIR spectra confirmed this molecular interaction due to the blue shift of the characteristic absorption peaks of PANI-ES in the nanocomposite form. SEM images revealed that the polymer nanofiber morphology was no longer observed in the nanocomposite. The CuO spherical particles are randomly dispersed in the polymer matrix. The density functional theory plus the Coulomb interaction method revealed a charge transfer from PANI to CuO slab. Moreover, the density of states (DOS) has revealed that the nanocomposite behaves as a metal. In agreement, the electrical conductivity showed an increase of 60% in the nanocomposite material.

  10. Quantum dots and nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Herman Sander

    2010-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), also known as semiconducting nanoparticles, are promising zero-dimensional advanced materials because of their nanoscale size and because they can be engineered to suit particular applications such as nonlinear optical devices (NLO), electro-optical devices, and computing applications. QDs can be joined to polymers in order to produce nanocomposites which can be considered a scientific revolution of the 21st century. One of the fastest moving and most exciting interfaces of nanotechnology is the use of QDs in medicine, cell and molecular biology. Recent advances in nanomaterials have produced a new class of markers and probes by conjugating semiconductor QDs with biomolecules that have affinities for binding with selected biological structures. The nanoscale of QDs ensures that they do not scatter light at visible or longer wavelengths, which is important in order to minimize optical losses in practical applications. Moreover, at this scale, quantum confinement and surface effects become very important and therefore manipulation of the dot diameter or modification of its surface allows the properties of the dot to be controlled. Quantum confinement affects the absorption and emission of photons from the dot. Thus, the absorption edge of a material can be tuned by control of the particle size. This paper reviews developments in the myriad of possibilities for the use of semiconductor QDs associated with molecules producing novel hybrid nanocomposite systems for nanomedicine and bioengineering applications.

  11. Electrochromic nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Delia; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2018-04-10

    The present invention provides an electrochromic nanocomposite film. In an exemplary embodiment, the electrochromic nanocomposite film, includes (1) a solid matrix of oxide based material and (2) transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures embedded in the matrix. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic nanocomposite film farther includes a substrate upon which the matrix is deposited. The present invention also provides a method of preparing an electrochromic nanocomposite film.

  12. Radiolytic Synthesis of Magnetic Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grdanovska, Slavica; Tissot, Chanel; Barkatt, Aaron; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad [Nuclear Engineering Program – Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Magnetic nanocomposites, in which magnetic nanoparticles are encapsulated in polymeric matrices, have important applications in medicine, electronics and mechanical devices. However, the development of processes leading to magnetic nanocomposites with desirable, predictable and reproducible properties has turned out to be a difficult challenge. To date, most studies have concentrated on a magnetic oxide, primarily magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), as the encapsulated phase. However, the synthesis of batches of magnetite with homogeneous properties at reasonably low temperature is a delicate operation. Indeed, commercial lots of magnetite powder, despite having bulk Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} stoichiometry, turn out to have large variations in structure and in magnetic properties. The difficulties in controlling the product are greatly magnified when the particle size is in the nanometer range.

  13. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2014-06-17

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  14. Synthesis, thermal properties and applications of polymer-clay nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneghetti, Paulo [Chemical Engineering Department, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave. Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Qutubuddin, Syed [Chemical Engineering Department, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave. Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)]. E-mail: sxq@case.edu

    2006-03-15

    Polymer-clay nanocomposites constitute a new class of materials in which the polymer matrix is reinforced by uniformly dispersed inorganic particles (usually 10 wt.% or less) having at least one dimension in the nanometer scale. Nanocomposites exhibit improved properties when compared to pure polymer or conventional composites, such as enhanced mechanical and thermal properties, reduced gas permeability, and improved chemical stability. In this work, the synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/clay nanocomposites is described via two methods: in situ and emulsion polymerization. The in situ technique follows a two-step process: ion-exchange of the clay to make it hydrophobic, and polymerization after dispersing the functionalized clay in the monomer. The emulsion technique combines the two steps of the in situ method into one by conducting ion-exchange and polymerization in an aqueous medium in the same reactor. The clay (montmorillonite, MMT) is functionalized with a zwitterionic surfactant, octadecyl-dimethyl betaine (C18DMB). Partially exfoliated nanocomposite, observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), was obtained by emulsion polymerization with 10 wt.% clay. Glass transition temperature (T {sub g}) of this nanocomposite was 18 deg. C higher than pure PMMA. With the same clay content, in situ polymerization produced intercalated nanocomposite with T {sub g} 10 deg. C lower than the emulsion nanocomposite. The storage modulus of partially exfoliated nanocomposite was superior to the intercalated structure and to the pure polymer. Using nanocomposite technology, novel PMMA nanocomposite gel electrolytes were synthesized exhibiting improved ionic conductivity and stable lithium interfacial resistance. Nanocomposites can also be used for gas storage and packaging applications as demonstrated by high barrier polymer-clay films.

  15. Synthesis, thermal properties and applications of polymer-clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, Paulo; Qutubuddin, Syed

    2006-01-01

    Polymer-clay nanocomposites constitute a new class of materials in which the polymer matrix is reinforced by uniformly dispersed inorganic particles (usually 10 wt.% or less) having at least one dimension in the nanometer scale. Nanocomposites exhibit improved properties when compared to pure polymer or conventional composites, such as enhanced mechanical and thermal properties, reduced gas permeability, and improved chemical stability. In this work, the synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/clay nanocomposites is described via two methods: in situ and emulsion polymerization. The in situ technique follows a two-step process: ion-exchange of the clay to make it hydrophobic, and polymerization after dispersing the functionalized clay in the monomer. The emulsion technique combines the two steps of the in situ method into one by conducting ion-exchange and polymerization in an aqueous medium in the same reactor. The clay (montmorillonite, MMT) is functionalized with a zwitterionic surfactant, octadecyl-dimethyl betaine (C18DMB). Partially exfoliated nanocomposite, observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), was obtained by emulsion polymerization with 10 wt.% clay. Glass transition temperature (T g ) of this nanocomposite was 18 deg. C higher than pure PMMA. With the same clay content, in situ polymerization produced intercalated nanocomposite with T g 10 deg. C lower than the emulsion nanocomposite. The storage modulus of partially exfoliated nanocomposite was superior to the intercalated structure and to the pure polymer. Using nanocomposite technology, novel PMMA nanocomposite gel electrolytes were synthesized exhibiting improved ionic conductivity and stable lithium interfacial resistance. Nanocomposites can also be used for gas storage and packaging applications as demonstrated by high barrier polymer-clay films

  16. Multifunctional Polymer/Inorganic Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manias, E

    2003-01-01

    ... in multifunctional nanocomposite materials. Understanding the structure/property relations in polymer/clay nanocomposites is of great importance in designing materials with desired sets of properties...

  17. Microstructural evolution of alumina-zirconia nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojaimi, C.L.; Chinelatto, A.S.A.; Chinelatto, A.L.; Pallone, E.M.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic materials have limited use due to their brittleness. The inclusion of nanosized particles in a ceramic matrix, which are called nanocomposites, and ceramic processing control by controlling the grain size and densification can aid in obtaining ceramic products of greater strength and toughness. Studies showed that the zirconia nano inclusions in the matrix of alumina favors an increase in mechanical properties by inhibiting the grain growth of the matrix and not by the mechanism of the transformation toughening phase of zirconia. In this work, the microstructural evolution of alumina nanocomposites containing 15% by volume of nanometric zirconia was studied. From the results it was possible to understand the sintering process of these nanocomposites. (author)

  18. Gamma irradiation of melt processed biomedical PDLLA/HAP nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadbin, Susan; Kheirkhah, Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Poly(D-L lactide) PDLLA/hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocomposites at various compositions were prepared by melt-compounding process and then subjected to gamma irradiation at a dose of 30 kGy. The morphology of the nanocomposites, characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), displayed HAP nanoparticles at various sizes ranging from 10 to 100 nm distributed almost evenly within the polymer matrix. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis of the irradiated nanocomposites showed an increase in the degree of crystallinity along with a melting peak split. The double melting peak suggested formation of different crystalline structures in the radiation exposed nanocomposites. Also the cold crystallization peak shifted to lower temperatures and became much sharper upon irradiation, indicating higher crystallization rate. The irradiated nanocomposites showed lower tensile strength and elongation at break, suggesting occurrence of some chain scission reactions in the PLA. - Highlights: • Biomedical polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites prepared by melt-compounding were gamma irradiated. • Transmission electron microscopy showed hydroxyapatite nanoparticles evenly distributed within polylactic acid ranging from 10 to 100 nm. • A halo appeared around hydroxyapatite particles showing interfacial interactions between polylactic acid and the particles. • Double melting peak appeared for polylactic acid in DSC thermograms upon gamma irradiation of the nanocomposites

  19. Systematic comparison of model polymer nanocomposite mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Senbo; Peter, Christine; Kremer, Kurt

    2016-09-13

    Polymer nanocomposites render a range of outstanding materials from natural products such as silk, sea shells and bones, to synthesized nanoclay or carbon nanotube reinforced polymer systems. In contrast to the fast expanding interest in this type of material, the fundamental mechanisms of their mixing, phase behavior and reinforcement, especially for higher nanoparticle content as relevant for bio-inorganic composites, are still not fully understood. Although polymer nanocomposites exhibit diverse morphologies, qualitatively their mechanical properties are believed to be governed by a few parameters, namely their internal polymer network topology, nanoparticle volume fraction, particle surface properties and so on. Relating material mechanics to such elementary parameters is the purpose of this work. By taking a coarse-grained molecular modeling approach, we study an range of different polymer nanocomposites. We vary polymer nanoparticle connectivity, surface geometry and volume fraction to systematically study rheological/mechanical properties. Our models cover different materials, and reproduce key characteristics of real nanocomposites, such as phase separation, mechanical reinforcement. The results shed light on establishing elementary structure, property and function relationship of polymer nanocomposites.

  20. Magnetic nanocomposite sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-05-06

    A magnetic nanocomposite device is described herein for a wide range of sensing applications. The device utilizes the permanent magnetic behavior of the nanowires to allow operation without the application of an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires, which simplifies miniaturization and integration into microsystems. In5 addition, the nanocomposite benefits from the high elasticity and easy patterning of the polymer-based material, leading to a corrosion-resistant, flexible material that can be used to realize extreme sensitivity. In combination with magnetic sensor elements patterned underneath the nanocomposite, the nanocomposite device realizes highly sensitive and power efficient flexible artificial cilia sensors for flow measurement or tactile sensing.

  1. Volumetric composition of nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Mannila, Juha

    2015-01-01

    is presented, using cellulose/epoxy and aluminosilicate/polylactate nanocomposites as case materials. The buoyancy method is used for the accurate measurements of materials density. The accuracy of the method is determined to be high, allowing the measured nanocomposite densities to be reported with 5...... significant figures. The plotting of the measured nanocomposite density as a function of the nanofibre weight content is shown to be a first good approach of assessing the porosity content of the materials. The known gravimetric composition of the nanocomposites is converted into a volumetric composition...

  2. Transparent infrared-emitting CeF3:Yb-Er polymer nanocomposites for optical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei Chee; Patil, Swanand D; Riman, Richard E

    2010-07-01

    Bright infrared-emitting nanocomposites of unmodified CeF(3):Yb-Er with polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS), which offer a vast range of potential applications, which include optical amplifiers, waveguides, laser materials, and implantable medical devices, were developed. For the optical application of these nanocomposites, it is critical to obtain highly transparent composites to minimize absorption and scattering losses. Preparation of transparent composites typically requires powder processing approaches that include sophisticated particle size control, deagglomeration, and dispersion stabilization methods leading to an increase in process complexity and processing steps. This work seeks to prepare transparent composites with high solids loading (>5 vol%) by matching the refractive index of the inorganic particle with low cost polymers like PMMA and PS, so as to circumvent the use of any complex processing techniques or particle surface modification. PS nanocomposites were found to exhibit better transparency than the PMMA nanocomposites, especially at high solids loading (>/=10 vol%). It was found that the optical transparency of PMMA nanocomposites was more significantly affected by the increase in solids loading and inorganic particle size because of the larger refractive index mismatch of the PMMA nanocomposites compared to that of PS nanocomposites. Rayleigh scattering theory was used to provide a theoretical estimate of the scattering losses in these ceramic-polymer nanocomposites.

  3. Powder compression mechanics of spray-dried lactose nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellrup, Joel; Nordström, Josefina; Mahlin, Denny

    2017-02-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the structural impact of the nanofiller incorporation on the powder compression mechanics of spray-dried lactose. The lactose was co-spray-dried with three different nanofillers, that is, cellulose nanocrystals, sodium montmorillonite and fumed silica, which led to lower micron-sized nanocomposite particles with varying structure and morphology. The powder compression mechanics of the nanocomposites and physical mixtures of the neat spray-dried components were evaluated by a rational evaluation method with compression analysis as a tool, using the Kawakita equation and the Shapiro-Konopicky-Heckel equation. Particle rearrangement dominated the initial compression profiles due to the small particle size of the materials. The strong contribution of particle rearrangement in the materials with fumed silica continued throughout the whole compression profile, which prohibited an in-depth material characterization. However, the lactose/cellulose nanocrystals and the lactose/sodium montmorillonite nanocomposites demonstrated high yield pressure compared with the physical mixtures indicating increased particle hardness upon composite formation. This increase has likely to do with a reinforcement of the nanocomposite particles by skeleton formation of the nanoparticles. In summary, the rational evaluation of mechanical properties done by applying powder compression analysis proved to be a valuable tool for mechanical evaluation for this type of spray-dried composite materials, unless they demonstrate particle rearrangement throughout the whole compression profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Surface effects on the magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline nickel ferrites and nickel ferrite-polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathani, H.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetization studies on nanocrystalline nickel ferrite as powder particles, and as diluted dispersion (10 wt.%) in polymer matrix (polymer nanocomposites) are presented. The two polymer-based nanocomposites were prepared via ball-milling and in situ polymerization, respectively. The magnetization measurements provide strong evidence of surface effects to magnetization, which explains the non-saturation of magnetization at high fields. The differences in the magnetization behavior of nickel ferrite as powder particles and in the ball-milled nanocomposite and the nanocomposite prepared via in situ polymerization are attributed to the different extent of interparticle interactions between the particles and the preparation route. The magnetization versus applied field behavior of the three ferrite systems show a similar jump in the initial part of the magnetization curve in all the cases which implies the existence of a core-shell like morphology of the particles over a large temperature range and its dominance over the interparticle interaction effects between the particles

  5. Surface characterization of polyethylene terephthalate/silica nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvinzadeh, Mazeyar, E-mail: mparvinzadeh@gmail.com [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradian, Siamak [Department of Polymer and Color Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Abosaeed [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdanshenas, Mohamad-Esmail [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) based nanocomposites containing hydrophilic (i.e. Aerosil 200 or Aerosil TT 600) or hydrophobic (i.e. Aerosil R 972) nano-silica were prepared by melt compounding. Influence of nano-silica type on surface properties of the resultant nanocomposites was investigated by the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurement (CAM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and reflectance spectroscopy (RS). The possible interaction between nano-silica particles and PET functional groups at bulk and surface were elucidated by transmission FTIR and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, respectively. AFM studies of the resultant nanocomposites showed increased surface roughness compared to pure PET. Contact angle measurements of the resultant PET composites demonstrated that the wettability of such composites depends on surface treatment of the particular nano-silica particles used. SEM images illustrated that hydrophilic nano-silica particles tended to migrate to the surface of the PET matrix.

  6. A Novel Ultraviolet Irradiation Technique for Fabrication of Polyacrylamide-metal (M = Au, Pd) Nanocomposites at Room Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.; Hao, L.Y.; Zhu, Y.R.; Hu, Y.; Chen, Z.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM)-metal (M = gold, palladium) nanocomposites with metal nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix have been prepared via a novel ultraviolet irradiation technique at room temperature, which is based on the simultaneous occurrence of photo-reduction formation of the colloidal metal particles and photo-polymerization of the acrylamide (AM) monomer. The UV-vis absorption spectra and TEM were employed to characterize the M-PAM nanocomposites by different irradiation times. The average sizes of the colloidal gold and palladium particles dispersed in the nanocomposites were calculated by XRD patterns and TEM images. The present method may be extended to prepare other metal-polymer hybrid nanocomposite materials

  7. Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Tallant, D. R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Provencio, P. N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Overmyer, D. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Simpson, R. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Martinez-Miranda, L. J. [Department of Materials and Nuclear Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2000-05-22

    Modest thermal annealing to 600 degree sign C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5%-10%. We report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approx}15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.

    2000-01-27

    Modest thermal annealing to 600 C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5--10%. The authors report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approximately} 15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure.

  9. Effect of Nano-TiC Dispersed Particles and Electro-Codeposition Parameters on Morphology and Structure of Hybrid Ni/TiC Nanocomposite Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benea, Lidia; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-06

    This research work describes the effect of dispersed titanium carbide (TiC) nanoparticles into nickel plating bath on Ni/TiC nanostructured composite layers obtained by electro-codeposition. The surface morphology of Ni/TiC nanostructured composite layers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition of coatings and the incorporation percentage of TiC nanoparticles into Ni matrix were studied and estimated by using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). X-ray diffractometer (XRD) has been applied in order to investigate the phase structure as well as the corresponding relative texture coefficients of the composite layers. The results show that the concentration of nano-TiC particles added in the nickel electrolyte affects the inclusion percentage of TiC into Ni/TiC nano strucured layers, as well as the corresponding morphology, relative texture coefficients and thickness indicating an increasing tendency with the increasing concentration of nano-TiC concentration. By increasing the amount of TiC nanoparticles in the electrolyte, their incorporation into nickel matrix also increases. The hybrid Ni/nano-TiC composite layers obtained revealed a higher roughness and higher hardness; therefore, these layers are promising superhydrophobic surfaces for special application and could be more resistant to wear than the pure Ni layers.

  10. Effect of Nano-TiC Dispersed Particles and Electro-Codeposition Parameters on Morphology and Structure of Hybrid Ni/TiC Nanocomposite Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Benea

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work describes the effect of dispersed titanium carbide (TiC nanoparticles into nickel plating bath on Ni/TiC nanostructured composite layers obtained by electro-codeposition. The surface morphology of Ni/TiC nanostructured composite layers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The composition of coatings and the incorporation percentage of TiC nanoparticles into Ni matrix were studied and estimated by using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. X-ray diffractometer (XRD has been applied in order to investigate the phase structure as well as the corresponding relative texture coefficients of the composite layers. The results show that the concentration of nano-TiC particles added in the nickel electrolyte affects the inclusion percentage of TiC into Ni/TiC nano strucured layers, as well as the corresponding morphology, relative texture coefficients and thickness indicating an increasing tendency with the increasing concentration of nano-TiC concentration. By increasing the amount of TiC nanoparticles in the electrolyte, their incorporation into nickel matrix also increases. The hybrid Ni/nano-TiC composite layers obtained revealed a higher roughness and higher hardness; therefore, these layers are promising superhydrophobic surfaces for special application and could be more resistant to wear than the pure Ni layers.

  11. In situ SU-8 silver nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren V. Fischer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite materials containing metal nanoparticles are of considerable interest in photonics and optoelectronics applications. However, device fabrication of such materials always encounters the challenge of incorporation of preformed nanoparticles into photoresist materials. As a solution to this problem, an easy new method of fabricating silver nanocomposites by an in situ reduction of precursors within the epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 has been developed. AgNO3 dissolved in acetonitrile and mixed with the epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 forms silver nanoparticles primarily during the pre- and post-exposure soft bake steps at 95 °C. A further high-temperature treatment at 300 °C resulted in the formation of densely homogeneously distributed silver nanoparticles in the photoresist matrix. No particle growth or agglomeration of nanoparticles is observed at this point. The reported new in situ silver nanocomposite materials can be spin coated as homogeneous thin films and structured by using UV lithography. A resolution of 5 µm is achieved in the lithographic process. The UV exposure time is found to be independent of the nanoparticle concentration. The fabricated silver nanocomposites exhibit high plasmonic responses suitable for the development of new optoelectronic and optical sensing devices.

  12. Tribology of Nanocomposites

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides recent information on nanocomposites tribology. Chapter 1 provides information on tribology of bulk polymer nanocomposites and nanocomposite coatings. Chapter 2 is dedicated to nano and micro PTFE for surface lubrication of carbon fabric reinforced polyethersulphone composites. Chapter 3 describes Tribology of MoS2 -based nanocomposites. Chapter 4 contains information on friction and wear of Al2O2 -based composites with dispersed and agglomerated nanoparticles. Finally, chapter 5 is dedicated to wear of multi-scale phase reinforced composites. It is a useful reference for academics, materials and physics researchers, materials, mechanical and manufacturing engineers, both as final undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It is a useful reference for academics, materials and physics researchers, materials, mechanical and manufacturing engineers, both as final undergraduate and postgraduate levels.

  13. Magnetic nanocomposite sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed; Li, Bodong; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    A magnetic nanocomposite device is described herein for a wide range of sensing applications. The device utilizes the permanent magnetic behavior of the nanowires to allow operation without the application of an additional magnetic field

  14. Nano-composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  15. Development of nano-composite membranes to improve alkaline fuel cell performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonjola, P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here describes modification of commercially available polysulfone (PSU) as well as the formation of nano-composite membrane i.e. TiO2 nano particles incorporated into anion exchange polymer matrix....

  16. Modifying Silicates for Better Dispersion in Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sandi

    2005-01-01

    An improved chemical modification has been developed to enhance the dispersion of layered silicate particles in the formulation of a polymer/silicate nanocomposite material. The modification involves, among other things, the co-exchange of an alkyl ammonium ion and a monoprotonated diamine with interlayer cations of the silicate. The net overall effects of the improved chemical modification are to improve processability of the nanocomposite and maximize the benefits of dispersing the silicate particles into the polymer. Some background discussion is necessary to give meaning to a description of this development. Polymer/silicate nanocomposites are also denoted polymer/clay composites because the silicate particles in them are typically derived from clay particles. Particles of clay comprise layers of silicate platelets separated by gaps called "galleries." The platelet thickness is 1 nm. The length varies from 30 nm to 1 m, depending on the silicate. In order to fully realize the benefits of polymer/silicate nanocomposites, it is necessary to ensure that the platelets become dispersed in the polymer matrices. Proper dispersion can impart physical and chemical properties that make nanocomposites attractive for a variety of applications. In order to achieve nanometer-level dispersion of a layered silicate into a polymer matrix, it is typically necessary to modify the interlayer silicate surfaces by attaching organic functional groups. This modification can be achieved easily by ion exchange between the interlayer metal cations found naturally in the silicate and protonated organic cations - typically protonated amines. Long-chain alkyl ammonium ions are commonly chosen as the ion-exchange materials because they effectively lower the surface energies of the silicates and ease the incorporation of organic monomers or polymers into the silicate galleries. This completes the background discussion. In the present improved modification of the interlayer silicate surfaces

  17. Performance enhancement of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on polymer nano-composite catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hyunwoong; Gopi, Chandu V.V.M.; Kim, Hee-Je; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •We studied polymer nano-composite containing TiO 2 nano-particles as a catalyst. •Polymer nano-composite was applied for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells. •Polymer nano-composite catalyst was considerably improved with TiO 2 nano-particles. •Polymer nano-composite showed higher photovoltaic performance than conventional Au. -- Abstract: Polymer nano-composite composed of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) and TiO 2 nano-particles was deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate and applied as an alternative to Au counter electrode of quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSC). It became surface-richer with the increase in nano-particle amount so that catalytic reaction was increased by widened catalytic interface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry clearly demonstrated the enhancement of polymer nano-composite counter electrode. A QDSC based on polymer nano-composite counter electrode showed 0.56 V of V OC , 12.24 mA cm −2 of J SC , 0.57 of FF, and 3.87% of efficiency and this photovoltaic performance was higher than that of QDSC based on Au counter electrode (3.75%).

  18. Effect of Nanosilica Type on Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalane/Silica Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazeyar Parvinzadeh Gashti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is carried out to study some properties of polyethylene terephthalaten (PET as one of the most important synthetic polymers used in textile industry. PET based nanocomposites containing three differently modified silica particles were prepared by melt compounding. The influence of type and amount of nanosilica on various properties of nanocomposite was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle determination, optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetry analyzer and dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer. ATR results indicated that the interactions ofhydrophilic nanosilica mainly occur at the surface of nanocomposites. SEM was used to confirm the presence of silica on the surface of nanocomposites and it showed that surface properties depend on hydrophilicity of nanosilica. Studies on surface tension of nanocomposites showed that modified nanosilica particles have higher tendency to remain in bulk polymer as compared with unmodified one. Optical microscopy images from nanocomposites-containing silica illustrated the increment of thenumber of spherulites in the PET matrix with increases in silica percentage which were dependent on nano-silica type and content. Differential scanning calorimetry results of the nanocomposites showed a slight drop in the melting temperature compared to pure PET. The results obtained from thermal stability test showed that any improvement in thermal stability depends on the type of silica and dispersion of particles in polyethylene terephthalate. Moreover, the extent of interactions between nanosilica particles and polyethylene terephthatale chains affects on thermal stability of the composite.of the composite.

  19. Nanocomposites: The End of Compromise

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Damme, H.

    Increase the Young's modulus of a glassy resin by a factor of ten without making it heavier, for a new ski design, for example? Triple the rupture strength of an elastomer? Improve the thermal behaviour of an object made from a thermoplastic polymer by 100 degrees, to make a car dashboard, for example, or a part for the engine? Double the fire resistance time for the sheath around an electricity cable? Reduce the oxygen permeability of a film by a factor of ten, to make long conservation food packaging? All these things have been made possible by incorporating a few percent of inorganic nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. Figures 14.1 and 14.2 illustrate two such nanocomposites: the first was obtained by incorporating lamellar clay particles, and the second by incorporating fibrous nanoparticles, in fact, carbon nanotubes.

  20. Transparent bulk-size nanocomposites with high inorganic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shi; Gaume, Romain

    2015-01-01

    With relatively high nanoparticle loading in polymer matrices, hybrid nanocomposites made by colloidal dispersion routes suffer from severe inhomogeneous agglomeration, a phenomenon that deteriorates light transmission even when the refractive indices of the inorganic and organic phases are closely matched. The dispersion of particles in a matrix is of paramount importance to obtain composites of high optical quality. Here, we describe an innovative, yet straightforward method to fabricate monolithic transparent hybrid nanocomposites with very high particle loading and high refractive index mismatch tolerance between the inorganic and organic constituents. We demonstrate 77% transmission at 800 nm in a 2 mm-thick acrylate polymer nanocomposite containing 61 vol. % CaF 2 nanoparticles. Modeling shows that similar performance could easily be obtained with various inorganic phases relevant to a number of photonic applications

  1. Maghemite polymer nanocomposites with modulated magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, A.; Palacio, F.; Falqui, A.; Snoeck, E.; Serin, V.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Ksenofontov, V.; Guetlich, P.; Gilbert, I.

    2007-01-01

    A method is presented for the production of maghemite polymer nanocomposites with modulated magnetic properties. Magnetic nanocomposites prepared using this method show regular variation in the magnetic blocking temperature from 2 K to 300 K, and variation in the saturation magnetization from 0 to 50 emu g -1 (Fe 2 O 3 ). The method is based on the in situ formation of maghemite nanoparticles in nitrogen-base polymer matrixes. The particle size can be varied regularly from 1.5 nm to 16 nm by changing the ratio of iron loading in the polymer and/or the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios. The particles are isolated and uniformly distributed within the matrix. The materials were characterized by electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, small angle X-ray scattering, wide angle X-ray scattering and magnetic measurements. The nanocomposites obtained are useful model material for the study of the magnetic behavior of magnetic nanoparticles, as well as for use in many industrial and biomedical applications

  2. Polymer-ceramic nanocomposites for applications in the bone surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stodolak, E; Gadomska, K; Lacz, A; Bogun, M

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this work was preparation and investigation of properties of a nanocomposite material based on polymer matrix modified with nanometric silica particles (SiO 2 ). The composite matrix consisted of resorbable P(L/DL)LA polymer with certified biocompatibility. Nanometric silica was introduced into the matrix by means of ultrasonic homogenisation and/or mechanical stirring. The silica was introduced directly e.g. as nanoparticles or inside calcium alginate fibres which contained 3 wt.% of amorphous SiO 2 . Proper dispersion of nano-filliers was confirmed by means of thermal analysis (TG/DTA, DSC). It was observed, that the presence of inorganic nanoparticles influenced several surface parameters of the nanocomposites i.e. hydrophility (a decrease of surface energy) and topography (both in micro- and nano-scale). Additionally, the nanocomposites exhibited enhanced mechanical properties (Young's modulus, tensile strength) compared to the pure polymer. The nanocomposites were bioactive materials (SBF/3 days/37 deg. C). Biological tests (MTT test) showed a good viability of human osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19) in contact with the nanocomposites surface. Results of preliminary biological tests carried out with the use of mother cells extracted from human bone marrow showed that the nanocomposites may provide differenation of bone cells.

  3. Polymer-ceramic nanocomposites for applications in the bone surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodolak, E.; Gadomska, K.; Lacz, A.; Bogun, M.

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this work was preparation and investigation of properties of a nanocomposite material based on polymer matrix modified with nanometric silica particles (SiO2). The composite matrix consisted of resorbable P(L/DL)LA polymer with certified biocompatibility. Nanometric silica was introduced into the matrix by means of ultrasonic homogenisation and/or mechanical stirring. The silica was introduced directly e.g. as nanoparticles or inside calcium alginate fibres which contained 3 wt.% of amorphous SiO2. Proper dispersion of nano-filliers was confirmed by means of thermal analysis (TG/DTA, DSC). It was observed, that the presence of inorganic nanoparticles influenced several surface parameters of the nanocomposites i.e. hydrophility (a decrease of surface energy) and topography (both in micro- and nano-scale). Additionally, the nanocomposites exhibited enhanced mechanical properties (Young's modulus, tensile strength) compared to the pure polymer. The nanocomposites were bioactive materials (SBF/3 days/37oC). Biological tests (MTT test) showed a good viability of human osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19) in contact with the nanocomposites surface. Results of preliminary biological tests carried out with the use of mother cells extracted from human bone marrow showed that the nanocomposites may provide differenation of bone cells.

  4. Room Temperature Imprint Using Crack-Free Monolithic SiO2-PVA Nanocomposite for Fabricating Microhole Array on Silica Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Fujino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to fabricate microhole arrays onto a silica glass via a room temperature imprint and subsequent sintering by using a monolithic SiO2-poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA nanocomposite as the silica glass precursor. The SiO2-PVA suspension was prepared from fumed silica particles and PVA, followed by drying to obtain tailored SiO2-PVA nanocomposites. The dependence of particle size of the fumed silica particles on pore size of the nanocomposite was examined. Nanocomposites prepared from 7 nm silica particles possessed suitable mesopores, whereas the corresponding nanocomposites prepared from 30 nm silica particles hardly possessed mesopores. The pore size of the nanocomposites increased as a function of decreasing pH of the SiO2-PVA suspension. As a consequence, the crack-free monolithic SiO2-PVA nanocomposite was obtained using 7 nm silica particles via the suspension at pH 3. Micropatterns were imprinted on the monolithic SiO2-PVA nanocomposite at room temperature. The imprinted nanocomposite was sintered to a transparent silica glass at 1200°C in air. The fabricated sintered glass possessed the microhole array on their surface with aspect ratios identical to the mold.

  5. Preparation, characterization and antimicrobial efficiency of Ag/PDDA-diatomite nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panáček, Aleš; Balzerová, Anna; Prucek, Robert; Ranc, Václav; Večeřová, Renata; Husičková, Vendula; Pechoušek, Jiří; Filip, Jan; Zbořil, Radek; Kvítek, Libor

    2013-10-01

    Nanocomposites consisting of diatomaceous earth particles and silver nanoparticles (silver NPs) with high antimicrobial activity were prepared and characterized. For the purpose of nanocomposite preparation, silver NPs with an average size of 28nm prepared by modified Tollens process were used. Nanocomposites were prepared using poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (PDDA) as an interlayer substance between diatomite and silver NPs which enables to change diatomite original negative surface charge to positive one. Due to strong electrostatic interactions between negatively charged silver NPs and positively charged PDDA-modified diatomite, Ag/PDDA-diatomite nanocomposites with a high content of silver (as high as 46.6mgAg/1g of diatomite) were prepared. Because of minimal release of silver NPs from prepared nanocomposites to aqueous media (<0.3mg Ag/1g of nanocomposite), the developed nanocomposites are regarded as a potential useful antimicrobial material with a long-term efficiency showing no risk to human health or environment. All the prepared nanocomposites exhibit a high bactericidal activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungicidal activity against yeasts at very low concentrations as low as 0.11g/L, corresponding to silver concentration of 5mg/L. Hence, the prepared nanocomposites constitute a promising candidate suitable for the microbial water treatment in environmental applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Metal-polymer nanocomposites for functional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faupel, Franz; Zaporojtchenko, Vladimir; Strunskus, Thomas [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany). Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft - Materialverbunde; Elbahri, Mady [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany). Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft - Nanochemistry and Engineering

    2010-12-15

    Nanocomposites combine favorable features of the constituents on the nanoscale to obtain new functionalities. The present paper is concerned with the preparation of polymer-based nanocomposites consisting of metal nanoparticles in a polymer matrix and the resulting functional properties. Emphasis is placed on vapor phase deposition which inter alia allows the incorporation of alloy clusters with well defined composition and tailored filling factor profiles. Examples discussed here include optical composites with tuned particle surface plasmon resonances for plasmonic applications, magnetic high frequency materials with cut-off frequencies well above 1 GHz, sensors that are based on the dramatic change in the electronic properties near the percolation threshold, and antibacterial coatings which benefit from the large effective surface of nanoparticles and the increased chemical potential which both strongly enhance ion release. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Polyethylenedioxythiophene and molybdenum disulfide nanocomposite electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamro, Turki; Ram, Manoj K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • MoS_2-PEDOT nanocomposite electrode material was synthesized using polyanion ‘PSS’ and surfactant CTAB in an aqueous media. • The supercapacitor based on composite MoS_2-PEDOT electrode revealed higher energy density than graphene composite electrodes. • The specific capacitance of 361 Farad/gram (F/g) was obtained for 1:2 weight ratio of MoS2 to the EDOT monomer in MoS_2-PEDOT nanocomposite based electrodes. - Abstract: An innovative nanocomposite electrode was chemically synthesized using molybdenum disulphide (MoS_2)- polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) to understand the charge mechanism in a symmetric supercapacitor. The MoS_2-PEDOT nanocomposite was produced at various ratios of MoS_2 to ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in an aqueous medium of polyanions polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at controlled conditions. The morphology, crystallinity, and optical properties of MoS_2-PEDOT nanocomposite materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, particle size analyzer, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray-diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, respectively. The electrochemical properties of the supercapacitor were investigated using cyclic voltammetry, charging–discharging at constant current and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The specific capacitance, power and energy densities of the supercapacitor were estimated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), charging–discharging, Nyquist and Bode plots. The specific capacitance was estimated to be 361 Farad/gram (F/g) for the 1:2 weight ratio of MoS_2 to the EDOT monomer in the MoS_2-PEDOT nanocomposite based electrodes. Nevertheless, this study provides a fundamental aspect of synthesis of nanocomposite material for optimum attainment supercapacitive properties based on the MoS_2-PEDOT nanocomposite electrode for practical energy storage applications.

  8. Thermal Degradation of Nanocomposited PMMA/TiO2 Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafizah, Nik Noor; Mamat, Mohamad Hafiz; Rusop, Mohamad; Said, Che Mohamad Som; Abidin, Mohd Hanafiah

    2013-01-01

    The polymer nanocomposite is a new choice to conventionally filled polymers. The lack of proper binding between the filler and the polymer can lead the decrease of the thermal and other properties of the nanocomposites. In this study, the nanocomposited PMMA/TiO 2 nanocomposites were prepared using sonication and solution casting method at different weight percent TiO 2 . The aims of adding TiO 2 in the PMMA is to study the effects of TiO 2 nanofiller on the thermal properties nanocomposites. FESEM results show the higher amounts of TiO 2 in PMMA increase the rough surface morphology of the samples. Further, the Raman results reveal that the TiO 2 nanofiller were successfully intercalated into the PMMA matrix. In addition, the thermal properties of nanocomposited PMMA/TiO 2 nanocomposites were increased with the addition of TiO 2 in the PMMA.

  9. Oriented nanocomposites of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene and gold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heffels, W.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Caseri, W.R.; Smith, P.

    2000-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites were prepd. by mixing ultrahigh-mol.-wt. polyethylene and gold colloids coated with a self-assembled monolayer of dodecanethiol. Subsequently, these materials were oriented by solid state drawing which induced the formation of uniaxially oriented arrays of gold particles. As a

  10. Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites: Cluster size and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites; structural properties; magnetic properties. 1. Introduction ... The powder obtained was ground in a motor and pestle, sonicated in ... Figure 1. XRD of (a) iron oxide nanoparticles and (b) iron oxide/PANI (1 : 0⋅4) composite. .... shape of the particles and the anisotropy energy, as also.

  11. Conducting polyamine nanocomposites development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, R.C.; Maciel, T.C.G.L.; Guimaraes, M.J.O.C.; Garcia, M.E.F.

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites are hybrid materials formed by the combination of inorganic nanoparticles dispersed in a polymeric matrix with, at least, one dimension in the nanometer range. It was used as nanoparticles layered and tubular clay minerals, and its insertion and dispersion were conducted through the in situ polymerization technique. As the polymer matrix, it was utilized a polyamine, which, later, will be inserted in a polyacrylamide gel for the development of a compound that aggregates both main characteristics. The nanocomposites were prepared in different polymerization conditions (temperature, concentration and nanoparticle type) and characterized by XRD and FTIR. It was observed that regarding the polymerization conditions, the temperature had influence on the kind of material obtained and on the reaction speed; the type of nanoparticle affected its interaction with the polymer matrix, predominantly providing the formation of nanocomposites by the intercalation mechanism in the layered clay. (author)

  12. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sidorenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials. A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance.

  13. Chitosan-based nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available , and hygiene devices. They thus represent a strong and emerging answer for improved and eco-friendly materials. This chapter reviews the recent developments in the area of chitosan-based nanocomposites, with a special emphasis on clay-containing nanocomposites...-sized mineral fillers like silica, talc, and clay are added to reduce the cost and improve chitosan’s performance in some way. However, the mechanical properties such as elongation at break and tensile strength of these composites decrease with the incorporation...

  14. Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS)-Containing Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayandele, Ebunoluwa; Sarkar, Biswajit; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid materials with superior structural and functional properties can be obtained by incorporating nanofillers into polymer matrices. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles have attracted much attention recently due to their nanometer size, the ease of which these particles can be incorporated into polymeric materials and the unique capability to reinforce polymers. We review here the state of POSS-containing polymer nanocomposites. We discuss the influence of the incorporation of POSS into polymer matrices via chemical cross-linking or physical blending on the structure of nanocomposites, as affected by surface functional groups, and the POSS concentration. PMID:28348318

  15. Synthesis, characterization and impedance spectroscopy study of magnetite/epoxidized natural rubber nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, W.L. [Nanoscience Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, M., E-mail: bmohamad@usm.my [Nanoscience Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2013-06-05

    Highlights: ► The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ENR nanocomposites have not been synthesized and reported. ► Nanocomposites were obtained via in situ synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in the presence of ENR. ► The use of ENR enabled control of the size of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles to <20 nm. ► Conductivity of the nanocomposites increases with the increase in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} loading. ► The equivalent circuit for the nanocomposites is proposed and discussed. -- Abstract: The magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) particles were synthesized in situ in the presence of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) to produce the various Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ENR nanocomposites. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the existence of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles in the composites. The FTIR and DSC studies suggested that no chemical interactions between the particles and the matrix. The SEM and X-mapping micrographs revealed that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were distributed within the ENR matrix. The ENR matrix exerts control on the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles with a size of <20 nm in the composites. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles also affect the electrical properties of the composites. Impedance spectroscopy studies show that the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites increases with the increase in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} loading in the composite. The equivalent circuit for the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ENR nanocomposites is proposed and discussed.

  16. PBAT based nanocomposites for medical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kikku; Wu, Meng-Hsiu; Bocchini, Sergio; Rasyida, Amaliya; Yang, Ming-Chien

    2012-01-01

    Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) based nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending PBAT with 5 and 10 wt.% of clay nanoparticles (unmodified and modified montmorillonites, unmodified and modified fluoro-hectorites, and unmodified sepiolites). All nanocomposites showed a good level of clay distribution and dispersion into PBAT, especially nanocomposites with high clay chemical affinity with the polymer matrix. DSC results showed that addition of layered silicates slightly hindered kinetics and extent of crystallization of PBAT; however, sepiolite particles were able to promote polymer crystallization kinetics and the transformation of the PBAT crystal structure to a more ordered form. Similar increases in the thermal stability of PBAT in nitrogen and air were obtained upon addition of all clays, due to a barrier effect of the clays toward polymer decomposition product ablation. Preliminary biocompatibility tests indicated that PBAT based materials with 10% clay content have good biological safety and display almost no cytotoxicity. The addition of all nanofillers increased the hardness of PBAT matrix. The DMA analysis showed that all nanocomposites presented higher E′ values than neat PBAT, indicating that addition of clays improved the mechanical properties of PBAT. For layered silicate nanocomposites, the main influencing factors on the thermo-mechanical properties appeared to be the aspect ratio and dispersion of clay nanoplatelets, rather than polymer/clay chemical affinity. The highest E′ values of sepiolite based nanocomposites make this nanoparticle the most attractive material for tissue engineering and environmental industrial applications. Highlights: ► PBAT nanocomposites with high thermo-mechanical properties were obtained. ► The effects of clay presence on PBAT crystalline structure were elucidated. ► The presence of the clays used in PBAT showed good biological safety. ► Sepiolites brought the higher improvements in PBAT

  17. PBAT based nanocomposites for medical and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Kikku, E-mail: kikku81@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meng-Hsiu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Bocchini, Sergio [Dipartimento di Scienze dei Materiali ed Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Rasyida, Amaliya; Yang, Ming-Chien [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) based nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending PBAT with 5 and 10 wt.% of clay nanoparticles (unmodified and modified montmorillonites, unmodified and modified fluoro-hectorites, and unmodified sepiolites). All nanocomposites showed a good level of clay distribution and dispersion into PBAT, especially nanocomposites with high clay chemical affinity with the polymer matrix. DSC results showed that addition of layered silicates slightly hindered kinetics and extent of crystallization of PBAT; however, sepiolite particles were able to promote polymer crystallization kinetics and the transformation of the PBAT crystal structure to a more ordered form. Similar increases in the thermal stability of PBAT in nitrogen and air were obtained upon addition of all clays, due to a barrier effect of the clays toward polymer decomposition product ablation. Preliminary biocompatibility tests indicated that PBAT based materials with 10% clay content have good biological safety and display almost no cytotoxicity. The addition of all nanofillers increased the hardness of PBAT matrix. The DMA analysis showed that all nanocomposites presented higher E Prime values than neat PBAT, indicating that addition of clays improved the mechanical properties of PBAT. For layered silicate nanocomposites, the main influencing factors on the thermo-mechanical properties appeared to be the aspect ratio and dispersion of clay nanoplatelets, rather than polymer/clay chemical affinity. The highest E Prime values of sepiolite based nanocomposites make this nanoparticle the most attractive material for tissue engineering and environmental industrial applications. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PBAT nanocomposites with high thermo-mechanical properties were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of clay presence on PBAT crystalline structure were elucidated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of the clays used in PBAT showed

  18. Novel transparent and flexible nanocomposite film prepared from chrysotile nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kun, E-mail: kliu@csu.edu.cn [School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhu, Binnan; Feng, Qiming [School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Duan, Tao [Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, chrysotile nanofibres, obtained from physicochemical dispersion of natural chrysotile, were used to prepare nanofibre sheets by vacuum filtration. As-prepared sheets were then impregnated by UV-curable resin and cured by ultraviolet light to fabricate the flexible and transparent nanocomposite films. Observed from SEM, the transparent films showed a smooth surface and a typical sandwich structure in cross section, viz. nanofibre sheet filled with resin was sandwiched by two layers of resin. XRD patterns indicated the amorphous nature of cured resin and characteristic crystallographic structure of chrysotile in nanocomposite films. Though the nanofibre sheets were white in colour, and nanofibre contents in nanocomposites were as much as 43.4 wt%, the nanocomposite films displayed an excellent optical transparency with about 85% light transmittance in the visible light range. Tensile tests showed that the addition of nanofibres resulted in a great improvement in mechanical strength of the nanocomposite films; with the increase of nanofibre contents, the modulus and tensile strength of nanocomposite films increased gradually. - Graphical abstract: Photos show the experimental phenomenon. The white nanofibre sheets can be written or printed like paper, and it's very interested that the handwriting is clearly visible from the front and back of the transparent films prepared from nanofibre sheets by vacuum impregnation and UV curing. This phenomenon can be attributed to the increase of transparency of film, which results from the replacement of air interstices in nanofibre sheet by resin with higher refractive index. Visible light can pass easily through the transparent film without obvious loss, but can be apparently adsorbed and scattered by ink particles that adhered to nanofibres and embedded in resin. - Highlights: • A flexible and transparent film is prepared from chrysotile nanofibres. • The nanofibre sheet is sandwiched by two

  19. Novel transparent and flexible nanocomposite film prepared from chrysotile nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kun; Zhu, Binnan; Feng, Qiming; Duan, Tao

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, chrysotile nanofibres, obtained from physicochemical dispersion of natural chrysotile, were used to prepare nanofibre sheets by vacuum filtration. As-prepared sheets were then impregnated by UV-curable resin and cured by ultraviolet light to fabricate the flexible and transparent nanocomposite films. Observed from SEM, the transparent films showed a smooth surface and a typical sandwich structure in cross section, viz. nanofibre sheet filled with resin was sandwiched by two layers of resin. XRD patterns indicated the amorphous nature of cured resin and characteristic crystallographic structure of chrysotile in nanocomposite films. Though the nanofibre sheets were white in colour, and nanofibre contents in nanocomposites were as much as 43.4 wt%, the nanocomposite films displayed an excellent optical transparency with about 85% light transmittance in the visible light range. Tensile tests showed that the addition of nanofibres resulted in a great improvement in mechanical strength of the nanocomposite films; with the increase of nanofibre contents, the modulus and tensile strength of nanocomposite films increased gradually. - Graphical abstract: Photos show the experimental phenomenon. The white nanofibre sheets can be written or printed like paper, and it's very interested that the handwriting is clearly visible from the front and back of the transparent films prepared from nanofibre sheets by vacuum impregnation and UV curing. This phenomenon can be attributed to the increase of transparency of film, which results from the replacement of air interstices in nanofibre sheet by resin with higher refractive index. Visible light can pass easily through the transparent film without obvious loss, but can be apparently adsorbed and scattered by ink particles that adhered to nanofibres and embedded in resin. - Highlights: • A flexible and transparent film is prepared from chrysotile nanofibres. • The nanofibre sheet is sandwiched by two

  20. Preparation, structure and thermal stability of Cu/LDPE nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xianping; Cai Shuizhou; Xie Changsheng

    2006-01-01

    Copper/low-density-polyethylene (Cu/LDPE) nanocomposites have been prepared using a melt-blending technique in a single-screw extruder. Their structure and thermal characteristics are characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results of XRD, SEM and SEM-EDS Cu-mapping show that the nanocomposites are a hybrid of the polymer and the copper nanoparticles, and the copper nanoparticles aggregates were distributed uniformly in general. The results also show that the nanocomposites and the base resin, the pure LDPE, have a different crystalline structure and the same oriented characteristics owing to the presence of copper nanoparticles and the same cooling condition. The results of DSC show that the incorporation of copper nanoparticles can decrease the melting temperatures but increase the crystallization temperatures, and can lower the crystallinity degree of the matrix of the composites. The results of TGA show that the presence of copper nanoparticles can improve the thermal stability of the nanocomposites, a maximum increment of 18 deg. C is obtained comparing with the pure LDPE in this experiment. The results of TGA also show that the influence of the incorporation of the copper nanoparticles on the thermal stability of the Cu/LDPE nanocomposites is different from that of the non-metal nanoparticles on the polymer/non-metal nanocomposites and the copper microparticles on the Cu/LDPE microcomposites. The increase of the thermal stability of the Cu/LDPE nanocomposites will decrease when the content of the copper nanoparticles is more than 2 wt.%. The difference might be caused by the fact that the activity of the metal nanoparticles is much more higher than that of the non-metal nanoparticles, and the different size effect the different copper particles has

  1. Characterization of synthesized polyurethane/montmorillonite nanocomposites foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Farahnaz; Njuguna, James; Sachse, Sophia; Kavosh, Masoud; Michalowski, S; Pielichowski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Nanophased hybrid composites based on polyurethane/montmorillonite (PU/MMT) have been fabricated. The nanocomposite which was formed by the addition of a polyol premix with 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate to obtain nanophased polyurethane foams which were then used for fabrication of nanocomposite panels has been shown to have raised strength, stiffness and thermal insulation properties. The nanophased polyurethane foam was characterized by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM and SEM analysis indicated that nanophased particles are dispersed homogeneously in the polyurethane matrix on the nanometer scale indicating that PU/MMT is an intercalated nanocomposite with a 2-3 nm nanolayer thickness

  2. Silane coupling agent for enhanced epoxy-iron oxide nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy M. Naguib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, silane-treated Fe2O3 nanoparticles were successfully prepared using (3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES. The chemical structure and morphology of the obtained nanoparticles were investigated by several analysis techniques including FTIR, XRD, TEM and DLS. Both of untreated Fe2O3 (IO and silane-treated Fe2O3 (SIO nanoparticles were used in the preparation of epoxy nanocomposites with 5% by weight fraction. FTIR and XRD approved that SIO was successfully prepared with highly crystalline structure. TEM and DLS indicated the good dispersion of treated nanoparticles in the nanocomposite matrix, also the average particle size of nanofiller decreased to ∼200 nm after silane treatment. The dynamic properties for the prepared nanocomposites were studied using DMA and confirmed by nanoindentation technique. The results indicated that silane-treated nanoparticles can improve the hardness and Tg by 87.5% and 5 °C respectively at 5% weight fraction.

  3. Synthesis of copper polyacrylate nanocomposites by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casalme, Loida Olores

    2005-04-01

    This research involves the synthesis of copper nanoparticles with controlled size by the application of gamma radiation with varying polyacrylic acid (PAA) and CuSO 4 concentration. An alternative and convenient method was done which employs Co 60 irradiation of solutions of copper salt and PAA with irradiation dose of 1.6, 3.6, 6.4, and 9.2 MRad. The effect of polymer and copper sulfate's initial concentrations as well as the effect of the presence of alcohol as radical scavenger and the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as stabilizer were evaluated. Characterization of nanocomposite properties such as plasmon resonance band, fluorescence, and particle morphology and size were determined. Layer-by-layer assembly of Cu-PAA nanocomposites and polydiallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (PDDA) was also constructed. Stability of the synthesized copper-PAA nanocomposites in terms of the disappearance of plasmon band with time was evaluated. (Author)

  4. Fe2O3 hollow sphere nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Wen, Yang; Xu, Bing; Lu, Lu; Ren, Reiming

    2018-02-01

    Nanomaterials have attracted increasing interest in electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites were successfully prepared through facile low temperature water-bath method with carbon sphere as hard template. The morphology and microstructure of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Through hydrolysis mechanism, using ferric chloride direct hydrolysis, iron hydroxide coated on the surface of carbon sphere, after high temperature calcination can form the hollow spherical iron oxide materials. Electrochemical performances of the hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammery (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge. The Pure hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites achieves a specific capacitance of 125 F g-1 at the current density of 85 mA g-1. The results indicate that the uniform dispersion of hollow ball structure can effectively reduce the particle reunion in the process of charging and discharging.

  5. Biofunctionalized ferromagnetic CoPt{sub 3}/polymer nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, M A [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Neves, M C [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Esteves, A C C [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Girginova, P I [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Guiomar, A J [Department of Biochemistry and CNC, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Amaral, V S [Department of Physics, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Trindade, T [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2007-05-30

    Magnetic latexes were prepared by the encapsulation of organically capped CoPt{sub 3} nanoparticles via miniemulsion in situ radical polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate (tBA). This is the first example of a CoPt{sub 3} based polymer nanocomposite showing ferromagnetic behaviour at room temperature. Each nanocomposite particle contains a magnetic core composed of CoPt{sub 3} nanoparticles (d{approx}7 nm, a{sub 0} = 3.848 A) encapsulated by poly(t-butyl acrylate). The CoPt{sub 3}/PtBA latexes contain polyester groups that can be readily hydrolysed, rendering the surface with carboxylic functionalities and hence allowing bioconjugation. Complementary to such surface modification experiments, we report that bovine IgG antibodies can bind to the magnetic latexes, and the potential of the nanocomposites for in vitro specific bioapplications is discussed.

  6. Toughening Mechanisms in Silica-Filled Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Binay S.

    Epoxies are widely used as underfill resins throughout the microelectronics industry to mechanically couple and protect various components of flip-chip assemblies. Generally rigid materials largely surround underfill resins. Improving the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resins to better match those of their rigid counterparts can help extend the service lifetime of flip-chip assemblies. Recently, researchers have demonstrated that silica nanoparticles are effective toughening agents for lightly-crosslinked epoxies. Improvements in the fracture toughness of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites have primarily been attributed to two toughening mechanisms: particle debonding with subsequent void growth and matrix shear banding. Various attempts have been made to model the contribution of these toughening mechanisms to the overall fracture energy observed in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. However, disparities still exist between experimental and modeled fracture energy results. In this dissertation, the thermal, rheological and mechanical behavior of eight different types of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites was investigated. Each nanocomposite consisted of up to 10 vol% of silica nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm, with a variety of surface treatments and particle structures. Fractographical analysis was conducted with new experimental approaches in order to accurately identify morphological evidence for each proposed toughening mechanism. Overall, three major insights into the fracture behavior of real world silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites were established. First, microcracking was observed as an essential toughening mechanism in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. Microcracking was observed on the surface and subsurface of fractured samples in each type of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposite. The additional toughening contribution of microcracking to overall fracture energy yielded excellent agreement between experimental

  7. Percolation Phenomena For New Magnetic Composites And Tim Nanocomposites Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Thabet Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical investigation in order to obtain new composite and nanocomposite magnetic industrial materials. The effective conductivity and thermal effective conductivity have been predicted by adding various types and percentages of conductive particles (Al2O3, MgO, ZnO, Graphite etc. to the main matrices of Epoxy, Iron and Silicon for formulating new composite and nanocomposite industrial materials. The characterization of effective conductivity of new polymeric composites has been investigated with various applied forces, inclusion types and their concentrations. In addition, the effect of inclusion types and their concentrations on the effective thermal conductivities of thermal interface nanocomposite industrial materials has been explained and discussed.

  8. Green synthesis of graphene/Ag nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wenhui; Gu Yejian; Li Li

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A facile and green approach to synthesis of GNS/AgNPs is reported by employing sodium citrate as reductant, and this study represents the use of biocompounds for nontoxic and scalable production of GNS/AgNPs under a suitable concentration of silver ions and the prepared GNS/AgNPs can be used in the field of disinfection. Highlights: ► Graphene/Ag nanocomposites were prepared by a green and facile strategy based on sodium citrate. ► The influence of AgNO 3 amount on particle size and size range of AgNPs was studied. ► The surface plasmon resonance properties of AgNPs on graphene was investigated. ► The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was retained in the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Graphene/Ag nanocomposites (GNS/AgNPs) were fabricated via a green and facile method, employing graphite oxide (GO) as a precursor of graphene, AgNO 3 as a precursor of Ag nanoparticles, and sodium citrate as an environmentally friendly reducing and stabilizing agent. The synthesized GNS/AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectra (RS), respectively. The results indicated that graphite oxide was completely reduced to graphene, and the silver ion was reduced by sodium citrate simultaneously. Under a suitable dosage of silver ions, well-dispersed AgNPs on the graphene sheets mostly centralized at 20–25 nm. The surface plasmon resonance property of AgNPs on graphene showed that there was a interaction between AgNPs and graphene supports. In addition, antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was retained in the nanocomposites, suggesting that they can be potentially used as a graphene-based biomaterial.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of functional magnetic nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, J.; Sanders, J.; Srinath, S.; Srikanth, H.

    2006-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes have been excellent functional materials that could be dispersed in polymer matrices for various applications. However, uniform dispersion of particles in polymers without agglomeration is quite challenging. We have fabricated PMMA/polypyrrole bilayer structures embedded with Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticles synthesized using wet chemical synthesis. Agglomeration-free dispersion of nanoparticles was achieved by coating the particles with surfactants and by dissolving both the particles and PMMA in chlorobenzene. Structural characterization was done using XRD and TEM. Magnetic properties of the bilayer structures indicated superparamagnetic behavior that is desirable for RF applications as the magnetic losses are reduced. Our polymer nanocomposite bilayer films with conducting polymer coatings are potential candidates for tunable RF applications with integrated EMI suppression. We will also report on our studies of pumped ferrofluids flowing past carbon nanotubes that are arranged in microchannel arrays. Magnetization under various flow conditions is investigated and correlated with the hydrodynamic properties. This scheme provides a novel method of energy conversion and storage using nanocomposite materials.

  10. Combustion of environmentally altered molybdenum trioxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Kevin; Pantoya, Michelle L. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas Tech University, 2500 Broadway, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Nanocomposite thermite mixtures are currently under development for many primer applications due to their high energy densities, high ignition sensitivity, and low release of toxins into the environment. However, variability and inconsistencies in combustion performance have not been sufficiently investigated. Environmental interactions with the reactants are thought to be a contributing factor to these variabilities. Combustion velocity experiments were conducted on aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) mixtures to investigate the role of environmental interactions such as light exposure and humidity. While the Al particles were maintained in an ambient, constant environment, the MoO{sub 3} particles were exposed to UV or fluorescent light, and highly humid environments. Results show that UV and fluorescent lighting over a period of days does not significantly contribute to performance deterioration. However, a humid environment severely decreases combustion performance if the oxidizer particles are not heat-treated. Heat treatment of the MoO{sub 3} greatly increases the material's ability to resist water absorption, yielding more repeatable combustion performance. This work further quantifies the role of the environment in the decrease of combustion performance of nanocomposites over time. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Photocatalytic Decolorization Study of Methyl Orange by TiO2–Chitosan Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Fajriati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange (MO by TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite has been studied. This study was started by synthesizing TiO2-chitosan nanocomposites using sol-gel method with various concentrations of Titanium(IV isopropoxide (TTIP as the TiO2 precursor. The structure, surface morphology, thermal and optical property of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infra red (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and diffuse reflectance ultra violet (DRUV spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange as a model pollutant. The results indicate that the particle size of TiO2 increases with increasing ofthe concentration of TTIP, in which TiO2 with smallest particle size exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity. The highest photocatalytic decolorization was obtained at 5 h of contact time, initial concentration of MO at 20 ppm and at solution pH of 4. Using these conditions, over 90% of MO was able to be decolorized using 0.02 g of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite under UV light irradiation. The TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite could be reused, which meant that the TiO2-chitosan nanocomposites can be developed as an effective and economical photocatalyst to decolorize or treat dye in wastewater.

  12. Analysis of Gas Permeability Characteristics of Poly(Lactic Acid/Poly(Butylene Succinate Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas permeability and morphological properties of nanocomposites prepared by the mixing of poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(butylene succinate (PBS, and clay was investigated. While the composition of PLA and PBS polymers was fixed as 80% and 20% by weight, respectively, for all the nanocomposites, clay contents varied from 1 to 10 wt%. From the morphological studies using both wide angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, the nanocomposite having 1 wt% of clay was considered to have a mixed morphology of intercalated and delaminated structure, while some clusters or agglomerated particles were detected for nanocomposites having 3 and more than 3 wt% of clay content. However, the average particle size of the dispersed PBS phase was reduced significantly from 7 μm to 30–40 nm with the addition of clay in the blend. The oxygen barrier property was improved significantly as compared to the water vapor. A model based on gas barrier property was used for the validation of the oxygen relative permeabilities of PLA/PBS/clay nanocomposites. PLA/PBS/clay nanocomposites validated the Bharadwaj model up to 3 wt% of clay contents only, while for nanocomposites of higher clay contents the Bharadwaj model was invalid due to the clusters and agglomerates formed.

  13. LIGNOCELLULOSE NANOCOMPOSITE CONTAINING COPPER SULFIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchi Nenkova; Peter Velev; Mirela Dragnevska; Diyana Nikolova; Kiril Dimitrov

    2011-01-01

    Copper sulfide-containing lignocellulose nanocomposites with improved electroconductivity were obtained. Two methods for preparing the copper sulfide lignocellulose nanocomposites were developed. An optimization of the parameters for obtaining of the nanocomposites with respect to obtaining improved electroconductivity, economy, and lower quantities and concentration of copper and sulfur ions in waste waters was conducted. The mechanisms and schemes of delaying and subsequent connection of co...

  14. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine, E-mail: griselda.barrera@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Basso, Nara R.S. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Quijada, Raul [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  15. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine; Basso, Nara R.S.; Quijada, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  16. Plasmonic, excitonic and exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bityurin, N.; Ermolaev, N.; Smirnov, A. A.; Afanasiev, A.; Agareva, N.; Koryukina, T.; Bredikhin, V.; Kamensky, V.; Pikulin, A.; Sapogova, N.

    2016-03-01

    UV irradiation of materials consisting of a polymer matrix that possesses precursors of different kinds can result in creation of nanoparticles within the irradiated domains. Such photoinduced nanocomposites are promising for photonic applications due to the strong alteration of their optical properties compared to initial non-irradiated materials. We report our results on the synthesis and investigation of plasmonic, excitonic and exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposites. Plasmonic nanocomposites contain metal nanoparticles of noble metals with a pronounced plasmon resonance. Excitonic nanocomposites possess semiconductor nanoclusters (quantum dots). We consider the CdS-Au pair because the luminescent band of CdS nanoparticles enters the plasmon resonance band of gold nanoparticles. The obtaining of such particles within the same composite materials is promising for the creation of media with exciton-plasmon resonance. We demonstrate that it is possible to choose appropriate precursor species to obtain the initially transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films containing both types of these molecules either separately or together. Proper irradiation of these materials by a light-emitting diode operating at the wavelength of 365 nm provides material alteration demonstrating light-induced optical absorption and photoluminescent properties typical for the corresponding nanoparticles. Thus, an exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposite is obtained. It is important that here we use the precursors that are different from those usually employed.

  17. Synthesis of PbS/poly (vinyl-pyrrolidone) nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Jayesh D.; Chaudhuri, Tapas K.

    2009-01-01

    A simple solution growth method for synthesis of nanocomposite of PbS nanoparticles in poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) (PVP) polymer is described. The nanocomposite is prepared from methanolic solution of lead acetate (PbAc), thiourea (TU) and PVP at room temperature (∼27 deg. C). Optical absorption spectrum of PbS/PVP nanocomposite solution shows strong absorption from 300 to 650 nm with significant bands at 400 and 590 nm which is characteristic of nanoscale PbS. Spin-coated nanocomposite films on glass have an absorption edge at ∼650 nm with band gap of 2.55 eV. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of PbS/PVP nanocomposite and PVP shows strong chemical bond between PbS nanoparticles and host PVP polymer. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) images reveal that 5-10 nm PbS particles are evenly embedded in PVP polymer. The formation of PbS is confirmed by selective area electron diffraction (SAED) of a typical nanoparticle.

  18. Smart Nacre-inspired Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jingsong; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2018-03-15

    Nacre-inspired nanocomposites with excellent mechanical properties have achieved remarkable attention in the past decades. The high performance of nacre-inspired nanocomposites is a good basis for the further application of smart devices. Recently, some smart nanocomposites inspired by nacre have demonstrated good mechanical properties as well as effective and stable stimuli-responsive functions. In this Concept, we summarize the recent development of smart nacre-inspired nanocomposites, including 1D fibers, 2D films and 3D bulk nanocomposites, in response to temperature, moisture, light, strain, and so on. We show that diverse smart nanocomposites could be designed by combining various conventional fabrication methods of nacre-inspired nanocomposites with responsive building blocks and interface interactions. The nacre-inspired strategy is versatile for different kinds of smart nanocomposites in extensive applications, such as strain sensors, displays, artificial muscles, robotics, and so on, and may act as an effective roadmap for designing smart nanocomposites in the future. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Life-time of the bound layer in nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Jestin, Jacques; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that an effectively irreversibly adsorbed monolayer of polymer forms when a polymer melt is intimately mixed with nanoparticles, in the limit where their enthalpic interactions are favorable. This bound layer has been postulated as being a central player in many of the highly favorable properties that result from polymer based nanocomposite materials. We investigated well-defined nanocomposites formed with different combinations of deuterated and hydrogenated polymers (P2VP and PMMA) and silica nanoparticles. SANS, in conjunction with contrast variation, then provides a direct means of probing the structure of the bound layer as a core-shell and its exchange kinetics with bulk (unbound) chains with annealing time and temperature. SAXS directly provides information on the particle-particle partial structure factor and particle dispersion. Thermodynamic equilibrium of the bound layer is reached around one day at 150 °C while its exchange life time is ~ one hour at 180 °C.

  20. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles for polypropylene nanocomposites applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracho, Diego; Palza, Humberto; Quijada, Raul; Dougnac, Vivianne

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic silica nanospheres of different diameters produced via the sol-gel method were used in order to enhance the barrier properties of the polypropylene-silica nanocomposites. Modification of the silica surface by reaction with organic chlorosilanes was performed in order to improve the particles interaction with the polypropylene matrix and its dispersion. Unmodified and modified silica nanoparticles were characterized using electronic microscopy (TEM), elemental analysis, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Preliminary permeability tests of the polymer-silica nanocomposite films showed no significant change at low particles load (3 wt%) regardless its size or surface functionality, mainly because of the low aspect ratio of the silica nanospheres. However, it is expected that at a higher concentration of silica particles differences will be observed. (author)

  1. The enhanced coercivity for the magnetite/silica nanocomposite at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Mingzai; Xiong Ying; Peng Zhenmeng; Jiang Nan; Qi Haiping; Chen Qianwang

    2004-01-01

    Magnetite/silica nanocomposite was synthesized by a facile solvothermal processing at 150 deg. C for about 10 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the effect of annealing on the crystallinity of silica. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed the good dispersion of magnetite in the silica matrix. Magnetic properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by vibration sample magnetometer (VSM), and the enhanced coercivity was explained by the intrinsic anisotropy of the particles enhanced by the interparticle dipolar fields

  2. Effect of silica concentration on electrical conductivity of epoxy resin-carbon black-silica nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Blackburn, Richard S.; Dehghani-Sanij, Abbas A.

    2007-01-01

    Electrical properties of nanocomposites are determined by the conductive paths of carbon black and influenced by a 'network' of silica. With increasing content of silica, carbon black (CB) particles are optimally dispersed, contributing to the generation of a conductive network between CB particles via direct particle contact and a tunneling effect; maximum conductivity for the epoxy resin-CB-silica nanocomposite described herein occurs at a ratio of 0.6:1.0 (SiO 2 :CB). As a non-conductive component, excessive silica will prevent electron flow, giving rise to low conductivity

  3. Effect of Sonification Time on Synthesisi and Corrosion Resistance of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Bahrami Panah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years many research works have been carried out on anti-corrosive nanocomposites coatings containing mineral reinforcements. The most important criteria in these attempts are polymerization method and the type of matrix and reinforcement of nanocomposites. In this regard, the physical and mechanical properties of the polymers in which a small amount of filler is used can be improved. In this research, an epoxy-clay nanocomposite was synthesized by in-situ polymerization method using a resin matrix based on bisphenol-A type epoxy and montmorillonite clay (Closite 15A. The treatment was used at different ultrasonic stirring times to disperse 1-4 weight percentages of clay particles into the matrix. The structure of synthesized epoxy-clay nanocomposite was studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The average size of clay particles was determined by X-ray diffraction measurement. Then, anti-corrosion properties of epoxy-clay coatings, prepared under different ultrasonic durations and applied on carbon steel panels, were investigated by Tafel and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. For this purpose, the carbon steel panels coated with these coatings were immersed in 3.5% sodium chloride solution and tested at different immersion times. The results indicated that a nanocomposite containing 1% clay, synthesized, stirred 60 min ultrasonically, produced smaller particle size, lower corrosion current density and higher coating corrosion resistance than the other composite formulations. This nanocomposite provided superior protection against corrosion in sodium chloride solution.

  4. (BS-Mn) nanocomposite

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamboo supported manganese (BS-Mn) nanocomposite was prepared in a single pot system via bottom-up approach using a chemical reduction method. Langmuir surface area, BET surface area, and Single pore surface area were 349.70 m2/g, 218.90 m2/g, and 213.50 m2/g, respectively. The pore size (24.34 Ȧ); pore ...

  5. Synthesis of antimicrobial silver/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhavan, A.; Sheikh, N.; Khoylou, F.; Naimian, F.; Ataeivarjovi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized through γ-irradiation reduction of silver ions into hydroxyapatite as a solid support. The formation of AgNPs incorporated in the hydroxyapatite composite was studied as a function of γ-irradiation doses. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements showed the fabrication of face-centered cubic AgNPs with a mean diameter of about 39 nm at 20 kGy absorbed dose. When the absorbed dose increases from 20 to 40 kGy the size of AgNPs particles partially increases, while with increasing absorbed dose from 40 to 60 kGy the particle diameters decreases. In addition, the results of XRD analysis indicated that increasing of γ-irradiation doses from 20 to 40 kGy enhances the concentration of AgNPs, without inducing significant changes in degree of HA crystallinity. The antibacterial test study of samples against Escherichia coli indicated a significant enhancement in the antibacterial property of Ag/HA nanocomposites. - Highlights: • Silver/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites are synthesized through γ-irradiation method. • Ag/HA nanocomposites have good antibacterial properties. • Fabricated pure nanocomposites are suitable for medical and dental applications

  6. Fabrication and characterization of TiO2-epoxy nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Amit; Islam, Muhammad S.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study has been conducted to investigate the matrix properties by introducing nanosize TiO 2 (5-40 nm, 0.5-2% by weight) fillers into an epoxy resin. Ultrasonic mixing process, via sonic cavitations, was employed to disperse the particles into the resin system. The thermal, mechanical, morphology and the viscoelastic properties of the nanocomposite and the neat resin were measured with TGA, DMA, TEM and Instron. The nano-particles are dispersed evenly throughout the entire volume of the resin. The nanofiller infusion improves the thermal, mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the epoxy resin. The nanocomposite shows increase in storage modulus, glass transition temperature, tensile modulus, flexural modulus and short beam shear strength from neat epoxy resin. The mechanical performance and thermal stability of the epoxy nanocomposites are depending on with the dispersion state of the TiO 2 in the epoxy matrix and are correlated with loading (0.0015-0.006% by volume). In addition, the nanocomposite shows enhanced flexural strength. Several reasons to explain these effects in terms of reinforcing mechanisms were discussed

  7. Clarification of olive mill and winery wastewater by means of clay-polymer nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rytwo, Giora, E-mail: rytwo@telhai.ac.il [Tel Hai College, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Upper Galilee 12210 (Israel); Environmental Physical Chemistry Laboratory, MIGAL, Galilee Technological Center, Kiryat Shmona (Israel); Lavi, Roy; Rytwo, Yuval; Monchase, Hila [Environmental Physical Chemistry Laboratory, MIGAL, Galilee Technological Center, Kiryat Shmona (Israel); Dultz, Stefan [Institute of Soil Science, Leibniz University Hannover, Herrenhaeuser Str. 2, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Koenig, Tom N. [Environmental Physical Chemistry Laboratory, MIGAL, Galilee Technological Center, Kiryat Shmona (Israel)

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted effluents from olive mills and wineries, among others, are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants due to the large amounts of organic and suspended matter. Efficiency of all management practices for such effluents depends on an effective pretreatment that lowers the amount of suspended solids. Such pretreatments are usually based on three separate stages, taking a total of 2 to 6 h: coagulation-neutralizing the colloids, flocculation-aggregating the colloids into larger particles, and separation via filtration or decanting. Previous studies have presented the concept of coagoflocculation based on the use of clay-polymer nanocomposites. This process adds a higher density clay particle to the flocs, accelerating the process to between 15 and 60 min. This study examined suitable nanocomposites based on different clays and polymers. The charge of the compounds increased proportionally to the polymer-to-clay ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that in sepiolite-based nanocomposites there is no change in the structure of the mineral, whereas in smectite-based nanocomposites, the polymer intercalates between the clay layers and increases the spacing depending on the polymer-to-clay ratio. Efficiency of the coagoflocculation process was studied with a dispersion analyzer. Sequential addition of olive mill or winery effluents with a boosting dose of nanocomposites may yield a very efficient and rapid clarification pretreatment. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposites yielded clarification of olive mill (OMW) and winery effluents (WW). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In smectite based nanocomposites intercalation of the polymer was measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In sepiolite based nanocomposites no changes in the spacing were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Colloidal neutralization is the main clarification process in WW but not in OMW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several cycles of

  8. Clarification of olive mill and winery wastewater by means of clay–polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytwo, Giora; Lavi, Roy; Rytwo, Yuval; Monchase, Hila; Dultz, Stefan; König, Tom N.

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted effluents from olive mills and wineries, among others, are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants due to the large amounts of organic and suspended matter. Efficiency of all management practices for such effluents depends on an effective pretreatment that lowers the amount of suspended solids. Such pretreatments are usually based on three separate stages, taking a total of 2 to 6 h: coagulation—neutralizing the colloids, flocculation—aggregating the colloids into larger particles, and separation via filtration or decanting. Previous studies have presented the concept of coagoflocculation based on the use of clay–polymer nanocomposites. This process adds a higher density clay particle to the flocs, accelerating the process to between 15 and 60 min. This study examined suitable nanocomposites based on different clays and polymers. The charge of the compounds increased proportionally to the polymer-to-clay ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that in sepiolite-based nanocomposites there is no change in the structure of the mineral, whereas in smectite-based nanocomposites, the polymer intercalates between the clay layers and increases the spacing depending on the polymer-to-clay ratio. Efficiency of the coagoflocculation process was studied with a dispersion analyzer. Sequential addition of olive mill or winery effluents with a boosting dose of nanocomposites may yield a very efficient and rapid clarification pretreatment. Highlights: ► Nanocomposites yielded clarification of olive mill (OMW) and winery effluents (WW). ► In smectite based nanocomposites intercalation of the polymer was measured. ► In sepiolite based nanocomposites no changes in the spacing were observed. ► Colloidal neutralization is the main clarification process in WW but not in OMW. ► Several cycles of effluents might be added to an initial dose of nanocomposites.

  9. Multilayer graphene rubber nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Bernhard; Frasca, Daniele; Schulze, Dietmar; Wachtendorf, Volker; Krafft, Bernd; Morys, Michael; Böhning, Martin; Rybak, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Multilayer Graphene (MLG), a nanoparticle with a specific surface of BET = 250 m2/g and thus made of only approximately 10 graphene sheets, is proposed as a nanofiller for rubbers. When homogenously dispersed, it works at low loadings enabling the replacement of carbon black (CB), increase in efficiency, or reduction in filler concentration. Actually the appropriate preparation yielded nanocomposites in which just 3 phr are sufficient to significantly improve the rheological, curing and mechanical properties of different rubbers, as shown for Chlorine-Isobutylene-Isoprene Rubber (CIIR), Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Natural Rubber (NR), and Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR). A mere 3 phr of MLG tripled the Young's modulus of CIIR, an effect equivalent to 20 phr of carbon black. Similar equivalents are observed for MLG/CB mixtures. MLG reduces gas permeability, increases thermal and electrical conductivities, and retards fire behavior. The later shown by the reduction in heat release rate in the cone calorimeter. The higher the nanofiller concentration is (3 phr, 5 phr, and 10 phr was investigated), the greater the improvement in the properties of the nanocomposites. Moreover, the MLG nanocomposites improve stability of mechanical properties against weathering. An increase in UV-absorption as well as a pronounced radical scavenging are proposed and were proved experimentally. To sum up, MLG is interesting as a multifunctional nanofiller and seems to be quite ready for rubber development.

  10. Multifunctional Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaska, Alexandra Maria; Song, Haixiang; Guo, Zhanhu

    With more awareness of energy conversion/storage and saving, different strategies have been developed to utilize the sustainable and renewable energy. Introducing nanoscale fillers can make inert polymer matrix possess unique properties to satisfy certain functions. For example, alumina nanoparticles have strengthened the weak thermosetting polymers. A combined mixture of carbon nanofibers and magnetite nanoparticles have made the inert epoxy sensitive for magnetic field for sensing applications. Introducing silica nanoparticles into conductive polymers such as polyaniline has enhanced the giant magnetoresistance behaviors. The introduced nanoparticles have made the transparent polymer have the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding function while reduce the density significantly. With the desired miniaturization, the materials combining different functionalities have become importantly interesting. In this talk, methodologies to prepare nanocomposites and their effects on the produced nanocomposites will be discussed. A variety of advanced polymer nanocomposites will be introduced. Unique properties including mechanical, electrical, magnetoresistance etc. and the applications for environmental remediation, energy storage/saving, fire retardancy, electromagnetic interference shielding, and electronic devices will be presented.

  11. The formation of hollow poly(methyl methacrylate)/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite cylinders by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huan; Hu Xijun; Ka Ming Ng; Feng Jiyun

    2009-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposite particles with 1, 2 and 4 wt% of MWCNTs were prepared by mechanical grinding of PMMA and MWCNT powders in a mortar at room temperature. Both scanning electron microscopy and Raman scattering characterizations revealed that these nanocomposite particles consist of a PMMA core and a MWCNT shell. The PMMA/MWCNT nanocomposite particles were used to fabricate the corresponding nanocomposites in the form of a hollow cylinder with various diameters and heights under 700 W microwave irradiation within 1 min. A mechanism for the fast microwave assisted forming process is proposed. These experimental results may lead to a new technology for forming hollow polymeric articles that is different from the conventional injection and blowing process.

  12. Comparative study on the mechanical and microstructural characterisation of AA 7075 nano and hybrid nanocomposites produced by stir and squeeze casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, C; Ramanujam, R

    2017-07-01

    In this research work, a comparative evaluation on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of aluminium based single and hybrid reinforced nanocomposites was carried out. The manufacture of a single reinforced nanocomposite was conducted with the distribution of 2 wt.% nano alumina particles (avg. particle size 30-50 nm) in the molten aluminium alloy of grade AA 7075; while the hybrid reinforced nanocomposites were produced with of 4 wt.% silicon carbide (avg. particle size 5-10 µm) and 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% nano alumina particles. Three numbers of single reinforced nanocomposites were manufactured through stir casting with reinforcements preheated to different temperatures viz. 400 °C, 500 °C, and 600 °C. The stir cast procedure was extended to fabricate two hybrid reinforced nanocomposites with reinforcements preheated to 500 °C prior to their inclusion. A single reinforced nanocomposite was also developed by squeeze casting with a pressure of 101 MPa. Mechanical and physical properties such as density, hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and impact strength were evaluated on all the developed composites. The microstructural observation was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. On comparison with base alloy, an improvement of 63.7% and 81.1% in brinell hardness was observed for single and hybrid reinforced nanocomposites respectively. About 16% higher ultimate tensile strength was noticed with the squeeze cast single reinforced nanocomposite over the stir cast.

  13. Facile synthesis of pristine graphene-palladium nanocomposites with extraordinary catalytic activities using swollen liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, T.; Dutt, S.; Kumar, R.; Siril, P. F.

    2016-09-01

    Amazing conductivity, perfect honeycomb sp2 arrangement and the high theoretical surface area make pristine graphene as one of the best materials suited for application as catalyst supports. Unfortunately, the low reactivity of the material makes the formation of nanocomposite with inorganic materials difficult. Here we report an easy approach to synthesize nanocomposites of pristine graphene with palladium (Pd-G) using swollen liquid crystals (SLCs) as a soft template. The SLC template gives the control to deposit very small Pd particles of uniform size on G as well as RGO. The synthesized nanocomposite (Pd-G) exhibited exceptionally better catalytic activity compared with Pd-RGO nanocomposite in the hydrogenation of nitrophenols and microwave assisted C-C coupling reactions. The catalytic activity of Pd-G nanocomposite during nitrophenol reduction reaction was sixteen times higher than Pd nanoparticles and more than double than Pd-RGO nanocomposite. The exceptionally high activity of pristine graphene supported catalysts in the organic reactions is explained on the basis of its better pi interacting property compared to partially reduced RGO. The Pd-G nanocomposite showed exceptional stability under the reaction conditions as it could be recycled upto a minimum of 15 cycles for the C-C coupling reactions without any loss in activity.

  14. Poly (Lactic Acid)/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite Films: Effect of Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadbin, S.; Naimian, F.; Akhavan, A.; Hasanpoor, S., E-mail: sdadbin@yahoo.com, E-mail: sdadbin@aeoi.org.ir [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box 11365-8486, Tehran, North Kargar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Poly (Lactic acid) –layered silicate nanocomposite films were prepared by solution casting method. The films were irradiated with Co{sup 60} radiation facility at dose of 30 kGy. The effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical properties of the neat PLA and nanocomposites was evaluated by data obtained from tensile testing measurements. The tensile strength of the irradiated PLA films increased with addition of 1 wt% Triallyl Cyanurate (TAC) indicating crosslink formation. Significant ductile behavior was observed in the PLA nanocomposites containing 4 pph of nanoclay. Incorporation of nanoclay particles in the PLA matrix stimulated crystal growth as it was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The morphology of the nanocomposites characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X- ray diffraction (XRD) revealed an exfoliated morphology in the PLA nanocomposite films containing 4 pph of nanoclay. Only very small changes were observed in the chemical structure of the irradiated samples as it was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Enzymatic degradation rate of PLA and its nanocomposite decreased with increasing crystallinity of the samples. The rate of weight loss was also affected by the morphology of the nanocomposites. (author)

  15. Effect of nanocomposite gate-dielectric properties on pentacene microstructure and field-effect transistor characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Hsi; Wang, Chun-Chieh

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the effect of surface energy and roughness of the nanocomposite gate dielectric on pentacene morphology and electrical properties of pentacene OTFT are reported. Nanoparticles TiO2 were added in the polyimide matrix to form a nanocomposite which has a significantly different surface characteristic from polyimide, leading to a discrepancy in the structural properties of pentacene growth. A growth mode of pentacene deposited on the nanocomposite is proposed to explain successfully the effect of surface properties of nanocomposite gate dielectric such as surface energy and roughness on the pentacene morphology and electrical properties of OTFT. To obtain the lower surface energy and smoother surface of nanocomposite gate dielectric that is responsible for the desired crystalline, microstructure of pentacene and electrical properties of device, a bottom contact OTFT-pentacene deposited on the double-layer nanocomposite gate dielectric consisting of top smoothing layer of the neat polyimide and bottom layer of (PI+ nano-TiO2 particles) nanocomposite has been successfully demonstrated to exhibit very promising performance including high current on to off ratio of about 6 x 10(5), threshold voltage of -10 V and moderately high filed mobility of 0.15 cm2V(-1)s(-1).

  16. Poly (Lactic Acid)/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite Films: Effect of Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadbin, S.; Naimian, F.; Akhavan, A.; Hasanpoor, S.

    2010-01-01

    Poly (Lactic acid) –layered silicate nanocomposite films were prepared by solution casting method. The films were irradiated with Co 60 radiation facility at dose of 30 kGy. The effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical properties of the neat PLA and nanocomposites was evaluated by data obtained from tensile testing measurements. The tensile strength of the irradiated PLA films increased with addition of 1 wt% Triallyl Cyanurate (TAC) indicating crosslink formation. Significant ductile behavior was observed in the PLA nanocomposites containing 4 pph of nanoclay. Incorporation of nanoclay particles in the PLA matrix stimulated crystal growth as it was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The morphology of the nanocomposites characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X- ray diffraction (XRD) revealed an exfoliated morphology in the PLA nanocomposite films containing 4 pph of nanoclay. Only very small changes were observed in the chemical structure of the irradiated samples as it was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Enzymatic degradation rate of PLA and its nanocomposite decreased with increasing crystallinity of the samples. The rate of weight loss was also affected by the morphology of the nanocomposites. (author)

  17. Synthesis and characterization of optically transparent epoxy matrix nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito Corcione, C.; Manera, M.G.; Maffezzoli, A.; Rella, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work optically transparent nanocomposites were prepared and characterized from an optical and morphological point of view. An organically modified boehmite was added at different concentrations in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy matrix, hardened with a polyether diamine. Nanocomposites were characterized structurally by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optically by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometry and their morphology was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Morphological investigation reveals the presence of boehmite particles dispersed in the epoxy matrix in different dimensions ranging from ten to hundreds of nanometers; some aggregation in the particles is the tendency noticed in the AFM images. The acquisition of multiple AFM images in different areas of the sample was used for a statistical analysis of the volumetric distribution of boehmite aggregates. The obtained result, (3.6 ± 0.3)%vol, is well comparable to thermogravimetric analysis.

  18. A comparison study of polymer/cobalt ferrite nano-composites synthesized by mechanical alloying route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Rashidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of different biopolymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG and polyvinylalcohol (PVA on synthesis and characterization of polymer/cobalt ferrite (CF nano-composites bymechanical alloying method has been systematically investigated. The structural, morphological andmagnetic properties changes during mechanical milling were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, fieldemission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques(VSM, respectively. The polymeric cobalt ferrite nano-composites were obtained by employing atwo-step procedure: the cobalt ferrite of 20 nm mean particle size was first synthesized by mechanicalalloying route and then was embedded in PEG or PVA biopolymer matrix by milling process. Theresults revealed that PEG melted due to the local temperature raise during milling. Despite thisphenomenon, cobalt ferrite nano-particles were entirely embedded in PEG matrix. It seems, PAV is anappropriate candidate for producing nano-composite samples due to its high melting point. InPVA/CF nano-composites, the mean crystallite size and milling induced strain decreased to 13 nm and0.48, respectively. Moreover, milling process resulted in well distribution of CF in PVA matrix eventhough the mean particle size of cobalt ferrite has not been significantly affecetd. FTIR resultconfirmed the attachment of PVA to the surface of nano-particles. Magnetic properties evaluationshowed that saturation magnetization and coercivity values decreased in nano-composite samplecomparing the pure cobalt ferrite.

  19. An introduction to polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the formulation, characterization and range of applications for polymer nanocomposites. After explaining how material properties at the nanometre scale can vary compared to those observed at longer length scales, typical methods used to formulate and characterize nanocomposites at laboratory and industrial scale will be described. The range of mechanical, electrical and thermal properties obtainable from nanocomposite materials, with examples of current commercial applications, will be outlined. Formulation and characterization of nanoparticle, nanotube and graphene composites will be discussed by reference to nanoclay-based composites, as the latter are presently of most technological relevance. Three brief case studies are presented to demonstrate how structure/property relationships may be controlled in a variety of polymer nanocomposite systems to achieve required performance in a given application. The review will conclude by discussing potential obstacles to commercial uptake of polymer nanocomposites, such as inconsistent protocols to characterize nanocomposites, cost/performance balances, raw material availability, and emerging legislation, and will conclude by discussing the outlook for future development and commercial uptake of polymer nanocomposites. (review)

  20. Nickel–carbon nanocomposites: Synthesis, structural changes and strengthening mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, D.; Vilarigues, M.; Correia, J.B.; Carvalho, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates Ni–nanodiamond and Ni–graphite composites produced by mechanical synthesis and subsequent heat treatments. Processing of nickel–carbon nanocomposites by this powder metallurgy route poses specific challenges, as carbon phases are prone to carbide conversion and amorphization. The processing window for carbide prevention has been established through X-ray diffraction by a systematic variation of the milling parameters. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the absence of carbide and showed homogeneous particle distributions, as well as intimate bonding between the metallic matrix and the carbon phases. Ring diffraction patterns of chemically extracted carbon phases demonstrated that milled nanodiamond preserved crystallinity, while an essentially amorphous nature could be inferred for milled graphite. Raman spectra confirmed that nanodiamond particles remained largely unaffected by mechanical synthesis, whereas the bands of milled graphite were significantly changed into the typical amorphous carbon fingerprint. The results on the annealed nanocomposites showed that milling with Ni accelerated graphitization of the carbon phases during heat treatments at 973 and 1073 K in both composites. At the finer scales, the nanocomposites exhibited a remarkable microhardness enhancement (∼70%) compared with pure nanostructured nickel. The Hall–Petch relation and the Orowan–Ashby equation are used to discuss strengthening mechanisms and the load transfer ability to the reinforcing particles.

  1. Polyacrolein/mesoporous silica nanocomposite: Synthesis, thermal stability and covalent lipase immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motevalizadeh, Seyed Farshad; Khoobi, Mehdi; Shabanian, Meisam [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadgol, Zahra; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451, Tehran 14176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shafiee, Abbas, E-mail: ashafiee@ams.ac.ir [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence in Biothermodynamics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-16

    In this work, new polyacrolein/MCM-41 nanocomposites with good phase mixing behavior were prepared through an emulsion polymerization technique. Mesoporous silica was synthesized by in situ assembly of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The structure and properties of polyacrolein containing nanosized MCM-41 particle (5 and 10 wt%), were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption techniques, and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses. The SEM images from the final powder have revealed good dispersion of the MCM-41 nanoparticles throughout polymeric matrix with no distinct voids between two phases. The results indicated that the thermal properties of the nanocomposite were enhanced by addition of MCM-41. Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase (TLL) was used as a model biocatalyst and successfully immobilized with polyacrolein and the nanocomposite via covalent bonds with the aldehyde groups. The activity between free enzyme, polyacrolein, and MCM-41 nanocomposite (10 wt%)-immobilized TLL was compared. The immobilized lipase with the nanocomposite shows better operational stability such as pH tolerance, thermal and storage stability. In addition, the immobilized lipase with the nanocomposite can be easily recovered and retained at 74% of its initial activity after 15 time reuses. - Graphical abstract: The influence of incorporation of mesoporous MCM-41 nanoparticle with polyacrolein on the thermal properties and enzyme immobilization was investigated. - Highlights: • Polyacrolein/MCM-41 nanocomposites were prepared by emulsion polymerization method. • Thermal stability and char residues in nanocomposites were improved. • Nanocomposites significant effects on immobilization of lipase.

  2. Electrochemical synthesis, in situ spectroelectrochemistry of conducting indole-titanium dioxide and zinc oxide polymer nanocomposites for rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvin, Mohammad Hadi; Pirnia, Mahsa; Arjomandi, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two novel hybrid materials-based conducting PIn rechargeable batteries were developed. • The charge-discharging behavior of PIn-nanocomposite batteries were studied. • The characterization of samples has been done by in situ spectroelectrochemical method. • PIn-TiO 2 and ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized electrochemically on Au and ITO. • The PIn-TiO 2 and ZnO nanocomposites resistances were less than PIn. - Abstract: Electrochemical synthesis, in situ spectroelectrochemistry of conducting polyindole (PIn), polyindole-TiO 2 (PIn-TiO 2 ) and polyindole-ZnO (PIn-ZnO) nanocomposites were investigated. The PIn and polymer nanocomposites were tested electrochemically for rechargeable batteries. The films were characterized by means of CVs, in situ UV-visible, FT-IR spectroscopies, in situ resistivity measurements, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The charge-discharging behavior of a Zn/1 M ZnSO 4 /PIn cell with a capacity of around 90 Ah Kg −1 and on open circuit potential of around 1.45 V was compared with Zn/1 M ZnSO 4 /PIn-nanocomposite. The potential differences of redox couples (ΔE) for nanocomposites films show very good reversibility. A positive shift of potential was observed for polymer nanocomposites during redox scan. A significant variability was observed for in situ conductivity of the PIn and polymer nanocomposites. During in situ UV-visible and FT-IR measurements, intermediate spectroscopic behavior and positive shifts of wavelengths were observed for PIn and polymer nanocomposites. The SEM, TEM and EDX of nanocomposite films show the presence of nano particle in PIn.

  3. Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Nano-composite PMMA: TiO2 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyly Nyl Ismail; Ahmad Fairoz Aziz; Habibah Zulkefle

    2011-01-01

    There are two nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 solutions were prepared in this research. First solution is nano-composite PMMA commercially available TiO 2 nanopowder and the second solution is nano-composite PMMA with self-prepared TiO 2 powder. The self-prepared TiO 2 powder is obtained by preparing the TiO 2 sol-gel. Solvo thermal method were used to dry the TiO 2 sol-gel and obtained TiO 2 crystal. Ball millers were used to grind the TiO 2 crystal in order to obtained nano sized powder. Triton-X was used as surfactant to stabilizer the composite between PMMA: TiO 2 . Besides comparing the nano-composite solution, we also studied the effect of the thin films thickness on the optical properties and surface morphology of the thin films. The thin films were deposited by sol-gel spin coating method on glass substrates. The optical properties and surface characterization were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer equipment and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The result showed that nano-composite PMMA with self prepared TiO 2 give high optical transparency than nano-composite PMMA with commercially available TiO 2 nano powder. The results also indicate as the thickness is increased the optical transparency are decreased. Both AFM images showed that the agglomerations of TiO 2 particles are occurred on the thin films and the surface roughness is increased when the thickness is increased. High agglomeration particles exist in the AFM images for nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 with TiO 2 nano powder compare to the other nano-composite solution. (author)

  4. Pulse electrodeposition of self-lubricating Ni–W/PTFE nanocomposite coatings on mild steel surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangeetha, S. [Advanced Nanocomposite Coatings Laboratory, Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Kalaignan, G. Paruthimal, E-mail: pkalaignan@yahoo.com [Advanced Nanocomposite Coatings Laboratory, Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Anthuvan, J. Tennis [M. Kumarasamy College of Engineering, Karur, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PTFE polymer inclusion on Ni–W alloy matrix was electrodeposited by pulse current method. • Tribological properties and electrochemical characterizations of the nanocomposite coatings were analyzed. • The hydrophobic behaviour of Ni–W/PTFE nanocomposite coating was measured. • Ni–W/PTFE nanocomposite coatings have showed superior tribological properties and corrosion resistance relative to that of the Ni–W alloy matrix. - Abstract: Ni–W/PTFE nanocomposite coatings with various contents of PTFE (polytetafluoroethylene) particles were prepared by pulse current (PC) electrodeposition from the Ni–W plating bath containing self lubricant PTFE particles to be co-deposited. Co-deposited PTFE particulates were uniformly distributed in the Ni–W alloy matrix. The coatings were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Vicker's micro hardness tester. Tafel Polarization and electrochemical Impedance methods were used to evaluate the corrosion resistance behaviour of the nanocomposite coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution. It was found that, the Ni–W/PTFE nanocomposite coating has better corrosion resistance than the Ni–W alloy coating. Surface roughness and friction coefficient of the coated samples were assessed by Mitutoyo Surftest SJ-310 (ISO1997) and Scratch tester TR-101-M4 respectively. The contact angle (CA) of a water droplet on the surface of nanocomposite coating was measured by Optical Contact Goniometry (OCA 35). These results indicated that, the addition of PTFE in the Ni–W alloy matrix has resulted moderate microhardness, smooth surface, less friction coefficient, excellent water repellency and enhanced corrosion resistance of the nanocomposite coatings.

  5. Tribological properties of nanosized calcium carbonate filled polyamide 66 nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, Kaito [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 Japan (Japan); Nishitani, Yosuke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192-0015 Japan (Japan); Kitano, Takeshi [Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, T.G.M. 275, Zlin, 767 72 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Eguchi, Kenichiro [Shiraishi Central Laboratories, 4-78 Motohama,Amagasaki,Hyogo,660-0085 Japan (Japan)

    2016-03-09

    For the purpose of developing high performance tribomaterials for mechanical sliding parts such as gears, bearings and so on, nanosized calcium carbonate (nano-CaCO{sub 3}) filled polyamide 66 (PA66) nanocomposites were investigated. The nano-CaCO{sub 3} was a kind of precipitated (colloid typed) CaCO{sub 3}, and its average particle size was 40, 80 and 150 nm. Surface treatment was performed by fatty acid on the nano-CaCO{sub 3} and its volume fraction in the nanocomposite was varied from 1 to 20vol.%. These nanocomposites were melt-mixed by a twin screw extruder and injection-molded. Tribological properties were measured by two types of sliding wear testers such as ring-on-plate type and ball-on-plate type one under dry condition. The counterface, worn surface and wear debris were observed by digital microscope and scanning electron microscope. It was found that the nano-CaCO{sub 3} has a good effect on the tribological properties, although the effect on the frictional coefficient and specific wear rate is differed by the volume fraction and the type of sliding wear modes. This is attributed to the change of wear mechanisms, which is the change of form of the transfer films on the counterface and the size of wear debris. It follows from these results that PA66/nano-CaCO{sub 3} nanocomposites may be possible to be the high performance tribomaterials.

  6. Polymer nanocomposite patterning by dip-pen nanolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandemir, Ayse Cagil; Ma, Huan; Reiser, Alain; Spolenak, Ralph; Erdem, Derya

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this study is to construct polymer nanocomposite patterns by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). Recent investigations have revealed the effect of the amount of ink (Laplace pressure) on the mechanism of liquid ink writing. In this study it is shown that not only the amount of ink, but also physisorption and surface diffusion are relevant. After a few writing steps, physisorption and surface diffusion outweigh the influence of the amount of ink, allowing consistent patterning governed by dwell times and writing speeds. Polymer matrices can be utilized as a delivery medium to deposit functional particles. DPN patterning of polymer nanocomposites allows for local tuning of the functionality and mechanical strength of the written patterns in high resolution, with the benefit of pattern flexibility. Typically polymer matrices with volatile components are used as a delivery medium for nanoparticle deposition, with subsequent removal of loosely bound matrix material by heating or oxygen plasma. In our study, nanocomposite patterns were constructed, and the differences between polymer and nanocomposite patterning were investigated. Cross-sectional SEM and TEM analysis confirmed that nanoparticles can be deposited with the liquid-polymer ink and are evenly distributed in the polymer matrix. (paper)

  7. Environmental Degradation and Durability of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman P. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental investigation reports on the durability of epoxy-clay nanocomposites upon exposure to multiple environments. Nanocomposites are fabricated by mixing the clay particles using various combinations of mechanical mixing, high-shear dispersion, and ultrasonication. Clay morphology is characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Specimens of both neat epoxy and the epoxy-clay nanocomposite are subjected to two environmental conditions: combined UV radiation and condensation on 3-hour repeat cycle and constant temperature-humidity, for a total exposure duration of 4770 hours. The presence of nanoscale clay inhibits moisture uptake, as demonstrated by exposure to constant temperature-humidity. Nonetheless, both materials lose mass under exposure to combined UV radiation and condensation due to the erosion of epoxy by a synergistic process. Surprisingly, the epoxy-clay specimens exhibit greater mass loss, as compared to neat epoxy. Mechanical testing shows that either environment does not significant affect the flexure modulus of either material. On the other hand, both materials undergo degradation in flexural strength when exposed to either environment. However, the epoxy-clay nanocomposite retains 37% more flexure strength than the neat epoxy after 4072 hours of exposure.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline coated gold nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, Siti Nurzulaiha Mohd; Kamarun, Dzaraini; Zaki, Hamizah; Kamarudin, Mohamad Shukri [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Thomas, Sabu; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar [International and Inter University Centre of Nanoscience and Nanotechnoogy, Mahatma Ghandi University, Priyadarsini Hills Kottayam, Kerala India-686560 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Considerable attention has been drawn during the last two decades to prepare nanocomposites consists of conducting polymer and noble metal due to their potential ability to generate a new class of material with novel optical, chemical, electronic or mechanical properties for various applications. In this work, an attempt has been made to synthesize nanocomposite of polyaniline (PANI) coated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) chemically with various types of surfactants such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) which act as stabilizing agents to help in stabilization of the PANI/Gold nanocomposites system. The synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by UV-Visible, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and particle size analyzer (PSA). The formation of finger like structure can be seen in the FESEM images when the AuNPs were incorporated into the polymer matrix. The EDX data showed that 18.66% and 12.67% of AuNPs atoms were present in the composite system thus proved the incorporation of AuNPs into the polymer matrix. A small red shift of the absorption peak in the UV-Vis of both PANI/AuNPs composites system may be due to the incorporation of AuNPs in the PANI matrix.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline coated gold nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, Siti Nurzulaiha Mohd; Kamarun, Dzaraini; Zaki, Hamizah; Kamarudin, Mohamad Shukri; Thomas, Sabu; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention has been drawn during the last two decades to prepare nanocomposites consists of conducting polymer and noble metal due to their potential ability to generate a new class of material with novel optical, chemical, electronic or mechanical properties for various applications. In this work, an attempt has been made to synthesize nanocomposite of polyaniline (PANI) coated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) chemically with various types of surfactants such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) which act as stabilizing agents to help in stabilization of the PANI/Gold nanocomposites system. The synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by UV-Visible, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and particle size analyzer (PSA). The formation of finger like structure can be seen in the FESEM images when the AuNPs were incorporated into the polymer matrix. The EDX data showed that 18.66% and 12.67% of AuNPs atoms were present in the composite system thus proved the incorporation of AuNPs into the polymer matrix. A small red shift of the absorption peak in the UV-Vis of both PANI/AuNPs composites system may be due to the incorporation of AuNPs in the PANI matrix

  10. Structure and performance of ZnO/PVC nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elashmawi, I.S., E-mail: islam_shukri2000@yahoo.co [Spectroscopy department, Physics division, National Research Centre, Dokki (Egypt); Hakeem, N.A. [Spectroscopy department, Physics division, National Research Centre, Dokki (Egypt); Marei, L.K.; Hanna, F.F. [Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt)

    2010-10-01

    ZnO/PVC nanocomposites films have been prepared by the solvent casting method and investigated by various techniques. All results show good dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles in the polymeric matrix. XRD revealed that pure PVC films are partially crystalline with hallow peak but ZnO nanoparticles have wurtzite structure and the nanocomposite films were almost the same as those of ZnO with decrease in the degree of crystallization, causing increase in the amorphous region. FT-IR presented the same spectra for nanocomposites in the wavenumber range 700-3100 cm{sup -1}, weak band located at 500-700 cm{sup -1},which can be attributed to stretching of Zn---O bond and an increase of the bending band of O-H at 1631 cm{sup -1} was observed. The surface of the films was analyzed by SEM, which becomes rough with some small aggregates compared with pure PVC with good distribution in the entire surface region with bright spots. TEM revealed a regular crystalline lattice superimposed on an amorphous background due to carbon support and PVC matrix and the structure of these particles is hexagonal. In addition, the nanocomposites films have higher glass transition temperature, specific heat and thermal stability relative to those of pure PVC because of strong interaction among ZnO nanoparticles and PVC.

  11. Nanocomposite microcapsules from powders of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and smectite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva-Valenzuela, Maria das Gracas da; Wang, Shu Hui; Wiebeck, Helio; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco R.

    2009-01-01

    Drug delivery systems involving microcapsules provide an attractive way to improve the performance of many chemical and biological substances. These systems may be used for several industrial segments, especially medical, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. PHB is a polyhydroxyalkanoate available in powder form, biocompatible, biodegradable and inert towards animal tissues. The obtained PHB/smectite clay nanocomposite improved the physical-chemical properties of PHB, including its biodegradability. In this work, we describe the preparation of microcapsules from two nanocomposites systems: a) PHB and Cloisite 20A organoclay (PHB1) and b) PHB and natural Brazilian green polycationic clay (PHB2). When analyzed by XRD, the films and microcapsules did not show a d (001) peak, demonstrating an exfoliated structure for the nanocomposites. The films have shown by SEM an homogeneous distribution with the clay mineral particles spread homogeneously by the PHB film. The new microcapsules/nanocomposites showed an 'hydrangea' morphology. The diameter of the microcapsules was variable between 0.5-15 μm. (author)

  12. Environmental Degradation and Durability of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.P.; Zunjarrao, S.C.; Pandey, G.; Khait, M.; Korach, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    This experimental investigation reports on the durability of epoxy-clay nanocomposites upon exposure to multiple environments. Nanocomposites are fabricated by mixing the clay particles using various combinations of mechanical mixing, high-shear dispersion, and ultrasonication. Clay morphology is characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Specimens of both neat epoxy and the epoxy-clay nanocomposite are subjected to two environmental conditions: combined UV radiation and condensation on 3-hour repeat cycle and constant temperature-humidity, for a total exposure duration of 4770 hours. The presence of nanoscale clay inhibits moisture uptake, as demonstrated by exposure to constant temperature-humidity. Nonetheless, both materials lose mass under exposure to combined UV radiation and condensation due to the erosion of epoxy by a synergistic process. Surprisingly, the epoxy-clay specimens exhibit greater mass loss, as compared to neat epoxy. Mechanical testing shows that either environment does not significant affect the flexure modulus of either material. On the other hand, both materials undergo degradation in flexural strength when exposed to either environment. However, the epoxy-clay nanocomposite retains 37% more flexure strength than the neat epoxy after 4072 hours of exposure.

  13. Synthesis of malachite@clay nanocomposite for rapid scavenging of cationic and anionic dyes from synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Varsha; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of malachite@clay nanocomposite was successfully carried out for the removal of cationic (Methylene Blue, MB) and anionic dyes (Congo Red, CR) from synthetic wastewater. Nanocomposite was characterized by TEM, SEM, FT-IR, EDS analysis and zeta potential. TEM analysis indicated that the particle diameter of nanocomposite was in the range of 14 to 23nm. Various important parameters viz. contact time, concentration of dyes, nanocomposite dosage, temperature and solution pH were optimized to achieve maximum adsorption capacity. In the case of MB, removal decreased from 99.82% to 93.67% while for CR, removal decreased from 88.55% to 75.69% on increasing dye concentration from 100 to 450mg/L. pH study confirmed the higher removal of CR in acidic range while MB removal was higher in alkaline range. Kinetic study revealed the applicability of pseudo-second-order model for the adsorption of both dyes. Negative values of ΔG 0 for both systems suggested the feasibility of dye removal and support for spontaneous adsorption of CR and MB on nanocomposite. Nanocomposite showed 277.77 and 238.09mg/g Langmuir adsorption capacity for MB and CR respectively. Desorption of dyes from the dye loaded nanocomposite was easily carried out with acetone. The results indicate that the prepared malachite@clay nanocomposite is an efficient adsorbent with high adsorption capacity for the aforementioned dyes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Magnetoelectric Nanocomposites for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Nassar, Mohammed Y.

    2015-01-01

    inside anodic aluminum oxide membranes is discussed. Characterization of electrodeposited iron, nickel and highly magnetostrictive iron-gallium alloy NWs was done using XRD, electron and magnetic force microscopy. Second, different nanocomposite films

  15. Mechanical and Thermal Characterization of Silica Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Anthony Lamar

    Polymer nanocomposites are a class of materials containing nanoparticles with a large interfacial surface area. Only a small quantity of nanoparticles are needed to provide superior multifunctional properties; such as mechanical, thermal, electrical, and moisture absorption properties in polymers. Nanoparticles tend to agglomerate, so special techniques are required for homogeneous distribution. Nanosilica is now readily available as colloidal sols, for example; Nanopox RTM F400 (supplied by Evonik Nanoresins AG, Germany). The nanoparticles are first synthesized from aqueous sodium silicate solution, and then undergo a surface modification process with organosilane and matrix exchange. F400 contains 40%wt silica nanoparticles colloidally dispersed in a DGEBA epoxy resin. The mean particle diameter is about 20 nm with a narrow distribution range of about 5 to 35 nm. The objectives of this study are to develop a reproducible processing method for nanosilica enhanced resin systems used in the manufacturing of fiber reinforced composites that will be characterized for mechanical and thermal properties. Research has concluded that shows improvements in the properties of the matrix material when processed in loading variations of 0 to 25%wt silica nanoparticles. The loadings were also used to manufacture fiberglass reinforced nanocomposite laminates and also tested for mechanical and thermal properties.

  16. Magnetoelectric Nanocomposites for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Nassar, Mohammed Y.

    2015-09-01

    Flexibility, low cost, versatility, miniaturization and multi-functionality are key aspects driving research and innovation in many branches of the electronics industry. With many anticipated emerging applications, like wearable, transparent and biocompatible devices, interest among the research community in pursuit for novel multifunctional miniaturized materials have been amplified. In this context, multiferroic polymer-based nanocomposites, possessing both ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism, are highly appealing. Most importantly, these nanocomposites possess tunable ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties based on the parameters of their constituent materials as well as the magnetoelectric effect, which is the coupling between electric and magnetic properties. This tunability and interaction is a fascinating fundamental research field promising tremendous potential applications in sensors, actuators, data storage and energy harvesting. This dissertation work is devoted to the investigation of a new class of multiferroic polymer-based flexible nanocomposites, which exhibits excellent ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity simultaneously at room temperature, with the goal of understanding and optimizing the origin of their magnetoelectric coupling. The nanocomposites consist of high aspect ratio ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) embedded inside a ferroelectric co-polymer, poly(vinylindene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE) matrix. First, electrochemical deposition of ferromagnetic NWs inside anodic aluminum oxide membranes is discussed. Characterization of electrodeposited iron, nickel and highly magnetostrictive iron-gallium alloy NWs was done using XRD, electron and magnetic force microscopy. Second, different nanocomposite films have been fabricated by means of spin coating and drop casting techniques. The effect of incorporation of NWs inside the ferroelectric polymer on its electroactive phase is discussed. The remanent and saturation polarization as well

  17. Fabrication and magnetic properties of granular Co/porous InP nanocomposite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel Co/InP magnetic semiconductor nanocomposite was fabricated by electrodeposition magnetic Co nanoparticles into n-type porous InP templates in ethanol solution of cobalt chloride. The content or particle size of Co particles embedded in porous InP increased with increasing deposition time. Co particles had uniform distribution over pore sidewall surface of InP template, which was different from that of ceramic template and may open up new branch of fabrication of nanocomposites. The magnetism of such Co/InP nanocomposites can be gradually tuned from diamagnetism to ferromagnetism by increasing the deposition time of Co. Magnetic anisotropy of this Co/InP nanocomposite with magnetization easy axis along the axis of InP square channel was well realized by the competition between shape anisotropy and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Such Co/InP nanocomposites with adjustable magnetism may have potential applications in future in the field of spin electronics. PACS: 61.46. +w · 72.80.Tm · 81.05.Rm · 75.75. +a · 82.45.Aa

  18. Fabrication and magnetic properties of granular Co/porous InP nanocomposite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Cheng, Dandan; Zheng, Maojun; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2011-03-31

    A novel Co/InP magnetic semiconductor nanocomposite was fabricated by electrodeposition magnetic Co nanoparticles into n-type porous InP templates in ethanol solution of cobalt chloride. The content or particle size of Co particles embedded in porous InP increased with increasing deposition time. Co particles had uniform distribution over pore sidewall surface of InP template, which was different from that of ceramic template and may open up new branch of fabrication of nanocomposites. The magnetism of such Co/InP nanocomposites can be gradually tuned from diamagnetism to ferromagnetism by increasing the deposition time of Co. Magnetic anisotropy of this Co/InP nanocomposite with magnetization easy axis along the axis of InP square channel was well realized by the competition between shape anisotropy and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Such Co/InP nanocomposites with adjustable magnetism may have potential applications in future in the field of spin electronics.PACS: 61.46. +w · 72.80.Tm · 81.05.Rm · 75.75. +a · 82.45.Aa.

  19. Effect of lignin content on a GH11 endoxylanase acting on glucuronoarabinoxylan-lignin nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukari, Imen; Rémond, Caroline; O'Donohue, Michael; Chabbert, Brigitte

    2012-06-20

    The effects of lignin content on the activity and action pattern of GH11 endoxylanase from Thermobacillus xylanilyticus were investigated using in vitro reconstituted non-covalent glucuronoarabinoxylan-model lignin (GAX-DHP) nanocomposites. Four types of nanocomposites were prepared, each displaying different lignin contents. Variations in the DHP (model lignin) polymerization process were induced by increasing the coniferyl alcohol concentration. Examination of the morphology of the nanocomposites revealed globular particles enrobed in a matrix. The size of these particles increased in line with the lignin concentration. Physicochemical characterization of the in vitro reconstituted GAX-DHPs strongly suggested that increased particle size is directly related to the solubility and reactivity of coniferyl alcohol, as reflected by changes in the amount of β-O-4 linkages. Evaluation of the impact of the GH11 endoxylanase on the GAX-DHP nanocomposites revealed a negative correlation between the proportion and organization patterns of DHP in the nanocomposites and enzyme activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and Performance Evaluation of Pulse Electrodeposited Ni-AlN Nanocomposite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work presents the microscopic analysis of pulse electrodeposited Ni-AlN nanocomposite coatings using SEM and AFM techniques and their performance evaluation (mechanical and electrochemical by employing nanoindentation and electrochemical methods. The Ni-AlN nanocomposite coatings were developed by pulse electrodeposition. The nickel matrix was reinforced with various amounts of AlN nanoparticles (3, 6, and 9 g/L to develop Ni-AlN nanocomposite coatings. The effect of reinforcement concentration on structure, surface morphology, and mechanical and anticorrosion properties was studied. SEM and AFM analyses indicate that Ni-AlN nanocomposite coatings have dense, homogenous, and well-defined pyramid structure containing uniformly distributed AlN particles. A decent improvement in the corrosion protection performance is also observed by the addition of AlN particles to the nickel matrix. Corrosion current was reduced from 2.15 to 1.29 μA cm−2 by increasing the AlN particles concentration from 3 to 9 g/L. It has been observed that the properties of Ni-AlN nanocomposite coating are sensitive to the concentration of AlN nanoparticles used as reinforcement.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of aluminium–alumina micro- and nano-composites by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, K.; Chaira, D.; Ray, B.C.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The evolution of microstructure by varying the particle size of reinforcement in the matrix employing spark plasma sintering has been demonstrated here in Al–Al 2 O 3 system. An emphasis has been laid on varying the reinforcement particle size and evaluating the microstructural morphologies and their implications on mechanical performance of the composites. Nanocomposites of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7 volume % alumina (average size 2 O 3 micro- and nano-composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering. • Better matrix-reinforcement integrity in nanocomposites than microcomposites. • Spark plasma sintering method results in higher density and hardness values. • High density and hardness values of nanocomposites than microcomposites. • High dislocation density in spark plasma sintered Al–Al 2 O 3 composites. - Abstract: In the present study, an emphasis has been laid on evaluation of the microstructural morphologies and their implications on mechanical performance of the composites by varying the reinforcement particle size. Nanocomposites of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7 volume % alumina (average size 2 O 3 nancomposites respectively. Spark plasma sintering imparts enhanced densification and matrix-reinforcement proximity which have been corroborated with the experimental results

  2. Dielectric properties of ligand-modified gold nanoparticle/SU-8 photopolymer based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toor, Anju, E-mail: atoor@berkeley.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); So, Hongyun, E-mail: hyso@berkeley.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pisano, Albert P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Ligand-modified gold NP/SU-8 nanocomposites were synthesized and demonstrated. • Particle agglomeration and dispersion were characterized with different NPs concentration. • Nanocomposites showed higher average dielectric permittivity compared to SU-8 only. • Relatively lower dielectric loss (average 0.09 at 1 kHz) was achieved with 10 % w/w NPs. - Abstract: This article reports the enhanced dielectric properties of a photodefinable polymer nanocomposite material containing sub–10 nm coated metal nanoparticles (NPs). The surface morphology of the synthesized dodecanethiol-functionalized gold NPs was characterized using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We investigated the particle agglomeration and dispersion during the various stages of the nanocomposite synthesis using TEM. Physical properties such as dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss were measured experimentally. The dependence of the dielectric permittivity and loss tangent on the particle concentration, and frequency was studied. Nanocomposite films showed an approximately three times enhancement in average dielectric constant over the polymer base value and an average dielectric loss of 0.09 at 1 kHz, at a filler loading of 10% w/w.

  3. Effect of Discontinuous Ultrasonic Treatment on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Cast Al413-SiCnp Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Dehnavi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of discontinuous ultrasonic treatment on the microstructure, nanoparticle distribution, and mechanical properties of cast Al413-SiCnp nanocomposites were studied. The results showed that discontinuous ultrasonic treatment was more effective in improving the mechanical properties of the cast nanocomposites than the equally timed continuous treatment. The yield and ultimate tensile strengths of Al413-2%SiCnp nanocomposites discontinuously treated for two 20 minute periods increased by about 126% and 100% compared to those of the monolithic sample, respectively. These improvements were about 107% and 94% for the nanocomposites continuously treated for a single 40 minute period. The improvement in the mechanical properties was associated with severe refinement of the microstructure, removal of the remaining gas layers on the particles surfaces, more effective fragmentation of the remaining agglomerates as well as improved wettability and distribution of the reinforcing particles during the first stage of solidification.

  4. Magnetic and structural properties of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pariona, N.; Camacho-Aguilar, K.I.; Ramos-González, R.; Martinez, Arturo I.; Herrera-Trejo, M.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites (NCs) with specific size, composition and properties were obtained in transformation reactions of 2-line ferrihydrite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that the NCs consist of clusters of strongly aggregated nanoparticles (NPs) similarly to a “plum pudding”, where hematite NPs “raisins” are surrounded by ferrihydrite “pudding”. Magnetic measurements of the NCs correlate very well with TEM results; i.e., higher coercive fields correspond to greater hematite crystallite size. First order reversal curve (FORC) measurements were used for the characterization of the magnetic components of the NCs. FORC diagrams revealed that the NCs prepared at short times are composed by single domains with low coercivity, and NCs prepared at times larger than 60 min exhibited elongated distribution along the Hc axis. It suggested that these samples consist of mixtures of different kinds of hematite particles, ones with low coercivity and others with coercivity greater than 600 Oe. For NCs prepared at times larger than 60 min, Mossbauer spectroscopy revealed the presence of two sextets, which one was assigned to fine hematite particles and other to hematite particles with hyperfine parameters near to bulk hematite. The correlation of the structural and magnetic properties of the ferrihydrite/hematite NCs revealed important characteristics of these materials which have not been reported elsewhere. - Highlights: • Ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites were prepared. • The “plum pudding” morphology of the ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites was found. • The FORC diagrams of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites have been measured.

  5. Magnetic and structural properties of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pariona, N.; Camacho-Aguilar, K.I.; Ramos-González, R. [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Cinvestav-Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila 25900 (Mexico); Martinez, Arturo I., E-mail: mtz.art@gmail.com [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Cinvestav-Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila 25900 (Mexico); Herrera-Trejo, M. [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Cinvestav-Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila 25900 (Mexico); Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Río de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    A rich variety of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites (NCs) with specific size, composition and properties were obtained in transformation reactions of 2-line ferrihydrite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that the NCs consist of clusters of strongly aggregated nanoparticles (NPs) similarly to a “plum pudding”, where hematite NPs “raisins” are surrounded by ferrihydrite “pudding”. Magnetic measurements of the NCs correlate very well with TEM results; i.e., higher coercive fields correspond to greater hematite crystallite size. First order reversal curve (FORC) measurements were used for the characterization of the magnetic components of the NCs. FORC diagrams revealed that the NCs prepared at short times are composed by single domains with low coercivity, and NCs prepared at times larger than 60 min exhibited elongated distribution along the Hc axis. It suggested that these samples consist of mixtures of different kinds of hematite particles, ones with low coercivity and others with coercivity greater than 600 Oe. For NCs prepared at times larger than 60 min, Mossbauer spectroscopy revealed the presence of two sextets, which one was assigned to fine hematite particles and other to hematite particles with hyperfine parameters near to bulk hematite. The correlation of the structural and magnetic properties of the ferrihydrite/hematite NCs revealed important characteristics of these materials which have not been reported elsewhere. - Highlights: • Ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites were prepared. • The “plum pudding” morphology of the ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites was found. • The FORC diagrams of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites have been measured.

  6. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-07-19

    Recent progress in the development of artificial skin concepts is a result of the increased demand for providing environment perception such as touch and flow sensing to robots, prosthetics and surgical tools. Tactile sensors are the essential components of artificial skins and attracted considerable attention that led to the development of different technologies for mimicking the complex sense of touch in humans. This dissertation work is devoted to the development of a bioinspired tactile sensing technology that imitates the extremely sensitive hair-like cilia receptors found in nature. The artificial cilia are fabricated from permanent magnetic, biocompatible and highly elastic nanocomposite material, and integrated on a giant magneto-impedance magnetic sensor to measure the stray field. A force that bends the cilia changes the stray field and is therefore detected with the magnetic sensor, providing high performance in terms of sensitivity, power consumption and versatility. The nanocomposite is made of Fe nanowires (NWs) incorporated into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Fe NWs have a high remanent magnetization, due the shape anisotropy; thus, they are acting as permanent nano-magnets. This allows remote device operation and avoids the need for a magnetic field to magnetize the NWs, benefiting miniaturization and the possible range of applications. The magnetic properties of the nanocomposite can be easily tuned by modifying the NWs concentration or by aligning the NWs to define a magnetic anisotropy. Tactile sensors are realized on flexible and rigid substrates that can detect flow, vertical and shear forces statically and dynamically, with a high resolution and wide operating range. The advantage to operate the sensors in liquids and air has been utilized to measure flows in different fluids in a microfluidic channel. Various dynamic studies were conducted with the tactile sensor demonstrating the detection of moving objects or the texture of objects. Overall

  7. Magnetoelectric polymer nanocomposite for flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnassar, M.; Alfadhel, A.; Ivanov, Yu. P.; Kosel, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of a new type of magnetoelectric polymer nanocomposite that exhibits excellent ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity simultaneously at room temperature. The multiferroic nanocomposite consists of high aspect ratio ferromagnetic iron nanowires embedded inside a ferroelectric co-polymer poly(vinylindene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE). The nanocomposite has been fabricated via a simple low temperature spin coating technique. Structural, ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, and magnetoelectric properties of the developed nanocomposite have been characterized. The nanocomposite films showed isotropic magnetic properties due to the random orientation of the iron nanowires inside the film. In addition, the embedded nanowires did not hinder the ferroelectric phase development of the nanocomposite. The developed nanocomposite showed a high magnetoelectric coupling response of 156 mV/cmOe measured at 3.1 kOe DC bias field. This value is among the highest reported magnetoelectric coupling in two phase particulate polymer nanocomposites

  8. Magnetoelectric polymer nanocomposite for flexible electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Nassar, Mohammed Y.

    2015-03-06

    This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of a new type of magnetoelectric polymer nanocomposite that exhibits excellent ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity simultaneously at room temperature. The multiferroic nanocomposite consists of high aspect ratio ferromagnetic iron nanowires embedded inside a ferroelectric co-polymer poly(vinylindene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE). The nanocomposite has been fabricated via a simple low temperature spin coating technique. Structural, ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, and magnetoelectric properties of the developed nanocomposite have been characterized. The nanocomposite films showed isotropic magnetic properties due to the random orientation of the iron nanowires inside the film. In addition, the embedded nanowires did not hinder the ferroelectric phase development of the nanocomposite. The developed nanocomposite showed a high magnetoelectric coupling response of 156 mV/cmOe measured at 3.1 kOe DC bias field. This value is among the highest reported magnetoelectric coupling in two phase particulate polymer nanocomposites.

  9. Magnetoelectric polymer nanocomposite for flexible electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Nassar, Mohammed Y.; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of a new type of magnetoelectric polymer nanocomposite that exhibits excellent ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity simultaneously at room temperature. The multiferroic nanocomposite consists of high aspect ratio ferromagnetic iron nanowires embedded inside a ferroelectric co-polymer poly(vinylindene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE). The nanocomposite has been fabricated via a simple low temperature spin coating technique. Structural, ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, and magnetoelectric properties of the developed nanocomposite have been characterized. The nanocomposite films showed isotropic magnetic properties due to the random orientation of the iron nanowires inside the film. In addition, the embedded nanowires did not hinder the ferroelectric phase development of the nanocomposite. The developed nanocomposite showed a high magnetoelectric coupling response of 156 mV/cmOe measured at 3.1 kOe DC bias field. This value is among the highest reported magnetoelectric coupling in two phase particulate polymer nanocomposites.

  10. Self-assembly of a superparamagnetic raspberry-like silica/iron oxide nanocomposite using epoxy-amine coupling chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Manuel; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2015-02-28

    The fabrication of colloidal nanocomposites would benefit from controlled hetero-assembly of ready-made particles through covalent bonding. Here we used epoxy-amine coupling chemistry to promote the self-assembly of superparamagnetic raspberry-like nanocomposites. This adaptable method induced the covalent attachment of iron oxide nanoparticles sparsely coated with amine groups onto epoxylated silica cores in the absence of other reactants.

  11. CELLULOSIC NANOCOMPOSITES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Because of their wide abundance, their renewable and environmentally benign nature, and their outstanding mechanical properties, a great deal of attention has been paid recently to cellulosic nanofibrillar structures as components in nanocomposites. A first major challenge has been to find efficient ways to liberate cellulosic fibrils from different source materials, including wood, agricultural residues, or bacterial cellulose. A second major challenge has involved the lack of compatibility of cellulosic surfaces with a variety of plastic materials. The water-swellable nature of cellulose, especially in its non-crystalline regions, also can be a concern in various composite materials. This review of recent work shows that considerable progress has been achieved in addressing these issues and that there is potential to use cellulosic nano-components in a wide range of high-tech applications.

  12. Graphene-aluminum nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolucci, Stephen F.; Paras, Joseph; Rafiee, Mohammad A.; Rafiee, Javad; Lee, Sabrina; Kapoor, Deepak; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigated the mechanical properties of aluminum and aluminum nanocomposites. → Graphene composite had lower strength and hardness compared to nanotube reinforcement. → Processing causes aluminum carbide formation at graphene defects. → The carbides in between grains is a source of weakness and lowers tensile strength. - Abstract: Composites of graphene platelets and powdered aluminum were made using ball milling, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion. The mechanical properties and microstructure were studied using hardness and tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the pure aluminum and multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, the graphene-aluminum composite showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler.

  13. Synthesis of Aluminum-Aluminum Nitride Nanocomposites by a Gas-Liquid Reaction II. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Cecilia; Makhlouf, Makhlouf M.

    2016-04-01

    In situ fabrication of the reinforcing particles in the metal matrix is an answer to many of the challenges encountered in manufacturing aluminum matrix nanocomposites. In this method, the nanoparticles are formed directly within the melt by means of a chemical reaction between a specially designed aluminum alloy and a gas. In this publication, we describe a process for synthesizing aluminum-aluminum nitride nanocomposites by reacting a nitrogen-containing gas with a molten aluminum-lithium alloy. We quantify the effect of the process parameters on the average particle size and particle distribution, as well as on the tendency of the particles to cluster in the alloy matrix, is quantified. Also in this publication, we present the measured room temperature and elevated temperature tensile properties of the nanocomposite material as well as its measured room temperature impact toughness.

  14. Ultrapermeable, reverse-selective nanocomposite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, T C; Freeman, B D; Spontak, R J; He, Z; Pinnau, I; Meakin, P; Hill, A J

    2002-04-19

    Polymer nanocomposites continue to receive tremendous attention for application in areas such as microelectronics, organic batteries, optics, and catalysis. We have discovered that physical dispersion of nonporous, nanoscale, fumed silica particles in glassy amorphous poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) simultaneously and surprisingly enhances both membrane permeability and selectivity for large organic molecules over small permanent gases. These highly unusual property enhancements, in contrast to results obtained in conventional filled polymer systems, reflect fumed silica-induced disruption of polymer chain packing and an accompanying subtle increase in the size of free volume elements through which molecular transport occurs, as discerned by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Such nanoscale hybridization represents an innovative means to tune the separation properties of glassy polymeric media through systematic manipulation of molecular packing.

  15. Wear Resistant Amorphous and Nanocomposite Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racek, O

    2008-03-26

    Glass forming materials (critical cooling rate <10{sup 4}K.s{sup -1}) are promising for their high corrosion and wear resistance. During rapid cooling, the materials form an amorphous structure that transforms to nanocrystalline during a process of devitrification. High hardness (HV 1690) can be achieved through a controlled crystallization. Thermal spray process has been used to apply coatings, which preserves the amorphous/nanocomposite structure due to a high cooling rate of the feedstock particles during the impact on a substrate. Wear properties have been studied with respect to process conditions and feedstock material properties. Application specific properties such as sliding wear resistance have been correlated with laboratory tests based on instrumented indentation and scratch tests.

  16. Formation and properties of nylon 6 nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornes T. D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium montmorillonite clay consists of platelets, one nanometer thick with large lateral dimensions, which can be used to achieve efficient reinforcement of polymer matrices. Formation of these nanocomposites requires modifying the clay with an appropriate organic surface treatment and optimized processing. Some of these techniques and the resulting property improvements (modulus, thermal expansion, heat distortion temperature, etc. are reviewed here. It is shown that shear stress exerted on stacks of clay platelets play an important role in the mechanism of exfoliation. The modulus enhancement observed is of the order predicted by composite theories; however, the clay particles clearly affect the crystalline morphology of the polymer phase which may have an additional effect on some composite properties.

  17. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of Al–Zn–Si nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Villarreal, S. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C. Monterrey, 66600, Alianza Nte. 202, Parque PIIT, Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico); Chávez-Valdez, A. [Katcon Institute for Innovation and Technology KIIT, 66629, Alianza Sur 200, Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico); Moreno, K.J. [Instituto Tecnológico de Celaya, Apartado Postal 57, 38010 Celaya, Guanajuato (Mexico); Leyva, C.; Aguilar-Martínez, J.A. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C. Monterrey, 66600, Alianza Nte. 202, Parque PIIT, Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico); Hurtado, A. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C., 31109, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chih., Chih. (Mexico); Arizmendi-Morquecho, A., E-mail: ana.arizmendi@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C. Monterrey, 66600, Alianza Nte. 202, Parque PIIT, Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico)

    2013-09-15

    In this paper the addition of silicon nanoparticles into Al–Zn alloys to form metallic matrix nanocomposites by mechanical alloying process was investigated. The influence of various process parameters such as milling time and Si concentration in the Al–Zn matrix has an interesting effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the synthesized nanocomposites. The microstructural characterization of the nanocomposites was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM–EDXS) and the mechanical properties were measured by nanoindentation and micro-hardness tests. The results showed that during mechanical milling Si is added to the Al–Zn matrix achieving a uniform and homogeneous dispersion. After solidification, it forms small particles of AlZnSi with blocky morphology in interdendritic regions. The nanoindentation profiles showed that the elastic modulus and hardness properties increase with increasing milling time. However, a high concentration of Si (> 1.2 wt.%) results in a saturation of Si in the Al–Zn matrix, which adversely affects the mechanical properties. Thus, it is important to tune the milling time and concentration of Si added to the Al–Zn alloys to control the growth of brittle phases that result in reduction of the mechanical properties of the material. - Highlights: • A novel technique for addition of Si nanocomposites into Al–Zn liquid alloy is reported. • Good dispersion and homogeneity of Si in the Al–Zn matrix are obtained. • Increasing Si content above 1.2 wt.% decreases the mechanical properties of Al–Zn alloy. • The saturation point of Si in 1.2 wt.% differs from Galvalume® composition. • The Al–Zn–1.5Si alloy with addition of nanocomposite shows 5.7 GPa of hardness.

  18. Dielectric properties of ligand-modified gold nanoparticles/SU-8 photopolymer based nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Toor, Anju; So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the enhanced dielectric properties of a photodefinable nanocomposite material containing sub–10 nm coated metal nanoparticles (NPs). The surface morphology of the synthesized dodecanethiol-functionalized gold NPs was characterized using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We investigated the particle agglomeration and dispersion during the various stages of the nanocomposite synthesis using TEM. Physical properties such as dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss were measured experimentally. The dependence of dielectric permittivity and loss tangent on particle concentration and frequency was studied. Nanocomposite films showed an approximately three times enhancement in average dielectric constant over the polymer base value and an average dielectric loss of 0.09 at 1 kHz, at a filler loading of 10% w/w.

  19. Characterization polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposites mixing with nano-silica and titanium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Mircea A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET based nanocomposites containing nano-silica (Aerosil (Degusa and titanium oxide (TiO2 (Merk were prepared by melt compounding. Influence of nano-silica and titanium oxide on properties of the resulting nanocomposites was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The possible interaction between nano-silica and titanium oxide particles with PET functional groups at bulk and surface was elucidated by transmission of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. AFM studies of the resulting nanocomposites showed an increased surface roughness compared to pure PET. SEM images illustrated that nano-silica particles have tendency to migrate to the surface of the PET matrix much more than titanium oxide powder.

  20. Dielectric properties of ligand-modified gold nanoparticles/SU-8 photopolymer based nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Toor, Anju

    2017-04-15

    This article reports the enhanced dielectric properties of a photodefinable nanocomposite material containing sub–10 nm coated metal nanoparticles (NPs). The surface morphology of the synthesized dodecanethiol-functionalized gold NPs was characterized using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We investigated the particle agglomeration and dispersion during the various stages of the nanocomposite synthesis using TEM. Physical properties such as dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss were measured experimentally. The dependence of dielectric permittivity and loss tangent on particle concentration and frequency was studied. Nanocomposite films showed an approximately three times enhancement in average dielectric constant over the polymer base value and an average dielectric loss of 0.09 at 1 kHz, at a filler loading of 10% w/w.

  1. Luminescent, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO-ZnS nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raleaooa, Pule V. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, ZA 9300 Bloemfontein (South Africa); Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Roodt, Andreas [Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Mhlongo, Gugu G.; Motaung, David E. [DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Center, National Center for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, ZA 0001 Pretoria (South Africa); Kroon, Robin E. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, ZA 9300 Bloemfontein (South Africa); Ntwaeaborwa, Odireleng M., E-mail: ntwaeab@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, ZA 2050 (South Africa)

    2017-02-15

    The structure, particle morphology, optical and magnetic properties of ZnO, ZnS and ZnO-ZnS nanoparticles prepared by the sol-gel method are reported. ZnO and ZnS were combined at room temperature by an ex situ synthetic route to prepare ZnO-ZnS nanocomposites. The nanocomposites exhibited particle morphology different from that of ZnO and ZnS nanoparticles. The ZnO and ZnS nanoparticles exhibited quantum confinement as inferred from the widening of their respective bandgap energies. The electron paramagnetic resonance data provided evidence for the existence of magnetic clusters near the surface, electron to nuclei interactions and defect states. The ZnO-ZnS nanocomposites exhibited tunable emission that was dependent on the ratio of ZnO to ZnS. These composites were evaluated for application in different types of light emitting devices.

  2. Preparation and characterization of polyindole - iron oxide nanocomposite electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasudha, G.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A novel polyindole-iron oxide containing LiClO 4 solid polymer electrolyte has been prepared. The diverse property of magnetic nanoparticle has elicited wide interest from the point of view of technological applications. Their properties are known to be strongly dependent on size, anisotropy and inter particle interactions. The proton conducting materials has received considerable attention as electrolyte materials in technological applications such as fuel cells, sensors and electrochromic display. In this work, polyindole-iron oxide nanocomposite containing LiClO 4 was prepared by in situ polymerization. The indole was polymerized in the presence of iron oxide, using ammonium peroxy disulphate as an oxidizing agent. The polyindole-iron oxide nanocomposite was characterized by XRD, IR, SEM, TGA and TEM. The iron oxide nano particles was incorporated into polyindole and was confirmed by XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The surface Morphology and thermal stability were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and SEM respectively. The ionic conductivity of polyindole electrolyte was analyzed from impedance spectrum. The prepared polyindole-iron oxide nanocomposite could be used as solid electrolyte in lithium ion batteries

  3. Surface functionalized hollow silica particles and composites

    KAUST Repository

    Rodionov, Valentin; Khanh, Vu Bao

    2017-01-01

    Composition comprising hollow spherical silica particles having outside particle walls and inside particle walls, wherein the particles have an average particle size of about 10 nm to about 500 nm and an average wall thickness of about 10 nm to about 50 nm; and wherein the particles are functionalized with at least one organic functional group on the outside particle wall, on the inside particle wall, or on both the outside and inside particle walls, wherein the organic functional group is in a reacted or unreacted form. The organic functional group can be epoxy. The particles can be mixed with polymer precursor or a polymer material such as epoxy to form a prepreg or a nanocomposite. Lightweight but strong materials can be formed. Low loadings of hollow particles can be used.

  4. Surface functionalized hollow silica particles and composites

    KAUST Repository

    Rodionov, Valentin

    2017-05-26

    Composition comprising hollow spherical silica particles having outside particle walls and inside particle walls, wherein the particles have an average particle size of about 10 nm to about 500 nm and an average wall thickness of about 10 nm to about 50 nm; and wherein the particles are functionalized with at least one organic functional group on the outside particle wall, on the inside particle wall, or on both the outside and inside particle walls, wherein the organic functional group is in a reacted or unreacted form. The organic functional group can be epoxy. The particles can be mixed with polymer precursor or a polymer material such as epoxy to form a prepreg or a nanocomposite. Lightweight but strong materials can be formed. Low loadings of hollow particles can be used.

  5. Chemically stabilized reduced graphene oxide/zirconia nanocomposite: synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagadevan, Suresh; Zaman Chowdhury, Zaira; Enamul Hoque, Md; Podder, Jiban

    2017-11-01

    In this research, chemical method was used to fabricate reduced graphene oxide/zirconia (rGO/ZrO2) nanocomposite. X-ray Diffraction analysis (XRD) was carried out to examine the crystalline structure of the nanocomposites. The nanocomposite prepared here has average crystallite size of 14 nm. The surface morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopic analysis (SEM) coupled with electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) to detect the chemical element over the surface of the nanocomposites. High-resolution Transmission electron microscopic analysis (HR-TEM) was carried out to determine the particle size and shape of the nanocomposites. The optical property of the prepared samples was determined using UV-visible absorption spectrum. The functional groups were identified using FTIR and Raman spectroscopic analysis. Efficient, cost effective and properly optimized synthesis process of rGO/ZrO2 nanocomposite can ensure the presence of infiltrating graphene network inside the ZrO2 matrix to enhance the electrical properties of the hybrid composites up to a greater scale. Thus the dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity of the prepared sample was measured at various frequencies and temperatures. The analytical results obtained here confirmed the homogeneous dispersion of ZrO2 nanostructures over the surface of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. Overall, the research demonstrated that the rGO/ZrO2 nano-hybrid structure fabricated here can be considered as a promising candidate for applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics.

  6. Fracture behavior of α-zirconium phosphate-based epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue, H.-J.; Gam, K.T.; Bestaoui, N.; Clearfield, A.; Miyamoto, M.; Miyatake, N.

    2004-01-01

    The fracture behaviors of α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) based epoxy nanocomposites, with and without core-shell rubber (CSR) toughening, were investigated. The state of exfoliation and dispersion of α-ZrP nanofiller in epoxy were characterized using X-ray scattering and various microscopy tools. The level of enhancement in storage moduli of epoxy nanocomposite against neat epoxy is found to depend on the state of exfoliation of α-ZrP as well as the damping characteristics of the epoxy matrix. The fracture process in epoxy nanocomposite is dominated by preferred crack propagation along the weak intercalated α-ZrP interfaces, and the presence of α-ZrP does not alter the fracture toughness of the epoxy matrix. However, the toughening using CSR can significantly improve the fracture toughness of the nanocomposite. The fracture mechanisms responsible for such a toughening effect in CSR-toughened epoxy nanocomposite are rubber particle cavitation, followed by shear banding of epoxy matrix. The ductility and toughenability of epoxy do not appear to be affected by the incorporation of α-ZrP. Approaches for producing toughened high performance polymer nanocomposites are discussed

  7. A review on the effect of mechanical drilling on polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starost, Kristof; Njuguna, James

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, polymer nanocomposites have undergone intensive research and development ensued by its increasing implementation within commercial applications. Consequently, the full life-cycle performance and any health risks associated with these materials have become of major interest. Throughout its use, a nanocomposite will undergo industrial machining where drilling can lead to material damage and/or exposure to the potentially toxic nanoparticles. This study assesses the existing and perspective research on nanocomposite drilling. Currently, although considerable amount of studies have investigated machining on conventional composite materials, there is a lack in knowledge on the effect of drilling on nanocomposites. The data underlines the various drilling parameters that will affect and influence the damage to the material and nano-sized particles released. Importantly, previous studies have identified potential mechanical damage caused by drilling and the release-ability of toxic nanoparticles from nanocomposites. It is therefore crucial to develop a full understanding and characterization on the effect of drilling on polymer nanocomposites

  8. Synthesis, characterization and thermal analysis of polyimide-cobalt ferrite nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazuera, David; Perales, Oscar; Suarez, Marcelo; Singh, Surinder

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: · Polyimide-cobalt ferrite nanocomposites were successfully produced. · Produced nanocomposites are suitable for use at temperatures below 80 deg. C. · Magnetic properties of nanocomposites were no sensitive to particle agglomeration. · Good distribution of clustered nanoparticles was achieved in produced composites. - Abstract: Cobalt ferrite nanocrystals were synthesized under size-controlled conditions in aqueous phase and incorporated into a polyimide matrix at various volumetric loads. Synthesized 20 nm cobalt ferrite single crystals, which exhibited a room-temperature coercivity of 2.9 kOe, were dispersed in polyimide precursor using two techniques: homogenizer and ball milling. These suspensions were then cured to develop the polyimide structure in the resulting nanocomposites. Produced films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry, which confirmed the formation of the desired phases. As expected, the saturation magnetization in the nanocomposites varied according to the polyimide/ferrite weight ratio, while coercivity remained at the value corresponding to pure cobalt ferrite nanocrystals. Thermal degradation, thermal stability and dynamic mechanical analyses tests were also carried out to assess the effect of the concentration of the ferrite disperse phase on the thermo-mechanical behavior of the corresponding nanocomposites as well as the used dispersion techniques.

  9. Poly methacrylic acid modified CDHA nanocomposites as potential pH responsive drug delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Sunita Prem; Sharma, Chandra P

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare pH sensitive polymethacrylic acid-calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) nanocomposites. The CDHA nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitation method. The modification of CDHA by methacrylic acid (MA) was achieved by AIBN initiated free radical polymerization with sodium bisulphite as catalyst followed by emulsion technique. These nanocomposites with a half life of 8h consisted of high aspect ratio, needle like particles and exhibited an increase in swelling behaviour with pH. The in vivo potential of the nanocomposites was evaluated in vitro by the results of cell aggregation, protein adsorption, MTT assay and haemolytic activity. The invitro loading and release studies using albumin as a model drug indicate that the nanocomposites gave better loading when compared to the CDHA nanoparticles and altered the drug release rates. The nanocomposites also exhibited good uptake on C6 glioma cells as studied by fluorescence microscopy. The results obtained suggest that these nanocomposites have great potential for oral controlled protein delivery and can be extended further for intracellular drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Syntheses and characterization of novel P/Si polysilsesquioxanes/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu Yiechan; Liu Fangyi; Ma, C.-C.M.; Chou, I.-C.; Riang Linawati; Chiang, C.-L.; Yang, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing polysilsesquioxane (PSSQ) was introduced into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy (DGEBA) to generate a novel P/Si PSSQ nanocomposite. A series of nanocomposites was fabricated by changing the content of the 2-(diphenylphosphino)ethyltriethoxysilane (DPPETES) monomer or P/Si PSSQ cured with DGEBA epoxy and modified epoxy. The structure, thermal properties and flame-retardancy of the P/Si PSSQ nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, solid-state 29 Si NMR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and limited oxygen index (LOI) instruments. The nano-sizes of the particles in P/Si PSSQ were approximately 30-50 nm, and the polarity of nanocomposites might generate the nanophase-separated structure from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The urethane-like side group of the modified epoxy and the fabrication of oligomers in the curing reaction affected the T d5 values of nanocomposites. TGA and LOI results indicated that the char yield (29 wt%) increased and the nanocomposites were not very flammable (LOI = 30). The hybrid materials also exhibited high thermal stability, good flame-retardance and a lack of phase separation

  11. Microstructural and magnetotransport studies of novel manganite–sebacic acid nanocomposites prepared at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Mariano; Faccio, Ricardo; Pardo, Helena; Tumelero, Milton A.; Pasa, André A.; Mombrú, Álvaro W.

    2015-01-01

    Novel La 2/3 Sr 1/3 MnO 3 :sebacic acid nanocomposites (LSMO–SA-X) were prepared for different fraction additions (X) of sebacic acid (SA). The preparation of these nanocomposites was performed at low temperatures (T∼130 °C) avoiding partial decomposition of the organic matrix. The microstructure of these LSMO–SA-X nanocomposites was studied by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique and both nanoparticles size and inter-particle distances were estimated. The magnetic, electrical and magnetotransport properties were also investigated. An enhancement in the low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) for lower fractions of SA was obtained with respect to pure LSMO and higher fraction additions showed a decrease in the LFMR due to the higher separation distance between LSMO nanoparticles. The tunnel barrier thickness observed in these nanocomposites was correlated with the interparticle distance obtained by SAXS. The enhancement of magnetoresistance was attributed to the increase in the extrinsic disorder promoted by the SA addition and no enhancement due to intrinsic magnetoresistance of LSMO was evidenced. - Highlights: • The synthesis of novel manganite-sebacic acid nanocomposites is reported. • Microstructural trends are shown using the GISAXS technique. • An enhancement on the LFMR in the nanocomposites with respect to pure manganite was evidenced. • Correlation between microstructure and magnetotransport is discussed

  12. Green synthesis of magnetic chitosan nanocomposites by a new sol–gel auto-combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Fatemeh [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, P.O. Box. 87317–51167, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sobhani, Azam [Department of Chemistry, Kosar University of Bojnord, Bojnord, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, P.O. Box. 87317–51167, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/chitosan nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized via a new sol–gel auto-combustion route. To prepare the nanocomposites, copper ferrite (CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and iron (II) oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanostructures were first prepared utilizing onion as a green reductant for the first time, and characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, IR and VSM. Then chitosan was added into the nanostructures dispersed in water. Chitosan was used to functionalize and modify the nanostructures and also to improve surface properties. The nanocomposites were also characterized by several techniques including SEM, TEM, XRD, IR and VSM. The effects of amount of onion and chitosan on the morphology and particle size of nanocomposites were evaluated. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/chitosan nanocomposites were synthesized for the first time. • A simple, low-cost and friendly route was used to synthesize the nanocomposites. • Effects of amount of onion and chitosan were investigated.

  13. The Effect of Nanoclay on Dust Generation during Drilling of PA6 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Sachse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, polymer nanocomposites have emerged as a novel and rapidly developing class of materials and attracted considerable investment in research and development worldwide. However, there is currently a lack of information available in the literature on the nano and ultrafine particle emission rates from these materials. In this paper, influence of nanoclay on mechanical drilling of PA6 composites, in terms of dust generation, has been reported. With the help of real-time characterization, submicrometer-sized particles (5.6–512 nm, size distribution, and number concentration emitted from polyamide 6/nanoclay composites during mechanical drilling are studied. Total particle concentration for the PA6/nanoclay composites was 20,000 cm−3, while unreinforced panel measured a total concentration of approximately 400,000 cm−3. While the airborne particle concentration for the PA6/nanoclay composites was 20 times lower than for the PA6 matrix, the concentration of deposited nanoparticles doubled for the nanocomposite. The results clearly show that more particles in the size range between 175 and 350 nm are generated, during drilling of the nanocomposites, and these particles deposit in a shorter time. It is likely that the presence of nanoclay in some way retains the formation of high quantity of airborne particles and promotes particle deposition.

  14. Action of colloidal silica films on different nano-composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdalla

    Full Text Available Nano-composite films have been the subject of extensive work to develop the energy-storage efficiency of electrostatic capacitors. Factors such as polymer purity, nano-particles size, and film morphology drastically affect the electrostatic efficiency of the dielectric material that form an insulating film between conductive electrodes of a capacitor. This in turn affects the energy storage performance of the capacitor. In the present work, we have studied the dielectric properties of 4 high pure amorphous polymer films: polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, polystyrene, polyimide and poly-4-vinylpyridine. Comparison between the dielectric properties of these polymers has revealed that the higher break down performance is a character of polyimide PI and PMMA. Also, our experimental data shows that adding colloidal silica to PMMA and PI leads to a net decrease in the dielectric properties compared to the pure polymer. Keywords: Dielectric break down, Polymers, Nano-composite, Colloidal silica

  15. One-pot synthesis of a Ni–Mn3O4 nanocomposite for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Guo-rong; Shi, Jin-jin; Dong, Wen-hao; Wen, Ya; Min, Xiang-ping; Tang, An-ping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ni–Mn 3 O 4 nanocomposites have been synthesized simply. • Mn 3 O 4 particles were deposited on surface of Ni particles with OH functional groups. • Ni–Mn 3 O 4 composites could be quickly conditioned to birnessite-type MnO 2 . • A specific capacitance of 230 F g −1 was obtained for Ni (17.3%)–Mn 3 O 4 nanocomposite. - Abstract: Ni–Mn 3 O 4 nanocomposite has been prepared successfully by chemical oxidation in an alkaline solution of Mn 2+ on the surface of Ni nanoparticles with OH functional groups using one-pot method. The obtained Ni–Mn 3 O 4 nanocomposite was characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and various electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge (GC/D) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The average crystal sizes of Mn 3 O 4 were found to decrease linearly with increasing Ni content in the Ni–Mn 3 O 4 composite. The Ni–Mn 3 O 4 nanocomposite could be easily conditioned and inverted to birnessite-type MnO 2 . A specific capacitance of 230 F g −1 (based on pure Mn 3 O 4 ) was obtained for the Ni (17.3%)–Mn 3 O 4 nanocomposite at a current rate of 0.25 A g −1 , and 94% of the initial capacitance was retained after 1000 GC/D cycles at a current rate of 1 A g −1 . It is concluded that the Ni–Mn 3 O 4 nanocomposite is a promising electrode materials for supercapacitors

  16. Biopolymeric nanocomposites with enhanced interphases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yi; Hu, Kesong; Grant, Anise M; Zhang, Yuhong; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2015-10-06

    Ultrathin and robust nanocomposite membranes were fabricated by incorporating graphene oxide (GO) sheets into a silk fibroin (SF) matrix by a dynamic spin-assisted layer-by-layer assembly (dSA-LbL). We observed that in contrast to traditional SA-LbL reported earlier fast solution removal during dropping of solution on constantly spinning substrates resulted in largely unfolded biomacromolecules with enhanced surface interactions and suppressed nanofibril formation. The resulting laminated nanocomposites possess outstanding mechanical properties, significantly exceeding those previously reported for conventional LbL films with similar composition. The tensile modulus reached extremely high values of 170 GPa, which have never been reported for graphene oxide-based nanocomposites, the ultimate strength was close to 300 MPa, and the toughness was above 3.4 MJ m(-3). The failure modes observed for these membranes suggested the self-reinforcing mechanism of adjacent graphene oxide sheets with strong 2 nm thick silk interphase composed mostly from individual backbones. This interphase reinforcement leads to the effective load transfer between the graphene oxide components in reinforced laminated nanocomposite materials with excellent mechanical strength that surpasses those known today for conventional flexible laminated carbon nanocomposites from graphene oxide and biopolymer components.

  17. Preparation and characterization of the nanoparticle and nanocomposite by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.P.; Choi, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Nanometer metal particle-organic polymer composites have attracted considerable interests in recent years. These composites not only combine the advantageous properties of metals and polymers but also exhibit many new characters that single-phase materials do not have. They have a wide range of applications including electromagnetic inferences shielding, heat conduction, discharge static electricity, conversion of mechanical to electrical signals, and like. In order to obtain nanocomposite, silver nanoparticle was prepared by γ-irradiation. The obtained Ag nanoparticle was characterized by UV, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, and etc. The ethylacetate-Ag nanocomposite was prepared by emulsion polymerization. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by SEM, XRD, and thermal (TGA/DSC) analysis. Furthermore, the CdS nanocomposite was prepared using CdSO 4 and Na 2 SO 4 by γ-irradiation method. The ethylacetate-CdS nanocomposite was also prepared by emulsion polymerization, and characterized by SEM, XRD, and thermal (TGA/DSC) analysis. The application of such prepared metal particle-organic polymer composites in the field of anti-bacterial film, semiconductor film, and fluorescence film may be of interest

  18. Clarification of olive mill and winery wastewater by means of clay-polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwo, Giora; Lavi, Roy; Rytwo, Yuval; Monchase, Hila; Dultz, Stefan; König, Tom N

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted effluents from olive mills and wineries, among others, are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants due to the large amounts of organic and suspended matter. Efficiency of all management practices for such effluents depends on an effective pretreatment that lowers the amount of suspended solids. Such pretreatments are usually based on three separate stages, taking a total of 2 to 6h: coagulation-neutralizing the colloids, flocculation-aggregating the colloids into larger particles, and separation via filtration or decanting. Previous studies have presented the concept of coagoflocculation based on the use of clay-polymer nanocomposites. This process adds a higher density clay particle to the flocs, accelerating the process to between 15 and 60 min. This study examined suitable nanocomposites based on different clays and polymers. The charge of the compounds increased proportionally to the polymer-to-clay ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that in sepiolite-based nanocomposites there is no change in the structure of the mineral, whereas in smectite-based nanocomposites, the polymer intercalates between the clay layers and increases the spacing depending on the polymer-to-clay ratio. Efficiency of the coagoflocculation process was studied with a dispersion analyzer. Sequential addition of olive mill or winery effluents with a boosting dose of nanocomposites may yield a very efficient and rapid clarification pretreatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural, optical and thermal properties of PVA/CdS nanocomposites synthesized by radiolytic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharazmi, Alireza; Saion, Elias; Faraji, Nastaran; Hussin, Roslina Mat; Yunus, W. Mahmood Mat

    2014-01-01

    Monodispersed spherical CdS nanoparticles stabilized in PVA solution were synthesized by the gamma radiolytic method and found the average particle size increased from 12 to 13 nm with the increment of dose from 10 to 40 kGy. The XRD results show that it has crystalline planes of cubic structure with crystal lattice parameter of 5.832 Å. The optical reflectance revealed a band-edge of CdS nanoparticles at about 475 nm and the reflectance wavelength red shifted with increasing dose due to increasing particle size. The thermal conductivity of CdS/PVA nanocomposites measured by the transient hot wire method that revealed a decrement of the thermal conductivity with an increase of dose caused by effect of radiation on crystallinity of the polymer structure. - Highlights: • CdS/PVA nanocomposite was synthesized by radiolytic method from 10 to 40 kGy doses. • The structure of nanocomposite and the effect of dose on structure were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction. • The morphology of nanoparticles and the effect of dose on nanoparticles were observed by transmission electron microscope. • The optical properties of nanocomposite and the effect of radiation were studied by UV–visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. • The thermal properties of nanocomposite and the effect of dose were investigated by the transient hot wire method

  20. Stiffening mechanisms in amorphous polyamide bio-nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, Walter W. [Institute of Applied Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa); Macheca, Afonso D. [Institute of Applied Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Chemical Engineering, Eduardo Mondlane University, P.O. Box 257, Maputo (Mozambique); Benhamida, Aida; Kaci, Mustapha [Laboratoire des Matériaux Polymères Avancés (LMPA), Université de Bejaia 06000 (Algeria)

    2016-05-18

    Dimer fatty acid polyamide nanocomposites based on flake- or needle-shaped nanoparticles were prepared via melt compounding. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of both individually dispersed particles and particle agglomerates in the polymer matrix. Dynamic mechanical analysis suggests that three stiffening mechanisms were operating. The reinforcing effect of the high stiffness inorganic filler particles is the primary contributor. Together with the chain confinement effect, that expresses itself in an apparent increase in the glass transition temperature, this provided an adequate rationalization of the stiffness variation below Tg. However, an additional stiffening effect is indicated at temperatures above Tg. The mechanism may involve dynamic network formation based on fluctuating hydrogen bonding interactions between the polymer chains and the filler particles.

  1. Size-dependent cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses of PEGylated silica-iron oxide nanocomposite size series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injumpa, Wishulada; Ritprajak, Patcharee; Insin, Numpon

    2017-04-01

    Iron oxides nanoparticles have been utilized in biological systems and biomedical applications for many years because they are relatively safe and stable comparing to other magnetic nanomaterials. In some applications, iron oxide nanoparticles were modified with silica in order to be more stable in biological systems and able to be functionalized with various functional groups. Moreover, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was one on the most used polymer to graft onto the nanoparticles in order to increase their biocompatibility, dispersibility and stability in aqueous solutions. Therefore, the nanocomposites comprising iron oxide nanoparticles, silica, and PEG could become multifunctional carriers combining superparamagnetic character, multi-functionality and high stability in biological environments. Herein, we reported the preparation of the nanocomposites and effects of their sizes on cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses. The PEGylated silica-iron oxide nanocomposites were prepared by coating of poly(poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate) (PPEGMA) on magnetic nanoparticle-silica nanocomposites via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). The iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using a thermal decomposition method. The silica shells were then coated on iron oxides nanoparticles using reverse microemulsion and sol-gel methods. The size series of the nanocomposites with the diameter of 24.86±4.38, 45.24±5.00, 98.10±8.88 and 202.22±6.70 nm as measured using TEM were obtained. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used for the determination of % weight of PPEGMA on the nanocomposites showing the weight loss of ranging from 65% for smallest particles to 30% for largest particles. The various sizes (20, 40, 100, 200 nm) and concentrations (10, 100, 1000 μg/mL) of the nanocomposites were tested for their cytotoxicity in fibroblast and macrophage cell lines using MTT assay. The different sizes did not affect cell viability of fibroblast, albeit

  2. Magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite-silica nanocomposites prepared by a sol-gel autocombustion technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannas, C.; Musinu, A.; Piccaluga, G.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite-silica nanocomposites with different concentrations (15, 30, and 50 wt %) and sizes (7, 16, and 28 nm) of ferrite particles have been studied by static magnetization measurements and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The results indicate a superparamagnetic behavio...

  3. Liquid Crystal Phases of Colloidal Platelets and their Use as Nanocomposite Templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, M.C.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837563

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores the gelation and liquid crystal phase behavior of colloidal dispersions of platelike particles as well as the use of such dispersions for the generation of nanocomposites. We report on the sol-gel, sol-glass and liquid crystal phase transitions of positively charged colloidal

  4. Characterization of nano-composite PVD coatings for wear-resistant applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvan, D.; Pei, Y.T.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2005-01-01

    Various methodologies for the characterization of nano-composite coatings are discussed, which consist TiC nano-particles distributed in an amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H) matrix. Complications that arise from the influence of coating roughness and underlying substrate on the properties are evaluated

  5. Sustainable nanocomposites toward electrochemical energy storage and environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiahua

    Energy shortage and environmental pollution are the two most concerns right now for the long term sustainable development of human society. New technology developments are the key solutions to these challenges, which strongly rely on the continuous upgrading of advanced material performance. In this dissertation, sustainable nanocomposites with multifunctionalities are designed and fabricated targeting to the applications in high energy/power density capacitor electrodes and efficient heavy metal adsorbent for polluted water purification. Contrary to the helical carbon structure from pure cotton fabrics under microwave heating and radical oxidized ignition of nanoparticles from conventional heating, magnetic carbon tubular nanocomposite fabrics decorated with unifromally dispersed Co-Co3O4 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a microwave heating process using cotton fabric and inorganic salt as precursors, which have shown better anti-corrosive performance and demonstrated great potential as novel electrochemical pseudocapacitor electrode. Polyaniline nanofibers (PANI-NFs)/graphite oxide (GO) nanocomposites with excellent interfacial interaction and elongated fiber structure were synthesized via a facile interfacial polymerization method. The PANI-NFs/GO hybrid materials showed orders of magnitude enhancement in capacitance and energy density than that of individual GO and PANI-NF components. At the same weight loading of PANI in the composites, fibrous PANI demonstrated higher energy density and long term stability than that of particle-shaped PANI at higher power density. Besides the efforts focusing on the inside of the capacitor including new electrodes, electrolyte materials, and capacitor configuration designs. A significant small external magnetic field (720 Gauss) induced capacitance enhancement is reported for graphene and graphene nanocomposite electrodes. The capacitance of Fe2O3/graphene nanocomposites increases by 154.6% after appling

  6. Experimental analysis of graphene nanocomposite on Kevlar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigandan, S.; Gunasekar, P.; Nithya, S.; Durga Revanth, G.; Anudeep, A. V. S. C.

    2017-08-01

    Graphene nanocomposite is a two dimensional structure which has intense role in material science. This paper investigates the topological property of the graphene nanocomposite doped in Kevlar fiber by direct mixing process. The Kevlar fiber by direct mixing process. The Kevlar fiber taken as the specimen which is fabricated by vacuum bag moulding process. Epoxy used as resin and HY951 as hardener. Three different specimens are fabricated based on the percentage of graphene nanocomposite 2%, 5%, 10% and 20% respectively. We witnessed the strength of the Kevlar fiber is increased when it is treated with nanocomposite. The percentage of the nanocomposite increase the strength of the fiber is increased. However as the nanocomposite beyond 5% the strength of fiber is dropped. In addition, we also seen the interfacial property of the fiber is dropped when the nanocomposite is added beyond threshold limit.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and Monte Carlo simulation of CoFe2O4/Polyvinylpyrrolidone nanocomposites: The coercivity investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaee, Sh; Farjami shayesteh, S.; Mahdavifar, S; Hekmatara, S Hoda.

    2015-01-01

    To study the influence of polymer matrix on the effective magnetic anisotropy constant and coercivity of magnetic nanoparticles, we have synthesized the Cobalt ferrite/Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanocomposites by co-precipitation method in four different processes. In addition the Monte Carlo simulation and law of approach to the saturation magnetization have been applied to achieve the anisotropy constants. The obtained experimental and theoretical results showed a decrease in anisotropy constant relative to the bulk cobalt ferrite. We have showed that the PVP matrix can interact with metal cations and made them approximately immobilized to participate in spinel structure. Hence different anisotropy constants or coercivity were obtained for synthesized nanocomposites. In addition, PVP matrix can attach to the surface of magnetic particles and make them approximately non-interacting. The synthesized samples have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Magnetic measurements were made at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). - Highlights: • We studied the effect of polymer matrix on the coercivity of the CoFe 2 O 4 /PVP nanocomposites. • The polymer matrix decreases the anisotropy of the nanocomposite system. • We have synthesized nanocomposites with approximately the same size, but significantly different coercivity. • We showed that the PVP/CoFe 2 O 4 nanocomposite has the considerable coercivity due to the spin hindrance. • Magnetic properties of nanocomposites simulated by Monte Carlo method

  8. Properties of Eco-friendly Acrylic Resin/Clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Non-aqueous Dispersion (NAD) Polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeongho; Lee, Minho; Jeon, Hyeon Yeol; Min, Byong Hun; Kim, Jeong Ho [Univ. of Suwon, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Chul [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Eco-friendly acrylic resin/clay nanocomposites containing pristine montmorillonite (PM) or modified clays (30B and 25A) were prepared from acrylic and styrenic monomers using non-aqueous dispersion (NAD) polymerization. Effect of nanoclays on physical properties of polymerization product and resulting nanocomposites was investigated. In view of NAD particle stability, addition of nanoclay at the beginning of polymerization is proved to be good. Results of gel fraction, acid value and viscosity of the NAD product showed that nanocomposites containing clay 25A showed better physical properties than the ones with other clays. GPC results exhibit the increase in molecular weight and decrease in polydispersity index for the 25A nanocomposite. Increase in layer distance confirmed from XRD analysis showed good dispersion of 25A in the nanocomposite. Thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis showed that highest glass transition temperature and storage modulus for 25A nanocomposites. These results indicate that 25A nanoclay gives the best properties in the process of non-aqueous dispersion polymerization of acrylic resin/nanoclay nanocomposites.

  9. Properties of Eco-friendly Acrylic Resin/Clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Non-aqueous Dispersion (NAD) Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeongho; Lee, Minho; Jeon, Hyeon Yeol; Min, Byong Hun; Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Young Chul

    2016-01-01

    Eco-friendly acrylic resin/clay nanocomposites containing pristine montmorillonite (PM) or modified clays (30B and 25A) were prepared from acrylic and styrenic monomers using non-aqueous dispersion (NAD) polymerization. Effect of nanoclays on physical properties of polymerization product and resulting nanocomposites was investigated. In view of NAD particle stability, addition of nanoclay at the beginning of polymerization is proved to be good. Results of gel fraction, acid value and viscosity of the NAD product showed that nanocomposites containing clay 25A showed better physical properties than the ones with other clays. GPC results exhibit the increase in molecular weight and decrease in polydispersity index for the 25A nanocomposite. Increase in layer distance confirmed from XRD analysis showed good dispersion of 25A in the nanocomposite. Thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis showed that highest glass transition temperature and storage modulus for 25A nanocomposites. These results indicate that 25A nanoclay gives the best properties in the process of non-aqueous dispersion polymerization of acrylic resin/nanoclay nanocomposites

  10. Development of photopolymerizable clay nanocomposites utilizing reactive dispersants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Adom, Kwame

    Nanocomposites hold tremendous promise for expanding the utility of polymeric materials. However, accessing particulate sizes in the nanoscale domain continues to be a scientific challenge, especially in highly cross-linked photopolymerizable systems. In this study, photopolymerizable nanocomposites utilizing clay nanoparticles and reactive dispersants have been developed. The influence of particle size, dispersant-clay interactions, and surfactant concentration on photopolymerization behavior and nanoparticle dispersion has been elucidated. Clay particles serve as templates upon which surfactants aggregate during photopolymerization. This results in higher photopolymerization rates with addition of increasing concentrations of polymerizable surfactants. Furthermore, polymerizable surfactants induce faster photopolymerization rates compared to non-polymerizable analogues in systems that have ionically-bound dispersants on the particle surface. Utilizing reactive organoclays induces significant changes to the photopolymerization behavior depending on the choice of reactive functionality employed. Faster acrylate photopolymerization rates occur in photopolymer systems containing thiol-modified clays, while much slower rates occur for nonpolymerizable organoclay systems. In addition, chemical compatibility between monomer and clay dispersant (based on chemical similarity or polarity) allows enhancement of exfoliation in photopolymerizable formulations. With polymerizable dispersants, exfoliation is readily achieved in various multifunctional acrylate systems. The degree of exfoliation depends on the position of the reactive group relative to the surfactant's cationic site and the type of functionality. Thiolated organoclays exfoliate during polymerization, while methacrylated clays show substantially less dependence on polymerization behavior. Interestingly, changes in the physical properties of the resulting nanocomposite are independent of the degree of exfoliation

  11. Aerogel nanocomposite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.J.; Ayers, M.; Cao, W. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Aerogels are porous, low density, nanostructured solids with many unusual properties including very low thermal conductivity, good transparency, high surface area, catalytic activity, and low sound velocity. This research is directed toward developing new nanocomposite aerogel materials for improved thermal insulation and several other applications. A major focus of the research has been to further increase the thermal resistance of silica aerogel by introducing infrared opacification agents into the aerogel to produce a superinsulating composite material. Opacified superinsulating aerogel permit a number of industrial applications for aerogel-based insulation. The primary benefits from this recently developed superinsulating composite aerogel insulation are: to extend the range of applications to higher temperatures, to provide a more compact insulation for space sensitive-applications, and to lower costs of aerogel by as much as 30%. Superinsulating aerogels can replace existing CFC-containing polyurethane in low temperature applications to reduce heat losses in piping, improve the thermal efficiency of refrigeration systems, and reduce energy losses in a variety of industrial applications. Enhanced aerogel insulation can also replace steam and process pipe insulation in higher temperature applications to substantially reduce energy losses and provide much more compact insulation.

  12. Stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi-Il; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Na Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy conversion that generate electric energy from ambient mechanical and vibrational movements is promising energy harvesting technology because it can use more accessible energy resources than other renewable natural energy. In particular, flexible and stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesters which can harvest the tiny biomechanical motions inside human body into electricity properly facilitate not only the self-powered energy system for flexible and wearable electronics but also sensitive piezoelectric sensors for motion detectors and in vivo diagnosis kits. Since the piezoelectric ZnO nanowires (NWs)-based energy harvesters (nanogenerators) were proposed in 2006, many researchers have attempted the nanogenerator by using the various fabrication process such as nanowire growth, electrospinning, and transfer techniques with piezoelectric materials including polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer and perovskite ceramics. In 2012, the composite-based nanogenerators were developed using simple, low-cost, and scalable methods to overcome the significant issues with previously-reported energy harvester, such as insufficient output performance and size limitation. This review paper provides a brief overview of flexible and stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator for realizing the self-powered energy system with development history, power performance, and applications.

  13. Structural and magnetic characteristics of PVA/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano-composites prepared via mechanical alloying method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, S.; Ataie, A., E-mail: aataie@ut.ac.ir

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Single phase CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano-particles synthesized in one step by mechanical alloying. • PVA/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} magnetic nano-composites were fabricated via mechanical milling. • FTIR confirmed the interaction between PVA and magnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles. • Increasing in milling time and PVA amount led to well dispersion of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. - Abstract: In this research, polyvinyl alcohol/cobalt ferrite nano-composites were successfully synthesized employing a two-step procedure: the spherical single-phase cobalt ferrite of 20 ± 4 nm mean particle size was synthesized via mechanical alloying method and then embedded into polymer matrix by intensive milling. The results revealed that increase in polyvinyl alcohol content and milling time causes cobalt ferrite particles disperse more homogeneously in polymer matrix, while the mean particle size and shape of cobalt ferrite have not been significantly affected. Transmission electron microscope images indicated that polyvinyl alcohol chains have surrounded the cobalt ferrite nano-particles; also, the interaction between polymer and cobalt ferrite particles in nano-composite samples was confirmed. Magnetic properties evaluation showed that saturation magnetization, coercivity and anisotropy constant values decreased in nano-composite samples compared to pure cobalt ferrite. However, the coercivity values of related nano-composite samples enhanced by increasing PVA amount due to domain wall mechanism.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane for proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Young; Cho, Sung Yong

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the syntheses and characterizations of Nafion/TiO2 membranes for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) were investigated. Porous TiO2 powders were synthesized using the sol-gel method; with Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membranes prepared using the casting method. An X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the synthesized TiO2 had an anatase structure. The specific surface areas of the TiO2 and Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane were found to be 115.97 and 33.91 m2/g using a nitrogen adsorption analyzer. The energy dispersive spectra analysis indicated that the TiO2 particles were uniformly distributed in the nanocomposite membrane. The membrane electrode assembly prepared from the Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane gave the best PEMFC performance compared to the Nafion/P-25 and Nafion membranes.

  15. Nanocomposites of ferroelectric polymers with surface-hydroxylated BaTiO 3 nanoparticles for energy storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Almadhoun, Mahmoud Nassar Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    A facile surface hydroxylation treatment using hydrogen peroxide to modify the surface of BaTiO 3 nanofillers dispersed in a ferroelectric copolymer host has been investigated. We demonstrate that the surface functionalization of the BaTiO 3 nanofillers (<100 nm) with hydroxyl groups results in as much as two orders of magnitude reduction in the leakage current of nanocomposite thin-film capacitors. This reduction is observed concurrently with the enhancement of the effective permittivity and breakdown strength of the thin-film nanocomposites. Surface modified BaTiO 3 particles display better dispersion within the polymer matrix, resulting in enhanced relative permittivity and reduced dielectric loss. The dielectric behavior of the nanocomposite films containing up to 30 vol.% BaTiO 3 agreed well with the Bruggeman model. These results demonstrate the potential of facile surface hydroxylation of nanoparticles towards the fabrication of higher energy-density nanocomposites. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Color formation monitoring of extruded melt mixed PP/MMT nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Kelen C. dos; Bertolino, Marcelo K.

    2009-01-01

    This work advances the use of colorimeter technique to analyze the desegregation of the MMT clay tactoids during the preparation of PP/MMT nanocomposites via polymer melt compounding. X-ray diffraction and the light extinction level (turbidity) measured by the intensity of the detector's signal were used to monitoring platelet exfoliation. On tactoids exfoliation their size are reduced below the minimum particle size to produce light extinction (turbidity) and so the signal intensity reduces as the nano size composite is formed, the luminosity of nanocomposite increased as expected. The color formation was brown, yellow and green and it depends of the organoclay type. (author)

  17. Mechanical reinforcement and segmental dynamics of polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shushan

    The addition of nanofiller into a polymer matrix will dramatically change the physical properties of polymer. The introduction of nanofiller makes the polymer more applicable in many industries, such as automobile tires, coatings, semiconductors, and packaging. The altered properties are not the simple combination of the characters from the two components. The interactions in polymer nanocomposites play an important role in determining the physical properties. This dissertation focuses on the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites (silica/poly-2-vinylpyridine) above their glass transition temperature Tg, as a model for automobile tires, which utilize small silica particles in crosslinked rubber far above Tg. We also investigate the impacts of the interaction between particle filler and polymer matrix on the altered mechanical properties. Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) is used to study the glassy bound polymer layers formed around the particles. The results show evidence of the existence of immobilized polymer layers at the surface of each nanoparticle. At the same time, the thickness of the immobilized polymer layers is quantified and formed to be around 2 nm. Then we consider particles with glassy bound polymer layers are bridged together (either rubbery bridge or glassy bridge) by polymer chains and form small clusters. Clusters finally percolate to form a particle-polymer network as loading fraction increases. Rheology is used to study the network formation, and to predict the boundary of rubbery bridge and glassy bridge regimes. The distance between particles determines the type of polymer bridging. The particle spacing larger than Kuhn length makes flexible (rubbery) bridge with rheology described by a flexible Rouse model for percolation. When the spacing is shorter than the Kuhn length (~ 1nm), stiffer bridge forms instead, which is called glassy bridge. The mechanical differences between rubbery bridge and glassy bridge, and the effect of

  18. The distribution of nanoclay particles at the interface and their influence on the microstructure development and rheological properties of reactively processed biodegradable polylactide/poly(butylene succinate) blend nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salehiyan, Reza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available . Nonlinear coefficient from FT-rheology was found to be more pronounced in case of blends filled with C30B, indicating better dispersion of C30B compare with BET which was in agreement with the SAXS results. Keywords: reactively compatibilized clay... reduced significantly upon C30B addition. Kumar et al. [11] found that Cloisite®20A (C20A) can intercalate and exfoliate into the PLA/PBAT matrices when GMA was used; which indicates that GMA can facilitate the exfoliation of clay particles into the blend...

  19. Synthesis and Applications of Inorganic/Organic-Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Anubha

    This research work focuses on developing new synthesis routes to fabricate polymer nanocomposites tailored towards different applications. A simple, one-step method has been devised for synthesizing free-standing, flexible metal nanoparticle-polydimethylsiloxane films. This process simplifies prevalent methods to synthesize nanocomposites, in that here nanoparticles are created in situ while curing the polymer. This route circumvents the need for pre-synthesized nanoparticles, external reducing agents and stabilizers, thereby significantly reducing processing time and cost. The resulting nanocomposite also demonstrates enhancement in mechanical and antibacterial properties, with other envisaged applications in biomedical devices and catalysis. Applying the same mechanism as that used for the formation of bulk metalsiloxane nanocomposites, metal core-siloxane shell nanoparticles and siloxane nanowires were synthesized, with octadecylsilane as the precursor and in situ formed metal nanoparticles (gold, silver) as the catalyst. This method offers some unique advantages over the previously existing methods. This is a room temperature route which does not require high temperature refluxing or the use of pre-synthesized nanoparticles. Furthermore, this synthesis process gives a control over the shape of resulting nanocomposite structures (1-D wires or 0-D spherical particles). High thermal stability of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) makes it viable to alternatively synthesize metal nanoparticles in the polymer matrix by thermal decomposition process. This technique is generic across a range of metals (palladium, iron, nickel) and results in nanoparticles with a very narrow size distribution. Membranes with palladium nanoparticles demonstrate catalytic activity in ethylene hydrogenation reaction. Additionally, a new nanocomposite electrode has been developed for flexible and light-weight Li-ion batteries. Flexible films were prepared by the integration of the poly

  20. Polyol mediated nano size zinc oxide and nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Organophilic nano ZnO particles have been synthesized in various diols (ethylene glycol – EG, 1,2 propane diol – PD, 1,4 butane diol – BD and tetra(ethylene glycol – TEG in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid, p-TsOH, as an end capping agent. The addition of p-TsOH reduces the ZnO particle size and increases its crystallite size. With increasing diol main chain length the ZnO particle size increases (EG (32 nm < PD (33 nm < BD (72 nm < TEG (86 nm. Using the assynthesized and unmodified ZnO nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate, PMMA, matrix have been prepared by the in-situ bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate, MMA. The addition of surface modifiers is avoided which is an advantage for the application since they can influence other properties of the material. ZnO particles, especially those with smaller particle sizes (EG – 32 nm, PD – 33 nm showed enhanced effect on the thermal stability of PMMA, ultraviolet, UV, absorption and transparency for visible light. Transparent materials with high UV absorption and with enhanced resistance to sunlight were obtained by optimizing the nanocomposite preparation procedure using ZnO particles of about 30 nm size in concentrations between 0.05 and 0.1 wt%. The reported nanocomposite preparation procedure is compatible with the industrial process of PMMA sheet production.

  1. Heterogeneous nanocomposites composed of silver sulfide and hollow structured Pd nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity toward formic acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Dong; Cui, Penglei; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Core–shell Ag-Ag/Pd nanoparticles with an Ag core and an Ag/Pd alloy shell are prepared via galvanic replacement reaction. • Heterogeneous Ag2S-hollow Pd nanocomposites are fabricated by converting the Ag component into Ag2S using element sulfur. • The heterogeneous Ag2S-hollow Pd nanocomposites display enhanced activity for formic acid oxidation due to electronic coupling effect. • The methodology may find applications to produce the semiconductor-metal nanocomposites with interesting architectures and tailored functionalities. - Abstract: Nanocomposites consisting semiconductor and noble metal domains are of great interest for their synergistic effect-based enhanced properties in a given application. Herein, we demonstrate a facile approach for the synthesis of heterogeneous nanocomposites consisting of silver sulfide (Ag 2 S) and hollow structured Pd nanoparticles (hPd). It begins with the preparation of core–shell nanoparticles with an Ag core and an alloy Ag/Pd shell in an organic solvent via galvanic replacement reaction (GRR) between Ag seed particles pre-synthesized and Pd 2+ ion precursors. The Ag component is then removed from the core and shell regions of core–shell Ag-Ag/Pd nanoparticles, and converted into Ag 2 S by elemental sulfur (S). The Ag 2 S forms the semiconductor domain in the nanocomposite and shares the solid-state interface with the resultant hollow structured Pd nanoparticle. As demonstrated, the Ag 2 S-hPd nanocomposites exhibit superior catalytic activity and durability for formic acid oxidation, compared to the pure Pd nanoparticles prepared by oleylamine reduction of Pd ion precursors and commercial Pd/C catalyst, due to the electronic coupling between semiconductor and noble metal domains in the nanocomposites. In addition, the structural transformation from core–shell to heterogeneous nanocomposites may provide new opportunities to design and fabricate hybrid nanostructures with interesting

  2. A simple biogenic route to rapid synthesis of Au-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites by electrochemically active biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob [Yeungnam University, School of Chemical Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Banerjee, Arghya Narayan [Yeungnam University, School of Mechanical Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan, E-mail: mhcho@ynu.ac.kr [Yeungnam University, School of Chemical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Deposition of gold on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles is highly beneficial for maximizing the efficiency of many photocatalytic reactions. In this study, we have reported for the first time the use of an electrochemically active biofilm (EAB) for the synthesis of Au-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite with sodium acetate as the electron donor. The EAB acts as an electron generator for the reduction of gold ions on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. It was observed that the TiO{sub 2} plays not only as a support for the gold nanoparticles but also as a storage of electrons produced by the EAB within the particles. These stored electrons dramatically increase the reduction of gold ions and hence we have observed the formation of the Au-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites within 90 min. A mechanism of the nanocomposite formation is also proposed. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy to monitor the proper formation of the nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic analyses were performed to determine the structural and microstructural properties of the nanocomposites. High-resolution transmission electron micrographs depict the proper formation of the Au-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with gold nanoparticle size varying from 5 to 10 nm with an increase in the gold precursor concentration. Zeta potential measurements were used to investigate surface charges of the as-synthesized nanocomposites. This novel biogenic route represents a unique pathway for the low cost, eco-friendly, rapid, and controlled synthesis of nanostructured Au-TiO{sub 2} hybrid systems which will truly revolutionize the synthetic fields of nanocomposites.

  3. Fabrication and calibration of a piezoelectric nanocomposite paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osho, Samuel; Wu, Nan; Aramfard, Mohammad; Deng, Chuang; Ojo, Olanrewaju

    2018-03-01

    A new liquid form piezoelectric nanocomposite paint material is fabricated with possible applications as dynamic strain sensors and/or piezoelectric transducers. The applied coating is in the form of low-cost paint, which is flexible and bonds strongly on a metallic surface after drying out via the solvent-casting method. The nanocomposite is produced by an ultrasonic mixture of varying percentages of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle water dispersion, poly vinyl acetate glue (PVA) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). ZnO nanoparticles are used as the piezoelectric sensing elements in a PVA matrix of the paint, while CNTs are introduced as robust bridge of ZnO particles enhancing the piezoelectricity and material properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the linkages of ZnO nanoparticles in the composite by CNTs. Through piezoelectricity calibration, the optimum mixing ratio with the highest piezoelectricity is 78.1 wt% ZnO, 19.5 wt% PVA glue and 2.4 wt% multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Through nanoindentation tests for the characterization of the mechanical properties of the nano-composite paint, it is found that Young’s modulus and hardness reached a threshold point in the increment in the addition of CNTs to the paint before showing signs of decline. Detailed analysis and explanation of the calibration results and physical phenomenon are provided. The stable paint material is ready to be applied on rough area of engineering structures as sensor and transducer.

  4. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyazomethine nanocomposites via in situ interlayer polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Ungki; Chang, Jin-Hae

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nanocomposites of polyazomethine with the organoclay C 12 -MMT were synthesized by using the in situ interlayer polymerization method. → The thermal properties of the polyazomethine hybrids increase with the addition of the organoclay up to a critical content and then decrease with further organoclay loading. → Liquid crystalline compositions with 0-9 wt% organoclay have threaded Schlieren nematic textures. - Abstract: Nanocomposites of polyazomethine (PAM) with the organoclay C 12 -MMT were synthesized by using the in situ interlayer polymerization method. The variations with organoclay content of the thermal properties, morphology, and liquid crystalline mesophases of the hybrids were determined for concentrations from 0 to 9 wt% C 12 -MMT. The thermal properties and the morphologies of the PAM nanocomposites were examined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), wide angle X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). The XRD analysis and TEM micrographs show that the levels of nanosize dispersion can be controlled by varying the C 12 -MMT content. The clay particles are better dispersed in the matrix polymer at low clay contents than at high clay contents. With the exception of the glass transition temperature (T g ), the maximum enhancement in the thermal properties was found to arise at an organoclay content of 1 wt%. Further, the PAM hybrids were shown to exhibit a nematic liquid crystalline phase for organoclay contents in the range 0-9 wt%.

  5. Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Cellulose/Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Hua Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a facile, rapid, and green strategy for the synthesis of cellulose/hydroxyapatite (HA nanocomposites using an inorganic phosphorus source (sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate (NaH2PO4·2H2O, or organic phosphorus sources (adenosine 5′-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP, creatine phosphate disodium salt tetrahydrate (CP, or D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate trisodium salt octahydrate (FBP through the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of the phosphorus sources, heating time, and heating temperature on the phase, size, and morphology of the products were systematically investigated. The experimental results revealed that the phosphate sources played a critical role on the phase, size, and morphology of the minerals in the nanocomposites. For example, the pure HA was obtained by using NaH2PO4·2H2O as phosphorus source, while all the ATP, CP, and FBP led to the byproduct, calcite. The HA nanostructures with various morphologies (including nanorods, pseudo-cubic, pseudo-spherical, and nano-spherical particles were obtained by varying the phosphorus sources or adjusting the reaction parameters. In addition, this strategy is surfactant-free, avoiding the post-treatment procedure and cost for the surfactant removal from the product. We believe that this work can be a guidance for the green synthesis of cellulose/HA nanocomposites in the future.

  6. Nanocomposites with biodegradable polycaprolactone matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janigová, I.; Lednický, František; Jochec-Mošková, D.; Chodák, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 301, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-8 ISSN 1022-1360. [Eurofillers /8./. Alessandria, 21.06.2009-25.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : melt mixing * nanocomposite s * organoclay Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  7. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Tactile Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    A multifunctional biomimetic nanocomposite tactile sensor is developed that can detect shear and vertical forces, feel texture, and measure flow with extremely low power consumption. The sensor's high performance is maintained within a wide operating range that can be easily adjusted. The concept works on rigid and flexible substrates and the sensors can be used in air or water without any modifications.

  8. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Tactile Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2015-10-21

    A multifunctional biomimetic nanocomposite tactile sensor is developed that can detect shear and vertical forces, feel texture, and measure flow with extremely low power consumption. The sensor\\'s high performance is maintained within a wide operating range that can be easily adjusted. The concept works on rigid and flexible substrates and the sensors can be used in air or water without any modifications.

  9. How Nano are Nanocomposites (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schafer, Dale W; Justice, Ryan S

    2007-01-01

    ...s (single and multi-walled), and layered silicates. The conclusion is that large-scale disorder is ubiquitous in nanocomposites regardless of the level of dispersion, leading to substantial reduction of mechanical properties (modulus) compared to predictions based on idealized filler morphology.

  10. Correlation between crystallization behaviour and interfacial interactions in plasticized PLA/POSS nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodal, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmet.kodal@kocaeli.edu.tr; Şirin, Hümeyra; Özkoç, Güralp, E-mail: guralp.ozkoc@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kocaeli University, 41380, Kocaeli Turkey (Turkey)

    2016-03-09

    In this study, the correlation between crystallization behavior and surface chemistry of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) for plasticized poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/POSS nanocomposites was investigated. Four different kinds of POSS particles having different chemical structures were used. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, 8000 g/mol) was utilized as the plasticiser. The nanocomposites were melt-compounded in an Xplore Instruments 15 cc twin screw microcompounder at 180°C barrel temperature and 100 rpm screw speed. Non-isothermal crystallization behaviour of PLA/PEG/POSS nanocomposites were evaluated from common kinetic models such as Avrami and Avrami-Ozawa and Kissinger by using the thermal data obtained from differantial scanning calorimetry (DSC). A polarized optical microscope (POM) equipped with a hot-stage was used to examine the morphology during the crystal growth. In order to investigate the interfacial interactions between POSS particles and plasticized PLA, thermodynamic work of adhesion approach was adopted using the experimentally determined surface energies. A strong correlation was obtained between interfacial chemistry and the nucleation rate in plasticized PLA/POSS nanocomposites. It was found that the polar interactions were the dominating factor which determines the nucleation activity of the POSS particles.

  11. Synthesis of polymer/inorganic nanocomposite films using highly porous inorganic scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanjun; Popp, Matthias; Hartwig, Andreas; Mädler, Lutz

    2012-04-07

    Polymeric/inorganic nanocomposite films have been fabricated through a combination of flame-spray-pyrolysis (FSP) made inorganic scaffold and surface initiated polymerization of cyanoacrylate. The highly porous structure of pristine SnO(2) films allows the uptake of cyanoacrylate and the polymerization is surface initiated by the water adsorbed onto the SnO(2) surface. Scanning electron microscopy study reveals a nonlinear increase in the composite particle size and the film thickness with polymerization time. The structural change is rather homogeneous throughout the whole layer. The composite is formed mainly by an increase of the particle size and not by just filling the existing pores. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging shows SnO(2) nanoparticles embedded in the polymeric matrix, constituting the nanocomposite material. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the porosity of the nanocomposite films decreases from 98% to 75%, resulting in a significant enhancement of the hardness of the films. DC conductivity measurements conducted in situ on the nanocomposite layer suggest a gradual increase in the layer resistance, pointing to a loss of connectivity between the SnO(2) primary particles as the polymerization proceeds. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  12. Gold/Chitosan Nanocomposites with Specific Near Infrared Absorption for Photothermal Therapy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guandong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold/chitosan nanocomposites were synthesized and evaluated as a therapeutic agent for the photothermal therapy. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs with controllable optical absorption in the near infrared (NIR region were prepared by the reaction of chloroauric acid and sodium thiosulfate. To apply these particles to cancer therapy, the bare Au NPs were coated with chitosan (CS, O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS, and a blend of CS and CMCS for utilizations in physiologic conditions. The surface properties, optical stability, and photothermal ablation efficiency on hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 and human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF demonstrate that these gold nanocomposites have great potential as a therapeutic agent in in vitro tests. The CS-coated nanocomposites show the highest efficiency for the photo-ablation on the HepG2 cells, and the CS and CMCS blended coated particles show the best discrimination between the cancer cell and normal cells. The well-controlled NIR absorption and the biocompatible surface of these nanocomposites allow low-power NIR laser activation and low-dosage particle injection for the cancer cell treatment.

  13. Microstructural characterization of Mg-based bulk metallic glass and nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babilas, Rafał, E-mail: rafal.babilas@polsl.pl [Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 18a St., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Nowosielski, Ryszard; Pawlyta, Mirosława [Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 18a St., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Fitch, Andy [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS40220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Burian, Andrzej [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4 St., 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    New magnesium-based bulk metallic glasses Mg{sub 60}Cu{sub 30}Y{sub 10} have been prepared by pressure casting. Glassy alloys were successfully annealed to become nanocomposite containing 200 nm crystallites in an amorphous matrix. The microstructure of bulk glassy alloy and nanocomposite obtained during heat treatment was examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning and high-resolution electron microscopy. Metallic glass has been also studied to explain the structural characteristics by the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling based on the diffraction data. The HRTEM images allow to indicate some medium-range order (MRO) regions about 2–3 nm in size and formation of local atomic clusters. The RMC modeling results confirmed some kinds of short range order (SRO) structures. It was found that the structure of bulk metallic glass formed by the pressure casting is homogeneous. The composite material contained very small particles in the amorphous matrix. Homogeneous glassy alloy had better corrosion resistance than a composite containing nanocrystalline particles in a glassy matrix. - Highlights: • RMC modeling demonstrates some kinds of SRO structures in Mg-based BMGs. • HRTEM indicated MRO regions about 2–3 nm and SRO regions about 0.5 nm in size. • Mg-based glassy alloys were successfully annealed to become nanocomposite material. • Crystalline particles have spherical morphology with an average diameter of 200 nm. • Glassy alloy had higher corrosion resistance than a nanocomposite sample.

  14. Zirconium tungstate/epoxy nanocomposites: effect of nanoparticle morphology and negative thermal expansivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongchao; Rogalski, Mark; Kessler, Michael R

    2013-10-09

    The ability to tailor the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of a polymer is essential for mitigating thermal residual stress and reducing microcracks caused by CTE mismatch of different components in electronic applications. This work studies the effect of morphology and thermal expansivity of zirconium tungstate nanoparticles on the rheological, thermo-mechanical, dynamic-mechanical, and dielectric properties of ZrW2O8/epoxy nanocomposites. Three types of ZrW2O8 nanoparticles were synthesized under different hydrothermal conditions and their distinct properties were characterized, including morphology, particle size, aspect ratio, surface area, and CTE. Nanoparticles with a smaller particle size and larger surface area led to a more significant reduction in gel-time and glass transition temperature of the epoxy nanocomposites, while a higher initial viscosity and significant shear thinning behavior was found in prepolymer suspensions containing ZrW2O8 with larger particle sizes and aspect ratios. The thermo- and dynamic-mechanical properties of epoxy-based nanocomposites improved with increasing loadings of the three types of ZrW2O8 nanoparticles. In addition, the introduced ZrW2O8 nanoparticles did not negatively affect the dielectric constant or the breakdown strength of the epoxy resin, suggesting potential applications of ZrW2O8/epoxy nanocomposites in the microelectronic insulation industry.

  15. Synthesis and characteristics of Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites by arc-discharge solution plasma processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pootawang, Panuphong; Saito, Nagahiro; Takai, Osamu; Lee, Sang-Yul

    2012-10-05

    Arc discharge in solution, generated by applying a high voltage of unipolar pulsed dc to electrodes of Ag and Pt, was used as a method to form Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites via electrode erosion by the effects of the electric arc at the cathode (Ag rod) and the sputtering at the anode (Pt rod). Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites were formed as colloidal particles dispersed in solution via the reduction of hydrogen radicals generated during discharge without the addition of chemical precursor or reducing agent. At a discharge time of 30 s, the fine bimetallic nanoparticles with a mean particle size of approximately 5 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). With increasing discharge time, the bimetallic nanoparticle size tended to increase by forming an agglomeration. The presence of the relatively small amount of Pt dispersed in the Ag matrix could be observed by the analytical mapping mode of energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and high-resolution TEM. This demonstrated that the synthesized particle was in the form of a nanocomposite. No contamination of other chemical substances was detected by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Hence, solution plasma could be a clean and simple process to effectively synthesize Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites and it is expected to be widely applicable in the preparation of several types of nanoparticle.

  16. Correlation between crystallization behaviour and interfacial interactions in plasticized PLA/POSS nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodal, Mehmet; Şirin, Hümeyra; Özkoç, Güralp

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the correlation between crystallization behavior and surface chemistry of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) for plasticized poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/POSS nanocomposites was investigated. Four different kinds of POSS particles having different chemical structures were used. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, 8000 g/mol) was utilized as the plasticiser. The nanocomposites were melt-compounded in an Xplore Instruments 15 cc twin screw microcompounder at 180°C barrel temperature and 100 rpm screw speed. Non-isothermal crystallization behaviour of PLA/PEG/POSS nanocomposites were evaluated from common kinetic models such as Avrami and Avrami-Ozawa and Kissinger by using the thermal data obtained from differantial scanning calorimetry (DSC). A polarized optical microscope (POM) equipped with a hot-stage was used to examine the morphology during the crystal growth. In order to investigate the interfacial interactions between POSS particles and plasticized PLA, thermodynamic work of adhesion approach was adopted using the experimentally determined surface energies. A strong correlation was obtained between interfacial chemistry and the nucleation rate in plasticized PLA/POSS nanocomposites. It was found that the polar interactions were the dominating factor which determines the nucleation activity of the POSS particles.

  17. Stress development in particulate, nano-composite and polymeric coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Karan

    2009-12-01

    The main goal of this research is to study the stress, structural and mechanical property development during the drying of particulate coatings, nano-composite coatings and VOC compliant refinish clearcoats. The results obtained during this research establish the mechanism for the stress development during drying in various coating systems. Coating stress was measured using a controlled environment stress apparatus based on cantilever deflection principle. The stress evolution in alumina coatings made of 0.4 mum size alumina particles was studied and the effect of a lateral drying was investigated. The stress does not develop until the later stages of drying. A peak stress was observed during drying and the peak stress originates due to the formation of pendular rings between the particles. Silica nanocomposite coatings were fabricated from suspension of nano sized silicon dioxide particles (20 nm) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer. The stress in silica nano-composite goes through maximum as the amount of polymer in the coating increases. The highest final stress was found to be ˜ 110MPa at a PVA content of 60 wt%. Observations from SEM, nitrogen gas adsorption, camera imaging, and nano-indentation were also studied to correlate the coatings properties during drying to measured stress. A model VOC compliant two component (2K) acrylic-polyol refinish clearcoat was prepared to study the effects of a new additive on drying, curing, rheology and stress development at room temperature. Most of the drying of the low VOC coatings occurred before appreciable (20%) crosslinking. Tensile stress developed in the same timeframe as drying and then relaxed over a longer time scale. Model low VOC coatings prepared with the additive had higher peak stresses than those without the additive. In addition, rheological data showed that the additive resulted in greater viscosity buildup during drying.

  18. Facile hydrothermal growth graphene/ZnO nanocomposite for development of enhanced biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Sze Shin [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia); Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, Center of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia); Tan, Michelle T.T., E-mail: Michelle.Tan@nottingham.edu.my [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia); Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, Center of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia); Loh, Hwei-San [School of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia); Biotechnology Research Centre, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia); Khiew, Poi Sim [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, Center of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia); Chiu, Wee Siong [Low Dimensional Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-01-15

    Graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite was synthesised via a facile, green and efficient approach consisted of novel liquid phase exfoliation and solvothermal growth for sensing application. Highly pristine graphene was synthesised through mild sonication treatment of graphite in a mixture of ethanol and water at an optimum ratio. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) affirmed the hydrothermal growth of pure zinc oxide nanoparticles from zinc nitrate hexahydrate precursor. The as-prepared graphene/zinc oxide (G/ZnO) nanocomposite was characterised comprehensively to evaluate its morphology, crystallinity, composition and purity. All results clearly indicate that zinc oxide particles were homogenously distributed on graphene sheets, without any severe aggregation. The electrochemical performance of graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry analysis. The resulting electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in a linear range of 1–15 mM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9977. The sensitivity of the graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite-modified hydrogen peroxide sensor was 3.2580 μAmM{sup −1} with a limit of detection of 7.4357 μM. An electrochemical DNA sensor platform was then fabricated for the detection of Avian Influenza H5 gene based on graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite. The results obtained from amperometry study indicate that the graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite-enhanced electrochemical DNA biosensor is significantly more sensitive (P < 0.05) and efficient than the conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. - Highlights: • One step, green and facile exfoliation of graphite in ethanol/water mixture. • G/ZnO nanocomposite prepared via simple, green low temperature solvothermal method. • CV and amperometric study of G/ZnO nanocomposite towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with R{sup 2} of 0.9977.

  19. Size-controlled in situ synthesis and photo-responsive properties of silver/poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposite films with high silver content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Cheng; Li Junguo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Luo Guoqiang, E-mail: qhy2013@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xiong Yuanlu; Zhang Qiang; Shen Lianmeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films with high silver content are prepared by in situ synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size of Ag nanoparticles can be controlled by reaction time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrical properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposites films shows enhancement compared with the pure PMMA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recycle photo-responsive properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films are proposed. - Abstract: Ag/PMMA nanocomposites have attracted much attention due to its superior mechanical, optical and electrical properties. In this article, Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films with high silver content (20 wt%) have been successfully in situ synthesized. UV-vis analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), current-voltage (I-V) analysis, hall effect measurement system and electrochemical workstation are used to characterize the nanocomposite films. The results reveal that silver nanoparticles (NPs) homogeneously distribute in PMMA films and the particles size of silver NPs which has been controlled from 1.68 to 6.98 nm. Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films show electrical properties due to the conduction paths created by Ag nanoparticles. With the increasing diameter of silver NPs, the current density decreases and resistivity increases, respectively. Photo-responsive properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films indicate that conduction paths could be destroyed by illumination and rebuilt in dark condition.

  20. Size-controlled in situ synthesis and photo-responsive properties of silver/poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposite films with high silver content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Cheng; Li Junguo; Luo Guoqiang; Xiong Yuanlu; Zhang Qiang; Shen Lianmeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films with high silver content are prepared by in situ synthesis. ► The size of Ag nanoparticles can be controlled by reaction time. ► The electrical properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposites films shows enhancement compared with the pure PMMA. ► The recycle photo-responsive properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films are proposed. - Abstract: Ag/PMMA nanocomposites have attracted much attention due to its superior mechanical, optical and electrical properties. In this article, Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films with high silver content (20 wt%) have been successfully in situ synthesized. UV–vis analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), current–voltage (I–V) analysis, hall effect measurement system and electrochemical workstation are used to characterize the nanocomposite films. The results reveal that silver nanoparticles (NPs) homogeneously distribute in PMMA films and the particles size of silver NPs which has been controlled from 1.68 to 6.98 nm. Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films show electrical properties due to the conduction paths created by Ag nanoparticles. With the increasing diameter of silver NPs, the current density decreases and resistivity increases, respectively. Photo-responsive properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films indicate that conduction paths could be destroyed by illumination and rebuilt in dark condition.

  1. Structure and red shift of optical band gap in CdO–ZnO nanocomposite synthesized by the sol gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosquera, Edgar, E-mail: edemova@ing.uchile.cl [Laboratorio de Materiales a Nanoescala, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Tupper 2069, Santiago (Chile); Pozo, Ignacio del, E-mail: ignacio.dpf@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Matemáticas y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Av. José Pedro Alessandri 1242, Santiago (Chile); Morel, Mauricio, E-mail: mmorel@ing.uchile.cl [Laboratorio de Materiales a Nanoescala, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Tupper 2069, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-10-15

    The structure and the optical band gap of CdO–ZnO nanocomposites were studied. Characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) analysis confirms that CdO phase is present in the nanocomposites. TEM analysis confirms the formation of spheroidal nanoparticles and nanorods. The particle size was calculated from Debey–Sherrer′s formula and corroborated by TEM images. FTIR spectroscopy shows residual organic materials (aromatic/Olefinic carbon) from nanocomposites surface. CdO content was modified in the nanocomposites in function of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) added. The optical band gap is found to be red shift from 3.21 eV to 3.11 eV with the increase of CdO content. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements reveal the existence of defects in the synthesized CdO–ZnO nanocomposites. - Graphical abstract: Optical properties of ZnO, CdO and ZnO/CdO nanoparticles. Display Omitted - Highlights: • TEM analysis confirms the presence of spherical nanoparticles and nanorods. • The CdO phase is present in the nanocomposites. • The band gap of the CdO–ZnO nanocomposites is slightly red shift with CdO content. • PL emission of CdO–ZnO nanocomposite are associated to structural defects.

  2. Structure, mechanical and magnetic properties of Al4C3 reinforced nickel matrix nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Alok Kumar; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Singh, V. B.

    2018-05-01

    A new type of nanocomposite, Ni-Al4C3 was prepared using Al4C3 as reinforcement by cathodic co-deposition at different current densities (1.0 to 5.0 A dm‑2) from a nickel acetate-N-methyl formamide (non-aqueous) bath. Influence of current density and incorporation of Al4C3 particles in nickel matrix on the structure and properties of the composite coatings was investigated. Surface morphology and composition of the deposits were determined by SEM and EDAX. Crystallographic structure and orientation of the electrodeposited Ni-Al4C3 composite were studied by x-ray diffraction. Compared to nickel metal, these nanocomposites exhibited finer grains, higher microhardness, improved corrosion resistance and enhanced soft magnetic properties. Composite deposited at higher current densities (>2 A dm‑2) shows mild texturing along (200) plane. The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure, texture and microhardness of the nanocomposites was also investigated.

  3. Morphological, viscoelastic and mechanical characterization of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creusa Iara Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The viscoelastic, mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites with different contents of nanofiller were investigated. According to transmission electron microscopy results, the nanofiller particles were homogeneously dispersed in the matrix. The rheological properties indicated that incorporation of graphite improved the matrix stiffness and had a reinforcing effect. Exfoliated graphite had a weak interaction with the polypropylene. The behavior of the nanocomposites was similar to that of polypropylene in terms of the interfacial detachment inferred from the transmission electron microscopy images and of their G' (storage and G'' (loss moduli, and viscosity. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites compared to the matrix improved significantly for the flexural and storage moduli with little loss of impact strength.

  4. One-step synthesis and structural features of CdS/montmorillonite nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaohui; Zhu, Huaiyong; Bulcock, Shaun R; Ringer, Simon P

    2005-02-24

    A novel synthesis method was introduced for the nanocomposites of cadmium sulfide and montmorillonite. This method features the combination of an ion exchange process and an in situ hydrothermal decomposition process of a complex precursor, which is simple in contrast to the conventional synthesis methods that comprise two separate steps for similar nanocomposite materials. Cadmium sulfide species in the composites exist in the forms of pillars and nanoparticles, the crystallized sulfide particles are in the hexagonal phase, and the sizes change when the amount of the complex for the synthesis is varied. Structural features of the nanocomposites are similar to those of the clay host but changed because of the introduction of the sulfide into the clay.

  5. Optimizing Properties of Aluminum-Based Nanocomposites by Genetic Algorithm Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Dashtbayazi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on molecular dynamics simulation results, a model was developed for determining elastic properties of aluminum nanocomposites reinforced with silicon carbide particles. Also, two models for prediction of density and price of nanocomposites were suggested. Then, optimal volume fraction of reinforcement was obtained by genetic algorithm method for the least density and price, and the highest elastic properties. Based on optimization results, the optimum volume fraction of reinforcement was obtained equal to 0.44. For this optimum volume fraction, optimum Young’s modulus, shear modulus, the price and the density of the nanocomposite were obtained 165.89 GPa, 111.37 GPa, 8.75 $/lb and 2.92 gr/cm3, respectively.

  6. Preparation and characterization of new polyamide/montmorillonite nanocomposites containing azo moiety in the main chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Faghihi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new samples of polyamide/montmorillonite reinforced nanocomposites containing 4,4′-azobenzoic acid moiety in the main chain were synthesized by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Polyamide (PA 4 as a source of polymer matrix was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of 4,4′-azobenzoic acid 2 with 4,4′-diamino diphenyl ether 3 in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP, CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP. Morphology and structure of the resulting PA-nanocomposite films 4a and 4b with 10 and 20% silicate particles were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nanocomposites films were investigated by using UV–vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and water uptake measurements.

  7. Morphological, viscoelastic and mechanical characterization of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Creusa Iara; Oliveira, Ricardo Vinicius Bof de; Mauler, Raquel Santos, E-mail: raquel.mauler@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PGCIMAT/IQ/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bianchi, Otavio [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (PGMAT/CCET/UCS), RS (Brazil); Oviedo, Mauro Alfredo Soto [Braskem S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The viscoelastic, mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites with different contents of nanofiller were investigated. According to transmission electron microscopy results, the nanofiller particles were homogeneously dispersed in the matrix. The rheological properties indicated that incorporation of graphite improved the matrix stiffness and had a reinforcing effect. Exfoliated graphite had a weak interaction with the polypropylene. The behavior of the nanocomposites was similar to that of polypropylene in terms of the interfacial detachment inferred from the transmission electron microscopy images and of their G' (storage) and G' (loss) moduli, and viscosity. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites compared to the matrix improved significantly for the flexural and storage moduli with little loss of impact strength. (author)

  8. Production of porous filter elements from PEUAPM nanocomposites and silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzo, M.A.; Hui, W.S.

    2014-01-01

    The production of filter elements for water based in polymers is widespread in the market, but has an undesirable characteristic: they are not efficient and able to retain or eliminate microorganisms at all times. This paper proposes to produce nanocomposite filters with biocidal properties composed of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene(UHMWPE) and silver nanoparticles, the UHMWPE is responsible for the uniform porous structure of the filters and the silver nanoparticles incorporated on the polymer are responsible for the biocide action. Particulate polymer that presents a different particle size curve was used for sintering the filters. Samples of filter elements obtained in this work were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDS microanalysis. The results indicated a porosity of approximately 49% in the filter, and the formation of the nanocomposite. key-words: nanocomposites, silver, UHMWPE, filter elements. (author)

  9. Morphological, viscoelastic and mechanical characterization of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Creusa Iara; Oliveira, Ricardo Vinicius Bof de; Mauler, Raquel Santos, E-mail: raquel.mauler@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PGCIMAT/IQ/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bianchi, Otavio [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (PGMAT/CCET/UCS), RS (Brazil); Oviedo, Mauro Alfredo Soto [Braskem S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The viscoelastic, mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites with different contents of nanofiller were investigated. According to transmission electron microscopy results, the nanofiller particles were homogeneously dispersed in the matrix. The rheological properties indicated that incorporation of graphite improved the matrix stiffness and had a reinforcing effect. Exfoliated graphite had a weak interaction with the polypropylene. The behavior of the nanocomposites was similar to that of polypropylene in terms of the interfacial detachment inferred from the transmission electron microscopy images and of their G' (storage) and G' (loss) moduli, and viscosity. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites compared to the matrix improved significantly for the flexural and storage moduli with little loss of impact strength. (author)

  10. Microstructural evolution of alumina-zirconia nanocomposites; Evolucao microestrutural de nanocompositos alumina-zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojaimi, C.L.; Chinelatto, A.S.A.; Chinelatto, A.L. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil); Pallone, E.M.J.A., E-mail: christianelago@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos

    2012-07-01

    Ceramic materials have limited use due to their brittleness. The inclusion of nanosized particles in a ceramic matrix, which are called nanocomposites, and ceramic processing control by controlling the grain size and densification can aid in obtaining ceramic products of greater strength and toughness. Studies showed that the zirconia nano inclusions in the matrix of alumina favors an increase in mechanical properties by inhibiting the grain growth of the matrix and not by the mechanism of the transformation toughening phase of zirconia. In this work, the microstructural evolution of alumina nanocomposites containing 15% by volume of nanometric zirconia was studied. From the results it was possible to understand the sintering process of these nanocomposites. (author)

  11. Dynamic mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite/polyethylene oxide nanocomposites: characterizing isotropic and post-processing microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofner, Meisha; Lee, Ji Hoon

    2012-02-01

    Compatible component interfaces in polymer nanocomposites can be used to facilitate a dispersed morphology and improved physical properties as has been shown extensively in experimental results concerning amorphous matrix nanocomposites. In this research, a block copolymer compatibilized interface is employed in a semi-crystalline matrix to prevent large scale nanoparticle clustering and enable microstructure construction with post-processing drawing. The specific materials used are hydroxyapatite nanoparticles coated with a polyethylene oxide-b-polymethacrylic acid block copolymer and a polyethylene oxide matrix. Two particle shapes are used: spherical and needle-shaped. Characterization of the dynamic mechanical properties indicated that the two nanoparticle systems provided similar levels of reinforcement to the matrix. For the needle-shaped nanoparticles, the post-processing step increased matrix crystallinity and changed the thermomechanical reinforcement trends. These results will be used to further refine the post-processing parameters to achieve a nanocomposite microstructure with triangulated arrays of nanoparticles.

  12. Clever House Made by Using a New Kind of the Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Ponomarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The materials of this paper concern a new nanocomposites perspective for construction. The development of research in the field of production and application of nanocomposite materials has made it possible to develop building materials, having high exploitation characteristics. One of such materials is a polydisperse armed water soluble epoxy composite coat, named “EpoxyPAN.” This material consists of the water soluble epoxy resin filled by the high strength inorganic fillers and the unique nanocarbon particles, astralenes and nanoporous microfiber. It was found that EpoxyPAN is possible to be used as effective water protection coating and simultaneously as effective electromagnetic waves absorber. The physical and exploitation properties of this nanocomposite and the possible ways of its applications for the Clever House constructions are also described in this paper.

  13. Nanocrystalline functional materials and nanocomposites synthesis through aerosol routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Olivera B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the results of the design of functional nanocrystalline powders and nanocomposites using chemical reactions in aerosols. The process involves ultrasonic aerosol formation (mist generators with the resonant frequencies of 800 kHz, 1.7 and 2.5 MHz from precursor salt solutions and control over the aerosol decomposition in a high-temperature tubular flow reactor. During decomposition, the aerosol droplets undergo evaporation/drying, precipitation and thermolysis in a single-step process. Consequently, spherical, solid, agglomerate-free submicronic particles are obtained. The particle morphology, revealed as a composite structure consisting of primary crystallites smaller than 20 nm was analysed by several methods (XRD, DSC/DTA, SEM, TEM and discussed in terms of precursor chemistry and process parameters. Following the initial attempts, a more detailed aspect of nanocrystalline particle synthesis was demonstrated for the case of nanocomposites based on ZnO-MeO (MeO=Bi Cr+, suitable for electronic applications, as well as an yttrium-aluminum base complex system, suitable for phosphorus applications. The results imply that parts of the material structure responsible for different functional behaviour appear through in situ aerosol synthesis by processes of intraparticle agglomeration, reaction and sintering in the last synthesis stage.

  14. Formation of Silver and Gold Dendrimer Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, Lajos; Valluzzi, Regina; Laverdure, Kenneth S.; Gido, Samuel P.; Hagnauer, Gary L.; Tomalia, Donald A.

    1999-01-01

    Structural types of dendrimer nanocomposites have been studied and the respective formation mechanisms have been described, with illustration of nanocomposites formed from poly(amidoamine) PAMAM dendrimers and zerovalent metals, such as gold and silver. Structure of {(Au(0)) n- PAMAM} and {(Ag(0)) n- PAMAM} gold and silver dendrimer nanocomposites was found to be the function of the dendrimer structure and surface groups as well as the formation mechanism and the chemistry involved. Three different types of single nanocomposite architectures have been identified, such as internal ('I'), external ('E') and mixed ('M') type nanocomposites. Both the organic and inorganic phase could form nanosized pseudo-continuous phases while the other components are dispersed at the molecular or atomic level either in the interior or on the surface of the template/container. Single units of these nanocomposites may be used as building blocks in the synthesis of nanostructured materials

  15. Oxide/polymer nanocomposites as new luminescent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollath, D.; Szabó, D. V.; Schlabach, S.

    2004-06-01

    It is demonstrated that nanocomposites, consisting of an electrically insulating oxide core and PMMA coating exhibit strong luminescence. This luminescence is connected to the interface, where PMMA is bond via a carboxylate bonding to the surface. In this case, luminescence is originated at the carbonyl group of the coating polymer. With decreasing particle size, this emission shows a blue shift, following a law inversely the ones found for quantum confinement systems. For semi-conducting oxides, such as ZnO, this interface related emission is found additionally to quantum confinement phenomena.

  16. Sonochemical Method for Casting the Polymer Nanocomposites: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arthisree

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present nano science domain focussed on sample preparation and inhibition of chemical reaction achieved by several techniques based on the principle of cavitation process using ultrasonic frequency-sonochemical routes. The effect of sonochemical routes is highly advantageous in reaction methods such as triggering reaction pathways, inducing the speedy reaction of inter-particle collision. In polymers, high intensity ultrasound waves are used for the polymerization of monomers by step growth process. This review is an outlook of sonochemical approach for polymer nanocomposites, which follows the physics of ultrasonic frequency bands, chemical reactions and the properties of acoustic cavitation highly applicable for the development of modern target materials.

  17. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2016-02-09

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  18. Epoxy polyurethane nanocomposites filled with fullerite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhnova, R.A.; Galatenko, N.A.; Lukashevich, S.A.; Shirokov, O.D.; Levenets', Je.G.

    2015-01-01

    New nanocomposite materials based on epoxy polyurethane (EPU) containing nanoscale fullerite in its composition are produced. The influence of small impurities of fullerite on physical and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites is established. The effect of a nanofiller and its concentration on the structure and properties of the composite and the ability to biodegradation in vitro is studied. The developed nanocomposites exhibit the biodegradability, and the presence of nanofillers in the EPU facilitates the course of the process

  19. Fracture behavior of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Wang, Ke; Kotaki, Masaya; Hu, Charmaine; He, Chaobin

    2006-12-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/clay nanocomposites have been prepared via a reactive compounding approach with an epoxy based masterbatch. Compared with PP and common PP/organoclay nanocomposites, the PP/clay nanocomposites based on epoxy/clay masterbatch have higher impact strength. The phenomenon can be attributed to the epoxy phase dispersed uniformly in the PP matrix, which may act as impact energy absorber and helps to form a large damage zone, thus a higher impact strength value is achieved.

  20. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2017-12-19

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  1. Ionic Liquid-Modified Thermosets and Their Nanocomposites: Dispersion, Exfoliation, Degradation, and Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, James A.

    This dissertation explores the application of a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) to problems in the chemistry, processing, and modification of thermosetting polymers. In particular, the solution properties and reaction chemistry of 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium dicyanamide (EMIM-DCN) are applied to problems of nanoparticle dispersion and processing, graphite exfoliation, cyanate ester (CE) cure, and the environmental degradation of CEs. Nanoparticle Dispersion: Nanocomposite processing can be simplified by using the same compound as both a nanoparticle solvent and an initiator for polymerization. This dual-function molecule can be designed both for solvent potential and reaction chemistry. EMIM-DCN, previously shown by our lab to act as an epoxy initiator, is used in the synthesis of silica and acid expanded graphite composites. These composites are then characterized for particle dispersion and physical properties. Individual particle dispersion of silica nanocomposites is shown, and silica nanocomposites at low loading show individual particle dispersion and improved modulus and fracture toughness. GNP nanocomposites show a 70% increase in modulus along with a 10-order of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity at 6.5 vol%, and an electrical percolation threshold of 1.7 vol%. Direct Graphite Exfoliation By Laminar Shear: This work presents a laminar-shear alternative to chemical processing and chaotic flow-fields for the direct exfoliation of graphite and the single-pot preparation of nanocomposites. Additionally, we develop the theory of laminar flow through a 3-roll mill, and apply that theory to the latest developments in the theory of graphite interlayer shear. The resulting nanocomposite shows low electrical percolation (0.5 vol%) and low thickness (1-3 layer) graphite/graphene flakes. Additionally, the effect of processing conditions by rheometry and comparison with solvent-free conditions reveal the interactions between processing and matrix

  2. Silk fibroin/gold nanocrystals: a new example of biopolymer-based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noinville, S.; Garnier, A.; Courty, A.

    2017-05-01

    The dispersion of nanoparticles in ordered polymer nanostructures can provide control over particle location and orientation, and pave the way for tailored nanomaterials that have enhanced mechanical, electrical, or optical properties. Here we used silk fibroin, a natural biopolymer, to embed gold nanocrystals (NCs), so as to obtain well-ordered structures such as nanowires and self-assembled triangular nanocomposites. Monodisperse gold NCs synthesized in organic media are mixed to silk fibroin and the obtained nanocomposites are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Infrared spectroscopy. The optical properties study of gold NCs and silk-gold nanocomposites shows that the Surface Plasmon band is blue shifted compared to gold NCs. The size and shape of NCs gold superlattices can be well controlled by the presence of silk fibroin giving nanowires and also self-assembled triangular nanocomposites as characterized by TEM, FE-SEM and AFM. The strong interaction between gold NCs and silk fibroin is also revealed by the conformation change of silk protein in presence of gold NCs, as shown by FTIR analysis. The formation of such ordered nanocomposites (gold NCs/silk fibroin) will provide new nanoplasmonic devices.

  3. Tyrosine-derived polycarbonate-silica xerogel nanocomposites for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, M C; Vaughan, A D; Qu, H; Ducheyne, P; Devore, D I

    2013-05-01

    Biodegradable polymer-ceramic composites offer significant potential advantages in biomedical applications where the properties of either polymers or ceramics alone are insufficient to meet performance requirements. Here we demonstrate the highly tunable mechanical and controlled drug delivery properties accessible with novel biodegradable nanocomposites prepared by non-covalent binding of silica xerogels and co-polymers of tyrosine-poly(ethylene glycol)-derived poly(ether carbonate). The Young's moduli of the nanocomposites exceed by factors of 5-20 times those of the co-polymers or of composites made with micron scale silica particles. Increasing the fraction of xerogel in the nanocomposites increases the glass transition temperature and the mechanical strength, but decreases the equilibrium water content, which are all indicative of strong non-covalent interfacial interactions between the co-polymers and the silica nanoparticles. Sustained, tunable controlled release of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutic agents from the nanocomposites is demonstrated with two clinically significant drugs, rifampicin and bupivacaine. Bupivacaine exhibits an initial small burst release followed by slow release over the 7 day test period. Rifampicin release fits the diffusion-controlled Higuchi model and the amount released exceeds the dosage required for treatment of clinically challenging infections. These nanocomposites are thus attractive biomaterials for applications such as wound dressings, tissue engineering substrates and stents. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The radioluminescence and optical behaviour of nanocomposites with CdSeS quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, İ.Ç., E-mail: ilkercetinkeskin@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Celal Bayar University, Manisa-Turkey (Turkey); Türemiş, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Celal Bayar University, Manisa-Turkey (Turkey); Katı, M.İ. [Experimental Science Applications and Research Center, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Kibar, R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Celal Bayar University, Manisa-Turkey (Turkey); Şirin, K. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Celal Bayar University, Manisa-Turkey (Turkey); Çipiloğlu, M.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Celal Bayar University, Manisa-Turkey (Turkey); Kuş, M.; Büyükçelebi, S. [Advanced Technology Research and Application, Center Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Çetin, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Celal Bayar University, Manisa-Turkey (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    In this work, highly luminescent alloyed CdSeS QDs are successfully synthesized by two phase route method by using oleic acid (OA) as a surfactant. OA capped CdSeS QDs prepared in two different synthesis duration were compared in terms of luminescence and optical properties. The nanocomposites blended with CdSeS QDs which have highly luminescent efficiency in different ratios by Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and these nanocomposites were mainly investigated radioluminescence (RL) and optical properties (UV/VIS absorption). Structural, morphological, thermal properties of the nanocrystal and nanocomposites were examined using; XRD, FT-IR, TEM, SEM, TG-DTA techniques. OA capped CdSeS and also nanocomposites were showed two RL spectrum peaks in green and red region at around 528 nm and 710 nm respectively. Also, it is seen that the radioluminescence intensity changes linearly with the particle size of the QDs and about 12% size change of quantum dot led to a threefold increase in RL intensity. The luminescence glow curves are in compliance with absorption and fluorescence spectra. The absorption bands showed a significant blue shift for the nanocomposites as compare to powder CdSeS. The optical band gap of the OA capped CdSeS calculated as 1.77 eV. It was observed that the optical band gap of LDPE was decreased by the adding ratio of CdSeS from 3.71 eV to 2.25 eV.

  5. The radioluminescence and optical behaviour of nanocomposites with CdSeS quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, İ.Ç.; Türemiş, M.; Katı, M.İ.; Kibar, R.; Şirin, K.; Çipiloğlu, M.A.; Kuş, M.; Büyükçelebi, S.; Çetin, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, highly luminescent alloyed CdSeS QDs are successfully synthesized by two phase route method by using oleic acid (OA) as a surfactant. OA capped CdSeS QDs prepared in two different synthesis duration were compared in terms of luminescence and optical properties. The nanocomposites blended with CdSeS QDs which have highly luminescent efficiency in different ratios by Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and these nanocomposites were mainly investigated radioluminescence (RL) and optical properties (UV/VIS absorption). Structural, morphological, thermal properties of the nanocrystal and nanocomposites were examined using; XRD, FT-IR, TEM, SEM, TG-DTA techniques. OA capped CdSeS and also nanocomposites were showed two RL spectrum peaks in green and red region at around 528 nm and 710 nm respectively. Also, it is seen that the radioluminescence intensity changes linearly with the particle size of the QDs and about 12% size change of quantum dot led to a threefold increase in RL intensity. The luminescence glow curves are in compliance with absorption and fluorescence spectra. The absorption bands showed a significant blue shift for the nanocomposites as compare to powder CdSeS. The optical band gap of the OA capped CdSeS calculated as 1.77 eV. It was observed that the optical band gap of LDPE was decreased by the adding ratio of CdSeS from 3.71 eV to 2.25 eV.

  6. Morphological and structural characterization of PHBV/organoclay nanocomposites by small angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carli, Larissa N., E-mail: lncarli@ucs.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, 91501-970, RS (Brazil); Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Rua Francisco Getulio Vargas, 1130, Caxias do Sul, 95070-560, RS (Brazil); Bianchi, Otavio, E-mail: obianchi@ucs.br [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Rua Francisco Getulio Vargas, 1130, Caxias do Sul, 95070-560, RS (Brazil); Machado, Giovanna, E-mail: giovannamachado@uol.com.br [Centro de Tecnologias Estrategicas do Nordeste, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, 01, Cidade Universitaria, Recife, 50740-540, PE (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, Recife, 50670-901, PE (Brazil); Crespo, Janaina S., E-mail: jscrespo@ucs.br [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Rua Francisco Getulio Vargas, 1130, Caxias do Sul, 95070-560, RS (Brazil); Mauler, Raquel S., E-mail: raquel.mauler@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, 91501-970, RS (Brazil)

    2013-03-01

    In this work, the morphological and structural behaviors of poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanocomposites were investigated using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanocomposites with 1, 3 and 5 wt.% of organically modified montmorillonite Cloisite Registered-Sign 30B (OMMT) were prepared by melt processing in a twin screw extruder using two different processing conditions (low and high shear intensity). The lamellar long period of the polymer was lower for the nanocomposites, with high polydispersity values. However, the crystalline thickness increased with the clay content and was independent of the processing conditions. This behavior resulted in a high linear crystallinity of the nanocomposites with 3 and 5 wt.% OMMT. The disruption factor ({beta}) was in agreement with the WAXD and TEM findings, indicating a good dispersion of the nanoparticles in the PHBV matrix with 3 wt.% of OMMT during the high shear intensity of melt processing. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SAXS was used for morphological and crystalline studies of PHBV/OMMT nanocomposites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystalline structure was influenced by the presence of clay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The degree of clay dispersion in a polymer matrix was quantified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology comprised exfoliated particles, nanoscale and microscale clusters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results obtained by SAXS agreed well with TEM and WAXD results.

  7. Preparation and optical properties of indium tin oxide/epoxy nanocomposites with polyglycidyl methacrylate grafted nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Peng; Viswanath, Anand; Schadler, Linda S; Benicewicz, Brian C; Siegel, Richard W

    2011-09-01

    Visibly highly transparent indium tin oxide (ITO)/epoxy nanocomposites were prepared by dispersing polyglycidyl methacrylate (PGMA) grafted ITO nanoparticles into a commercial epoxy resin. The oleic acid stabilized, highly crystalline, and near monodisperse ITO nanoparticles were synthesized via a nonaqueous synthetic route with multigram batch quantities. An azido-phosphate ligand was synthesized and used to exchange with oleic acid on the ITO surface. The azide terminal group allows for the grafting of epoxy resin compatible PGMA polymer chains via Cu(I) catalyzed alkyne-azide "click" chemistry. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation shows that PGMA grafted ITO particles were homogeneously dispersed within the epoxy matrix. Optical properties of ITO/epoxy nanocomposites with different ITO concentrations were studied with an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectrometer. All the ITO/epoxy nanocomposites show more than 90% optical transparency in the visible light range and absorption of UV light from 300 to 400 nm. In the near-infrared region, ITO/epoxy nanocomposites demonstrate low transmittance and the infrared (IR) transmission cutoff wavelength of the composites shifts toward the lower wavelength with increased ITO concentration. The ITO/epoxy nanocomposites were applied onto both glass and plastic substrates as visibly transparent and UV/IR opaque optical coatings.

  8. Effect of magnetic soft phase on the magnetic properties of bulk anisotropic Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposite permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuqing; Yue, Ming; Zhao, Guoping; Zhang, Hongguo

    2018-01-01

    The effects of soft phase with different particle sizes and distributions on the Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets have been studied by the micro-magnetism simulation. The calculated results show that smaller and/or scattered distribution of soft phase can benefit to the coercivity (H ci) of the nanocomposite magnets. The magnetization moment evolution during magnetic reversal is systematically analyzed. On the other hand, magnetic properties of anisotropic Nd-Fe-B/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets prepared by hot pressing and hot deformation methods also provide evidences for the calculated results.

  9. nanocomposites chitosan /clay for electrochemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Carla R. Costa; Melo, Frank M. Araujo de; Costa, Gilmara M. Silva; Silva, Suedina M. Lima

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to obtain films of nanocomposites chitosan/bentonite and chitosan/montmorillonite intercalation by the technique of solution in the proportions of 5:1 and 10:1. The nanocomposites were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the nanocomposites Chitosan/montmorillonite also were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The results indicated that the feasibility of obtaining films of nanocomposites exfoliate. Among the suggested applications for films developed in this study includes them use for electrochemical sensors. (author)

  10. Preparation, characterization and mechanical properties of rare-earth-based nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports research related to different preparation methods and characterization of polymer nanocomposites for optical applications. The Eu-ion doped Gd2O3 nanophosphor powder with different nanoparticle content was embedded in the matrix of PMMA. Preparation was carried out by mixing molding (bulk, electrospinning (nanofibers and solution casting (thin films with neat particles and particles coated with AMEO silane. Among the pros and cons for proposed methods, the mixing molding enables to avoid solvent use while the best deagglomeration and nanoparticle distribution is gained using the electrospinning method. The results of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and nanoindentation revealed that the storage modulus of the composites was higher than that of pure PMMA and increased with nanophosphor content. Surface modification of particles improved the mechanical properties of nanocomposites.

  11. Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of Microwave Sintered Al-SiC Nanocomposites and Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Himyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-metal matrix composites (AMMCs reinforced with diverse volume fraction of SiC nanoparticles were synthesized using microwave sintering process. The effects of the reinforcing SiC particles on physical, microstructure, mechanical, and electrical properties were studied. The phase, microstructural, and surface analyses of the composites were systematically conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and surface profilometer techniques, respectively. The microstructural examination revealed the homogeneous distribution of SiC particles in the Al matrix. Microhardness and compressive strength of nanocomposites were found to be increasing with the increasing volume fraction of SiC particles. Electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites decreases with increasing the SiC content.

  12. Bismuth oxyfluoride @ CMK-3 nanocomposite as cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Dan; Sun, Wang; Xie, Liqiang; Fan, Qinghua; Wang, Zhenhua; Sun, Kening

    2018-01-01

    Bismuth oxyfluoride impregnated CMK-3 nanocomposite is synthesized by a facile nanocasting approach. Mesoporous carbon CMK-3 can suppress the aggregation and growth of bismuth oxyfluoride particles and offer rapid electron and Li ion passageways. Bismuth oxyfluoride nanoparticles are embedded in the mesoporous channels with particle size less than 20 nm. The bismuth oxyfluoride@CMK-3 nanocomposite maintains 148 mA h g-1 after 40 cycles with the capacity from both the bismuth oxyfluoride and the functional groups on the mesoporous carbon. The hybrid with confined bismuth oxyfluoride nanoparticles, conductive carbon network, and oxygen functional groups on the carbon matrix exhibits higher capacity and cycling stability than bulk bismuth oxyfluoride particles when used as lithium ion batteries cathode.

  13. Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte based on whisker or microfibrils polyoxyethylene nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloin, Fannie, E-mail: fannie.alloin@lepmi.grenoble-inp.f [LEPMI, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, Grenoble-INP-UJF-CNRS, UMR 5631, BP 75, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); D' Aprea, Alessandra [Laboratoire de Rheologie, Grenoble-INP-UJF, UMR 5520, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); LEPMI, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, Grenoble-INP-UJF-CNRS, UMR 5631, BP 75, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ecole Internationale du Papier, de la communication imprimee et des Biomateriaux, PAGORA- Grenoble-INP, BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Kissi, Nadia El [Laboratoire de Rheologie, Grenoble-INP-UJF, UMR 5520, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Dufresne, Alain [Ecole Internationale du Papier, de la communication imprimee et des Biomateriaux, PAGORA- Grenoble-INP, BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Bossard, Frederic [Laboratoire de Rheologie, Grenoble-INP-UJF, UMR 5520, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-07-15

    Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes composed of high molecular weight poly(oxyethylene) PEO as a matrix, LiTFSI as lithium salt and ramie, cotton and sisal whiskers with high aspect ratio and sisal microfibrils (MF), as reinforcing phase were prepared by casting-evaporation. The morphology of the composite electrolytes was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and their thermal behavior (characteristic temperatures, degradation temperature) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Nanocomposite electrolytes based on PEO reinforced by whiskers and MF sisal exhibited very high mechanical performance with a storage modulus of 160 MPa at high temperature. A weak decrease of the ionic conductivity was observed with the incorporation of 6 wt% of whiskers. The addition of microfibrils involved a larger decrease of the conductivity. This difference may be associated to the more restricted PEO mobility due to the addition of entangled nanofibers.

  14. Polyurethane Organosilicate Nanocomposites as Blood Compatible Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson H. Y. Chung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer clay nanocomposites (NCs show remarkable potential in the field of drug delivery due to their enhanced barrier properties. It is hypothesised that well dispersed clay particles within the polymer matrix create a tortuous pathway for diffusing therapeutic molecules, thereby resulting in more sustained release of the drug. As coatings for medical devices, these materials can simultaneously modulate drug release and improve the mechanical performance of an existing polymer system without introducing additional materials with new chemistries that can lead to regulatory concerns. In this study, polyurethane organosilicate nanocomposites (PUNCs coated onto stainless steel wires were evaluated for their feasibility as blood compatible coatings and as drug delivery systems. Heparin was selected as the model drug to examine the impact of silicate loading and modifier chain length in modulating release. Findings revealed that better dispersion was achieved from samples with lower clay loadings and longer alkyl chains. The blood compatibility of PUNCs as assessed by thrombin generation assays showed that the addition of silicate particles did not significantly decrease the thrombin generation lag time (TGT, p = 0.659 or the peak thrombin (p = 0.999 of polyurethane (PU. PUNC coatings fabricated in this research were not cytotoxic as examined by the cell growth inhibition assay and were uniformly intact, but had slightly higher growth inhibition compared to PU possibly due to the presence of organic modifiers (OM. The addition of heparin into PUNCs prolonged the TGT, indicating that heparin was still active after the coating process. Cumulative heparin release profiles showed that the majority of heparin released was from loosely attached residues on the surface of coils. The addition of heparin further prolonged the TGT as compared to coatings without added heparin, but a slight decrease in heparin activity was observed in the NCs

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Polystyrene-Silver NanocompositeUsing MicroemulsionMethod and its Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salabat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymer nanocomposites containing metals have been used in a wide range of applications due to their versatility, and tunable characteristics including physical, chemical, biological and mechanical properties. In this research work polystyrene-silver nanocomposite has been produced using polymerization of a w/o microemulsion system. Styrene monomer was used as the oil or continues phase of the microemulsion system and polymerized following formation of Ag nanoparticles in the fluid medium. The UV-vis absorption and dynamic light scattering methods have been used to trace the growth process and size distribution of the Ag nanoparticles in the microemulsion system. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to determine the morphology and particle size of the Ag particles in the synthesized nanocomposites.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanoparticles and Nanocomposite of ZnO and MgO by Sonochemical Method and their Application for Zinc Polycarboxylate Dental Cement Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the synthesis of nanoparticles of ZnO and MgO and ZnO/MgO nanocomposite by the sonochemical method. At first, nanoparticles were synthesized by the reaction of Zn(CHCOO32 and Mg(CHCOO32 with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and constant frequency ultrasonic waves (sonochemical method. Then, ZnO/MgO nanocomposite was prepared through reaction of magnesium acetate with TMAH in the presence of ZnO nanoparticles and PVP as structure director using ultrasonic assisted method. After filtration, the synthesized solution was obtained containing magnesium hydroxide in the presence of ZnO nanoparticles. It was calcinated at the temperature of 550 ºC, so that ZnO/MgO nanocomposite could be produced. The effects of different parameters on particle size and morphology of final ZnO and MgO powders and ZnO/MgO nanocomposite were optimized by ‘‘one at a time’’ method. Under optimum conditions, spongy shaped, uniformed and homogeneous nanostructured zinc oxide and magnesium oxide powders were obtained with particle sizes of 25–50 and 30-60 nm, respectively. ZnO/MgO nanocomposite was also obtained with more spongy morphology and particle size about 65 nm. Both synthesized ZnO and MgO nanoparticles and ZnO/MgO nanocomposite were successfully applied to the preparation of zinc polycarboxylate dental cement.

  17. Polymer-Layer Silicate Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela

    Nowadays, some of the material challenges arise from a performance point of view as well as from recycling and biodegradability. Concerning these aspects, the development of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites can provide possible solutions. This study investigates how to obtain polymer layered...... with a spectacular improvement up to 300 % in impact strength were obtained. In the second part of this study, layered silicate bio-nanomaterials were obtained starting from natural compounds and taking into consideration their biocompatibility properties. These new materials may be used for drug delivery systems...... and as biomaterials due to their high biocompatible properties, and because they have the advantage of being biodegradable. The intercalation process of natural compounds within silicate platelets was investigated. By uniform dispersing of binary nanohybrids in a collagen matrix, nanocomposites with intercalated...

  18. Targeted delivery of polyoxometalate nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisberger, Georg; Paulus, Susann; Gyenge, Emina Besic; Maake, Caroline; Patzke, Greta R

    2011-10-04

    Polyoxometalate/carboxymethyl chitosan nanocomposites with an average diameter of 130 nm are synthesized and labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) for a combined drug-carrier and cellular-monitoring approach. [Eu(β(2) -SiW(11) O(39) )(2) ](13-) /CMC nanospheres as a representative example do not display cytotoxicity for POM concentrations up to 2 mg mL(-1) . Cellular uptake of fluoresecently labelled {EuSiW(11) O(39) }/FITC-CMC nanoparticles is monitored with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Nanoparticle uptake occurs after incubation times of around 1 h and no cyctotoxic effects are observed upon prolonged treatment. The preferential location of the POM/CMC nanocomposites in the perinuclear region is furthermore verified with transmission electron microscopy investigations on unlabeled nanoparticles. Therefore, this approach is a promising dual strategy for the safe cellular transfer and monitoring of bioactive POMs. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Energy Harvester

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Asadullah

    2016-02-11

    An energy harvester capable of converting low frequency vibrations into electrical energy is presented. The operating principle, fabrication process and output characteristics at different frequencies are discussed. The harvester is realized by fabricating an array of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) - iron nanowire nanocomposite cilia on a planar coil array. Each coil element consists of 14 turns and occupies an area of 600 μm x 600μm. The cilia are arranged in a 12x5 array and each cilium is 250 μm wide and 2 mm long. The magnetic characteristics of the fabricated cilia indicate that the nanowires are well aligned inside of the nanocomposite, increasing the efficiency of energy harvesting. The energy harvester occupies an area of 66.96 mm2 and produces an output r.m.s voltage of 206.47μV, when excited by a 40 Hz vibration of 1 mm amplitude.

  20. Colloidal QDs-polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, H.; Suárez, I.; Rodríguez-Cantó, P.; Abargues, R.; García-Calzada, R.; Chyrvony, V.; Albert, S.; Martínez-Pastor, J.

    2012-04-01

    Nanometer-size colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, or Quantum Dots (NQD), are very prospective active centers because their light emission is highly efficient and temperature-independent. Nanocomposites based on the incorporation of QDs inside a polymer matrix are very promising materials for application in future photonic devices because they combine the properties of QDs with the technological feasibility of polymers. In the present work some basic applications of these new materials have been studied. Firstly, the fabrication of planar and linear waveguides based on the incorporation of CdS, CdSe and CdTe in PMMA and SU-8 are demonstrated. As a result, photoluminescence (PL) of the QDs are coupled to a waveguide mode, being it able to obtain multicolor waveguiding. Secondly, nanocomposite films have been evaluated as photon energy down-shifting converters to improve the efficiency of solar cells.

  1. Bitumen nanocomposites with improved performance

    KAUST Repository

    Kosma, Vasiliki

    2017-11-29

    Bitumen-clay nanocomposite binders with styrene-butadienestyrene triblock copolymer, SBS, and combinations of SBS and crumb rubber (CR) with different CR/SBS ratios have been synthesized and characterized. In addition to the binder, samples containing the binder and concrete sand (with a weight ratio 1:9) were prepared. The modified binders were studied in terms of filler dispersion, storage stability, mechanical performance and water susceptibility. We demonstrate that the samples containing nanoclays consistently outperform those based only on the polymer additives. We also find that nanocomposite samples based on a combination of SBS and CR are best, since in addition to other improvements they show excellent storage stability. Our work shows that substituting CR with SBS as a bitumen additive and combining it with inexpensive nanoclays leads to new materials with enhanced performance and improved stability for practical asphalt applications.

  2. Electrospun Borneol-PVP Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the validity of electrospun borneol-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP nanocomposites in enhancing drug dissolution rates and improving drug physical stability. Based on hydrogen bonding interactions and via an electrospinning process, borneol and PVP can form stable nanofiber-based composites. FESEM observations demonstrate that composite nanofibers with uniform structure could be generated with a high content of borneol up to 33.3% (w/w. Borneol is well distributed in the PVP matrix molecularly to form the amorphous composites, as verified by DSC and XRD results. The composites can both enhance the dissolution profiles of borneol and increase its physical stability against sublimation for long-time storage by immobilization of borneol molecules with PVP. The incorporation of borneol in the PVP matrix weakens the tensile properties of nanofibers, and the mechanism is discussed. Electrospun nanocomposites can be alternative candidates for developing novel nano-drug delivery systems with high performance.

  3. Preparation and drug-loading properties of Fe3O4/Poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) magnetic polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wensheng; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Zhang, Weiqiang

    2013-01-01

    Fe 3 O 4 /poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) magnetic polymer nanocomposites were synthesized by the dispersion polymerization method using styrene as hard monomer, acrylic acid as functional monomer, Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles modified with oleic acid as core, and poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) as shell. Drug-loading properties of magnetic polymer nanocomposites with curcumin as a model drug were also studied. The results indicated that magnetic polymer nanocomposites with monodisperse were obtained, the particle size distribution was 50–120 nm, and the average size was about 100 nm. The contents of poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) and Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles in magnetic polymer nanocomposites were 74% and 24.7%, respectively. The drug-loading capacity and entrapment efficiency were 2.5% and 44.4%, respectively. The saturation magnetization of magnetic polymer nanocomposites at 300 K was 20.2 emu/g without coercivity and remanence. The as-prepared magnetic polymer nanocomposites have not only lots of functional carboxyl groups but also stronger magnetic response, which might have potential applications in drug carrier and targeted drug release

  4. SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF CORROSION PERFORMANCE OF EPOXY COATING CONTAINING MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE/ POLY ORTHO AMINOPHENOL NANOCOMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bahrami Panah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The epoxy coatings containing multi-walled carbon nanotube/ poly ortho aminophenol nanocomposite were prepared and used as anticorrosive coatings. The nanocomposites with different contents of carbon nanotube were synthesized in a solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ammonium peroxy disulfate as a surfactant and an oxidant, respectively. The morphology and structural properties were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The mean size of nanocomposite particles was 20-35 nm determined by scanning electron microscopy. The epoxy coatings containing the nanocomposites were applied over mild steel panels and their corrosion performance was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in a 3.5 % sodium chloride solution. The results showed that epoxy coatings consisting of nanocomposite with 1 wt.% multi-walled carbon nanotube exhibited higher anticorrosive properties than other prepared coatings of different carbon nanotube contents, which could be due to the strong interaction between the mild steel surface and the conjugated nanocomposite.

  5. A Study of Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate/Polymer Nanocomposites Fabricated Using the Layer-By-Layer Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Kamali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH/polymer nanocomposites were synthesized with the layer-by-layer (LBL method, and their morphology and mechanical properties were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging and AFM nanoindentation. Different sets of polymers were used to produce CSH/polymer nanocomposites. The effect of different factors including dipping time, calcium to silicate ratios (C/S ratios and pH on morphology was investigated. CSH/polymer nanocomposites made with different sets of polymers showed variation in morphologies. However, the Young’s modulus did not seem to reveal significant differences between the nanocomposites studied here. In nanocomposites containing graphene oxide (GO nanosheet, an increase in the density of CSH particles was observed on the GO nanosheet compared to areas away from the GO nanosheet, providing evidence for improved nucleation of CSH in the presence of GO nanosheets. An increase in roughness and a reduction in the packing density in nanocomposites containing GO nanosheets was observed.

  6. Measurement of Nanoparticles Release during Drilling of Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendre, L.; Marchante Rodriguez, V.; Abhyankar, H.; Blackburn, K.; Brighton, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    Nanomaterials are one of the promising technologies of this century. The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies [1] reports more than 1600 consumer products based on nanotechnology that are currently on the market and advantages link to the reinforcement of polymeric materials using nano-fillers are not to demonstrate anymore. However, the concerns about safety and its consumer perception can slow down the acceptance of nanocomposites. Indeed, during its life-cycle, a nanotechnology-based product can release nano-sized particles exposing workers, consumers and environment and the risk involved in the use and disposal of such particles is not well known. The current legislation concerning chemicals and environment protection doesn't explicitly cover nanomaterials and changes undergone by nanoparticles during the products’ life cycle. Also, the possible physio-chemical changes that the nanoparticles may undergo during its life cycle are unknown. Industries need a standard method to evaluate nanoparticles release during products’ life cycle in order to improve the knowledge in nanomaterials risk assessment and the legislation, and to inform customers about the safety of nanomaterials and nanoproducts. This work aims to propose a replicable method in order to assess the release of nanoparticles during the machining of nanocomposites in a controlled environment. For this purpose, a new experimental set-up was implemented and issues observed in previous methods (background noise due to uncontrolled ambient environment and the process itself, unrepeatable machining parameters) were solved. A characterisation and validation of the chamber used is presented in this paper. Also, preliminary testing on drilling of polymer-based nanocomposites (Polyamide-6/Glass Fibre reinforced with nano-SiO2) manufactured by extrusion and injection moulding were achieved.

  7. Silicone nanocomposite coatings for fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth (Inventor); Lee, Stein S. (Inventor); Singhal, Amit (Inventor); Ou, Runqing (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A silicone based coating for fabrics utilizing dual nanocomposite fillers providing enhanced mechanical and thermal properties to the silicone base. The first filler includes nanoclusters of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a metal oxide and a second filler of exfoliated clay nanoparticles. The coating is particularly suitable for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts, boat sails, and inflatable shelters.

  8. Graphene-Based Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-31

    polymerize in-situ around the fillers or even graft to them [71], thus it overcomes the problem of dramatically increased viscosity of the polymer...filler dispersion, increased polymer viscosity during processing and filler damage due to thermal degradation or strong shear forces [3, 82]. At...123, 124]. Figure 1.12 (a) SEM image of the fracture surface of GO/PVA nanocomposite film [85]. (b) TEM image of a clay reinforced Nylon-6

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of graphene/nickel oxide nanocomposites used as the electrode for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongnian; Ni, Haifang; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2014-07-01

    Graphene (GR)-based nanocomposites with different mass ratios of NiO and GR are prepared via hydrothermal method using Ni(NO3)2 as the origin of nickel and urea as the hydrolysis-controlling agent. The morphology and electrochemical performance of the GR/NiO nanocomposites are closely associated with the mass ratios of GR to NiO. The chemical composition and morphology of the composites together with the pure GR and NiO are characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). It is found that the GR sheets and NiO particles form uniform nanocomposites with the NiO particles absorbed on the GR surface. A specific capacitance of 384 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.1 A g(-1) is achieved when the coating amount of NiO is up to 74 wt%. In addition, the attenuation of the specific capacitance is less than 6% after 500 cycles, indicating such nanocomposite has excellent cycling performance.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Hybrid Nanocomposite of Polyacrylamide/Silica-Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rabiee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamides are water soluble macromolecules. These polymers are widely used for flocculation, separation and treatment of solid-liquid phase materials. In this research, organic-inorganic hybrid of polyacrylamide/silica nanoparticle is prepared via radical polymerization. First, the silica nanoparticle surfaces were modified by 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane as coupling agent using a sol-gel technique in aqueous media in acidic condition. Afterwards, the modified nanoparticles are copolymerized by acrylamide monomer in presence of a peroxide initiator during a free radical polymerization. The chemical structure of the prepared modified nano-silica as well as polyacrylamide nanocomposite was studied and confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy technique. The morphology of nanocomposite was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The SEM micrograph showed that the surface of the composite did not display any phase separation. Nanoparticles distribution was investigated by SEM-EDX technique. The results showed a uniform distribution of particles throughout the polymer bulk. TEM analysis showed the presence of silica nanoparticles in bulk of polymer which is an indicative of suitable dispersion of nanoparticles. The thermal stability of hybrid nanocomosite with that of polyacrylamide was compared by TGA technique. The higher thermal stability of hybrid nanocomposite with respect to homopolymer is indicative of a reaction between the modified nanoparticles and polyacrylamide chain. The presence of silica particles in copolymer was also confirmed with EDX analysis in ash content of hybrid nanocomposite.

  11. Magnetic nanocomposites based on phosphorus-containing polymers—structural characterization and thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosmanov, R. M.; Szuwarzyński, M.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Matuschek, G.; Magerramov, A. M.; Azizov, A. A.; Zimmermann, R.; Zapotoczny, S.

    2018-04-01

    Fabrication of magnetic nanocomposites containing iron oxide nanoparticles formed in situ within a phosphorus-containing polymer matrix as well as its structural characterization and its thermal degradation is reported here. Comparative structural studies of the parent polymer and nanocomposites were performed using FTIR spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. The results confirmed the presence of dispersed iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. The formed composite combines the properties of porous polymer carriers and magnetic particles enabling easy separation and reapplication of such polymeric carriers used in, for example, catalysis or environmental remediation. Studies on thermal degradation of the composites revealed that the process proceeds in three stages while a significant influence of the embedded magnetic particles on that process was observed in the first two stages. Magnetic force microscopy studies revealed that nanocomposites and its calcinated form have strong magnetic properties. The obtained results provide a comprehensive characterization of magnetic nanocomposites and the products of their calcination that are important for their possible applications as sorbents (regeneration conditions, processing temperature, disposal, etc).

  12. LIGNOCELLULOSE NANOCOMPOSITE CONTAINING COPPER SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchi Nenkova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Copper sulfide-containing lignocellulose nanocomposites with improved electroconductivity were obtained. Two methods for preparing the copper sulfide lignocellulose nanocomposites were developed. An optimization of the parameters for obtaining of the nanocomposites with respect to obtaining improved electroconductivity, economy, and lower quantities and concentration of copper and sulfur ions in waste waters was conducted. The mechanisms and schemes of delaying and subsequent connection of copper sulfides in the lignocellulosic matrix were investigated. The modification with a system of 2 components: cupric sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4. 5H2O and sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (Na2S2O3.5H2O for wood fibers is preferred. Optimal parameters were established for the process: 40 % of the reduction system; hydromodule M=1:6; and ratio of cupric sulfate pentahydrate:sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate = 1:2. The coordinative connection of copper ions with oxygen atoms of cellulose OH groups and aromatic nucleus in lignin macromolecule was observed.

  13. Nanocomposites Based on Biodegradable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Armentano

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present review paper, our main results on nanocomposites based on biodegradable polymers (on a time scale from 2010 to 2018 are reported. We mainly focused our attention on commercial biodegradable polymers, which we mixed with different nanofillers and/or additives with the final aim of developing new materials with tunable specific properties. A wide list of nanofillers have been considered according to their shape, properties, and functionalization routes, and the results have been discussed looking at their roles on the basis of different adopted processing routes (solvent-based or melt-mixing processes. Two main application fields of nanocomposite based on biodegradable polymers have been considered: the specific interaction with stem cells in the regenerative medicine applications or as antimicrobial materials and the active role of selected nanofillers in food packaging applications have been critically revised, with the main aim of providing an overview of the authors’ contribution to the state of the art in the field of biodegradable polymeric nanocomposites.

  14. Advanced clay nanocomposites based on in situ photopolymerization utilizing novel polymerizable organoclays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Ki

    Polymer nanocomposite technology has had significant impact on material design. With the environmental advantages of photopolymerization, a research has recently focused on producing nanocomposites utilizing inexpensive clay particles based on in situ photopolymerization. In this research, novel polymerizable organoclays and thiol-ene photopolymerization have been utilized to develop advanced photopolymer clay nanocomposites and to overcome several limitations in conventional free radical photopolymers. To this end, factors important in nanocomposite processes such as monomer composition, clay dispersion, and photopolymerization behavior in combination with the evolution of ultimate nanocomposite properties have been investigated. For monomer-organoclay compositions, higher chemical compatibility of components induces enhanced clay exfoliation, resulting in photopolymerization rate increases due to an amplified clay template effect. Additionally, by affecting the stoichiometric ratio between thiol and acrylate double bond in the clay gallery, thiolated organoclays enhance thiol-ene copolymerization with increased final thiol conversion while acrylated organoclays encourage acrylate homopolymerization. In accordance with the reaction behavior, incorporation of thiolated organoclays makes polymer chains more flexible with decreased glass transition temperature due to higher formation of thio-ether linkages while adding acrylated organoclays significantly increases the modulus. Photopolymer nanocomposites also help overcome two major drawbacks in conventional free radical photopolymerization, namely severe polymerization shrinkage and oxygen inhibition during polymerization. With addition of a low level of thiol monomers, the oxygen inhibition in various acrylate systems can be overcome by addition of only 5wt% thiolated organoclay. The same amount of polymerizable organoclay also induces up to 90% decreases in the shrinkage stress for acrylate or thiol

  15. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  16. Synthesis of zinc sulfide nanoparticles and their incorporation into poly(hydroxybutyrate) matrix in the formation of a novel nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Shahina; Raza, Zulfiqar Ali; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Jan, Tariq

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized through a modified chemical precipitation protocol and then mediated into poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) matrix to get ZnS/PHB nanocomposite. Mean diameter and zeta potential of ZnS NPs, as determined using dynamic light scattering technique (DLS), were observed to be 53 nm and ‑89 mV, respectively. The structural investigations performed using x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique depicted the phase purity of ZnS NPs exhibiting cubic crystal structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis was conducted to identify the presence or absence of bonding vibrational modes on the surface of synthesized single phase ZnS NPs. The FTIR analysis confirmed the metal to sulphur bond formation by showing the characteristic band at 1123 cm‑1. The UV–vis absorption spectra of ZnS NPs confirmed the synthesis of particles in nanoscale regime showing a λ max of 302 nm. These NPs were then successfully incorporated into PHB matrix to synthesize ZnS/PHB nanocomposite. The synthesis of nanocomposite was confirmed by EDX analysis. The chemical bonding and structural properties of ZnS/PHB nanocomposite were determined by FTIR and XRD analysis, respectively. The FTIR analysis confirmed the synthesis of ZnS/PHB nanocomposite. Moreover, XRD analysis showed that structure of nanocomposite was completely controlled by ZnS NPs as pure PHB exhibited orthorhombic crystal structure while the nanocomposite demonstrated cubic crystal structure of ZnS. Thermal properties of nanocomposite were studied through thermogravimetric analysis revealing that the incorporation of ZnS NPs into PHB matrix lead to enhance heat resistance properties of PHB.

  17. Enhanced effect of geldanamycin nanocomposite against breast cancer cells growing in vitro and as xenograft with vanquished normal cell toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu, Suma [Department of Radiation Biology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104, Karnataka (India); Ananthanarayanan, Preeta; Aziz, Sajida Kannangar [Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104, Karnataka (India); Rai, Sharada [Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore Campus, Manipal University, Mangalore 575 001, Karnataka (India); Mutalik, Srinivas [Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104, Karnataka (India); Sadashiva, Satish Rao Bola, E-mail: rao.satish@manipal.edu [Department of Radiation Biology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104, Karnataka (India)

    2017-04-01

    Despite enormous advances in remedies developed for breast cancer, an effective therapeutic strategy by targeting malignant cells with the least normal tissue toxicity is yet to be developed. Hsp90 is considered to be an important therapeutic target to inhibit cell proliferation. Geldanamycin (GDM), a potent inhibitor of Hsp90 was withdrawn from clinical trials due to its undesirable hepatotoxicity. We report a superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPION) based polymeric nanocomposite of GDM augmenting anticancer competence with decreased hepatic toxicity. The particle size of nanocomposite was ascertained to be 76 ± 10 nm with acceptable stability. A comparative dose dependent in vitro validation of cytotoxicity showed an enhanced cellular damage and necrosis in breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line at a low dose of 5.49 nM (in GDM nanocomposite) in contrast to 20 nM of pure GDM, while normal breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) were least affected. Besides, in vivo study (in breast cancer xenografts) substantiated 2.7 fold delay in tumor progression mediated by redundancy in the downstream functions of p-Akt and MAPK-Erk leading to apoptosis with negligible hepatotoxicity. Pure GDM disrupted the function and morphology of liver with lesser therapeutic efficacy than the GDM nanocomposite. These findings deduce that GDM based polymeric magnetite nanocomposite play a vital role in efficacious therapy while vanquishing normal cells and hepatic toxicity and thereby promising it to be reinstated in clinics. - Highlights: • GDM nanocomposite shows selective cell kill of cancerous breast cells. • Nanocomposite delays the growth of tumor in comparison to pure GDM treatment. • GDM promotes apoptosis by down-regulation of p-Akt and MAPK-Erk. • GDM nanocomposite nullifies the hepatotoxicity generally exhibited by pure GDM.

  18. In vitro study of a new biodegradable nanocomposite based on poly propylene fumarate as bone glue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahbazi, S.; Moztarzadeh, F. [Department of Medical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, G. Mir Mohamad [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, Y., E-mail: y.j.arisman@gmail.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    A novel poly propylene fumarate (PPF)-based glue which is reinforced by nanobioactive glass (NBG) particles and promoted by hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as crosslinker agent, was developed and investigated for bone-to-bone bonding applications. In-vitro bioactivity, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and bone adhesion were tested and the results have verified that it can be used as bone glue. In an in-vitro condition, the prepared nanocomposite (PPF/HEMA/NBG) showed improved adhesion to wet bone surfaces. The combined tension and shear resistance between two wet bone surfaces was measured, and its maximum value was 9 ± 59 MPa. To investigate the bioactivity and biodegradability of the nanocomposite, it has been immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). After 14 days exposure to SBF, a hydroxyapatite (HA) layer formed on the surface of the composite confirms the bioactivity of this material. In the XRD pattern of the nanocomposite surface, the HA characteristic diffraction peak at θ = 26 and 31.8 were observed. Also, by monitoring the weight change after 8 weeks immersion in SBF, the mass loss was about 16.46 wt%. It has been confirmed that this nanocomposite is a biodegradable material. Also, bioactivity and biodegradability of nanocomposite have been proved by SEM images. It has been showed that by using NBG particles and HEMA precursor, mechanical properties increased significantly. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of nanocomposite which contains 20% NBG and the ratio of 70/30 wt% PPF/HEMA (PHB.732) was approximately 62 MPa, while the UTS in the pure PPF/HEMA was about 32 MPa. High cell viability in this nanocomposite (MTT assays, 85–95%) can be attributed to the NBG nature which contains calcium phosphate and is similar to physiological environment. Furthermore, it possesses biomineralization and biodegradation which significantly affected by impregnation of hydrophilic HEMA in the PPF-based polymeric matrix. The results indicated that the new

  19. Synthesis and characterization of polypropiolate sodium (PPNa)-Fe3O4 nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahceci, S.; Unal, B.; Baykal, A.; Soezeri, H.; Karaoglu, E.; Esat, B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Polypropiolate sodium (PPNa)-Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by reflux route. · FT-IR, TGA and TEM analyses showed that the presence of PPNa onto the surface of Fe 3 O 4 NP's. · Magnetization measurements revealed that (PPNa)-Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite has superparamagnetic properties at room temperature. · Magnetic core size, particle size and crystallite size are coinciding with each other. · It is pointed out that the a.c. conductivity of the nanocomposite studied here obeys the well-known power law of frequency in which it also varies with temperatures. - Abstract: Polypropiolate sodium (PPNa)-Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by the precipitation of Fe 3 O 4 in the presence of sodium polypropiolate and followed by reflux route. Structural, morphological, electrical and magnetic properties evaluation of the nanocomposite were performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating scanning magnetometry (VSM) and conductivity measurements. Crystalline phase was identified as magnetite with an average crystallite size of 7 ± 3 nm as estimated from X-ray line profile fitting. Particle size estimated from TEM, by log-normal fitting, is ∼9 ± 1 nm. FT-IR analysis shows that the binding of PPNa on the surface of iron oxide is through bidentate linkage of carboxyl group. TGA analysis showed the presence of 20% PPNa around 80% magnetic core (Fe 3 O 4 )...PPNa-Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite show superparamagnetic characteristics at room temperature. It is found that the a.c. conductivity of the nanocomposites obeys the well-known power law of frequency in which it also depends on temperature. Additionally, its d.c. conductivity showed that two operating regions of the activation energy. Both real and imaginary parts of either permittivity exhibit almost the same attitudes which are the indication of

  20. Nanocrystal-polymer nanocomposite electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Delia; Runnerstrom, Evan; Helms, Brett; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2015-12-08

    Described is an electrochromic nanocomposite film comprising a solid matrix of an oxide based material, the solid matrix comprising a plurality of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures dispersed in the solid matrix and a lithium salt dispersed in the solid matrix. Also described is a near infrared nanostructured electrochromic device having a functional layer comprising the electrochromic nanocomposite film.

  1. High-frequency magnetoimpedance in nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurasov, Alexey [Moscow State Institute of Radioengineering, Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow 117454 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: alexey_yurasov@mail.ru; Granovsky, Alexander [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Tarapov, Sergey [Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov 61085 (Ukraine); Clerc, Jean-Pierre [Ecole Polytechnique Universitaire de Marseille, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, Marseille 13453 (France)

    2006-05-15

    The transmission of millimeter-range electromagnetic waves (30-50 GHz) through a magnetic nanocomposite thin film exhibiting tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) is calculated. The relative change of transmission coefficient in an applied magnetic field due to the magnetorefractive effect is approximately linear with TMR and strongly depends on nanocomposite resistivity and film thickness. The obtained results are in a good agreement with experiment.

  2. High-frequency magnetoimpedance in nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurasov, Alexey; Granovsky, Alexander; Tarapov, Sergey; Clerc, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    The transmission of millimeter-range electromagnetic waves (30-50 GHz) through a magnetic nanocomposite thin film exhibiting tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) is calculated. The relative change of transmission coefficient in an applied magnetic field due to the magnetorefractive effect is approximately linear with TMR and strongly depends on nanocomposite resistivity and film thickness. The obtained results are in a good agreement with experiment

  3. Biopolymer nanocomposite films reinforced with nanocellulose whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit Saxena; Marcus Foston; Mohamad Kassaee; Thomas J. Elder; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2011-01-01

    A xylan nanocomposite film with improved strength and barrier properties was prepared by a solution casting using nanocellulose whiskers as a reinforcing agent. The 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the spectral data obtained for the NCW/xylan nanocomposite films indicated the signal intensity originating...

  4. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube-titania Nanocomposites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    Physical and chemical characterization of the mesoporous nanocomposites from ... On the other hand, nanocomposites from sol-gel synthetic method had larger surface areas, were more defective ... This highlights the great potential of typical nanomaterials in ... various options available, especially for a developing world.

  5. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-09-04

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

  6. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-15

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  7. Self-biased cobalt ferrite nanocomposites for microwave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannour, Abdelkrim, E-mail: abdelkrim.hannour@hotmail.com [LT2C Laboratory, Jean-Monnet University, 25 rue Dr. Rémy Annino, F-42000, Saint-Etienne (France); Vincent, Didier; Kahlouche, Faouzi; Tchangoulian, Ardaches [LT2C Laboratory, Jean-Monnet University, 25 rue Dr. Rémy Annino, F-42000, Saint-Etienne (France); Neveu, Sophie; Dupuis, Vincent [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7195, PECSA, F-75005, Paris (France)

    2014-03-15

    Oriented CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, dispersed in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix, were fabricated by magnetophoretic deposition of functionalized nanocolloidal cobalt ferrite particles into porous alumina membrane. Their magnetic behavior exhibits an out-of-plane easy axis with a large remanent magnetization and coercitivity. This orientation allows high effective internal magnetic anisotropy that contributes to the permanent bias along the wire axis. The microwave studies reveal a ferromagnetic resonance at 46.5 and 49.5 GHz, depending on the filling ratio of the membrane. Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator (Ansoft HFSS) simulations are in good agreement with experimental results. Such nanocomposite is presented as one of the promising candidates for microwave devices (circulators, isolators, noise suppressors etc.). - Highlights: • Oriented magnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were fabricated by magnetophoretic deposition of functionalized cobalt ferrite particles into porous alumina membrane. • The nanocomposite obtained presents an out-of-plane easy axis with a large remanent magnetization and coercitivity. • The high effective internal magnetic anisotropy contributes to the permanent bias along the wire axis. • The frequency ferromagnetic resonance ranges from 46.5 to 49.5 GHz, depending on the filling ratio of the membrane. • We have obtained a good agreement between Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator simulations and experimental results.

  8. Self-biased cobalt ferrite nanocomposites for microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannour, Abdelkrim; Vincent, Didier; Kahlouche, Faouzi; Tchangoulian, Ardaches; Neveu, Sophie; Dupuis, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Oriented CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles, dispersed in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix, were fabricated by magnetophoretic deposition of functionalized nanocolloidal cobalt ferrite particles into porous alumina membrane. Their magnetic behavior exhibits an out-of-plane easy axis with a large remanent magnetization and coercitivity. This orientation allows high effective internal magnetic anisotropy that contributes to the permanent bias along the wire axis. The microwave studies reveal a ferromagnetic resonance at 46.5 and 49.5 GHz, depending on the filling ratio of the membrane. Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator (Ansoft HFSS) simulations are in good agreement with experimental results. Such nanocomposite is presented as one of the promising candidates for microwave devices (circulators, isolators, noise suppressors etc.). - Highlights: • Oriented magnetic CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were fabricated by magnetophoretic deposition of functionalized cobalt ferrite particles into porous alumina membrane. • The nanocomposite obtained presents an out-of-plane easy axis with a large remanent magnetization and coercitivity. • The high effective internal magnetic anisotropy contributes to the permanent bias along the wire axis. • The frequency ferromagnetic resonance ranges from 46.5 to 49.5 GHz, depending on the filling ratio of the membrane. • We have obtained a good agreement between Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator simulations and experimental results

  9. Biodegradable polyurethane nanocomposites containing dexamethasone for ocular route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues da Silva, Gisele; Silva-Cunha, Armando da; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Ayres, Eliane; Orefice, Rodrigo L.

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of posterior segment ocular diseases, such as uveitis, by using eye drops and oral drugs is usually not effective due to the body's natural barriers to drug penetration. In this study, ocular implants to treat uveitis were synthesized by incorporating dexamethasone acetate, an important type of corticoid used in the treatment of some uveitis, into a biodegradable polyurethane containi clay nanoparticles. Biodegradable polyurethane nanocomposites having poly(caprolactone) oligomers as soft segments were obtained by delaminating clay particles within a polyurethane aqueous dispersion. The drug was incorporated into the polymer by dispersing it in the waterborne polyurethane followed by a drying step. Nanoparticles derived from clay were demonstrated to be able to tailor the mechanical properties of polyurethanes to achieve values that can match the properties of ocular soft tissues. Infrared spectra (FTIR) showed that the presence of clay particles was able to change the microphase separation process typical of polyurethanes. X-ray diffraction and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) results were explored to show that the incorporation of both dexamethasone acetate and nanocomponents derived from clay led to a less defined two-phase polyurethane. The presence of clay nanoparticles increased the rate of drug release measured in vitro. Human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were cultured in contact with polyurethanes and polyurethane nanocomposites, and the viability of them (evaluated by using MTT assay after 7 days) showed that no toxic components were released from polyurethanes containing no drugs during the test.

  10. Biodegradable polyurethane nanocomposites containing dexamethasone for ocular route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues da Silva, Gisele [Federal University of Sao Joao Del Rei, School of Pharmacy, Divinopolis, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Silva-Cunha, Armando da [Federal University of Minas Gerais, School of Pharmacy, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Behar-Cohen, Francine [INSERM, Physiopathology of ocular diseases: Therapeutic innovations, Institut des Cordeliers, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Innovations Therapeutiques, Fondation Rothschild, Paris (France); Universite Rene Descartes, Hotel Dieu University Hospital, Paris (France); Ayres, Eliane [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Orefice, Rodrigo L., E-mail: rorefice@demet.ufmg.br [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2011-03-12

    The treatment of posterior segment ocular diseases, such as uveitis, by using eye drops and oral drugs is usually not effective due to the body's natural barriers to drug penetration. In this study, ocular implants to treat uveitis were synthesized by incorporating dexamethasone acetate, an important type of corticoid used in the treatment of some uveitis, into a biodegradable polyurethane containi clay nanoparticles. Biodegradable polyurethane nanocomposites having poly(caprolactone) oligomers as soft segments were obtained by delaminating clay particles within a polyurethane aqueous dispersion. The drug was incorporated into the polymer by dispersing it in the waterborne polyurethane followed by a drying step. Nanoparticles derived from clay were demonstrated to be able to tailor the mechanical properties of polyurethanes to achieve values that can match the properties of ocular soft tissues. Infrared spectra (FTIR) showed that the presence of clay particles was able to change the microphase separation process typical of polyurethanes. X-ray diffraction and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) results were explored to show that the incorporation of both dexamethasone acetate and nanocomponents derived from clay led to a less defined two-phase polyurethane. The presence of clay nanoparticles increased the rate of drug release measured in vitro. Human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were cultured in contact with polyurethanes and polyurethane nanocomposites, and the viability of them (evaluated by using MTT assay after 7 days) showed that no toxic components were released from polyurethanes containing no drugs during the test.

  11. Synthesis and microwave absorption properties of PPy/Co nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Juhua, E-mail: luojuhua@163.com [School of Materials Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Gao, Duoduo [School of Material Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Polypyrrole (PPy)/cobalt (Co) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by an in-situ polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of synthesized Co nanoparticles. Characterization of the product was accomplished by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, VSM, and vector network analyzer techniques. XRD analysis revealed that characteristic diffraction peaks of polypyrrole and Co appeared at the same time in nanocomposites. FT-IR analysis indicated a successful conjugation of Co particles with polypyrrole. TEM confirmed the formation of a core-shell structure with a wide particle size distribution. Magnetization measurements showed that polypyrrole coating decreased the saturation magnetization of Co significantly. With the increase of the matching thickness, the absorption peak varied towards low frequency direction. When the matching thickness was 3.0 mm, the value of the maximum reflection loss (RL) was −20.0 dB at 13.8 GHz with the 7.2 GHz bandwidth. - Highlights: • The influence of PPy on the structure of Co is discussed. • The influence of PPy on the magnetic properties of Co is discussed. • The influence of PPy on the absorption property of Co is discussed. • PPy/Co possessed the excellent absorption property.

  12. The Use of Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites in Wastewater Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwo, Giora

    2012-01-01

    Some agricultural effluents are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants: their pretreatment is necessary to avoid clogging of the filtering devices by colloidal matter. The colloidal stability of the effluents is mainly due to mutual repulsive forces that keep charged particles in suspension. Pretreatment processes are based on two separate stages: (a) neutralization of the charges (“coagulation”) and (b) bridging between several small particles to form larger aggregates that sink, leaving clarified effluent (“flocculation”). The consequent destabilization of the colloidal suspension lowers total suspended solids (TSSs), turbidity, and other environmental quality parameters, making the treatments that follow more efficient. Clay-based materials have been widely used for effluent pretreatment and pollutant removal. This study presents the use of nanocomposites, comprised of an anchoring particle and a polymer, as “coagoflocculants” for the efficient and rapid reduction of TSS and turbidity in wastewater with a high organic load. The use of such particles combines the advantages of coagulant and flocculant by neutralizing the charge of the suspended particles while bridging between them and anchoring them to a denser particle (the clay mineral), enhancing their precipitation. Very rapid and efficient pretreatment is achieved in one single treatment step. PMID:22454607

  13. Fabrication of ammonium perchlorate/copper-chromium oxides core-shell nanocomposites for catalytic thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami, Abbas, E-mail: eslami@umz.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O.Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Juibari, Nafise Modanlou [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O.Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Seyed Ghorban [Department of Chemistry, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, P.O. Box 16765-3454, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The ammonium perchlorate/Cu(II)-Cr(III)-oxides(AP/Cu-Cr-O) core-shell nanocomposites were in-situ prepared by deposition of copper and chromium oxides on suspended ammonium perchlorate particles in ethyl acetate as solvent. The results of differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments showed that the nanocomposites have excellent catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition of AP, so that the released heat increases up to about 3-fold over initial values, changing from 450 J/g for pure AP to 1510 J/g for most appropriate mixture. For better comparison, single metal oxide/AP core-shell nanocomposite have also been prepared and the results showed that they have less catalytic effect respect to mixed metal oxides system. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results revealed homogenous deposition of nanoparticles on the surface of AP and fabrication of core-shell structures. The kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition of both pure AP and AP/Cu-Cr-O samples have been calculated by Kissinger method and the results showed that the values of pre-exponential factor and activation energy are higher for AP/Cu-Cr-O nanocomposite. The better catalytic effect of Cu-Cr-O nanocomposites is probably attributed to the synergistic effect between Cu{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+} in the nanocomposites, smaller particle size and more crystal defect. - Highlights: • The Cu-Cr-O nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical liquid deposition method. • Then, the AP/Cu-Cr-O core-shell nanocomposites were prepared. • The core-shell samples showed high catalytic activity for AP decomposition. • Thermal decomposition of samples occurs at lower temperature range.

  14. Electrochemical study of a novel high performance supercapacitor based on MnO{sub 2}/nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naderi, Hamid Reza, E-mail: hrnaderi@ut.ac.ir [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norouzi, Parviz, E-mail: norouzi@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: ganjali@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was prepared by sonochemical method. • MnO{sub 2} are anchored on the surface of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (NRGO). • MnO{sub 2}/NRGO nanocomposite show high capacitance, good rate and cycling performance. • The nanocomposite electrode exhibits specific capacitance of 522 F g{sup −1} in 2 mV s{sup −1}. • The electrode reveals 97% retention of initial capacitance after 4000 cycles. - Abstract: A new nanocomposite was synthesized via deposition of MnO{sub 2} on Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene (MnO{sub 2}/NRGO) by sonochemical method, in which, the particles of manganese oxide were uniformly distributed on NRGO sheets. The structure and morphology of MnO{sub 2}/NRGO nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical supercapacitive performance of the nanocomposite was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), continuous cyclic voltammetry (CCV), galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The MnO{sub 2}/NRGO nanocomposite shows enhanced specific capacitance of 522 F g{sup −1} at 2 mV s{sup −1} and its high synergistic effect was compared with MnO{sub 2}/RGO. The high specific capacitance and exceptionally high cyclic stability of MnO{sub 2}/NRGO attributes to the doping of nitrogen and uniform dispersion of MnO{sub 2} particles on NRGO. The CCV showed that the capacity retention for MnO{sub 2}/NRGO and MnO{sub 2}/RGO still maintained at 96.3% and 93% after 4000 CVs. The improved supercapacitive performance enables this nanocomposite as efficient electrode material for supercapacitor electrodes.

  15. Parylene nanocomposites using modified magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Ignacio; Luzuriaga, A. Ruiz de; Grande, H.; Jeandupeux, L.; Charmet, J.; Laux, E.; Keppner, H.; Mecerreyes, D.; Cabanero, German

    2010-01-01

    Parylene/Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposites were synthesized and characterized. The nanocomposites were obtained by chemical vapour deposition polymerization of Parylene onto functionalized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. For this purpose, allyltrichlorosilane was used to modify the surface of 7 nm size Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles obtained by the coprecipitation method. The magnetic nanoparticles and obtained nanocomposite were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and magnetic measurements (SQUID). The successful incorporation of different amounts of nanoparticles into Parylene was confirmed by FTIR and TGA. Interestingly, increments in saturation magnetization of the nanocomposites were observed ranging from 0 emu/g of neat Parylene to 16.94 emu/g in the case of nanocomposite films that contained 27.5 wt% of nanoparticles.

  16. Advances in rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhixin; Guo, Baochun; Jia, Demin

    2014-02-01

    The research advances in rubber/halloysite nanotubes (rubber/HNTs) nanocomposites are reviewed. HNTs are environmentally-friendly natural nanomaterials, which could be used to prepare the rubber-based nanocomposites with high performance and low cost. Unmodified HNTs could be adopted to prepare the rubber/HNTs composites with improved mechanical properties, however, the rubber/HNTs nanocomposites with fine morphology and excellent properties were chiefly prepared with various modifiers by in situ mixing method. A series of rubber/HNTs nanocomposites containing several rubbers (SBR, NR, xSBR, NBR, PU) and different modifiers (ENR, RH, Si69, SA, MAA, ILs) have been investigated. The results showed that all the rubber/HNTs nanocomposites achieved strong interfacial interaction via interfacial covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds or multiple interactions, realized significantly improved dispersion of HNTs at nanoscale and exhibited excellent mechanical performances and other properties.

  17. Fabrication and properties of multiferroic nanocomposite films

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Nassar, Mohammed Y.; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    A new type of multiferroic polymer nanocomposite is presented, which exhibits excellent ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity simultaneously at room temperature. The multiferroic nanocomposite consists of a ferroelectric copolymer poly(vinylindene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] and high aspect ratio ferromagnetic nickel (Ni) nanowires (NWs), which were grown inside anodic aluminum oxide membranes. The fabrication of nanocomposite films with Ni NWs embedded in P(VDF-TrFE) has been successfully carried out via a simple low-temperature spin-coating technique. Structural, ferromagnetic, and ferroelectric properties of the developed nanocomposite have been investigated. The remanent and saturation polarization as well as the coercive field of the ferroelectric phase are slightly affected by the incorporation of the NWs as well as the thickness of the films. While the former two decrease, the last increases by adding the NWs or increasing the thickness. The ferromagnetic properties of the nanocomposite films are found to be isotropic.

  18. Controlled fabrication of luminescent and magnetic nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingxin; Zhong, Yucheng; Fan, Jing; Huang, Weiren

    2018-03-01

    Luminescent and magnetic multifunctional nanocomposite is in high demand and widely used in many scales, such as drug delivery, bioseparation, chemical/biosensors, and so on. Although lots of strategies have been successfully developed for the demand of multifunctional nanocomposites, it is not easy to prepare multifunctional nanocomposites by using a simple method, and satisfy all kinds of demands simultaneously. In this work, via a facile and versatile method, luminescent nanocrystals and magnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized through self-assembly under vigorous stirring and ultrasonic treatment. These multifunctional nanocomposites are not only water stable but also find wide application such as magnetic separation and concentration with a series of moderate speed, multicolor fluorescence at different emission wavelength, high efficiency of the excitation and emission, and so on. By changing different kinds of luminescent nanocrystals and controlling the amount of luminescent and magnetic nanoparticles, a train of multifunctional nanocomposites was successfully fabricated via a versatile and robust method.

  19. Nanocomposite organomineral hybrid materials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issues of alkoxide method of sol-gel synthesis and non-hydrolytic method of sol-gel synthesis and colloidal method of sol-gel synthesis. The authors also consider an alternative approach based on the use of soluble silicates as precursors in the sol-gel technology, of nanocomposites. It was shown that nanocomposites can be produced through aerogels. The paper also analyzes the mixing technologies of nanocomposites preparation. It has been demonstrated the possibility to change the types of nano-phase which is used for obtaining nanocomposites in different approaches. Various models of packaging spherical, fibrous and layered nanoparticles, introduced into the structure of the nanocomposite, in the preparation thereof were examined.

  20. Nanocomposite organomineral hybrid materials. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issues of alkoxide method of sol-gel synthesis and non-hydrolytic method of sol-gel synthesis and colloidal method of sol-gel synthesis. The authors also consider an alternative approach based on the use of soluble silicates as precursors in the sol-gel technology, of nanocomposites. It was shown that nanocomposites can be produced through aerogels. The paper also analyzes the mixing technologies of nanocomposites preparation. It has been demonstrated the possibility to change the types of nano-phase which is used for obtaining nanocomposites in different approaches. Various models of packaging spherical, fibrous and layered nanoparticles, introduced into the structure of the nanocomposite, in the preparation thereof were examined.

  1. Nanocomposite organomineral hybrid materials. Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issues of alkoxide method of sol-gel synthesis and non-hydrolytic method of sol-gel synthesis and colloidal method of sol-gel synthesis. The authors also consider an alternative approach based on the use of soluble silicates as precursors in the sol-gel technology, of nanocomposites. It was shown that nanocomposites can be produced through aerogels. The paper also analyzes the mixing technologies of nanocomposites preparation. It has been demonstrated the possibility to change the types of nano-phase which is used for obtaining nanocomposites in different approaches. Various models of packaging spherical, fibrous and layered nanoparticles, introduced into the structure of the nanocomposite, in the preparation thereof were examined.

  2. The Role of Interfaces in Polyethylene/Metal-Oxide Nanocomposites for Ultrahigh-Voltage Insulating Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud; Olsson, Richard T; Hedenqvist, Mikael S

    2018-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of polyethylene/metal-oxide nanocomposites for extruded high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) cables with ultrahigh electric insulation properties is presented. This is a promising technology with the potential of raising the upper voltage limit in today's underground/submarine cables, based on pristine polyethylene, to levels where the loss of energy during electric power transmission becomes low enough to ensure intercontinental electric power transmission. The development of HVDC insulating materials together with the impact of the interface between the particles and the polymer on the nanocomposites electric properties are shown. Important parameters from the atomic to the microlevel, such as interfacial chemistry, interfacial area, and degree of particle dispersion/aggregation, are discussed. This work is placed in perspective with important work by others, and suggested mechanisms for improved insulation using nanoparticles, such as increased charge trap density, adsorption of impurities/ions, and induced particle dipole moments are considered. The effects of the nanoparticles and of their interfacial structures on the mechanical properties and the implications of cavitation on the electric properties are also discussed. Although the main interest in improving the properties of insulating polymers has been on the use of nanoparticles, leading to nanodielectrics, it is pointed out here that larger microscopic hierarchical metal-oxide particles with high surface porosity also impart good insulation properties. The impact of the type of particle and its inherent properties (purity and conductivity) on the nanocomposite dielectric and insulating properties are also discussed based on data obtained by a newly developed technique to directly observe the charge distribution on a nanometer scale in the nanocomposite. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Comparison of dust release from epoxy and paint nanocomposites and conventional products during sanding and sawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Virginia; Levin, Marcus; Saber, Anne T; Irusta, Silvia; Dal Maso, Miikka; Hanoi, Roberto; Santamaria, Jesus; Jensen, Keld A; Wallin, Håkan; Koponen, Ismo K

    2014-10-01

    The release of dust generated during sanding or sawing of nanocomposites was compared with conventional products without nanomaterials. Epoxy-based polymers with and without carbon nanotubes, and paints with different amounts of nano-sized titanium dioxide, were machined in a closed aerosol chamber. The temporal evolution of the aerosol concentration and size distribution were measured simultaneously. The morphology of collected dust by scanning electron microscopy was different depending on the type of nanocomposites: particles from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposites had protrusions on their surfaces and aggregates and agglomerates are attached to the paint matrix in particles emitted from alkyd paints. We observed no significant differences in the particle size distributions when comparing sanding dust from nanofiller containing products with dust from conventional products. Neither did we observe release of free nanomaterials. Instead, the nanomaterials were enclosed or partly enclosed in the matrix. A source strength term Si (cm(-3) s(-1)) that describes particle emission rates from continuous sources was introduced. Comparison between the Si parameters derived from sanding different materials allows identification of potential effects of addition of engineered nanoparticles to a composite. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  4. Dielectric properties of PMMA/Soot nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Lanetra M; Cinke, Martin; Meyyappan, M; Harmon, Julie P

    2007-07-01

    Dielectric analysis (DEA) of relaxation behavior in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) soot nanocomposites is described herein. The soot, an inexpensive material, consists of carbon nanotubes, amorphous and graphitic carbon and metal particles. Results are compared to earlier studies on PMMA/multi-walled nanotube (MWNT) composites and PMMA/single-walled nanotube (SWNT) composites. The beta relaxation process appeared to be unaffected by the presence of the soot, as was noted earlier in nanotube composites. The gamma relaxation region in PMMA, normally dielectrically inactive, was "awakened" in the PMMA/soot composite. This occurrence is consistent with previously published data on nanotube composites. The dielectric permittivity, s', increased with soot content. The sample with 1% soot exhibited a permittivity (at 100 Hz and 25 degrees C) of 7.3 as compared to 5.1 for neat PMMA. Soot increased the dielectric strength, deltaE, of the composites. The 1% soot sample exhibited a dielectric strength of 6.38, while the neat PMMA had a value of 2.95 at 40 degrees C. The symmetric broadening term (alpha) was slightly higher for the 1% composite at temperatures near the secondary relaxation and near the primary relaxation, but all samples deviated from symmetrical semi-circular behavior (alpha = 1). The impact of the soot filler is seen more clearly in dielectric properties than in mechanical properties studies conducted earlier.

  5. Cluster synthesis of monodisperse rutile-TiO2 nanoparticles and dielectric TiO2-vinylidene fluoride oligomer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Kraemer, Kristin L; Valloppilly, Shah R; Ducharme, Stephen; Sellmyer, David J

    2011-01-01

    The embedding of oxide nanoparticles in polymer matrices produces a greatly enhanced dielectric response by combining the high dielectric strength and low loss of suitable host polymers with the high electric polarizability of nanoparticles. The fabrication of oxide-polymer nanocomposites with well-controlled distributions of nanoparticles is, however, challenging due to the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers between the polymer matrix and nanoparticle fillers. In the present study, monodisperse TiO 2 nanoparticles having an average particle size of 14.4 nm and predominant rutile phase were produced using a cluster-deposition technique without high-temperature thermal annealing and subsequently coated with uniform vinylidene fluoride oligomer (VDFO) molecules using a thermal evaporation source, prior to deposition as TiO 2 -VDFO nanocomposite films on suitable substrates. The molecular coatings on TiO 2 nanoparticles serve two purposes, namely to prevent the TiO 2 nanoparticles from contacting each other and to couple the nanoparticle polarization to the matrix. Parallel-plate capacitors made of TiO 2 -VDFO nanocomposite film as the dielectric exhibit minimum dielectric dispersion and low dielectric loss. Dielectric measurements also show an enhanced effective dielectric constant in TiO 2 -VDFO nanocomposites as compared to that of pure VDFO. This study demonstrates for the first time a unique electroactive particle coating in the form of a ferroelectric VDFO that has high-temperature stability as compared to conventionally used polymers for fabricating dielectric oxide-polymer nanocomposites.

  6. Preparation of Mesoporous Carbons from Acrylonitrile-methyl Methacrylate Copolymer/Silica Nanocomposites Synthesized by in-situ Emulsion Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Yongzhong; ZHAO Wenting; HUANG Zhiming

    2013-01-01

    Acrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate (AN-MMA) copolymer/silica nanocomposites were synthesized by in-situ emulsion polymerization initiated by 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride absorbed onto colloidal silica particles,and the mesoporous carbon materials were prepared through carbonization of the obtained AN-MMA copolymer/silica nanocomposites,followed by HF etching.Thermogravimetric analysis of AN-MMA copolymer/silica nanocomposites showed that the carbon yield of copolymer was slightly decreased as silica particle incorporated.N2 adsorption-desorption,scan electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the mesoporous carbon materials.Both SEM and TEM results showed that disordered mesopores were formed in the obtained carbon material mainly through templating effect of silica nanoparticles.The diameter of mesopores was mainly distributed in the range from 5 nm to 15 nm.The mean pore diameter and total pore volume of the material increased as the mass fraction of silica in the nanocomposites increased from 0 to 24.93%.The significant increase of the mean pore diameter and the decrease of surface area for the carbon material prepared from the nanocomposite with 24.93% silica were caused by partial aggregation of silica nanoparticles in the polymer matrix.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of fly ash-zinc oxide nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Yeole

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, generated in thermal power plants, is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Thus, measures are required to be undertaken to dispose it in an environmentally friendly method. In this paper an attempt is made to coat zinc oxide nano-particles on the surface of fly ash by a simple and environmentally friendly facile chemical method, at room temperature. Zinc oxide may serve as effective corrosion inhibitor by providing sacrificial protection. Concentration of fly ash was varied as 5, 10 and 15 (w/w % of zinc oxide. It was found that crystallinity increased, whereas particle size, specific gravity and oil absorption value decreased with increased concentration of fly ash in zinc oxide, which is attributed to the uniform distribution of zinc oxide on the surface of fly ash. These nanocomposites can potentially be used in commercial applications as additive for anticorrosion coatings.

  8. Dental plaque microcosm biofilm behavior on calcium phosphate nanocomposite with quaternary ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Eric J; Xu, Sarah M; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2012-08-01

    Half of dental restorations fail in 10 years, with secondary caries as the main reason. Calcium phosphate composites could remineralize tooth lesions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) impart antibacterial activity to a composite with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP); and (2) investigate the effect of quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) on mechanical and dental plaque microcosm biofilm properties for the first time. The NACP and glass particles were filled into a dental resin that contained bis(2-methacryloyloxy-ethyl) dimethyl-ammonium bromide, the QADM. NACP nanocomposites containing 0%, 7%, 14%, and 17.5% of QADM by mass, respectively, were photo-cured. A commercial composite with no antibacterial activity was used as control. Mechanical properties were measured in three-point flexure. A human saliva microcosm model was used to grow biofilms on composites. Live/dead assay, metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, and lactic acid production of biofilms on the composites were measured. Increasing QADM mass fraction monotonically reduced the biofilm viability, CFU and lactic acid. Biofilms on NACP nanocomposite with 17.5% QADM had metabolic activity that was 30% that on a commercial composite control (pbacterial cells with normal short-rod shapes, while some cells on NACP-QADM nanocomposites disintegrated into pieces. Adding QADM to NACP did not decrease the composite strength and elastic modulus, which matched (p>0.1) those of a commercial composite without Ca-PO(4) or antibacterial activity. A dental plaque microcosm model was used to evaluate the novel NACP-QADM nanocomposite. The nanocomposite greatly reduced the biofilm viability, metabolic activity and lactic acid, while its mechanical properties matched those of a commercial composite. NACP-QADM nanocomposite with calcium phosphate fillers, good mechanical properties and a strong antibacterial activity may have potential for anti-biofilm and anti

  9. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of polymer-based ZnS nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Khan, S A; Kher, R S; Dhoble, S J; Chandel, A L S

    2016-03-01

    Nanostructured polymer-semiconductor hybrid materials such as ZnS-poly(vinyl alcohol) (ZnS-PVA), ZnS-starch and ZnS-hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (Zns-HPMC) are synthesized by a facile aqueous route. The obtained nanocomposites are characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV/vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). XRD studies confirm the zinc blende phase of the nanocomposites and indicate the high purity of the samples. SEM studies indicate small nanoparticles clinging to the surface of a bigger particle. The Energy Dispersive Analysis by X-rays (EDAX) spectrum reveals that the elemental composition of the nanocomposites consists primarily of Zn:S. FTIR studies indicate that the polymer matrix is closely associated with ZnS nanoparticles. The large number of hydroxyl groups in the polymer matrix facilitates the complexation of metal ions. The absorption spectra of the specimens show a blue shift in the absorption edge. The spectrum reveals an absorption edge at 320, 310 and 325 nm, respectively. PL of nanocomposites shows broad peaks in the violet-blue region (420-450 nm). The emission intensity changes with the nature of capping agent. The PL intensity of ZnS-HPMC nanocomposites is found to be highest among the studied nanocomposites. The results clearly indicate that hydroxyl-functionalized HPMC is much more effective at nucleating and stabilizing colloidal ZnS nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions compared with PVA and starch. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Biomimetic nanocomposites of carboxymethyl cellulose-hydroxyapatite: novel three dimensional load bearing bone grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Subhadra; Sinha, Arvind

    2014-03-01

    An innovative biomimetic synthesis of novel three dimensional micro/macro porous carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocomposites having four systematically different compositions has been established for its possible application as a load bearing synthetic bone graft. Our process, being in situ, involves a simple and cost effective route akin to a matrix mediated biomineralization process. Developed synthesis route not only controls the size of HA particles in the range of 15-50 nm, embedded in CMC matrix, but also assists in the formation of a mechanically strong three dimensional nanocomposite structures due to physical cross linking of HA impregnated CMC matrix. The process does not involve any toxic cross linker and works at near ambient conditions. The nanocomposites are systematically structurally and mechanically characterized using various techniques like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR (FTIR), solid state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Universal mechanical test. It reveals that the ionic/polar or electrostatic interactions are the main driving force for formation of load bearing three dimensional nanocomposites via a process similar to matrix mediated biomineralization. Compressive strength and compressive modulus of nanocomposites, being in the range of 1.74-12 MPa and 157-330 MPa, respectively, meet the desired range of compressive strength for the synthetic grafts used in cancellous bone. An increase in the compressive strength with increase in the porosity has been an interesting observation in the present study. In vitro cytotoxicity of the synthesized nanocomposites has been evaluated using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) isolated from Wistar rat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nano-hydroxyapatite/β-CD/chitosan nanocomposite for potential applications in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Mohammad; Jolly, Reshma; Khan, Mohd Shoeb; Rauf, Ahmar; Kazmi, Shadab

    2016-12-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel tri-component nanocomposite system incorporating β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and chitosan (CS), (n-HA/β-CD/CS) at three different temperatures via co-precipitation method. The chemical interactions and surface morphology have been evaluated by TEM, SEM and AFM techniques revealing the agglomerated nanoparticles in CS/n-HA-HA binary system whereas the ternary systems produced needle shaped nanoparticles dispersed homogeneously at low temperature with more porous and rougher surface. The addition of β-CD in CS/n-HA at low temperature decreased the particle size and raised the thermal stability as compared to CS/n-HA. The comparative hemolytic, protein adsorption and platelet adhesion studies confirmed the better hemocompatibility of n-HA/β-CD/CS-(RT,HT,LT) nanocomposites relative to CS/n-HA. The cell viability has been evaluated in vitro using MG-63 cell line which revealed superior non toxicity of n-HA/β-CD/CS-LT nanocomposite in comparison to n-HA/β-CD/CS-(RT,HT) and CS/n-HA nanocomposites. Thus it may be concluded that the orchestrated organic/inorganic n-HA/β-CD/CS-(RT,HT,LT) nanocomposites exhibited relatively higher cell viability of human osteoblast cells, stimulated greater osteogenesis, controlled biodegradation, enhanced antibacterial activity with excellent in-vitro biomineralization and remarkable mechanical parameters as compared to CS/n-HA nanocomposite and thus may provide opportunities for potential use as an alternative biomaterial for Bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficient photodecomposition of herbicide imazapyr over mesoporous Ga2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Adel A; Abdelfattah, Ibrahim; Faisal, M; Helal, Ahmed

    2018-01-15

    The unabated release of herbicide imazapyr into the soil and groundwater led to crop destruction and several pollution-related concerns. In this contribution, heterogeneous photocatalytic technique was employed utilizing mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites for degrading imazapyr herbicide as a model pollutant molecule. Mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites with varied Ga 2 O 3 contents (0-5wt%) were synthesized through sol-gel process. XRD and Raman spectra exhibited extremely crystalline anatase TiO 2 phase at low Ga 2 O 3 content which gradually reduced with the increase of Ga 2 O 3 content. TEM images display uniform TiO 2 particles (10±2nm) with mesoporous structure. The mesoporous TiO 2 exhibits large surface areas of 167m 2 g -1 , diminished to 108m 2 g -1 upon 5% Ga 2 O 3 incorporation, with tunable mesopore diameter in the range of 3-9nm. The photocatalytic efficiency of synthesized Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites was assessed by degrading imazapyr herbicide and comparing with commercial photocatalyst UV-100 and mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 under UV illumination. 0.1% Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposite is considered the optimum photocatalyst, which degrades 98% of imazapyr herbicide within 180min. Also, the photodegradation rate of imazapyr using 0.1% Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposite is nearly 10 and 3-fold higher than that of mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 and UV-100, respectively. The high photonic efficiency and long-term stability of the mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites are ascribed to its stronger oxidative capability in comparison with either mesoporous TiO 2 , Ga 2 O 3 or commercial UV-100. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Interfacial Polarization and Water Absorption on the Dielectric Properties of Epoxy-Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Marx

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Five types of nanofillers, namely, silica, surface-silylated silica, alumina, surface-silylated alumina, and boron nitride, were tested in this study. Nanocomposites composed of an epoxy/amine resin and one of the five types of nanoparticles were tested as dielectrics with a focus on (i the surface functionalization of the nanoparticles and (ii the water absorption by the materials. The dispersability of the nanoparticles in the resin correlated with the composition (OH content of their surfaces. The interfacial polarization of the thoroughly dried samples was found to increase at lowered frequencies and increased temperatures. The β relaxation, unlike the interfacial polarization, was not significantly increased at elevated temperatures (below the glass-transition temperature. Upon the absorption of water under ambient conditions, the interfacial polarization increased significantly, and the insulating properties decreased or even deteriorated. This effect was most pronounced in the nanocomposite containing silica, and occurred as well in the nanocomposites containing silylated silica or non-functionalized alumina. The alternating current (AC breakdown strength of all specimens was in the range of 30 to 35 kV·mm−1. In direct current (DC breakdown tests, the epoxy resin exhibited the lowest strength of 110 kV·mm−1; the nanocomposite containing surface-silylated alumina had a strength of 170 kV·mm−1. In summary, water absorption had the most relevant impact on the dielectric properties of nanocomposites containing nanoparticles, the surfaces of which interacted with the water molecules. Nanocomposites containing silylated alumina particles or boron nitride showed the best dielectric properties in this study.

  14. Facile hydrothermal growth graphene/ZnO nanocomposite for development of enhanced biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sze Shin; Tan, Michelle T T; Loh, Hwei-San; Khiew, Poi Sim; Chiu, Wee Siong

    2016-01-15

    Graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite was synthesised via a facile, green and efficient approach consisted of novel liquid phase exfoliation and solvothermal growth for sensing application. Highly pristine graphene was synthesised through mild sonication treatment of graphite in a mixture of ethanol and water at an optimum ratio. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) affirmed the hydrothermal growth of pure zinc oxide nanoparticles from zinc nitrate hexahydrate precursor. The as-prepared graphene/zinc oxide (G/ZnO) nanocomposite was characterised comprehensively to evaluate its morphology, crystallinity, composition and purity. All results clearly indicate that zinc oxide particles were homogenously distributed on graphene sheets, without any severe aggregation. The electrochemical performance of graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry analysis. The resulting electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a linear range of 1-15 mM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9977. The sensitivity of the graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite-modified hydrogen peroxide sensor was 3.2580 μAmM(-1) with a limit of detection of 7.4357 μM. An electrochemical DNA sensor platform was then fabricated for the detection of Avian Influenza H5 gene based on graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite. The results obtained from amperometry study indicate that the graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite-enhanced electrochemical DNA biosensor is significantly more sensitive (P < 0.05) and efficient than the conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Injectable nanocomposite cryogels for versatile protein drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Sandeep T; Zhang, David K Y; Grolman, Joshua M; Stafford, Alexander G; Mooney, David J

    2018-01-01

    Sustained, localized protein delivery can enhance the safety and activity of protein drugs in diverse disease settings. While hydrogel systems are widely studied as vehicles for protein delivery, they often suffer from rapid release of encapsulated cargo, leading to a narrow duration of therapy, and protein cargo can be denatured by incompatibility with the hydrogel crosslinking chemistry. In this work, we describe injectable nanocomposite hydrogels that are capable of sustained, bioactive, release of a variety of encapsulated proteins. Injectable and porous cryogels were formed by bio-orthogonal crosslinking of alginate using tetrazine-norbornene coupling. To provide sustained release from these hydrogels, protein cargo was pre-adsorbed to charged Laponite nanoparticles that were incorporated within the walls of the cryogels. The presence of Laponite particles substantially hindered the release of a number of proteins that otherwise showed burst release from these hydrogels. By modifying the Laponite content within the hydrogels, the kinetics of protein release could be precisely tuned. This versatile strategy to control protein release simplifies the design of hydrogel drug delivery systems. Here we present an injectable nanocomposite hydrogel for simple and versatile controlled release of therapeutic proteins. Protein release from hydrogels often requires first entrapping the protein in particles and embedding these particles within the hydrogel to allow controlled protein release. This pre-encapsulation process can be cumbersome, can damage the protein's activity, and must be optimized for each protein of interest. The strategy presented in this work simply premixes the protein with charged nanoparticles that bind strongly with the protein. These protein-laden particles are then placed within a hydrogel and slowly release the protein into the surrounding environment. Using this method, tunable release from an injectable hydrogel can be achieved for a variety of

  16. Cross accumulative roll bonding—A novel mechanical technique for significant improvement of stir-cast Al/Al2O3 nanocomposite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Kamali; Amirkhanlou, Sajjad; Khorsand, Shohreh

    2014-01-01

    Lightweight metal-matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs—metal matrix with nanosized ceramic particles) can be of significance for automobile, aerospace, and numerous other applications. There are some problems in obtaining suitable mechanical properties of MMNCs, including weak bonding between reinforcement and matrix, non-uniformity of reinforcement nanoparticles and high porosity content. In this study, aluminum/alumina nanocomposite was fabricated by stircasting method. Subsequently, cross accumulative roll bonding (CARB) process was used as an effective method for refinement of microstructure and improvement of mechanical properties. The microstructural evolution and the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites during various CARB cycles were examined by the Archimedes method, X-ray defractometer, scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing. The results showed that the microstructure of the nanocomposite after eight cycles of CARB had an excellent distribution of alumina nanoparticles in aluminum matrix without any remarkable porosity. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the crystallite size of the nanocomposite was 71 nm by employing eight cycles of CARB technique. Mechanical experiment also indicated that the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation of the nanocomposite increased as the number of CARB cycles increased. After eight CARB cycles, ultimate tensile strength and the elongation values reached 344 MPa and 6.4%, which were 3.13 and 3.05 times greater than those of as-cast nanocomposites, respectively

  17. Preparation of RGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/poly (acrylic acid) hydrogel nanocomposites with improved magnetic, thermal and electrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didehban, K.H., E-mail: Didehban95@gmail.com; Mohammadi, L.; Azimvand, J.

    2017-07-01

    A hydrogel nanocomposite composed of reduced graphene oxide (RGO), iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles, and polyacrylic acid (PAA) was prepared using radical polymerization. Different percentages of RGO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and PAA were used to prepare the nanocomposite. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results confirmed the formation of the nanocomposite’s chemical structure. X-ray power diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed the principal peak’s 2θ value to be 77.39° with the size of the nanocomposite particles estimated at 96 nm. Results indicated that the electrochemical capacity of the nanocomposites was controlled by the weight percentage of RGO. Increases to the potential scan rate reduced porosity and surface area, thereby decreasing the electrochemical capacity of the nanocomposites. Moreover, increasing the percentage of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the nanocomposites improved their magnetic characteristics and thermal properties. The latter also improved when the RGO percentage increased. - Highlights: • A hydrogel nanocomposite composed of RGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PAA was synthesized successfully. • Increasing the percentage of iron nanoparticles improved magnetic properties. • Increasing the percentage of RGO improved thermal and electrochemical capacity. • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles directly affected magnetic properties.

  18. A comparative study on CdS: PEO and CdS: PMMA nanocomposite solid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaja, S.; Jayakumar, S.; Balaji, R.; Vaideki, K.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles were reinforced in Poly(ethylene Oxide) (PEO) and Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrices by in situ technique. The presence of CdS in PEO and PMMA matrix was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis disclosed the co-ordination of CdS in the matrices. Thermal analysis of the nanocomposites was carried out using Differential Scanning calorimetric studies (DSC). The optical studies using UV–vis spectroscopy were carried out to find the band gap of the materials and the absorption onset. The CdS particle size in the matrices was found by Effective Mass Approximation (EMA) model using the band gap values and was confirmed by TEM studies. The surface trapped emissions of the nanocomposites were observed from the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The distribution of CdS particles in the polymer matrices were presented by Atomic force microscopic studies (AFM).

  19. A comparative study on CdS: PEO and CdS: PMMA nanocomposite solid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmaja, S. [Thin film centre, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore (India); Jayakumar, S., E-mail: s_jayakumar_99@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, PSG Institute of Technology and Applied Research, Coimbatore (India); Balaji, R.; Vaideki, K. [Thin film centre, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore (India)

    2016-08-15

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles were reinforced in Poly(ethylene Oxide) (PEO) and Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrices by in situ technique. The presence of CdS in PEO and PMMA matrix was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis disclosed the co-ordination of CdS in the matrices. Thermal analysis of the nanocomposites was carried out using Differential Scanning calorimetric studies (DSC). The optical studies using UV–vis spectroscopy were carried out to find the band gap of the materials and the absorption onset. The CdS particle size in the matrices was found by Effective Mass Approximation (EMA) model using the band gap values and was confirmed by TEM studies. The surface trapped emissions of the nanocomposites were observed from the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The distribution of CdS particles in the polymer matrices were presented by Atomic force microscopic studies (AFM).

  20. Development of filter element from nanocomposites of ultra high molar mass polyethylene having silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzo, Maurizio A.; Wang, S. Hui

    2015-01-01

    The production of polymer based filter elements for water is widespread in the market but has an undesirable characteristic, they are not always efficient and capable of retaining or eliminating microorganisms. This paper proposes the production of filters with biocidal activity, comprised by nanocomposites of ultra-high molar mass polyethylene (UHMMPE) containing silver nanoparticles. The polymer is responsible for the uniform porous structure of the filter element and the Ag nanoparticles for its biocidal action. The filter elements were produced from two kinds of UHMMPE particles with different particle size distributions, one in the range of 150 to 200μm and the other of 300 to 400μm. Samples were collected from the obtained filter elements and characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis. The results indicated the formation of nanocomposite containing silver nanoparticles. (author)

  1. Low coercive field and conducting nanocomposite formed by Fe3O4 and poly(thiophene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.A.; Santos, M.J.L.; Rinaldi, A.W.; Zarbin, A.J.G.; Oliveira, M.M.; Santos, I.A.; Cotica, L.F.; Coellho, A.A.; Rubira, A.F.; Girotto, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetite and poly(thiophene) composites have been produced by in situ monomer oxidation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the presence of Fe 3 O 4 as particle agglomerates ranging from 15 to ca. 54 nm in size. Transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) revealed a face-to-face structure in both the pure magnetite and the nanocomposite. Typical superparamagnetic (ferrimagnetic) curves have been observed, whereas the relatively weak magnetic field employed in measurement, 200 Oe, was sufficient to split the curves completely. Zero field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) curves coincide only above room temperature, indicating that the characteristic blocking temperature (T B ) for superparamagnetic particles in this assembly is above room temperature. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of magnetite/poly(thiophene) nanocomposite

  2. Improvement of Fracture Toughness in Epoxy Nanocomposites through Chemical Hybridization of Carbon Nanotubes and Alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Muhammad Razlan; Abdul Kudus, Muhammad Helmi; Md Akil, Hazizan; Zamri, Mohd Hafiz

    2017-03-16

    The current study investigated the effect of adding a carbon nanotube-alumina (CNT-Al₂O₃) hybrid on the fracture toughness of epoxy nanocomposites. The CNT-Al₂O₃ hybrid was synthesised by growing CNTs on Al₂O₃ particles via the chemical vapour deposition method. The CNTs were strongly attached onto the Al₂O₃ particles, which served to transport and disperse the CNTs homogenously, and to prevent agglomeration in the CNTs. The experimental results demonstrated that the CNT-Al₂O₃ hybrid-filled epoxy nanocomposites showed improvement in terms of the fracture toughness, as indicated by an increase of up to 26% in the critical stress intensity factor, K 1 C , compared to neat epoxy.

  3. Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructure, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Al-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Synthesized by Ball Milling and Powder Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Toozandehjani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of milling time on the morphology, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties of pure Al-5 wt % Al2O3 (Al-5Al2O3 has been investigated. Al-5Al2O3 nanocomposites were fabricated using ball milling in a powder metallurgy route. The increase in the milling time resulted in the homogenous dispersion of 5 wt % Al2O3 nanoparticles, the reduction of particle clustering, and the reduction of distances between the composite particles. The significant grain refining during milling was revealed which showed as a reduction of particle size resulting from longer milling time. X-Ray diffraction (XRD analysis of the nanocomposite powders also showed that designated ball milling contributes to the crystalline refining and accumulation of internal stress due to induced severe plastic deformation of the particles. It can be argued that these morphological and microstructural variations of nanocomposite powders induced by designated ball milling time was found to contribute to an improvement in the density, densification, micro-hardness (HV, nano-hardness (HN, and Young’s modulus (E of Al-5Al2O3 nanocomposites. HV, HN, and E values of nanocomposites were increased by ~48%, 46%, and 40%, after 12 h of milling, respectively.

  4. Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructure, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Al-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Synthesized by Ball Milling and Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matori, Khamirul Amin; Ostovan, Farhad; Abdul Aziz, Sidek; Mamat, Md Shuhazlly

    2017-01-01

    The effect of milling time on the morphology, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties of pure Al-5 wt % Al2O3 (Al-5Al2O3) has been investigated. Al-5Al2O3 nanocomposites were fabricated using ball milling in a powder metallurgy route. The increase in the milling time resulted in the homogenous dispersion of 5 wt % Al2O3 nanoparticles, the reduction of particle clustering, and the reduction of distances between the composite particles. The significant grain refining during milling was revealed which showed as a reduction of particle size resulting from longer milling time. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the nanocomposite powders also showed that designated ball milling contributes to the crystalline refining and accumulation of internal stress due to induced severe plastic deformation of the particles. It can be argued that these morphological and microstructural variations of nanocomposite powders induced by designated ball milling time was found to contribute to an improvement in the density, densification, micro-hardness (HV), nano-hardness (HN), and Young’s modulus (E) of Al-5Al2O3 nanocomposites. HV, HN, and E values of nanocomposites were increased by ~48%, 46%, and 40%, after 12 h of milling, respectively. PMID:29072632

  5. Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructure, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Al-Al₂O₃ Nanocomposite Synthesized by Ball Milling and Powder Metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toozandehjani, Meysam; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Ostovan, Farhad; Abdul Aziz, Sidek; Mamat, Md Shuhazlly

    2017-10-26

    The effect of milling time on the morphology, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties of pure Al-5 wt % Al₂O₃ (Al-5Al₂O₃) has been investigated. Al-5Al₂O₃ nanocomposites were fabricated using ball milling in a powder metallurgy route. The increase in the milling time resulted in the homogenous dispersion of 5 wt % Al₂O₃ nanoparticles, the reduction of particle clustering, and the reduction of distances between the composite particles. The significant grain refining during milling was revealed which showed as a reduction of particle size resulting from longer milling time. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the nanocomposite powders also showed that designated ball milling contributes to the crystalline refining and accumulation of internal stress due to induced severe plastic deformation of the particles. It can be argued that these morphological and microstructural variations of nanocomposite powders induced by designated ball milling time was found to contribute to an improvement in the density, densification, micro-hardness ( HV ), nano-hardness ( HN ), and Young's modulus ( E ) of Al-5Al₂O₃ nanocomposites. HV , HN , and E values of nanocomposites were increased by ~48%, 46%, and 40%, after 12 h of milling, respectively.

  6. Fabrication, characterization, and dynamic behavior of polyester/TiO2 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evora, Victor M.F.; Shukla, Arun

    2003-01-01

    Unsaturated polyester resin specimens embedded with small loadings of 36 nm average diameter TiO 2 particles were fabricated using a direct ultrasonification method to study the effects of nanosized particles on nanocomposite bulk mechanical properties. The ultrasonification method employed produced nanocomposites with excellent particle dispersion as verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Quasi-static fracture toughness, tension, and compression testing was carried out. The presence of the particles had the greatest effect on fracture toughness; negligible influence was observed in the remaining quasi-static properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of fracture surfaces was carried out to identify toughening mechanisms. The inadequacy of the bond between the filler and the matrix and the presence of minor particle agglomerations in specimens containing higher volume fractions of particles were believed to be responsible for a consistent decrease in property values beyond a volume fraction of 1 vol.%. Dynamic fracture toughness testing was carried out, and an increase in dynamic fracture toughness relative to quasi-static fracture toughness was observed. High strain rate testing conducted using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) apparatus revealed a moderate stiffening effect with increasing particle volume fraction, although no marked effect was observed on the ultimate strength

  7. Microwave-polyol synthesis and electrocatalytic performance of Pt/graphene nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chien-Shiun; Liao, Chien-Tsao; Tso, Ching-Yu; Shy, Hsiou-Jeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · One-pot microwave-polyol synthesis of Pt/graphene electrocatalyst. · Simultaneous formation of Pt nanoparticles and reduction of graphene oxide. · Electrocatalytic activities depend on the morphology of the deposited Pt particles. · Dense dispersion of isolated Pt particles with high electrochemical active surface. · Few particle clusters of Pt have large number of active sites for methanol oxidation. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) prepared by the modified Hummers method is used as a support in the formation of a Pt/GO nanocomposite electrocatalyst by microwave-polyol synthesis. The effects of microwave reaction times on particle size, dispersion, and electrocatalytic performance of Pt nanoparticles are studied using wide-angle X-ray diffractometery, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and three-electrode electrochemical measurements. The results indicate that Pt nanoparticles nucleation and growth occur, and the particles are uniformly deposited on the GO nanosheets within a short time. The maximum electrochemical active surface area 85.71 m 2 g -1 for a Pt/GO reaction time of 5 min, is a result of the deposition of a dense dispersion of small Pt particles. The highest methanol oxidation peak current density, I f , of 0.59 A mg -1 occurs for a Pt/GO reaction time of 10 min and is due to the formation of interconnecting Pt particles clusters. This novel Pt/GO nanocomposite electrocatalyst with high electrocatalytic activities has the potential for use as an anode material in fuel cells.

  8. Effective Optical Properties of Plasmonic Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Etrich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanocomposites find many applications, such as nanometric coatings in emerging fields, such as optotronics, photovoltaics or integrated optics. To make use of their ability to affect light propagation in an unprecedented manner, plasmonic nanocomposites should consist of densely packed metallic nanoparticles. This causes a major challenge for their theoretical description, since the reliable assignment of effective optical properties with established effective medium theories is no longer possible. Established theories, e.g., the Maxwell-Garnett formalism, are only applicable for strongly diluted nanocomposites. This effective description, however, is a prerequisite to consider plasmonic nanocomposites in the design of optical devices. Here, we mitigate this problem and use full wave optical simulations to assign effective properties to plasmonic nanocomposites with filling fractions close to the percolation threshold. We show that these effective properties can be used to properly predict the optical action of functional devices that contain nanocomposites in their design. With this contribution we pave the way to consider plasmonic nanocomposites comparably to ordinary materials in the design of optical elements.

  9. Three dimensional poly(ε-caprolactone) and silk fibroin nanocomposite fibrous matrix for artificial dermis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Min, E-mail: yiyi1124@gmail.com [Nano-Bio Regenerative Medical Institute, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Taesik, E-mail: apsiky@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Sheikh, Faheem A., E-mail: faheem99in@yahoo.com [Nano-Bio Regenerative Medical Institute, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Hyung Woo, E-mail: anabasjoo@gmail.com [Nano-Bio Regenerative Medical Institute, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Bo Mi, E-mail: toribom@gmail.com [Nano-Bio Regenerative Medical Institute, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Jung, E-mail: hyunjungpark869@gmail.com [Nano-Bio Regenerative Medical Institute, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ye Ri, E-mail: payeri89@gmail.com [Nano-Bio Regenerative Medical Institute, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan Hum, E-mail: hlpch@paran.com [Nano-Bio Regenerative Medical Institute, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-704 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Ideal dermal substitutes should have comparable physicochemical and biological properties to the natural skin tissue. In this study, we report a novel strategy to “engineer” controlled 3D nanocomposite fibrous matrix of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and silk fibroin (SF) for an artificial dermis application. Using a custom-designed cold-plate electrospinning and automatic magnet agitation system, up to 6 mm of the thickness was achieved resulting from the accumulation of ice crystal layers on the PCL nanofibers surface-modified with the SF particles. The sacrificed ice crystals induced interconnected macro-pores ranging from tens to hundreds μm. The agitation system introduced uniform distribution of the SF protein within/on the nanofibers, preventing the particles from precipitation and agglomeration. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts proliferated in vitro on the PCL and PCL/SF scaffolds for 7 days, but there was no statistical difference between the groups. Conversely, In vivo rat model studies revealed that the wound healing rate and collagen deposition increased with the SF content within the nanocomposites. The unique 3D construct with the PCL/SF nanocomposite fibers provided desirable spatial cues, surface topography, and surface chemistry for the native cells to infiltrate into the scaffolds. The wound healing potential of the nanocomposites was comparable to the commercial Matriderm® artificial dermis. - Highlights: • 3D macro-porous tissue engineering scaffold constructed with PCL nanofibers and SF nanoparticles. • Fabrication of the PCL/SF nanocomposite fibrous scaffold via a custom-designed cold plate electrospinning (CPE) and automatic magnet agitation (AMA) system. • Comparable wound healing capacity of the PCL/SF scaffolds to the commercial Matriderm® artificial dermis.

  10. Characterizations of electrodeposited Ni–CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasturibai, S., E-mail: s.kasturibai@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamilnadu (India); Advanced Nanocomposite Coatings Laboratory, Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamilnadu (India); Kalaignan, G. Paruthimal, E-mail: pkalaignan@yahoo.com [Advanced Nanocomposite Coatings Laboratory, Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-10-15

    The expansion of current machinery requires metallic materials with better surface properties. In the present investigation, CeO{sub 2} reinforced nickel nanocomposite coatings were deposited on mild steel substrate by direct current electrodeposition process employing nickel acetate bath. The effect of incorporation of CeO{sub 2} particles in the Ni nanocomposite coatings on the micro hardness and corrosion behaviour has been evaluated. Smooth and compact nanocomposite deposits containing well-distributed cerium oxide particles were obtained. The crystallite structure was fcc for electrodeposited nickel and Ni–CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings. It has been observed that, the presence of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles favours the [111] and [200] texture of nickel matrix. The co-deposition of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles with nickel was found to be favoured at applied current density of 8 A dm{sup −2}. The micro hardness values of the nickel nanocomposite coatings (725 HV) was higher than that of pure nickel (265 HV).The decrease in I{sub corr} values and increase in Constant Phase Element values were investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution which showed the higher corrosion resistant nature of Ni–CeO{sub 2} coatings. - Highlights: • Ni–CeO{sub 2} composite coatings have electrodeposited from eco-friendly acetate bath. • Inclusion of CeO{sub 2} in the composite coating has refined the crystallite size. • Micro hardness values have increased with CeO{sub 2} content in the composite coatings. • The negative shift of E{sub corr} confirming cathodic protective nature of coatings.

  11. Sol–gel synthesis and luminescence of undoped and Mn-doped zinc orthosilicate phosphor nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghoul, J., E-mail: ghoultn@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et des Nanomatériaux Appliquée à l’Environnement, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Cité Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); El Mir, L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et des Nanomatériaux Appliquée à l’Environnement, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Cité Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), College of Sciences, Departement of Physics, Riyadh 11623 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-04-15

    Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Mn particles embedded in SiO{sub 2} host matrix prepared by sol gel method under supercritical conditions of ethyl alcohol in two steps. Were prepared by a simple solid-phase reaction under natural atmosphere at 1200 °C after the incorporation of ZnO and ZnO:Mn nanoparticles, respectively, in silica monolith. In the case of SiO{sub 2}/Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} nanocomposite, the powder with an average particle size of 80 nm shows a strong luminescence band centred at around 760 nm in the visible range. In addition, the PL spectrum for the SiO{sub 2}/Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Mn nanocomposite showed that a dominant peak at 525 nm appeared, which originated from the {sup 4}T{sub 1}–{sup 6}A{sub 1} transitions of Mn{sup 2+} ions. The luminescence properties of nanocomposites were characterized by emission and excitation spectra as well their dependencies of upon temperature and power excitation density. -- Highlights: • The Synthesis of Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} nanocomposites. • Structural and optical characterizations of Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Mn nanocomposites. • The willemite α-Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} structure was formed to the heat treatment temperature 1200 °C. • The powder exhibits a nanometric size. • Strong bands of luminescence have appeared.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of carbonyl iron-carbon nanocomposite: Characterization and electromagnetic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Pourabdollahi

    Full Text Available In this research, the electromagnetic absorption properties of the carbonyl iron-carbon (CI/C nanocomposite prepared via hydrothermal reaction using glucose as carbon precursor was studied in the range of 8.2–12.4 GHz. In hydrothermal reaction, glucose solution containing CI particles, placed in autoclave for 4 h under 453 K. Using surface coating technology is a method that prevents Cl oxidation and improves CI electromagnetic absorption. The structure, morphology and magnetic performances of the prepared nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The electromagnetic properties including complex permittivity (εr, the permeability (µr, dielectric loss, magnetic loss, reflection loss, and attenuation constant were investigated using a vector network analyzer. For The CI/C nanocomposite, the bandwidth of −10 dB and −20 dB were obtained in the frequency range of 9.8–12.4 and 11.0–11.8 GHz, respectively. As well as, the reflection loss was −46.69 dB at the matching frequency of 11.5 GHz, when the matching thickness was 1.3 mm. While for CI particles the reflection loss for 4.4 mm thickness was −16.86 dB at the matching frequency of 12.3 GHz. The results indicate that the existence layer of carbon on carbonyl iron enhance the electromagnetic absorbing properties. Therefore, this nanocomposite can be suitable for in the radar absorbing coatings. Keywords: Hydrothermal synthesis, Carbonyl iron-carbon nanocomposite, Microwave absorption, Reflection loss

  13. Non-conductive ferromagnetic carbon-coated (Co, Ni) metal/polystyrene nanocomposites films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, H., E-mail: helene.takacs@gmail.com [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, Grenoble 38054 (France); LTM-CNRS-UJF, CEA, LETI, Minatec Campus, Grenoble 38054 (France); Viala, B.; Hermán, V. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, Grenoble 38054 (France); Tortai, J.-H. [LTM-CNRS-UJF, CEA, LETI, Minatec Campus, Grenoble 38054 (France); Duclairoir, F. [Université Grenoble Alpes, INAC, Grenoble 38054 (France); CEA, INAC, Grenoble 38054 (France)

    2016-03-07

    This article reports non-conductive ferromagnetic properties of metal/polymer nanocomposite films intended to be used for RF applications. The nanocomposite arrangement is unique showing a core double-shell structure of metal-carbon-polystyrene: M/C//P{sub 1}/P{sub 2}, where M = Co, Ni is the core material, C = graphene or carbon is the first shell acting as a protective layer against oxidation, P{sub 1} = pyrene-terminated polystyrene is the second shell for electrical insulation, and P{sub 2} = polystyrene is a supporting matrix (// indicates actual grafting). The nanocomposite formulation is briefly described, and the film deposition by spin-coating is detailed. Original spin-curves are reported and analyzed. One key outcome is the achievement of uniform and cohesive films at the wafer scale. Structural properties of films are thoroughly detailed, and weight and volume fractions of M/C are considered. Then, a comprehensive overview of DC magnetic and electrical properties is reported. A discussion follows on the magnetic softness of the nanocomposites vs. that of a single particle (theoretical) and the raw powder (experimental). Finally, unprecedented achievement of high magnetization (∼0.6 T) and ultra-high resistivity (∼10{sup 10 }μΩ cm) is shown. High magnetization comes from the preservation of the existing protective shell C, with no significant degradation on the particle net-moment, and high electrical insulation is ensured by adequate grafting of the secondary shell P{sub 1}. To conclude, the metal/polymer nanocomposites are situated in the landscape of soft ferromagnetic materials for RF applications (i.e., inductors and antennas), by means of two phase-diagrams, where they play a crucial role.

  14. Three dimensional poly(ε-caprolactone) and silk fibroin nanocomposite fibrous matrix for artificial dermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Min; Chae, Taesik; Sheikh, Faheem A.; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Park, Hyun Jung; Park, Ye Ri; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-01-01

    Ideal dermal substitutes should have comparable physicochemical and biological properties to the natural skin tissue. In this study, we report a novel strategy to “engineer” controlled 3D nanocomposite fibrous matrix of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and silk fibroin (SF) for an artificial dermis application. Using a custom-designed cold-plate electrospinning and automatic magnet agitation system, up to 6 mm of the thickness was achieved resulting from the accumulation of ice crystal layers on the PCL nanofibers surface-modified with the SF particles. The sacrificed ice crystals induced interconnected macro-pores ranging from tens to hundreds μm. The agitation system introduced uniform distribution of the SF protein within/on the nanofibers, preventing the particles from precipitation and agglomeration. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts proliferated in vitro on the PCL and PCL/SF scaffolds for 7 days, but there was no statistical difference between the groups. Conversely, In vivo rat model studies revealed that the wound healing rate and collagen deposition increased with the SF content within the nanocomposites. The unique 3D construct with the PCL/SF nanocomposite fibers provided desirable spatial cues, surface topography, and surface chemistry for the native cells to infiltrate into the scaffolds. The wound healing potential of the nanocomposites was comparable to the commercial Matriderm® artificial dermis. - Highlights: • 3D macro-porous tissue engineering scaffold constructed with PCL nanofibers and SF nanoparticles. • Fabrication of the PCL/SF nanocomposite fibrous scaffold via a custom-designed cold plate electrospinning (CPE) and automatic magnet agitation (AMA) system. • Comparable wound healing capacity of the PCL/SF scaffolds to the commercial Matriderm® artificial dermis.

  15. Quantum Dot/Liquid Crystal Nanocomposites in Photonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Rodarte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dot/liquid crystal nano-composites are promising new materials for a variety of applications in energy harvesting, displays and photonics including the liquid crystal laser. To realize many applications, however, we need to control and stabilize nano-particle dispersion in different liquid crystal host phases and understand how the particles behave in an anisotropic fluid. An ideal system will allow for the controlled assembly of either well-defined nano-particle clusters or a uniform particle distribution. In this paper, we investigate mesogen-functionalized quantum dots for dispersion in cholesteric liquid crystal. These nanoparticles are known to assemble into dense stable packings in the nematic phase, and such structures, when localized in the liquid crystal defects, can potentially enhance the coupling between particles and a cholesteric cavity. Controlling the dispersion and assembly of quantum dots using mesogenic surface ligands, we demonstrate how resonant fluid photonic cavities can result from the co-assembly of luminescent nanoparticles in the presence of cholesteric liquid crystalline ordering.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of polyacrylonitrile-silver nanocomposites by γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huarong; Ge Xuewu; Ni Yonghong; Ye Qiang; Zhang Zhicheng

    2001-01-01

    The nanocomposites of stable nanosilver particles embedded in polyacrylonitrile matrix were synthesized by γ-irradiation, in which the monomer acrylonitrile was polymerized and the silver ions were reduced simultaneously by γ-irradiation to form composites in situ. The strong interactions between silver ions with -CN groups of polyacrylonitrile are found, which were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectrum and absorption spectra

  17. Fabrication of highly porous biodegradable biomimetic nanocomposite as advanced bone tissue scaffold

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla Abdal-hay; Khalil Abdelrazek Khalil; Abdel Salam Hamdy; Fawzi F. Al-Jassir

    2017-01-01

    Development of bioinspired or biomimetic materials is currently a challenge in the field of tissue regeneration. In-situ 3D biomimetic microporous nanocomposite scaffold has been developed using a simple lyophilization post hydrothermal reaction for bone healing applications. The fabricated 3D porous scaffold possesses advantages of good bonelike apatite particles distribution, thermal properties and high porous interconnected network structure. High dispersion bonelike apatite nanoparticles ...

  18. A Two-Step Methodology to Study the Influence of Aggregation/Agglomeration of Nanoparticles on Young's Modulus of Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinyue; Zare, Yasser; Rhee, Kyong Yop

    2017-12-01

    A two-step technique based on micromechanical models is suggested to determine the influence of aggregated/agglomerated nanoparticles on Young's modulus of polymer nanocomposites. The nanocomposite is assumed to include nanoparticle aggregation/agglomeration and effective matrix phases. This method is examined for different samples, and the effects of important parameters on the modulus are investigated. Moreover, the highest and the lowest levels of predicted modulus are calculated based on the current methodology. The suggested technique can correctly predict Young's modulus for the samples assuming the aggregation/agglomeration of nanoparticles. Additionally, the aggregation/agglomeration of nanoparticles decreases Young's modulus of polymer nanocomposites. It is demonstrated that the high modulus of nanoparticles is not sufficient to obtain a high modulus in nanocomposites, and the surface chemistry of components should be adjusted to prevent aggregation/agglomeration and to disperse nano-sized particles in the polymer matrix.

  19. Biomimetic magnetic nanocomposite for smart skins

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    We report a biomimetic tactile sensor consisting of magnetic nanocomposite artificial cilia and magnetic sensors. The nanocomposite is fashioned from polydimethylsiloxane and iron nanowires and exhibits a permanent magnetic behavior. This enables remote operation without an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires, which simplifies device integration. Moreover, the highly elastic and easy patternable nanocomposite is corrosion resistant and thermally stable. The highly sensitive and power efficient tactile sensors can detect vertical and shear forces from interactions with objects. The sensors can operate in dry and wet environment with the ability to measure different properties such as the texture and the movement or stability of objects, with easily adjustable performance.

  20. Polymer/metal nanocomposites for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Yasser; Shabani, Iman

    2016-03-01

    Polymer/metal nanocomposites consisting of polymer as matrix and metal nanoparticles as nanofiller commonly show several attractive advantages such as electrical, mechanical and optical characteristics. Accordingly, many scientific and industrial communities have focused on polymer/metal nanocomposites in order to develop some new products or substitute the available materials. In the current paper, characteristics and applications of polymer/metal nanocomposites for biomedical applications are extensively explained in several categories including strong and stable materials, conductive devices, sensors and biomedical products. Moreover, some perspective utilizations are suggested for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomimetic magnetic nanocomposite for smart skins

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    We report a biomimetic tactile sensor consisting of magnetic nanocomposite artificial cilia and magnetic sensors. The nanocomposite is fashioned from polydimethylsiloxane and iron nanowires and exhibits a permanent magnetic behavior. This enables remote operation without an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires, which simplifies device integration. Moreover, the highly elastic and easy patternable nanocomposite is corrosion resistant and thermally stable. The highly sensitive and power efficient tactile sensors can detect vertical and shear forces from interactions with objects. The sensors can operate in dry and wet environment with the ability to measure different properties such as the texture and the movement or stability of objects, with easily adjustable performance.

  2. Size-dependent cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses of PEGylated silica-iron oxide nanocomposite size series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Injumpa, Wishulada [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ritprajak, Patcharee [Department of Microbiology, and RU in Oral Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Insin, Numpon, E-mail: Numpon.I@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2017-04-01

    Iron oxides nanoparticles have been utilized in biological systems and biomedical applications for many years because they are relatively safe and stable comparing to other magnetic nanomaterials. In some applications, iron oxide nanoparticles were modified with silica in order to be more stable in biological systems and able to be functionalized with various functional groups. Moreover, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was one on the most used polymer to graft onto the nanoparticles in order to increase their biocompatibility, dispersibility and stability in aqueous solutions. Therefore, the nanocomposites comprising iron oxide nanoparticles, silica, and PEG could become multifunctional carriers combining superparamagnetic character, multi-functionality and high stability in biological environments. Herein, we reported the preparation of the nanocomposites and effects of their sizes on cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses. The PEGylated silica-iron oxide nanocomposites were prepared by coating of poly(poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate) (PPEGMA) on magnetic nanoparticle-silica nanocomposites via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). The iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using a thermal decomposition method. The silica shells were then coated on iron oxides nanoparticles using reverse microemulsion and sol-gel methods. The size series of the nanocomposites with the diameter of 24.86±4.38, 45.24±5.00, 98.10±8.88 and 202.22±6.70 nm as measured using TEM were obtained. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used for the determination of % weight of PPEGMA on the nanocomposites showing the weight loss of ranging from 65% for smallest particles to 30% for largest particles. The various sizes (20, 40, 100, 200 nm) and concentrations (10, 100, 1000 μg/mL) of the nanocomposites were tested for their cytotoxicity in fibroblast and macrophage cell lines using MTT assay. The different sizes did not affect cell viability of fibroblast, albeit

  3. PMMA/MWCNT nanocomposite for proton radiation shielding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhao; Chen, Siyuan; Nambiar, Shruti; Sun, Yonghai; Zhang, Mingyu; Zheng, Wanping; Yeow, John T. W.

    2016-06-01

    Radiation shielding in space missions is critical in order to protect astronauts, spacecraft and payloads from radiation damage. Low atomic-number materials are efficient in shielding particle-radiation, but they have relatively weak material properties compared to alloys that are widely used in space applications as structural materials. However, the issues related to weight and the secondary radiation generation make alloys not suitable for space radiation shielding. Polymers, on the other hand, can be filled with different filler materials for reinforcement of material properties, while at the same time provide sufficient radiation shielding function with lower weight and less secondary radiation generation. In this study, poly(methyl-methacrylate)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (PMMA/MWCNT) nanocomposite was fabricated. The role of MWCNTs embedded in PMMA matrix, in terms of radiation shielding effectiveness, was experimentally evaluated by comparing the proton transmission properties and secondary neutron generation of the PMMA/MWCNT nanocomposite with pure PMMA and aluminum. The results showed that the addition of MWCNTs in PMMA matrix can further reduce the secondary neutron generation of the pure polymer, while no obvious change was found in the proton transmission property. On the other hand, both the pure PMMA and the nanocomposite were 18%-19% lighter in weight than aluminum for stopping the protons with the same energy and generated up to 5% fewer secondary neutrons. Furthermore, the use of MWCNTs showed enhanced thermal stability over the pure polymer, and thus the overall reinforcement effects make MWCNT an effective filler material for applications in the space industry.

  4. Synthesis of new dental nanocomposite with glass nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khavandi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The aim of this study was to synthesis new dental nanocomposites reinforced with fabricated glass nanoparticles and compare two methods for fabrication and investigate the effect of this filler on mechanical properties. Materials and Methods : The glass nanoparticles were produced by wet milling process. The particle size and shape was achieved using PSA and SEM. Glass nanoparticles surface was modified with MPTMS silane. The composite was prepared by mixing these silane-treated nanoparticles with monomers. The resin composition was UDMA /TEGDMA (70/30 weight ratio. Three composites were developed with 5, 7.5 and 10 wt% glass fillers in each group. Two preparation methods were used, in dispersion in solvent method (group D glass nanoparticles were sonically dispersed in acetone and the solution was added to resin, then acetone was evaporated. In non-dispersion in solvent method (group N the glass nanoparticles were directly added to resin. Mechanical properties were investigated included flexural strength, flexural modulus and Vickers hardness. Results: Higher volume of glass nanoparticles improves mechanical properties of composite. Group D has batter mechanical properties than group N. Flexural strength of composite with 10%w filler of group D was 75Mpa against 59 Mpa of the composite with the same filler content of group N. The flexural modulus and hardness of group D is more than group N. Conclusion: It can be concluded that dispersion in solvent method is the best way to fabricate nanocomposites and glass nanoparticles is a significant filler to improve mechanical properties of dental nanocomposite.

  5. Cellulose nanocrystal zero-valent iron nanocomposites for groundwater remediation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossa, Nathan; Carpenter, Alexis Wells; Kumar, Naresh; de Lannoy, Charles-François

    2018-01-01

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nano-ZVIs) have been widely studied for in situ remediation of groundwater and other environmental matrices. Nano-ZVI particle mobility and reactivity are still the main impediments in achieving efficient in situ groundwater remediation. Compared to the nano-ZVI “coating” strategy, nano-ZVI stabilization on supporting material allows direct contact with the contaminant, reduces the electron path from the nano-ZVI to the target contaminant and increases nano-ZVI reactivity. Herein, we report the synthesis of nano-ZVI stabilized by cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) rigid nanomaterials (CNC-nano-ZVI; Fe/CNC = 1 w/w) with two different CNC functional surfaces (–OH and –COOH) using a classic sodium borohydride synthesis pathway. The final nanocomposites were thoroughly characterized and the reactivity of CNC-nano-ZVIs was assessed by their methyl orange (MO) dye degradation potential. The mobility of nanocomposites was determined in (sand/glass bead) porous media by utilizing a series of flowthrough transport column experiments. The synthesized CNC-nano-ZVI provided a stable colloidal suspension and demonstrated high mobility in porous media with an attachment efficiency (α) value of less than 0.23. In addition, reactivity toward MO increased up to 25% compared to bare ZVI. The use of CNC as a delivery vehicle shows promising potential to further improve the capability and applicability of nano-ZVI for in situ groundwater remediation and can spur advancements in CNC-based nanocomposites for their application in environmental remediation. PMID:29725541

  6. Prediction of fracture strength in Al2O3/SiCp ceramic matrix nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang and D.L. Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Based primarily on a recent publication [S.M. Choi, H. Awaji, Sci. Tech. Adv. Mater. 6 (2005 2–10.], where the dislocations around the nano-sized particles in the intra-granular type of ceramic matrix nanocomposites (CMNCs were modeled, dislocation activities in Al2O3/SiCp CMNCs were discussed in relation to the processing conditions. The dislocations around the nano-sized particles, caused by the thermal mismatch between the ceramic matrix and nano-sized particles, were assumed to hold out the effect of Orowan-like strengthening, although the conventional Owowan loops induced by the movement of dislocations were unlikely in the ceramic matrix at room temperature. A model involving the yield strength of metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs, where the Owowan strengthening effect was taken into consideration, was thus modified and extended to predict the fracture strength of the intra-granular type of CMNCs without and with annealing. On the basis of the characteristics of dislocations in the CMNCs, the load-bearing effect and Orowan-like strengthening were considered before annealing, while the load-bearing effect and enhanced dislocation density strengthening were taken into account after annealing. The model prediction was found to be in agreement with the experimental data of Al2O3/SiCp nanocomposites reported in the literature.

  7. Nanoindentation studies of ex situ AlN/Al metal matrix nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fale, Sandeep; Likhite, Ajay; Bhatt, Jatin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Formation of in-situ phases nucleated on AlN particles strengthens the matrix. • Formation of in-situ phases increases with AlN content in nanocomposites. • Stronger in-situ phases results in increased hardness and modulus of elasticity. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline Aluminium nitride (AlN) powder is dispersed in different weight ratio in Aluminum matrix to fabricate metal matrix nanocomposite (MMNC) using ex situ melt metallurgy process. The synthesized Al–AlN nanocomposites are studied for phase analysis using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and for hardness behavior using microindentation and nanoindentation tests. Quantitative analysis of the oxide phases is calculated from thermodynamic data and mass balance equation using elemental data obtained from energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results. Role of oxide phases in association with AlN particles is investigated to understand the mechanical behavior of composites using nanoindentation tester. Load–displacement profile obtained from nanoindentation test reveals distribution of oxide phases along with AlN particle and their effect on indent penetration

  8. Fabrication of highly porous biodegradable biomimetic nanocomposite as advanced bone tissue scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Abdal-hay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of bioinspired or biomimetic materials is currently a challenge in the field of tissue regeneration. In-situ 3D biomimetic microporous nanocomposite scaffold has been developed using a simple lyophilization post hydrothermal reaction for bone healing applications. The fabricated 3D porous scaffold possesses advantages of good bonelike apatite particles distribution, thermal properties and high porous interconnected network structure. High dispersion bonelike apatite nanoparticles (NPs rapidly nucleated and deposited from surrounding biological minerals within chitosan (CTS matrices using hydrothermal technique. After that, freeze-drying method was applied on the composite solution to form the desired porous 3D architecture. Interestingly, the porosity and pore size of composite scaffold were not significantly affected by the particles size and particles content within the CTS matrix. Our results demonstrated that the compression modulus of porous composite scaffold is twice higher than that of plain CTS scaffold, indicating a maximization of the chemical interaction between polymer matrix and apatite NPs. Cytocompatibility test for MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts cell line using MTT-indirect assay test showed that the fabricated 3D microporous nanocomposite scaffold possesses higher cell proliferation and growth than that of pure CTS scaffold. Collectively, our results suggest that the newly developed highly porous apatite/CTS nanocomposite scaffold as an alternative of hydroxyapatite/CTS scaffold may serve as an excellent porous 3D platform for bone tissue regeneration.

  9. Cell Growth Inhibition Effect of DsiRNA Vectorised by Pectin-Coated Chitosan-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites as Potential Therapy for Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliza Katas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonic-targeted drug delivery system is widely explored to combat colon-related diseases such as colon cancer. Dicer-substrate small interfering RNA (DsiRNA has been explored for cancer therapy due to its potency in targeting specific gene of interest. However, its application is limited by rapid degradation and poor cellular uptake. To address this, chitosan-graphene oxide (CS-GO nanocomposite was used to deliver DsiRNA effectively into cells. Additionally, pectin was used as compatibilization agent to allow specific delivery to the colon and protect the nanocomposites from the harsh environment in the stomach and small intestine. CS-GO-DsiRNA nanocomposites were prepared by electrostatic interaction between CS and GO prior to coating with pectin. The mean particle size of CS-GO-DsiRNA-pectin nanocomposites was 554.5±124.6 nm with PDI and zeta potential of 0.47±0.19 and −10.7±3.0 mV, respectively. TEM analysis revealed smooth and spherical shape of CS-GO-DsiRNA nanocomposites and the shape became irregular after pectin coating. FTIR analysis further confirmed the successful formation of CS-GO-DsiRNA-pectin nanocomposites. Furthermore, the nanocomposites were able to entrap high amount of DsiRNA (% entrapment efficiency of 92.6±3.9% with strong binding efficiency. CS-GO-DsiRNA-pectin nanocomposites also selectively inhibited cell growth of colon cancer cell line (Caco-2 cells and were able to decrease VEGF level significantly. In a nutshell, pectin-coated DsiRNA-loaded CS-GO nanocomposites were successfully developed and they have a great potential to deliver DsiRNA to the colon effectively.

  10. The Effect of High Concentration and Small Size of Nanodiamonds on the Strength of Interface and Fracture Properties in Epoxy Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir A. Haleem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration and small size of nanodiamonds (NDs plays a crucial role in the mechanical performance of epoxy-based nanocomposites by modifying the interface strength. Herein, we systemically analyzed the relation between the high concentration and small size of ND and the fracture properties of its epoxy-based nanocomposites. It was observed that there is a two-fold increase in fracture toughness and a three-fold increase in fracture energy. Rationally, functionalized-NDs (F-NDs showed a much better performance for the nanocomposite than pristine NDs (P-NDs because of additional functional groups on its surface. The F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites exhibited rougher surface in contrast with the P-ND/epoxy, indicating the presence of a strong interface. We found that the interfaces in F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites at high concentrations of NDs overlap by making a web, which can efficiently hinder further crack propagation. In addition, the de-bonding in P-ND/epoxy nanocomposites occurred at the interface with the appearance of plastic voids or semi-naked particles, whereas the de-bonding for F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites happened within the epoxy molecular network instead of the interface. Because of the strong interface in F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites, at high concentrations the de-bonding within the epoxy molecular network may lead to subsequent cracks, parallel to the parent crack, via crack splitting which results in a fiber-like structure on the fracture surface. The plastic void growth, crack deflection and subsequent crack growth were correlated to higher values of fracture toughness and fracture energy in F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites.

  11. Improving Fracture Toughness of Epoxy Nanocomposites by Silica Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Akherati Sany

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An epoxy resin was modified by silica nanoparticles and cured with an anhydride. The particles with different batches of 12, 20, and 40 nm sizes were each distributed into the epoxy resin ultrasonically. Electron microscopy images showed that the silica particles were well dispersed throughout the resin. Tensile test results showed that Young’s modulus and tensile strength increased with the volume fraction and surface area of the silica particles. The simultaneous use of two average sizes of 20 and 40 nm diameter silica particles still increased these mechanical properties but other combinations of silica particles were unsuccessful. A three-point bending test on each pre-cracked specimen was performed to measure the mode I fracture toughness energy. The fracture energy increased from 283 J/m2 for the unmodified epoxy to about 740 J/m2 for the epoxy with 4.5 wt% of 12 nm diameter silica nanoparticles. The fracture energy of smaller particles was greater because of their higher surface to volume ratio. The fracture energy results showed also that the combined nanoparticles has a synergic effect on the fracture toughness of nanocomposites. Simultaneous use of 10 and 20 nm particles increased the fracture energy to about 770 J/m2. Finally, crack-opening displacement was calculated and found to be in the range of several micrometers which was much larger than the sizes of particles studied. Thus, the toughening mechanisms of crack pinning and crack deflection have a negligible effect on improvement of toughness, nevertheless, the plastic deformation and plastic void growth are dominant mechanisms in epoxy toughening by nanoparticles.

  12. Preparation and Application of Hollow Silica/magnetic Nanocomposite Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Chien; Lin, Jing-Mo; Lin, Chun-Rong; Wang, Sheng-Chang

    The hollow silica/cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic microsphere with amino-groups were successfully prepared via several steps, including preparing the chelating copolymer microparticles as template by soap-free emulsion polymerization, manufacturing the hollow cobalt ferrite magnetic microsphere by in-situ chemical co-precipitation following calcinations, and surface modifying of the hollow magnetic microsphere by 3-aminopropyltrime- thoxysilane via the sol-gel method. The average diameter of polymer microspheres was ca. 200 nm from transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurement. The structure of the hollow magnetic microsphere was characterized by using TEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The spinel-type lattice of CoFe2O4 shell layer was identified by using XRD measurement. The diameter of CoFe2O4 crystalline grains ranged from 54.1 nm to 8.5 nm which was estimated by Scherrer's equation. Additionally, the hollow silica/cobalt ferrite microsphere possesses superparamagnetic property after VSM measurement. The result of BET measurement reveals the hollow magnetic microsphere which has large surface areas (123.4m2/g). After glutaraldehyde modified, the maximum value of BSA immobilization capacity of the hollow magnetic microsphere was 33.8 mg/g at pH 5.0 buffer solution. For microwave absorption, when the hollow magnetic microsphere was compounded within epoxy resin, the maximum reflection loss of epoxy resins could reach -35dB at 5.4 GHz with 1.9 mm thickness.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of ZnS, CdS and HgS/Poly(methyl methacrylate Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Z. Mbese

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of ZnS/PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate, CdS/PMMA and HgS/PMMA nanocomposites are presented. Hexadecylamine (HDA-capped ZnS, CdS and HgS nanoparticles were synthesized using dithiocarbamate single molecule precursors at 180 °C. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra measurement confirmed the dispersion of the metal sulfide nanoparticles in the PMMA matrices to form the metal sulfides/PMMA nanocomposites. Powder X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of the amorphous PMMA in the nanocomposites. The ZnS and HgS particles were indexed to the cubic phase, while the HgS particles correspond to the hexagonal phase. Thermogravimetric analyses showed that the metal sulfide nanocomposites are thermally more stable than their corresponding precursor complexes. The TEM (Transmission electron microscope analyses revealed that the ZnS nanoparticles have a particle size of 3–5 nm; the crystallite size of the CdS nanoparticles is 6–12 nm, and HgS nanoparticles are 6–12 nm.

  14. Polypyrrole-vanadium oxide nanocomposite: polymer dominates crystallanity and oxide dominates conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swarup; Mishra, Suryakant; Yogi, Priyanka; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Mishra, Vikash; Sagdeo, Pankaj R.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2018-01-01

    A hybrid nanocomposite of polypyrrole (Ppy)-V2O5 has been fabricated and characterized for better understanding of material enabling one to use this for appropriate application as the nanocomposite shows better thermal stability. The characterization has been done using XRD, FT-IR, FESEM, and UV-Vis for their structure, surface morphology, respectively, along with TGA and two-probe method used for checking thermal stability, and DC electrical conductance and dielectric behavior of the electrical phenomena of sample. The analysis of XRD demonstrates that crystallinity of nanocomposites is the same as that of the polymer, even though interaction between conducting Ppy and V2O5 is present as evident from FT-IR spectroscopy. A variation in bandgap, in comparison with Ppy, is observed when V2O5 is added into it. The microstructural study of nanocomposites shows encapsulation of V2O5 particles in Ppy matrix with changes in morphology with increase in doping. Conductance results show that electrical conductivity of Ppy decayed on adding V2O5. It has also been found that addition of V2O5 in Ppy has noticeable effect on the dielectric properties.

  15. WxC-β-SiC Nanocomposite Catalysts Used in Aqueous Phase Hydrogenation of Furfural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rogowski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of the addition of tungsten on the structure, phase composition, textural properties and activities of β-SiC-based catalysts in the aqueous phase hydrogenation of furfural. Carbothermal reduction of SiO2 in the presence of WO3 at 1550 °C in argon resulted in the formation of WxC-β-SiC nanocomposite powders with significant variations in particle morphology and content of WxC-tipped β-SiC nano-whiskers, as revealed by TEM and SEM-EDS. The specific surface area (SSA of the nanocomposite strongly depended on the amount of tungsten and had a notable impact on its catalytic properties for the production of furfuryl alcohol (FA and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA. Nanocomposite WxC-β-SiC catalysts with 10 wt % W in the starting mixture had the highest SSA and the smallest WxC crystallites. Some 10 wt % W nanocomposite catalysts demonstrated up to 90% yield of THFA, in particular in the reduction of furfural derived from biomass, although the reproducible performance of such catalysts has yet to be achieved.

  16. Organic-Inorganic Hydrophobic Nanocomposite Film with a Core-Shell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method to prepare novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite films was proposed by a site-specific polymerization process. The inorganic part, the core of the nanocomposite, is a ternary SiO2–Al2O3–TiO2 nanoparticles, which is grafted with methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane (KH570, and wrapped by fluoride and siloxane polymers. The synthesized samples are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, contact angle meter (CA, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results indicate that the novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite with a core-shell structure was synthesized successfully. XRD analysis reveals the nanocomposite film has an amorphous structure, and FTIR analysis indicates the nanoparticles react with a silane coupling agent (methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane KH570. Interestingly, the morphology of the nanoparticle film is influenced by the composition of the core. Further, comparing with the film synthesized by silica nanoparticles, the film formed from SiO2–Al2O3–TiO2 nanoparticles has higher hydrophobic performance, i.e., the contact angle is greater than 101.7°. In addition, the TEM analysis reveals that the crystal structure of the particles can be changed at high temperatures.

  17. Preparation and thermal properties of mesoporous silica/phenolic resin nanocomposites via in situ polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lv

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the adhesion between inorganic particles and polymer matrix, in this paper, the mesoporous silica SBA-15 material was synthesized by the sol-gel method. The surface of SBA-15 was modified using γ-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOTMS as a coupling agent, and then mesoporous silica/phenolic resin (SBA-15/PF nanocomposites were prepared via in situ polymerization. The structural parameters and physical properties of SBA-15, SBA-15-GOTMS (SBA-15 surface treated using GOTMS as coupling agents and E-SBA-15/PF (SBA-15/PF nanocomposites extracted using ethanol as solvent were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results demonstrated that the GOTMS were successfully grafted onto the surface of SBA-15, and chemical bonds between PF and SBA-15-GOTMS were formed after in situ polymerization. In addition, it is found that the in situ polymerization method has great effects on the textural parameters of SBA-15. The results also showed that the glass transition temperatures and thermal stability of the PF nanocomposites were obviously enhanced as compared with the pure PF at silica contents between 1–3 wt%, due to the uniform dispersion of the modified SBA-15 in the matrix.

  18. Solvothermal synthesis of V2O5/graphene nanocomposites for high performance lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Da; Yi, Ran; Chen, Shuru; Xu, Terrence; Gordin, Mikhail L.; Lv, Dongping; Wang, Donghai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A homogeneous V 2 O 5 /graphene nanocomposite is successfully synthesized. • V 2 O 5 nanoparticles are highly encapsulated in the 2D graphene matrix. • V 2 O 5 /graphene nanocomposite shows much better performance than bare V 2 O 5 . - Abstract: In this work, V 2 O 5 /graphene nanocomposites have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal approach. The V 2 O 5 nanoparticles, around 20–40 nm in size, were encapsulated in the 2D graphene matrix. The reversible Li-cycling properties of V 2 O 5 /graphene have been evaluated by galvanostatic discharge–charge cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy. Compared with the bare V 2 O 5 nanoparticles, the V 2 O 5 /graphene nanocomposites exhibited enhanced electrochemical performance with higher reversible capacity and improved cycling stability and rate capability. The graphene nanosheets act not only as an electronically conductive matrix to improve the electronic and ionic conductivity of the composite electrode, but also as a flexible buffer matrix to maintain the structural integrity of the composite electrodes by preventing particle agglomeration, thus leading to the improvement of the electrochemical performance of V 2 O 5

  19. WxC-β-SiC Nanocomposite Catalysts Used in Aqueous Phase Hydrogenation of Furfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Jacek; Andrzejczuk, Mariusz; Berlowska, Joanna; Binczarski, Michal; Kregiel, Dorota; Kubiak, Andrzej; Modelska, Magdalena; Szubiakiewicz, Elzbieta; Stanishevsky, Andrei; Tomaszewska, Jolanta; Witonska, Izabela Alina

    2017-11-22

    This study investigates the effects of the addition of tungsten on the structure, phase composition, textural properties and activities of β-SiC-based catalysts in the aqueous phase hydrogenation of furfural. Carbothermal reduction of SiO₂ in the presence of WO₃ at 1550 °C in argon resulted in the formation of W x C-β-SiC nanocomposite powders with significant variations in particle morphology and content of W x C-tipped β-SiC nano-whiskers, as revealed by TEM and SEM-EDS. The specific surface area (SSA) of the nanocomposite strongly depended on the amount of tungsten and had a notable impact on its catalytic properties for the production of furfuryl alcohol (FA) and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). Nanocomposite W x C-β-SiC catalysts with 10 wt % W in the starting mixture had the highest SSA and the smallest W x C crystallites. Some 10 wt % W nanocomposite catalysts demonstrated up to 90% yield of THFA, in particular in the reduction of furfural derived from biomass, although the reproducible performance of such catalysts has yet to be achieved.

  20. Preparation and characterization of BC/PAM-AgNPs nanocomposites for antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Caixia; Hong, Feng; Yang, Xuexia; Cao, Zhangjun

    2015-01-22

    In this work, a bacterial cellulose/polyacrylamide (BC/PAM) double network composite was prepared to act as the template for in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Effects of reaction conditions of the BC/PAM composite were investigated on its microstructure, mechanical properties and thermal stabilities. Both the BC/PAM composite and pure BC were utilized to prepare the corresponding silver impregnated nanocomposites, i.e., BC/PAM-AgNPs and BC-AgNPs, by an environmental friendly method, UV irradiation. The influences of the templates were investigated on the AgNPs formation and the antibacterial activities of the nanocomposites by both the zone of inhibition and dynamic shake flask methods. It was shown that the BC/PAM composite displayed a denser microstructure and higher thermal stabilities than pure BC. The BC/PAM-AgNPs nanocomposite exhibited a bigger particle size and lower mass content of AgNPs than the BC-AgNPs one. For the antibacterial test, two nanocomposites exhibited a close antibacterial effect, with a high log reduction above 3 and killing ratio above 99.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fabrication process and electromagnetic wave absorption characterization of a CNT/Ni/epoxy nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seongwoo; Mo, Chan Bin; Lee, Haeshin; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2013-11-01

    Since carbon nanotube (CNT) was first discovered in 1991, it has been considered as a viable type of conductive filler for electromagnetic wave absorption materials in the GHz range. In this paper, pearl-necklace-structure CNT/Ni nano-powders were fabricated by a polyol process as conductive fillers. Compared to synthesized CNT, pearl-necklace Ni-decorated CNT increased the electrical conductivity by an order of 1 due to the enhancement of the Ni-conductive network. Moreover, the decorated Ni particles prevented the agglomeration of CNTs by counterbalancing the Van der Walls interaction between the CNTs. A CNT/Ni nanocomposite showed a homogeneous dispersion in an epoxy-based matrix. This enhanced physical morphology and electrical properties lead to an increase in the loss tangent and reflection loss in the CNT/Ni/Epoxy nanocomposite compared to these characteristics of a CNT/Epoxy nanocomposite in range of 8-12 GHz. The electromagnetic wave absorption properties of CNT/Ni/epoxy nanocomposites will provide enormous opportunities for electronic applications where lightweight EMI shielding or electro-magnetic wave absorption properties are necessary.

  2. Effect of Hygrothermal Aging on the Mechanical Properties of Fluorinated and Nonfluorinated Clay-Epoxy Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamim, Salah U; Singh, Raman P

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophilic nature of epoxy polymers can lead to both reversible and irreversible/permanent changes in epoxy upon moisture absorption. The permanent changes leading to the degradation of mechanical properties due to combined effect of moisture and elevated temperature on EPON 862, Nanomer I.28E, and Somasif MAE clay-epoxy nanocomposites are investigated in this study. The extent of permanent degradation on fracture and flexural properties due to the hygrothermal aging is determined by drying the epoxy and their clay-epoxy nanocomposites after moisture absorption. Significant permanent damage is observed for fracture toughness and flexural modulus, while the extent of permanent damage is less significant for flexural strength. It is also observed that permanent degradation in Somasif MAE clay-epoxy nanocomposites is higher compared to Nanomer I.28E clay-epoxy nanocomposites. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed that both clays retained their original chemical structure after the absorption-desorption cycle without undergoing significant changes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the fracture surfaces provide evidence that Somasif MAE clay particles offered very little resistance to crack propagation in case of redried specimens when compared to Nanomer I.28E counterpart. The reason for the observed higher extent of permanent degradation in Somasif MAE clay-epoxy system has been attributed to the weakening of the filler-matrix interface.

  3. Effect of heterocyclic based organoclays on the properties of polyimide-clay nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, P Santhana Gopala; Joshi, Mangala; Bhargava, Prachur; Valiyaveettil, Suresh; He, Chaobin

    2005-07-01

    Polyimide-clay nanocomposites were prepared from their precursor, namely, polyamic acid, by the solution-casting method. Organomodified montmorillonite (MMT) clay was prepared by treating Na+MMT (Kunipia F) with three different intercalating agents, namely, piperazine dihydrochloride, 1,3-bis(4-piperidinylpropane) dihydrochloride and 4,4'-bipiperidine dihydrochloride at 80 degrees C. Polyamic acid solutions containing various weight percentages of organomodified MMT were prepared by reacting 4,4'-(1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diyldioxy)dianiline with bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetracarboxylic dianhydride in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone containing dispersed particles of organomodified MMT at 20 degrees C. Nanocomposite films were prepared from these solutions by solution casting and heated subsequently at a programmed heating rate. These films were transparent and brown in color. The extent of layer separation in nanocomposite films depends upon the chemical structure of the organoclay. These films were characterized by inherent viscosity, FT-IR, DSC, TMA, WAXD, TEM, UV, and TGA. The tensile behavior and surface energy studies were also investigated. The nanocomposite films had superior tensile properties, thermal behavior, and solvent resistance. Among the three organoclays, piperazine dihydrochloride was the best modifier.

  4. Effect of coupling agent on durian skin fibre nanocomposite reinforced polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Nur E'zzati, M. A.; Anuar, H.; Siti Munirah Salimah, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a composite-based natural fiber to reduce the reliance on petroleum-based product in order to amplify environmental awareness. The production of Durian Skin Nanofiber (DSNF) was conducted using biological fermentation method via rhizopus oryzae in order to obtain the nano dimension of the particle size. Polypropylene (PP) and DSNF were produced using Haake internal mixer via melt blending technique. The significant effect of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) on the properties of PP/DSNF nanocomposite was investigated to study its mechanical properties which are tensile strength and thermal stability using thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential scanning analysis (DSC). The tensile property of PP nanocomposites increased from 33 MPa to 38 MPa with the presence of MAPP. The addition of MAPP also increased the thermal stability of PP/DSNF nanocomposite where the char residue increased by 52%. Besides that, the thermal degradation of PP/DSNF and PP/DSNF-MAPP were higher than PP where they exerted higher amount of weight loss at an elevated temperature. The percentage of crystallinity, %Xc, of PP nanocomposites improved with the addition of MAPP by 35% based on the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) result. The SEM analysis showed that the PP/DSNF-MAPP exerts ductile fracture while PP/DSNF exerts brittle fracture.

  5. Graphene/SnO2 nanocomposite-modified electrode for electrochemical detection of dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nurzulaikha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A graphene-tin oxide (G-SnO2 nanocomposite was prepared via a facile hydrothermal route using graphene oxide and Sn precursor solution without addition of any surfactant. The hydrothermally synthesized G-SnO2 nanocomposite was characterized using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. A homogeneous deposition of SnO2 nanoparticles with an average particle size of 10 nm on the graphene was observed in the FESEM and HRTEM images. The G-SnO2 nanocomposite was used to fabricate a modified electrode for the electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV showed a limit of detection (LoD of 1 μM (S/N = 3 in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA. Keywords: Graphene, Tin oxide, Nanocomposite, Electrochemical sensor, Biosensor, Dopamine

  6. Improved photocatalytic activity of ZnO coupled CuO nanocomposites synthesized by reflux condensation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageshwari, K.; Nataraj, D.; Pal, Tarasankar; Sathyamoorthy, R.; Park, Jinsub

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by reflux condensation method. • Photodegradation of methyl orange and methylene blue dyes was investigated. • Morphological studies show 3D flower-like CuO microspheres adorned with ZnO nanorods. • Optical analysis showed characteristic absorption bands of CuO and ZnO. • CuO–ZnO nanocomposites exhibited superior photocatalytic activity than CuO. - Abstract: Nanostructured CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were successfully synthesized for different Zn 2+ concentrations by reflux condensation method without using any surfactant, and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated using methyl orange and methylene blue dyes under UV light irradiation. XRD revealed the formation of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites, composing of monoclinic CuO and hexagonal ZnO. XPS analysis revealed that CuO–ZnO nanocomposites are made up of Cu(II), Zn(II) and O. FESEM and TEM images showed that pure CuO exhibit 3D flower-like microstructure, while the CuO–ZnO nanocomposites prepared for different Zn 2+ concentrations have 3D flower-like CuO, microstructure adorned with rod-like ZnO particles. UV–Vis DRS showed absorption bands corresponding to CuO and ZnO around 960 nm and 395 nm, respectively. PL spectra of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites exhibited reduced PL emissions compared to pure CuO, indicating the low recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. Photodegradation assay revealed that catalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites increased with Zn 2+ concentration, and also effectively degrade methyl orange and methylene blue dyes when compared to pure CuO. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were mainly ascribed to the reduced recombination and efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers. The possible mechanism for the improved photocatalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites was proposed

  7. Exchange coupling behavior in bimagnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CoFe{sub 2} nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, G.C.P. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Chagas, E.F., E-mail: efchagas@fisica.ufmt.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Pereira, R.; Prado, R.J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Terezo, A.J. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Alzamora, M.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 Urca, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    In this work we report a study of the magnetic behavior of ferrimagnetic oxide CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ferrimagnetic oxide/ferromagnetic metal CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CoFe{sub 2} nanocomposite. The latter compound is a good system to study hard ferrimagnet/soft ferromagnet exchange coupled. Two steps were followed to synthesize the bimagnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CoFe{sub 2} nanocomposite: (i) first, preparation of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles using a simple hydrothermal method, and (ii) second, reduction reaction of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles using activated charcoal in inert atmosphere and high temperature. The phase structures, particle sizes, morphology, and magnetic properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were investigated by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy (MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) with applied field up to 3.0 kOe at room temperature and 50 K. The mean diameter of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles is about 16 nm. Mossbauer spectra revealed two sites for Fe{sup 3+}. One site is related to Fe in an octahedral coordination and the other one to the Fe{sup 3+} in a tetrahedral coordination, as expected for a spinel crystal structure of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. TEM measurements of nanocomposite showed the formation of a thin shell of CoFe{sub 2} on the cobalt ferrite and indicate that the nanoparticles increase to about 100 nm. The magnetization of the nanocomposite showed a hysteresis loop that is characteristic of exchange coupled systems. A maximum energy product (BH){sub max} of 1.22 MGOe was achieved at room temperature for CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CoFe{sub 2} nanocomposites, which is about 115% higher than the value obtained for CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} precursor. The exchange coupling interaction and the enhancement of product (BH){sub max} in nanocomposite CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CoFe{sub 2} are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CoFe{sub 2} nanocomposite

  8. Estimation of particle size distribution of nanoparticles from electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... blockade (CB) phenomena of electrical conduction through atiny nanoparticle. Considering the ZnO nanocomposites to be spherical, Coulomb-blockade model of quantum dot isapplied here. The size distribution of particle is estimated from that model and compared with the results obtainedfrom AFM and XRD analyses.

  9. Thermal and Optical Properties of New Poly(amide-imide)/Nanocomposite Reinforced by Layer Silicate Containing Diphenyl Ether Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Khalil; Faramarzi, Ellahe; Shabanian, Meisam

    2011-04-01

    New poly(amide-imide)-montmorillonite reinforced nanocomposites containing Bis(4-N-trimellitylimido) diphenyl ether moiety in the main chain were synthesized by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Poly(amide-imide) (PAI) 4 was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of Bis(4-N-trimellitylimido) diphenyl ether 3 with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether 2 in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP), CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nanocomposite films 4a and 4b with 10 and 20 mass% silicate particles respectively, were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The properties of nanocomposites films were investigated by using Uv-vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and water uptake measurements.

  10. Study of the structure of 3D-ordered macroporous GaN-ZnS:Mn nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurdyukov, D. A., E-mail: kurd@gvg.ioffe.ru; Shishkin, I. I.; Grudinkin, S. A.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V.; Golubev, V. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    A film-type 3D-ordered macroporous GaN-ZnS:Mn nanocomposite with the structure of an inverted opal is fabricated. Structural studies of the nanocomposite are performed, and it is shown that GaN and ZnS:Mn introduced into the pores of the silica opal are nanocrystallites misoriented with respect to each other. It is shown that the nanocomposite is a structurally perfect 3D photonic crystal. The efficiency of using a buffer of GaN crystallites to preclude interaction between the surface of the spherical a-SiO{sub 2} particles forming the opal matrix and chemically active substances introduced into the pores is demonstrated.

  11. Preparation and Properties of PTFE-PMMA Core-Shell Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Antonioli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of polytetrafluoroethylene-poly(methyl methacrylate (PTFE-PMMA core-shell particles was described, featuring controlled size and narrow size distribution over a wide compositional range, through a seeded emulsion polymerization starting from a PTFE seed of 26 nanometers. Over the entire MMA/PTFE range, the particle size increases as the MMA/PTFE ratio increases. A very precise control over the particle size can be exerted by properly adjusting the ratio between the monomer and the PTFE seed. Particles in the 80–240 nm range can be prepared with uniformity indexes suited to build 2D and 3D colloidal crystals. These core-shell particles were employed to prepare nanocomposites with different compositions, through an annealing procedure at a temperature higher than the glass transition temperature of the shell forming polymer. A perfect dispersion of the PTFE particles within the PMMA matrix was obtained and optically transparent nanocomposites were prepared containing a very high PTFE amount.

  12. Large-Strain Transparent Magnetoactive Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses polymer nano - composite superparamagnetic actuators that were prepared by the addition of organically modified superparamagnetic nanoparticles to the polymer matrix. The nanocomposite films exhibited large deformations under a magnetostatic field with a low loading level of 0.1 wt% in a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU) matrix. The maximum actuation deformation of the nanocomposite films increased exponentially with increasing nanoparticle concentration. The cyclic deformation actuation of a high-loading magnetic nanocomposite film was examined in a low magnetic field, and it exhibited excellent reproducibility and controllability. Low-loading TPU nanocomposite films (0.1-2 wt%) were transparent to semitransparent in the visible wavelength range, owing to good dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles. Magnetoactuation phenomena were also demonstrated in a high-modulus, high-temperature polyimide resin with less mechanical deformation.

  13. Polymer Nanocomposite Membranes for Antifouling Nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Ali, Nauman; Naseem, Abbas A; Khan, Sher B; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Fouling refers to the unwanted and undesirable attachment of biological macromolecules, inorganic, organic matter, and microorganisms on water contact surfaces. Fouling reduces the performance of devices involving these submerged surfaces and is considered the bottle-neck issue for various applications in the biomedical industry, food processing, and water treatment, especially in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination. Investigations have proven that nanocomposite membranes can exhibit enhanced antifouling performances and can be used for longer life times. The nanocomposite means addition of nanomaterials to main matrix at low loadings, exhibiting better properties compared to virgin matrix. In this review, a summarized description about related methods and their mechanisms for the fabrication of nanocomposite membranes with antifouling properties has been documented. Around 87 manuscripts including 10 patents were used to demonstrate the antifouling applications of of various nanocomposite membranes.

  14. Polymer nanotube nanocomposites: synthesis, properties, and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mittal, Vikas

    2010-01-01

    ... in these commercially important areas of polymer technology. It sums up recent advances in nanotube composite synthesis technology, provides basic introduction to polymer nanotubes nanocomposite technology for the readers new to this field, provides valuable...

  15. In situ SU-8 silver nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Søren Vang; Uthuppu, Basil; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposite materials containing metal nanoparticles are of considerable interest in photonics and optoelectronics applications. However, device fabrication of such materials always encounters the challenge of incorporation of preformed nanoparticles into photoresist materials. As a solution to...

  16. Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced foamed nitrile rubber nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yukun; Zhang, Yuanbing; Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Xiaodong

    2015-10-05

    Research on foamed nitrile rubber (NBR)/cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) nanocomposites is rarely found in the literatures. In this paper, CNs suspension and NBR latex was mixed to prepared the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites. We found that the CNs mainly located in the cell walls, effectively reinforcing the foamed NBR. The strong interaction between the CNs and NBR matrix restricted the mobility of NBR chains surrounding the CNs, hence increasing the crosslink density of the NBR matrix. CNs exhibited excellent reinforcement on the foamed NBR: a remarkable increase nearly 76% in the tensile strength of the foamed nanocomposites was achieved with a load of only 15 phr CNs. Enhanced mechanical properties make the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites a promising damping material for industrial applications with a potential to reduce the petroleum consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dielectric properties of nanosilica filled epoxy nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M G Veena

    Polymer nanocomposites are the 21st century engineering materials with wide range of ... the electronic industry for dielectric materials in electrical insulation ..... be ascribed to the interface barriers and chain entangle- ments towards the ...

  18. Polymer and ceramic nanocomposites for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Vivek T.; Kumar, Jayanth S.; Jain, Anjana

    2017-11-01

    This paper reviews the potential of polymer and ceramic matrix composites for aerospace/space vehicle applications. Special, unique and multifunctional properties arising due to the dispersion of nanoparticles in ceramic and metal matrix are briefly discussed followed by a classification of resulting aerospace applications. The paper presents polymer matrix composites comprising majority of aerospace applications in structures, coating, tribology, structural health monitoring, electromagnetic shielding and shape memory applications. The capabilities of the ceramic matrix nanocomposites to providing the electromagnetic shielding for aircrafts and better tribological properties to suit space environments are discussed. Structural health monitoring capability of ceramic matrix nanocomposite is also discussed. The properties of resulting nanocomposite material with its disadvantages like cost and processing difficulties are discussed. The paper concludes after the discussion of the possible future perspectives and challenges in implementation and further development of polymer and ceramic nanocomposite materials.

  19. Graphene oxide nanocomposites and their electrorheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wen Ling; Liu, Ying Dan; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • GO-based PANI, NCOPA and PS nanocomposites are prepared. • The nanocomposites are adopted as novel electrorheological (ER) candidates. • Their critical ER characteristics and dielectric performance are analyzed. • Typical ER behavior widens applications of GO-based nanocomposites. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO), a novel one-atom carbon system, has become one of the most interesting materials recently due to its unique physical and chemical properties in addition to graphene. This article briefly reviews a recent progress of the fabrication of GO-based polyaniline, ionic N-substituted copolyaniline and polystyrene nanocomposites. The critical electrorheological characteristics such as flow response and yield stress from rheological measurement, relaxation time and achievable polarizability from dielectric analysis are also analyzed

  20. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube-titania Nanocomposites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical and chemical characterization of the mesoporous nanocomposites from the two synthetic methods were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission ...

  1. Titanium Nanocomposite: Lightweight Multifunction Structural Material

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to research and develop lightweight metal matrix nanocomposites (MMnC) using a Titanium (Ti) metal matrix. Ti MMnC will crosscut the advancement of both...

  2. Electrical conduction of a XLPE nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Jun; Sim, Jae-Yong; Lim, Kee-Joe; Nam, Jin-Ho; Park, Wan-Gi

    2014-07-01

    The resistivity, breakdown strength, and formation of space charges are very important factors for insulation design of HVDC cable. It is known that a nano-sized metal-oxide inorganic filler reduces the formation of space charges in the polymer nanocomposite. Electrical conduction of cross-linked polyethylene(XLPE) nanocomposite insulating material is investigated in this paper. The conduction currents of two kinds of XLPE nanocomposites and XLPE without nano-filler were measured at temperature of 303 ~ 363 K under the applied electric fields of 10 ~ 50 kV/mm. The current of the nanocomposite specimen is smaller than that of XLPE specimen without nano-filler. The conduction mechanism may be explained in terms of Schottky emission and multi-core model.

  3. Polymer matrix nanocomposites for automotive structural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Keum, Jong K.; Boeman, Raymond G.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past several decades, the automotive industry has expended significant effort to develop lightweight parts from new easy-to-process polymeric nanocomposites. These materials have been particularly attractive because they can increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, attempts to reinforce soft matrices by nanoscale reinforcing agents at commercially deployable scales have been only sporadically successful to date. This situation is due primarily to the lack of fundamental understanding of how multiscale interfacial interactions and the resultant structures affect the properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this Perspective, we critically evaluate the state of the art in the field and propose a possible path that may help to overcome these barriers. Only once we achieve a deeper understanding of the structure-properties relationship of polymer matrix nanocomposites will we be able to develop novel structural nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties for automotive applications.

  4. Polymer nanotube nanocomposites: synthesis, properties, and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mittal, Vikas

    2010-01-01

    ... insights for the use of technologies for polymer nanocomposites for commercial application, and features chapters from the most experienced researches in the field"-- "The purpose of this edited book...

  5. Plasma Synthesis of Nanoparticles for Nanocomposite Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter C. Kong; Alex W. Kawczak

    2008-09-01

    The nanocomposite energy applications for plasma reactor produced nanoparticles are reviewed. Nanoparticles are commonly defined as particles less than 100 nm in diameter. Due to this small size, nanoparticles have a high surface-to-volume ratio. This increases the surface energy compared to the bulk material. The high surface-to-volume ratio and size effects (quantum effects) give nanoparticles distinctive chemical, electronic, optical, magnetic and mechanical properties from those of the bulk material. Nanoparticles synthesis can be grouped into 3 broad approaches. The first one is wet phase synthesis (sol-gel processing), the second is mechanical attrition, and the third is gas-phase synthesis (aerosol). The properties of the final product may differ significantly depending on the fabrication route. Currently, there are no economical large-scale production processes for nanoparticles. This hinders the widespread applications of nanomaterials in products. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is engaging in research and development of advanced modular hybrid plasma reactors for low cost production of nanoparticles that is predicted to accelerate application research and enable the formation of technology innovation alliances that will result in the commercial production of nanocomposites for alternative energy production devices such as fuel cells, photovoltaics and electrochemical double layer capacitors.

  6. Mechanochemically synthesized Al2O3-TiC nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Sharifi, E.; Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 -TiC nanocomposite was synthesized by ball milling of aluminum, titanium oxide and graphite powder mixtures. Effect of the milling time and heat treatment temperatures were investigated. The structural evolution of powder particles after different milling times was studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that after 40 h of ball milling the Al/TiO 2 /C reacted with a self-propagating combustion mode producing Al 2 O 3 -TiC nanocomposite. In final stage of milling, alumina and titanium carbide crystallite sizes were less than 10 nm. After annealing at 900 o C for 1 h, Al 2 O 3 and TiC crystallite sizes remained constant, however increasing annealing temperature to 1200 o C increased Al 2 O 3 and TiC crystallite size to 65 and 30 nm, respectively. No phase change was observed after annealing of the synthesized Al 2 O 3 -TiC powder.

  7. A New Ultra Fast Conduction Mechanism in Insulating Polymer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A brand new phenomenon, namely, electrical conduction via soliton-like ultra fast space charge pulses, recently identified in unfilled cross-linked polyethylene, is shown for the first time to occur in insulating polymer nanocomposites and its characteristics correlated with the electromechanical properties of nanostructured materials. These charge pulses are observed to cross the insulation under low electrical field in epoxy-based nanocomposites containing nanosilica particles with relative weights of 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% at speeds orders of magnitude higher than those expected for carriers in insulating polymers. The characteristics of mobility, magnitude and repetition rate for both positive and negative charge pulses are studied in relation to nanofiller concentration. The results show that the ultra fast charge pulses (packets are affected significantly by the concentration of nanoparticles. An explanation is presented in terms of a new conduction mechanism where the mechanical properties of the polymer and movement of polymer chains play an important role in the injection and transport of charge in the form of pulses. Here, the charge transport is not controlled by traps. Instead, it is driven by the contribution of polarization and the resultant electromechanical compression, which is substantially affected by the introduction of nanoparticles into the base polymer.

  8. Plasmonic Gold Decorated MWCNT Nanocomposite for Localized Plasmon Resonance Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhikandathil, J.; Badilescu, S.; Packirisamy, M.

    2015-01-01

    The synergism of excellent properties of carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles is used in this work for bio-sensing of recombinant bovine growth hormones (rbST) by making Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) locally optically responsive by augmenting it optical properties through Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR). To this purpose, locally gold nano particles decorated gold–MWCNT composite was synthesized from a suspension of MWCNT bundles and hydrogen chloroauric acid in an aqueous solution, activated ultrasonically and, then, drop-casted on a glass substrate. The slow drying of the drop produces a “coffee ring” pattern that is found to contain gold–MWCNT nanocomposites, accumulated mostly along the perimeter of the ring. The reaction is studied also at low-temperature, in the vacuum chamber of the Scanning Electron Microscope and is accounted for by the local melting processes that facilitate the contact between the bundle of tubes and the gold ions. Biosensing applications of the gold–MWCNT nanocomposite using their LSPR properties are demonstrated for the plasmonic detection of traces of bovine growth hormone. The sensitivity of the hybrid platform which is found to be 1 ng/ml is much better than that measuring with gold nanoparticles alone which is only 25 ng/ml. PMID:26282187

  9. Conducting polymer nanocomposite-based supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Soon Yee; Walsh, Darren A.; Chen, George Z.

    2016-01-01

    The use of nanocomposites of electronically-conducting polymers for supercapacitors has increased significantly over the past years, due to their high capacitances and abilities to withstand many charge-discharge cycles. We have recently been investigating the use of nanocomposites of electronically-conducting polymers containing conducting and non-conducting nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and cellulose nanocrystals, for use in supercapacitors. In this contribution, we provide a summa...

  10. Release of carbon nanotubes from an epoxy-based nanocomposite during an abrasion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Chu, Bryan T T; Buha, Jelena; Nüesch, Frank; Wang, Jing

    2012-07-03

    The abrasion behavior of an epoxy/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite was investigated. An experimental setup has been established to perform abrasion, particle measurement, and collection all in one. The abraded particles were characterized by particle size distribution and by electron microscopy. The abrasion process was carried out with a Taber Abraser, and the released particles were collected by a tube for further investigation. The particle size distributions were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and revealed four size modes for all measured samples. The mode corresponding to the smallest particle sizes of 300-400 nm was measured with the SMPS and showed a trend of increasing size with increasing nanofiller content. The three measured modes with particle sizes from 0.6 to 2.5 μm, measured with the APS, were similar for all samples. The measured particle concentrations were between 8000 and 20,000 particles/cm(3) for measurements with the SMPS and between 1000 and 3000 particles/cm(3) for measurements with the APS. Imaging by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that free-standing individual CNTs and agglomerates were emitted during abrasion.

  11. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Graphene-SnO2 Nanocomposites and Their Applications in Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun Woo; Na, Han Gil; Kwon, Yong Jung; Kang, Sung Yong; Choi, Myung Sik; Bang, Jae Hoon; Wu, Ping; Kim, Sang Sub

    2017-09-20

    We obtained extremely high and selective sensitivity to NO 2 gas by fabricating graphene-SnO 2 nanocomposites using a commercial microwave oven. Structural characterization revealed that the products corresponded to agglomerated structures of graphene and SnO 2 particles, with small secondary SnO x (x ≤ 2) nanoparticles deposited on the surfaces. The overall oxygen atomic ratio was decreased with the appearance of an SnO x (x graphene-SnO 2 nanocomposites, with the graphene promoting efficient transport of the microwave energy, evaporation and redeposition of SnO x nanoparticles were facilitated. The graphene-SnO 2 nanocomposites exhibited a high sensor response of 24.7 for 1 ppm of NO 2 gas, at an optimized temperature of 150 °C. The graphene-SnO 2 nanocomposites were selectively sensitive to NO 2 gas, in comparison with SO 2 , NH 3 , and ethanol gases. We suggest that the generation of SnO x nanoparticles and the SnO x phase in the matrix results in the formation of SnO 2 /SnO 2 homojunctions, SnO 2 /SnO x (x graphene heterojunctions, which are responsible for the excellent sensitivity of the graphene-SnO 2 nanocomposites to NO 2 gas. In addition, the generation of surface Sn interstitial defects is also partly responsible for the excellent NO 2 sensing performance observed in this study.

  12. Enhancement of thermal neutron attenuation of nano-B4C, -BN dispersed neutron shielding polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaewoo; Lee, Byung-Chul; Uhm, Young Rang; Miller, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation of B 4 C and BN nanopowders using a simple ball milling process. • Homogeneous dispersion and strong adhesion of nano-B 4 C and -BN with polymer matrix. • Enhancement of mechanical properties of the nanocomposites compared to their micro counterparts. • Enhancement of thermal neutron attenuation of the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Nano-sized boron carbide (B 4 C) and boron nitride (BN) powder were prepared using ball milling. Micro- and milled nano-powders were melt blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) using a polymer mixer followed by hot pressing to fabricate sheet composites. The tensile and flexural strengths of HDPE nanocomposites were ∼20% higher than their micro counterparts, while those for latter decreased compared to neat HDPE. Thermal neutrons attenuation of the prepared HDPE nanocomposites was evaluated using a monochromatic ∼0.025 eV neutron beam. Thermal neutron attenuation of the HDPE nanocomposites was greatly enhanced compared to their micro counterparts at the same B-10 areal densities. Monte Carlo n-Particles (MCNP) simulations based on the lattice structure modeling also shows the similar filler size dependent thermal neutron absorption

  13. Synthesized chitosan/ iron oxide nanocomposite and shrimp shell in removal of nickel, cadmium and lead from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Keshvardoostchokami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an easy synthesized method for preparation of chitosan/iron oxide nanocomposite as a bio-sorbent has been applied. Analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction; Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to survey of morphological structure and the functional groups characterization. The histogram of frequency of particle size confirmed that medium size of the synthesized nanoparticles was 50 nm. Beside the obtained nanocomposite, application of chitosan as the precursor and shrimp shell as natural chitin and a natural polymer were assessed as adsorbents for decontamination of Ni2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ as examples of heavy metals from drinking water. Batch studies were performed for adsorption experiments by changing variables such as pH, contact time and adsorbent dose. Based on the experimental sorption capacities, 58, 202 and 12 mg of Ni, Cd and Pb per g of Chitosan-Fe2O3 nanocomposite as adsorbent respectively, confirm that combination of Fe2O3 nanoparticles with chitosan makes a more efficient adsorbent than chitosan and chitin. Adsorbents in uptake of the mentioned heavy metals are in the order of Chitosan-Fe2O3 nanocomposite > chitosan> chitin. In addition, the kinetics and isotherm investigations were surveyed. Moreover, it has been shown that the synthesized nanocomposite significantly reduces the amount of the mentioned ions from the real wastewater sample.

  14. Preparation, mechanical properties and in vitro cytocompatibility of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/poly(etheretherketone) nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianfei; Lu, Yue; Chen, Hechun; Zhang, Lifang; Xiong, Chengdong

    2018-03-01

    Desired bone repair material must have excellent biocompatibility and high bioactivity. Moreover, mechanical properties of biomaterial should be equivalent to those of human bones. For developing an alternative biocomposite for load-bearing orthopedic application, combination of bioactive fillers with polymer matrix is a feasible approach. In this study, a series of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) bioactive nanocomposites were prepared by a novel coprecipitation-compounding and injection-molding process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that MWCNTs were adsorbed on the surface of PEEK particles during the coprecipitation-compounding process and dispersed homogeneously in the nanocomposite because the conjugated PEEK polymers stabilized MWCNTs by forming strong π-π stack interactions. The mechanical testing revealed that mechanical performance of PEEK was significantly improved by adding MWCNTs (2-8 wt%) and the experimental values obtained were close to or higher than that of human cortical bone. In addition, incorporation of MWCNTs into PEEK matrix also enhanced the roughness and hydrophilicity of the nanocomposite surface. In vitro cytocompatibility tests demonstrated that the MWCNTs/PEEK nanocomposite was in favor of cell adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells, exhibiting excellent cytocompatibility and biocompatibility. Thus, this MWCNTs/PEEK nanocomposite may be used as a promising bone repair material in orthopedic implants application.

  15. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity studies of silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Cunfeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chang, Ying; Cheng, Ling; Xu, Yiting [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chen, Xiaoling, E-mail: tinachen0628@163.com [Department of Endodontics, Xiamen Stomatology Hospital, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Xiamen 361003 (China); Zhang, Long; Zhong, Lina [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dai, Lizong, E-mail: lzdai@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-03-01

    A simple method for preparing a new type of stable antibacterial agent was presented. Monodisperse poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA) nanospheres, serving as matrices, were synthesized via soap-free emulsion polymerization. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs indicated that PSA nanospheres have interesting surface microstructures and well-controlled particle size distributions. Silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA/Ag-NPs) nanocomposites were prepared in situ through interfacial reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride, and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Their effects on antibacterial activity including inhibition zone, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and bactericidal kinetics were evaluated. In the tests, PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites showed excellent antibacterial activity against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli. These nanocomposites are considered to have potential application in antibacterial coatings on biomedical devices to reduce nosocomial infection rates. - Highlights: • A new type of antibacterial agent (PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites) was synthesized. • The antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli was studied. • Inhibition zone, MIC, MBC, and bactericidal kinetics were evaluated. • PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites showed excellent antibacterial activity.

  16. One step approach towards the green synthesis of silver decorated graphene nanocomposites for the degradation of organic dyes in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Gopakumar; Harith, A.; Nazrin Thazleema, N.; Vishal, Shaji; Jayan Jitha, S.; Saritha, Appukuttan

    2018-02-01

    Recently the decoration of graphene with metallic nanoparticles by a one pot reduction of graphene oxide (GO) coupled with the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has gained momentum. Graphene and GO have been proved to exhibit excellent biocompatibility and high antibacterial activity and hence a vast possibility lies in the utilization of GO as an antibacterial reinforcement in biomaterials and exploration of the antiseptic properties as well as the cytotoxicity of GO-containing composites. Moreover GO decorated with metal / metal oxide paves way towards an inevitable role in water purification. The use of graphene oxide as the nano scale substrates for the development of nanocomposites with metal oxides is a novel idea to obtain a hybrid which would exhibit both the properties of GO as a enthralling paper-shape material and the quality of single nano-sized metal particles. The heavy metal ions and pollutants are considered as a major problem in environmental contamination. Hence detection of trace level pollutant has become a hot topic in the present research scenario. Modified graphene oxide nanocomposites prepared using a green approach has the capacity of absorbing pollutant material ions in high efficiency and selectivity. The green synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using FTIR and UV spectroscopy and the consequence of pH and concentration on the preparation of the nanocomposites was evaluated. The efficiency of these nanocomposites towards degradation of organic dyes like methylene blue has been evaluated.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial properties of a novel nanocomposite based on polyaniline/polyvinyl alcohol/Ag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ghaffari-Moghaddam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel nanocomposite based on polyaniline/polyvinyl alcohol/Ag (PANI/PVA/Ag has been successfully synthesized. The chemical reduction method was used to produce Ag nanoparticle colloidal solution from Ag+ ions. The polymerization of aniline occurred in situ for the preparation of polyaniline (PANI in the presence of ammonium persulfate. With exposure to Ag nanoparticles on the PANI/PVA composite, a new nanocomposite was obtained. The morphology and particle size of the novel nanocomposite was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR analyses. According to XRD analysis, the size of nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 10–17 nm. SEM images showed the favored shape of nanoparticles as triangle which is a benign shape for antibacterial analysis. The antibacterial activity of the obtained nanocomposite was also evaluated against Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus and Gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli using the paper disk diffusion method. The antibacterial study showed that the PANI/PVA composite did not have a very good antibacterial activity but PANI/PVA/Ag nanocomposites were found to be effective against two bacteria.

  18. Enhancement of thermal neutron attenuation of nano-B{sub 4}C, -BN dispersed neutron shielding polymer nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaewoo, E-mail: kimj@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111-989 Daeduck-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon-si 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); WCI Quantum Beam based Radiation Research Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111-989 Daeduck-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon-si 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Missouri University Research Reactor, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Lee, Byung-Chul [Nuclear Reactor Core Design Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111-989 Daeduck-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon-si 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Uhm, Young Rang [Radioisotopes Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111-989 Daeduck-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon-si 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Miller, William H. [Missouri University Research Reactor, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Preparation of B{sub 4}C and BN nanopowders using a simple ball milling process. • Homogeneous dispersion and strong adhesion of nano-B{sub 4}C and -BN with polymer matrix. • Enhancement of mechanical properties of the nanocomposites compared to their micro counterparts. • Enhancement of thermal neutron attenuation of the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Nano-sized boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) and boron nitride (BN) powder were prepared using ball milling. Micro- and milled nano-powders were melt blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) using a polymer mixer followed by hot pressing to fabricate sheet composites. The tensile and flexural strengths of HDPE nanocomposites were ∼20% higher than their micro counterparts, while those for latter decreased compared to neat HDPE. Thermal neutrons attenuation of the prepared HDPE nanocomposites was evaluated using a monochromatic ∼0.025 eV neutron beam. Thermal neutron attenuation of the HDPE nanocomposites was greatly enhanced compared to their micro counterparts at the same B-10 areal densities. Monte Carlo n-Particles (MCNP) simulations based on the lattice structure modeling also shows the similar filler size dependent thermal neutron absorption.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Cu/Ag nanoparticle loaded mullite nanocomposite system: A potential candidate for antimicrobial and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, S; Bagchi, B; Kundu, B; Bhandary, S; Basu, R; Nandy, P; Das, S

    2014-11-01

    Microbial resistance to antibiotics has triggered the development of nanoscale materials as an alternative strategy. To stabilize these particles an inert support is needed. Porous nanomullite developed by sol-gel route is loaded with copper and silver nanoparticle by simple adsorption method. These nanocomposites are characterized using XRD, FTIR, TEM, SEM, EDAX and UV-visible spectrophotometer. Antibacterial activity of these nanocomposites against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria are performed by bactericidal kinetics, flow cytometry and MTT assay. The underlying mechanisms behind the antimicrobial property and cell death are also investigated by EPR spectroscopy, intracellular ROS measurement and β-galactosidase assay. The cytocompatibility of the nanocomposites is investigated by cell viability (MTT), proliferation (Alamar blue) and wound healing assay of mammalian fibroblast cell line. Nanocomposites show a fairly uniform distribution of metal nanoparticle within mullite matrix. They show excellent antibacterial activity. Metal ions/nanoparticle is found to be released from the materials (CM and SM). Treated cells manifested high intracellular oxidative stress and β-galactosidase activity in the growth medium. The effect of nanocomposites on mammalian cell line depends on exposure time and concentration. The scratch assay shows normal cell migration with respect to control. The fabricated nanoparticles possess diverse antimicrobial mechanism and exhibit good cytocompatibility along with wound healing characteristics in mouse fibroblast cell line (L929). The newly synthesized materials are promising candidates for the development of antimicrobial ceramic coatings for biomedical devices and therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural, morphological and Raman studies on hybridized PVDF/BaTiO3 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, N.; Jayakumar, K.; Ramachandran, K.

    2017-05-01

    Hybridized nanocomposites of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and nano - barium titanate (BaTiO3) were prepared using the solution casting method for different concentrations of nano-BaTiO3 and were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The flower like structure for morphology was observed in SEM. Raman analysis showed that the modified BaTiO3 particles, due to higher specific surfaces, induce, predominantly, the crystallization of the electrically active β-phase of PVDF, while the initial micron size particles induce the formation of the most common but non-polar α-crystal form.

  1. Handbook of polymer nanocomposites processing, performance and application

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Amar; Misra, Manjusri; Kar, Kamal K; Pandey, Jitendra; Rana, Sravendra; Takagi, Hitoshi; Nakagaito, Antonio; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    Volume A forms one volume of a Handbook about Polymer Nanocomposites. In some 20 chapters the preparation, architecture, characterisation, properties and application of polymer nanocomposites are discussed by experts in their respective fields.

  2. Characterization of PAN/ATO nanocomposites prepared by solution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Institute of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Zhongyuan University of Technology, ... The storage modulus of the nanocomposites increased with increasing content of ATO, ... Thermal stability of the nanocomposites was found remarka-.

  3. Plasma deposition of nanocomposite thin films : process concept and realisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcott, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in materials technology, fuelled by the growing hype surrounding nanotechnology, have given rise to a new breed of materials known as nanocomposites. Nanocomposite materials (a subgroup of hybrid materials) are formed from standard polymers impregnated with nanometre sized

  4. Rapid microwave processing of epoxy nanocomposites using carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Luhyna, Nataliia; Inam, Fawad; Winnington, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Microwave processing is one of the rapid processing techniques for manufacturing nanocomposites. There is very little work focussing on the addition of CNTs for shortening the curing time of epoxy nanocomposites. Using microwave energy, the effect of CNT addition on the curing of epoxy nanocomposites was researched in this work. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the degree of cure for epoxy and nanocomposite samples. CNT addition significantly reduced the duration ...

  5. Graphite nanoreinforcements in polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Hiroyuki

    Nanocomposites composed of polymer matrices with clay reinforcements of less than 100 nm in size, are being considered for applications such as interior and exterior accessories for automobiles, structural components for portable electronic devices, and films for food packaging. While most nanocomposite research has focused on exfoliated clay platelets, the same nanoreinforcement concept can be applied to another layered material, graphite, to produce nanoplatelets and nanocomposites. Graphite is the stiffest material found in nature (Young's Modulus = 1060 GPa), having a modulus several times that of clay, but also with excellent electrical and thermal conductivity. The key to utilizing graphite as a platelet nanoreinforcement is in the ability to exfoliate this material. Also, if the appropriate surface treatment can be found for graphite, its exfoliation and dispersion in a polymer matrix will result in a composite with not only excellent mechanical properties but electrical properties as well, opening up many new structural applications as well as non-structural ones where electromagnetic shielding and high thermal conductivity are requirements. In this research, a new process to fabricate exfoliated nano-scale graphite platelets was established (Patent pending). The size of the resulted graphite platelets was less than 1 um in diameter and 10 nm in thickness, and the surface area of the material was around 100 m2/g. The reduction of size showed positive effect on mechanical properties of composites because of the increased edge area and more functional groups attached with it. Also various surface treatment techniques were applied to the graphite nanoplatelets to improve the surface condition. As a result, acrylamide grafting treatment was found to enhance the dispersion and adhesion of graphite flakes in epoxy matrices. The resulted composites showed better mechanical properties than those with commercially available carbon fibers, vapor grown carbon fibers

  6. High performance polyethylene nanocomposite fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dorigato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A high density polyethylene (HDPE matrix was melt compounded with 2 vol% of dimethyldichlorosilane treated fumed silica nanoparticles. Nanocomposite fibers were prepared by melt spinning through a co-rotating twin screw extruder and drawing at 125°C in air. Thermo-mechanical and morphological properties of the resulting fibers were then investigated. The introduction of nanosilica improved the drawability of the fibers, allowing the achievement of higher draw ratios with respect to the neat matrix. The elastic modulus and creep stability of the fibers were remarkably improved upon nanofiller addition, with a retention of the pristine tensile properties at break. Transmission electronic microscope (TEM images evidenced that the original morphology of the silica aggregates was disrupted by the applied drawing.

  7. Shape-morphing nanocomposite origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Christine M; Zhu, Jian; Shyu, Terry; Flynn, Connor; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2014-05-20

    Nature provides a vast array of solid materials that repeatedly and reversibly transform in shape in response to environmental variations. This property is essential, for example, for new energy-saving technologies, efficient collection of solar radiation, and thermal management. Here we report a similar shape-morphing mechanism using differential swelling of hydrophilic polyelectrolyte multilayer inkjets deposited on an LBL carbon nanotube (CNT) composite. The out-of-plane deflection can be precisely controlled, as predicted by theoretical analysis. We also demonstrate a controlled and stimuli-responsive twisting motion on a spiral-shaped LBL nanocomposite. By mimicking the motions achieved in nature, this method offers new opportunities for the design and fabrication of functional stimuli-responsive shape-morphing nanoscale and microscale structures for a variety of applications.

  8. Characterization of Hybrid Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcha, Shelly; Dotan, Ana; Kenig, Samuel; Dodiuk, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) content and its surface treatment on thermo-mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites. MWCNTs were surface treated and incorporated into two epoxy systems. MWCNT's surface treatments were based on: (a) Titania coating obtained by sol-gel process and (b) a nonionic surfactant. Thermo-mechanical properties improvement was obtained following incorporation of treated MWCNT. It was noticed that small amounts of titania coated MWCNT (0.05 wt %) led to an increase in the glass transition temperature and stiffness. The best performance was achieved adding 0.3 wt % titania coated MWCNT where an increase of 10 °C in the glass transition temperature and 30% in storage modulus were obtained. PMID:28348313

  9. Origin of glass transition temperature behavior in polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropka, Jamie; Ganesan, Venkat; Green, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Local composition variations inherent in multi-component materials, even when the material constituents are miscible, generally lead to heterogeneous behavior in the properties of mixtures relative to their single component counterparts. In contrast, experiments have suggested that some polymer nanocomposite materials exhibit changes in their bulk Tg without displaying excess heterogeneity in their dynamics, as measured mechanically, relative to the neat polymer. Incoherent neutron scattering measurements on materials that fit this description, C60-PMMA mixtures, suggest that modifications of the polymer melt dynamics are limited to the vicinity of the particles. A model by which the localized modifications of polymer dynamics can account for the apparent homogeneous change in Tg is proposed to explain the experimental findings. Computations based on percolation theory support the model.

  10. Structures and Elastic Moduli of Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongyi; Karim, Alamgir; University of Akron Team

    2014-03-01

    Polymeric thin films generally possess unique mechanical and thermal properties due to confinement. In this study we investigated structures and elastic moduli of polymer nanocomposite thin films, which can potentially find wide applications in diverse areas such as in coating, permeation and separation. Conventional thermoplastics (PS, PMMA) and biopolymers (PLA, PCL) were chosen as polymer matrices. Various types of nanoparticles were used including nanoclay, fullerene and functionalized inorganic particles. Samples were prepared by solvent-mixing followed by spin-coating or flow-coating. Film structures were characterized using X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Elastic moduli were measured by strain-induced elastic buckling instability for mechanical measurements (SIEBIMM), and a strengthening effect was found in certain systems due to strong interaction between polymers and nanoparticles. The effects of polymer structure, nanoparticle addition and film thickness on elastic modulus will be discussed and compared with bulk materials.

  11. ZnS/PVA nanocomposites for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, K.; Michel, J.; Nechyporuk, B. D.; Ebothé, J.; Kityk, I. V.; Albassam, A. A.; El-Naggar, A. M.; Fedorchuk, A. O.

    2016-07-01

    We have found a correlation between ZnS nanocomposite nonlinear optical features and technological processing using electrolytic method. In the earlier researches this factor was neglected. However, it may open a new stage for operation by photovoltaic features of the well known semiconductors within a wide range of magnitudes. The titled nanostructured zinc sulfide (ZnS) was synthesized by electrolytic method. The obtained ZnS nano-crystallites possessed nano-particles sizes varying within 1.6 nm…1.8 nm. The titled samples were analyzed by XRD, HR-TEM, STEM, and nonlinear optical methods such as photo-induced two-photon absorption (TPA) and second harmonic generation (SHG). For this reason the nano-powders were embedded into the photopolymer poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) matrices. Role of aggregation in the mentioned properties is discussed. Possible origin of the such correlations are discussed.

  12. Characterization of montmorillonite-Ca to use polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Joao E.; Neto, Jose C.M.; Campo, Eduardo R.B. del; Nascimento, Nayra R. do; Diaz, Francisco Rolando Valenzuela

    2015-01-01

    Bentonite is an important type of industrial clays due to its rheological properties or accession that are dependent on its high hydrophilicity. This clay has the capability of being modified with organic compounds by treatment with ammonium quaternary salts. After the clay treatment with these salts it presents a high degree of swelling property in organic liquids. Due to this swelling characteristics, the bentonite can be used in dispersions of organic liquids viscous and thixotropic. Another focus of interest this clay is in industry and academia because of its potential use in the adsorption of toxic substances and as fillers in nanocomposites clay / polymer. The objective of this study is to characterize a Cuban calcium bentonite modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The clay was characterized by X-ray diffraction, particle size analysis by laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  13. Nanocomposites for Improved Physical Durability of Porous PVDF Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chi Yan; Groth, Andrew; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Current commercial polymer membranes have shown high performance and durability in water treatment, converting poor quality waters to higher quality suitable for drinking, agriculture and recycling. However, to extend the treatment into more challenging water sources containing abrasive particles, micro and ultrafiltration membranes with enhanced physical durability are highly desirable. This review summarises the current limits of the existing polymeric membranes to treat harsh water sources, followed by the development of nanocomposite poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes for improved physical durability. Various types of nanofillers including nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nanoclays were evaluated for their effect on flux, fouling resistance, mechanical strength and abrasion resistance on PVDF membranes. The mechanisms of abrasive wear and how the more durable materials provide resistance was also explored. PMID:24957121

  14. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of a Silver-Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Díaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A silver-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite has been obtained by a colloidal chemical route and subsequent reduction process in H2/Ar atmosphere at 350∘C. This material has been characterized by TEM, XRD, and UV-Visible spectroscopy, showing the silver nanoparticles (∼65 nm supported onto the HA particles (∼130 nm surface without a high degree of agglomeration. The bactericidal effect against common Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has been also investigated. The results indicated a high antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus, Pneumococcus and Escherichia coli, so this material can be a promising antimicrobial biomaterial for implant and reconstructive surgery applications.

  15. Introduction to nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanomaterials an introduction for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Vollath, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Meeting the demand for a readily understandable introduction to nanomaterials and nanotechnology, this textbook specifically addresses the needs of students - and engineers - who need to get the gist of nanoscale phenomena in materials without having to delve too deeply into the physical and chemical details. The book begins with an overview of the consequences of small particle size, such as the growing importance of surface effects, and covers successful, field-tested synthesis techniques of nanomaterials. The largest part of the book is devoted to the particular magnetic, optical, electrical and mechanical properties of materials at the nanoscale, leading on to emerging and already commercialized applications, such as nanofluids in magnetic resonance imaging, high-performance nanocomposites and carbon nanotube-based electronics. Based on the author's experience in teaching nanomaterials courses and adapted, in style and level, for students with only limited background knowledge, the textbook includes fur...

  16. Thermodynamics of TMPC/PSd/Fullerene Nanocomposites: SANS Study

    KAUST Repository

    Chua, Yang-Choo

    2010-11-23

    Wereport a small angle neutron scattering study of the thermodynamics of a polymer mixture in the presence of nanoparticles, both in equilibrium and during phase separation. Neutron cloud point measurements and random phase approximation (RPA) analysis demonstrate that 1-2 mass % of C60 fullerenes destabilizes a highly interacting mixture of poly(tetramethyl bisphenol A polycarbonate) and deuterated polystyrene (TMPC/PSd). We unequivocally corroborate these findings with time-resolved temperature jump experiments that, in identical conditions, result in phase separation for the nanocomposite and stability for the neat polymer mixture. At lower C 60 loadings (viz. 0.2-0.5 mass %), stabilization of the mixture is observed. The nonmonotonic variation of the spinodal temperature with fullerene addition suggests a competitive interplay of asymmetric component interactions and nanoparticle dispersion. The stability line shift depends critically on particle dispersion and vanishes upon nanoparticle agglomeration. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of novel biomimetic PLLA/cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for bone repair applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eftekhari, Samin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3 (Canada); El Sawi, Ihab; Bagheri, Zahra Shaghayegh [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3 (Canada); Turcotte, Ginette [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3 (Canada); Bougherara, Habiba, E-mail: habiba.bougherara@ryerson.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop and characterize a novel biomimetic nanocomposite that closely mimics the properties of real bone such as morphology, composition and mechanical characteristics. This novel porous nanocomposite is composed of cotton-sourced cellulose microcrystals, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and poly L-lactide acid. A unique combination of commonly used fabrication procedures has been developed including pre-treatment of particles using a coupling agent. The effect of various weight ratios of the reinforcing agents was evaluated to assess their influence on the chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and compression testing. Our results indicated the presence of molecular interactions between all components leading to an increase of the crystallinity of the polymer from 50% to 80%. Compression test results revealed that increasing the weight ratio of microcrystalline cellulose/poly L-lactide acid and hydroxyapatite/poly L-lactide acid from 0.1 to 0.5 enhanced the compressive yield stress from 0.127 to 2.2 MPa and The Young's modulus from 6.6 to 38 MPa, respectively. It was found that the fabricated nanocomposites are comparable with the trabecular bone from compositional, structural, and mechanical point of view. - Highlights: • Fabrication of PLLA/HA/cellulose composites that mimic the spongeous bone • Homogenous dispersion of the reinforcing agents in the PLLA matrix was attained. • More efficient interface between the PLLA and the reinforcing agents was achieved. • Preliminary in vitro biocompatibility test showed the nontoxicity of the composite. • The crystallinity, the compressive strength and modulus were investigated.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and photo behavior of new poly(amide-imide/montmorillonite nanocomposite containing N,N'-pyrromellitoyl-bis-L-alanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hajibeygi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new samples of poly(amide-imide-nanocomposites were synthesized by insertion nano silicate particles in poly(amide-imide (PAI chains using a convenient solution intercalation technique. PAI as a source of polymer matrix was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of N,N'-pyrromelitoyl-bis-L-alanine with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP, CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP. Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nanocomposite films with 5 and 10% silicate particles were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nanocomposites films were investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and water uptake measurements.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v27i3.15

  19. Nanotechnology : emerging applications of cellulose-based green magnetic nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao Wang; Zhiyong Cai; Lei Liu; Ilker S. Bayer; Abhijit Biswas

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a new type of nanocomposite – cellulose based hybrid nanocomposites, which adopts cellulose nanofibers as matrices, has been intensively developed. Among these materials, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of cellulosic fibers and magnetic nanoparticles have recently attracted much attention due to their potential novel applications in biomedicine,...

  20. Phase separation of comb polymer nanocomposite melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzhi; Feng, Yancong; Chen, Lan

    2016-02-07

    In this work, the spinodal phase demixing of branched comb polymer nanocomposite (PNC) melts is systematically investigated using the polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory. To verify the reliability of the present method in characterizing the phase behavior of comb PNCs, the intermolecular correlation functions of the system for nonzero particle volume fractions are compared with our molecular dynamics simulation data. After verifying the model and discussing the structure of the comb PNCs in the dilute nanoparticle limit, the interference among the side chain number, side chain length, nanoparticle-monomer size ratio and attractive interactions between the comb polymer and nanoparticles in spinodal demixing curves is analyzed and discussed in detail. The results predict two kinds of distinct phase separation behaviors. One is called classic fluid phase boundary, which is mediated by the entropic depletion attraction and contact aggregation of nanoparticles at relatively low nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength. The second demixing transition occurs at relatively high attraction strength and involves the formation of an equilibrium physical network phase with local bridging of nanoparticles. The phase boundaries are found to be sensitive to the side chain number, side chain length, nanoparticle-monomer size ratio and attractive interactions. As the side chain length is fixed, the side chain number has a large effect on the phase behavior of comb PNCs; with increasing side chain number, the miscibility window first widens and then shrinks. When the side chain number is lower than a threshold value, the phase boundaries undergo a process from enlarging the miscibility window to narrowing as side chain length increases. Once the side chain number overtakes this threshold value, the phase boundary shifts towards less miscibility. With increasing nanoparticle-monomer size ratio, a crossover of particle size occurs, above which the phase separation

  1. Release of nanoclay and surfactant from polymer-clay nanocomposites into a food simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yining; Rubino, Maria; Auras, Rafael

    2014-12-02

    Release assessment of organo-modified montmorillonite (O-MMT) nanoclay and the organo-modifiers (surfactants) was performed on two types of polymer–clay nanocomposites: polypropylene (PP) and polyamide 6 (PA6) with O-MMT. In accordance with ASTM D4754-11, nanocomposite films were exposed to ethanol as a fatty-food simulant at 70 °C. The release of O-MMT, with Si and Al used as the nanoclay markers, was evaluated by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The nanoclay particles released in ethanol were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). More nanoclay particles were released from PP–clay films (0.15 mg L(–1)) than from PA6–clay films (0.10 mg L(–1)), possibly due to the lack of interaction between the nanoclay and PP as indicated by the structure and morphology in the TEM images. The surfactant release was quantified by a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. A substantial amount of surfactant was released into ethanol (3.5 mg L(–1) from PP–clay films and 16.2 mg L(–1) from PA6–clay films), indicating changes in the nanoclay structure within the nanocomposite while it was exposed to ethanol. This research has provided information for the determination of exposure doses of nanoclay and surfactant in biosystems and the environment, which enabled the risk assessment.

  2. Poly (γ-glutamic acid)/beta-TCP nanocomposites via in situ copolymerization: Preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiu-Lin; Shi, Qing-Shan; Feng, Jin; Yang, Yun-Hua; Zhou, Gang; Li, Wen-Ru

    2016-07-01

    A series biodegradable poly (γ-glutamic acid)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (γ-PGA/TCP) nanocomposites were prepared which were composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid polymerized in situ with β-tricalcium phosphate and physiochemically characterized as bone graft substitutes. The particle size via dynamic light scattering, the direct morphological characterization via transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope, which showed that γ-PGA and β-TCP were combined compactly at 80℃, and the γ-PGA/TCP nanocomposites had homogenous and nano-sized grains with narrow particle size distributions. The water uptake and retention abilities, in vitro degradation properties, cytotoxicity in the simulated medium, and protein release of these novel γ-PGA/TCP composites were investigated. Cell proliferation in composites was nearly twice than β-TCP when checked in vitro using MC3T3 cell line. We also envision the potential use of γ-PGA/TCP systems in bone growth factor or orthopedic drug delivery applications in future bone tissue engineering applications. These observations suggest that the γ-PGA/TCP are novel nanocomposites with great potential for application in the field of bone tissue engineering. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of barium ferrite–silica nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-González, M.A.; Mendoza-Suárez, G.; Padmasree, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we prepared barium ferrite-silica (BaM-SiO 2 ) nanocomposites of different molar ratios by high-energy ball milling, followed by heat-treatment at different temperatures. The microstructure, morphology and magnetic properties were characterized for different synthesis conditions by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results