WorldWideScience

Sample records for silica glass substrates

  1. Anisotropic surroundings effects on photo absorption of partially embedded Au nanospheroids in silica glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xuan; Shibayama, Tamaki, E-mail: shiba@qe.eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Watanabe, Seiichi [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060–8628 (Japan); Yu, Ruixuan; Ishioka, Junya [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060–8628 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    The influence of a directly adjacent or an anisotropic surrounding medium alters the plasmonic properties of a nanoparticle because it provides a mechanism for symmetry breaking of the scattering. Given the success of ion irradiation induced embedment of rigid metallic nanospheroids into amorphous substrate, it is possible to examine the effect of the silica glass substrate on the plasmonic properties of these embedded nanospheroids. In this work presented here, discrete dipole approximation (DDA) calculations for the Au nanospheroids’ optical properties were performed based on 3–dimensional (3D) configuration extracted from planar SEM micrographs and cross–sectional TEM micrographs of the Au nanospheroids partially embedded in the silica glass, and the well–matched simulations with respect to the experimental measurements could demonstrate the dielectric constant at the near surface of silica glass decreased after Ar–ion irradiation.

  2. Fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic silica-based film on a glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shing-Dar; Luo, Shih-Shiang

    2012-05-01

    Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was hydrolyzed in an acidic environment and then reacted with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) to obtain a superhydrophobic transparent film on a glass substrate. The molar ratios of water and ethanol to TEOS, the pH value of the acidic (or basic) water that is used to hydrolyze TEOS, the heat treatment conditions and other factors were investigated systematically to optimize the transmission through, and the contact angle of water on the film. HMDS (total amount of HMDS/TEOS = 2) was divided into 20 parts, which were added into the sol successively to prevent the sudden production of a large quantity of NH3 in a small area of the sol. The optical and hydrophobic properties of the sol gel continued to change after it had been prepared. The conditions that TEOS was hydrolyzed with acidic water at pH 1.2 at 70 °C and the sol gel was aged at 20 °C for 48 h realized transmission of 90.9% and a water contact angle of 154.3°. No additional surface chemistry modification was needed.

  3. Alkali passivation mechanism of sol-gel derived TiO2-SiO2 films coated on soda-lime-silica glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, A; Matsuno, Y; Katayama, S; Tsuno, T [Nippon Steel Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Toge, N; Minami, T [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering

    1992-09-01

    TiO2-SiO2 films prepared by the sol-gel method serves as an effective alkali passivation layer on a soda-lime-silica glass substrate and the film is superior to a sol-gel derived pure SiO2 film from the view point of weathering resistance improvement. To clarify the reason, alkali passivation mechanism of sol-gel derived TiO2-SiO2 glass films with different TiO2 contents coated on a soda-lime-silica glass substrate was studied by SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analyses, and compared with the results of a sol-gel derived pure SiO2 film. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained: An increase in TiO2 content in the TiO2 SiO2 film increases the sodium concentration in the film, which was induced by sodium migration from the glass substrate during the heat-treatment. Because of the presence of sodium the TiO2 -SiO2 films serve not as a barrier but as an effective getter of alkali ions and thereby effectively improve the weathering resistance Of the glass substrate. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Optical and electrical properties of boron doped diamond thin conductive films deposited on fused silica glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficek, M.; Sobaszek, M.; Gnyba, M. [Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Ryl, J. [Department of Electrochemistry, Corrosion and Material Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Gołuński, Ł. [Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Smietana, M.; Jasiński, J. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, 75 Koszykowa St., 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Caban, P. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska St., 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Bogdanowicz, R., E-mail: rbogdan@eti.pg.gda.pl [Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Growth of 60% of transmittance diamond films with resistivity as low as 48 Ω cm. • Two step seeding process of fused silica: plasma hydrogenation and wet seeding. • Nanodiamond seeding density of 2 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2} at fused silica substrates. • High refractive index (2.4 @550 nm) was achieved for BDD films deposited at 500 °C. - Abstract: This paper presents boron-doped diamond (BDD) film as a conductive coating for optical and electronic purposes. Seeding and growth processes of thin diamond films on fused silica have been investigated. Growth processes of thin diamond films on fused silica were investigated at various boron doping level and methane admixture. Two step pre-treatment procedure of fused silica substrate was applied to achieve high seeding density. First, the substrates undergo the hydrogen plasma treatment then spin-coating seeding using a dispersion consisting of detonation nanodiamond in dimethyl sulfoxide with polyvinyl alcohol was applied. Such an approach results in seeding density of 2 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}. The scanning electron microscopy images showed homogenous, continuous and polycrystalline surface morphology with minimal grain size of 200 nm for highly boron doped films. The sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratio was calculated using Raman spectra deconvolution method. A high refractive index (range of 2.0–2.4 @550 nm) was achieved for BDD films deposited at 500 °C. The values of extinction coefficient were below 0.1 at λ = 550 nm, indicating low absorption of the film. The fabricated BDD thin films displayed resistivity below 48 Ohm cm and transmittance over 60% in the visible wavelength range.

  5. Micropatterning of biomolecules on a glass substrate in fused silica microchannels by using photolabile linker-based surface activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, K.; Mawatari, K.; Kitamori, T.; Xu, Y.; Sato, K.; Tanaka, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a straightforward method for creating micropatterns of multiple biomolecules. The anti-fouling agent 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer and a photolabile linker (PL) were covalently linked to an amino-terminated silane surface. Patterns were generated by selective removal of the MPC polymer via UV irradiation. Multiple micropatterns of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and rhodamine-labeled goat fragment antigen-binding fragments (FAB) were deposited on a same glass substrate. We also employed micropatterning of multiple biomolecules in that Texas red-labeled BSA and FITC-labeled rabbit anti-mouse IgG were placed inside a microchannel. (author)

  6. PLZT capacitor on glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, M. Ray; Taylor, Ralph S.; Berlin, Carl W.; Wong, Celine W. K.; Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2016-01-05

    A lead-lanthanum-zirconium-titanate (PLZT) capacitor on a substrate formed of glass. The first metallization layer is deposited on a top side of the substrate to form a first electrode. The dielectric layer of PLZT is deposited over the first metallization layer. The second metallization layer deposited over the dielectric layer to form a second electrode. The glass substrate is advantageous as glass is compatible with an annealing process used to form the capacitor.

  7. Densification of silica glass at ambient pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lianqing; An Qi; Fu Rongshan; Ni Sidao; Luo, S.-N.

    2006-01-01

    We show that densification of silica glass at ambient pressure as observed in irradiation experiments can be attributed to defect generation and subsequent structure relaxation. In our molecular dynamics simulations, defects are created by randomly removing atoms, by displacing atoms from their nominal positions in an otherwise intact glass, and by assigning certain atom excess kinetic energy (simulated ion implantation). The former forms vacancies; displacing atoms and ion implantation produce both vacancies and 'interstitials'. Appreciable densification is induced by these defects after equilibration of the defective glasses. The structural and vibrational properties of the densified glasses are characterized, displaying resembling features regardless of the means of densification. These results indicate that relaxation of high free-energy defects into metastable amorphous structures enriched in atomic coordination serves as a common mechanism for densification of silica glass at ambient pressure

  8. Fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic glass with fibered-silica network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province & Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Shi, Zhenwu, E-mail: zwshi@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province & Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Jiang, Yingjie; Xu, Chengyun; Wu, Zhuhui; Wang, Yanyan [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province & Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Peng, Changsi, E-mail: changsipeng@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province & Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic fibred-silica film with water contact angle of 166° and sliding angle of 1° was efficiently prepared using soot as template by CVD. • The film showed transmittance of 88% in visible range. • The superhydrophobic film possesses excellent mechanical robustness, chemical corrosion resistance, and thermal stability. • The superhydrophobic film showed outstanding self-cleaning behavior. - Abstract: In this paper, silica was deposited on the soot film pre-coated glass via chemical vapor deposition. Through calcination at 500 °C with the assistance of O{sub 2} airflow, the soot film was removed and a novel robust fibered-silica network film was then decorated onto the glass substrate. After modification with fluorosilane, the surface water contact angle (WCA) was 166° and sliding angle (SA) was 1° which behaves a good self-cleaning for the as-prepared glass. And its average transmittance was still over 88% in visible wavelength. Moreover, this fibered-silica coating showed a strong tolerance for heavy water droplets, acid/alkali corrosion, salt solution immersion and thermal treatment.

  9. Elastic Moduli of Permanently Densified Silica Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, T.; Margueritat, J.; Martinet, C.; Mermet, A.; Champagnon, B.

    2014-01-01

    Modelling the mechanical response of silica glass is still challenging, due to the lack of knowledge concerning the elastic properties of intermediate states of densification. An extensive Brillouin Light Scattering study on permanently densified silica glasses after cold compression in diamond anvil cell has been carried out, in order to deduce the elastic properties of such glasses and to provide new insights concerning the densification process. From sound velocity measurements, we derive phenomenological laws linking the elastic moduli of silica glass as a function of its densification ratio. The found elastic moduli are in excellent agreement with the sparse data extracted from literature, and we show that they do not depend on the thermodynamic path taken during densification (room temperature or heating). We also demonstrate that the longitudinal sound velocity exhibits an anomalous behavior, displaying a minimum for a densification ratio of 5%, and highlight the fact that this anomaly has to be distinguished from the compressibility anomaly of a-SiO2 in the elastic domain. PMID:25431218

  10. Nonlinear optical properties of Sn+ ion-implanted silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Y.; Hioki, T.; Motohiro, T.; Noda, S.; Kurauchi, T.

    1994-01-01

    The absolute value of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility, vertical stroke χ (3) vertical stroke , of Sn + ion-implanted silica glass was found to be similar 10 -6 esu. This value is as large as those reported for semiconductor-doped glasses. Silica glass substrates were implanted with Sn + ions at an acceleration energy of 400 keV to a dose of 2x10 17 ions/cm 2 at room temperature. Metallic Sn microcrystallites of 4-20 nm in diameter were found to be embedded in the silica glass matrix. The average volume fraction of the Sn microcrystallites was evaluated to be 28%. vertical stroke χ (3) vertical stroke and the imaginary part of the dielectric function, Im ε, had peaks at the same wavelength of 500 nm owing to surface plasmon resonance. The peak width of vertical stroke χ (3) vertical stroke was nearly half of that of Im ε, which can be explained by an effective medium theory. ((orig.))

  11. Three-dimensional printing of transparent fused silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Frederik; Arnold, Karl; Bauer, Werner; Schild, Dieter; Keller, Nico; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Nargang, Tobias M.; Richter, Christiane; Helmer, Dorothea; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2017-04-01

    Glass is one of the most important high-performance materials used for scientific research, in industry and in society, mainly owing to its unmatched optical transparency, outstanding mechanical, chemical and thermal resistance as well as its thermal and electrical insulating properties. However, glasses and especially high-purity glasses such as fused silica glass are notoriously difficult to shape, requiring high-temperature melting and casting processes for macroscopic objects or hazardous chemicals for microscopic features. These drawbacks have made glasses inaccessible to modern manufacturing technologies such as three-dimensional printing (3D printing). Using a casting nanocomposite, here we create transparent fused silica glass components using stereolithography 3D printers at resolutions of a few tens of micrometres. The process uses a photocurable silica nanocomposite that is 3D printed and converted to high-quality fused silica glass via heat treatment. The printed fused silica glass is non-porous, with the optical transparency of commercial fused silica glass, and has a smooth surface with a roughness of a few nanometres. By doping with metal salts, coloured glasses can be created. This work widens the choice of materials for 3D printing, enabling the creation of arbitrary macro- and microstructures in fused silica glass for many applications in both industry and academia.

  12. Refractive index engineering in silica glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin

    2003-01-01

    . This way the glass undergoes significant physical and chemical changes and in some cases very large non-linear effects have been demonstrated. This includes a non-linear coefficient around 22 pm/V in a wavelength range near 800 nm. The author believes this is due to the combined action of silver nano......The thesis covers research performed durint the last eight years by the author in collaboration with members of his group within the field of UV-written gratings and poling of silica-based materials. The subjects cover several steps on the value chain from basic physics and chemistry via component...... in detail in chapters 4,5 and 6. Chapter 4 describes the semi-classsical model developed by the author to describe the basic UV-induced processes in germanium-doped silica. The idea behind the model is that oxygen-deficient germanium centres in the glass work as gates for the UV-photon energy, which...

  13. Positron annihilation in vitreous silica glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro

    1993-01-01

    The annihilation characteristics of positrons in vitreous silica glasses (v-SiO 2 ) were studied by measurements of two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiations and positron lifetime spectra. From the measurements, it was found that positrons and positronium (Ps) atoms mainly annihilate from trapped states by vacancy-type defects in v-SiO 2 . For v-SiO 2 specimens with cylindrical porous structures, annihilations of Ps with anisotropic momentum distributions were observed. This fact was attributed to the momentum uncertainty due to localization of Ps in a finite dimension of pores. This investigation showed possibilities for the detection of microstructures in v-SiO 2 by the positron annihilation technique. (author)

  14. Volumetric change of simulated radioactive waste glass irradiated by electron accelerator. [Silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Seichi; Furuya, Hirotaka; Inagaki, Yaohiro; Kozaka, Tetsuo; Sugisaki, Masayasu

    1987-11-01

    Density changes of simulated radioactive waste glasses, silica glass and Pyrex glass irradiated by an electron accelerator were measured by a ''sink-float'' technique. The density changes of the waste and silica glasses were less than 0.05 %, irradiated at 2.0 MeV up to the fluence of 1.7 x 10/sup 17/ ecm/sup 2/, while were remarkably smaller than that of Pyrex glass of 0.18 % shrinkage. Precision of the measurements in the density changes of the waste glass was lower than that of Pyrex glass possibly because of the inhomogeneity of the waste glass

  15. High-average-power laser medium based on silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yasushi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro

    2000-01-01

    Silica glass is one of the most attractive materials for a high-average-power laser. We have developed a new laser material base don silica glass with zeolite method which is effective for uniform dispersion of rare earth ions in silica glass. High quality medium, which is bubbleless and quite low refractive index distortion, must be required for realization of laser action. As the main reason of bubbling is due to hydroxy species remained in the gelation same, we carefully choose colloidal silica particles, pH value of hydrochloric acid for hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate on sol-gel process, and temperature and atmosphere control during sintering process, and then we get a bubble less transparent rare earth doped silica glass. The refractive index distortion of the sample also discussed.

  16. High-quality substrate for fluorescence enhancement using agarose-coated silica opal film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Li, Juan; Sun, Liguo; Zhao, Yuanjin; Xie, Zhuoying; Lv, Linli; Zhao, Xiangwei; Xiao, Pengfeng; Hu, Jing; Lv, Mei; Gu, Zhongze

    2010-08-01

    To improve the sensitivity of fluorescence detection in biochip, a new kind of substrates was developed by agarose coating on silica opal film. In this study, silica opal film was fabricated on glass substrate using the vertical deposition technique. It can provide stronger fluorescence signals and thus improve the detection sensitivity. After coating with agarose, the hybrid film could provide a 3D support for immobilizing sample. Comparing with agarose-coated glass substrate, the agarose-coated opal substrates could selectively enhance particular fluorescence signals with high sensitivity when the stop band of the silica opal film in the agarose-coated opal substrate overlapped the fluorescence emission wavelength. A DNA hybridization experiment demonstrated that fluorescence intensity of special type of agarose-coated opal substrates was about four times that of agarose-coated glass substrate. These results indicate that the optimized agarose-coated opal substrate can be used for improving the sensitivity of fluorescence detection with high quality and selectivity.

  17. Preparation of mesoporous silica films SBA-15 over different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, V.O.; Sousa, E.M.B. de; Macedo, W.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous materials have been target of frequent interest due to its wide application possibilities, for example development of gas sensors, catalysis, molecules transportation, pharmaceuticals release, synthesis of auto-organized nanostructures, among others. The possibilities of application are enhanced when such materials are disposed in the form of thin and ultrathin films. In this work the preparation of mesoporous SBA-15 silica films is explored by means of the dipcoating technique of a sol-gel on different substrates (glass slides, stainless steel, copper), using the surfactant poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)- block-poly(ethylene glycol), known as P123, a block copolymer. Synthesis parameters surfactant concentration, aging time and temperature were investigated. In this work we present the morphological and structural characterization of the prepared films, which were obtained using atomic force microscopy and x-ray fluorescence and diffraction. (author)

  18. Brittle to ductile transition in densified silica glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fenglin; Huang, Liping

    2014-05-22

    Current understanding of the brittleness of glass is limited by our poor understanding and control over the microscopic structure. In this study, we used a pressure quenching route to tune the structure of silica glass in a controllable manner, and observed a systematic increase in ductility in samples quenched under increasingly higher pressure. The brittle to ductile transition in densified silica glass can be attributed to the critical role of 5-fold Si coordination defects (bonded to 5 O neighbors) in facilitating shear deformation and in dissipating energy by converting back to the 4-fold coordination state during deformation. As an archetypal glass former and one of the most abundant minerals in the Earth's crest, a fundamental understanding of the microscopic structure underpinning the ductility of silica glass will not only pave the way toward rational design of strong glasses, but also advance our knowledge of the geological processes in the Earth's interior.

  19. XAFS study on silica glasses irradiated in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tomoko; Yoshida, Hisao; Hara, Takanobu; Ii, Tatsuya; Okada, Tomohisa; Tanabe, Tetsuo

    2000-01-01

    X-ray absorption technique (XANES and EXAFS) was applied to study the local structures of silica glasses before and after the irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Although our separate photoluminescence (PL) measurements clearly showed the different aspects about oxygen vacancies in these samples, i.e., at least the B 2β type oxygen-deficient center exists as an intrinsic defect in the fused silica glass while another type B 2α center is formed in the synthesized silica glass, such differences did not directly reflect on the X-ray absorption spectra (XANES and EXAFS). However, the curve-fitting analysis of EXAFS showed that the number of oxygen atoms coordinated to Si relatively increased after the irradiation. This result may indicate the occurrence of the structural relaxation in the irradiated samples, that is, a slightly distorted SiO 4 tetrahedra in silica glasses relaxed to the regular SiO 4 tetrahedra due to the break of some connections between SiO 4 units in the silica glasses. Thus, the X-ray absorption technique gave the important information of the in-reactor irradiated silica glasses which complements the results obtained from PL measurements

  20. Glass properties in the yttria-alumina-silica system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, M. J.; Day, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    The glass formation region in the yttria-alumina-silica system was investigated. Properties of glasses containing 25 to 55 wt pct yttria were measured and the effect of the composition was determined. The density, refractive index, thermal-expansion coefficient, and microhardness increased with increasing yttria content. The dissolution rate in 1N HCl increased with increasing yttria content and temperature. These glasses were also found to have high electrical resistivity.

  1. Properties Of Soda/Yttria/Silica Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Paul W.; Hann, Raiford E.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental study of glass-formation compositional region of soda/ yttria/silicate system and of selected physical properties of glasses within compositional region part of continuing effort to identify glasses with high coefficients of thermal expansion and high softening temperatures, for use as coatings on superalloys and as glass-to-metal seals.

  2. Cr3+ and Cr4+ luminescence in glass ceramic silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martines, Marco A.U.; Davolos, Marian R.; Jafelicci, Miguel Junior; Souza, Dione F. de; Nunes, Luiz A.O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the effect of glass ceramic silica matrix on [CrO 4 ] 4- and Cr 2 O 3 NIR and visible luminescence. Chromium-containing silica was obtained by precipitation from water-glass and chromium nitrate acid solution with thermal treatment at 1000 deg. C. From XRD results silica and silica-chromium samples are crystalline. The chromium emission spectrum presents two main broad bands: one in the NIR region (1.1-1.7μm) and other in the visible region (0.6-0.7μm) assigned to Cr 4+ and to Cr 3+ , respectively. This thermal treated glass ceramic silica-chromium sample stabilizes the [CrO 4 ] 4- where Cr 4+ substitutes for Si 4+ and also hexacoordinated Cr 3+ group probably as segregated phase in the system. It can be pointed out that luminescence spectroscopy is a powerful tool for detecting the two chromium optical centers in the glass ceramic silica

  3. Silica nanoparticles with a substrate switchable luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochkova, O D; Mustafina, A R; Fedorenko, S V; Konovalov, A I

    2011-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles with visible (Tb and Ru doped), near IR (Yb doped) and dual visible-near IR luminescence (Ru-Yb doped) were obtained by reverse w/o microemulsion procedure. Plenty of luminescent complexes (from 4900 to 10000) encapsulated into each nanoparticle ensures the intensive luminescence of nanoparticles and their applicability as biomarkers. The silica surface decoration by definite anchor groups is the required step for the gaining to these nanoparticles marking and sensing functions. Thus covalent and non-covalent surface modification of these nanoparticles was developed to provide the binding with biotargets and sensing of anions. The dicationic surfactant coating of negatively charged Tb(III)-TCAS doped silica nanoparticles was chosen as the basis for the anion responsible system. The reversible insertion of the quenching anions (namely phenol red) into the surfactant based layer at the surface of luminescent nanoparticles switches off the Tb-centered luminescence. In turn the reversible reestablishment of the luminescence results from the competitive insertion of the non-quenching anions into the surfactant layer at the silica/water interface. The hydrophobic anions exemplified by dodecylsulfates versus hydrophilic ones (hydrophosphates) are preferable in the competition with phenol red anions.

  4. Yttrium aluminum garnet coating on glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Camila M.A.; Freiria, Gabriela S.; Faria, Emerson H. de; Rocha, Lucas A.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Nassar, Eduardo J., E-mail: eduardo.nassar@unifran.edu.br

    2016-02-15

    Thin luminescent films have seen great technological advances and are applicable in the production of a variety of materials such as sensors, solar cells, photovoltaic devices, optical magnetic readers, waveguides, lasers, and recorders. Systems that contain yttrium aluminum oxide are important hosts for lanthanide ions and serve as light emission devices. This work deals with the deposition of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) film doped with Eu{sup 3+} onto a glass substrate obtained by the sol–gel methodology. Spray pyrolysis furnished the yttrium aluminum oxide powder. Dip-coating at a withdrawal speed of 10 mm min{sup −1} and evaporation led to deposition of different numbers of layers of the YAG:Eu{sup 3+} film onto the glass substrate from a YAG:Eu{sup 3+} powder suspension containing ethanol, water, and tetraethylorthosilicate. Photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transparency measurements aided film characterization. The emission spectra revealed that the number of layers influenced film properties. - Highlights: • The spray pyrolysis was used to obtain luminescent YAG:Eu{sup 3+}. • The matrix was deposited as transparent films. • The YAG:Eu{sup 3+} was deposited by sol–gel process onto glass substrate.

  5. Yttrium aluminum garnet coating on glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Camila M.A.; Freiria, Gabriela S.; Faria, Emerson H. de; Rocha, Lucas A.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Nassar, Eduardo J.

    2016-01-01

    Thin luminescent films have seen great technological advances and are applicable in the production of a variety of materials such as sensors, solar cells, photovoltaic devices, optical magnetic readers, waveguides, lasers, and recorders. Systems that contain yttrium aluminum oxide are important hosts for lanthanide ions and serve as light emission devices. This work deals with the deposition of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) film doped with Eu 3+ onto a glass substrate obtained by the sol–gel methodology. Spray pyrolysis furnished the yttrium aluminum oxide powder. Dip-coating at a withdrawal speed of 10 mm min −1 and evaporation led to deposition of different numbers of layers of the YAG:Eu 3+ film onto the glass substrate from a YAG:Eu 3+ powder suspension containing ethanol, water, and tetraethylorthosilicate. Photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transparency measurements aided film characterization. The emission spectra revealed that the number of layers influenced film properties. - Highlights: • The spray pyrolysis was used to obtain luminescent YAG:Eu 3+ . • The matrix was deposited as transparent films. • The YAG:Eu 3+ was deposited by sol–gel process onto glass substrate.

  6. Printed electronic on flexible and glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futera, Konrad; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Kozioł, Grażyna

    2010-09-01

    Organic electronics is a platform technology that enables multiple applications based on organic electronics but varied in specifications. Organic electronics is based on the combination of new materials and cost-effective, large area production processes that provide new fields of application. Organic electronic by its size, weight, flexibility and environmental friendliness electronics enables low cost production of numerous electrical components and provides for such promising fields of application as: intelligent packaging, low cost RFID, flexible solar cells, disposable diagnostic devices or games, and printed batteries [1]. The paper presents results of inkjetted electronics elements on flexible and glass substrates. The investigations was target on characterizing shape, surface and geometry of printed structures. Variety of substrates were investigated, within some, low cost, non specialized substrate, design for other purposes than organic electronic.

  7. Patchy silica-coated silver nanowires as SERS substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Murphy, Catherine J.

    2013-05-08

    We report a class of core-shell nanomaterials that can be used as efficient surface-enhancement Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. The core consists of silver nanowires, prepared through a chemical reduction process, that are used to capture 4- mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA), a model analyte. The shell was prepared through a modified Stöber method and consists of patchy or full silica coats. The formation of silica coats was monitored via transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and phase-analysis light scattering for measuring effective surface charge. Surprisingly, the patchy silica coated silver nanowires are better SERS substrate than silver nanowires; nanomolar concentration of 4-MBA can be detected. In addition, “nano-matryoshka” configurations were used to quantitate/explore the effect of the electromagnetic field at the tips of the nanowire (“hot spots”) in the Raman scattering experiment.

  8. Patchy silica-coated silver nanowires as SERS substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Murphy, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    We report a class of core–shell nanomaterials that can be used as efficient surface-enhancement Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. The core consists of silver nanowires, prepared through a chemical reduction process, that are used to capture 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA), a model analyte. The shell was prepared through a modified Stöber method and consists of patchy or full silica coats. The formation of silica coats was monitored via transmission electron microscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, and phase-analysis light-scattering for measuring effective surface charge. Surprisingly, the patchy silica-coated silver nanowires are better SERS substrate than silver nanowires; nanomolar concentration of 4-MBA can be detected. In addition, “nano-matryoshka” configurations were used to quantitate/explore the effect of the electromagnetic field at the tips of the nanowire (“hot spots”) in the Raman scattering experiment.

  9. Inverted opal luminescent Ce-doped silica glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scotti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverted opal Ce-doped silica glasses (Ce : Si molar ratio 1 ⋅ 10−3 were prepared by a sol-gel method using opals of latex microspheres as templates. The rare earth is homogeneously dispersed in silica host matrix, as evidenced by the absence of segregated CeO2, instead present in monolithic Ce-doped SG with the same cerium content. This suggests that the nanometric dimensions of bridges and junctions of the host matrix in the inverted opal structures favor the RE distribution avoiding the possible segregation of CeO2.

  10. Studies on the Potential of Waste Soda Lime Silica Glass in Glass Ionomer Cement Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. W. Francis Thoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GIC are produced through acid base reaction between calcium-fluoroaluminosilicate glass powder and polyacrylic acid (PAA. Soda lime silica glasses (SLS, mainly composed of silica (SiO2, have been utilized in this study as the source of SiO2 for synthesis of Ca-fluoroaluminosilicate glass. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of SLS waste glass in producing GIC. Two glasses, GWX 1 (analytical grade SiO2 and GWX 2 (replacing SiO2 with waste SLS, were synthesized and then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX. Synthesized glasses were then used to produce GIC, in which the properties were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and compressive test (from 1 to 28 days. XRD results showed that amorphous glass was produced by using SLS waste glass (GWX 2, which is similar to glass produced using analytical grade SiO2 (GWX 1. Results from FT-IR showed that the setting reaction of GWX 2 cements is slower compared to cement GWX 1. Compressive strengths for GWX 1 cements reached up to 76 MPa at 28 days, whereas GWX 2 cements showed a slightly higher value, which is 80 MPa.

  11. Protective amorphous carbon coatings on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silins, Kaspars; Baránková, Hana; Bardos, Ladislav

    2017-11-01

    Thick amorphous carbon films were deposited by the Magnets-in-Motion (M-M) rf linear hollow cathode at varying acetylene contents in Ar in a hybrid PVD/PE-CVD process directly on glass substrates. The hollow cathode plates manufactured from graphite were used as the PVD target. The measurements show that the films can reach thickness of up to 50 μm at deposition rates of up to 2.5 μm/min. Scratch test measurements confirm that well adhering films several μm thick can be achieved at C2H2 contents of up to 0.5%.

  12. Magnetic properties of Fe-Nd silica glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Manjunath T.; Desa, J. A. Erwin; Babu, P. D.

    2018-04-01

    Soda lime silica glass ceramics containing iron and neodymium have been synthesized. The XRD pattern revealed that the glass samples devitrified into multiple phases. Fe2O3 as an initial component converted into Fe3O4 in the sample during the synthesis, and was the main contributor to the magnetic property of the sample. The inclusion of Nd was found to enhance the magnetization of the sample at 5K. The coercivity of the sample increased with decrease in temperature from room to 5K.

  13. Structural modification of silica glass by laser scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jian; Sullivan, James; Zayac, John; Bennett, Ted D.

    2004-01-01

    The thermophysical nature of rapid CO 2 laser heating of silica glass is explored using a numerical simulation that considers the structural state of the glass, as characterized by the fictive temperature. The fictive temperature reflects the thermodynamic temperature at which the glass structure would be in equilibrium. To demonstrate that the thermophysical model can accurately predict the structural change in the glass, the fictive temperature is measured experimentally utilizing the fact that the fictive temperature change corresponds to a change of glass properties that can be revealed through wet chemical etching. The relationship between the etch rate and the fictive temperature is determined by preparing and etching samples of known fictive temperature. Wet chemical etching is used to measure the fictive temperature over the entire laser affected zone and the results are found to compare favorably with the results of the thermophysical model. The model and experimental measurements demonstrate that rapid laser processing results in an increased fictive temperature near the surface of the glass. The fictive temperature increase is about 1000 K and is uniform to within 5% over the laser affected zone. Near the boundary of this zone, the fictive temperature transitions abruptly to the value of the surrounding untreated glass

  14. Wrinkling of graphene membranes supported by silica nanoparticles on substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mahito; Cullen, William; Fuhrer, Michael; Einstein, Theodore; Department of Physics, University of Maryland Team

    2011-03-01

    The challenging endeavor of modulating the morphology of graphene via a patterned substrate to produce a controlled deformation has great potential importance for strain engineering the electronic properties of graphene. An essential step in this direction is to understand the response of graphene to substrate features of known geometry. Here we employ silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 10-100 nm to uniformly decorate Si O2 and mica substrates before depositing graphene, to promote nanoscale modulation of graphene geometry. The morphology of graphene on this modified substrate is then characterized by atomic force spectroscopy. We find that graphene on the substrate is locally raised by the supporting nanoparticles, and wrinkling propagates radially from the protrusions to form a ridge network which links the protrusions. We discuss the dependence of the wrinkled morphology on nanoparticle diameter and graphene thickness in terms of graphene elasticity and adhesion energy. Supported by NSF-MRSEC, Grant DMR 05-20471

  15. Hydrophobic and optical characteristics of graphene and graphene oxide films transferred onto functionalized silica particles deposited glass surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ibrahim, A.; Ali, H.; Khaled, M.; Laoui, T.

    2018-06-01

    Hydrophobic and optical transmittance characteristics of the functionalized silica particles on the glass surface prior and after transfer of graphene and graphene oxide films on the surface are examined. Nano-size silica particles are synthesized and functionalized via chemical grafting and deposited onto a glass surface. Graphene film, grown on copper substrate, was transferred onto the functionalized silica particles surface through direct fishing method. Graphene oxide layer was deposited onto the functionalized silica particles surface via spin coating technique. Morphological, hydrophobic, and optical characteristics of the functionalized silica particles deposited surface prior and after graphene and graphene oxide films transfer are examined using the analytical tools. It is found that the functionalized silica particles are agglomerated at the surface forming packed structures with few micro/nano size pores. This arrangement gives rise to water droplet contact angle and contact angle hysteresis in the order of 163° and 2°, respectively, and remains almost uniform over the entire surface. Transferring graphene and depositing graphene oxide films over the functionalized silica particles surface lowers the water droplet contact angle slightly (157-160°) and increases the contact angle hysteresis (4°). The addition of the graphene and graphene oxide films onto the surface of the deposited functionalized silica particles improves the optical transmittance.

  16. Near-field enhanced femtosecond laser nano-drilling of glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.; Hong, M.H.; Fuh, J.Y.H.; Lu, L.; Lukyanchuk, B.S.; Wang, Z.B.

    2008-01-01

    Particle mask assisted near-field enhanced femtosecond laser nano-drilling of transparent glass substrate was demonstrated in this paper. A particle mask was fabricated by self-assembly of spherical 1 μm silica particles on the substrate surface. Then the samples were exposed to femtosecond laser (800 nm, 100 fs) and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The nano-hole array was found on the glass surface. The hole sizes were measured from 200 to 300 nm with an average depth of 150 nm and increased with laser fluence. Non-linear triple-photon absorption and near-field enhancement were the main mechanisms of the nano-feature formation. Calculations based on Mie theory shows an agreement with experiment results. More debris, however, was found at high laser fluence. This can be attributed to the explosion of silica particles because the focusing point is inside the 1 μm particle. The simulation predicts that the focusing point will move outside the particle if the particle size increases. The experiment performed under 6.84 μm silica particles verified that no debris was formed. And for all the samples, no cracks were found on the substrate surface because of ultra-short pulse width of femtosecond laser. This method has potential applications in nano-patterning of transparent glass substrate for nano-structure device fabrication

  17. Study of interaction in silica glass via model potential approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Sarita; Rani, Pooja

    2016-05-01

    Silica is one of the most commonly encountered substances in daily life and in electronics industry. Crystalline SiO2 (in several forms: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite) is an important constituent of many minerals and gemstones, both in pure form and mixed with related oxides. Cohesive energy of amorphous SiO2 has been investigated via intermolecular potentials i.e weak Van der Waals interaction and Morse type short-range interaction. We suggest a simple atom-atom based Van der Waals as well as Morse potential to find cohesive energy of glass. It has been found that the study of silica structure using two different model potentials is significantly different. Van der Waals potential is too weak (P.E =0.142eV/molecule) to describe the interaction between silica molecules. Morse potential is a strong potential, earlier given for intramolecular bonding, but if applied for intermolecular bonding, it gives a value of P.E (=-21.92eV/molecule) to appropriately describe the structure of silica.

  18. Study of interaction in silica glass via model potential approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Sarita, E-mail: saritaiitr2003@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Rani, Pooja [D.A.V. College, Sec-10, Chandigarh-160010 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Silica is one of the most commonly encountered substances in daily life and in electronics industry. Crystalline SiO{sub 2} (in several forms: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite) is an important constituent of many minerals and gemstones, both in pure form and mixed with related oxides. Cohesive energy of amorphous SiO{sub 2} has been investigated via intermolecular potentials i.e weak Van der Waals interaction and Morse type short-range interaction. We suggest a simple atom-atom based Van der Waals as well as Morse potential to find cohesive energy of glass. It has been found that the study of silica structure using two different model potentials is significantly different. Van der Waals potential is too weak (P.E =0.142eV/molecule) to describe the interaction between silica molecules. Morse potential is a strong potential, earlier given for intramolecular bonding, but if applied for intermolecular bonding, it gives a value of P.E (=−21.92eV/molecule) to appropriately describe the structure of silica.

  19. A brilliant sandwich type fluorescent nanostructure incorporating a compact quantum dot layer and versatile silica substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Jing; Foda, Mohamed; Liu, Jiawei; Cai, Kai; Han, Heyou

    2014-03-18

    A "hydrophobic layer in silica" structure was designed to integrate a compact quantum dot (QD) layer with high quantum yield into scalable silica hosts containing desired functionality. This was based on metal affinity driven assembly of hydrophobic QDs with versatile silica substrates and homogeneous encapsulation of organosilica/silica layers.

  20. Optical bleaching of bismuth implanted silica glass: A threshold effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.Y.; Magruder, R.H. III; Weeks, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The near surface regions of high purity silica glass discs, Spectrosil A, were modified by implantation with bismuth ions at 160 key and room temperature. The glasses implanted with a nominal dose of 6x10 16 Bi/cm 2 at ∼5 μA/cm 2 were subsequently bleached with a 5.0 eV KrF pulsed excimer laser. The laser had an average pulse duration of ∼20 ns and repetition rate of 10 Hz. It was found that the bleaching was dependent upon the power density of the laser for a constant total integrated energy. Ion backscattering and optical absorption measurements were made before and after laser irradiation. Large changes in optical density and depth distribution of the implanted ions were observed at power densities of ≥45 mJ/cm 2 -pulse. Onset of threshold for bleaching of silica glass implanted with 6x10 16 Bi/cm 2 at 160 key and at room temperature is between 30 and 45 mJ/cm 2 -pulse

  1. Electrochemical redox reactions in solvated silica sol-gel glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opallo, M.

    2002-01-01

    The studies of electrochemical redox reactions in solvated silica sol-gel glass were reviewed. The methodology of the experiments with emphasis on the direct preparation of the solid electrolyte and the application ultra microelectrodes was described. Generally, the level of the electrochemical signal is not much below that observed in liquid electrolyte. The current depends on time elapsed after gelation, namely the longer time, the smaller current. The differences between electrochemical behaviour of the redox couples in monoliths and thin layers were described. (author)

  2. Preparation and spectroscopic properties of Yb-doped and Yb-Al-codoped high silica glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yanbo; Wen Lei; Wu Botao; Ren Jinjun; Chen Danping; Qiu Jianrong

    2008-01-01

    Yb-doped and Yb-Al-codoped high silica glasses have been prepared by sintering nanoporous glasses. The absorption, fluorescent spectra and fluorescent lifetimes have been measured and the emission cross-section and minimum pump intensities were calculated. Codoping aluminum ions enhanced the fluorescence intensity of Yb-doped high silica glass obviously. The emission cross-sections of Yb-doped and Yb-Al-codoped high silica glasses were 0.65 and 0.82 pm 2 , respectively. The results show that Yb-Al-codoped high silica glass has better spectroscopic properties for a laser material. The study of high silica glass doped with ytterbium is helpful for its application in Yb laser systems, especially for high-power and high-repetition lasers

  3. Fabrication of 3D electro-thermal micro actuators in silica glass by femtosecond laser wet etch and microsolidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qichao; Shan, Chao; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Bian, Hao; Hou, Xun

    2017-02-01

    This paper demonstrates a novel electro-thermal micro actuator's design, fabrication and device tests which combine microfluidic technology and microsolidics process. A three-dimensional solenoid microchannel with high aspect ratio is fabricated inside the silica glass by an improved femtosecond laser wet etch (FLWE) technology, and the diameter of the spiral coil is only 200 μm. Molten alloy (Bi/In/Sn/Pb) with high melting point is injected into the three-dimensional solenoid microchannel inside the silica glass , then it solidifys and forms an electro-thermal micro actuator. The device is capable of achieving precise temperature control and quick response, and can also be easily integrated into MEMS, sensors and `lab on a chip' (LOC) platform inside the fused silica substrate.

  4. Characteristics of waste automotive glasses as silica resource in ferrosilicon synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzana, Rifat; Rajarao, Ravindra; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2016-02-01

    This fundamental research on end-of-life automotive glasses, which are difficult to recycle, is aimed at understanding the chemical and physical characteristics of waste glasses as a resource of silica to produce ferrosilicon. Laboratory experiments at 1550°C were carried out using different automotive glasses and the results compared with those obtained with pure silica. In situ images of slag-metal separation showed similar behaviour for waste glasses and silica-bearing pellets. Though X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed different slag compositions for glass and silica-bearing pellets, formation of ferrosilicon was confirmed. Synthesized ferrosilicon alloy from waste glasses and silica were compared by Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Silicon concentration in the synthesized alloys showed almost 92% silicon recovery from the silica-bearing pellet and 74-92% silicon recoveries from various waste glass pellets. The polyvinyl butyral (PVB) plastic layer in the windshield glass decomposed at low temperature and did not show any detrimental effect on ferrosilicon synthesis. This innovative approach of using waste automotive glasses as a silica source for ferrosilicon production has the potential to create sustainable pathways, which will reduce specialty glass waste in landfill. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Deep glass etched microring resonators based on silica-on-silicon technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Rottwitt, Karsten; Philipp, Hugh Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Microring resonators fabricated on silica-on-silicon technology using deep glass etching are demonstrated. The fabrication procedures are introduced and the transmission spectrum of a resonator is presented.......Microring resonators fabricated on silica-on-silicon technology using deep glass etching are demonstrated. The fabrication procedures are introduced and the transmission spectrum of a resonator is presented....

  6. Effects of roughness on interfacial performances of silica glass and non-polar polyarylacetylene resin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Z.X.; Huang, Y.D.; Liu, L.; Long, J.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of roughness on interfacial performances of silica glass/polyarylacetylene resin composites was investigated. In order to obtain different roughness, silica glass surface was abraded by different grits of abrasives and its topography was observed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. At the same time, the failure mechanisms of composites were analyzed by fracture morphologies and the interfacial adhesion was evaluated by shear strength test. The results indicated that shear strength of silica glass/polyarylacetylene resin composites firstly increased and then decreased with the surface roughness of silica glass increased. The best surface roughness range of silica glass was 40-60 nm. The main mechanism for the improvement of the interfacial adhesion was physical interlocking at the interface

  7. The anomalous yield behavior of fused silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, W.; Heyden, S.; Conti, S.; Ortiz, M.

    2018-04-01

    We develop a critical-state model of fused silica plasticity on the basis of data mined from molecular dynamics (MD) calculations. The MD data is suggestive of an irreversible densification transition in volumetric compression resulting in permanent, or plastic, densification upon unloading. The MD data also reveals an evolution towards a critical state of constant volume under pressure-shear deformation. The trend towards constant volume is from above, when the glass is overconsolidated, or from below, when it is underconsolidated. We show that these characteristic behaviors are well-captured by a critical state model of plasticity, where the densification law for glass takes the place of the classical consolidation law of granular media and the locus of constant-volume states defines the critical-state line. A salient feature of the critical-state line of fused silica, as identified from the MD data, that renders its yield behavior anomalous is that it is strongly non-convex, owing to the existence of two well-differentiated phases at low and high pressures. We argue that this strong non-convexity of yield explains the patterning that is observed in molecular dynamics calculations of amorphous solids deforming in shear. We employ an explicit and exact rank-2 envelope construction to upscale the microscopic critical-state model to the macroscale. Remarkably, owing to the equilibrium constraint the resulting effective macroscopic behavior is still characterized by a non-convex critical-state line. Despite this lack of convexity, the effective macroscopic model is stable against microstructure formation and defines well-posed boundary-value problems.

  8. High-performance geometric phase elements in silica glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokas Drevinskas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High-precision three-dimensional ultrafast laser direct nanostructuring of silica glass resulting in multi-layered space-variant dielectric metasurfaces embedded in volume is demonstrated. Continuous phase profiles of nearly any optical component are achieved solely by the means of geometric phase. Complex designs of half-wave retarders with 90% transmission at 532 nm and >95% transmission at >1 μm, including polarization gratings with efficiency nearing 90% and computer generated holograms with a phase gradient of ∼0.8π rad/μm, were fabricated. A vortex half-wave retarder generating a single beam optical vortex with a tunable orbital angular momentum of up to ±100ℏ is shown. The high damage threshold of silica elements enables the simultaneous optical manipulation of a large number of micro-objects using high-power laser beams. Thus, the continuous control of torque without altering the intensity distribution was implemented in optical trapping demonstration with a total of 5 W average power, which is otherwise impossible with alternate beam shaping devices. In principle, the direct-write technique can be extended to any transparent material that supports laser assisted nanostructuring and can be effectively exploited for the integration of printed optics into multi-functional optoelectronic systems.

  9. Waste vitrification: prediction of acceptable compositions in a lime-soda-silica glass-forming system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    A model is presented based upon calculated bridging oxygens which allows the prediction of the region of acceptable glass compositions for a lime-soda-silica glass-forming system containing mixed waste. The model can be used to guide glass formulation studies (e.g., treatability studies) or assess the applicability of vitrification to candidate waste streams

  10. Patterned Electroplating of Micrometer Scale Magnetic Structures on Glass Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.H.B.; Kanger, Johannes S.; Krenn, Bea E.; van Driel, Roel

    2004-01-01

    This paper has developed a new method of micro patterned electroplating that enables the fabrication of micrometer scale magnetic structures on glass substrates. In contrast to other methods, the process as developed here leaves the surrounding substrate area untouched: that is there is no seed

  11. Patterned electroplating of micrometer scale magnetic structures on glass substrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.H.B.; Kanger, S.J.; Krenn, G.E.; van Driel, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper has developed a new method of micro patterned electroplating that enables the fabrication of micrometer scale magnetic structures on glass substrates. In contrast to other methods, the process as developed here leaves the surrounding substrate area untouched: that is there is no seed

  12. Investigations on the homogeneity of silica glass and on the order of X-amorphous silica by luminescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, G.

    1982-08-01

    Silica glasses melted from crystalline SiO 2 were exposed to ionizing radiation. At room temperature the spatial intensity distribution of the emitted luminescent radiation has been recorded by means of photographic or autoradiographic materials. Thereby schlieren and inhomogeneities are made visible and information is obtained on the melting process of the crystalline SiO 2 . Synthetic fused silica made from SiCl 4 shows no luminescent radiation. Depending on the penetration depth of the ionizing radiation the bulk or the surface of the sample can be studied. The decay curves of the integral luminescence intensity yield data on inhomogeneities in the silica glass leading to conclusions on order state and structure. The luminescence intensity and its half-life are a measure for the inhomogeneity of the silica glass and the existence of so-called 'preordered states'. This connection between luminescence intensity and the order state is found also with other X-amorphous SiO 2 modifications: silica gel, precipitated silicic acids, porous SiO 2 glasses, aerosil, thin SiO 2 layers, mechanically activated quartz: whereas no luminescence phenomena occur in disordered nearly ideally amorphous SiO 2 species, the luminescence increases with increasing order degree of the SiO 2 network and attains a high intensity in the case of the crystalline SiO 2 modifications quartz and cristobalite

  13. Viability for controlling long-term leaching of radionuclides from HLW glass by amorphous silica additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Y.; Uehara, S.

    2004-01-01

    Dissolution and deterioration experiments in coexistence system of amorphous silica and vitrified wastes have been executed in order to evaluating the effects of amorphous silica addition to high level radioactive vitrified waste (HLW glass) on suppression of nuclide leaching. Geo-chemical reaction mechanism among the vitrified waste, the amorphous silica and water was also evaluated. Dissolution of the silica network was suppressed by addition of the amorphous silica. However, the leaching of soluble nuclides like B proceeded depending on the hydration deterioration reaction. (A. Hishinuma)

  14. Ce+3-and Tb+3-luminescence in glasses. Ce+3-activated bulk silica and silica thin films. An α-particle detector based on a Ce+3-activated silica thin film. A Ce+3-Tb+3-energy transfer in a high melting point phosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindl, R.; Loriers, J.; Sella, J.C.; Robert, A.

    1984-07-01

    While many Ce +3 -activated glasses of different type emit strongly under UV (253,7 nm) and β-ray excitation, only the commercial silicate glass NE 905 shows an useful emission when exposed to α-particles. Only phosphate glasses have give the green Tb +3 -emission, when doped by it, under UV and α and β radiation. Sputtered films of Ce +3 -activated silica have appropriate luminescence properties, adherence to the substrate and a perfect chemical resistance to hot nitric acid. An α-particle detector has been built which has permitted the quantitative detection of plutonium in the presence of other radiative ions

  15. Fabrication and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic using soda-lime-silica waste glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Babak

    2014-04-01

    Soda-lime-silica waste glass was used to synthesize a bioactive glass-ceramic through solid-state reactions. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural and thermal properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). Bioactivity assessment by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was revealed that the samples with smaller amount of crystalline phase had a higher level of bioactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. One-step femtosecond laser welding and internal machining of three glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua; Duan, Ji'an

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, it demonstrated one-step femtosecond laser welding and internal machining of three fused silica substrates in the optical- and non-optical-contact regimes by focusing 1030-nm laser pulses at the middle of the second substrate. Focusing laser pulses within the second glass in optical-contact and non-optical-contact samples induces permanent internal structural modification, leading to the three glass substrates bonding together simultaneously. The bonding mechanism is based on the internal modification of glass, and this mechanism is different from that of ordinary glass welding at the interface. Welding-spot size is affected by not only the gap distance (ablation effect) and heat transmission, but also by gravity through examining the sizes of the welding spots on the four contact welding surfaces. The maximum bonding strength of the lower interface (56.2 MPa) in the optical-contact regime is more than double that (27.6 MPa) in the non-optical-contact regime.

  17. Structure and Properties of Silica Glass Densified in Cold Compression and Hot Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerette, Michael; Ackerson, Michael R.; Thomas, Jay; Yuan, Fenglin; Bruce Watson, E.; Walker, David; Huang, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Silica glass has been shown in numerous studies to possess significant capacity for permanent densification under pressure at different temperatures to form high density amorphous (HDA) silica. However, it is unknown to what extent the processes leading to irreversible densification of silica glass in cold-compression at room temperature and in hot-compression (e.g., near glass transition temperature) are common in nature. In this work, a hot-compression technique was used to quench silica glass from high temperature (1100 °C) and high pressure (up to 8 GPa) conditions, which leads to density increase of ~25% and Young’s modulus increase of ~71% relative to that of pristine silica glass at ambient conditions. Our experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide solid evidences that the intermediate-range order of the hot-compressed HDA silica is distinct from that of the counterpart cold-compressed at room temperature. This explains the much higher thermal and mechanical stability of the former than the latter upon heating and compression as revealed in our in-situ Brillouin light scattering (BLS) experiments. Our studies demonstrate the limitation of the resulting density as a structural indicator of polyamorphism, and point out the importance of temperature during compression in order to fundamentally understand HDA silica.

  18. Radiation hardening in sol-gel derived Er3+-doped silica glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Babu, B.; León Pichel, Mónica; Ollier, Nadège; El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Bigot, Laurent; Savelii, Inna; Bouazaoui, Mohamed; Poumellec, Bertrand; Lancry, Matthieu; Ibarra, Angel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to report the effect of radiation on the Er 3+ -doped sol-gel silica glasses. A possible application of these sol-gel glasses could be their use in harsh radiation environments. The sol-gel glasses are fabricated by densification of erbium salt-soaked nanoporous silica xerogels through polymeric sol-gel technique. The radiation-induced attenuation of Er 3+ -doped sol-gel silica is found to increase with erbium content. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies reveal the presence of E′ δ point defects. This happens in the sol-gel aluminum-silica glass after an exposure to γ-rays (kGy) and in sol-gel silica glass after an exposure to electrons (MGy). The concentration levels of these point defects are much lower in γ-ray irradiated sol-gel silica glasses. When the samples are co-doped with Al, the exposure to γ-ray radiation causes a possible reduction of the erbium valence from Er 3+ to Er 2+ ions. This process occurs in association with the formation of aluminum oxygen hole centers and different intrinsic point defects

  19. High-silica glass matrix process for high-level waste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.H.; Macedo, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    In the search for an optimum glass matrix composition, we have determined that chemical durability and thermal stability are maximized, and that stress development is minimized for glass compositions containing large concentrations of glass-forming oxides, of which silica is the major component (80 mol%). These properties and characteristics were recently demonstrated to belong to very old geological glasses known as tektites (ages of 750,000 to 34 million years.) The barrier to simulating tektite compositions for the waste glasses was the high melting temperature (1600 to 1800 0 C) needed for these glasses. Such temperatures greatly complicate furnace design and maintenance and lead to an intolerable vaporization of many of the radioisotopes into the off-gas system. Research conducted at our laboratory led to the development of a porous high-silica waste glass material with approximately 80% SiO 2 by mole and 30% waste loading by weight. The process can handle a wide variety of compositions, and yields long, elliptical, monolithic samples, which consist of a loaded high-silica core completely enveloped in a high-silica glass tube, which has collapsed upon the core and sealed it from the outside. The outer glass layer is totally free of waste isotopes and provides an integral multibarrier protection system

  20. Three dimensional multilayer solenoid microcoils inside silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangwei; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Shan, Chao; Liu, Keyin; Li, Yanyang; Bian, Hao; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) solenoid microcoils could generate uniform magnetic field. Multilayer solenoid microcoils are highly pursued for strong magnetic field and high inductance in advanced magnetic microsystems. However, the fabrication of the 3D multilayer solenoid microcoils is still a challenging task. In this paper, 3D multilayer solenoid microcoils with uniform diameters and high aspect ratio were fabricated in silica glass. An alloy (Bi/In/Sn/Pb) with high melting point was chosen as the conductive metal to overcome the limitation of working temperature and improve the electrical property. The inductance of the three layers microcoils was measured, and the value is 77.71 nH at 100 kHz and 17.39 nH at 120 MHz. The quality factor was calculated, and it has a value of 5.02 at 120 MHz. This approach shows an improvement method to achieve complex 3D metal microstructures and electronic components, which could be widely integrated in advanced magnetic microsystems.

  1. Development of high-average-power-laser medium based on silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Yasushi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a high-average-power laser material based on silica glass. A new method using Zeolite X is effective for homogeneously dispersing rare earth ions in silica glass to get a high quantum yield. High quality medium, which is bubbleless and quite low refractive index distortion, must be required for realization of laser action, and therefore, we have carefully to treat the gelation and sintering processes, such as, selection of colloidal silica, pH value of for hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate, and sintering history. The quality of the sintered sample and the applications are discussed. (author)

  2. Studies of natural and 60Co gamma radio-induced conduction in metaphosphate glasses and silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengual Gil, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    A study of natural and 60 Co gamma radio-induced conduction in metaphosphate glasses and silica is presented. The experimental study of natural conduction current in metaphosphate glasses in function of temperature enables to observe two different values of the activation energies in the respective temperature ranges T>223K and T [fr

  3. Interphases, gelation, vitrification, porous glasses and the generalized Cauchy relation: epoxy/silica nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, M; Mueller, U; Jimenez Rioboo, R J; Baller, J; Sanctuary, R; Krueger, J K [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, University of Luxembourg, 162A avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Possart, W [Fachbereich Werkstoffwissenschaften, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)], E-mail: martine.philipp@uni.lu

    2009-02-15

    The generalized Cauchy relation (gCR) of epoxy/silica nano-composites does not show either the chemically induced sol-gel transition or the chemically induced glass transition in the course of polymerization. Astonishingly, by varying the silica nanoparticles' concentration between 0 and 25 vol% in the composites, the Cauchy parameter A of the gCR remains universal and can be determined from the pure epoxy's elastic moduli. Air-filled porous silica glasses are considered as models for percolated silica particles. A longitudinal modulus versus density representation evidences the aforementioned transition phenomena during polymerization of the epoxy/silica nanocomposites. The existence of optically and mechanically relevant interphases is discussed.

  4. Interphases, gelation, vitrification, porous glasses and the generalized Cauchy relation: epoxy/silica nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp, M; Mueller, U; Jimenez Rioboo, R J; Baller, J; Sanctuary, R; Krueger, J K; Possart, W

    2009-01-01

    The generalized Cauchy relation (gCR) of epoxy/silica nano-composites does not show either the chemically induced sol-gel transition or the chemically induced glass transition in the course of polymerization. Astonishingly, by varying the silica nanoparticles' concentration between 0 and 25 vol% in the composites, the Cauchy parameter A of the gCR remains universal and can be determined from the pure epoxy's elastic moduli. Air-filled porous silica glasses are considered as models for percolated silica particles. A longitudinal modulus versus density representation evidences the aforementioned transition phenomena during polymerization of the epoxy/silica nanocomposites. The existence of optically and mechanically relevant interphases is discussed.

  5. Bidisperse silica nanoparticles close-packed monolayer on silicon substrate by three step spin method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Sakshum; Marathey, Priyanka; Utsav, Chaliawala, Harsh; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit

    2018-05-01

    We present the studies on the structural properties of monolayer Bidisperse silica (SiO2) nanoparticles (BDS) on Silicon (Si-100) substrate using spin coating technique. The Bidisperse silica nanoparticle was synthesised by the modified sol-gel process. Nanoparticles on the substrate are generally assembled in non-close/close-packed monolayer (CPM) form. The CPM form is obtained by depositing the colloidal suspension onto the silicon substrate using complex techniques. Here we report an effective method for forming a monolayer of bidisperse silica nanoparticle by three step spin coating technique. The samples were prepared by mixing the monodisperse solutions of different particles size 40 and 100 nm diameters. The bidisperse silica nanoparticles were self-assembled on the silicon substrate forming a close-packed monolayer film. The scanning electron microscope images of bidisperse films provided in-depth film structure of the film. The maximum surface coverage obtained was around 70-80%.

  6. EPR dosimetry of glass substrate of mobile phone LCDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trompier, F.; Della Monaca, S.; Fattibene, P.; Clairand, I.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that mineral glass from watches, windows and displays of personal electronic devices could be a suitable restrospective dosimeter in case of radiation accident. In this paper glass substrates of the window display of 100 mobile phones of different trademarks were analized by X-band cw-EPR before and after irradiation at 100 Gy. The objective of this study was to highlight some issues of EPR measurements of glass related to inter-sample variability of: i) signal line shape in irradiated and unirradiated glass; ii) signal intensity loss and line shape change with post-irradiation time; iii) signal changes induced by sample preparation and iv) signal changes induced by thermal annealing. Scope of the paper is to provide a phenomenological picture of the observed effects in order to give a warning about possible problems and to provide suggestions for future work. Explanation of the mechanisms and the causes leading to the observed effects was beyond the scope of this work. These preliminary results confirm that glass substrate of mobile phone displays should be considered as a fortuitous dosimeter in radiation accidents. However, albeit very promising, mineral glass presents a number of issues that should be thoroughly investigated and addressed in future work.

  7. Comparison of optical properties of Eu3+ ions in the silica gel glasses obtained by different preparation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendziewicz, J.; Sokolnicki, J.; Keller, B.; Borzechowska, M.; Strek, W.

    1996-01-01

    Silica-gel glasses doped with Eu 3+ ions were obtained by different preparation techniques. The absorption, emission and excitation spectra of the obtained glasses were measured in the range of 77-300 K. The energy levels diagrams of Eu 3+ ions were derived. An intensity analysis of f-f transitions was performed. In particular, polymeric structure behaviour of europium compounds entrapped in silica gel glasses was temperature controlled during the preparation of glasses. Their optical properties were investigated. (author)

  8. Gas microstrip detectors on polymer, silicon and glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barasch, E.F.; Demroff, H.P.; Drew, M.M.; Elliott, T.S.; Gaedke, R.M.; Goss, L.T.; Kasprowicz, T.B.; Lee, B.; Mazumdar, T.K.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Smith, D.D.; Trost, H.J.; Vanstraelen, G.; Wahl, J.

    1993-01-01

    We present results on the performance of Gas Microstrip Detectors on various substrates. These include a 300 μm anode-anode pitch pattern on Tempax borosilicate glass and ABS/copolyether, a 200 μm pattern on Upilex ''S'' polyimide, Texin 4215, Tedlar, ion-implanted Kapton, orientation-dependent etched flat-topped silicon (''knife-edge chamber''), and iron-vanadium glass, and a 100 μm pitch pattern on Upilex ''S'' and ion-implanted Kapton. (orig.)

  9. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of amorphous silica gel adsorbed on gold substrates for optical fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degioanni, S.; Jurdyc, A. M.; Cheap, A.; Champagnon, B.; Bessueille, F.; Coulm, J.; Bois, L.; Vouagner, D.

    2015-10-01

    Two kinds of gold substrates are used to produce surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of amorphous silica obtained via the sol-gel route using tetraethoxysilane Si(OC2H5)4 (TEOS) solution. The first substrate consists of a gold nanometric film elaborated on a glass slide by sputter deposition, controlling the desired gold thickness and sputtering current intensity. The second substrate consists of an array of micrometer-sized gold inverted pyramidal pits able to confine surface plasmon (SP) enhancing electric field, which results in a distribution of electromagnetic energy inside the cavities. These substrates are optically characterized to observe SPR with, respectively, extinction and reflectance spectrometries. Once coated with thin layers of amorphous silica (SiO2) gel, these samples show Raman amplification of amorphous SiO2 bands. This enhancement can occur in SERS sensors using amorphous SiO2 gel as shells, spacers, protective coatings, or waveguides, and represents particularly a potential interest in the field of Raman distributed sensors, which use the amorphous SiO2 core of optical fibers as a transducer to make temperature measurements.

  10. Fluorescence lifetime studies of MeV erbium implanted silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidgard, A.; Polman, A.; Jacobsen, D.C.; Blonder, G.E.; Kistler, R.; Poate, J.M.; Becker, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    MeV erbium ion implantation into various SiO 2 glasses has been studied with the aim of incorporating the rare-earth dopant as an optically active ion in the silica network. The lifetime of the excited state ranges from 1.6 to 12.8 ms, depending on base material and implantation fluence. These results have positive implications for silica-based integrated optical technology. (Author)

  11. Fluorescence lifetime studies of MeV erbium implanted silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidgard, A.; Polman, A.; Jacobsen, D.C.; Blonder, G.E.; Kistler, R.; Poate, J.M.; Becker, P.C. (AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (USA))

    1991-05-23

    MeV erbium ion implantation into various SiO{sub 2} glasses has been studied with the aim of incorporating the rare-earth dopant as an optically active ion in the silica network. The lifetime of the excited state ranges from 1.6 to 12.8 ms, depending on base material and implantation fluence. These results have positive implications for silica-based integrated optical technology. (Author).

  12. Fabrication of silica glass containing yellow oxynitride phosphor by the sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segawa, Hiroyo; Yoshimizu, Hisato; Hirosaki, Naoto; Inoue, Satoru, E-mail: SEGAWA.Hiroyo@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    We have prepared silica glass by the sol-gel method and studied its ability to disperse the Ca-{alpha}-SiAlON:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor for application in white light emitting diodes (LEDs). The emission color generated by irradiating doped glass with a blue LED at 450 nm depended on the concentration of SiAlON and the glass thickness, resulting in nearly white light. The luminescence efficiency of 1-mm-thick glass depended on the SiAlON concentration, and was highest at 4 wt% SiAlON.

  13. Morphology and transmittance of porous alumina on glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Peitao, E-mail: guopeitao@hotmail.com [Wuhan University of Technology. Wuhan (China); Xia Zhilin [Wuhan University of Technology. Wuhan (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Xiangtan University, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan (China); Xue Yiyu [Wuhan University of Technology. Wuhan (China); Huang Caihua [China Three Gorges University, Yichang (China); Zhao Lixin [Wuhan University of Technology. Wuhan (China)

    2011-02-01

    The porous optical film has higher threshold of laser-induced damage than densified films, for the study of mechanism of laser-induced damage of porous optical film with ordered pore structure. Porous anodic alumina (PAA) film with high transmittance on glass substrate has been prepared. Aluminum film was deposited on glass substrate by means of resistance and electron beam heat (EBH) evaporation. Porous alumina was prepared in oxalic acid solution under different anodizing conditions. At normal incidence, the optical transmittance spectrum over 300-1000 nm spectra region was obtained by spectrophotometer. SEM was introduced to analysis the morphology of the porous alumina film. The pore aperture increased with the increase of anodizing voltage, which resulted in a rapid decrease of the pore concentration and the optical thickness of porous alumina film. Damage morphology of porous alumina film is found to be typically defects initiated, and the defect is the pore presented on the film.

  14. Porous Silica Sol-Gel Glasses Containing Reactive V2O5 Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegman, Albert E.

    1995-01-01

    Porous silica sol-gel glasses into which reactive vanadium oxide functional groups incorporated exhibit number of unique characteristics. Because they bind molecules of some species both reversibly and selectively, useful as chemical sensors or indicators or as scrubbers to remove toxic or hazardous contaminants. Materials also oxidize methane gas photochemically: suggests they're useful as catalysts for conversion of methane to alcohol and for oxidation of hydrocarbons in general. By incorporating various amounts of other metals into silica sol-gel glasses, possible to synthesize new materials with broad range of new characteristics.

  15. Formation of plasma induced surface damage in silica glass etching for optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, D.S.; Jung, S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Ge, B, P-doped silica glass films are widely used as optical waveguides because of their low losses and inherent compatibility with silica optical fibers. These films were etched by ICP (inductively coupled plasma) with chrome etch masks, which were patterned by reactive ion etching (RIE) using chlorine-based gases. In some cases, the etched surfaces of silica glass were very rough (root-mean square roughness greater than 100 nm) and we call this phenomenon plasma induced surface damage (PISD). Rough surface cannot be used as a platform for hybrid integration because of difficulty in alignment and bonding of active devices. PISD reduces the etch rate of glass and it is very difficult to remove residues on a rough surface. The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of PISD formation. To achieve this goal, PISD formation during different etching conditions of chrome etch mask and silica glass was investigated. In most cases, PISD sources are formed on a glass surface after chrome etching, and metal compounds are identified in theses sources. Water rinse after chrome etching reduces the PISD, due to the water solubility of metal chlorides. PISD is decreased or even disappeared at high power and/or low pressure in glass etching, even if PISD sources were present on the glass surface before etching. In conclusion, PISD sources come from the chrome etching process, and polymer deposition on these sources during the silica etching cause the PISD sources to grow. In the area close to the PISD source there is a higher ion flux, which causes an increase in the etch rate, and results in the formation of a pit

  16. Improving yield of PZT piezoelectric devices on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2012-10-01

    The proposed SMART-X telescope includes adaptive optics systems that use piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films deposited on flexible glass substrates. Several processing constraints are imposed by current designs: the crystallization temperature must be kept below 550 °C, the total stress in the film must be minimized, and the yield on 1 cm2 actuator elements should be work, RF magnetron sputtering was used to deposit films since chemical solution deposition (CSD) led to warping of large area flexible glass substrates. A PZT 52/48 film that wasdeposited at 4 mTorr and annealed at 550 °C for 24 hours showed no detectable levels of either PbO or pyrochlore second phases. Large area electrodes (1cm x 1 cm) were deposited on 4" glass substrates. Initially, the yield of the devices was low, however, two methods were employed to increase the yield to near 100 %. The first method included a more rigorous cleaning to improve the continuity of the Pt bottom electrode. The second method was to apply 3 V DC across the capacitor structure to burn out regions of defective PZT. The result of this latter method essentially removed conducting filaments in the PZT but left the bulk of the material undamaged. By combining these two methods, the yield on the large area electrodes improved from < 10% to nearly 100%.

  17. On-line plutonium measurement by alpha counting using a silica glass sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edeline, J.C.; Furgolle, B.

    1980-01-01

    Some cerium activated high purity silica glasses are good sensors for ionising particles counting. These sensors may be used for measuring plutonium concentrations in corrosive solutions which are typical in reprocessing operations. The thickness of the sensor has been reduced to minimize beta sensitivity. The thin sensor is hold by molecular adhesion to a thick glass mount which is soldered to the stainless steel sample cell [fr

  18. Hydration of high-silica glasses in the deep sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federman, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Natural analogs of nuclear waste glasses are important because they provide information of the one variable that is not controllable in the laboratory - long intervals of time in the actual environment of storage. Some natural glasses have persisted for millions of years in deep-sea sediments in the form of disseminated particles and distinct tephra layers, while other apparently similar specimens have been completely altered to clay assemblages relatively quickly. Geologists have reached no firm conclusions as to why these differences exist, and more research is certainly warranted. These glasses vary in age, composition, and in the in-situ conditions they have experienced. They may provide important information for two different aspects of nuclear waste glass research: First, the chemical composition and especially the water content of these glasses as a function of time may give an understanding of the mechanisms and rates of diffusion in glasses in the natural environment. Second, the apparent differing durability of these glasses in different environmental conditions may suggest the optimal characteristics of a nuclear waste glass depository

  19. A Simple Thermoplastic Substrate Containing Hierarchical Silica Lamellae for High-Molecular-Weight DNA Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Yi; Burke, Jeffrey M; Gleitsman, Kristin; Friedrich, Sarah M; Liu, Kelvin J; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2016-12-01

    An inexpensive, magnetic thermoplastic nanomaterial is developed utilizing a hierarchical layering of micro- and nanoscale silica lamellae to create a high-surface-area and low-shear substrate capable of capturing vast amounts of ultrahigh-molecular-weight DNA. Extraction is performed via a simple 45 min process and is capable of achieving binding capacities up to 1 000 000 times greater than silica microparticles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. ToF-SIMS analysis for leaching studies of potash–lime–silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bardi, Monica; Hutter, Herbert; Schreiner, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    In this work the durability to acidic solutions of two kinds of potash–lime–silica glasses with compositions typical for mediaeval stained glass was investigated. The low amount of network formers such as silica and alumina, and the high amount of network modifiers such as potassium and calcium, give to the glass a lower chemical stability compared to modern glass. Studies on its durability are of interest to understand degradation mechanisms. In particular the leaching procedure was focused on determining any correlation between the type of acid and the corrosion of glass independently from the pH value, which was kept constant during the different acidic treatments. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a valuable tool to study compositional variations of glass, giving useful information concerning provenance, effects of the conservation environment, of weathering or leaching processes and about the compositional differences between the corroded layer and the bulk as a function of depth. In spite of that the insulating properties of glass, the surface roughness and the parameters used for the measurements can lead to possible misinterpretations of the results; in this paper these difficulties are discussed, in order to better interpret the analyses performed on leached glass. ToF-SIMS data are influenced by strong matrix effects making quantification difficult; for this reason the quantitative composition and surface morphology of the leached layer were additionally investigated with scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDX)

  1. Cultivation of human dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes on keratin-coated silica bead substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bee Yi; Nguyen, Luong T H; Kim, Hyo-Sop; Kim, Jae-Ho; Ng, Kee Woei

    2017-10-01

    Human hair keratin is promising as a bioactive material platform for various biomedical applications. To explore its versatility further, human hair keratin was coated onto monolayers of silica beads to produce film-like substrates. This combination was hypothesized to provide a synergistic effect in improving the biochemical properties of the resultant composite. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed uniform coatings of keratin on the silica beads with a slight increase in the resulting surface roughness. Keratin-coated silica beads had higher surface energy and relatively lower negative charge than those of bare silica beads. To investigate cell response, human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) were cultured on the substrates over 4 days. Results showed that keratin coatings significantly enhanced the metabolic activity of HDFs and encouraged cell spreading but did not exert any significant effects on HEKs. HDF expression of collagen I was significantly more intense on the keratin-coated compared to the bare silica substrates. Furthermore, HDF secretion of various cytokines suggested that keratin coatings triggered active cell responses related to wound healing. Collectively, our study demonstrated that human hair keratin-coated silica bead monolayers have the potential to modulate HDF behavior in culture and may be exploited further. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2789-2798, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The role of residual cracks on alkali silica reactivity of recycled glass aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraghechi, Hamed; Shafaatian, Seyed-Mohammad-Hadi; Fischer, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Despite its environmental and economical advantages, crushed recycled glass has limited application as concrete aggregates due to its deleterious alkali-silica reaction. To offer feasible mitigation strategies, the mechanism of ASR should be well understood. Recent research showed that unlike some...

  3. Refractive index and density in F- and Cl-doped silica glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Shimodaira, Noriaki; Sekiya, Edson H.; Saito, Kazuya; Ikushima, Akira J.

    2005-01-01

    The refractive index and density of fluorine- and chlorine-doped silica glasses were measured as functions of fictive temperature. The halogen concentrations were observed to have a refractive index or density that is independent of the fictive temperature were found. This implies that these properties are not affected by any heat-treatment conditions

  4. Glass formation and properties in the system calcia-gallia-silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Paul W.; Ray, Chandra S.; Day, Delbert E.

    1990-01-01

    The glass-forming region in the calcia-gallia-silica system is studied and found to be fairly large, with a density of 3-4 g/cu cm, a refractive index of 1.6-1.73, an Abbe number of 35-58, a thermal expansion coefficient of 6.5-11.5 x 10 to the -7th/deg C, and a Vickers microhardness of 5.2-7.3 GPa. Crystalline phases are identified at the boundary of the glass-forming region. The structural groups in the glass-forming compositions are analyzed by infrared absorption spectroscopy.

  5. Porous glass with high silica content for nuclear waste storage : preparation, characterization and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aegerter, M.A.; Santos, D.I. dos; Ventura, P.C.S.

    1984-01-01

    Aqueous solutions simulating radioactive nuclear wastes (like Savanah River Laboratory) were incorporated in porous glass matrix with high silica content prepared by decomposition of borosilicate glass like Na 2 O - B 2 O 3 - SiO 2 . After sintering, the samples were submitted, during 28 days, to standard leaching tests MCC1, MCC5 (Soxhlet) and stagnating. The total weight loss, ph, as well as the integral and differential leaching rates and the accumulated concentrations in the leach of Si, Na, B, Ca, Mn, Al, Fe and Ni. The results are compared with the results from reference borosilicate glass, made by fusion, ceramic, synroc, concrets, etc... (E.G.) [pt

  6. Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of zirconia-protected gold nanoparticles embedded in sol-gel derived silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rouge, A.; El Hamzaoui, H.; Capoen, B.; Bernard, R.; Cristini-Robbe, O.; Martinelli, G.; Cassagne, C.; Boudebs, G.; Bouazaoui, M.; Bigot, L.

    2015-05-01

    A new approach to dope a silica glass with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) is presented. It consisted in embedding zirconia-coated GNPs in a silica sol to form a doped silica gel. Then, the sol-doped nanoporous silica xerogel is densified leading to the formation of a glass monolith. The spectral position and shape of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) reported around 520 nm remain compatible with small spherical GNPs in a silica matrix. The saturable absorption behavior of this gold/zirconia-doped silica glass has been evidenced by Z-scan technique. A second-order nonlinear absorption coefficient β of about -13.7 cm GW-1 has been obtained at a wavelength near the SPR of the GNPs.

  7. Structure and spectral properties of the silver-containing high-silica glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girsova, M A; Golovina, G F; Anfimova, I N; Antropova, T V; Arsent'ev, M Yu

    2016-01-01

    Silver-containing high-silica glasses were synthesized by an impregnation of the silica porous glasses (PGs) first with AgNO 3 aqueous solution (with or without the presence of the sensitizers, such as Cu(NO 3 ) 2 or Ce(NO 3 ) 3 ), next in the mixed halide salt (NH 4 Cl, KBr, KI) solution. Then some part of the samples was sintered at the temperatures from 850 to 900°C up to closing of the pores. The structure of glasses was studied by UV-VIS-NIR and IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. According to XRD data the silver-containing high-silica glasses contain the AgBr, AgI, Ag 3 PO 4 , (CuBr) 0.75 (CuI) 0.25 phases. IR spectra confirmed B-O-B, Si- O-Si, P-O-P, O-P-O, O-B-O bonds, (PO 4 ) 3- and P-O - groups in glasses. (paper)

  8. Development of a tuned interfacial force field parameter set for the simulation of protein adsorption to silica glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James A; Abramyan, Tigran; Yancey, Jeremy A; Thyparambil, Aby A; Wei, Yang; Stuart, Steven J; Latour, Robert A

    2012-12-01

    Adsorption free energies for eight host-guest peptides (TGTG-X-GTGT, with X = N, D, G, K, F, T, W, and V) on two different silica surfaces [quartz (100) and silica glass] were calculated using umbrella sampling and replica exchange molecular dynamics and compared with experimental values determined by atomic force microscopy. Using the CHARMM force field, adsorption free energies were found to be overestimated (i.e., too strongly adsorbing) by about 5-9 kcal/mol compared to the experimental data for both types of silica surfaces. Peptide adsorption behavior for the silica glass surface was then adjusted using a modified version of the CHARMM program, which we call dual force-field CHARMM, which allows separate sets of nonbonded parameters (i.e., partial charge and Lennard-Jones parameters) to be used to represent intra-phase and inter-phase interactions within a given molecular system. Using this program, interfacial force field (IFF) parameters for the peptide-silica glass systems were corrected to obtain adsorption free energies within about 0.5 kcal/mol of their respective experimental values, while IFF tuning for the quartz (100) surface remains for future work. The tuned IFF parameter set for silica glass will subsequently be used for simulations of protein adsorption behavior on silica glass with greater confidence in the balance between relative adsorption affinities of amino acid residues and the aqueous solution for the silica glass surface.

  9. Broadband anti-reflective and water-repellent coatings on glass substrates for self-cleaning photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; He, Junhui; Liu, Weiyi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: High performance broadband antireflective and water-repellent coatings were fabricated on glass substrates, which can improve the short-circuit current of solar cells as much as 6.6% in comparison with glass substrates without the coatings. - Highlights: • Broadband anti-reflective and water-repellent coatings were fabricated. • Transmittance increased to 99.0%, significantly higher than that of commercial solar glasses. • The performance of standard solar cells with the AR coating was enhanced as much as 6.6%. - Abstract: High performance broadband antireflective (AR) and water-repellent coatings were fabricated on glass substrates by assembly of silica nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique, followed by calcination and hydrophobic modification. A porous poly(diallyladimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)/20 nm SiO 2 nanoparticles (S-20) multilayer coating with AR property was prepared first. The maximum transmittance is as high as 99.0%, while that of the glass substrate is only 91.3%. After calcination and hydrophobic modification, the coating became water-repellent while maintaining the good AR property. Such water-repellent AR coatings can improve the short-circuit current of solar cells as much as 6.6% in comparison with glass substrates without the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology and thickness of coatings. Transmission spectra and reflection spectra were characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometer. The surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system

  10. Silver metaphosphate glass wires inside silica fibers--a new approach for hybrid optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Chhavi; Rodrigues, Bruno P; Wieduwilt, Torsten; Kobelke, Jens; Wondraczek, Lothar; Schmidt, Markus A

    2016-02-22

    Phosphate glasses represent promising candidates for next-generation photonic devices due to their unique characteristics, such as vastly tunable optical properties, and high rare earth solubility. Here we show that silver metaphosphate wires with bulk optical properties and diameters as small as 2 µm can be integrated into silica fibers using pressure-assisted melt filling. By analyzing two types of hybrid metaphosphate-silica fibers, we show that the filled metaphosphate glass has only negligible higher attenuation and a refractive index that is identical to the bulk material. The presented results pave the way towards new fiber-type optical devices relying on metaphosphate glasses, which are promising materials for applications in nonlinear optics, sensing and spectral filtering.

  11. Lead recovery and high silica glass powder synthesis from waste CRT funnel glasses through carbon thermal reduction enhanced glass phase separation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Mingfei [Henan Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Mine Environmental Protection and Ecological Remediation, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 Henan China (China); Institute of Resource and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 Henan China (China); Fu, Zegang [Institute of Resource and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 Henan China (China); Wang, Yaping, E-mail: wangyp326@163.com [School of Surveying and Land Information Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, Henan China (China); Wang, Jingyu [Institute of Resource and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 Henan China (China); Zhang, Zhiyuan [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • CRT funnel glass was remelted with B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in reducing atmosphere. • A part of PbO was reduced into Pb and detached from the glass phase. • The rest of PbO and other metal oxides were mainly concentrated in the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. • PbO enriched in the interconnected B{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase can be completely leached out by HNO{sub 3}. • High silica glass powder(SiO{sub 2} purity >95%) was obtained after the leaching process. - Abstract: In this study, a novel process for the removal of toxic lead from the CRT funnel glass and synchronous preparation of high silica glass powder was developed by a carbon-thermal reduction enhanced glass phase separation process. CRT funnel glass was remelted with B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in reducing atmosphere. In the thermal process, a part of PbO contained in the funnel glass was reduced into metallic Pb and detached from the glass phase. The rest of PbO and other metal oxides (including Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3,} BaO and CaO) were mainly concentrated in the boric oxide phase. The metallic Pb phase and boric oxide phase were completely leached out by 5 mol/L HNO{sub 3}. The lead removal rate was 99.80% and high silica glass powder (SiO{sub 2} purity >95 wt%) was obtained by setting the temperature, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} added amount and holding time at 1000 °C, 20% and 30 mins, respectively. The prepared high silicate glass powders can be used as catalyst carrier, semipermeable membranes, adsorbents or be remelted into high silicate glass as an ideal substitute for quartz glass. Thus this study proposed an eco-friendly and economical process for recycling Pb-rich electronic glass waste.

  12. Photoluminescence characteristics of sintered silica glass doped with Cu ions using mesoporous SiO{sub 2}-PVA nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Murata, Takahiro [Faculty of Education and Master' s Course in Education, Kumamoto University, 2-40-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Fujino, Shigeru, E-mail: fujino@astec.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Monolithic silica glasses doped with Cu ions were prepared by immersing a mesoporous SiO{sub 2}-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite in a copper nitrate solution followed by sintering at 1100 °C for 12 h in air. The Cu ions were reduced from divalent to monovalent during the sintering process and consequently Cu{sup +} was doped into the silica glass matrix. The sintered glass possessed blue or yellow photoluminescence (PL) under UV irradiation, depending on the total concentration of Cu ions in the sintered silica glass. At a lower concentration below 30 ppm, the isolated Cu{sup +} existed in the glass matrix resulting in the blue PL. However, above 70 ppm, the Cu{sup +}–Cu{sup +} pairs were present, exhibiting the yellow PL. It was demonstrated that the PL characteristics of the sintered silica glasses doped with monovalent copper ions were affected by the total concentration of Cu ions in the glass, which can be adjusted as a function of the immersion conditions. - Highlights: • Silica glass doped with Cu{sup +} was fabricated by sintering the nanocomposite. • The Cu ions were reduced from divalent to monovalent during the sintering process. • The sintered glass possessed blue or yellow PL under UV irradiation. • The blue and yellow PL are due to isolated Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup +}–Cu{sup +} pairs, respectively. • The PL characteristics depended on the total concentration of Cu ions in the glass.

  13. Characterization of selenium doped silica glasses synthesized by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, R.A.; Toffoli, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Selenium is a rare element in nature. It is used in the food, pharmaceutical, and glass industries. In commercial glasses, selenium is the element responsible for most of the pink or light red color, but its effect is primarily dependent on the oxidation state of the element in the glassy matrix. Besides, selenium is highly volatile, and as high as 80 wt% may be lost in the furnace during the industrial glass elaboration. The sol– gel method yields synthesized materials of high purity and homogeneity, and uses low processing temperatures. Samples of silica glass were obtained by sol-gel method, incorporating precursors of selenium, with the main objective of reducing selenium losses during its heating. The results of optical absorption, XRD and thermal analysis (TGA, DSC) of the glasses are presented and discussed. (author)

  14. Gold Incorporated Mesoporous Silica Thin Film Model Surface as a Robust SERS and Catalytically Active Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandakumari Chandrasekharan Sunil Sekhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-small gold nanoparticles incorporated in mesoporous silica thin films with accessible pore channels perpendicular to the substrate are prepared by a modified sol-gel method. The simple and easy spin coating technique is applied here to make homogeneous thin films. The surface characterization using FESEM shows crack-free films with a perpendicular pore arrangement. The applicability of these thin films as catalysts as well as a robust SERS active substrate for model catalysis study is tested. Compared to bare silica film our gold incorporated silica, GSM-23F gave an enhancement factor of 103 for RhB with a laser source 633 nm. The reduction reaction of p-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride from our thin films shows a decrease in peak intensity corresponding to –NO2 group as time proceeds, confirming the catalytic activity. Such model surfaces can potentially bridge the material gap between a real catalytic system and surface science studies.

  15. The Fracture Process of Tempered Soda-Lime-Silica Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes; Stang, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This work presents experimental observations of the characteristic fracture process of tempered glass. Square specimens with a side length of 300 mm, various thicknesses and a residual stress state characterized by photoelastic measurements were used. Fracture was initiated using a 2.5 mm diamond...

  16. The adhesion of SiNx thin layers on silica-acrylate coated polymer substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdallah, Amir; Lu, K.; Ovchinnikov, C.D.; Bulle-Lieuwma, C.W.T.; Bouten, P.C.P.; With, de G.

    2009-01-01

    Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) was used to grow 200, 300 and 400 nm thick silicon nitride layers (SiN x ) on a high temperature aromatic polyester substrate spin coated with a silica-acrylate hybrid coating (hard coat). Layers deposited without oxygen plasma treatment remained

  17. Silanization of silica and glass slides for DNA microarrays by impregnation and gas phase protocols: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaner-Goutorbe, Magali; Dugas, Vincent; Chevolot, Yann; Souteyrand, Eliane

    2011-01-01

    Surface immobilization of oligonucleotide probes (oligoprobes) is a key issue in the development of DNA-chips. The immobilization protocol should guarantee good availability of the probes, low non-specific adsorption and reproducibility. We have previously reported a silanization protocol with tert-butyl-11-(dimethylamino)silylundecanoate performed by impregnation (Impregnation Protocol, IP) of silica substrates from dilute silane solutions, leading to surfaces bearing carboxylic groups. In this paper, the Impregnation protocol is compared with a Gas phase Protocol (GP) which is more suited to industrial requirements such as reliable and robust processing, cost efficiency, etc.... The morphology of the oligoprobe films at the nanoscale (characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy) and the reproducibility of subsequent oligoprobes immobilization steps have been investigated for the two protocols on thermal silica (Si/SiO 2 ) and glass slide substrates. IP leads to smooth surfaces whereas GP induces the formation of islands features suggesting a non-continuous silane layer. The reproducibility of the overall surface layer (18.75 mm 2 ) has been evaluated through the covalent immobilization of a fluorescent oligoprobes. Average fluorescent signals of 6 (a.u.) and 4 (a.u.) were observed for IP and GP, respectively, with a standard deviation of 1 for both protocols. Thus, despite a morphological difference of the silane layer at the nanometer scale, the density of the immobilized probes remained similar.

  18. Silica nanoparticles on front glass for efficiency enhancement in superstrate-type amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sonali; Banerjee, Chandan; Kundu, Avra; Dey, Prasenjit; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan K.

    2013-10-01

    Antireflective coating on front glass of superstrate-type single junction amorphous silicon solar cells (SCs) has been applied using highly monodispersed and stable silica nanoparticles (NPs). The silica NPs having 300 nm diameter were synthesized by Stober technique where the size of the NPs was controlled by varying the alcohol medium. The synthesized silica NPs were analysed by dynamic light scattering technique and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NPs were spin coated on glass side of fluorinated tin oxide (SnO2: F) coated glass superstrate and optimization of the concentration of the colloidal solution, spin speed and number of coated layers was done to achieve minimum reflection characteristics. An estimation of the distribution of the NPs for different optimization parameters has been done using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the transparent conducting oxide coated glass with the layer having the minimum reflectance is used for fabrication of amorphous silicon SC. Electrical analysis of the fabricated cell indicates an improvement of 6.5% in short-circuit current density from a reference of 12.40 mA cm-2 while the open circuit voltage and the fill factor remains unaltered. A realistic optical model has also been proposed to gain an insight into the system.

  19. Silica nanoparticles on front glass for efficiency enhancement in superstrate-type amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sonali; Kundu, Avra; Dey, Prasenjit; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan K; Banerjee, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    Antireflective coating on front glass of superstrate-type single junction amorphous silicon solar cells (SCs) has been applied using highly monodispersed and stable silica nanoparticles (NPs). The silica NPs having 300 nm diameter were synthesized by Stober technique where the size of the NPs was controlled by varying the alcohol medium. The synthesized silica NPs were analysed by dynamic light scattering technique and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NPs were spin coated on glass side of fluorinated tin oxide (SnO 2 : F) coated glass superstrate and optimization of the concentration of the colloidal solution, spin speed and number of coated layers was done to achieve minimum reflection characteristics. An estimation of the distribution of the NPs for different optimization parameters has been done using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the transparent conducting oxide coated glass with the layer having the minimum reflectance is used for fabrication of amorphous silicon SC. Electrical analysis of the fabricated cell indicates an improvement of 6.5% in short-circuit current density from a reference of 12.40 mA cm −2 while the open circuit voltage and the fill factor remains unaltered. A realistic optical model has also been proposed to gain an insight into the system. (paper)

  20. OD bands in the IR spectra of a deuterated soda-lime-silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuker, C.; Brzezinka, K.W.; Gaber, M.; Kohl, A.; Geissler, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    IR spectra of a deuterated glass of the composition (in mol%) 16 Na{sub 2}O . 10 CaO . 74 SiO{sub 2} complete earlier spectroscopic studies on water-poor soda-lime-silica glasses. The approved IR spectroscopic method of the deuterium exchange allows a reliable assignment of the hydroxyl bands also in the case of glasses. By spectra comparison the assignment of the IR bands at 3500 and 2800 cm{sup -1} to hydroxyl groups with different hydrogen bonding is verified. The IR band at about 4500 cm{sup -1} is interpreted as both a combination of the stretching vibrations {nu}O-H and {nu}Si-OH and a combination of the stretching vibration {nu}O-H and the deformation vibration {delta}SiOH. The bands at 1763 and 1602 cm{sup -1} are attributed to combination vibrations of the glass network. (orig.)

  1. Size-Dependent Brittle-to-Ductile Transition in Silica Glass Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junhang; Wang, Jiangwei; Bitzek, Erik; Huang, Jian Yu; Zheng, He; Tong, Limin; Yang, Qing; Li, Ju; Mao, Scott X

    2016-01-13

    Silica (SiO2) glass, an essential material in human civilization, possesses excellent formability near its glass-transition temperature (Tg > 1100 °C). However, bulk SiO2 glass is very brittle at room temperature. Here we show a surprising brittle-to-ductile transition of SiO2 glass nanofibers at room temperature as its diameter reduces below 18 nm, accompanied by ultrahigh fracture strength. Large tensile plastic elongation up to 18% can be achieved at low strain rate. The unexpected ductility is due to a free surface affected zone in the nanofibers, with enhanced ionic mobility compared to the bulk that improves ductility by producing more bond-switching events per irreversible bond loss under tensile stress. Our discovery is fundamentally important for understanding the damage tolerance of small-scale amorphous structures.

  2. Molecular dynamics study of shock compression in porous silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Keith; Lane, J. Matthew D.; Vogler, Tracy J.

    2017-06-01

    The shock response of porous amorphous silica is investigated using classical molecular dynamics, over a range of porosity ranging from fully dense (2.21 g/cc) down to 0.14 g/cc. We observe an enhanced densification in the Hugoniot response at initial porosities above 50 %, and the effect increases with increasing porosity. In the lowest initial densities, after an initial compression response, the systems expand with increased pressure. These results show good agreement with experiments. Mechanisms leading to enhanced densification will be explored, which appear to differ from mechanisms observed in similar studies in silicon. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Lightweight Mullite-Silica Rich Glass Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Phase compositions, microstructures and properties of four lightweight mullite-silica rich glass aggregates with high strength were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and FactSage 6.2 software. It was found that the lightweight aggregates with higher Al2O3 content had higher mullite content, porosity and larger mullite crystallites, but lower content and viscosity of melt at elevated temperature. Most of Fe2O3 and TiO2 were incorporated in mullite and most of K2O and Na2O were in glass to reduce viscosity of melt at elevated temperature.

  4. Thermal stability and practical applications of UV induced index changes in silica glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathje, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    This thesis represents the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the danish ph.d. degree. I have been involved in both basic research of UV induced refractive index changes in silica glasses and in concrete applications. I have performed work on the thermal stability of UV-induced index...... the asymmetry showed good agreement with the obeserved data. The results were used to make a direction sensitive bend sensor of only one fiber. The sensor has further the advantage that it is insensitve to cross sensitivity from temperature, strin, and other external factors. Finally, an investigation of Nragg...... changes in silica glasses where a new continuous isochronal annealing method was introduced. The method was applied to gratings written in D2-loaded fibers and non-loaded fibers. For the non-loaded fibers the obtained results are in good agreement with what has previously been observed. For the D2-loaded...

  5. The effect of heat treatment on the magnitude and composition of residual gas in sealed silica glass ampoules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, W.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    The residual gas pressure and composition in sealed silica glass ampoules as a function of different treatment procedures has been investigated. The dependence of the residual gas on the outgassing and annealing parameters has been determined. The effects of the fused silica brand, of the ampoule fabrication, and of post-outgassing procedures have been evaluated.

  6. Spectral dependence of nonlinear optical absorption of silica glass with copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, A N; Nikitin, S I; Smirnov, M A; Stepanov, A L

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of silica glass with copper nanoparticles synthesized by ion implantation were investigated by z-scan method in nanosecond time scale. The reverse saturation absorption (RSA) at the wavelength range of 450–540 nm and saturation absorption (SA) at 550–585 nm were observed. It was supposed that the two-photon electron absorption from bound of d-states determined the RSA effect and the SA is due to saturation of plasmon excitation.

  7. Wettability of modified silica layers deposited on glass support activated by plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terpiłowski, Konrad, E-mail: terpil@umcs.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry – Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Rymuszka, Diana [Department of Physical Chemistry – Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Goncharuk, Olena V.; Sulym, Iryna Ya.; Gun’ko, Vladimir M. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • New modified silica materials synthesis. • Support surface plasma activation. • Apparent surface free energy determination. • Equilibrium contact angle calculation. - Abstract: Fumed silica modified by hexamethyldisilazane [HDMS] and polydimethylsiloxane [PDMS] was dispersed in a polystyrene/chloroform solution. To increase adhesion between deposited silica layers and a glass surface, the latter was pretreated with air plasma for 30 s. The silica/polystyrene dispersion was deposited on the glass support using a spin coater. After deposition, the plates were dried in a desiccator for 24 h. Water advancing and receding contact angles were measured using the tilted plate method. The apparent surface free energy (γ{sub S}) was evaluated using the contact angle hysteresis approach. The surface topography was determined using the optical profilometry method. Contact angles changed from 59.7° ± 4.4 (at surface coverage with trimethylsilyl groups Θ = 0.14) to 155° ± 3.1 at Θ = 1. The value of γ{sub S} decreased from 51.3 ± 2.8 mJ/m{sup 2} (for the sample at the lowest value of Θ) to 1.0 ± 0.4 mJ/m{sup 2} for the most hydrophobic sample. Thus, some systems with a high degree of modification by HDMS showed superhydrophobicity, and the sliding angle amounted to about 16° ± 2.1.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of uniform silica nanoparticles on nickel substrate by spin coating and sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc Thi Le, Hien; Jeong, Hae Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Spin coating and sol-gel methods are proposed for the preparation of silica nanoparticles on a nickel substrate using silicon tetrachloride, 2-methoxyethanol, and four different types of alkaline solutions. The effects of the type of alkaline solution, concentration of silica solution, and speed of spin coating on the properties of silica nanoparticles are investigated systematically. Uniform spherical shape of silica nanoparticles on Ni with the smallest size are obtained with sodium carbonate among the alkaline solutions after stirring at 70 °C for 6 h and spin-coating at 7000 rpm. Physical and electrochemical properties of the silica particles are investigated.

  9. Effect of silica and water content on the glass transition of poly(ethylene glycol) monomethylether-silica gel-lithium perchlorate ormolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korwin, Rebecca S.; Masui, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    The effect of silica and water content on the glass transition temperature, T g , of MPEG2000-silica-LiClO 4 ormolytes was assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The sol-gel synthesized ormolytes consisted of various amounts of poly(ethylene glycol) monomethylether (M.W. 2000 g/mol; i.e., MPEG2000) tethered to silica gel through the hydroxyl terminus via a urethane linkage. DSC features corresponding to physisorbed and hydrogen-bonded water, as well as the glass transition of the polyether, were identified. Both silica and LiClO 4 raise the T g and suppress crystallization of the polyether component. Water plasticizes the polyether and stoichiometrically solvates and sequesters Li + , thereby, lowering T g

  10. Crystal Nucleation Using Surface-Energy-Modified Glass Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Kyle A; Schaab, Kevin M; Sha, Jierui; Bond, Andrew H

    2017-08-02

    Systematic surface energy modifications to glass substrates can induce nucleation and improve crystallization outcomes for small molecule active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and proteins. A comparatively broad probe for function is presented in which various APIs, proteins, organic solvents, aqueous media, surface energy motifs, crystallization methods, form factors, and flat and convex surface energy modifications were examined. Replicate studies ( n ≥ 6) have demonstrated an average reduction in crystallization onset times of 52(4)% (alternatively 52 ± 4%) for acetylsalicylic acid from 91% isopropyl alcohol using two very different techniques: bulk cooling to 0 °C using flat surface energy modifications or microdomain cooling to 4 °C from the interior of a glass capillary having convex surface energy modifications that were immersed in the solution. For thaumatin and bovine pancreatic trypsin, a 32(2)% reduction in crystallization onset times was demonstrated in vapor diffusion experiments ( n ≥ 15). Nucleation site arrays have been engineered onto form factors frequently used in crystallization screening, including microscope slides, vials, and 96- and 384-well high-throughput screening plates. Nucleation using surface energy modifications on the vessels that contain the solutes to be crystallized adds a layer of useful variables to crystallization studies without requiring significant changes to workflows or instrumentation.

  11. Characterization of deep wet etching of fused silica glass for single cell and optical sensor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Haixin; Holl, Mark; Ray, Tathagata; Bhushan, Shivani; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2009-01-01

    The development of a high-throughput single-cell metabolic rate monitoring system relies on the use of transparent substrate material for a single cell-trapping platform. The high optical transparency, high chemical resistance, improved surface quality and compatibility with the silicon micromachining process of fused silica make it very attractive and desirable for this application. In this paper, we report the results from the development and characterization of a hydrofluoric acid (HF) based deep wet-etch process on fused silica. The pin holes and notching defects of various single-coated masking layers during the etching are characterized and the most suitable masking materials are identified for different etch depths. The dependence of the average etch rate and surface roughness on the etch depth, impurity concentration and HF composition are also examined. The resulting undercut from the deep HF etch using various masking materials is also investigated. The developed and characterized process techniques have been successfully implemented in the fabrication of micro-well arrays for single cell trapping and sensor deposition. Up to 60 µm deep micro-wells have been etched in a fused silica substrate with over 90% process yield and repeatability. To our knowledge, such etch depth has never been achieved in a fused silica substrate by using a non-diluted HF etchant and a single-coated masking layer at room temperature

  12. Effect of sintering on crystallization and structural properties of soda lime silica glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Mohd Hafiz Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sintering temperatures on crystallization and structural of the soda lime silica (SLS glass was reported. Elemental weight composition of the SLS glass powder was identified through Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF analysis while the thermal behavior of the glass was determined using Differential thermal analysis (DTA technique. Archimedes’ method and direct geometric measurement were respectively used to determine bulk density and linear shrinkage of the glass samples. Crystallisation behavior of the samples was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis and chemical bonds present in the samples were measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Results showed an increase in the density and linear shrinkage of the samples as a function of the sintering temperature. The XRD analysis revealed the formation of α-quartz (SiO2 and a minor amount of devitrite phases in the samples and these were further verified through the detection of chemical bonds by FTIR after sintering at 800ºC. The properties of the glass-ceramics can be explained on the basis of crystal chemistry which indicated that the alkali ions formed as carriers in the random network structure and can be recommended for the manufacture of glass fiber or toughened glass-ceramic insulators.

  13. Short and medium range order in two-component silica glasses by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Kataoka, H.; Nagai, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of chemical composition on the average sizes of subnanometer-scale intrinsic structural open spaces surrounded by glass random networks in two-component silica-based glasses was investigated systematically using positronium (Ps) confined in the open spaces. The average sizes of the open spaces for SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 and SiO 2 -GeO 2 glasses are only slightly dependent on the chemical compositions because the B 2 O 3 and GeO 2 are glass network formers that are incorporated into the glass network of the base SiO 2 . However, the open space sizes for all SiO 2 -R 2 O (R = Li, Na, K) glasses, where R 2 O is a glass network modifier that occupies the open spaces, decrease rapidly with an increase in the R 2 O concentration. Despite the large difference in the ionic radii of the alkali metal (R) atoms, the open space sizes decrease similarly for all the alkali metal atoms studied. This dependence of the chemical composition on the open space sizes in SiO 2 -R 2 O observed by Ps shows that the alkali metal atoms do not randomly occupy the structural open spaces, but filling of the open spaces by R 2 O proceeds selectively from the larger to the smaller open spaces as the R 2 O concentrations are increased.

  14. Silica Coated Paper Substrate for Paper-Spray Analysis of Therapeutic Drugs in Dried Blood Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiping; Xu, Wei; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Cooks, R. Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Paper spray is a newly developed ambient ionization method that has been applied for direct qualitative and quantitative analysis of biological samples. The properties of the paper substrate and spray solution have a significant impact on the release of chemical compounds from complex sample matrices, the diffusion of the analytes through the substrate, and the formation of ions for mass spectrometry analysis. In this study, a commercially available silica-coated paper was explored in an attempt to improve the analysis of therapeutic drugs in dried blood spots (DBS). The dichloromethane/isopropanol solvent has been identified as an optimal spray solvent for the analysis. The comparison was made with paper spray using chromatography paper as substrate with methanol/water as solvent for the analysis of verapamil, citalopram, amitriptyline, lidocaine and sunitinib in dried blood spots. It has been demonstrated the efficiency of recovery of the analytes was notably improved with the silica coated paper and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) for the drug analysis was 0.1 ng mL−1 using a commercial triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The use of silica paper substrate also resulted in a sensitivity improvement of 5-50 fold in comparison with chromatography papers, including the Whatmann ET31 paper used for blood card. Analysis using a handheld miniature mass spectrometer Mini 11 gave LOQs of 10~20 ng mL−1 for the tested drugs, which is sufficient to cover the therapeutic ranges of these drugs. PMID:22145627

  15. The Structure and Properties of Silica Glass Nanostructures using Novel Computational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblack, Benjamin N.

    The structure and properties of silica glass nanostructures are examined using computational methods in this work. Standard synthesis methods of silica and its associated material properties are first discussed in brief. A review of prior experiments on this amorphous material is also presented. Background and methodology for the simulation of mechanical tests on amorphous bulk silica and nanostructures are later presented. A new computational system for the accurate and fast simulation of silica glass is also presented, using an appropriate interatomic potential for this material within the open-source molecular dynamics computer program LAMMPS. This alternative computational method uses modern graphics processors, Nvidia CUDA technology and specialized scientific codes to overcome processing speed barriers common to traditional computing methods. In conjunction with a virtual reality system used to model select materials, this enhancement allows the addition of accelerated molecular dynamics simulation capability. The motivation is to provide a novel research environment which simultaneously allows visualization, simulation, modeling and analysis. The research goal of this project is to investigate the structure and size dependent mechanical properties of silica glass nanohelical structures under tensile MD conditions using the innovative computational system. Specifically, silica nanoribbons and nanosprings are evaluated which revealed unique size dependent elastic moduli when compared to the bulk material. For the nanoribbons, the tensile behavior differed widely between the models simulated, with distinct characteristic extended elastic regions. In the case of the nanosprings simulated, more clear trends are observed. In particular, larger nanospring wire cross-sectional radii (r) lead to larger Young's moduli, while larger helical diameters (2R) resulted in smaller Young's moduli. Structural transformations and theoretical models are also analyzed to identify

  16. Surface adhesion study of La2O3 thin film on Si and glass substrate for micro-flexography printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S.; Yusof, M. S.; Embong, Z.; Maksud, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Adhesive property can be described as an interchangeably with some ink and substance which was applied to one surface of two separate items that bonded together. Lanthanum oxide (La2O3) has been used as a rare earth metal candidate as depositing agent or printing ink. This metal deposit was embedded on Silica (Si) wafer and glass substrate using Magnetron Sputtering technique. The choose of Lanthanum oxide as a target is due to its wide application in producing electronic devices such as thin film battery and printed circuit board. The La2O3 deposited on the surface of Si wafer and glass substrate was then analyzed using Angle Resolve X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS). The position for each synthetic component in the narrow scan of Lanthanum (La) 3d and O 1s are referred to the electron binding energy (eV). This research will focus on 3 narrow scan regions which are C 1s, O 1s and La 3d. Further discussion of the spectrum evaluation will be discussed in detail. Here, it is proposed that from the adhesive and surface chemical properties of La is the best on glass substrate which suitable as an alternative medium for micro-flexography printing technique in printing multiple fine solid lines at nano scale. Hence, this paper will describe the capability of this particular metal as rare earth metal in a practice of micro-flexography printing.

  17. Glass formation, properties and structure of soda-yttria-silica glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Paul W.; Hann, Raiford E.

    1992-01-01

    The glass formation region of the soda yttria silicate system was determined. The glasses within this region were measured to have a density of 2.4 to 3.1 g/cu cm, a refractive index of 1.50 to 1.60, a coefficient of thermal expansion of 7 x 10(exp -6)/C, softening temperatures between 500 and 780 C, and Vickers hardness values of 3.7 to 5.8 GPa. Aqueous chemical durability measurements were made on select glass compositions while infrared transmission spectra were used to study the glass structure and its effect on glass properties. A compositional region was identified which exhibited high thermal expansion, high softening temperatures, and good chemical durability.

  18. Enhancing the performance of Ce:YAG phosphor-in-silica-glass by controlling interface reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Beiying; Luo, Wei; Liu, Sheng; Gu, Shijia; Lu, Mengchen; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Yuchi; Jiang, Wan; Wang, Lianjun

    2017-01-01

    Dispersing the Ce"3"+ doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Ce:YAG) phosphor in the glass matrix has been widely investigated to replace conventional organic resin or silicone packaging. However, the reaction layer formed between commercial phosphors and glass matrix severely degrades the optical performance of Ce:YAG phosphor in silica glass (PiSG) materials. This paper demonstrates an ultra-fast method for preparing high performance PiSG materials. Instead of traditional melting process, the highly transparent PiSG samples can be rapidly fabricated from mixtures of commercial Ce:YAG phosphor and mesoporous SiO_2 (SBA-15) powders using spark plasma sintering (SPS) at relatively low temperature (1000 °C) within short time (10 min). Owing to the inhibition of the deleterious interface reactions between Ce:YAG phosphor and silica glass matrix, the phosphor has been perfectly preserved, and the internal relative quantum yield of the PiSG sample reaches as high as 93.5% when excited at 455 nm, which is the highest efficiency in current research. Furthermore, combining the PiSG sample, we successfully fabricate a light-emitting diode (LED) module exhibiting a superior performance with luminous efficacy of 127.9 lm/W, correlated color temperature of 5877 K and color rendering index of 69 at the operating current of 120 mA. This work on the high performance LED modules provides not only a new approach to fabricate the functional glass-based materials that is sensitive to the high temperature, but also a possibility to extend the lifetime and improve the optical performances of the glass based LEDs.

  19. Alkali-silica reactivity of expanded glass granules in structure of lightweight concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumanis, G; Bajare, D; Korjakins, A; Locs, J

    2013-01-01

    Main component in the lightweight concrete, which provides its properties, is aggregate. A lot of investigations on alkali silica reaction (ASR) between cement and lightweight aggregates have been done with their results published in the academic literature. Whereas expanded glass granules, which is relatively new product in the market of building materials, has not been a frequent research object. Therefore lightweight granules made from waste glass and eight types of cement with different chemical and mineralogical composition were examined in this research. Expanded glass granules used in this research is commercially available material produced by Penostek. Lightweight concrete mixtures were prepared by using commercial chemical additives to improve workability of concrete. The aim of the study is to identify effect of cement composition to the ASR reaction which occurs between expanded glass granules and binder. Expanded glass granules mechanical and physical properties were determined. In addition, properties of fresh and hardened concrete were determined. The ASR test was processed according to RILEM AAR-2 testing recommendation. Tests with scanning electron microscope and microstructural investigations were performed for expanded glass granules and hardened concrete specimens before and after exposing them in alkali solution

  20. Preparation of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 Thin Films on Glass Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Tsuyoshi; Akiyama, Masahiko; Ueda, Tomomasa; Onozuka, Yutaka; Hara, Yujiro; Suzuki, Kouji

    2000-09-01

    Lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin films were prepared on non-alkaline glass substrates widely used in liquid crystal display (LCD) devices, by plasma-assisted magnetron RF sputtering with an immersed coil. After preparation of the PZT thin film, the glass was available for use in LCD device processing. No mutual diffusion of the elements was recognized between the glass substrate and the bottom electrode. The PZT layer had a dense film structure with rectangular and columnar grains, and only its perovskite phase was crystalline. PZT thin films on a glass substrate had leakage current densities of about 10-8 A/cm2, acceptable hysteresis loop shapes with the remanent polarization (Pr) of 45 μC/cm2 and the coercive field (Ec) of 90 kV/cm. Ferroelectric properties on a glass substrate almost conform with those on a Si-based substrate.

  1. Change in silica sources in Roman and post-Roman glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, A.; Velde, B.; Janssens, K.; Dijkman, W.

    2003-01-01

    Although Roman and post-Empire glasses found in Europe are reputed to have a very constant composition and hence source of components, it appears that some 4-5th century and later specimens show evidence of a different source of silica (sand) component. Zirconium and titanium are the discriminating elements. Data presented here for 278 specimens from 1st to 4th century German and Belgian samples indicate a strongly homogeneous Zr and Ti content; N: number of analyzed samples while 62 samples from Maastricht show low Zr-Ti contents from 1st to 3rd century samples while 4-5th century samples show a strong trend of concomitant Ti and Zr increase. If the high values of Zr-Ti represent a new source of silica (sand) the trend from low to high content suggests that a significant amount of low Zr-Ti glass was recycled to form these glass objects. Similar high Ti content can be seen in analysis results reported for other but not all 4-5th century samples found in northern Europe while earlier productions show typical low Ti contents. Although the fusing agent for these glasses seems to have always been natron (a mineral deposit in the Nile delta) from Hellenistic times to the 9th century, a change in the silica source, indicated by variation of the Ti and Zr content, could very well reflect the results of political instability of the 4-5th century exemplified by the fragmentation of the Roman Empire into two parts

  2. Change in silica sources in Roman and post-Roman glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerts, A.; Velde, B.; Janssens, K.; Dijkman, W

    2003-04-18

    Although Roman and post-Empire glasses found in Europe are reputed to have a very constant composition and hence source of components, it appears that some 4-5th century and later specimens show evidence of a different source of silica (sand) component. Zirconium and titanium are the discriminating elements. Data presented here for 278 specimens from 1st to 4th century German and Belgian samples indicate a strongly homogeneous Zr and Ti content; N: number of analyzed samples while 62 samples from Maastricht show low Zr-Ti contents from 1st to 3rd century samples while 4-5th century samples show a strong trend of concomitant Ti and Zr increase. If the high values of Zr-Ti represent a new source of silica (sand) the trend from low to high content suggests that a significant amount of low Zr-Ti glass was recycled to form these glass objects. Similar high Ti content can be seen in analysis results reported for other but not all 4-5th century samples found in northern Europe while earlier productions show typical low Ti contents. Although the fusing agent for these glasses seems to have always been natron (a mineral deposit in the Nile delta) from Hellenistic times to the 9th century, a change in the silica source, indicated by variation of the Ti and Zr content, could very well reflect the results of political instability of the 4-5th century exemplified by the fragmentation of the Roman Empire into two parts.

  3. Change in silica sources in Roman and post-Roman glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, A.; Velde, B.; Janssens, K.; Dijkman, W.

    2003-04-01

    Although Roman and post-Empire glasses found in Europe are reputed to have a very constant composition and hence source of components, it appears that some 4-5th century and later specimens show evidence of a different source of silica (sand) component. Zirconium and titanium are the discriminating elements. Data presented here for 278 specimens from 1st to 4th century German and Belgian samples indicate a strongly homogeneous Zr and Ti content; N: number of analyzed samples while 62 samples from Maastricht show low Zr-Ti contents from 1st to 3rd century samples while 4-5th century samples show a strong trend of concomitant Ti and Zr increase. If the high values of Zr-Ti represent a new source of silica (sand) the trend from low to high content suggests that a significant amount of low Zr-Ti glass was recycled to form these glass objects. Similar high Ti content can be seen in analysis results reported for other but not all 4-5th century samples found in northern Europe while earlier productions show typical low Ti contents. Although the fusing agent for these glasses seems to have always been natron (a mineral deposit in the Nile delta) from Hellenistic times to the 9th century, a change in the silica source, indicated by variation of the Ti and Zr content, could very well reflect the results of political instability of the 4-5th century exemplified by the fragmentation of the Roman Empire into two parts.

  4. Surface treatment of glass substrates for the preparation of long-lived carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Suehiro; Takekoshi, Eiko

    1981-02-01

    Glass substrates having uniformly distributed microscopic grains on the surfaces are useful to make long-lived carbon stripper foils for heavy ions. A method of surface treatment of glass substrates to form the surface structure is described. This method consists of precipitation of glass components, such as soda, onto the surfaces in a hot and humid atmosphere and a fogging treatment of forming microscopic grains of the precipitated substances. Some results of studies on the treatment conditions are also presented. (author)

  5. Heat accumulation regime of femtosecond laser writing in fused silica and Nd:phosphate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukharin, M.A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Optosystems Ltd., Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khudyakov, D.V. [Optosystems Ltd., Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Physics Instrumentation Center of the General Physics Institute, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vartapetov, S.K. [Physics Instrumentation Center of the General Physics Institute, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-01

    We investigated refractive index induced by direct femtosecond laser writing inside fused silica and Nd:phosphate glass in heat accumulation regime. Spatial profile and magnitude of induced refractive index were investigated at various pulse repetition rates and translation velocities. It was shown that the magnitude of induced refractive index significantly rises with decreasing in time interval between successive laser pulses below the time for thermal diffusion. Going from nonthermal regime to heat accumulation regime, we achieved induced refractive index growth from 4 x 10{sup -3} up to 6.5 x 10{sup -3} in fused silica and from -6 x 10{sup -3} to -9 x 10{sup -3} in Nd:phosphate glass. Aspect ratio of treated area decreased from 2.1 down to less than 1.5 without correcting optical elements. It was shown that in heat accumulation regime, the treated area was surrounded by region of alternatively changed refractive index with significant magnitude up to -2 x 10{sup -3}. Wide regions of decreased refractive index enable fabrication of depressed cladding waveguides. We demonstrated low-loss (0.3 dB/cm) tubular waveguide inside fused silica. For orthogonal polarizations of guiding light, we achieved a small difference between losses as 0.1 dB/cm using highly symmetric written tracks forming the cladding. The desired structure was simulated with the beam propagation method, and the results were in good agreement with experiment data. (orig.)

  6. Correlation between acoustical and structural properties of glasses: Extension of Abd El-Moneim model for bioactive silica based glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Moneim, Amin, E-mail: aminabdelmoneim@hotmail.com

    2016-04-15

    Correlation between room temperature ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and the most significant structural parameters has been studied in the bioactive silica based glasses, for the first time. The correlation has been carried out in the quaternary SiO{sub 2}–Na{sub 2}O–CaO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass system using the two semi-empirical formulas, which have been presented recently by the author. Changes in the elastic properties, related to the substitution of SiO{sub 2} by alkali Na{sub 2}O and alkaline earth CaO oxides, have also been deduced by evaluating the mean atomic volume, packing density, fractal bond connectivity and density of the analogous crystalline structure. Furthermore, values of the theoretical elastic moduli have been calculated on the basis of Makishima-Mackenzie theory and compared with the corresponding observed values. Results show that the correlation between ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and the oxygen density, average atomic ring size, first-order stretching force constant and experimental bulk modulus was achieved at 5 MHz frequency. Values of the theoretically calculated shear modulus are in excellent correlation (C. R. ≻95%) with the corresponding experimental ones. The divergence between the theoretical and experimental values of bulk modulus has been discussed. - Highlights: • Abd El-Moneim model was extended for bioactive glasses. • Ultrasonic attenuation was correlated with structural parameters. • Correlation was carried out in Si–Na–Ca–P glasses. • The model is valid for all investigated glass samples. • Agreement between theoretical and experimental elastic moduli was studied.

  7. Ionic conductivity of sodium silicate glasses grown within confined volume of mesoporous silica template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Soumi; Saha, Shyamal Kumar; Chakravorty, Dipankar

    2018-04-01

    Nanodimensional sodium silicate glasses of composition 30Na2O.70SiO2 has been prepared within the pores of 5.5 nm of mesoporous silica as a template using the surfactant P123. The nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity of the sample was studied by ac impedance spectroscopy. The activation energy for ionic conduction was found to be 0.13 eV with dc conductivity at room temperature of 10-6 S-cm-1. This is attributed to the creation of oxygen ion vacancies at the interface of mesoporous silica and nanoglass arising out of the presence of Si2+ species in the system. These nanocomposites are expected to be useful for applications in sodiumion battery for storage of renewable energy.

  8. EFFECTS OF LIGHTWEIGHT MULLITE-SILICA RICH GLASS COMPOSITE AGGREGATES ON PROPERTIES OF CASTABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mullite-silica rich glass (MSRG composite is a material which is more efficient than chamotte for refractory utilization of clay. The effects of lightweight MSRG composite aggregate on the properties of refractory castables were studied by XRD, SEM and EDS, etc. Comparing with a common lightweight chamotte aggregate, it was found that the hot modulus of rupture, refractoriness under load and thermal shock resistance of the castable with lightweight MSRG aggregate were higher than those of the castable with a common lightweight chamotte aggregate because MSRG did not contain silica crystalline phases and contained a liquid phase with very high viscosity at high temperature. The castables with lightweight chamotte aggregate have higher thermal expansion because of existence of cristobalite and quartz, and have lower thermal conductivity because of higher porosity.

  9. Large third-order optical nonlinearity of silver colloids in silica glasses synthesized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Binita; Chakraborty, Purushottam

    2011-01-01

    Silver ion implantations in fused silica glasses have been made to synthesize silver nanocluster-glass composites and a combination of 'Anti-Resonant Interferometric Nonlinear Spectroscopy (ARINS)' and 'Z-scan' techniques has been employed for the measurement of the third-order optical susceptibility of these nanocomposites. The ARINS technique utilizes the dressing of two unequal-intensity counter-propagating pulsed optical beams with differential nonlinear phases, which occurs upon traversing the sample. This difference in phase manifests itself in the intensity-dependent transmission, measurement of which enables us to extract the values of nonlinear refractive index (η 2 ) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), finally yielding the real and imaginary parts of the third-order dielectric susceptibility (χ (3) ). The real and imaginary parts of χ (3) are obtained in the orders of 10 -10 e.s.u for silver nanocluster-glass composites. The present value of χ (3) , to our knowledge, is extremely accurate and much more reliable compared to the values previously obtained by other workers for similar silver-glass nanocomposites using only Z-scan technique. Optical nonlinearity has been explained to be due to two-photon absorption in the present nanocomposite glasses and is essentially of electronic origin.

  10. SAXS study of silica sols, gels and glasses obtained by the sol gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, D.I. dos; Aegerter, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Systematic SAXS studies have been performed at the LURE Synchrotron, Orsay, using an intense beam of point like cross-section to obtain information about the sol -> humid gel -> dried gel -> silica glass transformation. The intensity curves have been analysed in term of power law in log-log plots, whose exponent is related to mass and surface fractal dimensions of the structure. It was found that almost all phases present fractal structures and for the case of basic gels, is of hierarchical nature. The aerogels are formed by a dense matrix, with a smooth surface and exhibit a very narrow auto-similarity range that gives a mass fractal dimension. (author) [pt

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of homogeneous upconversion in erbium-doped silica glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Jacob Lundgreen; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1997-01-01

    Quenching of Er3+ ions by homogeneous energy-transfer upconversion in high-concentration erbium-doped silica glasses has been theoretically investigated, The results indicate that at Er3+ concentrations of 1.0-2.0·1026 m-3 or below, the kinetic limit of strong migration is not reached, and hence...... the widely accepted quadratic upconversion model is not generally valid. Nevertheless, the results offer an explanation of the experimental observations of quadratic upconversion. Furthermore, it has been shown that at a given population inversion, the quenching rate depends on the rate of exchange...

  12. Fiber fuse light-induced continuous breakdown of silica glass optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Todoroki, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the fiber fuse phenomenon that causes a serious problem for the present optical communication systems. High-power light often brings about catastrophic damage to optical devices. Silica glass optical fibers with ultralow transmission loss are not the exception. A fiber fuse appears in a heated region of the fiber cable delivering a few watts of light and runs toward the light source destroying its core region. Understanding this phenomenon is a necessary first step in the development of future optical communication systems. This book provides supplementary videos and photog

  13. Transverse Writing of Multimode Interference Waveguides inside Silica Glass by Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da-Yong, Liu; Yan, Li; Yan-Ping, Dou; Heng-Chang, Guo; Hong, Yang; Qi-Huang, Gong

    2008-01-01

    Multi-mode interference waveguides are fabricated inside silica glass by transverse writing geometry with femtosecond laser pulses. The influences of several writing and reading factors on the output mode are systematically studied. The experimental results of straight waveguides are in good agreement with the simulations by the beam propagation method. By integrating a straight waveguide with a bent waveguide, a 1 × 2 multi-mode splitter is formed and 2 × 3 lobes are observed in the output mode. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  14. Laser ablation of toluene liquid for surface micro-structuring of silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niino, H.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Sato, T.; Narazaki, A.; Gumpenberger, T.; Kurosaki, R.

    2006-01-01

    Microstructures with well-defined micropatterns were fabricated on the surfaces of silica glass using a laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) method by diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) UV laser at the repetition rate of 10 kHz. For a demonstration of flexible rapid prototyping as mask-less exposure system, the focused laser beam was directed to the sample by galvanometer-based point scanning system. Additionally, a diagnostics study of plume propagation in the ablated products of toluene solid film was carried out with an intensified CCD (ICCD) camera

  15. Dynamic compressive properties and failure mechanism of glass fiber reinforced silica hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jie; Li Shukui; Yan Lili; Huo Dongmei; Wang Fuchi

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic compressive properties of glass fiber reinforced silica (GFRS) hydrogel were investigated using a spilt Hopkinson pressure bar. Failure mechanism of GFRS hydrogel was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Result showed that dynamic compressive stresses were much higher than the quasi-static compressive stresses at the same strain. The dynamic compressive strength was directly proportional to the strain rate with same sample dimensions. The dynamic compressive strength was directly proportional to the sample basal area at same strain rate. Dynamic compressive failure strain was small. At high strain rates, glass fibers broke down and separated from the matrix, pores shrank rapidly. Failure resulted from the increase of lateral tensile stress in hydrogel under dynamic compression.

  16. Investigation of the mechanical properties of silica glasses by indentation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhasz, A. (Inst. for General Physics, Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Voeroes, G. (Inst. for General Physics, Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Tasnadi, P. (Inst. for General Physics, Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Kovacs, I. (Inst. for General Physics, Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Somogyi, I. (Inst. for General Physics, Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary) Brody Research Center, G.E. Tungsram, Budapest (Hungary)); Szoellosi, J. (Inst. for General Physics, Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary) Brody Research Center, G.E. Tungsram, Budapest (Hungary))

    1993-11-01

    Soda lime silica glasses were investigated by continuous indentation tests. The load indentation depth curves were taken during the loading as well as the unloading period by a computer controlled MTS machine. It was found that the loading force is a quadratic function of the indentation depth during both the loading and unloading stage of the deformation. The validity of the quadratic relationship in the case of the unloading stage seems to be characteristic only for glasses. Taking into account the elastic relaxation of the indentation depth an estimation is given for the size of the hydrostatic core which is necessary to symmetrize the stress field around the indenter. Using the measured length of the radial cracks started from the corners of the Vickers indentation pattern the K[sub IC] values were calculated. (orig.).

  17. IR-spectroscopical investigations on the glass structure of porous and sintered compacts of colloidal silica gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Rolf; Hornfeck, M.; Theiss, Wolfgang

    1991-08-01

    The forming and sintering of fumed silica powders is an interesting route for the preparation of large, very pure or doped silica glasses with a precise geometry. The processing from the shaping of a porous compact to the sintering of transparent silica glass can be successfully investigated with optical spectroscopy. As only the dielectric function DF (a dielectric function is the square root of the complex refractive index) characterizes the material, the vibrational bands were calculated from reflectance measurements. In compacts of fine particles, the topology cannot be neglected. Therefore, the models describing topological effects are briefly reviewed. With these model calculations it could be proven that new bands in the compacts and the significant shifts in the reflectance spectra during sintering are mainly caused by topological effects and that changes in the glass structure play only a secondary role.

  18. Structural and optical properties of Eu3+ activated low cost zinc soda lime silica glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Alia Sheh Omar

    Full Text Available A low cost method was employed to synthesize ZnO-SLS:xEu3+ phosphors using recyclable bottle glass as silica source. The structural and optical properties of ZnO-SLS:xEu3+ (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt.% glasses were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared reflectance (FTIR, UV-visible (Uv-Vis and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. Structural investigation using XRD measurement had broadened the halo peak with the doping of dopants. FTIR spectra showed the glass system consists of –OH and SiO4 bands. Meanwhile, the optical measurement using UV-Vis absorption has been induced a blue shift of the electronic absorption edge. The emission peak intensity of ZnO-SLS:xEu3+ phosphors was enhanced with the progression of doping concentration and thus, revealed their potential as red emitting phosphors under 400 nm excitation. Keywords: Eu3+ doped ZnO-SLS glasses, Solid state method, Optical band gap, Photoluminescence

  19. Chemical stability of soda-alumina-zirconia-silica glasses to Na, Na2S4, and S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, S.I.; Bradley, J.; Nelson, P.A.; Roche, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-two glasses with a broad range of compositions, spanning the quaternary soda-alumina-zirconia-silica system, have been prepared to allow characterization of the various properties of the system. The glasses were characterized by their resistivities, energies of activation for conduction, and glass transition temperatures. The glasses were screened for compositions of especially high chemical stability of static corrosion tests in Na, S, and Na 2 S 4 for 1000h at 400 0 C. Among the glasses tested, the high soda glasses showed the smallest weight change after exposure to the three media. The weight change observed was comparable to that seen in the Dow borate glass and beta'' alumina

  20. Optical transmission of silica glass during swift-heavy-ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaksin, Oleg; Okubo, Nariaki; Takeda, Yoshihiko; Amekura, Hiroshi; Kono, Kenichiro; Kishimoto, Naoki

    2004-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles fabricated by heavy-ion implantation of insulators are promising for non-linear optical applications. Spectra of optical transmission of silica glass in the visible region were measured during and after implantation of 3 MeV Cu 2+ ions. Three absorption bands contribute to the spectra: transient absorption (TA) at 2.34 eV, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 2.21 eV and a tail of residual absorption (RA), which increases when the photon energy is increased from 2.2 to 2.6 eV. The TA and a change of the SPR peak strongly contribute to the total transient absorption obtained as the difference in absorption during and after irradiation. The effect of RA shows up as a decrease of absorption after switching on the ion beam. The TA provides a means for selective electronic excitation by a laser during implantation of silica glass. The precipitation of Cu atoms and the growth of Cu nanoparticles are well distinguishable stages of nanoparticle formation. The SPR peak appears at a fluence of 3.3 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 , corresponding to the onset of precipitation. At fluences higher than 3.4 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 , when the growth of nanoparticles predominates, the fluence dependence of the SPR peak is linear

  1. Use of wasted foundry sand (WFS) as a partial substitute for silica in a soda lime glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.C.; Ueno, O.K.; Folgueras, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    The waste foundry sand (WFS) is the main waste generates in foundry industries. Studies in the literature suggest the use of WFS in different materials, such as concrete, brick or asphalt. This work aims to partially replace the silica of a soda-lime glass by the WFS. The waste foundry sand has in its composition elements such as iron and aluminum that can affect the glass quality, which justifies the residue processing to reduce the impurity content. The treatments, that included mechanical agitation and thermal treatment, resulted in a slight decrease in the percent of iron with consequent increase of the silica content. After treatment, some sands were incorporated into the glass, that showed green color but with lower absorption intensity for the sand with less iron content. It was observed that it's possible to obtain glasses using WFS, however, there is difficulty in color controlling. (author

  2. Studies of ionizing radiation shielding effectiveness of silica-based commercial glasses used in Bangladeshi dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Yasmin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the rapid growing economy, the Bangladeshi dwellers are replacing their traditional (mud-, bamboo-, and wood-based houses to modern multistoried buildings, where different types of glasses are being used as decorative as well as structural materials due to their various advantageous properties. In this study, we inquire the protective and dosimetric capability of commercial glasses for ionizing radiation. Four branded glass samples (PHP-Bangladesh, Osmania-Bangladesh, Nasir-Bangladesh, and Rider-China of same thickness and color but different elemental weight fractions were analyzed for shielding and dosimetric properties. The chemical composition of the studied material was evaluated by EDX technique. A well-shielded HPGe γ-ray spectrometer combined with associated electronics was used to evaluate the attenuation coefficients of the studied materials for 59 keV, 661 keV, 1173 keV and 1332 keV photon energies. A number of shielding parameters- half value layer (HVL, radiation protection efficiency (RPE and effective atomic number (Zeff were also evaluated. The data were compared with the available literature (where applicable to understand its shielding capability relative to the standard materials such as lead. Among the studied brands, Rider (China shows relatively better indices to be used as ionizing radiation shielding material. The obtained, Zeff of the studied glass samples showed comparable values to the TLD-200 dosimeter, thus considered suitable for environmental radiation monitoring purposes. Keywords: Silica-based commercial glass, HPGe γ-ray spectrometry, EDX analyses, Shielding effectiveness, Dosimetric properties

  3. Fabrication of isolated platinum nanowire gratings and nanoparticles on silica substrate by femtosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yasutaka [School of Integrated Design Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223- 8522 (Japan); Nedyalkov, Nikolay [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shouse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 223-8522 (Japan); Takami, Akihiro [School of Integrated Design Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223- 8522 (Japan); Terakawa, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: terakawa@elec.keio.ac.jp [School of Integrated Design Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223- 8522 (Japan); Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 223-8522 (Japan)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Formation of HSFL with periodicities shorter than 100 nm. • Structural evolution from platinum nanowire gratings to platinum nanoparticles only by increasing the number of pulses. • Melting and fragmentation of the nanowire gratings would play a key role in structural evolution. - Abstract: We demonstrate the fabrication of isolated platinum nanostructures on a silica substrate by using femtosecond laser. Nanowire gratings which have short periodicities of approximately 50 nm were formed by irradiating a platinum thin film deposited on a fused silica substrate with 800-nm wavelength femtosecond laser pulses. The structural evolution from the nanowire gratings to nanoparticles was observed only by increasing the number of pulses. The periodicities or diameters of the structures showed good uniformity. Scanning electron microscopy of the surfaces and theoretical calculation of temperature profile using a two-temperature model revealed that the structural evolution can be attributed to the fragmentation of the formed nanowires. The presented method provides a simple and high-throughput technique for fabricating both metal nanowire gratings and nanoparticles, which have the potential to be used for the fabrication of optical, electrical and biomedical devices.

  4. Diffusion and aggrigation of implanted Ag and Au in a lithia-alumina-silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.W.; Borders, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Optical extinction and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) techniques have been employed to obtain information on the size and spatial distribution of Au and Ag colloids in implanted (Au + ,Ag + )lithia-alumina-silica glass. The formation of metallic aggregates (colloids), necessary for preparation of a glass-ceramic surface layer, proceeds readily with annealing temperature for Au-implanted samples but not for Ag-implanted material. The optical and RBS spectra show that the particle size and spatial distribution in Ag-implanted samples are sensitive to sample temperature and ion-beam heating effects, while these parameters for Au-implanted samples are relatively insensitive to temperature and beam current. It is suggested that this behaviour is related to differences in the dissolution energies of Ag and Au aggregates. A two-peaked spatial distribution for Ag implanted at room temperature at a dose rate of approximately 1 μA cm -2 is observed which may result from the trappings of Ag in the ion displacement damage region of the glass during implantation. (author)

  5. Diffusion and aggregation of implanted Ag and Au in a lithia--alumina--silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.W.; Borders, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Optical extinction and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) techniques were employed to obtain information on the size and spatial distribution of Au- and Ag-colloids in implanted (Au + , Ag + ) lithia-alumina-silica glass. The formation of metallic aggregates (colloids), necessary for preparation of a glass-ceramic surface layer, proceeds readily with annealing temperature for Au-implanted samples but not for Ag-implanted material. The optical and RBS spectra show that the particle size and spatial distribution in as-implanted samples are sensitive to sample temperature and ion-beam heating effects, while these parameters for Au-implanted samples are relatively insensitive to temperature and beam current. It is suggested that this behavior is related to differences in the dissolution energies of Ag and Au aggregates. A two-peaked spatial distribution for Ag implanted at room temperature at a dose rate of approximately 1 μA/cm 2 is observed which may result from the trapping of Ag in the compacted damage region of the glass during implantation. (auth)

  6. Effect of thermal treatments on sputtered silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings on soda-lime glasses: ionic exchange and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraris, M.; Ferraris, S., E-mail: sara.ferraris@polito.it; Miola, M.; Perero, S.; Balagna, C.; Verne, E. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering (Italy); Gautier, G. [IMAMOTER Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines (Italy); Manfredotti, Ch.; Battiato, A.; Vittone, E. [University of Torino, Physics Department, NIS Excellence Centre and CNISM (Italy); Speranza, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler FBK (Italy); Bogdanovic, I. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Experimental Physics Department (Croatia)

    2012-12-15

    Silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings were deposited on both soda-lime and silica glasses by radio frequency (RF) co-sputtering. The effect of thermal treatments on the microstructure in the range of 150-450 Degree-Sign C were examined by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Time of Flight-Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. Sodium/silver ionic exchange was evidenced for coatings sputtered on soda-lime substrates after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C; presence of silver ions and/or silver nanoclusters, nanocluster size and their position inside the sputtered layers will be discussed for as-deposited and heated coatings on both substrates. The antibacterial activity of all coatings was determined against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by disk diffusion method and colonies forming units count; in agreement with microstructural results, the antibacterial activity present on all coatings was slightly reduced after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C. All coatings have been submitted to humidity plus UV ageing and sterilization by autoclave, gamma ray and ethylene oxide gas. Tape resistance (ASTM D3359-97) tests have been done on each coating before and after ageing and sterilizations, revealing a good adhesion on soda-lime substrates, except for those aged in humidity plus UV and sterilized by autoclave. Scratch tests and nanoindentation tests have been done on each coating, as-deposited and after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C. The coating hardness was improved by heating only when coatings were deposited on silica. The heating of coatings deposited on soda-lime substrates gave opposite effect on their hardness.

  7. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons I. Determination by gas chromatography with glass and fused silica capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M. M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column. The limitations and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation efficiency, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 17 refs

  8. Defect production in silica glasses under gamma-irradiation at the quenched nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussaeva, M.A.; Kalanov, M.U.; Ibragimova, E.M.; Sandalov, V.N.; Muminov, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Radiation defect production in oxides is highly interesting for atom and solar energy, and also for burying nuclear waste. Combine effect of neutron and gamma-radiation on materials was studied extensively and only neutrons are believed to displace atoms, although 60 Co-gamma quanta were proved to displace light anions (O, F) by inelastic mechanism. On the example of polished plates of pure fused quartz and barium-silica glasses containing nano-crystalline inclusions, and also nano-porous glass, the effect of gamma-radiation of the quenched reactor was studied in the energy range of 0.2-7 MeV. The time period was selected when practically constant current ∼10-20 nA is maintained in the ionizing chamber, corresponding to the average gamma-flux of 15-30 Gy/s. Optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra and also structure of the grasses were studied. It turned out, that the charged oxygen vacancies accumulation rate is higher in Barium glass than in the pure one, because for SiO 2 with small Z the photoelectric effect is weak, while the Compton scattering and photonuclear reactions prevail, and for Barium - just the opposite. The radiation-induced growth of the crystalline precipitates was noticed in the both glasses, which before had been attributed to the elastic atom displacements by fast neutrons. The density of Ba-glass increases with irradiation. The efficiency of defect production by the gamma-component even of the quenched reactor turned out much higher than that under irradiation with 60 Co gamma-source of ∼1.25 MeV to the equivalent dose at the current dose rate of ∼ 7 Gy/s (and before at 45 Gy/s). A 100-times increase of the surface proton conductivity was discovered in the porous glasses under gamma-irradiation due to water vapor radiolysis on the pore surface. The irradiated porous glass is recommended as an active electrode in the hydrogen fuel element. The work was done under the grant F2.1.2 from Center of Science and Technology

  9. Synthesis of multilayered structure of nano-dimensional silica glass/reduced graphene oxide for advanced electrochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Miah, Milon; Majumder, Chinmoy; Bag, Shekhar; Chakravorty, Dipankar; Saha, Shyamal Kumar

    2018-03-28

    During the past few years, intensive research has been carried out to design new functional materials for superior electrochemical applications. Due to low storage capacity and low charge transport, silica based glasses have not yet been investigated for their supercapacitive behavior. Therefore, in the present study, a multilayered structure of silica-based nanoglass and reduced graphene oxide has been designed to remarkably enhance the specific capacitance by exploiting the porosity, large surface area, sufficient dangling bonds in the nanoglass and high electrical conductivity of rGO. The charge transport in the composite structure is also investigated to understand the electrochemical properties. It is found that Simmons tunneling or direct tunneling is the dominant mechanism of charge conduction between the graphene layers via the potential barrier of silica nanoglass phase. We believe that this study will open up a new area in the design of glass-based two-dimensional nanocomposites for superior supercapacitor applications.

  10. Hydrogen Silsesquioxane based silica glass coatings for the corrosion protection of austenitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampert, Felix; Jensen, Annemette Hindhede; Din, Rameez Ud

    2016-01-01

    -film barrier coatings were deposited on AISI 316L grade austenitic stainless steel with 2B surface finish from Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ) spin-on-glass precursor and thermally cured to tailor the film properties. Results showed that curing at 500 °C resulted in a film-structure with a polymerized siloxane...... backbone and a reduced amount of Si-H moieties. The coatings showed good substrate coverage and the average thickness was between 200 and 400 nm on the rough substrate surface, however, film thicknesses of > 1400 nm were observed at substrate defects. Deposition of these films significantly improved...... the barrier-properties by showing a 1000 times higher modulus while an ionic transport over the coating was also observed....

  11. A study on the plasticity of soda-lime silica glass via molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Shingo; Sato, Yosuke

    2017-11-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were applied to construct a plasticity model, which enables one to simulate deformations of soda-lime silica glass (SLSG) by using continuum methods. To model the plasticity, stress induced by uniaxial and a variety of biaxial deformations was measured by MD simulations. We found that the surfaces of yield and maximum stresses, which are evaluated from the equivalent stress-strain curves, are reasonably represented by the Mohr-Coulomb ellipsoid. Comparing a finite element model using the constructed plasticity model to a large scale atomistic model on a nanoindentation simulation of SLSG reveals that the empirical method is accurate enough to evaluate the SLSG mechanical responses. Furthermore, the effect of ion-exchange on the SLSG plasticity was examined by using MD simulations. As a result, it was demonstrated that the effects of the initial compressive stress on the yield and maximum stresses are anisotropic contrary to our expectations.

  12. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the dielectric properties of holmium doped silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejikumar, P.R.; Jyothy, P.V.; Mathew, Siby; Thomas, Vinoy; Unnikrishnan, N.V.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of silver nanoparticle co-doping on the dielectric properties of holmium doped silica glasses was studied. Silver nanoparticles of size between 20 and 22 nm were produced by the sol-gel technique. One of the samples showed an icosahedral morphology of the nanocrystal formed, along with spherical morphology. It was found that the tuning of the dielectric constant values could be accomplished by co-doping. The sample, with 1 wt% of Ho, had low dielectric constant values within the range 100 Hz-3 MHz due to the formation of quasi-molecular structures of holmium. This effect was evaded to some extent with silver co-doping as a result of the interdispersion of holmium complexes. Also it was found that the co-doping produced a higher dielectric loss which was calculated from the tan δ-log f graph. The Cole-Cole parameters and the Jonscher power law parameters were also calculated and are presented.

  13. Fabrication of 3D solenoid microcoils in silica glass by femtosecond laser wet etch and microsolidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangwei; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Shan, Chao; Liu, Keyin; Li, Yanyang; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hou, Xun

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports a flexible fabrication method for 3D solenoid microcoils in silica glass. The method consists of femtosecond laser wet etching (FLWE) and microsolidics process. The 3D microchannel with high aspect ratio is fabricated by an improved FLWE method. In the microsolidics process, an alloy was chosen as the conductive metal. The microwires are achieved by injecting liquid alloy into the microchannel, and allowing the alloy to cool and solidify. The alloy microwires with high melting point can overcome the limitation of working temperature and improve the electrical property. The geometry, the height and diameter of microcoils were flexibly fabricated by the pre-designed laser writing path, the laser power and etching time. The 3D microcoils can provide uniform magnetic field and be widely integrated in many magnetic microsystems.

  14. A study of positron properties in quartz crystals and synthetic silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Hesegawa, M.; Dersch, O.; Rauch, F.

    2001-01-01

    The monoenergetic positron beamline 'SPONSOR' at Rossendorf has been used to investigate the positron behaviour in a naturally grown Brasilian quartz, two synthetic quartz crystals of different origin, and synthetic silica glass. The measurements allow us to obtain the positron diffusion length of free positrons and Bloch para-positronium, if formed, in these materials. In addition, hydrothermal treatment of a synthetic quartz has been used to introduce hydrogen into the crystal up to a certain depth. The presence of hydrogen is found to influence the formation of para-positronium. The depth distribution of hydrogen has been measured independently by the nuclear reaction analysis, and will be discussed in comparison with the results deduced from the positron studies. (author)

  15. IRON REDOX EQUILIBRIUM AND DIFFUSIVITY IN MIXED ALKALI-ALKALINE EARTH-SILICA GLASS MELTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KI-DONG KIM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dependence of redox behavior and diffusivity of iron on temperature and composition was studied in mixed alkali-alkaline earth-silica glass melts by means of square wave voltammetry (SWV. The voltammograms showed that irrespective of K2O/(Na2O+K2O the peak potential due to Fe3+/Fe2+ moved toward negative direction with temperature decrease and the peak current showed a strong dependence on frequency at constant temperature. Iron diffusion coefficient versus melt viscosity showed a good linearity. The compositional dependence showed that the peak potential shifted to the positive direction with increase of K2O but a typical mixed alkali effect occurred in iron diffusion either at constant temperature or at constant viscosity.

  16. Influence of thermal cycling on flexural properties of composites reinforced with unidirectional silica-glass fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriç, Gökçe; Ruyter, I Eystein

    2008-08-01

    The purpose was to investigate the effect of water storage and thermal cycling on the flexural properties of differently sized unidirectional fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) containing different quantities of fibers. The effect of fiber orientation on the thermal expansion of FRCs as well as how the stresses in the composites can be affected was considered. An experimental polymeric base material was reinforced with silica-glass fibers. The cleaned and silanized fibers were sized with either linear PBMA-size or crosslinked PMMA-size. For the determination of flexural properties and water uptake, specimens were processed with various quantities of differently sized unidirectional fibers. Water uptake of FRC was measured. Water immersed specimens were thermally cycled for 500 and 12,000 cycles (5 degrees C/55 degrees C). Flexural properties of "dry" and wet specimens with and without thermal cycling were determined by a three-point bending test. The linear coefficients of thermal expansion (LCTE) for FRC samples with different fiber orientations were determined using a thermomechanical analyzer. Water uptake of the FRC specimens increased with a decrease in fiber content of the FRC. Flexural properties of FRCs improved with increasing fiber content, whereas the flexural properties were not influenced significantly by water and thermal cycling. Fiber orientation had different effects on LCTE of FRCs. Unidirectional FRCs had two different LCTE in longitudinal and transverse directions whereas bidirectional FRCs had similar LCTE in two directions and a higher one in the third direction. The results of the study suggest that the surface-treated unidirectional silica-glass FRC can be used for long-term clinical applications in the oral cavity.

  17. Effects of ionizing radiations on the optical properties of ionic copper-activated sol-gel silica glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Helou, Nissrine; El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Capoen, Bruno; Ouerdane, Youcef; Boukenter, Aziz; Girard, Sylvain; Bouazaoui, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Studying the impact of radiations on doped silica glasses is essential for several technological applications. Herein, bulk silica glasses, activated with various concentrations of luminescent monovalent copper (Cu+), have been prepared using the sol-gel technique. Thereafter, these glasses were subjected to X- or γ-rays irradiation at 1 MGy(SiO2) accumulated dose. The effect of these ionizing radiations on the optical properties of these glasses, as a function of the Cu-doping content, were investigated using optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Before any irradiation, the glass with the lowest copper concentration exhibits blue and green luminescence bands under UV excitation, suggesting that Cu+ ions occupy both cubic and tetragonal symmetry sites. However, at higher Cu-doping level, only the green emission band exists. Moreover, we showed that the hydroxyl content decreases with increasing copper doping concentration. Both X and γ radiation exposures induced visible absorption due to HC1 color centers in the highly Cu-doped glasses. In the case of the lower Cu-doped glass, the Cu+ sites with a cubic symmetry are transformed into sites with tetragonal symmetry.

  18. Study of the focusing effect of silica microspheres on the upconversion of Er{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} codoped glass ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, C., E-mail: cjperez@ull.edu.es [Dpto. Física Fundamental y Experimental, Electrónica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez, s/n E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Imanieh, M.H. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Department of Materials, Ceramic Division, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Martín, L.L [Dpto. Física Fundamental y Experimental, Electrónica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez, s/n E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ríos, S. [Dpto. de Física Básica, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez, s/n E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martín, I.R. [Dpto. Física Fundamental y Experimental, Electrónica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez, s/n E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); MALTA Consolider Team, Av. Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez, s/n E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari [Department of Materials, Ceramic Division, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-05

    Highlights: •Silica microspheres have been located on the surface of glass and glass ceramics samples codoped with Er and Yb. •Microspheres act as microlens of the 950 nm excitation light resulting in focalized excited regions in the samples with sizes under the micron. •Intense red upconversion is achieved in the focalized areas. •Microspheres collect the upconversion emission light, scoping with the together microlensing properties an enhancement of the detected signal in a 3x factor. •Performed Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulations predict the size of the focalized regions in good agreement with the experimental measurements. -- Abstract: The upconversion emission properties of Er{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} codoped glass and glass ceramic samples with different Si/Al ratios and thermal treatments were analyzed by covering their surfaces with silica microspheres (3.8 μm diameter). A 950 nm laser beam is focused by the microspheres producing a set of photonic nanojets near the surface of the samples. After the upconversion processes of the Er{sup 3+} ions located in each microsphere focus area, these ions emit light in the green and red regions. The red emission from each sample was measured, yielding an upconversion intensity in the focal areas three times higher than the emission from the bare substrate. To estimate the real size of the red emission area under a single microsphere, a deconvolution of the measured focal spots with the Point Spread Function of the experimental setup was performed, resulting in a Full Width at Half Maximum of 330 nm. The results obtained by Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulations are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  19. Study of the focusing effect of silica microspheres on the upconversion of Er3+–Yb3+ codoped glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, C.; Imanieh, M.H.; Martín, L.L; Ríos, S.; Martín, I.R.; Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Silica microspheres have been located on the surface of glass and glass ceramics samples codoped with Er and Yb. •Microspheres act as microlens of the 950 nm excitation light resulting in focalized excited regions in the samples with sizes under the micron. •Intense red upconversion is achieved in the focalized areas. •Microspheres collect the upconversion emission light, scoping with the together microlensing properties an enhancement of the detected signal in a 3x factor. •Performed Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulations predict the size of the focalized regions in good agreement with the experimental measurements. -- Abstract: The upconversion emission properties of Er 3+ –Yb 3+ codoped glass and glass ceramic samples with different Si/Al ratios and thermal treatments were analyzed by covering their surfaces with silica microspheres (3.8 μm diameter). A 950 nm laser beam is focused by the microspheres producing a set of photonic nanojets near the surface of the samples. After the upconversion processes of the Er 3+ ions located in each microsphere focus area, these ions emit light in the green and red regions. The red emission from each sample was measured, yielding an upconversion intensity in the focal areas three times higher than the emission from the bare substrate. To estimate the real size of the red emission area under a single microsphere, a deconvolution of the measured focal spots with the Point Spread Function of the experimental setup was performed, resulting in a Full Width at Half Maximum of 330 nm. The results obtained by Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulations are in good agreement with the experimental values

  20. Effects of ion implantation on the hardness and friction behaviour of soda-lime silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, S.J.; Page, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Ion implantation-induced changes in the near-surface mechanical properties of soda-lime silica glass have been investigated by indentation and scratch testing and have been found to be more complicated than changes in the corresponding properties of crystalline ceramic materials. Argon, nitrogen, carbon and potassium ions were used with energies in the range 45-300 keV. Hardness and scratch friction tests were performed under ambient laboratory conditions. At low doses, a decrease in hardness and an increase in both friction and surface stress are observed which are attributed to the electronic damage produced by ion implantation. At higher doses, the hardness increases again and a maximum is produced similar to the behaviour observed for crystalline materials. Similarly there is found to be a second stress and friction peak at this dose. This behaviour is shown to be due to the build-up of displacement damage produced by ion implantation and is thus very similar to the radiation hardening (and eventual amorphization) behaviour of ion-implanted crystalline ceramics. For glass, ''amorphization'' probably corresponds to some change in the existing amorphous state which, in turn, is responsible for the reduction in hardness, stress and friction at the highest doses. (author)

  1. The analysis of lightweight brick strength pressure with mixture of glass powder and silica fume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursyamsi; Liang, William

    2018-03-01

    Little by little the engineers research how the development of concrete that can utilize waste. In the utilization of the waste, it can be functioned as mixing material which the chemical or the physical traits of the used goods contain similarity to the mixture of concrete in general, one of them is glass powder as the substitute of cement. The glass powder that utilizes is the one that is sifted through sieve No. 200 as much as 10% of the weight of the cement. The testing specimen of the concrete brick is make of the mixture with the ratio of 1:7, then is added with the foaming agent (1:30) and silica fume (10% of the weight of the cement). Furthermore, visual examination, absorption, net weight and testing specimen compressive strength. The data analysis uses the reference of SNI 03 – 0349 – 1989 regarding Concrete Brick for the Match for the Wall. Foaming Agent is make by using modified hand drill and brace. The testing specimen uses the brick mold with the size of 40 cm x 20cm x 10 cm. Based on this research, it shows that the quality that results from brick is still qualified based on SNI 03 – 0349 – 1989.

  2. Workability of glass reinforced concrete (GRC) with granite and silica sand aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moceikis, R.; Kičaitė, A.; Keturakis, E.

    2017-10-01

    Glass fiber reinforced concrete (GRC) opens the door for lightweight and complex shaped innovative construction, adding architectural value to buildings. With panel thickness down to 15 mm, considerable amount of total loads and materials per square meter of facade can be saved, if compared to conventionally used 80 mm thickness outer layer in insulated precast concrete wall elements. Even though GRC is used for over 50 years in such countries as Great Britain, USA and Japan, there are very few examples and little research done in Eastern Europe with this building material. European Commission propagates sustainable design as commitment to energy efficiency, environmental stewardship and conservation. For this reason, GRC plays important role in mowing toward these goals. In this paper, GRC premix recipes including fine granite and silica sands, reinforced with 13mm length alkali resistant glass fibers are investigated. Two CEM I 52,5R cements with different particle sizes were used and severe water dissociation noticed in one of concrete mixes. Cement particle size distribution determined with laser diffraction particle analyser Cilas 1090LD. To determine modulus of rupture (M.O.R.) and limit of proportionality (L.O.P), plates thickness 15 and 20 mm were produced and tested for flexural resistance according to 4-point bending scheme. Concrete workability tests were made according EN 1170-1.

  3. Probing the chemistry of adhesion between a 316L substrate and spin-on-glass coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampert, Felix; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Kasama, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen silsesquioxane ([HSiO3/2]n) based "spin-on-glass" has been deposited on 316L substrate and cured in Ar/H2 gas atmosphere at 600 ºC to form a continuous surface coating with sub-micrometer thickness. The coating functionality depends primarily on the adhesion to the substrate, which...... is largely affected by the chemical interaction at the interface between the coating and the substrate. We have investigated this interface by transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The analysis identified a 5-10 nm thick interaction zone containing signals from O, Si, Cr....... In agreement with computational thermodynamics, it is proposed that the spin-on-glass forms a chemically bonded silicate-rich interaction zone with the substrate. It was further suggested that this zone is composed of a corundum-type oxide at the substrate surface, followed by an olivine-structure intermediate...

  4. In situ crystallization of b-oriented MFI films on plane and curved substrates coated with a mesoporous silica layer

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Zhiyong

    2013-05-01

    A simple and reproducible method is presented for preparing b-oriented MFI films on plane (disc) and curved (hollow fiber) supports by in situ hydrothermal synthesis. A mesoporous silica (sub-)layer was pre-coated on the supports by dip coating followed by a rapid thermal calcination step (973 K during 1 min) to reduce the number of grain boundaries while keeping the hydrophilic behavior of silica. The role of the silica sub-layer is not only to smoothen the substrate surface, but also to provide a silica source to promote the nucleation and growth of zeolite crystals via a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism (zeolitization), and adsorb zeolite moieties generated in the synthesis solution via a homogeneous nucleation mechanism. A monolayer of b-oriented MFI crystals was obtained on both supports after 3 h synthesis time with a moderate degree of twinning on the surface. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Effect of sintering temperature on physical, structural and optical properties of wollastonite based glass-ceramic derived from waste soda lime silica glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Amer Almasri

    Full Text Available The impact of different sintering temperatures on physical, optical and structural properties of wollastonite (CaSiO3 based glass-ceramics were investigated for its potential application as a building material. Wollastonite based glass-ceramics was provided by a conventional melt-quenching method and followed by a controlled sintering process. In this work, soda lime silica glass waste was utilized as a source of silicon. The chemical composition and physical properties of glass were characterized by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF and Archimedes principle. The Archimedes measurement results show that the density increased with the increasing of sintering temperature. The generation of CaSiO3, morphology, size and crystal phase with increasing the heat-treatment temperature were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transforms infrared reflection spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The average calculated crystal size gained from XRD was found to be in the range 60 nm. The FESEM results show a uniform distribution of particles and the morphology of the wollastonite crystal is in relict shapes. The appearance of CaO, SiO2, and Ca-O-Si bands disclosed from FTIR which showed the formation of CaSiO3 crystal phase. In addition to the calculation of the energy band gap which found to be increased with increasing sintering temperature. Keywords: Soda lime silica glass, Wollastonite, Sintering, Structural properties, Optical properties

  6. Self-floating carbon nanotube membrane on macroporous silica substrate for highly efficient solar-driven interfacial water evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuchao

    2016-01-22

    Given the emerging energy and water challenges facing the mankind, solar-driven water evaporation has been gaining renewed research attention from both academia and industry as an energy efficient means of wastewater treatment and clean water production. In this project, a bi-layered material, consisting of a top self-floating hydrophobic CNT membrane and a bottom hydrophilic macroporous silica substrate, was rationally designed and fabricated for highly energy-efficient solar driven water evaporation based on the concept of interfacial heating. The top thin CNT membrane with excellent light adsorption capability, acted as photothermal component, which harvested and converted almost the entire incident light to heat for exclusively heating of interfacial water. On the other hand, the macroporous silica substrate provided multi-functions toward further improvement of operation stability and water evaporation performance of the material, including water pumping, mechanical support and heat barriers. The silica substrate was conducive in forming the rough surface structures of the CNT top layers during vacuum filtration and thus indirectly contributed to high light adsorption by the top CNT layers. With optimized thicknesses of the CNT top layer and silica substrate, a solar thermal conversion efficiency of 82 % was achieved in this study. The bi-layered material also showed great performance toward water evaporation from seawater and contaminated water, realizing the separation of water from pollutants, and indicating its application versatility.

  7. A preliminary study of the relation between adsorption and CP-MAS-NMR characteristics of fused silica model substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, A.B.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Haan, de J.W.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Sandra, P.J.F.; Devos, G.; Sandra, P.

    1993-01-01

    The fumed silica model substrate Aerosil was trimethylsilylated to different extents and studied by the combination of IGC and 29Si CP-MAS-NMR. Dihydroxydisiloxane groups were shown to be chemically more reactive than monohydroxytrisiloxane groups. Chromatographic experiments showed that these

  8. Self-floating carbon nanotube membrane on macroporous silica substrate for highly efficient solar-driven interfacial water evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuchao; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Given the emerging energy and water challenges facing the mankind, solar-driven water evaporation has been gaining renewed research attention from both academia and industry as an energy efficient means of wastewater treatment and clean water production. In this project, a bi-layered material, consisting of a top self-floating hydrophobic CNT membrane and a bottom hydrophilic macroporous silica substrate, was rationally designed and fabricated for highly energy-efficient solar driven water evaporation based on the concept of interfacial heating. The top thin CNT membrane with excellent light adsorption capability, acted as photothermal component, which harvested and converted almost the entire incident light to heat for exclusively heating of interfacial water. On the other hand, the macroporous silica substrate provided multi-functions toward further improvement of operation stability and water evaporation performance of the material, including water pumping, mechanical support and heat barriers. The silica substrate was conducive in forming the rough surface structures of the CNT top layers during vacuum filtration and thus indirectly contributed to high light adsorption by the top CNT layers. With optimized thicknesses of the CNT top layer and silica substrate, a solar thermal conversion efficiency of 82 % was achieved in this study. The bi-layered material also showed great performance toward water evaporation from seawater and contaminated water, realizing the separation of water from pollutants, and indicating its application versatility.

  9. Ultra-high carrier mobility InSb film by rapid thermal annealing on glass substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charith Jayanada Koswaththage

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available InSb films were deposited on both mica and glass substrates using thermal evaporation and subjected to FA or RTA. Crystallinity, composition and electrical properties were investigated. High Hall electron mobility as high as 25,000 cm2/(Vs was obtained with the capped InSb film by keeping the In:Sb ratio after RTA at 520°C for 30 sec or more without adopting epitaxial growth on glass.

  10. Silica-based microstructures on nonplanar substrates by femtosecond laser-induced nonlinear lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoshiri, M; Nishiyama, H; Hirata, Y; Nishii, J

    2009-01-01

    We developed a technique for the formation of nonplanar surfaces of inorganic optical materials by a combined process of nonlinear lithography and plasma etching. This technique can be used to fabricate structures even on non-flat substrates, which is difficult using current semiconductor technology. Three-dimensional patterns were written directly inside a positive-tone photoresist using femtosecond laser-induced nonlinear optical absorption. The patterns were then transferred to underlying nonplanar substrates by the ion beam etching technique. For the lithographic process, we obtained a minimum feature size of 900 nm, which is below the diffraction limit. We demonstrated the fabrication of silica-based hybrid diffractive-refractive lenses. Fresnel zone plates with smooth surfaces were obtained on convex microlenses. When a 633-nm-wavelength He-Ne laser was coupled normally to the hybrid lens, the primary focal length was measured as 630 μm. This hybridization shifted the focal length by 200 μm, which agreed with the theoretical value. Our process is useful for the precise fabrication of nonplanar structures based on inorganic materials.

  11. Conductive stability of graphene on PET and glass substrates under blue light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xueying; Liu, Xianming; Li, Xiangdi; Lei, Xiaohua; Chen, Weimin

    2018-01-01

    Electrical properties of graphene transparent conductive film under visible light irradiation are investigated. The CVD-grown graphene on Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) and glass substrates for flexible and rigid touch screen display application are chosen for research. The resistances of graphene with and without gold trichloride (AuCl3) doping are measured in vacuum and atmosphere environment under blue light irradiation. Results show that the conductivities of all samples change slowly under light irradiation. The change rate and degree are related to the substrate material, doping, environment and lighting power. Graphene on flexible PET substrate is more stable than that on rigid glass substrate. Doping can improve the electrical conductivity but induce instability under light irradiation. Finally, the main reason resulting in the graphene resistance slowly increasing under blue light irradiation is analyzed.

  12. 100 MeV silver ions induced defects and modifications in silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadhav, Vijay S.; Deore, Avinash V.; Dahiwale, S.S. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 110067 (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Dhole, S.D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: •Study of silver ion induced defects and modifications in silica glass. •Variation in oxygen deficiency centres (ODA-II) and nonbridging oxygen hole centres (NBOHC). •Study of structural damage in terms of Urbach energy. -- Abstract: A few silica glass samples having 1 cm{sup 2} area and 0.1 cm thickness were irradiated with 100 MeV energy Ag{sup 7+} ions for the fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} to 5 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The optical properties and the corresponding induced defects were characterised by the techniques such as UV–Visible, Photoluminescence (PL), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The UV–Visible absorption spectra show two peaks, one at 5 eV and another weak peak at 5.8 eV. A peak observed at 5.0 eV corresponds to B{sub 2} band (oxygen deficiency in SiO{sub 2} network) and the peak at 5.8 eV is due to the paramagnetic defects like E′ centre. The intensities of these peaks found to be increased with increase in ion fluence. It attributes to the increase in the concentration of E′ centres and B{sub 2} band respectively. In addition, the optical band gap energy, Urbach energy and the defects concentration have been calculated using Urbach plot. The optical band gap found to be decreased from 4.65 eV to 4.39 eV and the Urbach energy found to be increased from 60 meV to 162 meV. The defect concentration of nonbridging oxygen hole centres (NBOHC) and E′ centres are found to be increased to 1.69 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} and 3.134 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3} respectively. In PL spectra, the peak appeared at 1.92 eV and 2.7 eV envisage the defects of nonbridging oxygen hole centres and B{sub 2α} oxygen deficient centres respectively. ESR spectra also confirms the existence of E′ and NBOHC centres. FTIR spectra shows scissioning of Si-O-Si bonds and the formation of Si-H and Si-OH bonds, which supports to the co-existence of the defects induced by Ag

  13. EPR study of gamma and neutron irradiation effects on KU1, KS-4V and Infrasil 301 silica glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagomacini, Juan C.; Bravo, David; Leon, Monica; Martin, Piedad; Ibarra, Angel; Martin, Agustin; Lopez, Fernando J.

    2011-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies have been carried out on KU1 and KS-4V high purity quartz glasses and commercial silica Infrasil 301, irradiated with gamma rays up to a dose of 11.6 MGy and neutron fluences of 10 21 and 10 22 n/m 2 . Gamma irradiations produce a much higher concentration of defect centres (mainly E', POR and NBOHC) for KU1 and I301 than for KS-4V silica. In contrast, neutron irradiation at the highest fluence produces similar concentrations in all silica types. These results agree to a good extent with those obtained in previous optical absorption measurements. Moreover, oxygen-related centres (POR and NBOHC) have been well characterized by means of electron paramagnetic resonance.

  14. EPR study of gamma and neutron irradiation effects on KU1, KS-4V and Infrasil 301 silica glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomacini, Juan C., E-mail: jc.lagomacini@uam.es [Dept. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Bravo, David [Dept. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Leon, Monica; Martin, Piedad; Ibarra, Angel [Materiales para Fusion, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Martin, Agustin [Dept. Fisica e Instalaciones, ETS Arquitectura UPM, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez, Fernando J. [Dept. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies have been carried out on KU1 and KS-4V high purity quartz glasses and commercial silica Infrasil 301, irradiated with gamma rays up to a dose of 11.6 MGy and neutron fluences of 10{sup 21} and 10{sup 22} n/m{sup 2}. Gamma irradiations produce a much higher concentration of defect centres (mainly E', POR and NBOHC) for KU1 and I301 than for KS-4V silica. In contrast, neutron irradiation at the highest fluence produces similar concentrations in all silica types. These results agree to a good extent with those obtained in previous optical absorption measurements. Moreover, oxygen-related centres (POR and NBOHC) have been well characterized by means of electron paramagnetic resonance.

  15. Room Temperature Imprint Using Crack-Free Monolithic SiO2-PVA Nanocomposite for Fabricating Microhole Array on Silica Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Fujino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to fabricate microhole arrays onto a silica glass via a room temperature imprint and subsequent sintering by using a monolithic SiO2-poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA nanocomposite as the silica glass precursor. The SiO2-PVA suspension was prepared from fumed silica particles and PVA, followed by drying to obtain tailored SiO2-PVA nanocomposites. The dependence of particle size of the fumed silica particles on pore size of the nanocomposite was examined. Nanocomposites prepared from 7 nm silica particles possessed suitable mesopores, whereas the corresponding nanocomposites prepared from 30 nm silica particles hardly possessed mesopores. The pore size of the nanocomposites increased as a function of decreasing pH of the SiO2-PVA suspension. As a consequence, the crack-free monolithic SiO2-PVA nanocomposite was obtained using 7 nm silica particles via the suspension at pH 3. Micropatterns were imprinted on the monolithic SiO2-PVA nanocomposite at room temperature. The imprinted nanocomposite was sintered to a transparent silica glass at 1200°C in air. The fabricated sintered glass possessed the microhole array on their surface with aspect ratios identical to the mold.

  16. Luminescence of Tb.sup.3+./sup.-doped high silica glass under UV and X-ray excitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chewpraditkul, W.; Shen, Y.; Chen, D.; Beitlerová, Alena; Nikl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2013), s. 426-430 ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12185 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Tb 3+ * luminescence * luminescence decays * porous silica glass * scintillation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.075, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2012.09.012

  17. Electron, hole and exciton self-trapping in germanium doped silica glass from DFT calculations with self-interaction correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jincheng; Rene Corrales, L.; Tsemekhman, Kiril; Bylaska, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to understand the refractive index change in germanium doped silica glasses for the trapped states of electronic excitations induced by UV irradiation. Local structure relaxation and excess electron density distribution were calculated upon self-trapping of an excess electron, hole, and exciton in germanium doped silica glass. The results show that both the trapped exciton and excess electron are highly localized on germanium ion and, to some extent, on its oxygen neighbors. Exciton self-trapping is found to lead to the formation of a Ge E' center and a non-bridging hole center. Electron trapping changes the GeO 4 tetrahedron structure into trigonal bi-pyramid with the majority of the excess electron density located along the equatorial line. The self-trapped hole is localized on bridging oxygen ions that are not coordinated to germanium atoms that lead to elongation of the Si-O bonds and change of the Si-O-Si bond angles. We carried out a comparative study of standard DFT versus DFT with a hybrid PBE0 exchange and correlation functional. The results show that the two methods give qualitatively similar relaxed structure and charge distribution for electron and exciton trapping in germanium doped silica glass; however, only the PBE0 functional produces the self-trapped hole

  18. Structural changes in irreversibly densified fused silica: implications for the chemical resistance of high level nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.; Liebermann, R.C.; Gwanmesia, G.D.; Yanbin Wang

    1990-01-01

    Energetic photons and energetic particles create changes in the structure of nuclear waste glasses. These can be observed as changes in the average bulk physical properties. For example, exposure of fused silica to high doses of neutron bombardment leads to a maximum average compaction of 3%. However, this does not reveal the true extent of the densification that takes place at a microscopic level. Recent advances in high pressure technology have yielded large samples of fused silica which have been permanently densified under pressure and whose bulk density has been increased by 20%. These specimens have an overall structure that replicates the microstructure of a radiation damaged glass. Measurements have been made for the first time of the structural changes in this pressure densified vitreous silica using neutron diffraction and infrared absorption spectrometry. Extensive alterations in intermediate range order have been observed with consequent anticipated changes in chemical reactivity. The resistance of high level waste glasses to leaching by groundwater must be considered in light of these experimental findings. (author)

  19. Effect of colloidal nano-silica on the mechanical and physical behaviour of waste-glass cement mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.; Hashmi, M.S.J.; Olabi, A.G.; Messeiry, M.; Abadir, E.F.; Hussain, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Glass powder (GP) and nano-silica (CS) were used as a partial cement replacement in cement mortar (CM). → No damaging effect can be detected due to the reaction between GP and CM with particle size up to 75 μm. → Hybrid combination of GP/CS greatly improved mechanical properties and microstructure of CM. -- Abstract: This paper presents a laboratory study of the properties of colloidal nano-silica (CS)/waste glass cement composites. The microstructure, alkali-silica reaction (ASR), and the mechanical properties of cement mortars containing waste glass powder (WG) as a cement replacement with and without CS are investigated and compared with plain mortar. In addition, the hydration of cement compounds was followed by differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that incorporation of WG has a positive effect on the mechanical properties of cement mortars especially when CS is presented. In addition, the DTA/TGA results and XRD analysis show a reduction in the calcium hydroxide (CH) content in mortars with both WG and a hybrid combination of WG and CS. This confirms the improvement of mechanical properties and the occurrence of the pozzolanic reaction after 28 days of hydration.

  20. Development of a High Precision Edge Alignment System for Touch-Panel Glass Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Wei Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are two kinds of alignment systems, marked and unmarked. The glass substrate for touch panels is categorized as an unmarked work piece. Vision based glass substrate alignment (GSA relies on the edge of the glass. Traditional GSA systems compensate first for angular and then for linear error. This reduces alignment accuracy and increases alignment time and edge detection usually takes longer than 10 ms. This study proposes an effortless edge detection method. This method is very simple and can significantly reduce the time taken to detect the edge to about 6 ms using a 1.3 megapixel image. In this study, a floating center idea is used to control the glass substrate on a high precision coplanar XXY alignment stage. According to the method, users can set the rotation center anywhere as long as it is on the working (xy plane. Tolerance prognosis is also considered in this study to help the operator decide if the substrate is usable or should be rejected. The experimental results show alignment repeatability of the x, y, and θ axes to be 1 μm, 1 μm, and 5 arcsec, respectively.

  1. Sputtered type s thermocouples on quartz glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopko, B.; Vlk, J.; Chren, D.; Sopko, V.; Dammer, J.; Mengler, J.; Hynek, V.

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with the development of thin film thermocouples and their practical use. The principle of measuring planar thin film thermocouples is the same as for conventional thermocouples and is based on the thermoelectric effect, which named after its discoverer, Seebeck. Seebeck effect is direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage. In different applications it is necessary to use temperature sensors with high spatial resolution (with the placement of several measured points on the segment of length 1 mm) and short response time. For this application are currently used planar thermocouples with important advantage in production price and reproducible production. The innovative potential of thin-film thermocouples are to be found mainly in: 1 st use of technology in thin layers, unlike the already mature technologies applied in the production of conventional thermocouple probes are capable of further improvement with the usage of new substrate materials, modified methods for creating electrical contacts to the new thermocouple configuration and adhesive and protective layers, 2 nd in saving precious and rare metals, 3 rd decreasing the thickness of the layers and reducing the overall size of thermo probe. Measuring the temperature of molten steel, leading to a general loss of strength and the subsequent destruction of the probe. Here exhibited the highest resistance of quartz plates used in thin film substrates thermocouples. (authors)

  2. Calcium and Zinc Containing Bactericidal Glass Coatings for Biomedical Metallic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Esteban-Tejeda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work presents new bactericidal coatings, based on two families of non-toxic, antimicrobial glasses belonging to B2O3–SiO2–Na2O–ZnO and SiO2–Na2O–Al2O3–CaO–B2O3 systems. Free of cracking, single layer direct coatings on different biomedical metallic substrates (titanium alloy, Nb, Ta, and stainless steel have been developed. Thermal expansion mismatch was adjusted by changing glass composition of the glass type, as well as the firing atmosphere (air or Ar according to the biomedical metallic substrates. Formation of bubbles in some of the glassy coatings has been rationalized considering the reactions that take place at the different metal/coating interfaces. All the obtained coatings were proven to be strongly antibacterial versus Escherichia coli (>4 log.

  3. Facile and scalable preparation of highly wear-resistance superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Shanshan; Liu, Ming [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Wu, Yiqiang, E-mail: wuyq0506@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Hunan Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Wood and Bamboo Resources, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Luo, Sha [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Qing, Yan, E-mail: qingyan0429@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Hunan Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Wood and Bamboo Resources, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Chen, Haibo [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Highly wear-resistance superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates was fabricated using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates was efficiently fabricated using nanoparticles modified by VTES. • The superhydrophobic surface exhibited a CA of 154° and a SAclose to 0°. • The superhydrophobic surface showed a durable and robust wear-resistance performance. - Abstract: In this study, an efficient, facile method has been developed for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on wood substrates using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES. The as-prepared superhydrophobic wood surface had a water contact angle of 154° and water slide angle close to 0°. Simultaneously, this superhydrophobic wood showed highly durable and robust wear resistance when having undergone a long period of sandpaper abrasion or being scratched by a knife. Even under extreme conditions of boiling water, the superhydrophobicity of the as-prepared wood composite was preserved. Characterizations by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that a typical and tough hierarchical micro/nanostructure was created on the wood substrate and vinyltriethoxysilane contributed to preventing the agglomeration of silica nanoparticles and serving as low-surface-free-energy substances. This superhydrophobic wood was easy to fabricate, mechanically resistant and exhibited long-term stability. Therefore, it is considered to be of significant importance in the industrial production of functional wood, especially for outdoor applications.

  4. F2-laser patterning of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film on glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M.Y.; Li, J.; Herman, P.R.; Lilge, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the controlled micromachining of 100 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates with a vacuum-ultraviolet 157 nm F 2 laser. Partial to complete film removal was observed over a wide fluence window from 0.49 J/cm 2 to an optimized single pulse fluence of 4.5 J/cm 2 for complete film removal. Optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis show little substrate or collateral damage by the laser pulse which conserved the stoichiometry, optical transparency and electrical conductivity of ITO coating adjacent to the trenches. At higher fluence, a parallel micron sized channel can be etched in the glass substrate. The high photon energy and top-hat beam homogenized optical system of the F 2 laser opens new means for direct structuring of electrodes and microchannels in biological microfluidic systems or in optoelectronics. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of TiO2 Thin Films on Glass Substrate Growth Using DC Sputtering Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Santoso; Tjipto Sujitno; Sayono

    2002-01-01

    It has been fabricated and characterization a TiO 2 thin films deposited on glass substrate using DC sputtering technique. Fabrication of TiO 2 thin films were carried out at electrode voltage 4 kV, sputtering current 5 mA, vacuum pressure 5 x 10 -4 torr, deposition time 150 minutes, and temperature of the substrate were varied from 150 -350 o C, while as a gas sputter was argon. The results was tested their micro structure using SEM, and crystal structure using XRD and found that the crystal structure of TiO 2 powder before deposited on glass substrate was rutile and anatase with orientation (110) and (200) for anatase and (100) and (111) rutile structure. While the crystal structure which deposited at temperature 150 o C and deposition time 2.5 hours was anatase with orientation (001) and (200). (author)

  6. High performance, transparent a-IGZO TFTs on a flexible thin glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gwang Jun; Jang, Jae Eun; Kim, Joonwoo; Kim, Jung-Hye; Jeong, Soon Moon; Jeong, Jaewook

    2014-01-01

    We investigated electrical properties of transparent amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) transparent electrodes on a flexble thin glass substrate. The TFTs show a high field-effect mobility, a good subthreshold slope and a high on/off ratio owing to the high temperature thermal annealing process which cannot be applied to typical transparent polymer-based flexible substrates. Bias stress instability tests applying tensile stress concurrently with the bending radius of up to 40 mm indicated that mechanically and electrically stable a-IGZO TFTs can be fabricated on the transparent thin glass substrate. (paper)

  7. Synthesis of nanocrystalline LaF3 doped silica glasses by hydrofluoric acid catalyzed sol–gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Shuhei; Kajihara, Koichi; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silica glasses doped by LaF 3 nanocrystals are obtained by HF-catalyzed sol–gel method. ► The processing time (∼1 week) is much shorter than that of previous studies. ► The uptake of SiF groups in the glass matrix greatly reduces the SiOH concentration. ► Effects of sintering conditions and properties of Er 3+ -doped samples are presented. - Abstract: Silica glasses doped with LaF 3 nanocrystals were prepared by HF-catalyzed sol–gel method. HF was used both as fluorine source and as catalyst of the sol–gel reaction, making it possible to shorten the processing time with reducing the concentration of SiOH groups to ∼10 18 cm −3 . The resultant glasses are transparent at visible spectral range, and the optical loss at the ultraviolet absorption edge is dominated by the Rayleigh scattering from LaF 3 crystallites. The size of LaF 3 crystallites increases with an increase in the sintering temperature and time, and is smaller than ∼40 nm in samples showing good visible transparency. Green upconversion photoluminescence is observed in an Er 3+ -doped sample under excitation at 980 nm.

  8. The Effect of Composition on Spinel Crystals Equilibrium in Low-Silica High-Level Waste Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiricka, Milos; Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.

    2003-01-01

    The liquidus temperature (TL) and the equilibrium mass fraction of spinel were measured in the regions of low-silica (less than 42 mass% SiO2) high-level waste borosilicate glasses within the spinel primary phase field as functions of glass composition. The components that varied, one at a time, were Al2O3, B2O3, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, Li2O, MnO, Na2O, NiO, SiO2, and ZrO2. The effects of Al2O3, B2O3, Fe2O3, NiO, SiO2, and ZrO2 on the TL in this region and in glasses with 42 to 56 mass% SiO2 were similar. However, in the low-silica region, Cr2O3 increased the TL substantially less, and Li2O and Na2O decreased the TL significantly less than in the region with 42 to 56 mass% SiO2. The effect of MnO on the TL of the higher SiO2 glasses is not yet understood with sufficient accuracy. The temperature at which the equilibrium mass fraction of spinel was 1 mass% was 25C to 64C below the TL

  9. Reduced bacteria adhesion on octenidine loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles coating on titanium substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gaoqiang; Shen, Xinkun; Dai, Liangliang; Ran, Qichun; Ma, Pingping; Cai, Kaiyong

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial infection is one of the most severe postoperative complications leading to implantation failure. The early bacterial stage (4-6h) was proved to be the "decisive period" for long-term bacteria-related infection. Thus, to endow potential early antibacterial capacity for a titanium (Ti) based implant, an effective antiseptic agent of octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) was effectively loaded on the mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs)-incorporated titania coating which was fabricated by an electrophoretic-enhanced micro-arc oxidation technique. The surface characteristic of the coatings were characterized by various methods (SEM, AFM, XPS, XRD, etc.), and its corrosion resistance was also examined by the potentiodynamic polarization curves. The composite coating without OCT loading not only displayed good cytocompatibility but also exhibited certain anti-bacterial property. After loading with OCT, its antibacterial efficiency of the titanium substrates with composite coating was greatly enhanced without compromising their cytocompatibility. The study provides an approach for the fabrication of anti-bacterial Ti implant for potential orthopedic application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phase transformation during silica cluster impact on crystal silicon substrate studied by molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ruling; Luo Jianbin; Guo Dan; Lu Xinchun

    2008-01-01

    The process of a silica cluster impact on a crystal silicon substrate is studied by molecular dynamics simulation. At the impact loading stage, crystal silicon of the impact zone transforms to a locally ordered molten with increasing the local temperature and pressure of the impact zone. And then the transient molten forms amorphous silicon directly as the local temperature and pressure decrease at the impact unloading stage. Moreover, the phase behavior between the locally ordered molten and amorphous silicon exhibits the reversible structural transition. The transient molten contains not only lots of four-fold atom but also many three- and five-fold atoms. And the five-fold atom is similar to the mixture structure of semi-Si-II and semi-bct5-Si. The structure transformation between five- and four-fold atoms is affected by both pressure and temperature. The structure transformation between three- and four-fold atoms is affected mostly by temperature. The direct structure transformation between five- and three-fold atoms is not observed. Finally, these five- and three-fold atoms are also different from the usual five- and three-fold deficient atoms of amorphous silicon. In addition, according to the change of coordination number of atoms the impact process is divided into six stages: elastic, plastic, hysteresis, phase regressive, adhesion and cooling stages

  11. Silica coating of PbS quantum dots and their position control using a nanohole on Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Kohki; Okumura, Isao; Nishizaki, Yuta; Yamashita, Shuzo; Niwa, Keisuke

    2018-04-01

    We succeeded in controlling the apparent size of a colloidal PbS quantum dot (QD) in the range of 20 to 140 nm by coating with silica and trapping the coated QDs in a nanohole prepared by scanning probe microscope lithography. Photoluminescence intensity was improved by controlling the process of adding the silica source material of tetraethoxysilane for the coating. Nanoholes of different sizes were formed on a single substrate by scanning probe oxidation with the combination of SF6 dry etching and KOH wet etching. QDs having an arbitrary energy structure can be arranged at an arbitrary position on the semiconductor substrate using this technique, which will aid in the fabrication of future nanosize solid devices such as quantum information circuits.

  12. Synthesis of functionally graded bioactive glass-apatite multistructures on Ti substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaskovic, D.; Jokic, B.; Socol, G.; Popescu, A.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Petrovic, R.; Janackovic, Dj.

    2007-01-01

    Functionally graded glass-apatite multistructures were synthesized by pulsed laser deposition on Ti substrates. We used sintered targets of hydroxyapatite Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , or bioglasses in the system SiO 2 -Na 2 O-K 2 O-CaO-MgO-P 2 O 5 with SiO 2 content of either 57 wt.% (6P57) or 61 wt.% (6P61). A UV KrF* (λ = 248 nm, τ > 7 ns) excimer laser source was used for the multipulse laser ablation of the targets. The hydroxyapatite thin films were obtained in H 2 O vapors, while the bioglass layers were deposited in O 2 . Thin films of 6P61 were deposited in direct contact with Ti, because Ti and this glass have similar thermal expansion behaviors, which ensure good bioglass adhesion to the substrate. This glass, however, is not bioactive, so yet more depositions of 6P57 bioglass and/or hydroxyapatite thin films were performed. All structures with hydroxyapatite overcoating were post-treated in a flux of water vapors. The obtained multistructures were characterized by various techniques. X-ray investigations of the coatings found small amounts of crystalline hydroxyapatite in the outer layers. The scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed homogeneous coatings with good adhesion to the Ti substrate. Our studies showed that the multistructures we had obtained were compatible with further use in biomimetic metallic implants with glass-apatite coating applications

  13. Design and fabrication of directional diffractive device on glass substrate for multiview holographic 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yanfeng; Cai, Zhijian; Liu, Quan; Zou, Wenlong; Guo, Peiliang; Wu, Jianhong

    2018-01-01

    Multiview holographic 3D display based on the nano-grating patterned directional diffractive device can provide 3D images with high resolution and wide viewing angle, which has attracted considerable attention. However, the current directional diffractive device fabricated on the photoresist is vulnerable to damage, which will lead to the short service life of the device. In this paper, we propose a directional diffractive device on glass substrate to increase its service life. In the design process, the period and the orientation of the nano-grating at each pixel are carefully calculated accordingly by the predefined position of the viewing zone, and the groove parameters are designed by analyzing the diffraction efficiency of the nano-grating pixel on glass substrate. In the experiment, a 4-view photoresist directional diffractive device with a full coverage of pixelated nano-grating arrays is efficiently fabricated by using an ultraviolet continuously variable spatial frequency lithography system, and then the nano-grating patterns on the photoresist are transferred to the glass substrate by combining the ion beam etching and the reactive ion beam etching for controlling the groove parameters precisely. The properties of the etched glass device are measured under the illumination of a collimated laser beam with a wavelength of 532nm. The experimental results demonstrate that the light utilization efficiency is improved and optimized in comparison with the photoresist device. Furthermore, the fabricated device on glass substrate is easier to be replicated and of better durability and practicability, which shows great potential in the commercial applications of 3D display terminal.

  14. Photovoltaic Properties of Co-doped ZnO Thin Film on Glass Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabia Aye; Zin Ma Ma; May Nwe Oo; Than Than Win; Yin Maung Maung; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2011-12-01

    Cobalt (Co) 0.4 mol doped zinc oxide (ZnO) fine powder was prepared by solid state mixed oxide route. Phase formation and crystal structure of Co-doped ZnO (CZO) powder were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the micro structure of Co doped ZnO powder. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent (EDXRF) technique gave the elemental content of cobalt and zinc. Co-doped ZnO film was formed on glass substrate by spin coating technique. Photovoltaic properties of CZO/glass cell were measured.

  15. A study of the adsorption activities of silanol surface structures on a fused silica model substrate by combining 29Si CP MAS NMR and inverse gas chromatographic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, A.B.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Haan, de J.W.; Cramers, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The possibilities of inverse gas-solid chromatog. (IGC) in obtaining chromatog. data on fumed silica were examd. Aerosil A-200, a fused silica model substrate in 29Si NMR anal., was trimethylsilylated to different degrees. IGC was used to vary reproducibly det. the free specific energies of

  16. Effect of silver ions on the energy transfer from host defects to Tb ions in sol–gel silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbass, Abd Ellateef [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa); Department of Physics, Sudan University of Science and Technology (Sudan); Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa); Kroon, R.E., E-mail: KroonRE@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa)

    2015-04-15

    Plasmonic metal structures have been suggested to enhance the luminescence from rare-earth (RE) ions, but this enhancement is not yet well understood or applied to phosphor materials. Although some reports using Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in glass have attributed enhancement of RE emission to the strong electric fields associated with Ag NPs, it has also been proposed that the enhancement is instead due to energy transfer from Ag ions to RE ions. Our work using sol–gel silica shows a third possibility, namely that enhancement of the RE (e.g. Tb) emission is due to energy transfer from defects of the host material to the Tb ions, where the addition of Ag influences the silica host defects. The oxidation state of Ag as a function of annealing temperature was investigated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis measurements and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while optical properties were investigated using a Cary Eclipse fluorescence spectrophotometer or by exciting samples with a 325 nm He–Cd laser. The results showed that Ag ions have a significant effect on the silica host defects, which resulted in enhancement of the green Tb emission at 544 nm for non-resonant excitation using a wavelength of 325 nm. - Highlights: • Conversion of Ag ions to metallic nanoparticles after annealing of sol–gel silica. • Addition of Ag resulted in enhanced green luminescence from Tb ions in silica. • Enhancement is attributed to the effect of added Ag on the host defects of silica.

  17. SOL-GEL SILICA-BASED Ag–Ca–P COATINGS WITH AGRESSIVE PRETREATMENT OF TITANIUM SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA BORSHCHEVA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was the obtaining of thin silica coatings on titanium by sol-gel method, using mechanical (SiC - paper No.180 and chemical (leaching in HF pretreatments of the titanium substrates. The solutions were based on TEOS. For the sol-gel dipping process 4 different solutions were prepared: silica, silica with AgNO3 and silica + AgNO3 with brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O or monetite (CaHPO4 powders. The solutions were aged for 7 and 14 days at laboratory temperature. After sol-gel dip-coating process the samples were dried and fired. The adhesion of fired coatings was measured by tape test according to ASTM procedure and the bioactivity of the coatings was tested using in vitro test. The surfaces of the samples after firing, tape test and in vitro test were observed with the optical and electron microscopes. The firing results showed that silica-silver coatings did not change, brushite sol-gel coatings have cracked and the monetite sol-gel coatings have cracked also, but less than brushite ones. In spite of coating´s crackings, the square’s frames made on the surfaces were without any breakdowns after tape tests and the adhesion of all coatings was very good, classified by the highest grade 5. The results of in vitro tests showed that all coatings interacted with simulated body fluid (SBF. After exposition in SBF the new layer formed on substrates. In case of 7 days aged coatings containing brushite the new layer was uniform and compact. In case of 7 days aged coatings containing monetite the new layer was formed by crystals aggregated tightly together. The monetite and brushite coatings prepared from 14 days aged sol were the same as previous ones, but they were thicker. X-ray analyses after in vitro test confirmed dellaite, titanate and hydroxyapatite phases.

  18. Deep-UV Raman spectroscopic analysis of structure and dissolution rates of silica-rich sodium borosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, Charles F.; Pierce, Eric M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bovaird, Chase C.

    2011-03-24

    As part of ongoing studies to evaluate the relationships between structural variations in silicate glasses and rates of glass dissolution in aqueous media, molecular structures present in sodium borosilicate glasses of composition Na2O.xB2O3.(3-x)SiO2, with x 1 (Na2O/B2O3 ratio 1), were analyzed using deep-UV Raman spectroscopy. The results were quantified in terms of the fraction of SiO4 tetrahedra with one non-bridging oxygen (Q3) and then correlated with Na2O and B2O3 content. Increasing Na2O was found to raise the fraction of Q3 units in the glasses systematically, in agreement with studies on related glasses, and, as long as the value of x was not too high, contribute to higher rates of dissolution in single pass flow-through testing. The finding was obtained across more than one series of silica-rich glasses prepared for independent dissolution studies. In contrast, dissolution rates were less strongly determined by the Q3 fraction when the value of x was near unity and appeared to grow larger upon further reduction of the Q3 fraction. The results were interpreted to indicate the increasingly important role of network hydrolysis in the glass dissolution mechanism as the BO4 tetrahedron replaces the Q3 unit as the charge-compensating structure for Na+ ions. Finally, the use of deep-UV Raman spectroscopy was found to be advantageous in studying finely powdered glasses in cases where visible Raman spectroscopy suffered from weak Raman scattering and fluorescence interference.

  19. Experimental Investigation on Cutting Characteristics in Nanometric Plunge-Cutting of BK7 and Fused Silica Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qinglong; Ming, Weiwei; Chen, Ming

    2015-03-27

    Ductile cutting are most widely used in fabricating high-quality optical glass components to achieve crack-free surfaces. For ultra-precision machining of brittle glass materials, critical undeformed chip thickness (CUCT) commonly plays a pivotal role in determining the transition point from ductile cutting to brittle cutting. In this research, cutting characteristics in nanometric cutting of BK7 and fused silica glasses, including machined surface morphology, surface roughness, cutting force and specific cutting energy, were investigated with nanometric plunge-cutting experiments. The same cutting speed of 300 mm/min was used in the experiments with single-crystal diamond tool. CUCT was determined according to the mentioned cutting characteristics. The results revealed that 320 nm was found as the CUCT in BK7 cutting and 50 nm was determined as the size effect of undeformed chip thickness. A high-quality machined surface could be obtained with the undeformed chip thickness between 50 and 320 nm at ductile cutting stage. Moreover, no CUCT was identified in fused silica cutting with the current cutting conditions, and brittle-fracture mechanism was confirmed as the predominant chip-separation mode throughout the nanometric cutting operation.

  20. Seebeck coefficient of synthesized Titanium Dioxide thin film on FTO glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usop, R.; Hamed, N. K. A.; Megat Hasnan, M. M. I.; Ikeda, H.; Sabri, M. F. M.; Ahmad, M. K.; Said, S. M.; Salleh, F.

    2018-04-01

    In order to fabricate a thermoelectric device on glass substrate for harvesting waste heat energy through house appliances, the Seebeck coefficient of translucent TiO2 thin film was investigated. The TiO2 thin film was synthesized by using hydrothermal method with F-SnO2 coated glass as substrate. From scanning electron microscopy analysis, the synthesized TiO2 thin film was found to be in nanometer-scale rod structure with a thickness of 4 µm. The Seebeck coefficient was measured in the temperature range of 300 – 400 K. The Seebeck coefficient is found to be in negative value which shows that synthesized film is an n-type semiconductor material, and is lower than the value of bulk-size material. This reduction in Seebeck coefficient of TiO2 thin film is likely due to the low dimensional effect and the difference of carrier concentration.

  1. Bonding strength of glass-ceramic trabecular-like coatings to ceramic substrates for prosthetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Baino, Francesco; Pugno, Nicola M; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2013-04-01

    A new approach based on the concepts of quantized fracture mechanics (QFM) is presented and discussed in this paper to estimate the bonding strength of trabecular-like coatings, i.e. glass-ceramic scaffolds mimicking the architecture of cancellous bone, to ceramic substrates. The innovative application of glass-derived scaffolds as trabecular-like coatings is proposed in order to enhance the osteointegration of prosthetic ceramic devices. The scaffolds, prepared by polymeric sponge replication, are joined to alumina substrates by a dense glass-ceramic coating (interlayer) and the so-obtained 3-layer constructs are investigated from micro-structural, morphological and mechanical viewpoints. In particular, the fracture strengths of three different crack propagation modes, i.e. glass-derived scaffold fracture, interface delamination or mixed fracture, are predicted in agreement with those of experimental mechanical tests. The approach proposed in this work could have interesting applications towards an ever more rational design of bone tissue engineering biomaterials and coatings, in view of the optimization of their mechanical properties for making them actually suitable for clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Binding of mouse immunoglobulin G to polylysine-coated glass substrate for immunodiagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Tewari, Rupinder; Bajpai, Ram Prakash; Bharadwaj, Lalit Mohan; Raiteri, Roberto

    2006-12-01

    We report a method for immobilizing mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) on polylysine-coated glass substrate for immunodiagnostic applications. Mouse IgG molecules were immobilized on polylysine-coated glass substrate employing 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and protein A. The amino groups of the polylysine-coated glass slide were cross linked to the carboxyl groups of protein A employing EDC crosslinker. Protein A was employed as it binds to the constant Fc region of antibodies keeping their antigen binding sites on the variable F ab region free to bind to antigens. The qualitative analysis of surface immobilized mouse IgG was done by fluorescent microscopy employing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled mouse IgG molecules. The immobilization densities of protein A and mouse IgG were determined by 3, 3', 4, 4'-tetramethyl benzidine (TMB) substrate assay employing horse radish peroxidise labelled molecules and were found to be 130 +/- 17 ng/cm2 and 596 +/- 31 ng/cm2 respectively. The biomolecular coatings analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) were found to be uniform.

  3. Sputtering of silicon and glass substrates with polyatomic molecular ion beams generated from ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuaki, E-mail: m-takeuchi@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Hoshide, Yuki; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Takaoka, Gikan H. [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Kyotodaigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    The effect of irradiating 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium positive (EMIM{sup +}) or dicyanamide negative (DCA{sup –}) ion beams using an ionic liquid ion source was characterized concerning its sputtering properties for single crystalline Si(100) and nonalkaline borosilicate glass substrates. The irradiation of the DCA{sup –} ion beam onto the Si substrate at an acceleration voltage of 4 and 6 kV exhibited detectable sputtered depths greater than a couple of nanometers with an ion fluence of only 1 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, while the EMIM{sup +} ion beam produced the same depths with an ion fluence 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. The irradiation of a 4 kV DCA{sup –} ion beam at a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} also yields large etching depths in Si substrates, corresponding to a sputtering yield of Si/DCA{sup – }= 10, and exhibits a smoothed surface roughness of 0.05 nm. The interaction between DCA{sup –} and Si likely causes a chemical reaction that relates to the high sputtering yield and forms an amorphous C-N capping layer that results in the smooth surface. Moreover, sputtering damage by the DCA{sup –} irradiation, which was estimated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy with the channeling technique, was minimal compared to Ar{sup +} irradiation at the same condition. In contrast, the glass substrates exhibited no apparent change in surface roughnesses when sputtered by the DCA{sup –} irradiation compared to the unirradiated glass substrates.

  4. Use of wasted foundry sand (WFS) as a partial substitute for silica in a soda lime glass; Utilizacao de areia descartada de fundicao (ADF) como substituinte parcial da silica em um vidro soda-cal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.C.; Ueno, O.K.; Folgueras, M.V., E-mail: amandacarolinemartin@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (CCT/UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2016-07-01

    The waste foundry sand (WFS) is the main waste generates in foundry industries. Studies in the literature suggest the use of WFS in different materials, such as concrete, brick or asphalt. This work aims to partially replace the silica of a soda-lime glass by the WFS. The waste foundry sand has in its composition elements such as iron and aluminum that can affect the glass quality, which justifies the residue processing to reduce the impurity content. The treatments, that included mechanical agitation and thermal treatment, resulted in a slight decrease in the percent of iron with consequent increase of the silica content. After treatment, some sands were incorporated into the glass, that showed green color but with lower absorption intensity for the sand with less iron content. It was observed that it's possible to obtain glasses using WFS, however, there is difficulty in color controlling. (author.

  5. Reaction of soda-lime-silica glass melt with water vapour at melting temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vernerová, Miroslava; Kloužek, Jaroslav; Němec, Lubomír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 416, MAY 15 (2015), s. 21-30 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010844 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melt * sulfate * water vapour * bubble nucleation * melt foaming * glass melting Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.825, year: 2015

  6. Watching Silica's Dance: Imaging the Structure and Dynamics of the Atomic (Re-) Arrangements in 2D Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, David

    2014-03-01

    Even though glasses are almost ubiquitous--in our windows, on our iPhones, even on our faces--they are also mysterious. Because glasses are notoriously difficult to study, basic questions like: ``How are the atoms arranged? Where and how do glasses break?'' are still under contention. We use aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to image the atoms in a new two-dimensional phase of silica glass - freestanding it becomes the world's thinnest pane of glass at only 3-atoms thick, and take a unique look into these questions. Using atom-by-atom imaging and spectroscopy, we are able to reconstruct the full structure and bonding of this 2D glass and identify it as a bi-tetrahedral layer of SiO2. Our images also strikingly resemble Zachariasen's original cartoon models of glasses, drawn in 1932. As such, our work realizes an 80-year-old vision for easily understandable glassy systems and introduces promising methods to test theoretical predictions against experimental data. We image atoms in the disordered solid and track their motions in response to local strain. We directly obtain ring statistics and pair distribution functions that span short-, medium-, and long-range order, and test these against long-standing theoretical predictions of glass structure and dynamics. We use the electron beam to excite atomic rearrangements, producing surprisingly rich and beautiful videos of how a glass bends and breaks, as well as the exchange of atoms at a solid/liquid interface. Detailed analyses of these videos reveal a complex dance of elastic and plastic deformations, phase transitions, and their interplay. These examples illustrate the wide-ranging and fundamental materials physics that can now be studied at atomic-resolution via transmission electron microscopy of two-dimensional glasses. Work in collaboration with: S. Kurasch, U. Kaiser, R. Hovden, Q. Mao, J. Kotakoski, J. S. Alden, A. Shekhawat, A. A. Alemi, J. P. Sethna, P. L. McEuen, A.V. Krasheninnikov

  7. Coating extracellular matrix proteins on a (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-treated glass substrate for improved cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hiro-taka; Ishihara, Seiichiro; Harada, Ichiro; Mizutani, Takeomi; Ishikawa, Masayori; Kawabata, Kazushige; Haga, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that a (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-treated glass surface is superior to an untreated glass surface for coating with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins when used as a cell culture substrate to observe cell physiology and behavior. We found that MDCK cells cultured on untreated glass coated with ECM removed the coated ECM protein and secreted different ECM proteins. In contrast, the cells did not remove the coated ECM protein when seeded on (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-treated (i.e., silanized) glass coated with ECM. Furthermore, the morphology and motility of cells grown on silanized glass differed from those grown on non-treated glass, even when both types of glass were initially coated with laminin. We also found that cells on silanized glass coated with laminin had higher motility than those on silanized glass coated with fibronectin. Based on our results, we suggest that silanized glass is a more suitable cell culture substrate than conventional non-treated glass when coated by ECM for observations of ECM effects on cell physiology.

  8. High thermal behavior of a new glass ceramic developed from silica xerogel/SnO{sub 2} composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aripin, H., E-mail: aripin@unsil.ac.id [Faculty of Learning Teacher and Education Science, Siliwangi University, Jl. Siliwangi 24 Tasikmalaya 46115, West Java (Indonesia); Mitsudo, Seitaro, E-mail: mitsudo@fir.u-fukui.ac.jp [Research Center for Development of Far Infrared Region (FIR Center), University of Fukui, Bunkyo 3-9-1 Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Sudiana, I. Nyoman, E-mail: sudiana75@yahoo.com [Departement Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Haluoleo University, Kampus Bumi Tridharma Anduonohu, Kendari 93232 (Indonesia); Priatna, Edvin, E-mail: ujack05@yahoo.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Siliwangi University, Tasikmalaya (Indonesia); Sabchevski, Svilen, E-mail: sabch@ie.bas.bg [Lab. Plasma Physics and Engineering, Institute of Electronics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Shose Blvd., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)

    2016-02-08

    In this investigation, a new glass ceramics have been produced by mixing SnO{sub 2} and amorphous silica xerogel (ASX) extracted from sago waste ash. The composition has been prepared by adding 10 mol% of SnO{sub 2} into SX. The samples have been dry pressed and sintered in the temperature range between 800 °C and 1500 °C. The effects of temperature on the crystallization of silica xerogel after adding SnO{sub 2} and their relationship to bulk density have been studied. The crystallization process of the silica xerogel/SnO{sub 2} composite has been examined by an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the bulk density has been characterized on the basis of the experimental data obtained using Archimedes′ principle. It has been found that an addition of SnO{sub 2} confers an appreciable effect on the grain and from the interpretation of XRD patterns allow one to explain the increase in the density by an increased crystallite size of SnO{sub 2} in the composite.

  9. Modification of medium-range order in silica glass by ball-milling: real- and reciprocal-space structural correlations for the first sharp diffraction peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Akira; Kohara, Shinji; Uchino, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out high-energy x-ray diffraction measurements on mechanically milled silica glass. It has been found that the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) in the structure factor S(Q) of silica glass appreciably decreases in intensity as a result of mechanical milling, whereas the observed features of the other peaks in S(Q) almost remain unchanged. The corresponding real-space correlation function of the milled samples shows a marked decrease in intensity at r∼5 A. This gives an experimental manifestation that the dominant real-space structural correlation pertaining to the FSDP occurs at r∼5 A

  10. Modification of medium-range order in silica glass by ball-milling: real- and reciprocal-space structural correlations for the first sharp diffraction peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Akira [Department of Chemistry, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [SPring-8, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Uchino, Takashi [Department of Chemistry, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2007-11-14

    We have carried out high-energy x-ray diffraction measurements on mechanically milled silica glass. It has been found that the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) in the structure factor S(Q) of silica glass appreciably decreases in intensity as a result of mechanical milling, whereas the observed features of the other peaks in S(Q) almost remain unchanged. The corresponding real-space correlation function of the milled samples shows a marked decrease in intensity at r{approx}5 A. This gives an experimental manifestation that the dominant real-space structural correlation pertaining to the FSDP occurs at r{approx}5 A.

  11. Osseointegration properties of titanium dental implants modified with a nanostructured coating based on ordered porous silica and bioactive glass nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias, Cristian, E-mail: ccovarrubias@odontologia.uchile.cl [Laboratory of Nanobiomaterials, Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Mattmann, Matías [Laboratory of Nanobiomaterials, Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Von Marttens, Alfredo [Department of Prosthesis, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Caviedes, Pablo; Arriagada, Cristián [Laboratory of Cell Therapy, ICBM, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile (Chile); Valenzuela, Francisco [Laboratory of Nanobiomaterials, Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Rodríguez, Juan Pablo [Laboratory of Cell Biology, INTA, University of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Corral, Camila [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The fabrication of a coating for osseointegration of titanium implant is presented. • The coating consists of nanoporous silica loaded with bioactive glass nanoparticles. • Coating accelerates the in vitro formation of apatite in simulated body fluid. • Coating promotes the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. • Coating accelerates the formation of bone tissue in the periphery of the implant. - Abstract: The fabrication of a nanoporous silica coating loaded with bioactive glass nanoparticles (nBG/NSC) on titanium dental implant surface and its in vitro and in vivo evaluation is presented. The coating was produced by a combined sol–gel and evaporation induced self-assembly process. In vitro bioactivity was assessed in simulated body fluid (SBF) and investigating the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). A rat tibial model was employed to analyze the bone response to nBG/NSC-modified titanium implant surface in vivo. The nBG/NSC coating was confirmed at nano level to be constituted by a highly ordered nanoporous silica structure. The coating nanotopography in conjunction with the bioactivity of the BG particles accelerate the in vitro apatite formation and promote the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in absence of osteogenic supplements. These properties accelerate the formation of bone tissue in the periphery of the implant after 3 weeks of implantation. Backscattered scanning electron microscopy images revealed the presence of gaps and soft tissue in the unmodified implant after 6 weeks, whereas the nBG/NSC-modified implant showed mature bone in intimate contact with the implant surface. The nBG/NSC coating appears promising for accelerating the osseointegration of dental implants.

  12. Osseointegration properties of titanium dental implants modified with a nanostructured coating based on ordered porous silica and bioactive glass nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covarrubias, Cristian; Mattmann, Matías; Von Marttens, Alfredo; Caviedes, Pablo; Arriagada, Cristián; Valenzuela, Francisco; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Corral, Camila

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The fabrication of a coating for osseointegration of titanium implant is presented. • The coating consists of nanoporous silica loaded with bioactive glass nanoparticles. • Coating accelerates the in vitro formation of apatite in simulated body fluid. • Coating promotes the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. • Coating accelerates the formation of bone tissue in the periphery of the implant. - Abstract: The fabrication of a nanoporous silica coating loaded with bioactive glass nanoparticles (nBG/NSC) on titanium dental implant surface and its in vitro and in vivo evaluation is presented. The coating was produced by a combined sol–gel and evaporation induced self-assembly process. In vitro bioactivity was assessed in simulated body fluid (SBF) and investigating the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). A rat tibial model was employed to analyze the bone response to nBG/NSC-modified titanium implant surface in vivo. The nBG/NSC coating was confirmed at nano level to be constituted by a highly ordered nanoporous silica structure. The coating nanotopography in conjunction with the bioactivity of the BG particles accelerate the in vitro apatite formation and promote the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in absence of osteogenic supplements. These properties accelerate the formation of bone tissue in the periphery of the implant after 3 weeks of implantation. Backscattered scanning electron microscopy images revealed the presence of gaps and soft tissue in the unmodified implant after 6 weeks, whereas the nBG/NSC-modified implant showed mature bone in intimate contact with the implant surface. The nBG/NSC coating appears promising for accelerating the osseointegration of dental implants.

  13. Comparison study of ITO thin films deposited by sputtering at room temperature onto polymer and glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been grown simultaneously onto glass and polymer substrates at room temperature by sputtering from ceramic target. The structure, morphology and electro-optical characteristics of the ITO/glass and ITO/polymer samples have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, four-point electrical measurements and spectrophotometry. In the selected experimental conditions, the polycrystalline ITO coating shows higher average grain size and higher conductivity, with similar visible transmittance, onto the polymer than onto the glass substrate

  14. The micro-optic photovoltaic behavior of solar cell along with microlens curved glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Jin; Wu, Keke; Cheng, Jian; Li, Ping; Zheng, Jiahua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A microlens array may be micro-ground on curved photovoltaic glass substrate. • Its micro-optical structure absorbs and scatters the inclined light to solar cell. • It increases conversion efficiency and fill factor in weak and inclined lights. • It improves electricity generation by about 4 times in scattered cloudy daylight. • It produces stronger electricity generation in cloudy day than in sunny day. - Abstract: A hybrid of microlens structure and curved surface may produce high value-added micro-optic performance. Hence, the microlens array is proposed on macro curved glass substrate of thin film solar cell. The objective is to understand how the micro-optic behavior of microlens curved array influences indoor power conversion efficiency and outdoor electricity generation. First, the absorptivities of visible light and infrared light were analyzed in connection with the curved microlens sizes; then the microlens curved glass substrate was fabricated by a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) micro-grinding with micro diamond wheel V-tip; finally, its photovoltaic properties and electricity generation were measured, respectively. It is shown that the microlens curved surface may strongly absorb and scatter light to solar cell. It increases the absorptivity of visible light against plane surface, but it decreases the one of infrared light against microlens surface. When it is applied to solar cell, it enhances the power conversion efficiency by 3.4–10.6% under oblique illumination. When it is applied to solar device, it increases the electricity generation of daylight by 119–106% against microlens surface and by 260–419% against traditional plane surface, respectively. The surprising finding is that it produces much larger electricity generation during cloudy day than during sunny day, but traditional plane surface does not so

  15. Sputter deposition of PZT piezoelectric films on thin glass substrates for adjustable x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Rudeger H T; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N; Reid, Paul B; Schwartz, Daniel A; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2013-05-10

    Piezoelectric PbZr(0.52)Ti(0.48)O(3) (PZT) thin films deposited on thin glass substrates have been proposed for adjustable optics in future x-ray telescopes. The light weight of these x-ray optics enables large collecting areas, while the capability to correct mirror figure errors with the PZT thin film will allow much higher imaging resolution than possible with conventional lightweight optics. However, the low strain temperature and flexible nature of the thin glass complicate the use of chemical-solution deposition due to warping of the substrate at typical crystallization temperatures for the PZT. RF magnetron sputtering enabled preparation of PZT films with thicknesses up to 3 μm on Schott D263 glass substrates with much less deformation. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the films crystallized with the perovskite phase and showed no indication of secondary phases. Films with 1 cm(2) electrodes exhibited relative permittivity values near 1100 and loss tangents below 0.05. In addition, the remanent polarization was 26 μC/cm(2) with coercive fields of 33 kV/cm. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient was as high as -6.1±0.6 C/m(2). To assess influence functions for the x-ray optics application, the piezoelectrically induced deflection of individual cells was measured and compared with finite-element-analysis calculations. The good agreement between the results suggests that actuation of PZT thin films can control mirror figure errors to a precision of about 5 nm, allowing sub-arcsecond imaging.

  16. A comparative study of Co thin film deposited on GaAs (1 0 0) and glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.; Brajpuriya, R.; Tripathi, S.; Jain, D.; Dubey, R.; Shripathi, T.; Chaudhari, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The structural, magnetic and transport properties of Co/GaAs (1 0 0) and Co/glass thin films have been investigated. The structural measurements reveal the crystalline nature of Co thin film grown on GaAs, while microcrystalline nature in case of glass substrate. The film grown on GaAs shows higher coercivity (49.0 G), lower saturation magnetization (3.65 x 10 -4 ) and resistivity (8 μΩ cm) values as compared to that on glass substrate (22 G, 4.77 x 10 -4 and 18 μΩ cm). The grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity and photoemission spectroscopy results show the interaction between Co and GaAs at the interface, while the Co layer grown on glass remains unaffected. These observed results are discussed and interpreted in terms of different growth morphologies and structures of as grown Co thin film on both substrates

  17. The peculiarity of the formation of zinc films on a glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaev, V. V., E-mail: tvaza@mail.ru [Saint Petersburg State University, 198504, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Petrodvorets, Universitetskii pr. 26 (Russian Federation); Saint Petersburg Mining University, Russia, 199106, St. Petersburg, V.O., 21-st line, 2 (Russian Federation); Polishchuk, V. A., E-mail: vpvova2010@yandex.ru [St. Petersburg University of Information Technologies, Mechanics, and Optics, 197101, Russia, St. Petersburg, Kronverksky Pr., 49 (Russian Federation); Borisov, E. N., E-mail: enbor@bk.ru [Saint Petersburg State University, 198504, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Petrodvorets, Universitetskii pr. 26 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    Thin Nanocrystalline films of the zinc have been fabricated by thermal spraying on the glass substrate. Morphologies and structure of the films had been investigated by the methods X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It is found that the surface of the films has a different types of the nanocrystals zinc. Were detected intergrowths of two or more the nanocrystals, hexagonal shape. Using the theory of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of a new phase, had been evaluated the geometrical and thermodynamic parameters nanocrystals zinc.

  18. Gold nano-particles fixed on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worsch, Christian; Wisniewski, Wolfgang; Kracker, Michael; Rüssel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We produced wear resistant gold–ruby coatings on amorphous substrates. ► Thin sputtered gold layers were covered by or embedded in silica coatings. ► Annealing above T g of the substrate glass led to the formation of gold nano particles. ► A 1 1 1-texture of the gold particles is observed via XRD and EBSD. ► EBSD-patterns can be acquired from crystals covered by a thin layer of glass. - Abstract: A simple process for producing wear resistant gold nano-particle coatings on transparent substrates is proposed. Soda-lime-silica glasses were sputtered with gold and subsequently coated with SiO 2 using a combustion chemical vapor deposition technique. Some samples were first coated with silica, sputtered with gold and then coated with a second layer of silica. The samples were annealed for 20 min at either 550 or 600 °C. This resulted in the formation of round, well separated gold nano-particles with sizes from 15 to 200 nm. The color of the coated glass was equivalent to that of gold–ruby glasses. Silica/gold/silica coatings annealed at 600 °C for 20 min were strongly adherent and scratch resistant. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were used to describe the crystal orientations of the embedded particles. The gold particles are preferably oriented with their (1 1 1) planes perpendicular to the surface.

  19. Molecular-dynamics simulations of thin polyisoprene films confined between amorphous silica substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, D. V.; Komarov, P. V.; Lyulin, Alexey V.

    2014-01-01

    Constant temperature–constant pressure (NpT) molecular-dynamics computer simulations have been carried out for the united-atom model of a non-crosslinked (1,4) cis-polyisoprene (PI) melt confined between two amorphous, fully coordinated silica surfaces. The Lennard-Jones 12-6 potential was implemented to describe the polymer–silica interactions. The thickness H of the produced PI–silica film has been varied in a wide range, 1 g g is the individual PI chain radius of gyration measured under the imposed confinement. After a thorough equilibration, the PI film stratified structure and polymer segmental dynamics have been studied. The chain structure in the middle of the films resembles that in a corresponding bulk, but the polymer-density profile shows a pronounced ordering of the polymer segments in the vicinity of silica surfaces; this ordering disappears toward the film middles. Tremendous slowing down of the polymer segmental dynamics has been observed in the film surface layers, with the segmental relaxation more than 150 times slower as compared to that in a PI bulk. This effect increases with decreasing the polymer-film thickness. The segmental relaxation in the PI film middles shows additional relaxation process which is absent in a PI bulk. Even though there are fast relaxation processes in the film middle, its overall relaxation is slower as compared to that in a bulk sample. The interpretation of the results in terms of polymer glassy bridges has been discussed

  20. Large-scale uniform ZnO tetrapods on catalyst free glass substrate by thermal evaporation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsultany, Forat H., E-mail: foratusm@gmail.com [School of Physics, USM, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Hassan, Z. [Institute of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory (INOR), USM, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Ahmed, Naser M. [School of Physics, USM, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Investigate the growth of ZnO-Ts on glass substrate by thermal evaporation method. • Glass substrate without any catalyst or a seed layer. • The morphology was controlled by adjusting the temperature of the material and the substrate. • Glass substrate was placed vertically in the quartz tube. - Abstract: Here, we report for the first time the catalyst-free growth of large-scale uniform shape and size ZnO tetrapods on a glass substrate via thermal evaporation method. Three-dimensional networks of ZnO tetrapods have needle–wire junctions, an average leg length of 2.1–2.6 μm, and a diameter of 35–240 nm. The morphology and structure of ZnO tetrapods were investigated by controlling the preparation temperature of each of the Zn powder and the glass substrate under O{sub 2} and Ar gases. Studies were carried out on ZnO tetrapods using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis spectrophotometer, and a photoluminescence. The results showed that the sample grow in the hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferentially oriented along (002) direction, good crystallinity and high transmittance. The band gap value is about 3.27 eV. Photoluminescence spectrum exhibits a very sharp peak at 378 nm and a weak broad green emission.

  1. Inward Cationic Diffusion and Formation of Silica-Rich Surface Nanolayer of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Deubener, Joachim; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2009-01-01

    form and are incorporated into the glass structure. Both the V4+ and the hydroxyl contents increase with increasing ta and hydrogen partial pressure. The inward diffusion enhances the hardness of the glass surface. The mechanism of the inward diffusion is suggested on the basis of a model describing...

  2. High-temperature laser annealing for thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cell on glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A.; Schneider, J.; Dore, J.; Mermet, F.; Slaoui, A.

    2012-06-01

    Thin film polycrystalline silicon films grown on glass substrate were irradiated with an infrared continuous wave laser for defects annealing and/or dopants activation. The samples were uniformly scanned using an attachment with the laser system. Substrate temperature, scan speed and laser power were varied to find suitable laser annealing conditions. The Raman spectroscopy and Suns- V oc analysis were carried out to qualify the films quality after laser annealing. A maximum enhancement of the open circuit voltage V oc of about 100 mV is obtained after laser annealing of as-grown polysilicon structures. A strong correlation was found between the full width half maximum of the Si crystalline peak and V oc. It is interpreted as due to defects annealing as well as to dopants activation in the absorbing silicon layer. The maximum V oc reached is 485 mV after laser treatment and plasma hydrogenation, thanks to defects passivation.

  3. Use of an arc plasma rotating in a magnetic field for metal coating glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukanovic, V.; Butler, S.; Kapur, S.; Krakower, E.; Allston, T.; Belfield, K.; Gibson, G.

    1983-01-01

    First results are reported about deposition of metals on glass substrate using a low current arc plasma source at atmospheric pressure. The arc source consists of a graphite cathode rod placed on the axis of a graphite anode cylinder aligned in a magnetic field. The carrier gas is argon. The deposition material, zinc or gold, is evaporated from a reservoir in the cathode. Depositions on flat substrates positioned on the periphery of the rotating plasma within the anode tube and in a jet outside the anode have been investigated. The investigations are planned to lead towards laser fusion target pusher layer fabrication. This fabrication would be facilitated by a high pressure deposition process where target levitation is readily performed

  4. Room temperature growth of biaxially aligned yttria-stabilized zirconia films on glass substrates by pulsed-laser deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Li Peng; Mazumder, J

    2003-01-01

    Room temperature deposition of biaxially textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films on amorphous glass substrates was successfully achieved by conventional pulsed-laser deposition. The influence of the surrounding gases, their pressure and the deposition time on the structure of the films was studied. A columnar growth process was revealed based on the experimental results. The grown biaxial texture appears as a kind of substrate independence, which makes it possible to fabricate in-plane aligned YSZ films on various substrates.

  5. Low-temperature deposition of ZnO thin films on PET and glass substrates by DC-sputtering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.N.; Ghosh, C.K.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.; Minoura, Hideki; Sarkar, Ajay K.; Akiba, Atsuya; Kamiya, Atsushi; Endo, Tamio

    2006-01-01

    The structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films (260 - 490 nm thick) deposited by direct-current sputtering technique, at a relatively low-substrate temperature (363 K), onto polyethylene terephthalate and glass substrates have been investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the proper phase formation of the material. Optical transmittance data show high transparency (80% to more than 98%) of the films in the visible portion of solar radiation. Slight variation in the transparency of the films is observed with a variation in the deposition time. Electrical characterizations show the room-temperature conductivity of the films deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates for 4 and 5 h around 0.05 and 0.25 S cm -1 , respectively. On the other hand, for the films deposited on glass substrates, these values are 8.5 and 9.6 S cm -1 for similar variation in the deposition time. Room-temperature conductivity of the ZnO films deposited on glass substrates is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of ZnO films deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates under identical conditions. Hall-measurements show the maximum carrier concentration of the films on PET and glass substrate around 2.8 x 10 16 and 3.1 x 10 2 cm -3 , respectively. This report will provide newer applications of ZnO thin films in flexible display technology

  6. Nano-phase separation and structural ordering in silica-rich mixed network former glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Youngman, Randall E; Kapoor, Saurabh; Jensen, Lars R; Smedskjaer, Morten M; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2018-06-13

    We investigate the structure, phase separation, glass transition, and crystallization in a mixed network former glass series, i.e., B2O3-Al2O3-SiO2-P2O5 glasses with varying SiO2/B2O3 molar ratio. All the studied glasses exhibit two separate glassy phases: droplet phase (G1) with the size of 50-100 nm and matrix phase (G2), corresponding to a lower calorimetric glass transition temperature (Tg1) and a higher one (Tg2), respectively. Both Tg values decrease linearly with the substitution of B2O3 for SiO2, but the magnitude of the decrease is larger for Tg1. Based on nuclear magnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopy results, we infer that the G1 phase is rich in boroxol rings, while the G2 phase mainly involves the B-O-Si network. Both phases contain BPO4- and AlPO4-like units. Ordered domains occur in G2 upon isothermal and dynamic heating, driven by the structural heterogeneity in the as-prepared glasses. The structural ordering lowers the activation energy of crystal growth, thus promoting partial crystallization of G2. These findings are useful for understanding glass formation and phase separation in mixed network former oxide systems, and for tailoring their properties.

  7. Radio-luminescence efficiency and rare-earth dispersion in Tb-doped silica glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fasoli, M.; Moretti, F.; Lauria, A.; Chiodini, N.; Vedda, A.; Nikl, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2007), s. 784-787 ISSN 1350-4487 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : sol-gel * scintillators * silica * rare earths * terbium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.054, year: 2007

  8. Three-dimensional structure of Au nanoparticles supported on amorphous silica and carbon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruma, A; Li, Z Y

    2012-01-01

    Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) has been employed to study the three-dimensional structure of gold (Au) nanoparticles deposited by means of thermal evaporation in high vacuum on amorphous silica (a-SiO 2 ) and amorphous carbon (a-C) supports. By performing quantitative analysis on the evolution of the high angle annular dark field (HAADF) images, we studied the influence of the nature and the temperature of support on the growth mode of gold nanoparticles.

  9. Positron annihilation study of structural subnanovoids and irradiation damages in silica-based glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.

    2004-01-01

    Structural subnanovoids in glass solidified with radioactive waste disposal were studied by positron annihilation 2-dimensional angular correlation and positron life time measurements. Positroniums in crystalline SiO 2 were in a delocalized state, but in glass SiO 2 were in a localized state. Pick-off annihilation (pair annihilation between an ortho-positroniums and a spin antiparallel electron) rate was shortened with decreasing molarity of glass network formers and consequently radii of structural subnanovoids were reduced. The sizes of structural subnanovoids determined from the pick-off annihilation were good agreement with those measured by momentum distribution of para-positroniums. In waste disposal model glass, no presence of positronims indicated that radioactive substances occupied almost all subnanovoids, and therefore voids with large size enough to localize positroniums (above 0.1 nm radius) could not be present. (Y. Kazumata)

  10. Effect of Zirconia Nanoparticles in Epoxy-Silica Hybrid Adhesives to Join Aluminum Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Figueroa-Lara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the interaction of the epoxy polymer diglicydil ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA with silica (SiO2 nanoparticles plus zirconia (ZrO2 nanoparticles obtained via the sol-gel method in the synthesis of an epoxy-silica-zirconia hybrid adhesive cured with polyamide. ZrO2 nanoparticles were added to the epoxy-silica hybrid adhesive produced in situ to modify the apparent shear strength of two adhesively bonded aluminum specimens. The results showed that the addition of different amounts of ZrO2 nanoparticles increased the shear strength of the adhesively bonded aluminum joint, previously treated by sandblasting, immersion in hot water and silanized with a solution of hydrolyzed 3-glycidoxipropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS. The morphology and microstructure of the nanoparticles and aluminum surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and elemental analysis was performed with the Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS detector; the chemical groups were investigated during the aluminum surface modification using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR.

  11. Vibrational mode frequencies of silica species in SiO2-H2O liquids and glasses from ab initio molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiekermann, Georg; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Schmidt, Christian; Jahn, Sandro

    2012-04-21

    Vibrational spectroscopy techniques are commonly used to probe the atomic-scale structure of silica species in aqueous solution and hydrous silica glasses. However, unequivocal assignment of individual spectroscopic features to specific vibrational modes is challenging. In this contribution, we establish a connection between experimentally observed vibrational bands and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) of silica species in solution and in hydrous silica glass. Using the mode-projection approach, we decompose the vibrations of silica species into subspectra resulting from several fundamental structural subunits: The SiO(4) tetrahedron of symmetry T(d), the bridging oxygen (BO) Si-O-Si of symmetry C(2v), the geminal oxygen O-Si-O of symmetry C(2v), the individual Si-OH stretching, and the specific ethane-like symmetric stretching contribution of the H(6)Si(2)O(7) dimer. This allows us to study relevant vibrations of these subunits in any degree of polymerization, from the Q(0) monomer up to the fully polymerized Q(4) tetrahedra. Demonstrating the potential of this approach for supplementing the interpretation of experimental spectra, we compare the calculated frequencies to those extracted from experimental Raman spectra of hydrous silica glasses and silica species in aqueous solution. We discuss observed features such as the double-peaked contribution of the Q(2) tetrahedral symmetric stretch, the individual Si-OH stretching vibrations, the origin of the experimentally observed band at 970 cm(-1) and the ethane-like vibrational contribution of the H(6)Si(2)O(7) dimer at 870 cm(-1).

  12. Using the discrete element method to simulate brittle fracture in the indentation of a silica glass with a blunt indenter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Damien; Iordanoff, Ivan; Charles, Jean-luc; Jebahi, Mohamed; Neauport, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of materials is usually simulated by a continuous mechanics approach. However, non-continuous phenomena such as multi-fracturing cannot be accurately simulated using a continuous description. The discrete element method (DEM) naturally accounts for discontinuities and is therefore a good alternative to the continuum approach. This work uses a discrete element model based on interaction given by 3D beam model. This model has proved to correctly simulate the elastic properties at the macroscopic scale. The simulation of brittle cracks is now tackled. This goal is attained by computing a failure criterion based on an equivalent hydrostatic stress. This microscopic criterion is then calibrated to fit experimental values of the macroscopic failure stress. Then, the simulation results are compared to experimental results of indentation tests in which a spherical indenter is used to load a silica glass, which is considered to be a perfectly brittle elastic material. (authors)

  13. Osseointegration properties of titanium dental implants modified with a nanostructured coating based on ordered porous silica and bioactive glass nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Cristian; Mattmann, Matías; Von Marttens, Alfredo; Caviedes, Pablo; Arriagada, Cristián; Valenzuela, Francisco; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Corral, Camila

    2016-02-01

    The fabrication of a nanoporous silica coating loaded with bioactive glass nanoparticles (nBG/NSC) on titanium dental implant surface and its in vitro and in vivo evaluation is presented. The coating was produced by a combined sol-gel and evaporation induced self-assembly process. In vitro bioactivity was assessed in simulated body fluid (SBF) and investigating the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). A rat tibial model was employed to analyze the bone response to nBG/NSC-modified titanium implant surface in vivo. The nBG/NSC coating was confirmed at nano level to be constituted by a highly ordered nanoporous silica structure. The coating nanotopography in conjunction with the bioactivity of the BG particles accelerate the in vitro apatite formation and promote the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in absence of osteogenic supplements. These properties accelerate the formation of bone tissue in the periphery of the implant after 3 weeks of implantation. Backscattered scanning electron microscopy images revealed the presence of gaps and soft tissue in the unmodified implant after 6 weeks, whereas the nBG/NSC-modified implant showed mature bone in intimate contact with the implant surface. The nBG/NSC coating appears promising for accelerating the osseointegration of dental implants.

  14. Giant basal spicule from the deep-sea glass sponge Monorhaphis chuni: synthesis of the largest bio-silica structure on Earth by silicatein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Xue-hua; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2009-09-01

    Like all sponges (phylum Porifera), the glass sponges (Hexactinellida) are provided with an elaborate and distinct body plan, which relies on a filigree skeleton. It is constructed by an array of morphologically determined elements, the spicules. Schulze described the largest siliceous hexactinellid sponge on Earth, the up to 3 m high Monorhaphis chuni, collected during the German Deep Sea Expedition "Valdivia" (1898-1899). This species develops an equally large bio-silica structure, the giant basal spicule (3 m × 10 mm). Using these spicules as a model, one can obtain the basic knowledge on the morphology, formation, and development of silica skeletal elements. The silica matrix is composed of almost pure silica, endowing it with unusual optophysical properties, which are superior to those of man-made waveguides. Experiments suggest that the spicules function in vivo as a nonocular photoreception system. The spicules are also provided with exceptional mechanical properties. Like demosponges, the hexactinellids synthesize their silica enzymatically via the enzyme silicatein (27 kDa protein). This enzyme is located in/embedded in the silica layers. This knowledge will surely contribute to a further utilization and exploration of silica in biomaterial/biomedical science.

  15. Superhydrophobic ZnAl double hydroxide nanostructures and ZnO films on Al and glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Debasis, E-mail: debasis.de@bcrec.ac.in [Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Department, Dr. B C Roy Engineering College, Durgapur, West Bengal 713206 (India); Sarkar, D.K. [Centre Universitaire de Recherche sur l' Aluminium (CURAL), L' Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, 555 Blvd. Université, Chicoutimi, Saguenay, Québec G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Superhydrophobic nanostructured ZnAl: layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and ZnO films have been fabricated on Al and glass substrates, respectively, by a simple and cost effective chemical bath deposition technique. Randomly oriented hexagonal patterned of ZnAl: LDHs thin nanoplates are clearly observed on Al-substrate in the scanning electron microscopic images. The average size of these hexagonal plates is ∼4 μm side and ∼30 nm of thickness. While on the glass substrate, a oriented hexagonal patterned ZnO nanorods (height ∼5 μm and 1 μm diameter) are observed and each rod is further decorated throughout the top few nanometers with several nanosteps. At the top of the nanorod, a perfectly hexagonal patterned ZnO surface with ∼250 nm sides is observed. The tendency to form hexagonal morphological features is due to the hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO confirmed from X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy image. The ZnAl: LDHs and/or ZnO coated substrates have been passivated by using stearic acid (SA) molecules. Infrared spectra of passivated ZnAl: LDHs coated substrates confirm the presence of SA. X-ray diffraction pattern also corroborates the results of infrared spectrum. The contact angle of the as prepared samples is zero. The superhydrophobicity is achieved by observing contact angle of ∼161° with a hysteresis of ∼4° for Al-substrate. On the glass substrate, a higher contact angle of ∼168° with a lower hysteresis of ∼3° is observed. A lower surface roughness of ∼4.93 μm is measured on ZnAl: LDHs surface layer on the Al substrate as compare to a higher surface roughness of 6.87 μm measured on ZnO layer on glass substrate. The superhydrophobicity of passivated nanostructured films on two different substrates is observed due to high surface roughness and low surface energy. - Highlights: • ZnAl: layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanoplates are fabricated on Al substrate. • ZnO nanorods are fabricated on

  16. Enhanced printability of thermoplastic polyurethane substrates by silica particles surface interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, S., E-mail: s.cruz@dep.uminho.pt [IPC/I3N – Institute of Polymers and Composites/Inst. of Nanostructures, Nanomodelling and Nanofabrication, Department Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, 4804-533 Guimarães (Portugal); Rocha, L.A. [CMEMS, University of Minho, 4804-533 Guimarães (Portugal); Viana, J.C. [IPC/I3N – Institute of Polymers and Composites/Inst. of Nanostructures, Nanomodelling and Nanofabrication, Department Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, 4804-533 Guimarães (Portugal)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new method development for surface treatment of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) substrates. • The proposed method increases TPU surface energy (by 45%) and consequently the TPU wettability. • Great increase of the TPU surface roughness (by 621%). • Inkjet printed conductive ink was applied to the surface treated TPU substrate and significant improvements on the printability were obtained. - Abstract: A new method developed for the surface treatment of thermoplastic polymer substrates that increases their surface energies is introduced in this paper. The method is environmental friendly and low cost. In the proposed surface treatment method, nanoparticles are spread over the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) flexible substrate surface and then thermally fixed. This latter step allows the nanoparticles sinking-in on the polymer surface, resulting in a higher polymer–particle interaction at their interfacial region. The addition of nanoparticles onto the polymer surface increases surface roughness. The extent of the nanoparticles dispersion and sink-in in the substrate was evaluated through microscopy analysis (SEM). The roughness of the surface treated polymeric substrate was evaluated by AFM analysis. Substrate critical surface tension (ST) was measured by contact angle. In general, a homogeneous roughness form is achieved to a certain level. Great increase of the TPU surface roughness (by 621%) was induced by the propose method. The proposed surface treatment method increased significantly the substrate ST (by 45%) and consequently the TPU wettability. This novel surface treatment of thermoplastic polymers was applied to the inkjet printing of TPU substrates with conductive inks, and significant improvements on the printability were obtained.

  17. Remote and direct plasma regions for low-temperature growth of carbon nanotubes on glass substrates for display applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaei, M K; Ghafouri fard, H; Koohsorkhi, J; Khatami, S; Mohajerzadeh, S

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on glass substrates is introduced in this study. A two-stage plasma was used to achieve low-temperature and vertically aligned CNTs. Ni deposited on indium tin oxide/glass substrate was used as the catalyst and hydrogen and acetylene were used as gas feeds. In this investigation a new technique was developed to grow vertically aligned CNTs at temperatures below 400 deg. C while CNT growth by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition required high temperatures. Low-temperature growth of vertically aligned CNTs was suitable for the fabrication of micro-lens and self-oriented displays on glass substrates. Also, we have reported a new configuration for CNT-based display by means of controlling the refractive index of liquid crystal around the CNT by applying a proper voltage to the top and bottom array.

  18. Continuous depth-sensing nano-mechanical characterization of living, fixed and dehydrated cells attached on a glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yun-Ta; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Chang, Chia-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chou-Ching K [Department of Neurology, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Ju, Ming-Shaung, E-mail: jdliao@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-16

    Continuous depth-sensing nano-indentation on living, fixed and dehydrated fibroblast cells was performed using a dynamic contact module and vertically measured from a pre-contact state to the glass substrate. The nano-indentation tip-on-cell approaches took advantage of finding a contact surface, followed by obtaining a continuous nano-mechanical profile along the nano-indentation depths. In the experiment, serial indentations from the leading edge, i.e., the lamellipodium to nucleus regions of living, fixed and dehydrated fibroblast cells were examined. Nano-indentations on a living cell anchored upon glass substrate were competent in finding the tip-on-cell contact surfaces and cell heights. For the result on the fixed and the dehydrated cells, cellular nano-mechanical properties were clearly characterized by continuous harmonic contact stiffness (HCS) measurements. The relations of HCS versus measured displacement, varied from the initial tip-on-cell contact to the glass substrate, were presumably divided into three stages, respectively induced by cellular intrinsic behavior, the substrate-dominant property, and the substrate property. This manifestation is beneficial to elucidate how the underlying substrate influences the interpretation of the nano-mechanical property of thin soft matter on a hard substrate. These findings, based upon continuous depth-sensing nano-indentations, are presumably valuable as a reference to related work, e.g., accomplished by atomic force microscopy.

  19. Continuous depth-sensing nano-mechanical characterization of living, fixed and dehydrated cells attached on a glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yun-Ta; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Chang, Chia-Wei; Lin, Chou-Ching K; Ju, Ming-Shaung

    2010-01-01

    Continuous depth-sensing nano-indentation on living, fixed and dehydrated fibroblast cells was performed using a dynamic contact module and vertically measured from a pre-contact state to the glass substrate. The nano-indentation tip-on-cell approaches took advantage of finding a contact surface, followed by obtaining a continuous nano-mechanical profile along the nano-indentation depths. In the experiment, serial indentations from the leading edge, i.e., the lamellipodium to nucleus regions of living, fixed and dehydrated fibroblast cells were examined. Nano-indentations on a living cell anchored upon glass substrate were competent in finding the tip-on-cell contact surfaces and cell heights. For the result on the fixed and the dehydrated cells, cellular nano-mechanical properties were clearly characterized by continuous harmonic contact stiffness (HCS) measurements. The relations of HCS versus measured displacement, varied from the initial tip-on-cell contact to the glass substrate, were presumably divided into three stages, respectively induced by cellular intrinsic behavior, the substrate-dominant property, and the substrate property. This manifestation is beneficial to elucidate how the underlying substrate influences the interpretation of the nano-mechanical property of thin soft matter on a hard substrate. These findings, based upon continuous depth-sensing nano-indentations, are presumably valuable as a reference to related work, e.g., accomplished by atomic force microscopy.

  20. Effects of 3D microlens transfer into fused silica substrate by CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} dry etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigaliūnas, Viktoras, E-mail: Viktoras.Grigaliunas@ktu.lt [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, Barsausko 59, LT-51423 Kaunas (Lithuania); Jucius, Dalius; Lazauskas, Algirdas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Sakaliūnienė, Jolita; Abakevičienė, Brigita; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, Barsausko 59, LT-51423 Kaunas (Lithuania); Smetona, Saulius [Qorvo, 7628 Thorndike Road Greensboro, NC 27409 United States (United States); Tamulevičius, Sigitas [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, Barsausko 59, LT-51423 Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • The etching rate of PMMA is dependent on the plasma etching time. • The etching rate ratio between PMMA and fused silica vary during plasma treatment. • The etching rate ratio variation must be assessed during the microlens design phase. - Abstract: Nowadays, 3D microoptical elements find a variety of applications from light emitting diodes and household appliances to precise medical endoscopes. Such elements, fabricated in a fused silica substrate by combining 3D e-beam patterning and dry etching, can be used as a mold for the high throughput replication in polymeric materials by UV nanoimprint technique. Flexible and precise control of 3D shape in the resist layer can be achieved by e-beam patterning, but it is also very important to know peculiarities of 3D pattern transfer from resist layer into the fused silica substrate. This paper reports on the effects of PMMA 3D microlens pattern transfer into fused silica substrate by CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} dry etching. It is demonstrated that etching rate ratio between PMMA and fused silica changes during plasma treatment. Thus, the resulting shape of transferred 3D profile is different from the shape in PMMA and this variation must be assessed during the design phase.

  1. Structural study of Mg doped cobalt ferrite thin films on ITO coated glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Mahesh; Bapna, Komal; Kumar, Kishor; Ahuja, B. L.

    2018-05-01

    We have synthesized thin films of Co1-xMgxFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) on transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition method. The structural properties of the grown films were analyzed by the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which suggest the single phase growth of these films. Raman spectra revealed the incorporation of Mg ions into CoFe2O4 lattice and suggest that the Mg ions initially go both to the octahedral and tetrahedral sites upto a certain concentration. For higher concentration, Mg ions prefer to occupy the tetrahedral sites.

  2. Deposition of gold nanoparticles on glass substrate by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza, Maria de la; Hernandez, Tomas [Laboratorio de Materiales I, Centro de Laboratorios Especializados, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon. Av. Universidad s/n Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Colas, Rafael [Programa Doctoral en Ingenieria de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon. Av. Universidad s/n Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Gomez, Idalia, E-mail: mgomez@fcq.uanl.mx [Laboratorio de Materiales I, Centro de Laboratorios Especializados, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon. Av. Universidad s/n Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis was used to deposit gold nanoparticles on a glass substrate using ZrO{sub 2} as a surrounding medium. The deposition was made using three flow rates of caring gas. The characterization was made by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The UV-Vis spectra showed that the surface plasmon resonance peak, indicative of the presence of gold nanoparticles, was shown to shift towards the red spectrum as the flow rate increased; this shift can be associated to the change in size of the particles, which are assumed to grow on a {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} planes, as was detected by X-ray diffraction. Gold nanoparticles of spheroidal morphology with a relation of around 2:1 were detected by scanning electron microscopy, these observations were confirmed by atomic force microscopy.

  3. Determination of work of adhesion of gelatin hydrogels on a glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Avinash A.; Singh, Arun K.

    2018-04-01

    In this article, work of adhesion (w adh ) of soft gelatin hydrogels on a smooth glass substrate is determined experimentally using the wedge adhesion test. The results showed that w adh decreases with the increase in gelatin concentration in the hydrogels but the same is found to be independent of thickness of hydrogel specimen. These results are used further for establishing a scaling law between w adh and mesh size (ξ) of the three dimensional structure present in the hydrogel as w adh ∼ ξ 8.6. Finite element analysis is also carried out for validating the fracture stability of wedge test in view of analytical prediction. At the end, practical significance of the present study is also discussed.

  4. Deposition of gold nanoparticles on glass substrate by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garza, Maria de la; Hernandez, Tomas; Colas, Rafael; Gomez, Idalia

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis was used to deposit gold nanoparticles on a glass substrate using ZrO 2 as a surrounding medium. The deposition was made using three flow rates of caring gas. The characterization was made by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The UV-Vis spectra showed that the surface plasmon resonance peak, indicative of the presence of gold nanoparticles, was shown to shift towards the red spectrum as the flow rate increased; this shift can be associated to the change in size of the particles, which are assumed to grow on a {1 1 1} planes, as was detected by X-ray diffraction. Gold nanoparticles of spheroidal morphology with a relation of around 2:1 were detected by scanning electron microscopy, these observations were confirmed by atomic force microscopy.

  5. Activation behavior of boron implanted poly-Si on glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, M.; Shimamura, K.; Tsubokawa, H.; Tokushige, K.; Furuta, H.; Hirao, T.

    2010-01-01

    The activation behavior of boron (B) implanted poly-Si films on glass substrates has been investigated. The effect of B dose and annealing temperature on crystal defects and electrical properties of the films were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and Hall measurement. It was found that the maximum activation ratio of the film with B dose of 1 x 10 15 cm -2 was obtained when Raman peak associated with disordered amorphous silicon disappeared. However, reverse anneal was observed in the film when the annealing temperature further increased. The results from secondary ion mass spectrometry and Hall measurement revealed that B segregation at the top and bottom interface and deactivation of B substitutional occurred simultaneously in the high-dose specimens when the annealing temperature increased from 600 to 750 o C.

  6. Synthesis of Er and Er : Yb doped sol–gel derived silica glass and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Materials Science Centre, †Central Research Facility, Optical Fibre Unit, Indian Institute of Technology,. Kharagpur 721 302, India. MS received 1 March 2004; revised 4 July 2004. Abstract. Er3+ and Er3+ : Yb3+ doped optical quality, crack and bubble free glasses for possible use in mak- ing laser material have been ...

  7. Sulphate decomposition and sodium oxide activity in soda-lime-silica glass metls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Reaction equilibrium constants for the sulfate decomposition process, which releases oxygen and sulfur oxide gas in sodalimesilica glass melts, have been determined. The chemical solubility of SO2, probably in the form of sulfite ions in sodalimesilica melts, has also been determined. The chemical

  8. Luminescence and scintillation of Eu.sup.2+./sup.-doped high silica glass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chewpraditkul, W.; Chen, D.; Yu, B.; Zhang, Q.; Shen, Y.; Nikl, Martin; Kučerková, Romana; Beitlerová, Alena; Wanarak, C.; Phunpueok, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2011), s. 40-42 ISSN 1862-6254 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : glasses * Eu 2+ * luminescence * scintillation * time-resolved luminescence * porous materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.218, year: 2011

  9. Thermodynamics of non-bridging oxigen in silica bio-compatible glass-ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koga, N.; Strnad, Z.; Šesták, Jaroslav; Strnad, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (2003), s. 927-937 ISSN 1418-2874 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4010101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : bio-compatible * bone-like apatite * glass-ceramics * mimetic material * thermodynamics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.598, year: 2002

  10. Studies of ionizing radiation shielding effectiveness of silica-based commercial glasses used in Bangladeshi dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Sabina; Barua, Bijoy Sonker; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Chowdhury, Faruque-Uz-Zaman; Rashid, Md. Abdur; Bradley, David A.; Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Kamal, Masud

    2018-06-01

    Following the rapid growing economy, the Bangladeshi dwellers are replacing their traditional (mud-, bamboo-, and wood-based) houses to modern multistoried buildings, where different types of glasses are being used as decorative as well as structural materials due to their various advantageous properties. In this study, we inquire the protective and dosimetric capability of commercial glasses for ionizing radiation. Four branded glass samples (PHP-Bangladesh, Osmania-Bangladesh, Nasir-Bangladesh, and Rider-China) of same thickness and color but different elemental weight fractions were analyzed for shielding and dosimetric properties. The chemical composition of the studied material was evaluated by EDX technique. A well-shielded HPGe γ-ray spectrometer combined with associated electronics was used to evaluate the attenuation coefficients of the studied materials for 59 keV, 661 keV, 1173 keV and 1332 keV photon energies. A number of shielding parameters- half value layer (HVL), radiation protection efficiency (RPE) and effective atomic number (Zeff) were also evaluated. The data were compared with the available literature (where applicable) to understand its shielding capability relative to the standard materials such as lead. Among the studied brands, Rider (China) shows relatively better indices to be used as ionizing radiation shielding material. The obtained, Zeff of the studied glass samples showed comparable values to the TLD-200 dosimeter, thus considered suitable for environmental radiation monitoring purposes.

  11. Fumed silica. Fumed silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukawa, T.; Shirono, H. (Nippon Aerosil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-18

    The fumed silica is explained in particulate superfineness, high purity, high dispersiveness and other remarkable characteristics, and wide application. The fumed silica, being presently produced, is 7 to 40nm in average primary particulate diameter and 50 to 380m{sup 2}/g in specific surface area. On the surface, there coexist hydrophilic silanol group (Si-OH) and hydrophobic siloxane group (Si-O-Si). There are many characteristics, mutually different between the fumed silica, made hydrophobic by the surface treatment, and untreated hydrophilic silica. The treated silica, if added to the liquid product, serves as agent to heighten the viscosity, prevent the sedimentation and disperse the particles. The highest effect is given to heighten the viscosity in a region of 4 to 9 in pH in water and alcohol. As filling agent to strengthen the elastomer and polymer, and powder product, it gives an effect to prevent the consolidation and improve the fluidity. As for its other applications, utilization is made of particulate superfineness, high purity, thermal insulation properties and adsorption characteristics. 2 to 3 patents are published for it as raw material of quartz glass. 38 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. What Is Crystalline Silica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and ceramic manufacturing and the tool and die, steel and foundry industries. Crystalline silica is used in manufacturing, household abrasives, adhesives, paints, soaps, and glass. Additionally, ...

  13. Using STED and ELSM confocal microscopy for a better knowledge of fused silica polished glass interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catrin, Rodolphe; Neauport, Jerome; Taroux, Daniel; Corbineau, Thomas; Cormont, Philippe; Maunier, Cedric; Legros, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics and nature of close surface defects existing in fused silica polished optical surfaces were explored. Samples were deliberately scratched using a modified polishing process in presence of different fluorescent dyes. Various techniques including Epi-fluorescence Laser Scanning Mode (ELSM) or Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) confocal microscopy were used to measure and quantify scratches that are sometimes embedded under the polished layer. We show using a nondestructive technique that depth of the modified region extends far below the surface. Moreover cracks of 120 nm width can be present ten micrometers below the surface. (authors)

  14. Novel low-temperature sintering ceramic substrate based on indialite/cordierite glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Jobin; Vahera, Timo; Ohsato, Hitoshi; Iwata, Makoto; Jantunen, Heli

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a novel low-temperature sintering substrate for low temperature co-fired ceramic applications based on indialite/cordierite glass ceramics with Bi2O3 as a sintering aid showing low permittivity (εr) and ultralow dielectric loss (tan δ) is described. The fine powder of indialite was prepared by the crystallization of cordierite glass at 1000 °C/1 h. The optimized sintering temperature was 900 °C with 10 wt % Bi2O3 addition. The relative density achieved was 97%, and εr and tan δ were 6.10 and 0.0001 at 1 MHz, respectively. The composition also showed a moderately low temperature coefficient of relative permittivity of 118 ppm/°C at 1 MHz. The obtained linear coefficient of thermal expansion was 3.5 ppm/°C in the measured temperature range of 100 to 600 °C. The decreasing trend in dielectric loss, the low relative permittivity at 1 MHz, and the low thermal expansion of the newly developed composition make it an ideal choice for radio frequency applications.

  15. Molecular Orientation in Two Component Vapor-Deposited Glasses: Effect of Substrate Temperature and Molecular Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles; Jiang, Jing; Walters, Diane; Ediger, Mark

    Vapor-deposited glasses are widely investigated for use in organic electronics including the emitting layers of OLED devices. These materials, while macroscopically homogenous, have anisotropic packing and molecular orientation. By controlling this orientation, outcoupling efficiency can be increased by aligning the transition dipole moment of the light-emitting molecules parallel to the substrate. Light-emitting molecules are typically dispersed in a host matrix, as such, it is imperative to understand molecular orientation in two-component systems. In this study we examine two-component vapor-deposited films and the orientations of the constituent molecules using spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. The role of temperature, composition and molecular shape as it effects molecular orientation is examined for mixtures of DSA-Ph in Alq3 and in TPD. Deposition temperature relative to the glass transition temperature of the two-component mixture is the primary controlling factor for molecular orientation. In mixtures of DSA-Ph in Alq3, the linear DSA-Ph has a horizontal orientation at low temperatures and slight vertical orientation maximized at 0.96Tg,mixture, analogous to one-component films.

  16. A Comparative Study of the Addition Effect of Diopside and Silica Sulfuric Acid Nanoparticles on Mechanical Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezazadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to study the effects of adding  diopside (CaMgSi2O6 as well as silica sulfuric acid nanoparticles to ceramic part of glass ionomer cement (GIC in order to improve its mechanical properties. To do this, firstly, diopside (DIO nanoparticles with chemical formula of CaMgSi2O6 were synthesized using sol-gel process and then, the structural and morphological properties of synthesized diopside nanoparticles were investigated. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM and particle size analyzing (PSA confirmed that synthesized diopside are nanoparticles and agglomerated. Besides, the result of X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses approved the purity of diopside nanoparticles compounds. Silica sulfuric acid (SSA nanoparticles are also prepared by chemical modification of silica nanoparticles by means of chlorosulfonic acid. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR technique was used to find about the presence of the (SO3H groups on the surface of silica sulfuric acid nanoparticles. Furthermore, various amounts (0.1, 3 and 5 wt.% of diopside and silica sulfuric acid nanoparticles were added to the ceramic part of GIC (Fuji II GIC commercial type to produce glass ionomer cement nanocomposites. The mechanical properties of the produced nanocomposites were measured using the compressive strength, three-point flexural strength and diametral tensile strength methods. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique confirmed the presence of the (SO3H groups on the surface of silica nanoparticles. The compressive strength, three-point flexural strength and diametral tensile strength were 42.5, 15.4 and 6 MPa, respectively, without addition. Although adding 1% silica solfonic acid improved nanocomposite mchanical properties by almost 122%, but maximum increase in nanocomposite mechanical properties was observed in the nanocomposites with 3% diposid, in which 160% increase was seen in the mechanical properties.

  17. Deposition, characterization, and tribological applications of near-frictionless carbon films on glass and ceramic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryilmaz, O L; Johnson, J A; Ajayi, O O; Erdemir, A

    2006-01-01

    As an element, carbon is rather unique and offers a range of rare opportunities for the design and fabrication of zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensional nanostructured novel materials and coatings such as fullerenes, nanotubes, thin films, and free-standing nano-to-macroscale structures. Among these, carbon-based two-dimensional thin films (such as diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC)) have attracted an overwhelming interest in recent years, mainly because of their exceptional physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical, and tribological properties. In particular, certain DLC films were found to provide extremely low friction and wear coefficients to sliding metallic and ceramic surfaces. Since the early 1990s, carbon has been used at Argonne National Laboratory to synthesize a class of novel DLC films that now provide friction and wear coefficients as low as 0.001 and 10 -11 -10 -10 mm 3 N -1 m -1 , respectively, when tested in inert or vacuum test environments. Over the years, we have optimized these films and applied them successfully to all kinds of metallic and ceramic substrates and evaluated their friction and wear properties under a wide range of sliding conditions. In this paper, we will provide details of our recent work on the deposition, characterization, and tribological applications of near-frictionless carbon films on glass and ceramic substrates. We will also provide chemical and structural information about these films and describe the fundamental tribological mechanisms that control their unusual friction and wear behaviour

  18. Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles-Loaded Poly(ɛ-caprolactone Nanofiber as Substrate for ARPE-19 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Henrique Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glass nanoparticles-loaded poly(ɛ-caprolactone nanofibers (BIOG PCL nanofibers were synthesized and evaluated as substrates for ocular cells (ARPE-19. BIOG PCL nanofibers were characterized using SEM, FTIR, and DSC, and the in vitro degradation profile was also investigated. The in vitro ocular biocompatibility of nanofibers was exploited in Müller glial cells (MIO-M1 cells and in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM; and the proliferative capacity, cytotoxicity, and functionality were evaluated. Finally, ARPE-19 cells were seeded onto BIOG PCL nanofibers and they were investigated as supports for in vitro cell adhesion and proliferation. SEM images revealed the incorporation of BIOG nanoparticles into PCL nanofibers. Nanoparticles did not induce modifications in the chemical structure and semicrystalline nature of PCL in the nanofiber, as shown by FTIR and DSC. MIO-M1 cells exposed to BIOG PCL nanofibers showed viability, and they were able to proliferate and to express GFAP, indicating cellular functionality. Moreover, nanofibers were well tolerated by CAM. These findings suggested the in vitro ocular biocompatibility and absence of toxicity of these nanofibers. Finally, the BIOG nanoparticles modulated the protein adsorption, and, subsequently, ARPE-19 cells adhered and proliferated onto the nanostructured supports, establishing cell-substrate interactions. In conclusion, the biodegradable and biocompatible BIOG PCL nanofibers supported the ARPE-19 cells.

  19. Spectroscopic properties of triangular silver nanoplates immobilized on polyelectrolyte multilayer-modified glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabor, Janice B.; Kawamura, Koki; Muko, Daiki; Kurawaki, Junichi; Niidome, Yasuro

    2017-07-01

    Fabrication of surface-immobilized silver nanostructures with reproducible plasmonic properties by dip-coating technique is difficult due to shape alteration. To address this challenge, we used a polyelectrolyte multilayer to promote immobilization of as-received triangular silver nanoplates (TSNP) on a glass substrate through electrostatic interaction. The substrate-immobilized TSNP were characterized by absorption spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy. The bandwidth and peak position of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) bands can be tuned by simply varying the concentration of the colloidal solution and immersion time. TSNP immobilized from a higher concentration of colloidal solution with longer immersion time produced broadened LSPR bands in the near-IR region, while a lower concentration with shorter immersion time produced narrower bands in the visible region. The shape of the nanoplates was retained even at long immersion time. Analysis of peak positions and bandwidths also revealed the point at which the main species of the immobilization had been changed from isolates to aggregates.

  20. INFLUENCE OF THE SILICON INTERLAYER ON DIAMOND-LIKE CARBON FILMS DEPOSITED ON GLASS SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiler Antonio Lima Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon (DLC films as a hard protective coating have achieved great success in a diversity of technological applications. However, adhesion of DLC films to substrates can restrict their applications. The influence of a silicon interlayer in order to improve DLC adhesion on glass substrates was investigated. Amorphous silicon interlayer and DLC films were deposited using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from silane and methane, respectively. The bonding structure, transmittance, refraction index, and adherence of the films were also evaluated regarding the thickness of the silicon interlayer. Raman scattering spectroscopy did not show any substantial difference in DLC structure due to the interlayer thickness of the silicon. Optical measurements showed a sharp decrease of transmittance in the ultra-violet region caused by the fundamental absorption of the light. In addition, the absorption edge of transmittance shifted toward longer wavelength side in the ultra-violet region as the thickness of the silicon interlayer increased. The tribological results showed an increase of DLC adherence as the silicon interlayer increased, which was characterized by less cracks around the grooves.

  1. Diffusion structural analysis study of titania films deposited by sol-gel technique on silica glass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balek, V.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Bountseva, I.M.; Haneda, H.; Málek, Z.; Šubrt, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 26, 1-3 (2003), s. 185-189 ISSN 0928-0707. [International Workshop on Glasses, Ceramics, Hybrids and Nanocomposites from Gels /11./. Abano Terme, 16.09.2001-21.09.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : titania film * diffusion structural analysis * sol-gel Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.546, year: 2003

  2. Selective formation of GaN-based nanorod heterostructures on soda-lime glass substrates by a local heating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Yong-Jin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Jong-Myeong; Kim, Miyoung; Choi, Jun Hee [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Baik, Chan Wook; Kim, Sun Il; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Jong Min [Frontier Research Laboratory, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, PO Box 111, Kiheung 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Gyu-Chul, E-mail: joonie.choi@samsung.com, E-mail: gcyi@snu.ac.kr [National Creative Research Initiative Center for Semiconductor Nanorods, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-20

    We report on the fabrication of high-quality GaN on soda-lime glass substrates, heretofore precluded by both the intolerance of soda-lime glass to the high temperatures required for III-nitride growth and the lack of an epitaxial relationship with amorphous glass. The difficulties were circumvented by heteroepitaxial coating of GaN on ZnO nanorods via a local microheating method. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO nanorods and GaN layers using the microheater arrays produced high-quality GaN/ZnO coaxial nanorod heterostructures at only the desired regions on the soda-lime glass substrates. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy examination of the coaxial nanorod heterostructures indicated the formation of an abrupt, semicoherent interface. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy was also applied to confirm the high optical quality of the coaxial nanorod heterostructures. Mg-doped GaN/ZnO coaxial nanorod heterostructure arrays, whose GaN shell layers were grown with various different magnesocene flow rates, were further investigated by using photoluminescence spectroscopy for the p-type doping characteristics. The suggested method for fabrication of III-nitrides on glass substrates signifies potentials for low-cost and large-size optoelectronic device applications.

  3. Selective formation of GaN-based nanorod heterostructures on soda-lime glass substrates by a local heating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Yong-Jin; Jeon, Jong-Myeong; Kim, Miyoung; Choi, Jun Hee; Baik, Chan Wook; Kim, Sun Il; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Jong Min; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2011-05-20

    We report on the fabrication of high-quality GaN on soda-lime glass substrates, heretofore precluded by both the intolerance of soda-lime glass to the high temperatures required for III-nitride growth and the lack of an epitaxial relationship with amorphous glass. The difficulties were circumvented by heteroepitaxial coating of GaN on ZnO nanorods via a local microheating method. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO nanorods and GaN layers using the microheater arrays produced high-quality GaN/ZnO coaxial nanorod heterostructures at only the desired regions on the soda-lime glass substrates. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy examination of the coaxial nanorod heterostructures indicated the formation of an abrupt, semicoherent interface. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy was also applied to confirm the high optical quality of the coaxial nanorod heterostructures. Mg-doped GaN/ZnO coaxial nanorod heterostructure arrays, whose GaN shell layers were grown with various different magnesocene flow rates, were further investigated by using photoluminescence spectroscopy for the p-type doping characteristics. The suggested method for fabrication of III-nitrides on glass substrates signifies potentials for low-cost and large-size optoelectronic device applications.

  4. Impact of optical properties of front glass substrates on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells using lift-off process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Akihiro, E-mail: ro005080@ed.ritsumei.ac.jp [College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-0058 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhiro [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-0058 (Japan); Minemoto, Takashi [College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-0058 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Transmittance of a front glass is one of the important factors in the development of high efficiency superstrate-type Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells. In this study, we investigated the impact of optical properties of the front glass on the solar cell performance of the CIGS solar cells fabricated using the lift-off process. First, optical properties of quartz substrates and soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates with various thicknesses were investigated. Although optical properties of the SLG substrates depend on the thickness, those of the quartz substrates hardly depend on the thickness. Secondly, the superstrate-type CIGS solar cells were fabricated using 1-mm-thick SLG or 1-mm-thick quartz substrates. As a result, the short-circuit current density of the superstrate-type CIGS solar cell with 1-mm-thick quartz substrate was approximately 7% higher than that with 1-mm-thick SLG substrate, and its conversion efficiency was 7.1%. The external quantum efficiency of the solar cells was also improved using the quartz substrate as a front glass because transmittance and absorptance of the quartz substrate were superior to those of the SLG substrate. We therefore conclude that optical properties of the front glasses play an important role in the improvement of the superstrate-type solar cells. - Highlights: • Superstrate type Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells are fabricated by lift-off process. • Various glasses are used as front glass for lift-off. • The impact of optical properties of the glasses on cell performance is investigated. • Quartz front glass gives 7% higher short-circuit current than soda-lime glass. • High transmittance is desired for front glass.

  5. Temperature dependence of luminescence for different surface flaws in high purity silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, J.; Grua, P.; Neauport, J.; Fargin, E.; Jubera, V.; Talaga, D.; Del Guerzo, A.; Raffy, G.; Jouannigot, S.

    2013-01-01

    In situ temperature dependence of the Photoluminescence under 325 nm irradiation is used to investigate defect populations existing in different surface flaws in high purity fused silica. Five photoluminescence bands peaking at 1.9, 2.1, 2.3, 2.63 and 3.11 eV have been detected in the spectral area ranging from 1.6 up to 3.6 eV. The Gaussian deconvolution of spectra allows dividing the five luminescence bands in two categories. The former corresponds to bands showing a significant intensity enhancement while temperature decreases; the latter corresponds to bands remaining insensitive to the temperature evolution. Such a behavior brings new information on defects involved in laser damage mechanism at 351 nm in nanosecond regime. (authors)

  6. The effect of silica fume and metakaolin on glass-fibre reinforced concrete (GRC ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enfedaque Díaz, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of the mechanical properties of glassfibre reinforced concrete (GRC over time rules out the use of this material in load-bearing structures. While one possible solution to this problem is the addition of pozzolans or metakaolin to the cement mortar, the amounts needed to ensure GRC integrity raise its price to non-competitive levels. Experimental research has been conducted to analyze whether the addition of small amounts of silica fume or metakaolin can prevent or mitigate the ageing issue. Unfortunately, the findings indicate that the addition of small proportions of metakaolin or silica fume to GRC are ineffective in improving its long-term performance.

    Para el uso del mortero de cemento reforzado con fibras de vidrio (GRC en estructuras portantes se han de solucionar los problemas de reducción de las propiedades mecánicas que aparecen con el paso del tiempo. Estos problemas pueden ser solucionados mediante la adición de puzolanas o de metacaolín, a la pasta de mortero de cemento. Sin embargo, la cantidad de metacaolín que ha de ser añadida es elevada y el precio del GRC fabricado está fuera del mercado. Se ha realizado una campaña experimental que analiza si la adición de humo de sílice o de metacaolín en proporciones reducidas consigue evitar o paliar el problema del envejecimiento, que supone un freno al uso del GRC en elementos estructurales. Desgraciadamente, los resultados experimentales muestran que proporciones bajas de metacaolín o de humo de sílice no son efectivas para reducir el problema de pérdida de propiedades mecánicas.

  7. Stress-induced light scattering method for the detection of latent flaws on fine polished glass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Y; Sakai, K; Nonaka, K

    2014-08-01

    Fine polishing techniques, such as the chemical mechanical polishing treatment, are one of the most important technique to glass substrate manufacturing. Mechanical interaction in the form of friction occurs between the abrasive and the substrate surface during polishing, which may cause formation of latent flaws on the glass substrate surface. Fine polishing-induced latent flaws may become obvious during a subsequent cleaning process if glass surfaces are corroded away by chemical interaction with the cleaning liquid. Latent flaws thus reduce product yield. In general, non-destructive inspection techniques, such as the light-scattering methods, used to detect foreign matters on the glass substrate surface. However, it is difficult to detect latent flaws by these methods because the flaws remain closed. Authors propose a novel inspection technique for fine polishing-induced latent flaws by combining the light scattering method with stress effects, referred to as the stress-induced light scattering method (SILSM). SILSM is able to distinguish between latent flaws and particles on the surface. In this method, samples are deformed by an actuator and stress effects are induced around the tips of latent flaws. Due to the photoelastic effect, the refractive index of the material around the tip of a latent flaw is changed. This changed refractive index is in turn detected by a cooled charge-coupled device camera as variations in light scattering intensity. In this report, surface latent flaws are detected non-destructively by applying SILSM to glass substrates, and the utility of SILSM evaluated as a novel inspection technique.

  8. Microstructural and Wear Behavior Characterization of Porous Layers Produced by Pulsed Laser Irradiation in Glass-Ceramics Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Daniel; Conde, Ana; García, Iñaki; Gracia-Escosa, Elena; de Damborenea, Juan J; Peña, Jose I

    2013-09-09

    In this work, wear behavior and microstructural characterization of porous layers produced in glass-ceramic substrates by pulsed laser irradiation in the nanosecond range are studied under unidirectional sliding conditions against AISI316 and corundum counterbodies. Depending on the optical configuration of the laser beam and on the working parameters, the local temperature and pressure applied over the interaction zone can generate a porous glass-ceramic layer. Material transference from the ball to the porous glass-ceramic layer was observed in the wear tests carried out against the AISI316 ball counterface whereas, in the case of the corundum ball, the wear volume loss was concentrated in the porous layer. Wear rate and friction coefficient presented higher values than expected for dense glass-ceramics.

  9. Microstructural and Wear Behavior Characterization of Porous Layers Produced by Pulsed Laser Irradiation in Glass-Ceramics Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose I. Peña

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, wear behavior and microstructural characterization of porous layers produced in glass-ceramic substrates by pulsed laser irradiation in the nanosecond range are studied under unidirectional sliding conditions against AISI316 and corundum counterbodies. Depending on the optical configuration of the laser beam and on the working parameters, the local temperature and pressure applied over the interaction zone can generate a porous glass-ceramic layer. Material transference from the ball to the porous glass-ceramic layer was observed in the wear tests carried out against the AISI316 ball counterface whereas, in the case of the corundum ball, the wear volume loss was concentrated in the porous layer. Wear rate and friction coefficient presented higher values than expected for dense glass-ceramics.

  10. Dynamic fatigue of a lithia-alumina-silica glass-ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.

    1990-01-01

    A dynamic fatigue study was performed on a Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass-ceramic in order to assess its susceptibility to delayed failure. Fracture mechanics techniques were used to analyze the results for the purpose of making lifetime predictions for optical elements made from this material. The material has reasonably good resistance (N = 20) to stress corrosion in ambient conditions. Analysis also indicated the elements should survive applied stresses incurred during grinding and polishing operations.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of chromium-doped nanophase separated yttria-alumina-silica glass-based optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Debjit; Dhar, Anirban; Das, Shyamal; Paul, Mukul C. [Fiber Optics and Photonics Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Kir' yanov, Alexander V. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Guanajuato (Mexico); Bysakh, Sandip [Electron Microscopic Section, Material Characterization Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2015-08-15

    The basic material and optical properties of chromium-doped nanophase-separated yttria-alumina-silica (YAS) glass based optical preforms and fibers, fabricated through the modified chemical vapor deposition process in conjunction with solution doping technique under suitable thermal annealing conditions are reported. The size of the phase-separated particles within the core of the annealed preform is around 20-30 nm which is significantly reduced to around 5.0 nm in the drawn fiber. The absorption spectra of fibers drawn from the annealed and non-annealed preform samples revealed the presence of Cr{sup 4+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 6+} specie. Numerically, extinction of absorption drops ∝3-3.5 times for the annealed sample as a result of nano-phase restructuration during annealing process. Intense broadband emission (within 500-800 nm) in case of the annealed preform sample is observed as compared to the non-annealed one and is associated with the presence of Cr{sup 3+} ions in nanostructured environment inside the YAS core glass. The final fibers show broadband emission ranging from 900 to 1400 nm under pumping at 1064 nm which is attributed mainly to the presence of Cr{sup 3+}/Cr{sup 4+} ions. The fabricated fibers seem to be a potential candidate for the development of fiber laser sources for the visible and near-infra ranges and for effective Q-switching units for ∝1-1.1 μm all-fiber ytterbium lasers. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Crystallization kinetics of a soda lime silica glass with TiO2 addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Parra A, S. M.; Alvarez M, A.; Torres G, L. C.; Sanchez, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies conducted into Na 2 O-CaO-3SiO 2 glass composition suggest that its phase transformation occurs from the surface towards the interior of the sample. In a study carried out in 1982, it was reported that no addition of nucleating agents modified the mechanism. Taking advantage of the disposition materials synthesized by nanotechnology, in this study TiO 2 in nanometer size was used with the idea that, because of its qualities, it could modify the crystallization mechanism. The glasses obtained as well as the thermally treated samples, were evaluated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) powder method, differential thermal analysis (DTA), and by optical microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Within the range of TiO 2 concentration studied (0 - 10 wt %), 10 wt % of TiO 2 considerably reduced the Na 2 O-2CaO-3SiO 2 phase crystallization process. The crystallization mechanism was not modified and TiO 2 did not form compounds with the matrix components. (Author)

  13. Glass transition of poly (methyl methacrylate) filled with nanosilica and core-shell structured silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yihu; Bu, Jing; Zuo, Min

    2017-01-01

    transition and segmental dynamics of PMMA in the nanocomposites prepared via solution casting was compared. The remarkable depression (≥10 °C) of glass transition temperature (Tg) induced by the incorporation of SiO2 and CS was both observed at low loadings. Here, different mechanisms were responsible...... for the effect of SiO2 and CS on the segmental acceleration of PMMA matrix. The formation of rigid amorphous fraction (RAF) layer around SiO2 with the thickness of 16.4 nm led to the adjacent molecular packing frustration, while the “lubrication” effect of nonwetting interface between the grafted crosslinked......Core-shell (CS) nanocomposite particles with 53.4 wt% cross-linked poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) shell of 11.6 nm in thickness were fabricated via miniemulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate in the presence of modified nanosilica. The influence of nanosilica and CS nanoparticles on glass...

  14. Highly-Bioreactive Silica-Based Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses Enriched with Gallium(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sanchez-Salcedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects in bone cell growth and antibacterial action are currently attributed to Ga3+ ions. Thus, they can be used to upgrade mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs, investigated for tissue engineering, whenever they released therapeutic amounts of gallium ions to the surrounding medium. Three gallium-enriched MBGs with composition (in mol % xSiO2–yCaO–zP2O5–5Ga2O3, being x = 70, y = 15, z = 10 for Ga_1; x = 80, y = 12, z = 3 for Ga_2; and x = 80, y = 15, z = 0 for Ga_3, were investigated and compared with the gallium-free 80SiO2–15CaO–5P2O5 MBG (B. 29Si and 31P MAS NMR analyses indicated that Ga3+ acts as network modifier in the glass regions with higher polymerization degree and as network former in the zones with high concentration of classical modifiers (Ca2+ ions. Ga_1 and Ga_2 exhibited a quick in vitro bioactive response because they were coated by an apatite-like layer after 1 and 3 days in simulated body fluid. Although we have not conducted biological tests in this paper (cells or bacteria, Ga_1 released high but non-cytotoxic amounts of Ga3+ ions in Todd Hewitt Broth culture medium that were 140 times higher than the IC90 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, demonstrating its potential for tissue engineering applications.

  15. Analysis of optical properties behaviour of CLEARCERAM, fused silica and CaF2 glasses exposed to simulated space conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M.; Alvarado, C. G.; Núñez, A.; Álvarez-Herrero, A.

    2017-11-01

    produced by the radiation environment on the optical materials can be classified in two types: ionizing or non-ionizing. This damage may produce continual or accumulative (dose) alterations on the optical material performances, or may produce alterations which not remain along the time (transitory effects). The effects of the radiation on optical materials can be summarized on changes of optical transmission and refractive index, variation of density and superficial degradation [4-6]. Two non-invasive and non-destructive techniques such as Optical Spectrum Analyzer and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry [7] have been used to characterize optically the three kinds of studied glasses, CaF2, Fused Silica and Clearceram. The study of the temperature and radiation effects on the glasses optical properties showed that the gamma radiation is the principal responsible of glasses optical degradation. The optical properties of the Clearceram glass have been affected by the gamma irradiation due to the absorption bands induced by the radiation in the visible spectral range (color centers). Therefore, an analysis about the behavior of these color centers with the gamma radiation total dose and with the time after the irradiation has been carried out in the same way that it is performed in [8].

  16. Glass substrates crosslinked with tetracycline-imprinted polymeric silicate and CdTe quantum dots as fluorescent sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Mu-Rong [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Occupational Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hu, Chiung-Wen [Department of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Family and Community Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jian-Lian, E-mail: cjl@mail.cmu.edu.tw [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-21

    A fluorescence-based sensor that combines the merits of quantum dots (QDs) and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was first fabricated on a glass substrate via a sol–gel route. Some of the key performance factors, including silane selection, substrate etching, the reaction times of glass silanization and sol–gel polymerization, and the times and methods used for template stripping and loading, were discussed and determined. After fabricating the sensor on either a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) or a 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPS) modified glass substrate, APS showed a much better performance than MPS as both the capping reagent of QDs and the functional monomer of tetracycline-templated MIPs. The APS-QDs on APS-modified glass had a higher imprinted factor (IF = 5.6), a lower LOD (2.1 μM, 3σ), and a more stable signal (2.8%, n = 10 at 70 μM) than those on the MPS-modified glass (IF = 5.2, LOD = 6.5 μM, stability = 6.2%). Furthermore, the recoveries of tetracycline (70 μM) from BSA (133 μg/mL) and FBS (0.66 ppt) by the APS-modified glass were 98% (RSD = 3.5%, n = 5) and 97% (RSD = 5.7%), respectively. For the MPS-modified glass, recoveries of 95% (RSD = 7.2%) and 89% (RSD = 8.7%) were observed at 67 μg/mL of BSA and 0.33 ppt of FBS, respectively. - Highlights: • QD-MIP composites were first built on a glass substrate through a sol–gel route. • Two silanes were evaluated as both a surface modifier and a functional capping monomer. • Fluorescence enhancement by template on glass was different from quenching in solution.

  17. Growth of tin oxide thin films composed of nanoparticles on hydrophilic and hydrophobic glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloly, Abdul Rasheed; Satheesh, M. [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Martínez-Tomás, M. Carmen; Muñoz-Sanjosé, Vicente [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, c/Dr Moliner 50, Burjassot, Valencia 46100 (Spain); Rajappan Achary, Sreekumar [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Bushiri, M. Junaid, E-mail: junaidbushiri@gmail.com [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • SnO{sub 2} thin films were grown on hydrophilic and hydrophobic glass substrates. • Samples on hydrophobic substrates are having comparatively larger lattice volume. • Films on hydrophobic substrates have larger particles and low density distribution. • Substrate dependent photoluminescence emission is observed and studied. • SnO{sub 2} thin films grown over hydrophobic substrates may find potential applications. - Abstract: In this paper, we have demonstrated the growth of tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films composed of nanoparticles on hydrophobic (siliconized) and hydrophilic (non-siliconized) glass substrates by using the spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the formation of SnO{sub 2} thin films with tetragonal rutile-phase structure. Average particle size of nanoparticles was determined to be in the range of 3–4 nm measured from the front view images obtained by a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FESEM), while the size of nanoparticle clusters, when present, were in the range of 11–20 nm. Surface morphology of SnO{sub 2} films grown over hydrophobic substrates revealed larger isolated particles which are less crowded compared to the highly crowded and agglomerated smaller particles in films on hydrophilic substrates. Blue shift in the band gap is observed in samples in which the average particle size is slightly larger than the exciton Bohr radius. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis of samples grown over hydrophobic substrates exhibited an intense defect level emission and a weak near band edge emission. The enhanced visible emission from these SnO{sub 2} thin films is attributed to lattice defects formed during the film growth due to the mismatch between the film and the hydrophobic substrate surface.

  18. Temperature dependence of luminescence from silica glasses under in-reactor and 60Co gamma-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Shogo; Yoshida, Tomoko; Tanabe, Tetuo; , Tatuya, Ii; Hirano, Masahiro; Okada, Moritami

    2004-06-01

    In order to investigate the temperature effects on the dynamic radiation damaging process, we have carried out in situ measurements of in-reactor luminescence (IRL) and gamma-ray induced luminescence (GIL) of a silica glass at temperatures ranging from 70 K to 370 K. Both luminescence spectra were found to consist of two broad emission centers at 3.1 eV and 4.1 eV with an additional temperature independent emission around 2.5 eV. The 2.5 eV emission different from the other two showed long tail to the lower energy side and was attributed to the Cherenkov radiation. The 3.1 eV band was attributed to a B 2 β oxygen deficient center on the basis of our photoluminescence measurement. The intensity of the 3.1 eV IRL increased with increasing temperature up to ca. 200 K and saturated above 200 K, which is clearly different from the reported temperature dependence of 3.1 eV photoluminescence, suggesting the existence of some different relaxation mechanism of excited electron under ionizing radiations.

  19. Optical Degradation of Colloidal Eu-Complex Embedded in Silica Glass Film Using Reprecipitation and Sol-Gel Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Kurabayashi, Tomokazu; Yamaki, Tatsuki

    2016-04-01

    A reprecipitation method has been investigated for fabricating colloidal nanoparticles using Eu-complex. Herein, we investigated optical degradation characteristics of (1,10-phenanthroline)tris [4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedionato]europium(III) colloidal nanoparticles, which were embedded into a silica glass film fabricated by a conventional sol-gel process. At first, we tried several types of good solvents for the reprecipitation method, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is found to be a suitable solvent for realizing the small diameter and the high long-term stability against the ultraviolet irradiation even though the boing point of DMSO is higher than that of water used as a poor solvent. By optimizing the good solvent and the concentration of Eu-complex, the relative photoluminescence intensity of 0.96 was achieved even though the ultraviolet light was continuously irradiated for 90 min. In addition, the average diameter of 106 nm was achieved when DMSO was used as a good solvent, resulting in the high transmittance at a visible wavelength region. Therefore, we can achieve the transparent emissive thin film with a center wavelength of 612 nm, and the optical degradation was drastically reduced by forming nanoparticles.

  20. EPR reversible signature of self-trapped holes in fictive temperature-treated silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancry, Matthieu; Ollier, Nadège; Babu, B. H.; Herrero, Christian; Poumellec, Bertrand

    2018-03-01

    Post-mortem electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments have been carried out between room temperature and 20 K to examine the radiation-induced defects in fictive temperature (Tf) treated Heraeus F300 silica (0.1 ppm OH, 1500 ppm Cl2). In particular, we focus our attention on Self-Trapped Hole (STH) centers detected in 1000 °C, 1100 °C, and 1200 °C Tf treated samples irradiated at room temperature by gamma rays at 6 kGy. By repeating annealing cycles between 77 and 300 K on the same samples, we observed that the EPR signal attributed to STH decreases as the temperature increases but in a reversible manner. We evidenced a deviation from the Curie law for T > 70 K and suggested an interpretation based on the decrease in the "strain-assisted TH" population by reversible excitation of the trapped hole to a delocalized state with an activation energy of 7.8 meV. This also means that the precursors of hole trapping sites (a local strain atomic configuration) remain stable until 300 K at least.

  1. Mesoporous silica films as catalyst support for microstructured reactors: preparation and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraza, O.; Kooyman, P.J.; Lafont, U.; Albouy, P.A.; Khimyak, T.; Rebrov, E.V.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Mesoporous silica thin films with hexagonal and cubic mesostructure have been deposited by the evaporation induced self-assembly assisted sol–gel route on microchannels etched in a Pyrex® 7740 borosilicate glass substrate. Prior to the synthesis, a 50 nm TiO2 film has been deposited on the substrate

  2. A Rapid Method for Deposition of Sn-Doped GaN Thin Films on Glass and Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2018-01-01

    We report the influence of Sn doping on microstructure, surface, and optical properties of GaN thin films deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Sn-doped GaN thin films have been deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) at low temperature. TVA is a rapid deposition technology for thin film growth. Surface and optical properties of the thin films were presented. Grain size, height distribution, roughness values were determined. Grain sizes were calculated as 20 nm and 13 nm for glass and PET substrates, respectively. Nano crystalline forms were shown by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Optical band gap values were determined by optical methods and photoluminescence measurement. The optical band gap values of Sn doped GaN on glass and PET were determined to be approximately ˜3.40 eV and ˜3.47 eV, respectively. As a result, TVA is a rapid and low temperature deposition technology for the Sn doped GaN deposited on glass and PET substrate.

  3. Fabrication of semi-transparent super-hydrophobic surface based on silica hierarchical structures

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ping-Hei

    2011-01-01

    This study successfully develops a versatile method of producing superhydrophobic surfaces with micro/nano-silica hierarchical structures on glass surfaces. Optically transparent super hydrophobic silica thin films were prepared by spin-coating silica particles suspended in a precursor solution of silane, ethanol, and H2O with molar ratio of 1:4:4. The resulting super hydrophobic films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical transmission, and contact angle measurements. The glass substrates in this study were modified with different particles: micro-silica particles, nano-silica particles, and hierarchical structures. This study includes SEM micrographs of the modified glass surfaces with hierarchical structures at different magnifications. © 2011 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  4. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Roslie Ali; Shahrul Nizam Mohd Salleh

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) were deposited onto Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates by introducing the use of Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) as the method. The Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) were dispersed ultrasonically in ethanol and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to form stable suspension. The addition of Sodium Hydroxide in ethanol can stabilize the suspension, which was very important step before the deposition take place. Two substrates of Indium-Tin-Oxide(ITO)-coated glass placed in parallel facing each other (conductive side) into the suspension. The deposition occurs at room temperature, which the distance fixed at 1 cm between both electrodes and the voltage level applied was fixed at 400 V, respectively. The deposition time also was fixed at 30 minutes. The deposited ITO-Glass with Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) will be characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and Raman Microscope. The images of SEM shows that the Multi -Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) were distributed uniformly onto the surface of ITO-Glass. The deposited ITO-Glass with Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) could be the potential material in various practical applications such as field emission devices, fuel cells, and super capacitors. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was found to be an efficient technique in forming well distribution of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) onto ITO-Glass substrates, as proved in characterization methods, in which the optimum conditions will play the major role. (author)

  5. Comparative studies on p-type CuI grown on glass and copper substrate by SILAR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhere, Sunetra L.; Latthe, Sanjay S. [Air Glass Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Kappenstein, Charles [University of Poitiers, Laboratory of Catalysis in Organic Chemistry, LA CCO, UMR CNRS 6503, Poitiers-86000 (France); Mukherjee, S.K. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400085, Maharashtra India (India); Rao, A. Venkateswara, E-mail: avrao2012@gmail.com [Air Glass Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-04-01

    Depending upon the method of synthesis and the nature of substrate surface, there is variation in the physico-chemical properties of the material. Cuprous iodide films are deposited at room temperature on the glass and copper substrates by a simple SILAR method and the obtained results are compared. The p-type material with optical band gap 2.88 eV is found to be possessing face-centered cubic crystal structure with lattice parameter 6.134 A. We observed irregular particles for the CuI film on the glass substrate while patterned arrays of micro-rods with cabbage like tips on copper substrate, for the same preparative conditions. Also, the material deposited on copper is showing superhydrophobic nature (contact angle {approx}156{sup o}) while that on glass it is hydrophilic (contact angle {approx}88{sup o}). We have characterized the thin films by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, surface roughness and contact angle measurement, thermoelectric power measurement and optical studies. This hydrophobic, p-type material with wide band gap will be helpful in the development of optoelectronic devices.

  6. Comparative studies on p-type CuI grown on glass and copper substrate by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhere, Sunetra L.; Latthe, Sanjay S.; Kappenstein, Charles; Mukherjee, S.K.; Rao, A. Venkateswara

    2010-01-01

    Depending upon the method of synthesis and the nature of substrate surface, there is variation in the physico-chemical properties of the material. Cuprous iodide films are deposited at room temperature on the glass and copper substrates by a simple SILAR method and the obtained results are compared. The p-type material with optical band gap 2.88 eV is found to be possessing face-centered cubic crystal structure with lattice parameter 6.134 A. We observed irregular particles for the CuI film on the glass substrate while patterned arrays of micro-rods with cabbage like tips on copper substrate, for the same preparative conditions. Also, the material deposited on copper is showing superhydrophobic nature (contact angle ∼156 o ) while that on glass it is hydrophilic (contact angle ∼88 o ). We have characterized the thin films by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, surface roughness and contact angle measurement, thermoelectric power measurement and optical studies. This hydrophobic, p-type material with wide band gap will be helpful in the development of optoelectronic devices.

  7. Heterogeneous Nucleation of Colloidal Crystals on a Glass Substrate with Depletion Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Suxia; Nozawa, Jun; Hu, Sumeng; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Okada, Junpei; Uda, Satoshi

    2017-10-10

    The heterogeneous nucleation of colloidal crystals with attractive interactions has been investigated via in situ observations. We have found two types of nucleation processes: a cluster that overcomes the critical size for nucleation with a monolayer, and a method that occurs with two layers. The Gibbs free energy changes (ΔG) for these two types of nucleation processes are evaluated by taking into account the effect of various interfacial energies. In contrast to homogeneous nucleation, the change in interfacial free energy, Δσ, is generated for colloidal nucleation on a foreign substrate such as a cover glass in the present study. The Δσ and step free energy of the first layer, γ 1 , are obtained experimentally based on the equation deduced from classical nucleation theory (CNT). It is concluded that the ΔG of q-2D nuclei is smaller than of monolayer nuclei, provided that the same number of particles are used, which explains the experimental result that the critical size in q-2D nuclei is smaller than that in monolayer nuclei.

  8. Titanium oxide nanocoating on a titanium thin film deposited on a glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsedi, L., E-mail: kotsedi@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Nuru, Z.Y. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Eaton, S.M. [Physics Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cummings, F.R. [University of the Western Cape, Electron Microscopy Unit, Physics Department, Bellville 7535, Cape Town (South Africa); Turco, S. Lo; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M. [Center for Nano Science and Technology, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Milano, Italy Via Giovanni Pascoli, 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ramponi, R. [Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies (IFN)-CNR, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa)

    2016-03-31

    Thin films of titanium were deposited on a glass substrate using electron beam evaporator. Femtosecond laser pulses were focused on the surface of the films, and the samples were scanned while mounted on the motorized computer-controlled motion stage to produce an areal modification of the films. X-ray diffraction of the laser-patterned samples showed evidence of the formation of a γ-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} with a monoclinic phase. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry simulation showed that there is an increase in the oxygen concentration as the average laser fluence is increased. Time of flight secondary ions mass spectrometry analysis showed an even distribution of the titanium and oxygen ions on the sample and also ionized molecules of the oxides of titanium were observed. The formation of the oxide of titanium was further supported using the UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy, which showed that for 0.1 J/cm{sup 2} fluence, the laser-exposed film showed the electron transfer band and the d–d transition peak of titanium was observed at lower wavelengths. - Highlights: • γ-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} formed using femtosecond laser. • Fluence and oxygen relation were studied. • Nanoflakes of γ-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} were observed under HRSEM.

  9. Microstructural and Optical Properties of Porous Alumina Elaborated on Glass Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, W.; Gaidi, M.; Chtourou, R.

    2013-03-01

    A transparent porous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructure was formed on a glass substrate using the anodization of a highly pure evaporated aluminum layer. A parametric study was carried out in order to achieve a fine control of the microstructural and optical properties of the elaborated films. The microstructural and surface morphologies of the porous alumina films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pore diameter, inter-pore separation, and the porous structure as a function of anodization conditions were investigated. It was then found that the pores density decreases with increasing the anodization time. Regular cylindrical porous AAO films with a flat bottom structure were formed by chemical etching and anodization. A high transmittance in the 300-900 nm range is reported, indicating a fulfilled growth of the transparent sample (alumina) from the aluminum metal. The data showed typical interference oscillations as a result of the transparent characteristics of the film throughout the visible spectral range. The thickness and the optical constants ( n and k) of the porous anodic alumina films, as a function of anodizing time, were obtained using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR) regions.

  10. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline ITO thin films on glass and clay substrates by ion-beam sputter deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, S.; Nanjo, H.; Kawasaki, K.; Wakui, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Ebina, T.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were prepared on clay-1 (Clay-TPP-LP-SA), clay-2 (Clay-TPP-SA) and glass substrates using ion-beam sputter deposition method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the as-deposited ITO films on both clay-1 and clay-2 substrates were a mixture of amorphous and polycrystalline. But the as-deposited ITO films on glass substrates were polycrystalline. The surface morphologies of as-deposited ITO/glass has smooth surface; in contrast, ITO/clay-1 has rough surface. The surface roughnesses of ITO thin films on glass and clay-1 substrate were calculated as 4.3 and 83 nm, respectively. From the AFM and SEM analyses, the particle sizes of nanocrystalline ITO for a film thickness of 712 nm were calculated as 19.5 and 20 nm, respectively. Optical study showed that the optical transmittance of ITO/clay-2 was higher than that of ITO/clay-1. The sheet resistances of as-deposited ITO/clay-1 and ITO/clay-2 were calculated as 76.0 and 63.0 Ω/□, respectively. The figure of merit value for as-deposited ITO/clay-2 (12.70 x 10 -3 /Ω) was also higher than that of ITO/clay-1 (9.6 x 10 -3 /Ω), respectively. The flexibilities of ITO/clay-1 and ITO/clay-2 were evaluated as 13 and 12 mm, respectively. However, the ITO-coated clay-2 substrate showed much better optical and electrical properties as well as flexibility as compared to clay-1.

  11. Effect of barrier layers on the properties of indium tin oxide thin films on soda lime glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Min; Choi, Byung-Hyun; Ji, Mi-Jung; An, Yong-Tae; Park, Jung-Ho; Kwon, Jae-Hong; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the electrical, structural and optical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited on soda lime glass (SLG) haven been investigated, along with high strain point glass (HSPG) substrate, through radio frequency magnetron sputtering using a ceramic target (In 2 O 3 :SnO 2 , 90:10 wt.%). The ITO films deposited on the SLG show a high electrical resistivity and structural defects compared with those deposited on HSPG due to the Na ions from the SLG diffusing to the ITO film by annealing. However, these properties can be improved by intercalating a barrier layer of SiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 between the ITO film and the SLG substrate. SIMS analysis has confirmed that the barrier layer inhibits the Na ion's diffusion from the SLG. In particular, the ITO films deposited on the Al 2 O 3 barrier layer, show better properties than those deposited on the SiO 2 barrier layer.

  12. Magnetic properties of Pr-Fe-B thick-film magnets deposited on Si substrates with glass buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, M.; Kurosaki, A.; Kondo, H.; Shimizu, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamashita, A.; Yanai, T.; Fukunaga, H.

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the magnetic properties of PLD-made Pr-Fe-B thick-film magnets deposited on Si substrates, an adoption of a glass buffer layer was carried out. The glass layer could be fabricated under the deposition rate of approximately 70 μm/h on a Si substrate using a Nd-YAG pulse laser in the vacuum atmosphere. The use of the layer enabled us to reduce the Pr content without a mechanical destruction and enhance (BH)max value by approximately 20 kJ/m3 compared with the average value of non-buffer layered Pr-Fe-B films with almost the same thickness. It is also considered that the layer is also effective to apply a micro magnetization to the films deposited on Si ones.

  13. Optical and morphological characterizations of pyronin dye-poly (vinyl alcohol) thin films formed on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meral, Kadem; Arik, Mustafa; Onganer, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Thin films of pyronin dye mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on glass substrate were prepared by using spin-coating technique. The optical and morphological properties of the thin films were studied by UV-Vis., steady-state fluorescence spectroscopies and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thin films on glass substrate were fabricated at various [PVA]/[dye] (P/D) ratios. Hence, the monomeric and H-aggregates thin films of pyronin dye mixed with PVA were formed as a function of the dye and PVA concentration. It was determined that while the monomeric thin films showed strong fluorescence, the formation of H-aggregates in the thin film caused to decreasing the fluorescence intensity. AFM studies demonstrated that the morphology of the thin film was drastically varied with changing the optical property of the thin film such as monomeric and H-aggregates thin films.

  14. Optical and morphological characterizations of pyronin dye-poly (vinyl alcohol) thin films formed on glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meral, Kadem, E-mail: kademm@atauni.edu.tr; Arik, Mustafa, E-mail: marik@tatauni.edu.tr; Onganer, Yavuz, E-mail: yonganer@atauni.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Atatürk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Thin films of pyronin dye mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on glass substrate were prepared by using spin-coating technique. The optical and morphological properties of the thin films were studied by UV-Vis., steady-state fluorescence spectroscopies and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thin films on glass substrate were fabricated at various [PVA]/[dye] (P/D) ratios. Hence, the monomeric and H-aggregates thin films of pyronin dye mixed with PVA were formed as a function of the dye and PVA concentration. It was determined that while the monomeric thin films showed strong fluorescence, the formation of H-aggregates in the thin film caused to decreasing the fluorescence intensity. AFM studies demonstrated that the morphology of the thin film was drastically varied with changing the optical property of the thin film such as monomeric and H-aggregates thin films.

  15. Quantifying Silica Reactivity in Subsurface Environments: Reaction Affinity and Solute Matrix Controls on Quartz and SiO2 Glass Dissolution Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, Patricia M.

    1999-01-01

    Our goal is to develop a quantitative and mechanistic understanding of amorphous silica, SiO2(am), dissolution kinetics in aqueous solutions. A knowledge of fundamental controls on the reactivity of simple Si-O bonded phases is the baseline of behavior for understanding highly complex silica phases. In the Earth, silicate minerals comprise >70% of the crust and dominate virtually every subsurface system. More importantly for the objectives of this EMSP project, the silicates are important because compositionally complex glasses will become the front line of defense in containing radioactive wastes in the nation's long term and interim storage strategies. To date, the behavior of SiO2(am) is largely inferred from studies of the better known crystalline polymorphs (e.g. alpha-quartz). In the first step towards constructing a general model for amorphous silica reactivity in the complex fluid compositions of natural waters, we are determining the dissolution behavior as a function of temperature, solution pH and cation concentration. With these data we are determining relationships between SiO2 glass structure and dissolution rates in aqueous solutions, as described below

  16. Quantifying silica reactivity in subsurface environments: Reaction affinity and solute matrix controls on quartz and SiO2 glass. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    'The author reports the preliminary results of the experiments on the dissolution behavior of vitreous silica (v-SiO 2 ) into aqueous solutions of variable pH and ionic strength. The experiments are being conducted in mixed flow reactors with a high circulation rate that simulates constant-stirred conditions, the efficacy of which the authors discuss below. The preliminary results indicate that v-SiO 2 dissolves into aqueous solutions approximately two orders of magnitude more quickly than crystalline silica (e.g., quartz). With additional experiments, they will utilize the dissolution rate data as a framework for understanding the behavior of waste glass compositions in the subsurface. In other work related to the studies of glass reactivity, the author has written one book chapter that will be published as part of a proceedings for the CEA/VALRHO international nuclear waste disposal conference held in Mejannes le Clap, France. In separate work, she is presently writing a second book chapter for the volume entitled Adsorption on Silica Surfaces.'

  17. Field emission characteristics of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with honeycomb configuration grown onto glass substrate with titanium coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yung-Jui [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hsin-Yueh; Chang, Hsuan-Chen [Department of Electronic and computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Ting; Su, Wei-Jhih [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Ciou, Chen-Hong [Department of Electronic and computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Ling [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Honda, Shin-ichi [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Huang, Ying-Sheng [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic and computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Lee, Kuei-Yi, E-mail: kylee@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic and computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • We have successfully designed the honeycomb patterns on glass substrate by photolithography technique. • Honeycomb-VACNTs were synthesized successfully onto glass substrate by using thermal CVD and covered different Ti films on VACNTs by e-beam evaporation. • After coating the Ti films, the current density reached 7 mA/cm{sup 2} when the electric field was 2.5 V/μm. • The fluorescence of VACNTs with Ti 15 nm films exhibits the high brightness screen and emission uniformity. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown successfully onto a glass substrate using thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) with C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas at 700 °C. The synthesized CNTs exhibited good crystallinity and a vertically aligned morphology. The vertically aligned CNTs (VACNTs) were patterned with a honeycomb configuration using photolithography and characterized using field emission (FE) applications. Owing to the electric field concentration, the FE current density of VACNTs with honeycomb configuration was higher than that of the un-patterned VACNTs. Ti was coated onto the VACNT surface utilizing the relatively lower work function property to enhance the FE current density. The FE current density reached up to 7.0 mA/cm{sup 2} at an applied electric field of 2.5 V/μm. A fluorescent screen was monitored to demonstrate uniform FE VACNTs with a honeycomb configuration. The designed field emitter provided an admirable example for FE applications.

  18. Characteristics of Schottky-barrier source/drain metal-oxide-polycrystalline thin-film transistors on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seung-Min; Cho, Won-Ju; Jung, Jong-Wan

    2012-01-01

    Polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) Schottky-barrier thin-film transistors (SB-TFTs) with Pt-silicided source /drain junctions were fabricated on glass substrates, and the electrical characteristics were examined. The amorphous silicon films on glass substrates were converted into high-quality poly-Si by using excimer laser annealing (ELA) and solid phase crystallization (SPC) methods. The crystallinity of poly-Si was analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The silicidation process was optimized by measuring the electrical characteristics of the Pt-silicided Schottky diodes. The performances of Pt-silicided SB-TFTs using poly-Si films on glass substrates and crystallized by using ELA and SPC were demonstrated. The SB-TFTs using the ELA poly-Si film demonstrated better electrical performances such as higher mobility (22.4 cm 2 /Vs) and on/off current ratio (3 x 10 6 ) and lower subthreshold swing value (120 mV/dec) than the SPC poly-Si films.

  19. Copper oxide thin films anchored on glass substrate by sol gel spin coating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Venu, M. Parvathy; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2018-05-01

    Owing to the excellent optical, thermal, electrical and photocatalytic properties, copper oxide nanoparticles/films have found applications in optoelectronic devices like solar/photovoltaic cells, lithium ion batteries, gas sensors, catalysts, magnetic storage media etc. Copper oxide is a p-type semiconductor material having a band gap energy varying from 1.2 eV-2.1 eV. Syzygium Samarangense fruit extract was used as reducing agent to synthesize copper oxide nanostructures at room temperature from 10 mM copper sulphate pentahydrate solution. The synthesized nanostructures are deposited onto glass substrate by spin coating followed by annealing the film at 200 °C. Both the copper oxide colloid and films are characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Presence of 2 peaks at 500 nm and a broad peak centered around 800 nm in the UV-Vis absorbance spectra of copper oxide colloid/films is indicative of the formation of anisotropic copper oxide nanostructures is confirmed by the FESEM images which showed the presence of triangular shaped and rod shaped particles. The rod shaped particles inside island like structures were found in unannealed films whereas the annealed films contained different shaped particles with reduced sizes. The elemental analysis using EDS spectra of copper oxide nanoparticles/films showed the presence of both copper and oxygen. Electrical properties of copper oxide nanoparticles are affected due to quantum size effect. The electrical studies carried out on both unannealed and annealed copper oxide films revealed an increase in resistivity with annealing of the films.

  20. FY 1999 results of the regional consortium R and D project/the regional consortium energy R and D. 1st year. Development of the energy-saving type production technology of high-purity/transparent silica glass; 1999 nendo kojundo tomei sekiei glass no sho energy gata seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of achieving the remarkable energy conservation, high accuracy and low cost in the production of high-purity/transparent silica glass, the developmental research was conducted on slip casting method. In the development of technology to synthesize silica powder by the sol-gel method, monodisperse - polydisperse high-purity colloidal silica was obtained. In the development of technology to make silica power ultra-highly pure, a process was found out in which silica particles can be obtained by applying moderate amounts of ammonium bicarbonate and aqueous ammonia to the solution of silicic acid for heating. In the slip cast forming, a high-density forming body with a mean particle size of 1.5{mu}m was obtained. In the trial manufacture of reflector model, a translucent silica glass sintered body was obtained by transcribing the gypsum type dimensional shape in high purity. Besides, experimental researches were conducted on the examination of gypsum type/resin type and evaluation of physical properties, heat deterioration characteristics of the actual multi-layer film and trial manufacture of the heat resistant film, analysis/evaluation of trace impurities inside silica glass, conditions for the manufacture of dense silica glass sheets, etc. (NEDO)

  1. Room temperature deposition of perpendicular magnetic anisotropic Co{sub 3}Pt thin films on glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Shen; Dai, Hong-Yu; Hsu, Yi-Wei [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan-Ze University, Chung-Li 32003, Taiwan (China); Ou, Sin-Liang, E-mail: slo@mail.dyu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 51591, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shi-Wei [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lu, Hsi-Chuan; Wang, Sea-Fue [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sun, An-Cheng, E-mail: acsun@saturn.yzu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan-Ze University, Chung-Li 32003, Taiwan (China)

    2017-03-01

    Co{sub 3}Pt alloy thin films were deposited on the glass substrate at room temperature (RT) and 300 °C, which showed high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and isotropy magnetic behaviors, respectively. Co{sub 3}Pt HCP (0002) planes grew along the substrate plane for the films deposited at RT. The easy axis [0001] was consequently vertical to the substrate surface and obtained the predominant PMA. Large magnetic domains and sharp boundary also supported high PMA in RT-deposited samples. On the other hand, the PMA was significantly decreased with increasing the deposition temperature from RT to 300 °C. Hard HCP(0002) and soft A1(111) co-existed in the film and the magnetic exchanged coupling between these two phases induced isotropy magnetic behavior. In addition, the various thicknesses (t) of the RT-deposited Co{sub 3}Pt films were deposited with different base pressures prior to sputtering. The Kerr rotation loops showed high PMA and out-of-plane squareness (S{sub ⊥}) of ~0.9 were found in low base pressure chamber. Within high base pressure chamber, Co{sub 3}Pt films just show magnetic isotropy behaviors. This study provides a fabrication method for the preparation of high PMA HCP-type Co{sub 3}Pt films on the glass substrate without any underlayer at RT. The results could be the base for future development of RT-deposited magnetic alloy thin film with high PMA. - Highlights: • Fabricated high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Co{sub 3}Pt thin film on glass substrate. • Prepared HCP Co{sub 3}Pt thin film at room temperature. • The key to enhance the PMA of the Co{sub 3}Pt films. • Thinner film is good to fabricate PMA Co{sub 3}Pt thin films.

  2. Modification of a Phenolic Resin with Epoxy- and Methacrylate-Functionalized Silica Sols to Improve the Ablation Resistance of Their Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized silica sols were obtained by the hydrolytic condensation of (γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPMS, (γ-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPMS and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS. Three different sols were obtained: MPS (derived from MPMS and TEOS, GPS-MPS (derived from GPMS, MPMS and TEOS, and GPSD (derived from GPMS, TEOS and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, DGEBA. These silica sols were mixed with a phenolic resin (PR. Ethylenediamine was used as a hardener for epoxy-functionalized sols and benzoyl peroxide was used as an initiator of the free-radical polymerization of methacrylate-functionalized silica sols. Glass fiber-reinforced composites were obtained from the neat PR and MPS-PR, GPS-MPS-PR and GPSD-PR. The resulting composites were evaluated as ablation resistant materials in an acetylene-oxygen flame. A large increase in the ablation resistance was observed when the PR was modified by the functionalized silica sols. The ablation resistance of the composites decreased as follows: GPSD-PR > MPS-PR > GPS-MPS-PR > PR.

  3. Mechanical performance and thermal stability of glass fiber reinforced silica aerogel composites based on co-precursor method by freeze drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Cheng, Xudong; Pan, Yuelei; Li, Congcong; Gong, Lunlun; Zhang, Heping

    2018-04-01

    In order to maintain the integrity, glass fiber (GF) reinforced silica aerogel composites were synthesized using methltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) and water glass co-precursor by freeze drying method. The composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, uniaxial compressive test, three-point bending test, thermal conductivity analysis, contact angle test, TG-DSC analysis. It was found that the molar ratio of MTMS/water glass could significantly affect the properties of composites. The bulk density and thermal conductivity first decreased and then increased with the increasing molar ratio. The composites showed remarkable mechanical strength and flexibility compared with pure silica aerogel. Moreover, when the molar ratio is 1.8, the composites showed high specific surface area (870.9 m2/g), high contact angle (150°), great thermal stability (560 °C) and low thermal conductivity (0.0248 W/m·K). These outstanding properties indicate that GF/aerogels have broad prospects in the field of thermal insulation.

  4. Transparent conducting properties of anatase Ti0.94Nb0.06O2 polycrystalline films on glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitosugi, T.; Ueda, A.; Nakao, S.; Yamada, N.; Furubayashi, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Konuma, S.; Shimada, T.; Hasegawa, T.

    2008-01-01

    We report on transparent conducting properties of anatase Ti 0.94 Nb 0.06 O 2 (TNO) polycrystalline films on glass substrate, and discuss the role of grain crystallinity and grain boundary on resistivity. Thin films of TNO were deposited using pulsed laser deposition at substrate temperature ranging from room temperature to 350 deg. C, with subsequent H 2 -annealing at 500 deg. C. Polycrystalline TNO films showed resistivity of 4.5 x 10 -4 Ω cm and 1.5 x 10 -3 Ω cm for films prepared at substrate temperature of room temperature and 250 deg. C, respectively. X-ray diffraction measurements and transmission electron microscopy reveal that grain crystallinity and grain boundary play key roles in conductive films

  5. Effects of annealing atmosphere on ZnO{sup -} ions-implanted silica glass: synthesis of Zn and ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiri, P K [Department of Physics, Achhruram Memorial College, P.O. Jhalda, Purulia 723202 (India); Mahapatra, D P, E-mail: kuiripk@gmail.co [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India)

    2010-10-06

    The effects of annealing atmosphere (argon or oxygen) on Zn nanoparticles (NPs), embedded in silica glass, synthesized by implanting 50 keV ZnO{sup -} ions to a fluence of 7 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} have been studied. Optical absorption (OA) measurements carried out on the as-implanted samples have been found to result in a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band centred at {approx}255 nm due to the presence of Zn NPs in the silica glass. An increase in SPR peak intensity with a corresponding reduction of its full width at half maximum have been seen in the OA spectrum taken from the as-implanted sample following annealing in Ar ambient at 700 {sup 0}C for 2 h, indicating a growth in the size of Zn NPs. However, annealing the as-implanted sample in O{sub 2} gas at 700 {sup 0}C for 2 h has been found to result in a steep absorption edge at {approx}364 nm in the OA spectrum which indicates the formation of ZnO NPs. These ZnO NPs show quantum confinement effects due to their small sizes. No observable photoluminescence (PL) emission has been seen from Zn NPs, whereas an excitonic band at {approx}368 nm and three deep-level PL emission bands at {approx}453 nm, {approx}521 nm and {approx}650 nm, respectively, have been seen from ZnO NPs. It was argued that the deep-level PLs were due to the singly ionized oxygen vacancies located at ZnO NPs' surfaces. These observations suggest that ZnO NPs were formed due to oxidation of Zn NPs via interaction with the indiffusing O{sub 2} molecules during annealing in O{sub 2} ambient, but not with the interaction of the implanted oxygen in silica glass.

  6. Silica Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ghahramani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to heavy metals, organic solvents and silica is associated with a variety of renal manifestations. Improved understanding of occupational renal disease provides insight into environmental renal disease, improving knowledge of disease pathogenesis. Silica (SiO2 is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. Workers exposed to silica include sandblasters, miners, quarry workers, masons, ceramic workers and glass manufacturers. New cases of silicosis per year have been estimated in the US to be 3600–7300. Exposure to silica has been associated with tubulointerstitial disease, immune-mediated multisystem disease, chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. A rare syndrome of painful, nodular skin lesions has been described in dialysis patients with excessive levels of silicon. Balkan endemic nephropathy is postulated to be due to chronic intoxication with drinking water polluted by silicates released during soil erosion. The mechanism of silica nephrotoxicity is thought to be through direct nephrotoxicity, as well as silica-induced autoimmune diseases such as scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus. The renal histopathology varies from focal to crescentic and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with aneurysm formation suggestive of polyarteritis nodosa. The treatment for silica nephrotoxicity is non-specific and depends on the mechanism and stage of the disease. It is quite clear that further research is needed, particularly to elucidate the pathogenesis of silica nephropathy. Considering the importance of diagnosing exposure-related renal disease at early stages, it is imperative to obtain a thorough occupational history in all patients with renal disease, with particular emphasis on exposure to silica, heavy metals, and solvents.

  7. Wear Resistance of Nano Alumina Containing SiO2-B2O3-Na2O Glass-Ceramic on Steel Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    A. Faeghinia; A. Zamanian

    2016-01-01

    The experimental study has been carried out to investigate the tribological properties of nano Alumina reinforced glass-ceramic enamel. The mixtures of (5, 10, 15 wt.%) nano alumina and glass powders have been air sprayed on stainless steel substrate.. The thixotropy, wetting angle and surface tension of used slurry were increased inherently by 15-wt.% nano alumina. By heat treating at 870-640-525 ºC, the homogeneous crystalline sodium silicate phase beside nano alumina was obtained in glass ...

  8. Effect of sintering temperature variations on fabrication of 45S5 bioactive glass-ceramics using rice husk as a source for silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenakul, Wilaiwan; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Tongsiri, Natee; Pengpat, Kamonpan; Ruangsuriya, Jetsada

    2016-04-01

    45S5 bioactive glass is a highly bioactive substance that has the ability to promote stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts--the cells that create bone matrix. The aim of this work is to analyze physical and mechanical properties of 45S5 bioactive glass fabricated by using rice husk ash as its silica source. The 45S5 bioactive glass was prepared by melting the batch at 1300 °C for 3h. The samples were sintered at different temperatures ranging from 900 to 1050 °C with a fixed dwell-time of 2h. The phase transitions, density, porosity and microhardness values were investigated and reported. DTA analysis was used to examine the crystallization temperatures of the glasses prepared. We found that the sintering temperature had a significant effect on the mechanical and physical properties of the bioactive glass. The XRD showed that when the sintering temperature was above 650 °C, crystallization occurred and bioactive glass-ceramics with Na2Ca2Si3O9, Na2Ca4(PO4)2SiO4 and Ca3Si2O7 were formed. The optimum sintering temperature resulting in maximum mechanical values was around 1050 °C, with a high density of 2.27 g/cm(3), 16.96% porosity and the vicker microhardness value of 364HV. Additionally, in vitro assay was used to examine biological activities in stimulated body fluid (SBF). After incubation in SBF for 7 days, all of the samples showed formations of apatite layers indicating that the 45S5 bioactive glasses using rice husk as a raw material were also bioactive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization and enhanced nonlinear optical limiting response in carbon nanodots dispersed in solid-state hybrid organically modified silica gel glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Zheng, Chan; Guo, Qiaohang; Huang, Dongdong; Wu, Xiukai; Chen, Ling

    2018-02-01

    Freely dispersed carbon nanodots (CNDs) were introduced into a 3-glycidoxy-propyltrimethoxysilane modified silicate gel glass (i.e. an organically modified silica or ORMOSIL) by a highly efficient and simple sol-gel process, which could be easily extended to prepare functional molecules/nanoparticles solid state optoelectronic devices. Scanning electron microscope imaging, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, pore structure measurements, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to investigate the surface characteristics, structure, texture, and linear optical properties of the CND/SiO2 ORMOSIL gel glasses. Images and UV/Vis spectra confirmed the successful dispersion of CNDs in the ORMOSIL gel glass. The surface characteristics and pore structure of the host SiO2 matrix were markedly changed through the introduction of the CNDs. The linear optical properties of the guest CNDs were also affected by the sol-gel procedure. The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the CNDs were investigated by a nanosecond open-aperture Z-scan technique at 532 nm both in liquid and solid matrices. We found that the NLO response of the CNDs was considerably improved after their incorporation into the ORMOSIL gel glasses. Possible enhancement mechanisms were also explored. The nonlinear extinction coefficient gradually increased while the optical limiting (OL) threshold decreased as the CND doping level was increased. This result suggests that the NLO and OL properties of the composite gel glasses can be optimized by tuning the concentration of CNDs in the gel glass matrix. Our findings show that CND/SiO2 ORMOSIL gel glasses are promising candidates for optical limiters to protect sensitive instruments and human eyes from damage caused by high power lasers.

  10. All-silica nanofluidic devices for DNA-analysis fabricated by imprint of sol-gel silica with silicon stamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm; Letailleur, Alban A; Søndergård, Elin

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple and cheap method for fabrication of silica nanofluidic devices for single-molecule studies. By imprinting sol-gel materials with a multi-level stamp comprising micro- and nanofeatures, channels of different depth are produced in a single process step. Calcination of the imprin......We present a simple and cheap method for fabrication of silica nanofluidic devices for single-molecule studies. By imprinting sol-gel materials with a multi-level stamp comprising micro- and nanofeatures, channels of different depth are produced in a single process step. Calcination...... of the imprinted hybrid sol-gel material produces purely inorganic silica, which has very low autofluorescence and can be fusion bonded to a glass lid. Compared to top-down processing of fused silica or silicon substrates, imprint of sol-gel silica enables fabrication of high-quality nanofluidic devices without...

  11. Microwave studies on the dielectric properties of Sm3+ and Sm3+/CdTe doped sol-gel silica glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Siby; Rejikumar, P.R.; Yohannan, Jaimon; Mathew, K.T.; Unnikrishnan, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    Complex permittivity and conductivity studies of Samarium and Samarium/semiconductor cadmium telluride sol-gel silica glass samples were done. We use cavity perturbation technique at S band frequencies using TE 10p Mode. Structural evolution of the matrix on annealing is discussed based on FTIR analysis/XRD power diffraction. In cavity perturbation technique dielectric parameters like complex permittivity and conductivity are determined by measuring changes in resonant frequency due to small perturbation inside the cavity produced by the introduction of the samples. The addition of the semiconductor along with the samarium was found to lower the permittivity, loss factor and conductivity. Variations of permittivity values with annealing temperature find applications in IC Technology, optic fibre communication, etc. The Sm 3+ /CdTe doped glasses can also be used in the fabrication of new and improved materials for microwave electronic circuits and in electromagnetic shielding devices

  12. Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of most glassforming liquids is known to depart significantly from the classical Arrhenius behaviour of simple fluids. The discovery of an unexpected correlation between the extent of this departure and the Poisson ratio of the resulting glass could lead...... to new understanding of glass ageing and viscous liquid dynamics....

  13. In situ crystallization of b-oriented MFI films on plane and curved substrates coated with a mesoporous silica layer

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Zhiyong; Pera-Titus, Marc

    2013-01-01

    a silica source to promote the nucleation and growth of zeolite crystals via a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism (zeolitization), and adsorb zeolite moieties generated in the synthesis solution via a homogeneous nucleation mechanism. A monolayer

  14. Photocatalytic performance of highly amorphous titania–silica aerogels with mesopores: The adverse effect of the in situ adsorption of some organic substrates during photodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lázár, István [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1 H-4032 (Hungary); Kalmár, József, E-mail: kalmar.jozsef@science.unideb.hu [MTA-DE Homogeneous Catalysis and Reaction Mechanisms Research Group, Egyetem tér 1 H-4032 (Hungary); Peter, Anca [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Technical University of Cluj Napoca, North University Center of Baia Mare, Baia Mare, Victoriei 76, 430122 (Romania); Szilágyi, Anett; Győri, Enikő; Ditrói, Tamás; Fábián, István [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1 H-4032 (Hungary)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Details on the preparation of titania–silica aerogels with no crystalline anatase phase. • Investigation of the structure and the photocatalytic activity of highly amorphous titania–silica aerogels with mesopores. • The fast adsorption of methylene blue and salicylic acid reduces the rates of their photocatalytic degradations. • An elaborate kinetic model which incorporates both adsorption and photocatalysis. - Abstract: Titania–silica composite aerogels with 16–29% Ti-content by the mass were synthesized by the sol–gel method from different Ti-precursors, and calcined at 500 °C. These aerogels are highly amorphous as no crystalline TiO{sub 2} phase can be detected in them by X-ray diffraction methods, and show the dominating presence of either mesopores or macropores. The incorporation of Ti into the silica structure is shown by the appearance of characteristic IR transitions of Si−O−Ti vibrations. The characteristic band-gap energies of the different aerogels are estimated to be between 3.6 and 3.9 eV from UV reflection spectra. Band-gap energy decreases with decreasing pore-size. When suspended in solution, even these highly amorphous aerogels accelerate the photodegradation of salicylic acid and methylene blue compared to simple photolysis. Kinetic experiments were conducted under illumination, and also in the dark to study the adsorption of the substrates onto the suspended aerogels. We assume that the fast in situ adsorption of the organic substrates mask the suspended aerogel particles from UV photons, which reduces the rate of photocatalysis. We managed to mathematically separate the parallel processes of photocatalysis and adsorption, and develop a simple kinetic model to describe the reaction system.

  15. Infrared-transmittance tunable metal-insulator conversion device with thin-film-transistor-type structure on a glass substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Katase

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR transmittance tunable metal-insulator conversion was demonstrated on a glass substrate by using thermochromic vanadium dioxide (VO2 as the active layer in a three-terminal thin-film-transistor-type device with water-infiltrated glass as the gate insulator. Alternative positive/negative gate-voltage applications induce the reversible protonation/deprotonation of a VO2 channel, and two-orders of magnitude modulation of sheet-resistance and 49% modulation of IR-transmittance were simultaneously demonstrated at room temperature by the metal-insulator phase conversion of VO2 in a non-volatile manner. The present device is operable by the room-temperature protonation in an all-solid-state structure, and thus it will provide a new gateway to future energy-saving technology as an advanced smart window.

  16. Bioactive glass 13-93 as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Prakash; Tan, Andrea R; Rahaman, Mohammed N; Bal, B Sonny; Hung, Clark T; Cook, James L

    2011-10-01

    Replacement of diseased areas of the joint with tissue-engineered osteochondral grafts has shown potential in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Bioactive glasses are candidates for the osseous analog of these grafts. (1) Does Bioactive Glass 13-93 (BG 13-93) as a subchondral substrate improve collagen and glycosaminoglycan production in a tissue-engineered cartilage layer? (2) Does BG 13-93 as a culture medium supplement increase the collagen and glycosaminoglycan production and improve the mechanical properties in a tissue-engineered cartilage layer? In Study 1, bioactive glass samples (n = 4) were attached to a chondrocyte-seeded agarose layer to form an osteochondral construct, cultured for 6 weeks, and compared to controls. In Study 2, bioactive glass samples (n = 5) were cocultured with cell-seeded agarose for 6 weeks. The cell-seeded agarose layer was exposed to BG 13-93 either continuously or for the first or last 2 weeks in culture or had no exposure. Osteochondral constructs with a BG 13-93 base had improved glycosaminoglycan deposition but less collagen II content. Agarose scaffolds that had a temporal exposure to BG 13-93 within the culture medium had improved mechanical and biochemical properties compared to continuous or no exposure. When used as a subchondral substrate, BG 13-93 did not improve biochemical properties compared to controls. However, as a culture medium supplement, BG 13-93 improved the biochemical and mechanical properties of a tissue-engineered cartilage layer. BG 13-93 may not be suitable in osteochondral constructs but could have potential as a medium supplement for neocartilage formation.

  17. Coating of Zircaloy sheaths with silica glass using the Sol-Gel technique for protection against oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sanctis, O.; Pellegri, N.; Gomez, L.

    1990-01-01

    With the aim of improving corrosion resistance of Zircaloy, a few Zircaloy sheaths were covered with vitreous silica. Deposition was made by dip coating in tetraetilortosilicate (TEOS) solutions and later densification treatment at 500 degrees C. Oxidation tests were performed and compared with sheaths not covered with silica. As a result, an effective increase in the resistance to dry oxidation was found in sheaths which had been protected. The coating-Zircaloy interface was studied using XPS (scanner). (Author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  18. Study on Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on Grinding Force and Surface Quality in Ultrasonic Assisted Micro End Grinding of Silica Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vibration assisted micro end grinding (UAMEG is a promising processing method for micro parts made of hard and brittle materials. First, the influence of ultrasonic assistance on the mechanism of this processing technology is theoretically analyzed. Then, in order to reveal the effects of ultrasonic vibration and grinding parameters on grinding forces and surface quality, contrast grinding tests of silica glass with and without ultrasonic assistance using micro radial electroplated diamond wheel are conducted. The grinding forces are measured using a three-component dynamometer. The surface characteristics are detected using the scanning electron microscope. The experiment results demonstrate that grinding forces are significantly reduced by introducing ultrasonic vibration into conventional micro end grinding (CMEG of silica glass; ultrasonic assistance causes inhibiting effect on variation percentages of tangential grinding force with grinding parameters; ductile machining is easier to be achieved and surface quality is obviously improved due to ultrasonic assistance in UAMEG. Therefore, larger grinding depth and feed rate adopted in UAMEG can lead to the improvement of removal rate and machining efficiency compared with CMEG.

  19. Luminescent properties of CaTiO3:Pr thin-film phosphor deposited on ZnO/ITO/glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sung Mook; Han, Sang Hyuk; Song, Kuk Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo; Kim, Young Jin

    2005-01-01

    Red-emitting CaTiO 3 :Pr phosphor thin films were deposited on glass, ZnO/ITO/glass, and ITO/glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The effects of various substrates and heat treatment on the structural and luminous properties were investigated. The films deposited on ZnO/ITO/glass exhibited superior crystallinity and more enhanced PL and CL properties compared with those on ITO/glass. The intermediate ZnO layer between phosphor film and ITO contributed to the growing behaviors and the roughening of CaTiO 3 :Pr phosphor thin films, and consequently, to the excellent luminescence. The luminescent properties of the films were improved by following heat-treatment due to a combination of factors, namely the transformation from amorphous to poly crystalline phases, the activation of the activators, and the elimination of microdefects

  20. Organic inorganic hybrid coating (poly(methyl methacrylate)/monodisperse silica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, E.; Almaral, J.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Castaño, V.; Rodríguez, V.

    2005-04-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate-silica hybrid coatings were prepared from methyl methacrylate and monodisperse colloidal silica prepared by the Stöber method. The surfaces of the spheres were successfully modified by chemical reaction with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMSPM) to compatibilise the organic and inorganic components of the precursor solution mixture. The coatings were deposited by dip-coating on glass substrates. They result with good properties of homogeneity, optical transparence, hardness and adhesion.

  1. Development of textured ZnO-coated low-cost glass substrate with very high haze ratio for silicon-based thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongsingthong, Aswin; Krajangsang, Taweewat; Limmanee, Amornrat; Sriprapha, Kobsak; Sritharathikhun, Jaran; Konagai, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films with a very high haze ratio and low resistivity were developed on soda–lime glass substrate by using reactive ion etching (RIE) treatment with carbon tetrafluoride (CF 4 ) to modify the substrate surface morphology before the deposition of ZnO films. We found that the surface morphology of the ZnO films deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique could be modified by varying the glass treatment conditions and the gas pressure was a key parameter. With increasing glass-etching pressure, the surface morphology of the ZnO films changed from conventional pyramid-like single texture to greater cauliflower-like double texture, leading to significant increases in root mean square roughness and haze ratio of the films. By employing the developed high-haze ZnO films as a front transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer in microcrystalline silicon solar cells, an enhancement in the quantum efficiency in the long-wavelength region has been achieved. Experimental results have verified that our unique and original glass etching treatment is a simple and effective technique to improve the light-scattering properties of the ZnO films while preserving their good transparency and electrical properties. Thus, the ZnO films deposited on etched soda–lime glass have a high potential for the use as a front TCO layer in thin-film Si solar cells. - Highlights: • High-haze zinc oxide (ZnO) grown on low cost soda–lime glass has been developed. • Surface of the ZnO can be modified by varying glass-substrate etching conditions. • Glass-etching pressure is a key to increase haze ratio of the ZnO films. • Higher cell efficiency has been achieved from cell using etched glass. • High-haze ZnO coated glass is a promising transparent conductive oxide coated glass

  2. Development of textured ZnO-coated low-cost glass substrate with very high haze ratio for silicon-based thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongsingthong, Aswin, E-mail: aswin.hongsingthong@nectec.or.th [Solar Energy Technology Laboratory, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Road, Khlong 1, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Krajangsang, Taweewat; Limmanee, Amornrat; Sriprapha, Kobsak; Sritharathikhun, Jaran [Solar Energy Technology Laboratory, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, 112 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Road, Khlong 1, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Konagai, Makoto [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, NE-15, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2013-06-30

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films with a very high haze ratio and low resistivity were developed on soda–lime glass substrate by using reactive ion etching (RIE) treatment with carbon tetrafluoride (CF{sub 4}) to modify the substrate surface morphology before the deposition of ZnO films. We found that the surface morphology of the ZnO films deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique could be modified by varying the glass treatment conditions and the gas pressure was a key parameter. With increasing glass-etching pressure, the surface morphology of the ZnO films changed from conventional pyramid-like single texture to greater cauliflower-like double texture, leading to significant increases in root mean square roughness and haze ratio of the films. By employing the developed high-haze ZnO films as a front transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer in microcrystalline silicon solar cells, an enhancement in the quantum efficiency in the long-wavelength region has been achieved. Experimental results have verified that our unique and original glass etching treatment is a simple and effective technique to improve the light-scattering properties of the ZnO films while preserving their good transparency and electrical properties. Thus, the ZnO films deposited on etched soda–lime glass have a high potential for the use as a front TCO layer in thin-film Si solar cells. - Highlights: • High-haze zinc oxide (ZnO) grown on low cost soda–lime glass has been developed. • Surface of the ZnO can be modified by varying glass-substrate etching conditions. • Glass-etching pressure is a key to increase haze ratio of the ZnO films. • Higher cell efficiency has been achieved from cell using etched glass. • High-haze ZnO coated glass is a promising transparent conductive oxide coated glass.

  3. Photocatalysis over TiO/sub 2/ supported on a glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpone, N; Borgarello, E; Harris, R; Cahill, P; Borgarello, M; Pelizzetti, E

    1986-10-01

    TiO/sub 2/ has been prepared and simultaneously embedded onto 3-4 mm glass beads by high temperature decomposition of titanium(IV) alkoxides in alcoholic media. The metal oxide acts as a semiconductor upon irradiation with AM1 simulated sunlight as demonstrated by the formation of the methylviologen MV/sup +./ radical in aqueous/methanolic media. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO/sub 2//glass beads material has been assessed by two principal light-driven processes: photoreduction of gold(III), and photodegradation of a chlorinated phenol. The potential utility of this device is discussed. 12 refs.

  4. Growth of CdS thin films on indium coated glass substrates via chemical bath deposition and subsequent air annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Kumar, Kamlesh; Singh, Balwant Kr; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata, E-mail: neillohit@yahoo.co.in

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdS film grown on indium coated glass substrates via CBD and subsequent annealing. • Disappearance of the indium (1 1 2) peak confirms interdiffusion at 300 °C. • SIMS indicates the subsequent interdiffusion at progressively higher temperature. • Composite In–CdS layer showed lower photosensitivity compared to pure CdS. - Abstract: In the present work attempts were made to synthesize indium doped CdS films by fabricating In/CdS bilayers using CBD-CdS on vacuum evaporated In thin films and subsequent air annealing. 135 nm CdS films were grown onto 20 nm and 35 nm indium coated glass substrate employing chemical bath deposition technique. The In/CdS bilayers thus formed were subjected to heat treatment at the temperatures between 200 and 400 °C for 4 min in the muffle furnace to facilitate indium to diffuse into the CdS films. XRD pattern ascertained no noticeable shift in lattice constant implying grain boundary metal segregation, while secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the diffusion profile of indium into CdS matrices. Mass spectrometry results showed that substantial diffusion of indium had been taken place within CdS at 400 °C. Dark and photocurrent with different illumination time were measured to ascertain the photosensitivity of pure and composite CdS films.

  5. Large area substrate for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using glass-drawing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Simpson, John T

    2012-06-26

    A method of making a large area substrate comprises drawing a plurality of tubes to form a plurality of drawn tubes, and cutting the plurality of drawn tubes into cut drawn tubes. Each cut drawn tube has a first end and a second end along the longitudinal direction of the respective cut drawn tube. The cut drawn tubes collectively have a predetermined periodicity. The method of making a large area substrate also comprises forming a metal layer on the first ends of the cut drawn tubes to provide a large area substrate.

  6. Influence of p H on optical properties of nano structure sol-gel-derived silica films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpuor, F.; Adelkhani, H.; Nahavandi, M.; Noorbakhsh Shourabadi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sol-gel derived silica films were fabricated by dip-coating onto glass microscope substrates. Film properties such as transmission and surface morphology were monitored as function of dip speed and sol p H. Film transmission was increased with increasing of p H in visible range. The surface morphology of films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Preparation and characterization of bimetallic catalysts supported on mesoporous silica films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraza, O.; Rebrov, E.V.; Khimyak, T.; Johnson, B.F.G.; Kooyman, P.J.; Lafont, U.; Albouy, P.A.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Thin (300–1000 nm) mesoporous silica coatings with hexagonal and cubic mesostructure have been prepared on Pyrex® 7740 borosilicate glass substrates by the evaporation induced self assembly assisted sol-gel route. Prior to the synthesis, a 50 nm TiO2 layer has been deposited on the substate by

  8. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons I. Determination by gas chromatography with glass and fused silica capillary columns; Analisis de Hidrocarburos aromaticos policiclicos. I. Determinacion por cromatografia de gases con columnas capilares de vidrio de silice fundida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M M; Gonzalez, D

    1987-07-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column. The limitations and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation efficiency, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 17 refs.

  9. Enhanced Stem Cell Osteogenic Differentiation by Bioactive Glass Functionalized Graphene Oxide Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoju Mo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An unmet need in engineered bone regeneration is to develop scaffolds capable of manipulating stem cells osteogenesis. Graphene oxide (GO has been widely used as a biomaterial for various biomedical applications. However, it remains challenging to functionalize GO as ideal platform for specifically directing stem cell osteogenesis. Herein, we report facile functionalization of GO with dopamine and subsequent bioactive glass (BG to enhance stem cell adhesion, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation. On the basis of graphene, we obtained dopamine functionalized graphene oxide/bioactive glass (DGO/BG hybrid scaffolds containing different content of DGO by loading BG nanoparticles on graphene oxide surface using sol-gel method. To enhance the dispersion stability and facilitate subsequent nucleation of BG in GO, firstly, dopamine (DA was used to modify GO. Then, the modified GO was functionalized with bioactive glass (BG using sol-gel method. The adhesion, spreading, and osteoinductive effects of DGO/BG scaffold on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs were evaluated. DGO/BG hybrid scaffolds with different content of DGO could influence rBMSCs’ behavior. The highest expression level of osteogenic markers suggests that the DGO/BG hybrid scaffolds have great potential or elicit desired bone reparative outcome.

  10. Femtosecond laser texturing of glass substrates for improved light in-coupling in thin-film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imgrunt, J.; Chakanga, K.; von Maydell, K.; Teubner, U.

    2017-12-01

    Due to their low thickness, thin-film solar cells usually suffer from poor light absorption. To improve this situation, light-management is necessary. Within the present work, in order to enhance light coupling, an ultra-short-pulse laser is used for texturing substrates. Here commercially available multi component soda lime glass substrates are patterned with a dot grid at ambient air pressure with 150 fs pulses, centered at a wavelength of 775 nm. The structures consist of small depressions with approximately 3 μ m diameter. Varying depths of around 300 nm could be well reproduced. Reducing the pitch (distance between structure-to-structure centers), from ten to approximately one times the crater diameter, influences the structure quality and increases the deformation of the surface in the vicinity of the depressions. Consequently, the diffuse light scattering is improved from 0 to 30% haze. Overall, the presented approach is quite simple. This single-step texturing technique which can be easily used on different substrates is applicable in a wide range of thin-film solar cells. It has the advantage that ultra-thin electrodes can be used as the front contact as well as the potential to be integrated into a PV production line. Thus, complicated layer stacks for absorption enhancement can be avoided.

  11. Substrate bias effects on composition and coercivity of CoCrTa/Cr thin films on canasite and glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Lambeth, D. N.; Sui, X.; Lee, L.-L.; Laughlin, D. E.

    1993-05-01

    CoCrTa/Cr thin films were prepared by rf diode sputtering onto canasite and glass substrates at various bias voltages from two targets of different compositions (Co82.8Cr14.6Ta2.6 and Co86Cr12Ta2). While Auger depth profile analysis indicates that there is some broadening at the CoCrTa-Cr interface, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy reveals that changes in alloy composition due to the resputtering processes are even more prominent. For both targets, as the substrate bias increases the Co content in the films declines, and the magnetization decreases. The maximum film coercivity appears to correlate to the final film composition. By investigating the results from both targets, it is concluded that the coercivity reaches a maximum when the film composition is in the neighborhood of Co84Cr13Ta3. Thus, to optimize the coercivity different bias voltages are required for each target. Excessive substrate bias, however, leads to films with low magnetization and coercivity.

  12. Formation and Characterization of Inkjet-Printed Nanosilver Lines on Plasma-Treated Glass Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Kwon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated geometrical characteristics of the inkjet-printed lines with non-zero receding contact angle (CA on plasma-treated substrates in terms of various printing variables and analyzed the fluidic behavior and hydrodynamic instability involved in the line formation process. The printing variables included surface energy, droplet overlap ratio, printing frequency, a number of ink droplets, substrate temperature and printing procedures. For the study, a colloidal suspension containing 56 wt % silver nanoparticles in tetradecane solvent was used as a printing ink. It has electrical resistivity of 4.7 μΩ·cm. The substrates were obtained by performing a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD process with C4F8 and O2 under various treatment conditions. As results of the experiments, the surface shape and pattern of the inkjet-printed Ag lines were dominantly influenced by the surface energy of the substrates, among the printing variables. Accordingly even when the receding CA was non-zero, bulging instability of the lines occurred forming separate circular patterns or regular bulges connected by ridges. It is a new finding of this study, which is completely different with the bulging instability of inkjet lines with zero receding CA specified by previous researches. The bulging instability decreased by increasing surface temperature of the substrates or employing interlacing procedure instead of continuous procedure for printing. The interlacing procedure also was advantageous to fabricate thick and narrow Ag lines with well-defined shape through overprinting on a hydrophobic substrate. These results will contribute greatly to not only the production of various printed electronics containing high-aspect-ratio structures but also the improvement of working performance of the devices.

  13. Measurement of temperature and concentration influence on the dispersion of fused silica glass photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with water-ethanol mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Hieu Le; Buczynski, Ryszard; Long, Van Cao; Trippenbach, Marek; Borzycki, Krzysztof; Manh, An Nguyen; Kasztelanic, Rafal

    2018-01-01

    We present experimental and simulation results of the zero-dispersion shift in photonics crystal fibers infiltrated with water-ethanol mixture. The fiber based on the fused silica glass with a hexagonal lattice consists of seven rings of air-holes filled by liquid. We show that it is possible to shift the zero-dispersion wavelength by 35 ps/nm/km when changing the temperature by 60 °C, and by 42 ps/nm/km when changing the concentration of ethanol from 0 to 100%. The results also show that for the optical fiber filed with pure ethanol the flattened part of the dispersion shifts from anomalous to the normal regime at temperatures below -70 °C.

  14. Wet chemical etching of Al-doped ZnO film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering method on textured glass substrate for energy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ki Hwan; Nam, Sang Hun; Jung, Won Suk; Lee, Yong Min; Yang, Hee Su; Boo, Jin Hyo [Dept. of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The etching of glasses in aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) solutions is applied in many technological fields. Particularly, the textured transparent conductive oxide materials on the glass substrate etched by HF were used to improve the current density of solar cells. In this study, the textured glass substrate has been etched by solution and the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films have been prepared on this textured glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering method. After the AZO film deposition, the surface of AZO has been etched by hydrochloric acid with different concentration and etching time. Etched AZO thin films had higher haze ratio and sheet resistance than bare AZO glass. Increases in the root-mean-square surface roughness of AZO films enhanced from 53.78 to 84.46 nm the haze ratio in above 700 nm wavelength. Our process could be applicable in texturing glass and etching AZO surface to fabricate solar cell in industrial scale. We also carried out fabricating an organic solar-cell device. Energy conversion efficiency improvement of 123% was obtained with textured AZO-based solar-cell device compared with that of nontextured solar-cell device.

  15. Surface modification on a glass surface with a combination technique of sol–gel and air brushing processes

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng-Yu; Hsu, Chin-Chi; Chen, Ping-Hei; Lin, Chao-Sung; Chen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This study fabricated the large area and optically transparent superhydrophobic silica based films on glass surface with optimized hardness. A silane coupling agent, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), effectively bonds silica particles onto the glass substrate. Desired surface roughness was obtained by adjusting nano silica particles concentration of the precursors prepared by the sol-gel process. Silica suspension was coated onto the glass substrate by the air brushing methods. This method can deposit a uniform, transparent coating on the glass substrate efficiently. Diluting the precursor by adding ethanol or a mixture of D.I. water and ethanol further improved the transmittance and superhydrophobicity efficiency. The results showed that as the silica particle concentration and the thickness of the coating were increased, the surface roughness was enhanced. Rougher surface displayed a higher superhydrophobicity and lower transmittance. Therefore, the concentration of silica particle, volume of coatings, and the ratio of ethanol and D.I. water are of great importance to deposit a transparent, superhydrophobic coating on glass. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface modification on a glass surface with a combination technique of sol–gel and air brushing processes

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng-Yu

    2011-08-01

    This study fabricated the large area and optically transparent superhydrophobic silica based films on glass surface with optimized hardness. A silane coupling agent, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), effectively bonds silica particles onto the glass substrate. Desired surface roughness was obtained by adjusting nano silica particles concentration of the precursors prepared by the sol-gel process. Silica suspension was coated onto the glass substrate by the air brushing methods. This method can deposit a uniform, transparent coating on the glass substrate efficiently. Diluting the precursor by adding ethanol or a mixture of D.I. water and ethanol further improved the transmittance and superhydrophobicity efficiency. The results showed that as the silica particle concentration and the thickness of the coating were increased, the surface roughness was enhanced. Rougher surface displayed a higher superhydrophobicity and lower transmittance. Therefore, the concentration of silica particle, volume of coatings, and the ratio of ethanol and D.I. water are of great importance to deposit a transparent, superhydrophobic coating on glass. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Interfacial Interaction of Oxidatively Cured Hydrogen Silsesquioxane Spin-On-Glass Enamel with Stainless Steel Substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampert, Felix; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Jensen, Annemette H.

    2017-01-01

    interfacial duplex-oxide with an outer zone composed of Fe2O3 in a SiO2-x matrix and an inner zone composed of complex (Cr3+,Fe2+,Mn2+)-oxides. Moreover, a Cr depletion of the substrate in the immediate vicinity of the surface was observed. It was concluded that the interfacial formation is controlled...

  18. Investigating in vitro bioactivity and magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic fabricated using soda-lime–silica waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Street, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, B., E-mail: hashemib@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Street, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, H. [Electroceramics Group, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    The main purpose of the current research is the production and characterization of a ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic prepared through the solid-state reaction method using soda-lime–silica waste glass as the main raw material. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural, thermal and magnetic properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). The apatite surface layer formation was examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The calcium ion concentration in the solutions was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). VSM results revealed that with the addition of 5–20 wt% strontium hexaferrite to bioactive glass–ceramics, the ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramics with hysteresis losses between 7024 and 75,852 erg/g were obtained. The in vitro test showed that the onset formation time of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the samples was 14 days and after 30 days, this layer was completed. - Highlights: • A novel ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic was synthesized by an incorporation method. • The bioactive part was synthesized by the solid-state reaction method using soda-lime–silica waste glass. • The doping of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} to Bioglass{sup ®} 45S5 glass–ceramic is likely to decrease bioactivity.

  19. Observation of room temperature ferromagnetism in ZnTe:Cr films grown onto glass substrate by thermal evaporation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soundararajan, D; Mangalaraj, D; Nataraj, D [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore -641 046 (India); Dorosinskii, L [National Institute of Metrology (TUBITAK -UME), P.K. 54, 41470, Gebze -Kocaeli (Turkey); Santoyo-Salazar, J, E-mail: dorosins@ume.tubitak.gov.t [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2009-03-01

    ZnTe and ZnTe:Cr films were prepared onto glass substrates using thermal evaporation method. Structural properties of the prepared samples were analyzed using X-ray diffractometer, and the presence of ZnCrTe phase was identified along with poor crystallinity. Composition analysis was done using XPS and the Cr content in the film was found to be 0.05 atomic percent. Transmittance spectra were recorded using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The valence state of Cr in ZnTe:Cr film is determined to be +2 using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Magnetic moment data as a function of magnetic field were recorded using Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer at temperatures 5, 77 and 300 K. The results showed minority ferromagnetic behavior even at room temperature. Magnetic domains were observed using Magnetic Force Microscopy and the average value of domain size is 3.7 nm.

  20. Hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured thin films on glass substrate by simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Suresh; Raj, A. Dhayal [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.co [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India); Nataraj, D. [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India)

    2010-10-01

    In the present work, ZnO nanostructured thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction method (SILAR) process at relatively low temperature for its self cleaning application. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the prepared ZnO nanostructured film. XRD pattern clearly reviles that the grown ZnO nanostructure film reflect (002) orientation with c-direction. SEM image clearly shows the surface morphology with cluster of spindle and flower-like nanostructured with diameter various around 350 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO nanostructures film exhibit a UV emission around 385nm and visible emission in the range around 420-500 nm. Good water repellent behavior were observed for ZnO nanostructured film without any surface modification.

  1. Hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured thin films on glass substrate by simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P. Suresh; Raj, A. Dhayal; Mangalaraj, D.; Nataraj, D.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, ZnO nanostructured thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction method (SILAR) process at relatively low temperature for its self cleaning application. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the prepared ZnO nanostructured film. XRD pattern clearly reviles that the grown ZnO nanostructure film reflect (002) orientation with c-direction. SEM image clearly shows the surface morphology with cluster of spindle and flower-like nanostructured with diameter various around 350 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO nanostructures film exhibit a UV emission around 385nm and visible emission in the range around 420-500 nm. Good water repellent behavior were observed for ZnO nanostructured film without any surface modification.

  2. High performance multilayered nano-crystalline silicon/silicon-oxide light-emitting diodes on glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbari, S; Shahmohammadi, M; Mortazavi, M; Mohajerzadeh, S [Thin Film and Nano-Electronic Laboratory, School of ECE, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, Y [Nano-Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Robertson, M; Morrison, T, E-mail: mohajer@ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS (Canada)

    2011-09-16

    A low-temperature hydrogenation-assisted sequential deposition and crystallization technique is reported for the preparation of nano-scale silicon quantum dots suitable for light-emitting applications. Radio-frequency plasma-enhanced deposition was used to realize multiple layers of nano-crystalline silicon while reactive ion etching was employed to create nano-scale features. The physical characteristics of the films prepared using different plasma conditions were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, room temperature photoluminescence and infrared spectroscopy. The formation of multilayered structures improved the photon-emission properties as observed by photoluminescence and a thin layer of silicon oxy-nitride was then used for electrical isolation between adjacent silicon layers. The preparation of light-emitting diodes directly on glass substrates has been demonstrated and the electroluminescence spectrum has been measured.

  3. VO2 Thermochromic Films on Quartz Glass Substrate Grown by RF-Plasma-Assisted Oxide Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide (VO2 thermochromic thin films with various thicknesses were grown on quartz glass substrates by radio frequency (RF-plasma assisted oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE. The crystal structure, morphology and chemical stoichiometry were investigated systemically by X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses. An excellent reversible metal-to-insulator transition (MIT characteristics accompanied by an abrupt change in both electrical resistivity and optical infrared (IR transmittance was observed from the optimized sample. Remarkably, the transition temperature (TMIT deduced from the resistivity-temperature curve was reasonably consistent with that obtained from the temperature-dependent IR transmittance. Based on Raman measurement and XPS analyses, the observations were interpreted in terms of residual stresses and chemical stoichiometry. This achievement will be of great benefit for practical application of VO2-based smart windows.

  4. Synthesis and Analysis of MnTiO3 Thin Films on ITO Coated Glass Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emerick; Sahiner, Mehmet-Alper

    Perovskites like Manganese Titanium Oxide have interesting chemical properties that may be advantageous to the development of p-n junction photovoltaic cells. Due to the limited understanding behind the compound, it is essential to know the characteristics of it when it is deposited in thin film form. The cells were created using pulsed laser deposition method for two separate mediums (first layers after ITO). ZnO was deposited onto ITO glass for the first sample. For the second sample, a layer of pure Molybdenum was deposited onto the ITO glass. The MnTiO3 was then deposited onto both samples. There was a target thickness of 1000 Angstroms, but ellipsometry shows that, for the Mo based sample, that film thickness was around 1500 Angstroms. There were inconclusive results for the ZnO based sample. The concentration of active carriers was measured using a Hall Effect apparatus for the Mo based sample. The XRD analyses were used to confirm the perovskite structure of the films. Measurements for photoelectric conversion efficiency were taken using a Keathley 2602 ScourceMeter indicated low values for efficiency. The structural information that is correlated with the low electrical performance of this sample will be discussed. SHU-NJSGC Summer 2015 Fellowship.

  5. Biaxially oriented CdTe films on glass substrate through nanostructured Ge/CaF2 buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, R. J.; Su, P.-Y.; Bhat, I.; Zhang, S. B.; Lu, T.-M.; Wang, G.-C.

    2015-09-01

    Heteroepitaxial CdTe films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on glass substrates through nanostructured Ge/CaF2 buffer layers which were biaxially oriented. It allows us to explore the structural properties of multilayer biaxial semiconductor films which possess small angle grain boundaries and to test the principle of a solar cell made of such low-cost, low-growth-temperature semiconductor films. Through the x-ray diffraction and x-ray pole figure analysis, the heteroepitaxial relationships of the mutilayered films are determined as [111] in the out-of-plane direction and CdTe//Ge//{ }{{{CaF}}2} in the in-plane direction. The I-V curves measured from an ITO/CdS/CdTe/Ge/CaF2/glass solar cell test structure shows a power conversion efficiency of ˜η = 1.26%, illustrating the initial success of such an approach. The observed non-ideal efficiency is believed to be due to a low shunt resistance and high series resistance as well as some residual large-angle grain boundary effects, leaving room for significant further improvement.

  6. Characterization of a smartphone size haptic rendering system based on thin-film AlN actuators on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F.; Casset, F.; Danel, J. S.; Chappaz, C.; Basrour, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents for the first time the characterization of a smartphone-size haptic rendering system based on the friction modulation effect. According to previous work and finite element modeling, the homogeneous flexural modes are needed to get the haptic feedback effect. The device studied consists of a thin film AlN transducers deposited on an 110  ×  65 mm2 glass substrate. The transducer’s localization on the glass plate allows a transparent central area of 90  ×  49 mm2. Electrical and mechanical parameters of the system are extracted from measurement. From this extraction, the electrical impedance matching reduced the applied voltage to 17.5 V AC and the power consumption to 1.53 W at the resonance frequency of the vibrating system to reach the haptic rendering specification. Transient characterizations of the actuation highlight a delay under the dynamic tactile detection. The characterization of the AlN transducers used as sensors, including the noise rejection, the delay or the output charge amplitude allows detections with high accuracy of any variation due to external influences. Those specifications are the first step to a low-power-consumption feedback-looped system.

  7. Characterization of a smartphone size haptic rendering system based on thin-film AlN actuators on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, F; Basrour, S; Casset, F; Danel, J S; Chappaz, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time the characterization of a smartphone-size haptic rendering system based on the friction modulation effect. According to previous work and finite element modeling, the homogeneous flexural modes are needed to get the haptic feedback effect. The device studied consists of a thin film AlN transducers deposited on an 110  ×  65 mm 2 glass substrate. The transducer’s localization on the glass plate allows a transparent central area of 90  ×  49 mm 2 . Electrical and mechanical parameters of the system are extracted from measurement. From this extraction, the electrical impedance matching reduced the applied voltage to 17.5 V AC and the power consumption to 1.53 W at the resonance frequency of the vibrating system to reach the haptic rendering specification. Transient characterizations of the actuation highlight a delay under the dynamic tactile detection. The characterization of the AlN transducers used as sensors, including the noise rejection, the delay or the output charge amplitude allows detections with high accuracy of any variation due to external influences. Those specifications are the first step to a low-power-consumption feedback-looped system. (paper)

  8. Plasmonic nanoholes as SERS devices for biosensing applications: An easy route for nanostructures fabrication on glass substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Candeloro, Patrizio

    2016-12-26

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been largely exploited in the last decade for biochemical and biomedical research. But some issues still require attention before transferring SERS to bioclinical routinely practices, such as reproducibility, quantitative analysis and signal background interference. In this work we propose an easy and cheap route, based on a template stripping technique, for producing plasmonic nanostructured films with SERS capabilities. We focus our attention to nanoholes in a continuous gold film, conversely to the majority of the literature which is dealing with individual nanostructures. Plasmon resonances occur at the holes edges, thus enabling the possibility of SERS signals from biomolecules and the potential application as biosensors. One advantage of the nanoholes patterned film is the optical-subdiffraction pitch, which prevents any Raman and/or fluorescence signal arising from the bottom slide. This effect paves the way to standard glass slides, much cheaper than CaF2 ones, as suitable substrates for SERS devices, without any interfering signal coming from the glass itself.

  9. Deep-UV Raman spectroscopic analysis of structure and dissolution rates of silica-rich sodium borosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M [ORNL; WindischJr., Charles F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Burton, Sarah D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Bovaird, Chase C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2010-01-01

    As part of ongoing studies to evaluate relationships between structure and rates of dissolution of silicate glasses in aqueous media, sodium borosilicate glasses of composition Na2O xB2O3 (3 x)SiO2, with x 1 (Na2O/B2O3 ratio 1), were analyzed using deep-UV Raman spectroscopy. Results were quantified in terms of the fraction of SiO4 tetrahedra with one non-bridging oxygen (Q3) and then correlated with Na2O and B2O3 content. The Q3 fractionwas found to increase with increasing Na2O content, in agreement with studies on related glasses, and, as long as the value of x was not too high, this contributed to higher rates of dissolution in single pass flow-through testing. In contrast, dissolution rates were less strongly determined by the Q3 fraction when the value of x was near unity, and appeared to grow larger upon further reduction of the Q3 fraction. Results were interpreted to indicate the increasingly important role of network hydrolysis in the glass dissolution mechanism as the BO4 tetrahedron replaces the Q3 unit as the charge-compensating structure for Na+ ions. Finally, the use of deep-UV Raman spectroscopy was found to be advantageous in studying finely powdered glasses in cases where visible Raman spectroscopy suffered from weak Raman scattering and fluorescence interference.

  10. Glass-(nAg, nCu) Biocide Coatings on Ceramic Oxide Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Malpartida, Francisco; Díaz, Luis Antonio; Torrecillas, Ramón; Rojo, Fernando; Moya, José Serafín

    2012-01-01

    The present work was focused on obtaining biocide coatings constituted by a glassy soda-lime matrix containing silver or copper nanoparticles on ceramic (alumina and zirconia based) substrates. Both glassy coatings showed a high biocide activity against Gram-, Gram+ bacteria and yeast, reducing cell numbers more than three logarithms. Silver nanoparticles had a significantly higher biocide activity than copper nanoparticles, since the lixiviation levels required to reduce cell numbers more th...

  11. Thermal oxidation of seeds for the hydrothermal growth of WO3 nanorods on ITO glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Chai Yan; Abdul Razak, Khairunisak; Lockman, Zainovia

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a simple seed formation method for the hydrothermal growth of tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) nanorods. A WO 3 seed layer was prepared by thermal oxidation, where a W-sputtered substrate was heated and oxidized in a furnace. Oxidation temperatures and periods were varied at 400–550 °C and 5–60 min, respectively, to determine an appropriate seed layer for nanorod growth. Thermal oxidation at 500 °C for 15 min was found to produce a seed layer with sufficient crystallinity and good adhesion to the substrate. These properties prevented the seed from peeling off during the hydrothermal process, thereby allowing nanorod growth on the seed. The nanorod film showed better electrochromic behavior (higher current density of − 1.11 and + 0.65 mA cm −2 ) than compact film (lower current density of − 0.54 and + 0.28 mA cm −2 ). - Highlights: • A simple seed formation method (thermal oxidation) on sputtered W film is reported. • Crystalline seed with good adhesion to substrate is required for nanorod growth. • The appropriate temperature and period for seed formation were 500 °C and 15 min. • WO 3 nanorods exhibited higher electrochromic current density than WO 3 compact film.

  12. Quantifying Silica Reactivity in Subsurface Environments: Reaction Affinity and Solute Matrix Controls on Quartz and SiO2 Glass Dissolution Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, Patricia M.

    2000-01-01

    During the three years of this project, Professor Dove's laboratory made tremendous progress in understanding controls on amorphous silica dissolution kinetics in aqueous solutions. Our findings have already received considerable attention. In hydrothermal and low temperature studies, the work focused on determining quantitative and mechanistic controls on the most abundant silica polymorphs in Earth environments--quartz and amorphous silica. Our studies achieved goals set forth in the original proposal to establish a new quantitative understanding of amorphous silica dissolution. This support has resulted in 10 journal, 12 abstracts and 2 thesis publications. The PI and students were also recognized with 6 awards during this period. The 1998 EMSP conference in Chicago was an important meeting for our project. The symposium, enabled P.I. Dove to establish valuable contacts with ''users'' having specific needs for the findings of our EMSP project related to the urgency of problems in the Tanks Focus Area (TFA). Since that time, our working relations developed as Dove interacted with TFA scientists and engineers on the problems of waste glass properties. These interactions refined our experimental objectives to better meet their needs. Dove presented the results of EMSP research findings to a TFA subgroup at a Product Acceptance Workshop held in Salt Lake City during December 1998. The travel costs to attend this unanticipated opportunity were paid from EMSP project funds. In January 2000, Dove also attended a similar meeting in Atlanta with PNNL, SRL and BNF scientists/engineers to discuss new issues and make another level of decisions on the Product Acceptance goals. Our EMSP-funded research interfaced very well with the ongoing studies of Dr. Pete McGrail and colleagues in the Applied Geochemistry Group at PNNL. The value of our work to ''users'' was further demonstrated when Dove's EMSP-funded Postdoc, Dr. Jonathan Icenhower was hired by the same PNNL group. With

  13. Transfer-free synthesis of highly ordered Ge nanowire arrays on glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, M.; Toko, K., E-mail: toko@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Suemasu, T. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Jevasuwan, W.; Fukata, N. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Saitoh, N.; Yoshizawa, N. [Electron Microscope Facility, TIA, AIST, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8569 (Japan)

    2015-09-28

    Vertically aligned Ge nanowires (NWs) are directly synthesized on glass via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth using chemical-vapor deposition. The use of the (111)-oriented Ge seed layer, formed by metal-induced crystallization at 325 °C, dramatically improved the density, uniformity, and crystal quality of Ge NWs. In particular, the VLS growth at 400 °C allowed us to simultaneously achieve the ordered morphology and high crystal quality of the Ge NW array. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the resulting Ge NWs had no dislocations or stacking faults. Production of high-quality NW arrays on amorphous insulators will promote the widespread application of nanoscale devices.

  14. Preparation of CulnS2 Thin Films on the Glass Substrate by DC Sputtering for Solar Cell Component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Siswanto; Wirjoadi; Darsono

    2007-01-01

    The CuInS 2 alloys were deposited on glass substrate using plasma DC sputtering technique. A CuInS 2 alloy target was made from Cu, In, Se powder with impurity of 99.998%. The deposition process was done with the following process parameter variations: deposition time and substrate temperature were the range of 15 to 45 min and 150 to 300 ℃, the gas pressure was kept at 1.4x10 -1 Torr. The purpose of the research is to obtain the solar cell component of CuInS 2 thin films. The electrical and optical properties measurement has been done by four-point probe and UV-Vis. Crystal structure was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The result shows that minimum resistance of CuInS 2 thin films is 35.7 kΩ and optical transmittance is 14.7 %. The crystal structure of CuInS 2 is oriented at (112) plane and by Touc-plot method was obtained that the band gap energy of thin films is 1.45 eV. It could be concluded that the CuInS 2 thin film can be used as a solar cell component. (author)

  15. Rational growth of semi-polar ZnO texture on a glass substrate for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, B.; Ma, M. J.; Ye, Y. H.; Lu, J. G.; He, H. P.; Ye, Z. Z.

    2013-02-01

    Semi-polar ZnO films with surface texture were grown on glass substrates via pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) through Co-Ga co-doping. Oxygen pressure (PO2) was found to have significant effects on the structural and optical properties of the Zn(Co, Ga)O (ZCGO) films. A self-textured film with (1\\,0\\,\\bar {1}\\,1) preferred orientation (PO) was achieved by varying the growth conditions including a crucial narrow PO2 window and growth time. A possible mechanism underlying the PO evolution and the final texture of the films was proposed, which can be attributed to the collaboration of the doping effect and the PO2-dependent evolutionary selection process, in which certain grains can have increased vertical growth rate with respect to the substrate surface through interplane diffusion. Moreover, the growth of undoped pure ZnO films proceeded by using the (1\\,0\\,\\bar {1}\\,1) ZCGO film as a buffer layer. The ZnO layers retained a semi-polar characteristic with improved crystallinity and better optical quality. The epitaxy-like orientation of ZnO layers grown on (1\\,0\\,\\bar {1}\\,1) ZCGO films has applications in the development of semi-polar ZnO-based light-emitting diodes.

  16. Glass-(nAg, nCu) biocide coatings on ceramic oxide substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Malpartida, Francisco; Díaz, Luis Antonio; Torrecillas, Ramón; Rojo, Fernando; Moya, José Serafín

    2012-01-01

    The present work was focused on obtaining biocide coatings constituted by a glassy soda-lime matrix containing silver or copper nanoparticles on ceramic (alumina and zirconia based) substrates. Both glassy coatings showed a high biocide activity against Gram-, Gram+ bacteria and yeast, reducing cell numbers more than three logarithms. Silver nanoparticles had a significantly higher biocide activity than copper nanoparticles, since the lixiviation levels required to reduce cell numbers more than 3 logarithms was of almost 1-2 µg/cm(2) in the case of silver nanoparticles, and 10-15 µg/cm(2) for the copper nanoparticles.

  17. Glass-(nAg, nCu biocide coatings on ceramic oxide substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Esteban-Tejeda

    Full Text Available The present work was focused on obtaining biocide coatings constituted by a glassy soda-lime matrix containing silver or copper nanoparticles on ceramic (alumina and zirconia based substrates. Both glassy coatings showed a high biocide activity against Gram-, Gram+ bacteria and yeast, reducing cell numbers more than three logarithms. Silver nanoparticles had a significantly higher biocide activity than copper nanoparticles, since the lixiviation levels required to reduce cell numbers more than 3 logarithms was of almost 1-2 µg/cm(2 in the case of silver nanoparticles, and 10-15 µg/cm(2 for the copper nanoparticles.

  18. Waveguide formation by laser backwriting ablation of metals unto glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel-Rojo, R.; Castelo, A.; Flores-Arias, M. T.; Gomez-Reino, C.; Lopez-Gascon, C.; Fuente, G. F. de la

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present experimental results for the generation of channel waveguides by a laser backwriting technique using a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser working at 1064 nm. We present a characterization of the resulting refractive index profile, using the refracted near-field technique, together with a spatially resolved chemical analysis based on energy dispersive x-ray analysis(EDX). The EDX results confirm that metal ions are embedded in a region close to the substrate interface, up to about a 5 μm depth. We also present a discussion of the physical mechanisms that produce the profiles measured

  19. Waveguide formation by laser backwriting ablation of metals unto glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel-Rojo, R [Departamento de Optica, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Apartado Postal 2732, Ensenada BC 22860 (Mexico); Castelo, A; Flores-Arias, M T; Gomez-Reino, C [GRIN Optics Group. Applied Physics Department, Escola Universitaria de Optica e Optometria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur s/n, E15782 Santiago de Compostela, Espana (Spain); Lopez-Gascon, C; Fuente, G F. de la [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (U. Zaragoza-CSIC), Ma. de Luna 3, E50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    In this work we present experimental results for the generation of channel waveguides by a laser backwriting technique using a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser working at 1064 nm. We present a characterization of the resulting refractive index profile, using the refracted near-field technique, together with a spatially resolved chemical analysis based on energy dispersive x-ray analysis(EDX). The EDX results confirm that metal ions are embedded in a region close to the substrate interface, up to about a 5 {mu}m depth. We also present a discussion of the physical mechanisms that produce the profiles measured.

  20. Influence of annealing temperature on the nanostructure TiO2-SnO2 prepared by electron gun method on the glass substrate and the aluminum/glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Beigmohammadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  TiO2-SnO2 thin films were coated on glass and Al / glass substrates by electron gun method. In coating process, the vacuum was 1.5×10-5 torr. Then, films were annealed at 450, 500 and 550 ˚ C. The crystallographic structure and film morphology were investigated by means of XRD and SEM. The electrical (I-V and optical properties were studied by the two point props system and UV/Vis/NIR spectrophotometer. The results showed the films under 550 ˚ C were crystalline. The thickness and grain size were 350 and 50 nm respectively. The electrical conductivity in the sample with Al / glass substrate under 550 ˚ C was better than the other samples. When temperature increased, the energy gap decreased from 4.05 to 4.03 eV for direct cases.

  1. Development of a novel non-contact inspection technique to detect micro cracks under the surface of a glass substrate by thermal stress-induced light scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yoshitaro; Terasaki, Nao; Nonaka, Kazuhiro

    2017-05-01

    Fine polishing techniques, such as a chemical mechanical polishing treatment, are important techniques in glass substrate manufacturing. However, these techniques may cause micro cracks under the surface of glass substrates because they used mechanical friction. A stress-induced light scattering method (SILSM), which was combined with light scattering method and mechanical stress effects, was proposed for inspecting surfaces to detect polishing-induced micro cracks. However, in the conventional SILSM, samples need to be loaded with physical contact, and the loading point is invisible in transparent materials. Here, we introduced a novel non-contact SILSM using a heating device. A glass substrate was heated first, and then the light scattering intensity of micro cracks was detected by a cooled charge-couple device camera during the natural cooling process. Results clearly showed during the decreasing surface temperature of a glass substrate, appropriate thermal stress is generated for detecting micro cracks by using the SILSM and light scattering intensity from micro cracks changes. We confirmed that non-contact thermal SILSM (T-SILSM) can detect micro cracks under the surface of transparent materials.

  2. Nanosheet controlled epitaxial growth of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin films on glass substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayraktar, Muharrem; Chopra, A.; Bijkerk, Frederik; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Integration of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) films on glass substrates is of high importance for device applications. However, to make use of the superior ferro- and piezoelectric properties of PZT, well-oriented crystalline or epitaxial growth with control of the crystal orientation is a prerequisite. In

  3. Interfacial analysis and properties of regioregular Poly (3-Hexyl thiophene) spin-coated on an Indium tin oxide coated glass substrate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malgas, GF

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Interfacial analysis of the rrP3HT samples spincoated on a glass substrate was studied in detail using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SEM measurements. Very homogeneous and smooth polymer (P3HT and PEDOT:PSS) layers are observed...

  4. DNA-assisted binding of microspheres on glass substrates and their laser-induced release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sejong; Geiss, Erik; Yu, Phillip; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Marcus, Harris L.

    2006-01-01

    DNA hybridization has been increasingly adopted in materials sciences due to its complementary nature of single stranded DNAs. This unique property could be potentially used in the realization of 2 dimensional (2D) arrays of colloidal microspheres as a precursor to further build more complicated superstructures. In order to precisely understand this DNA-assisted assembly of colloidal particles, we quantitatively assessed the surface density of grafted and hybridizing accessible DNA oligomers on both substrate and colloidal particles. The DNA grafting densities were determined by UV-Vis of dye-functionalized complementary DNA oligomers, in conjunction with theoretical models. The variations of the concentration of hybridized DNA as a function of parameters such as the number of DNA base pairs (bp), the length of spacer and the size of sphere were also investigated to determine the immobilization strength of colloidal microspheres on the substrate. Dehybridization of the particle was conducted by utilizing a focused laser beam. These results were also compared with the particle hybridization energies and modeled according to the sum of DNA bindings as a function of the number of hybridized bases

  5. Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass after heat treating and electron irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Rørdam, Troels Peter; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the formation of Ge nanoclusters in silica glass thin films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). We studied the samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy after annealing. TEM investigation shows that the Ge nanoclusters...... at two areaswere formed by different mechanisms. The Ge nanoclusters formed in a single row along the interface of a silicon substrate and the silica glass film by annealing during high-temperature heat treatment. Ge nanoclusters did not initially form in the bulk of the film but could be subsequently...... formed by the electron-beam irradiation. The interface between the silicon substrate and the silica glass film was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The shift of the Raman peaks around 286.8 cm−1 and 495 cm−1 suggests that the interface is a Si1−xGex alloy film and that the composition x varies along...

  6. Studies of glasses by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, G.; Boden, G.

    1981-04-01

    Investigations of silica glasses, pyrocerams and metallic glasses by positron annihilation (lifetime, Doppler broadening) are presented. The measurements on silica glasses showed, that silica glass fused from naturally occuring quartz exhibits a higher order than that one produced from SiCl 4 . Furthermore it was found that the order of silica glasses increases after heat treatment above 900 0 C. Thus the X-amorphous state of silica glasses could be characterized by positron annihilation what is impossible at present by diffraction methods. (author)

  7. Fabrication of polycrystalline silicon thin films on glass substrates using fiber laser crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dao, Vinh Ai; Han, Kuymin; Heo, Jongkyu; Kyeong, Dohyeon; Kim, Jaehong; Lee, Youngseok; Kim, Yongkuk; Jung, Sungwook; Kim, Kyunghae [Information and Communication Device Laboratory, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Junsin, E-mail: yi@yurim.skku.ac.k [Information and Communication Device Laboratory, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    Laser crystallization of amorphous silicon (a-Si), using a fiber laser of {lambda} = 1064 nm wavelength, was investigated. a-Si films with 50 nm thickness deposited on glass were prepared by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The infrared fundamental wave ({lambda} = 1064 nm) is not absorbed by amorphous silicon (a-Si) films. Thus, different types of capping layers (a-CeO{sub x}, a-SiN{sub x}, and a-SiO{sub x}) with a desired refractive index, n and thickness, d were deposited on the a-Si surface. Crystallization was a function of laser energy density, and was performed using a fiber laser. The structural properties of the crystallized films were measured via Raman spectra, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The relationship between film transmittance and crystallinity was discussed. As the laser energy density increased from 10-40 W, crystallinity increased from 0-90%. However, the higher laser density adversely affected surface roughness and uniformity of the grain size. We found that favorable crystallization and uniformity could be accomplished at the lower energy density of 30 W with a-SiO{sub x} as the capping layer.

  8. Influence of the film thickness on the structure, optical and electrical properties of ITO coatings deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillén, C; Herrero, J

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films with thickness between 0.2 and 0.7 µm were deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. All films were polycrystalline, with crystallite size increasing and lattice distortion decreasing when the film thickness was increased. Besides, transmission in the near-infrared region is found to be decreasing and carrier concentration increasing when the film thickness was increased. For the same thickness, the lattice distortion is slightly lower and the carrier concentration higher for the layers grown on PET substrates. A direct relationship between the lattice distortion and the free carrier concentration has been established, applying to the films grown on glass and plastic substrates. By adjusting ITO coating thickness, sheet resistance below 15 Ω sq −1 and average visible transmittance about 90% have been achieved by sputtering at room temperature

  9. Integrated Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance Measurements in a Borosilicate Glass Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Parisi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The surface plasmon resonance (SPR technique is a well-known optical method that can be used to measure the refractive index of organic nano-layers adsorbed on a thin metal film. Although there are many configurations for measuring biomolecular interactions, SPR-based techniques play a central role in many current biosensing experiments, since they are the most suited for sensitive and quantitative kinetic measurements. Here we give some results from the analysis and numerical elaboration of SPR data from integrated optics experiments in a particular borosilicate glass, chosen for its composition offering the rather low refractive index of 1.4701 at 633 nm wavelength. These data regard the flow over the sensing region (metal window of different solutions with refractive indexes in the range of interest (1.3÷1.5 for the detection of contaminants in aqueous solutions. After a discussion of the principles of SPR, of the metal window design optimization by means of optical interaction numerical modeling, and of waveguide fabrication techniques, we give a description of system setup and experimental results. Optimum gold film window thickness and width in this guided-wave configuration has been for the first time derived and implemented on an integrated optic prototype device. Its characterization is given by means of the real time waveguide output intensity measurements, which correspond to the interaction between the sensing gold thin film window and the flowing analyte. The SPR curve was subsequently inferred. Finally, a modified version of the device is reported, with channel waveguides arranged in a Y-junction optical circuit, so that laser source stability requirements are lowered by a factor of 85 dB, making possible the use of low cost sources in practical applications.

  10. Substrate and surfactant effects on the glass-liquid transition of thin water films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2006-09-07

    Temperature-programmed time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TP-TOF-SIMS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) have been used to perform a detailed investigation of the adsorption, desorption, and glass-liquid transition of water on the graphite and Ni(111) surfaces in the temperature range 13-200 K. Water wets the graphite surface at 100-120 K, and the hydrogen-bonded network is formed preferentially in the first monolayer to reduce the number of nonbonding hydrogens. The strongly chemisorbed water molecules at the Ni(111) surface do not form such a network and play a role in stabilizing the film morphology up to 160 K, where dewetting occurs abruptly irrespective of the film thickness. The surface structure of the water film formed on graphite is fluctuated considerably, resulting in deweting at 150-160 K depending on the film thickness. The dewetted patches of graphite are molecularly clean, whereas the chemisorbed water remains on the Ni(111) surface even after evaporation of the film. The abrupt drop in the desorption rate of water molecules at 160 K, which has been attributed to crystallization in the previous TPD studies, is found to disappear completely when a monolayer of methanol is present on the surface. This is because the morphology of supercooled liquid water is changed by the surface tension, and it is quenched by termination of the free OH groups on the surface. The surfactant methanol desorbs above 160 K since the hydrogen bonds of the water molecules are reconstructed. The drastic change in the properties of supercooled liquid water at 160 K should be ascribed to the liquid-liquid phase transition.

  11. Losing the rose tinted glasses: neural substrates of unbiased belief updating in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eGarrett

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that a state of good mental health is associated with biased processing of information that supports a positively skewed view of the future. Depression, on the other hand, is associated with unbiased processing of such information. Here, we use brain imaging in conjunction with a belief update task administered to clinically depressed patients and healthy controls to characterize brain activity that supports unbiased belief updating in clinically depressed individuals. Our results reveal that unbiased belief updating in depression is mediated by strong neural coding of estimation errors in response to both good news (in left inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral superior frontal gyrus and bad news (in right inferior parietal lobule and right inferior frontal gyrus regarding the future. In contrast, intact mental health was linked to a relatively attenuated neural coding of bad news about the future. These findings identify a neural substrate mediating the breakdown of biased updating in Major Depression Disorder, which may be essential for mental health.

  12. Influences of oxygen gas flow rate on electrical properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited on glass and sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Hisao; Song, Huaping; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    The Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films deposited on glass and c-plane sapphire substrates have been comparatively studied in order to explore the role of grain boundaries in electrical properties. The influences of oxygen gas flow rates (OFRs) during the deposition by ion-plating were examined. The dependences of carrier concentration, lattice parameters, and characteristic of thermal desorption of Zn on the OFR showed common features between glass and sapphire substrates, however, the Hall mobility showed different behavior. The Hall mobility of GZO films on glass increased with increasing OFR of up to 15 sccm, and decreased with further increasing OFR. On the other hand, the Hall mobility of GZO films on c-sapphire increased for up to 25 sccm. The role of grain boundary in polycrystalline GZO films has been discussed. - Highlights: • Ga-doped ZnO films were deposited on glass and c-sapphire by ion-plating. • The epitaxial growth on c-sapphire was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. • Dependence of Hall mobility showed different tendency between glass and sapphire. • Grain boundaries influence transport properties at high O 2 gas flow rate

  13. Natural and gamma radiation-induced conduction of silica and metaphosphate glass layers deposed by radiofrequency cathode sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Andre

    1977-01-01

    We present a study of natural and 60 Co induced conductions in radiofrequency sputtering deposed layers. Capacimetry and electronic microscopy observations permit a knowledge of the physical characteristics, mainly: homogeneity and thickness of these layers. A study of the natural current permit to characterise electrically the deposited films, the electrode and bulk insulator effects. In induced conduction, the behaviour of currents as a function of dose rate is interpreted in terms of ROSE'S and FOWLER'S photoconductivity theories. Induced currents versus applied fields are observed and compared with these obtained in the case of dielectric liquids and glasses. (author) [fr

  14. Lifetime Prediction of Nano-Silica based Glass Fibre/Epoxy composite by Time Temperature Superposition Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Abhijeet; Banerjee, Poulami; Prusty, Rajesh Kumar; Ray, Bankin Chandra

    2018-03-01

    The incorporation of nano fillers in Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites has been a source of experimentation for researchers. Addition of nano fillers has been found to improve mechanical, thermal as well as electrical properties of Glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The in-plane mechanical properties of GFRP composite are mainly controlled by fibers and therefore exhibit good values. However, composite exhibits poor through-thickness properties, in which the matrix and interface are the dominant factors. Therefore, it is conducive to modify the matrix through dispersion of nano fillers. Creep is defined as the plastic deformation experienced by a material for a temperature at constant stress over a prolonged period of time. Determination of Master Curve using time-temperature superposition principle is conducive for predicting the lifetime of materials involved in naval and structural applications. This is because such materials remain in service for a prolonged time period before failure which is difficult to be kept marked. However, the failure analysis can be extrapolated from its behaviour in a shorter time at an elevated temperature as is done in master creep analysis. The present research work dealt with time-temperature analysis of 0.1% SiO2-based GFRP composites fabricated through hand-layup method. Composition of 0.1% for SiO2nano fillers with respect to the weight of the fibers was observed to provide optimized flexural properties. Time and temperature dependence of flexural properties of GFRP composites with and without nano SiO2 was determined by conducting 3-point bend flexural creep tests over a range of temperature. Stepwise isothermal creep tests from room temperature (30°C) to the glass transition temperature Tg (120°C) were performed with an alternative creep/relaxation period of 1 hour at each temperature. A constant stress of 40MPa was applied during the creep tests. The time-temperature superposition principle was

  15. Semi-transparent photovoltaic glazing based on electrodeposited CIGS solar cells on patterned molybdenum/glass substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidali Tarik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new way of preparing semi-transparent solar cells using Cu(In1−xGaxSe2 (CIGS chalcopyrite semiconductors as absorbers for BIPV applications is presented. The key to the elaboration process consists in the co-electrodeposition of Cu-In-Ga mixed oxides on submillimetric hole-patterned molybdenum substrate, followed by thermal reduction to metallic alloys and selenisation. This method has the advantage of being a selective deposition technique where the thin film growth is carried out only on Mo covered areas. Thus, after annealing, the transparency of the sample is always preserved, allowing light to pass through the device. A complete device (5 × 5 cm2 with 535 μm diameter holes and total glass aperture of around 35% shows an open circuit voltage (VOC of 400 mV. Locally, the I-V curves reveal a maximum efficiency of 7.7%, VOC of 460 mV, JSC of 24 mA.cm−2 in an area of 0.1 cm2 with 35% aperture. This efficiency on the semi-transparent area is equivalent to a record efficiency of 11.9% by taking into account only the effective area.

  16. Semi-transparent photovoltaic glazing based on electrodeposited CIGS solar cells on patterned molybdenum/glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidali, Tarik; Bou, Adrien; Coutancier, Damien; Chassaing, Elisabeth; Theys, Bertrand; Barakel, Damien; Garuz, Richard; Thoulon, Pierre-Yves; Lincot, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a new way of preparing semi-transparent solar cells using Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) chalcopyrite semiconductors as absorbers for BIPV applications is presented. The key to the elaboration process consists in the co-electrodeposition of Cu-In-Ga mixed oxides on submillimetric hole-patterned molybdenum substrate, followed by thermal reduction to metallic alloys and selenisation. This method has the advantage of being a selective deposition technique where the thin film growth is carried out only on Mo covered areas. Thus, after annealing, the transparency of the sample is always preserved, allowing light to pass through the device. A complete device (5 × 5 cm2) with 535 μm diameter holes and total glass aperture of around 35% shows an open circuit voltage (VOC) of 400 mV. Locally, the I-V curves reveal a maximum efficiency of 7.7%, VOC of 460 mV, JSC of 24 mA.cm-2 in an area of 0.1 cm2 with 35% aperture. This efficiency on the semi-transparent area is equivalent to a record efficiency of 11.9% by taking into account only the effective area.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of aligned ZnO/BeO core/shell nanocable arrays on glass substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Minjie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By sequential hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowire arrays and thermal evaporation of Be, large-scale vertically aligned ZnO/BeO core/shell nanocable arrays on glass substrate have been successfully synthesized without further heat treatment. Detailed characterizations on the sample morphologies, compositions, and microstructures were systematically carried out, which results disclose the growth behaviors of the ZnO/BeO nanocable. Furthermore, incorporation of BeO shell onto ZnO core resulted in distinct improvement of optical properties of ZnO nanowire, i.e., significant enhancement of near band edge (NBE emission as well as effective suppression of defects emission in ZnO. In particular, the NBE emission of nanocable sample shows a noticeable blue-shift compared with that of pristine ZnO nanowire, which characteristics most likely originate from Be alloying into ZnO. Consequently, the integration of ZnO and BeO into nanoscale heterostructure could bring up new opportunities in developing ZnO-based device for application in deep ultraviolet region. PACS 61.46.K; 78.67.Uh; 81.07.Gf.

  18. Effects of Cr-N-ZrO 2 seed layer formed on glass substrates for longitudinal recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Djayaprawira, David D.; Takahashi, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Akira; Ono, Toshinori; Yahisa, Yotsuo

    1999-03-01

    Effects of Cr-N-ZrO 2 seed layer deposited on glass substrates before the deposition of C/Co-Cr-Pt/Cr-Ti layers for longitudinal recording media have been investigated. The product of v and Is, the activation volume and the saturation magnetization per unit volume, media noise Nd and S0/ Nd, which is the half value of peak-to-peak output voltage of an isolated pulse over Nd at 11.8 kFC/mm, are evaluated. We find that vIs is decreased by adding N and ZrO 2 to Cr seed layer. Nd is reduced as vIs decreases by adding nitrogen to the Cr seed layer. This is mainly due to the decreased grain sizes of both Cr-Ti underlayer and Co-Cr-Pt magnetic layer. The Nd is further reduced by the addition of ZrO 2 to the Cr-N seed layer. Highest S0/ Nd is achieved for the media with Cr-N-ZrO 2 seed layer. On the other hand, the media with Cr-ZrO 2 seed layer deposited without nitrogen show the higher Nd. Therefore the decrease of the grain size by addition of nitrogen into Ar is essential to reduce Nd, and the ZrO 2 addition to the Cr-N seed layer seems to enhance the effect of grain size reduction by nitrogen addition.

  19. Spectral and optical performance of electrochromic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) deposited on transparent conducting oxide coated glass and polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindhu, S.; Narasimha Rao, K.; Ahuja, Sharath; Kumar, Anil; Gopal, E.S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Electrochromic devices utilizing conjugated polymers as electrochromic layers have gained increasing attention owing to their optical properties, fast switching times and contrast ratios. Polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) is an excellent material from its electrochromic properties, high conductivity and high stability in the doped form. Aqueous dispersions of PEDOT were either spin coated or electro-polymerized on transparent conducting oxide coated glass and polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET) film substrates. The spectro- and opto-electrochemical studies of the films on transparent conducting oxide coated glass/PET substrates were performed. These films have application in the fabrication of electrochromic windows (smart windows). Smart window devices having excellent switching characteristics over wide range of temperature are used for glazing applications. The aerospace industry is interested in the development of visors and windows that can control glare for pilots and passengers, especially if the coatings can be made on curved surfaces and electrically conducting

  20. Erbium-implanted silica colloids with 80% luminescence quantum efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slooff, L. H.; de Dood, M. J. A.; van Blaaderen, A.; Polman, A.

    2000-06-01

    Silica colloids with a diameter of 240-360 nm, grown by wet chemical synthesis using ethanol, ammonia, water, and tetraethoxysilane, were implanted with 350 keV Er ions, to peak concentrations of 0.2-1.1 at. % and put onto a silicon or glass substrate. After annealing at 700-900 °C the colloids show clear room-temperature photoluminescence at 1.53 μm, with lifetimes as high as 17 ms. By comparing data of different Er concentrations, the purely radiative lifetime is estimated to be 20-22 ms, indicating a high quantum efficiency of about 80%. This high quantum efficiency indicates that, after annealing, the silica colloids are almost free of OH impurities. Spinning a layer of polymethylmethacrylate over the silica spheres results in an optically transparent nanocomposite layer, that can be used as a planar optical waveguide amplifier at 1.5 μm that is fully compatible with polymer technology.

  1. Efficient photocatalytic decolorization of some textile dyes using Fe ions doped polyaniline film on ITO coated glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haspulat, Bircan; Gülce, Ahmet; Gülce, Handan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The PANI/Fe film as photocatalyst was used for the first time. • It was possible to modify the surface roughness and wettability of the PANI films. • The photocatalytic decolorization of four dyes has been investigated. • The photocatalytical activity of the PANI matrix was increased by adding Fe ions. -- Abstract: In this study, the photocatalytic decolorization of four commercial textile dyes with different structures has been investigated using electrochemically synthesized polyaniline and Fe ions doped polyaniline on ITO coated glass substrate as photocatalyst in aqueous solution under UV irradiation for the first time. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, FT-IR spectra, UV–vis spectroscopy measurements were used to characterize the electrochemically synthesized polymer film photocatalyst. Film hydrophilicity was assessed from contact angle measurements. The results show that both of the polymer films exhibit good photocatalytic performance. Surprisingly, it was determined that by using Fe(II) ions during polymerization, it is possible to modify the surface roughness and wettability of the produced polyaniline films which favors their photocatalytic activity in water-based solutions. All four of the used dyes (methylene blue, malachite green, methyl orange and methyl red) were completely decolorizated in 90 min of irradiation under UV light by using Fe ions doped polyaniline at the dye concentration of 1.5 × 10 −5 M, while the decolorization of those dyes were between 43% and 83% by using polyaniline as photocatalyst. Hence, it may be a viable technique for the safe disposal of textile wastewater into waste streams

  2. Improved patterning of ITO coated with gold masking layer on glass substrate using nanosecond fiber laser and etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Nguyen Ngoc; Hung, Duong Thanh; Anh, Vo Tran; BongChul, Kang; HyunChul, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new patterning method for ITO thin film is introduced. • Gold thin film is important in decrease spikes formed in ITO patterning process. • The laser pulse width occupies a significant effect the patterning surface quality. • Etching process is the effective method to remove the spikes at rims of pattern. • A considerable improvement over patterning quality is obtained by proposed method. - Abstract: In this paper, an indium–tin oxide (ITO) thin-film patterning method for higher pattern quality and productivity compared to the short-pulsed laser direct writing method is presented. We sputtered a thin ITO layer on a glass substrate, and then, plated a thin gold layer onto the ITO layer. The combined structure of the three layers (glass–ITO–gold) was patterned using laser-induced plasma generated by an ytterbium pulsed fiber laser (λ = 1064 nm). The results showed that the process parameters of 50 mm/s in scanning speed, 14 ns pulse duration, and a repetition rate of 7.5 kHz represented optimum conditions for the fabrication of ITO channels. Under these conditions, a channel 23.4 μm wide and 20 nm deep was obtained. However, built-up spikes (∼15 nm in height) resulted in a decrease in channel quality, and consequently, short circuit occurred at some patterned positions. These built-up spikes were completely removed by dipping the ITO layer into an etchant (18 wt.% HCl). A gold masking layer on the ITO surface was found to increase the channel surface quality without any decrease in ITO thickness. Moreover, the effects of repetition rate, scanning speed, and etching characteristics on surface quality were investigated

  3. Improved patterning of ITO coated with gold masking layer on glass substrate using nanosecond fiber laser and etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Nguyen Ngoc; Hung, Duong Thanh; Anh, Vo Tran [High Safety Vehicle Core Technology Research Center, Department of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); BongChul, Kang, E-mail: kbc@kumoh.ac.kr [Department of Inteligent Mechanical Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); HyunChul, Kim, E-mail: mechkhc@inje.ac.kr [High Safety Vehicle Core Technology Research Center, Department of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • A new patterning method for ITO thin film is introduced. • Gold thin film is important in decrease spikes formed in ITO patterning process. • The laser pulse width occupies a significant effect the patterning surface quality. • Etching process is the effective method to remove the spikes at rims of pattern. • A considerable improvement over patterning quality is obtained by proposed method. - Abstract: In this paper, an indium–tin oxide (ITO) thin-film patterning method for higher pattern quality and productivity compared to the short-pulsed laser direct writing method is presented. We sputtered a thin ITO layer on a glass substrate, and then, plated a thin gold layer onto the ITO layer. The combined structure of the three layers (glass–ITO–gold) was patterned using laser-induced plasma generated by an ytterbium pulsed fiber laser (λ = 1064 nm). The results showed that the process parameters of 50 mm/s in scanning speed, 14 ns pulse duration, and a repetition rate of 7.5 kHz represented optimum conditions for the fabrication of ITO channels. Under these conditions, a channel 23.4 μm wide and 20 nm deep was obtained. However, built-up spikes (∼15 nm in height) resulted in a decrease in channel quality, and consequently, short circuit occurred at some patterned positions. These built-up spikes were completely removed by dipping the ITO layer into an etchant (18 wt.% HCl). A gold masking layer on the ITO surface was found to increase the channel surface quality without any decrease in ITO thickness. Moreover, the effects of repetition rate, scanning speed, and etching characteristics on surface quality were investigated.

  4. Enhanced detection of single-cell-secreted proteins using a fluorescent immunoassay on the protein-G-terminated glass substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yoon Jeong,1,2 Kwan Hong Lee,1,2 Hansoo Park,3 Jonghoon Choi1,2 1Department of Bionano Technology, Graduate School, Hanyang University, Seoul, 2Department of Bionano Engineering, Hanyang University ERICA, Ansan, 3School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: We present an evaluation of protein-G-terminated glass slides that may contain a suitable substrate for aligning the orientation of antibodies to obtain better binding moiety to the target antigen. The results of the protein-G-terminated slides were compared with those obtained with epoxy-based slides to evaluate signal enhancement for human immunoglobulin G (IgG targets, and an increase in the average fluorescence intensity was observed for the lowest measurable amount of IgG target in the assay using protein-G-terminated slides. Applying this strategy for signal amplification to single-cell assays improves the limits of detection for human IgG protein and cytokines (interleukin-2 and interferon-γ captured from hybridomas. Our data indicate that protein-G-terminated slides have a higher binding capacity for antigens and have better spot-to-spot consistency than that of traditional epoxy-based slides. These properties would be beneficial in the detection of fine amounts of single-cell-secreted proteins, which may provide key insights into cell–cell communication and immune responses. Keywords: microwell array, antibody’s orientation, single cell analysis, secreted cytokine, protein-G-terminated surface

  5. Preparation of silane-functionalized silica films via two-step dip coating sol–gel and evaluation of their superhydrophobic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramezani, Maedeh; Vaezi, Mohammad Reza; Kazemzadeh, Asghar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic silica film was prepared by sol–gel process. • The surfaces exhibited superhydrophobicity with water contact angle greater than 150°. • AFM images showed the roughness increases with increasing the percentage of silylation agent. • Before and after modification, the particle size of silica was lower than 50 nm. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the surface modification of the silica nanoparticle by iso-OTMS on the glass substrate. - Abstract: In this paper, we study the two-step dip coating via a sol–gel process to prepare superhydrophobic silica films on the glass substrate. The water repellency of the silica films was controlled by surface silylation method using isooctyltrimethoxysilane (iso-OTMS) as a surface modifying agent. Silica alcosol was synthesized by keeping the molar ratio of ethyltriethoxysilane (ETES) precursor, ethanol (EtOH) solvent, water (H 2 O) was kept constant at 1:36:6.6 respectively, with 6 M NH 4 OH throughout the experiment and the percentages of hydrophobic agent in hexane bath was varied from 0 to 15 vol.%. The static water contact angle values of the silica films increased from 108° to 160° with an increase in the vol.% of iso-OTMS. At 15 vol%. of iso-OTMS, the silica film shows static water contact angle as high as 160°. The superhydrophobic silica films are thermally stable up to 440 °C and above this temperature, the silica films lose superhydrophobicity. By controlling the primer particle size of SiO 2 about 26 nm, leading to decrease the final size of silica nanoparticles after modification of nanoparticles by isooctyltrimethoxysilane about 42 nm. The films are transparent and have uniform size on the surface. The silica films have been characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transparency, contact angle measurement (CA), Zeta-potential, Thermal stability by TG–DTA analysis

  6. Crystalline Silica Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1992-01-01

    Crystalline silica is the scientific name for a group of minerals composed of silicon and oxygen. The term crystalline refers to the fact that the oxygen and silicon atoms are arranged in a threedimensional repeating pattern. This group of minerals has shaped human history since the beginning of civilization. From the sand used for making glass to the piezoelectric quartz crystals used in advanced communication systems, crystalline silica has been a part of our technological development. Crystalline silica's pervasiveness in our technology is matched only by its abundance in nature. It's found in samples from every geologic era and from every location around the globe. Scientists have known for decades that prolonged and excessive exposure to crystalline silica dust in mining environments can cause silicosis, a noncancerous lung disease. During the 1980's, studies were conducted that suggested that crystalline silica also was a carcinogen. As a result of these findings, crystalline silica has been regulated under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard (HCS). Under HCS, OSHAregulated businesses that use materials containing 0.1% or more crystalline silica must follow Federal guidelines concerning hazard communication and worker training. Although the HCS does not require that samples be analyzed for crystalline silica, mineral suppliers or OSHAregulated

  7. A simple technique for direct growth of Au into a nanoporous alumina layer on conductive glass as a reusable SERS substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jiajie [Chemicobiology and Functional Materials Institute, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Shen, Muzhong [School of Engineering, AnHui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Liu, Siyu; Li, Feng [Chemicobiology and Functional Materials Institute, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Sun, Dongping, E-mail: sundpe301@163.com [School of Engineering, AnHui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Wang, Tianhe, E-mail: thwang56@126.com [Chemicobiology and Functional Materials Institute, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Graphical abstract: A simple technique for direct growth of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) into a nanostructured porous alumina layer on conductive glass slide (PAOCG). Gold was uniformly distributed in porous alumina layer. Au/PAOCG can serve as a portable, durable and reusable SERS substrate. - Highlights: • A simple method of producing nanoporous alumina layer on conductive glasses. • A facile technique for direct growth of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) into PAOCG. • It presents a general protocol for preparation of (MNPs) on conductive glasses. • Au/PAOCG exhibits high SERS sensitivity and excellent reusability. - Abstract: In this paper, we describe a simple technique for direct growth of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) into a nanostructured porous alumina layer on conductive glass slide (PAOCG). PAOCG was attached firmly with a small piece of steel and was then immersed in a HAuCl{sub 4} solution. Electro-induced electrons from steel were employed to reduce AuCl{sub 4}{sup −} on PAOCG. The galvanic replacement reaction (GRR) was adopted as the fundamental mechanism for reducing metal precursors. This mechanism was further studied by open circuit potential-time (OCP-t) experiment and the result demonstrated that steel induced the continuous proceeding of this reaction. This strategy presents a simple and general protocol for preparation of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) on conductive glass substrates. The SERS properties of Au/PAOCG were investigated using aqueous crystal violet (CV) and 4-mercaptopyridine (4-Mpy) as probe molecules. Au/PAOCG allowed as low as 10{sup −9} M CV and 10{sup −8} M 4-Mpy to be detected. The reusability of this substrate was achieved by measuring the SERS spectrum of the probe molecules followed with a 400 °C heat treatment for 10 min to remove the residuals. This substrate could be reused for at least ten cycles without any significantly reduced SERS performance. Therefore, this surface can serve as a portable, durable and reusable SERS

  8. Investigation of the Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of the Nano-Scale GZO Thin Films on Glass and Flexible Polyimide Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hsing Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ga2O3-doped ZnO (GZO thin films were deposited on glass and flexible polyimide (PI substrates at room temperature (300 K, 373 K, and 473 K by the radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method. After finding the deposition rate, all the GZO thin films with a nano-scale thickness of about 150 ± 10 nm were controlled by the deposition time. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the GZO thin films were not amorphous and all exhibited the (002 peak, and field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that only nano-scale particles were observed. The dependences of the structural, electrical, and optical properties of the GZO thin films on different deposition temperatures and substrates were investigated. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS was used to measure the elemental composition at the chemical and electronic states of the GZO thin films deposited on different substrates, which could be used to clarify the mechanism of difference in electrical properties of the GZO thin films. In this study, the XPS binding energy spectra of Ga2p3/2 and Ga2p1/2 peaks, Zn2p3/2 and Zn2p1/2 peaks, the Ga3d peak, and O1s peaks for GZO thin films on glass and PI substrates were well compared.

  9. Two-dimensional silica opens new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Christin; Heyde, Markus

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, silica films have emerged as a novel class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Several groups succeeded in epitaxial growth of ultrathin SiO2 layers using different growth methods and various substrates. The structures consist of tetrahedral [SiO4] building blocks in two mirror symmetrical planes, connected via oxygen bridges. This arrangement is called a silica bilayer as it is the thinnest 2D arrangement with the stoichiometry SiO2 known today. With all bonds saturated within the nano-sheet, the interaction with the substrate is based on van der Waals forces. Complex ring networks are observed, including hexagonal honeycomb lattices, point defects and domain boundaries, as well as amorphous domains. The network structures are highly tuneable through variation of the substrate, deposition parameters, cooling procedure, introducing dopants or intercalating small species. The amorphous networks and structural defects were resolved with atomic resolution microscopy and modeled with density functional theory and molecular dynamics. Such data contribute to our understanding of the formation and characteristic motifs of glassy systems. Growth studies and doping with other chemical elements reveal ways to tune ring sizes and defects as well as chemical reactivities. The pristine films have been utilized as molecular sieves and for confining molecules in nanocatalysis. Post growth hydroxylation can be used to tweak the reactivity as well. The electronic properties of silica bilayers are favourable for using silica as insulators in 2D material stacks. Due to the fully saturated atomic structure, the bilayer interacts weakly with the substrate and can be described as quasi-freestanding. Recently, a mm-scale film transfer under structure retention has been demonstrated. The chemical and mechanical stability of silica bilayers is very promising for technological applications in 2D heterostacks. Due to the impact of this bilayer system for glass science

  10. Effects of silver adsorbed on fumed silica, silver phosphate glass, bentonite organomodified with silver and titanium dioxide in aquatic indicator organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomacheski, Daiane; Pittol, Michele; Simões, Douglas Naue; Ribeiro, Vanda Ferreira; Santana, Ruth Marlene Campomanes

    2017-06-01

    In order to reduce the level of transmission of diseases caused by bacteria and fungi, the development of antimicrobial additives for use in personal care, hygiene products, clothing and others has increased. Many of these additives are based on metals such as silver and titanium. The disposal of these products in the environment has raised concerns pertaining to their potential harmfulness for beneficial organisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the shape, surface chemistry, size and carrier of three additives containing silver and one with titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) on microcrustacean survival. Daphnia magna was used as a bioindicator for acute exposure test in suspensions from 0.0001 to 10,000ppm. Ceriodaphnia dubia was used for chronic test in TiO 2 suspensions from 0.001 to 100ppm. D. magna populations presented high susceptibility to all silver based additives, with 100% mortality after 24hr of exposure. A different result was found in the acute experiments containing TiO 2 suspensions, with mortality rates only after 48hr of incubation. Even on acute and chronic tests, TiO 2 did not reach a linear concentration-response versus mortality, with 1ppm being more toxic than 10,000ppm on acute test and 0.001 more toxic than 0.01ppm on chronic assay. Silver based material toxicity was attributed to silver itself, and had no relation to either form (nano or ion) or carrier (silica, phosphate glass or bentonite). TiO 2 demonstrated to have a low acute toxicity against D. magna. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Transparent conducting properties of anatase Ti{sub 0.94}Nb{sub 0.06}O{sub 2} polycrystalline films on glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitosugi, T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)], E-mail: hitosugi@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Ueda, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakao, S.; Yamada, N.; Furubayashi, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Konuma, S. [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); Shimada, T.; Hasegawa, T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    We report on transparent conducting properties of anatase Ti{sub 0.94}Nb{sub 0.06}O{sub 2} (TNO) polycrystalline films on glass substrate, and discuss the role of grain crystallinity and grain boundary on resistivity. Thin films of TNO were deposited using pulsed laser deposition at substrate temperature ranging from room temperature to 350 deg. C, with subsequent H{sub 2}-annealing at 500 deg. C. Polycrystalline TNO films showed resistivity of 4.5 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm and 1.5 x 10{sup -3} {omega} cm for films prepared at substrate temperature of room temperature and 250 deg. C, respectively. X-ray diffraction measurements and transmission electron microscopy reveal that grain crystallinity and grain boundary play key roles in conductive films.

  12. Metal-silica sol-gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegman, Albert E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a single phase metal-silica sol-gel glass formed by the co-condensation of a transition metal with silicon atoms where the metal atoms are uniformly distributed within the sol-gel glass as individual metal centers. Any transition metal may be used in the sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to sensor materials where the sensor material is formed using the single phase metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The sensor materials may be in the form of a thin film or may be attached to an optical fiber. The present invention also relates to a method of sensing chemicals using the chemical sensors by monitoring the chromatic change of the metal-silica sol-gel glass when the chemical binds to the sensor. The present invention also relates to oxidation catalysts where a metal-silica sol-gel glass catalyzes the reaction. The present invention also relates to a method of performing oxidation reactions using the metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to organopolymer metal-silica sol-gel composites where the pores of the metal-silica sol-gel glasses are filled with an organic polymer polymerized by the sol-gel glass.

  13. Erbium-doped borosilicate glasses containing various amounts of P2O5 and Al2O3: Influence of the silica content on the structure and thermal, physical, optical and luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourhis, Kevin; Massera, Jonathan; Petit, Laeticia; Koponen, Joona; Fargues, Alexandre; Cardinal, Thierry; Hupa, Leena; Hupa, Mikko; Dussauze, Marc; Rodriguez, Vincent; Ferraris, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Er 3+ doped borosilicate glasses were processed with different compositions and characterizations. • An increase in the SiO 2 content leads to a silicate-rich environment around the Er 3+ site. • An increase in the SiO 2 content decreases the Er 3+ absorption cross-section at 980 nm. • Glasses with 60 mol% of SiO 2 exhibit a stronger emission intensity at 1530 nm than glasses with x = 50. • Highest 1.5 μm emission intensity was achieved for the Al and P containing glass with 60 mol% of SiO 2 . - Abstract: The influence of the silica content on several properties of Er-doped borosilicate glasses in the presence of various amounts of P 2 O 5 and Al 2 O 3 has been investigated. The introduction of P 2 O 5 and/or Al 2 O 3 are responsible for structural modifications in the glass network through a charge-compensation mechanism related to the formation of negatively-charged PO 4 and AlO 4 groups or through the formation of AlPO 4 -like structural units. In this paper, we show that an increase in the SiO 2 content leads to a silicate-rich environment around the Er 3+ site, resulting in an increased dependence of the Er 3+ ions optical and luminescence properties on the P 2 O 5 and/or Al 2 O 3 concentration. The highest emission intensity at 1.5 μm was achieved for the glass with an equal proportion of P and Al in the glass system with 60 mol% of SiO 2

  14. Clustering of germanium atoms in silica glass responsible for the 3.1 eV emission band studied by optical absorption and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tomoko; Muto, Shunsuke; Yuliati, Leny; Yoshida, Hisao; Inada, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Correlation between the 3.1 eV emission band and local atomic configuration was systematically examined for Ge + implanted silica glass by UV-vis optical absorption spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. The 2.7 eV emission band, commonly observed in defective silica, was replaced by the sharp and intense 3.1 eV emission band for the Ge + fluence > 2 x 10 16 cm -2 , in which UV-vis absorption spectra suggested clustering of Ge atoms with the size ∼1 nm. XAFS spectroscopy indicated that the Ge atoms were under coordinated with oxygen atoms nearly at a neutral valence state on average. The present results are consistent with the previous ESR study but imply that the small Ge clusters rather than the O=Ge: complexes (point defects) are responsible for the 3.1 eV emission band.

  15. Highly (001) oriented L1{sub 0}-CoPt/TiN multilayer films on glass substrates with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hongyu; Sannomiya, Takumi; Muraishi, Shinji; Nakamura, Yoshio; Shi, Ji, E-mail: shi.j.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Xie, Qian; Zhang, Zhengjun [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jian [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    To obtain strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) based on L1{sub 0} structure for magnetic storage devices, costly single crystalline substrates are generally required to achieve (001) texture. Recently, various studies also have focused on depositing different kinds of seed layers on glass or other amorphous substrates to promote (001) preferred orientation of L1{sub 0} CoPt and FePt. TiN is a very promising seed layer material because of its cubic crystalline structure (similar to MgO) and excellent diffusion barring property even at high temperatures. In the present work, highly (001) oriented L1{sub 0}-CoPt/TiN multilayer films have been successfully deposited on glass substrates. After annealing at 700 °C, the film exhibits PMA, and a strong (001) peak is detected from the x-ray diffraction profiles, indicating the ordering transformation of CoPt layers from fcc (A1) to L1{sub 0} structure. It also is found that alternate deposition of cubic TiN and CoPt effectively improves the crystallinity and (001) preferred orientation of CoPt layers. This effect is verified by the substantial enhancement of (001) reflection and PMA with increasing the period number of the multilayer films.

  16. Indium-tin oxide thin films deposited at room temperature on glass and PET substrates: Optical and electrical properties variation with the H2-Ar sputtering gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; de Andrés, A.; Prieto, C.

    2015-07-01

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. A clear evolution of optical transparency and sheet resistance with the content of H2 in the gas mixture of H2 and Ar during magnetron sputtering deposition is observed. An optimized performance of the transparent conductive properties ITO films on PET was achieved for samples prepared using H2/(Ar + H2) ratio in the range of 0.3-0.6%. Moreover, flexible ITO-PET samples show a better transparent conductive figure of merit, ΦTC = T10/RS, than their glass counterparts. These results provide valuable insight into the room temperature fabrication and development of transparent conductive ITO-based flexible devices.

  17. Transverse and longitudinal electrooptic properties of highly (100) oriented Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} films grown on glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-Jin [Department of Future Technology, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 66 Sang-Nam Dong, Chang-Won, Gyeong-Nam, 641-010 (Korea, Republic of) and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: finaljin@kmail.kimm.re.kr; Park, Gun-Tae [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoun-Ee [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dal-Young [Department of Visual Optics, Seoul National University of Technology, 172 Gongreung 2-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-05

    The Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} [PZT] films with a preferred orientation generally have columnar texture. Because the properties of a PZT film are strongly dependent on its crystallographic direction, the electrooptic properties along the longitudinal and transverse direction are expected to be anisotropic. In this study, highly (100) oriented PZT films were grown on glass and ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) coated glass substrates using the sol-gel multi-coating method with lanthanum nitrate and lanthanum nickel nitrate as buffer layers. The longitudinal and transverse electrooptic properties of the textured films were characterized by transmission-mode measuring equipment with a Senarmont compensator using a sample tilting method. The calculated longitudinal and transverse electrooptic coefficients of the highly (100) oriented PZT films were 147 and 250 pm/V, respectively.

  18. Evaluation of optical properties of the amorphous carbon film on fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydogan, Nilguen Dogan

    2004-01-01

    Deposition was done using a pulsed filtered cathodic arc with a graphite cathode. The carbon plasma is fully ionised and condenses on the substrate, forming diamond-like material but with amorphous structure. Optical properties of amorphous carbon films on fused-silica glass were investigated and the curves of optical density have a characteristic band at approximately 950 nm. Changes of the colourimetric quantities were evaluated and compared to uncoated fused silica glass. These changes were investigated as a function of the applied substrate bias voltage using the CIE and CIELAB colour systems. It is suggested that the mechanism of absorption is related to an allowed direct transition at the amorphous carbon films on fused silica glass. The optical energy gap of the amorphous carbon film depends on the bias voltage applied to the substrate holder. The optical colour parameters and optical band gap indicated that there is a relation between the dominant wavelength of the reflectance in the visible range and the wavelength of the optical band gap

  19. Silica-Based and Borate-Based, Titania-Containing Bioactive Coatings Characterization: Critical Strain Energy Release Rate, Residual Stresses, Hardness, and Thermal Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rodriguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica-based and borate-based glass series, with increasing amounts of TiO2 incorporated, are characterized in terms of their mechanical properties relevant to their use as metallic coating materials. It is observed that borate-based glasses exhibit CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion closer to the substrate’s (Ti6Al4V CTE, translating into higher mode I critical strain energy release rates of glasses and compressive residual stresses and strains at the coating/substrate interface, outperforming the silica-based glasses counterparts. An increase in the content of TiO2 in the glasses results in an increase in the mode I critical strain energy release rate for both the bulk glass and for the coating/substrate system, proving that the addition of TiO2 to the glass structure enhances its toughness, while decreasing its bulk hardness. Borate-based glass BRT3, with 15 mol % TiO2 incorporated, exhibits superior properties overall compared to the other proposed glasses in this work, as well as 45S5 Bioglass® and Pyrex.

  20. Noise origin of Co-Cr-Ta films on ultra-flat glass-ceramic and Si substrates for longitudinal recording disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Kohki; Kadokura, Sadao; Naoe, Masahiko

    2001-01-01

    Co 85 Cr 13 Ta 2 /Cr bilayered films for longitudinal recording disks were deposited by plasma-enhanced facing targets sputtering apparatus on 2.5 in and ultra-flat disk substrates of glass-ceramic and single-crystal silicon. Their noise and read/write characteristics were almost comparable with those of the high-performance disks using Co-Cr-Pt films, with coercivity H c of 2.4 kOe, as a reference disk, even though the Co-Cr-Ta films exhibited macroscopic H c of only 800 Oe. Co 85 Cr 13 Ta 2 films are known as low-noise media. This study addresses the problem of how to obtain low-noise media, using excellent sputtering apparatus and disk substrate materials, to allow practical applications in ultra-high-density recording systems, including 1 in microdrives for mobile applications

  1. Synthesis of biocompatible hydrophobic silica-gelatin nano-hybrid by sol-gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, S; Shajesh, P; Mukundan, P; Nair, T D R; Warrier, K G K

    2007-03-15

    Silica-biopolymer hybrid has been synthesised using colloidal silica as the precursor for silica and gelatin as the biopolymer counterpart. The surface modification of the hybrid material has been done with methyltrimethoxysilane leading to the formation of biocompatible hydrophobic silica-gelatin hybrid. Here we are reporting hydrophobic silica-gelatin hybrid and coating precursor for the first time. The hybrid gel has been evaluated for chemical modification, thermal degradation, hydrophobicity, particle size, transparency under the UV-visible region and morphology. FTIR spectroscopy has been used to verify the presence of CH(3) groups which introduce hydrophobicity to the SiO2-MTMS-gelatin hybrids. The hydrophobic property has also been tailored by varying the concentration of methyltrimethoxysilane. Contact angle by Wilhelmy plate method of transparent hydrophobic silica-gelatin coatings has been found to be as high as approximately 95 degrees . Oxidation of the organic group which induces the hydrophobic character occurs at 530 degrees C which indicates that the surface hydrophobicity is retained up to that temperature. Optical transmittance of SiO2-MTMS-gelatin hybrid coatings on glass substrates has been found to be close to 100% which will enable the hybrid for possible optical applications and also for preparation of transparent biocompatible hydrophobic coatings on biological substrates such as leather.

  2. Rapid fabrication of transparent conductive films with controllable sheet resistance on glass substrates by laser annealing of diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunhee; Ki, Hyungson

    2016-01-01

    We report a laser-based method for directly fabricating large-area, transparent conductive films with customizable electrical resistance on glass. In this method, a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film is deposited first on a glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition, which is then annealed in a helium shielding environment by a 2 kW continuous-wave fiber laser with a wavelength of 1070 nm, which is transparent to glass but is absorbed by DLC to transform the amorphous carbons to graphene. When a 510 nm thick film was annealed at a scanning speed of 1 m/s by a 200 μm top-hat laser beam, the sp 3 fraction was decreased from 43.1% to 8.1% after the annealing process, and the transformed film showed a transparency of ∼80% (at 550 nm) and a sheet resistance of ∼2050 Ω/sq. We also showed that sheet resistance and transparency can be controlled by changing processing parameters. To show the scalability of the method, a 15 mm wide line beam was used to produce a 15 mm × 15 mm film. This method is simple, fully scalable, transfer-free and catalyst-free, and we believe that the fabricated films can have many applications with further research, such as transparent heating films, electromagnetic shielding films, and transparent electrodes.

  3. Highly-ordered mesoporous titania thin films prepared via surfactant assembly on conductive indium-tin-oxide/glass substrate and its optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Hiroshi; Patel, Mehul N.; May, R. Alan; Gupta, Gaurav; Stevenson, Keith J.; Johnston, Keith P.

    2010-01-01

    Highly ordered mesoporous titanium dioxide (titania, TiO 2 ) thin films on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass were prepared via a Pluronic (P123) block copolymer template and a hydrophilic TiO 2 buffer layer. The contraction of the 3D hexagonal array of P123 micelles upon calcination merges the titania domains on the TiO 2 buffer layer to form mesoporous films with a mesochannel diameter of approximately 10 nm and a pore-to-pore distance of 10 nm. The mesoporous titania films on TiO 2 -buffered ITO/glass featured an inverse mesospace with a hexagonally-ordered structure, whereas the films formed without a TiO 2 buffer layer had a disordered microstructure with submicron cracks because of non-uniform water condensation on the hydrophobic ITO/glass surface. The density of the mesoporous film was 83% that of a bulk TiO 2 film. The optical band gap of the mesoporous titania thin film was approximately 3.4 eV, larger than that for nonporous anatase TiO 2 (∼ 3.2 eV), suggesting that the nanoscopic grain size leads to an increase in the band gap due to weak quantum confinement effects. The ability to form highly-ordered mesoporous titania films on electrically conductive and transparent substrates offers the potential for facile fabrication of high surface area semiconductive films with small diffusion lengths for optoelectronics applications.

  4. Wear Resistance of Nano Alumina Containing SiO2-B2O3-Na2O Glass-Ceramic on Steel Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faeghinia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study has been carried out to investigate the tribological properties of nano Alumina reinforced glass-ceramic enamel. The mixtures of (5, 10, 15 wt.% nano alumina and glass powders have been air sprayed on stainless steel substrate.. The thixotropy, wetting angle and surface tension of used slurry were increased inherently by 15-wt.% nano alumina. By heat treating at 870-640-525 ºC, the homogeneous crystalline sodium silicate phase beside nano alumina was obtained in glass –ceramic coat. According to the EDAX results, the precipitated reduced Sb and Mo particles at the interface of enamel and steel caused to reasonable adherence of coat and steel. The dry sliding wear tests were carried out using pin on disk method. Results revealed the 0.01 mg wear rate by 30N load at 100 m for nano alumina bearing coats. The wear resistance increased by a factor of 10. According to SEM micrographs, the sliding load transfer by nano alumina particles occurred.

  5. The infrared optical properties of heavily B-doped nanocrystalline diamond films on low alkaline glass substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Nesladek, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 203, č. 12 (2006), s. 3016-3020 ISSN 0031-8965 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100100623 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : diamond * boron * dielectric function * glass Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.221, year: 2006

  6. Thiol-modified gold-coated glass as an efficient hydrophobic substrate for drop coating deposition Raman (DCDR) technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočišová, E.; Procházka, M.; Šípová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 11 (2016), s. 1394-1396 ISSN 0377-0486 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : thiol-modified Au-coated glass * drop coating deposition Raman * liposome Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.969, year: 2016

  7. Thiol-functionalized silica colloids, grains, and membranes for irreversible adsorption of metal(oxide) nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claesson, E.M.; Philipse, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Thiol-functionalization is described for silica surfaces from diverging origin, including commercial silica nanoparticles and St¨ober silica as well as silica structures provided by porous glasses and novel polymer-templated silica membranes. The functionalization allows in all cases for the

  8. Metal-Organic Framework Modified Glass Substrate for Analysis of Highly Volatile Chemical Warfare Agents by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhummakupt, Elizabeth S; Carmany, Daniel O; Mach, Phillip M; Tovar, Trenton M; Ploskonka, Ann M; Demond, Paul S; DeCoste, Jared B; Glaros, Trevor

    2018-03-07

    Paper spray mass spectrometry has been shown to successfully analyze chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. However, due to the volatility differences between the simulants and real G-series (i.e., sarin, soman) CWAs, analysis from an untreated paper substrate proved difficult. To extend the analytical lifetime of these G-agents, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were successfully integrated onto the paper spray substrates to increase adsorption and desorption. In this study, several MOFs and nanoparticles were tested to extend the analytical lifetimes of sarin, soman, and cyclosarin on paper spray substrates. It was found that the addition of either UiO-66 or HKUST-1 to the paper substrate increased the analytical lifetime of the G-agents from less than 5 min detectability to at least 50 min.

  9. Impact of deposition temperature on the properties of SnS thin films grown over silicon substrate—comparative study of structural and optical properties with films grown on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assili, Kawther; Alouani, Khaled; Vilanova, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    Tin sulfide (SnS) thin films were chemically deposited over silicon substrate in a temperature range of 250 °C-400 °C. The effects of deposition temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films were evaluated. All films present an orthorhombic SnS structure with a preferred orientation along (040). High absorption coefficients (in the range of 105 cm-1) were found for all obtained films with an increase in α value when deposition temperature decreases. Furthermore, the effects of substrate type were investigated based on comparison between the present results and those obtained for SnS films grown under the same deposition conditions but over glass substrate. The results suggest that the formation of SnS films onto glass substrate is faster than onto silicon substrate. It is found that the substrate nature affects the orientation growth of the films and that SnS films deposited onto Si present more defects than those deposited onto glass substrate. The optical transmittance is also restricted by the substrate type, mostly below 1000 nm. The obtained results for SnS films onto silicon suggest their promising integration within optoelectronic devices.

  10. Effect of sol aging time on the anti-reflective properties of silica coatings templated with phosphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wen

    Full Text Available Silica anti-reflective coatings have been prepared by a sol–gel dip-coating process using the sol containing phosphoric acid as a pore-forming template. The effect of the aging time of the sol on the anti-reflective properties has been investigated. The surface topography of the silica AR coatings has been characterized. With increasing sol aging time, more over-sized pores larger than 100 nm are formed in the silica coatings. These could act as scattering centers, scattering visible light and thereby lowering transmittance. The optimal aging time was identified as 1 day, and the corresponding silica coatings showed a maximum transmittance of 99.2%, representing an 8% increase compared to the bare glass substrate. Keywords: Thin films, Anti-reflective coatings, Aging, Dip-coating, Sol–gel preparation

  11. Regularly arranged indium islands on glass/molybdenum substrates upon femtosecond laser and physical vapor deposition processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringleb, F.; Eylers, K.; Teubner, Th.; Boeck, T., E-mail: torsten.boeck@ikz-berlin.de [Leibniz-Institute for Crystal Growth, Max-Born-Straße 2, Berlin 12489 (Germany); Symietz, C.; Bonse, J.; Andree, S.; Krüger, J. [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, Berlin 12205 (Germany); Heidmann, B.; Schmid, M. [Department of Physics, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimalle 14, Berlin 14195 (Germany); Nanooptical Concepts for PV, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, Berlin 14109 (Germany); Lux-Steiner, M. [Nanooptical Concepts for PV, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, Berlin 14109 (Germany); Heterogeneous Material Systems, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, Berlin 14109 (Germany)

    2016-03-14

    A bottom-up approach is presented for the production of arrays of indium islands on a molybdenum layer on glass, which can serve as micro-sized precursors for indium compounds such as copper-indium-gallium-diselenide used in photovoltaics. Femtosecond laser ablation of glass and a subsequent deposition of a molybdenum film or direct laser processing of the molybdenum film both allow the preferential nucleation and growth of indium islands at the predefined locations in a following indium-based physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. A proper choice of laser and deposition parameters ensures the controlled growth of indium islands exclusively at the laser ablated spots. Based on a statistical analysis, these results are compared to the non-structured molybdenum surface, leading to randomly grown indium islands after PVD.

  12. Few-Layer MoS2-Organic Thin-Film Hybrid Complementary Inverter Pixel Fabricated on a Glass Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Sung; Shin, Jae Min; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Lee, Junyeong; Kim, Jin Sung; Hwang, Hyun Chul; Park, Eunyoung; Yoon, Woojin; Ju, Sang-Yong; Im, Seongil

    2015-05-13

    Few-layer MoS2-organic thin-film hybrid complementary inverters demonstrate a great deal of device performance with a decent voltage gain of ≈12, a few hundred pW power consumption, and 480 Hz switching speed. As fabricated on glass, this hybrid CMOS inverter operates as a light-detecting pixel as well, using a thin MoS2 channel. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. CuO, MnO2 and Fe2O3 doped biomass ash as silica source for glass production in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Srisittipokakun

    Full Text Available In this research, glass productions from rice husk ash (RHA and the effect of BaO, CuO, MnO2 and Fe2O3 on physical and optical properties were investigated. All properties were compared with glass made from SiO2 using same preparations. The results show that a higher density and refractive index of BaO, CuO, MnO2 and Fe2O3 doped in RHA glasses were obtained, compared with SiO2 glasses. The optical spectra show no significant difference between both glasses. The color of CuO glasses show blue from the absorption band near 800 nm (2B1g → 2B2g due to Cu2+ ion in octahedral coordination with a strong tetragonal distortion. The color of MnO2 glasses shows brown from broad band absorption at around 500 nm. This absorption band is assigned to a single allowed 5Eg → 5T2g transition which arises from the Mn3+ ions (3d4 configuration in octahedral symmetry. The yellow color derives from F2O3 glass due to the homogeneous distribution of Fe3+ (460 nm and Fe2+ (1050 nm ions in the glass matrices. Glass production from RHA is possible and is a new option for recycling waste from biomass power plant systems and air pollution reduction. Keywords: Rice husk ash, Glass, Optical, Physical

  14. Effect of various additives on microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vitro bioactivity of sodium oxide-calcium oxide-silica-phosphorus pentoxide glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Hu, J H; Chen, C Z

    2013-09-01

    The partial substitution of MgO, TiO2, or CaF2 for CaO in the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 (45S5) system was conducted by the sol-gel method and a comparative study on structural, mechanical properties, and bioactivity of the glasses was reported. Based on thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, the gels were sintered with a suitable heat treatment procedure. The glass-ceramic properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and so on, and the bioactivity of the glass-ceramic was evaluated by in vitro assays in simulated body fluid (SBF). Results indicate that with the partial substitution of MgO, TiO2, CaF2 for CaO in glass composition, the mechanical properties of the glass-ceramics have been significantly improved. Furthermore, CaF2 promotes glass crystallization and the crystallization does not inhibit the glass-ceramic bioactivity. All samples possess bioactivity; however, the bioactivity of these glass-ceramics is quite different. Compared with 45S5, the introduction of MgO decreases the ability of apatite induction. The addition of TiO2 does not significantly improve the bioactivity, and the replacement of CaO by CaF2 shows a higher bioactivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An exploratory study of the effects of the dielectric-barrier-discharge surface pre-treatment on the self-assembly processes of a (3-Aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Naiyi; Liu Chaozong; Brown, Norman M.D.; Meenan, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), secondary-ion-mass spectrometry (SIMS) and contact angle measurement have been used in study of the enhancement effect of substrate pre-treatment by dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) for the self-assembly of a (3-Aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (APTS) on glass substrates. In results, the concentration of the APTS molecules self-assembled on the surfaces of both the acetone-washed and the DBD-treated substrates were more than three times of that on the as-supplied substrate. Meanwhile, the self-assembly (SA) layers grown on the DBD-treated substrates have the best quality compared to those grown on the substrates pre-treated in other ways in terms of the silane-substrate bonding and the order of arrangement of the silane molecules

  16. Colloidal silica films for high-capacity DNA arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Marc Irving

    The human genome project has greatly expanded the amount of genetic information available to researchers, but before this vast new source of data can be fully utilized, techniques for rapid, large-scale analysis of DNA and RNA must continue to develop. DNA arrays have emerged as a powerful new technology for analyzing genomic samples in a highly parallel format. The detection sensitivity of these arrays is dependent on the quantity and density of immobilized probe molecules. We have investigated substrates with a porous, "three-dimensional" surface layer as a means of increasing the surface area available for the synthesis of oligonucleotide probes, thereby increasing the number of available probes and the amount of detectable bound target. Porous colloidal silica films were created by two techniques. In the first approach, films were deposited by spin-coating silica colloid suspensions onto flat glass substrates, with the pores being formed by the natural voids between the solid particles (typically 23nm pores, 35% porosity). In the second approach, latex particles were co-deposited with the silica and then pyrolyzed, creating films with larger pores (36 nm), higher porosity (65%), and higher surface area. For 0.3 mum films, enhancements of eight to ten-fold and 12- to 14-fold were achieved with the pure silica films and the films "templated" with polymer latex, respectively. In gene expression assays for up to 7,000 genes using complex biological samples, the high-capacity films provided enhanced signals and performed equivalently or better than planar glass on all other functional measures, confirming that colloidal silica films are a promising platform for high-capacity DNA arrays. We have also investigated the kinetics of hybridization on planar glass and high-capacity substrates. Adsorption on planar arrays is similar to ideal Langmuir-type adsorption, although with an "overshoot" at high solution concentration. Hybridization on high-capacity films is

  17. In-plane thermal conductivity measurements of ZnO-, ZnS-, and YSZ thin-films on glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, David; Gather, Florian; Kronenberger, Achim; Kuhl, Florian; Meyer, Bruno K.; Klar, Peter J. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In this work we present in-plane thermal conductivity measurements of ZnO-, ZnS-, and YSZ thin-films. Borosilicate glass with a thickness of 50 microns and low thermal conductivity for improving the signal to noise ratio was used as substrate material. The above different films are deposited by rf-sputtering and have a thickness of about 1 micron. Our approach is a steady-state measurement. A wide metal wire on the film is used as a heater and two parallel lying narrow wires at distances of 100 microns and 200 microns from the heater wire, respectively, serve as the temperature sensors. The wire structure design is transfered on to the thin films by photolithography and metal evaporation. Measurements of the in-plane thermal conductivities of the above mentioned materials are presented and compared with corresponding results in the literature.

  18. Nd3-xBixFe4GaO12 (x = 2, 2.5 films on glass substrates prepared by MOD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida T.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied Nd3-XBiXFe4GaO12 films to obtain perpendicular magnetic anisotropy as well as large Faraday effect. NdBi2Fe4GaO12 (Bi2:NIGG and Nd0.5Bi2.5Fe4GaO12 (Bi2.5:NIGG films were obtained on Nd2BiFe4GaO12 (Bi1:NIGG layer prepared on glass substrates by metal-organic decomposition (MOD method. Bi2:NIGG and Bi2.5:NIGG films showed large Faraday rotation angles of 7.5 and 10.5 degree/µm, at a wavelength of 520 nm, respectively. Those films have perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a coercivity of 350 Oe and a saturation magnetic field of 730 Oe.

  19. Arrays of Hollow Silica Half-Nanospheres Via the Breath Figure Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin; Hou, Yuanfang; Beaujuge, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Breath figures (BFs) are patterns of liquid droplets that usually form upon condensation on a cold surface. Earlier work has shown that BFs can be used to produce continuous films of porous honeycomb-structured patterns on various types of materials, paving the path to a number of important applications such as the manufacturing of highly ordered nano- and micron-sized templates, micro lenses, and superhydrophobic coatings. It is worth noting, however, that few new findings have been reported in this area in recent years, limiting pursuits of novel architectures and key applications. In this report, an alternative method is described by which arrays of hollow silica half-nanospheres can be produced via BF templates. In the present method, a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) protocol performed while the BF is formed on a glass substrate yields a nanostructured pattern of silica half-spheres, which size (100-700 nm) and density across the glass surface vary with substrate modification and with the relative rates of water condensation and hydrolysis from silica precursors (a process carried out at room temperature). This method of forming arrays of hollow half-nanospheres via the BF approach may be applicable to various other oxides and a broad range of substrates including large-area flexible plastics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Arrays of Hollow Silica Half-Nanospheres Via the Breath Figure Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin

    2015-04-21

    Breath figures (BFs) are patterns of liquid droplets that usually form upon condensation on a cold surface. Earlier work has shown that BFs can be used to produce continuous films of porous honeycomb-structured patterns on various types of materials, paving the path to a number of important applications such as the manufacturing of highly ordered nano- and micron-sized templates, micro lenses, and superhydrophobic coatings. It is worth noting, however, that few new findings have been reported in this area in recent years, limiting pursuits of novel architectures and key applications. In this report, an alternative method is described by which arrays of hollow silica half-nanospheres can be produced via BF templates. In the present method, a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) protocol performed while the BF is formed on a glass substrate yields a nanostructured pattern of silica half-spheres, which size (100-700 nm) and density across the glass surface vary with substrate modification and with the relative rates of water condensation and hydrolysis from silica precursors (a process carried out at room temperature). This method of forming arrays of hollow half-nanospheres via the BF approach may be applicable to various other oxides and a broad range of substrates including large-area flexible plastics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Thermal oxidation of seeds for the hydrothermal growth of WO{sub 3} nanorods on ITO glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Chai Yan [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdul Razak, Khairunisak, E-mail: khairunisak@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); NanoBiotechnology Research and Innovation (NanoBRI), Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lockman, Zainovia, E-mail: zainovia@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-11-30

    This work reports a simple seed formation method for the hydrothermal growth of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) nanorods. A WO{sub 3} seed layer was prepared by thermal oxidation, where a W-sputtered substrate was heated and oxidized in a furnace. Oxidation temperatures and periods were varied at 400–550 °C and 5–60 min, respectively, to determine an appropriate seed layer for nanorod growth. Thermal oxidation at 500 °C for 15 min was found to produce a seed layer with sufficient crystallinity and good adhesion to the substrate. These properties prevented the seed from peeling off during the hydrothermal process, thereby allowing nanorod growth on the seed. The nanorod film showed better electrochromic behavior (higher current density of − 1.11 and + 0.65 mA cm{sup −2}) than compact film (lower current density of − 0.54 and + 0.28 mA cm{sup −2}). - Highlights: • A simple seed formation method (thermal oxidation) on sputtered W film is reported. • Crystalline seed with good adhesion to substrate is required for nanorod growth. • The appropriate temperature and period for seed formation were 500 °C and 15 min. • WO{sub 3} nanorods exhibited higher electrochromic current density than WO{sub 3} compact film.

  2. Influences of Indium Tin Oxide Layer on the Properties of RF Magnetron-Sputtered (BaSr)TiO3 Thin Films on Indium Tin Oxide-Coated Glass Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Song; Oh, Myung Hwan; Kim, Chong Hee

    1993-06-01

    Nearly stoichiometric ((Ba+Sr)/Ti=1.08-1.09) and optically transparent (BaSr)TiO3 thin films were deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate by means of rf magnetron sputtering for their application to the insulating layer of an electroluminescent flat panel display. The influence of the ITO layer on the properties of (BaSr)TiO3 thin films deposited on the ITO-coated substrate was investigated. The ITO layer did not affect the crystallographic orientation of (BaSr)TiO3 thin film, but enhanced the grain growth. Another effect of the ITO layer on (BaSr)TiO3 thin films was the interdiffusion phenomenon, which was studied by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As the substrate temperature increased, interdiffusion intensified at the interface not only between the grown film and ITO layer but also between the ITO layer and base glass substrate. The refractive index (nf) of (BaSr)TiO3 thin film deposited on a bare glass substrate was 2.138-2.286, as a function of substrate temperature.

  3. Extremely improved InP template and GaInAsP system growth on directly-bonded InP/SiO2-Si and InP/glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Keiichi; Makino, Tatsunori; Kimura, Katsuya; Shimomura, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an ultrathin InP template with low defect density on SiO 2 -Si and glass substrate by employing wet etching and wafer direct bonding technique. We have demonstrated epitaxial growth on these substrates and GaInAs/InP multiple quantum well layers were grown by low pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy. Photoluminescence measurements of the layers show that they are optically active and we have obtained almost the same intensity from these substrates compared to the InP substrate. These results may be attributed to improvement of InP template quality and should provide further improvements in device performance realized on SiO 2 -Si and glass substrate. And, these are promising results in terms of integration of InP-based several functional optical devices on SiO 2 -Si and glass substrate. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Mobility restrictions and glass transition behaviour of an epoxy resin under confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemour, A; Sanctuary, R; Baller, J

    2015-04-07

    Confinement can have a big influence on the dynamics of glass formers in the vicinity of the glass transition. Already 40 to 50 K above the glass transition temperature, thermal equilibration of glass formers can be strongly influenced by the confining substrate. We investigate the linear thermal expansion and the specific heat capacity cp of an epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, DGEBA) in a temperature interval of 120 K around the glass transition temperature. The epoxy resin is filled into controlled pore glasses with pore diameters between 4 and 111 nm. Since DGEBA can form H-bonds with silica surfaces, we also investigate the influence of surface silanization of the porous substrates. In untreated substrates a core/shell structure of the epoxy resin can be identified. The glass transition behaviours of the bulk phase and that of the shell phase are different. In silanized substrates, the shell phase disappears. At a temperature well above the glass transition, a second transition is found for the bulk phase - both in the linear expansion data as well as in the specific heat capacity. The cp data do not allow excluding the glass transition of a third phase as being the cause for this transition, whereas the linear expansion data do so. The additional transition temperature is interpreted as a separation between two regimes: above this temperature, macroscopic flow of the bulk phase inside the porous structure is possible to balance the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between DGEBA and the substrate. Below the transition temperature, this degree of freedom is hindered by geometrical constraints of the porous substrates. Moreover, this second transition could also be found in the linear expansion data of the shell phase.

  5. Liquid Phase Deposition of Silica on the Hexagonally Close-Packed Monolayer of Silica Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Young Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid phase deposition is a method used for the nonelectrochemical production of polycrystalline ceramic films at low temperatures, most commonly silicon dioxide films. Herein, we report that silica spheres are organized in a hexagonal close-packed array using a patterned substrate. On this monolayer of silica spheres, we could fabricate new nanostructures in which deposition and etching compete through a modified LPD reaction. In the early stage, silica spheres began to undergo etching, and then, silica bridges between the silica spheres appeared by the local deposition reaction. Finally, the silica spheres and bridges disappeared completely. We propose the mechanism for the formation of nanostructure.

  6. Effect of different glasses in glass bonded zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.; Verma, S.

    1995-01-01

    A mineral waste form has been developed for chloride waste salt generated during the pyrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste form consists of salt-occluded zeolite powders bound within a glass matrix. The zeolite contains the salt and immobilizes the fission products. The zeolite powders are hot pressed to form a mechanically stable, durable glass bonded zeolite. Further development of glass bonded zeolite as a waste form requires an understanding of the interaction between the glass and the zeolite. Properties of the glass that enhance binding and durability of the glass bonded zeolite need to be identified. Three types of glass, boroaluminosilicate, soda-lime silicate, and high silica glasses, have a range of properties and are now being investigated. Each glass was hot pressed by itself and with an equal amount of zeolite. MCC-1 leach tests were run on both. Soda-lime silicate and high silica glasses did not give a durable glass bonded zeolite. Boroaluminosilicate glasses rich in alkaline earths did bind the zeolite and gave a durable glass bonded zeolite. Scanning electron micrographs suggest that the boroaluminosilicate glasses wetted the zeolite powders better than the other glasses. Development of the glass bonded zeolite as a waste form for chloride waste salt is continuing

  7. Nanosheet controlled epitaxial growth of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin films on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, M.; Chopra, A.; Bijkerk, F.; Rijnders, G.

    2014-09-01

    Integration of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) films on glass substrates is of high importance for device applications. However, to make use of the superior ferro- and piezoelectric properties of PZT, well-oriented crystalline or epitaxial growth with control of the crystal orientation is a prerequisite. In this article, we report on epitaxial growth of PZT films with (100)- and (110)-orientation achieved by utilizing Ca2Nb3O10 (CNO) and Ti0.87O2 (TO) nanosheets as crystalline buffer layers. Fatigue measurements demonstrated stable ferroelectric properties of these films up to 5 × 109 cycles. (100)-oriented PZT films on CNO nanosheets show a large remnant polarization of 21 μC/cm2 that is the highest remnant polarization value compared to (110)-oriented and polycrystalline films reported in this work. A piezoelectric response of 98 pm/V is observed for (100)-oriented PZT film which is higher than the values reported in the literature on Si substrates.

  8. Nonergodic dynamics of the two-dimensional random-phase sine-Gordon model: Applications to vortex-glass arrays and disordered-substrate surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cule, D.; Shapir, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of the random-phase sine-Gordon model, which describes two-dimensional vortex-glass arrays and crystalline surfaces on disordered substrates, is investigated using the self-consistent Hartree approximation. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem is violated below the critical temperature T c for large time t>t * where t * diverges in the thermodynamic limit. While above T c the averaged autocorrelation function diverges as Tln(t), for T c it approaches a finite value q * ∼1/(T c -T) as q(t)=q * -c(t/t * ) -ν (for t→t * ) where ν is a temperature-dependent exponent. On larger time scales t>t * the dynamics becomes nonergodic. The static correlations behave as ∼Tln|rvec x| for T>T c and for T c when x * with ξ * ∼exp{A/(T c -T)}. For scales x>ξ * , they behave as ∼m -1 Tln|rvec x| where m∼T/T c near T c , in general agreement with the variational replica-symmetry breaking approach and with recent simulations of the disordered-substrate surface. For strong coupling the transition becomes first order

  9. Ion irradiation synthesis of Ag–Au bimetallic nanospheroids in SiO{sub 2} glass substrate with tunable surface plasmon resonance frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xuan; Yu, Ruixuan; Takayanagi, Shinya [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060–8628 (Japan); Shibayama, Tamaki; Watanabe, Seiichi [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060–8628 (Japan)

    2013-08-07

    Ag–Au bimetallic nanospheroids with tunable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) were synthesized by 100 keV Ar–ion irradiation of 30 nm Ag–Au bimetallic films deposited on SiO{sub 2} glass substrates. A shift of the LSPR peaks toward shorter wavelengths was observed up to an irradiation fluence of 1.0 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2}, and then shifted toward the longer wavelength because of the increase of fragment volume under ion irradiation. Further control of LSPR frequency over a wider range was realized by modifying the chemical components. The resulting LSPR frequencies lie between that of the pure components, and an approximate linear shift of the LSPR toward the longer wavelength with the Au concentration was achieved, which is in good agreement with the theoretical calculations based on Gans theory. In addition, the surface morphology and compositions were examined with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer, and microstructural characterizations were performed using a transmission electron microscope. The formation of isolated photosensitive Ag–Au nanospheroids with a FCC structure partially embedded in the SiO{sub 2} substrate was confirmed, which has a potential application in solid-state devices.

  10. Influence of substrate temperature and Zn-precursors on atomic layer deposition of polycrystalline ZnO films on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Hisao; Miyake, Aki; Yamada, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2009-01-01

    Influence of substrate temperature and Zn-precursors on growth rate, crystal structure, and electrical property of undoped ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been studied. Differences between dimethylzinc (DMeZn) and diethylzinc (DEtZn) used as Zn-precursors were examined. The ZnO films grown using DMeZn showed higher electrical resistivity compared to that grown using DEtZn. However, the higher resistivity in the case of DMeZn was owing to much amount of residual impurities incorporated during the ALD growth

  11. Hydrophobicity attainment and wear resistance enhancement on glass substrates by atmospheric plasma-polymerization of mixtures of an aminosilane and a fluorocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Múgica-Vidal, Rodolfo, E-mail: rodolfo.mugica@alum.unirioja.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, c/ Luis de Ulloa 20, 26004, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Alba-Elías, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.alba@unirioja.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, c/ Luis de Ulloa 20, 26004, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Sainz-García, Elisa, E-mail: elisa.sainzg@unirioja.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, c/ Luis de Ulloa 20, 26004, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Pantoja-Ruiz, Mariola, E-mail: mpruiz@ing.uc3m.es [Materials Science and Engineering Department, IAAB, Materials Performance Group, University Carlos III of Madrid, Av. Universidad 30, 28911, Leganés, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • APTES and PFH were used to coat glass by non-thermal atmospheric jet plasma. • A mixture of 75% of APTES and 25% PFH produced the best sample of this work. • Hydrophobicity was achieved by changes in surface morphology and chemistry. • Wear resistance was enhanced by the formation of siloxane groups. - Abstract: Mixtures of different proportions of two liquid precursors were subjected to plasma-polymerization by a non-thermal atmospheric jet plasma system in a search for a coating that achieves a hydrophobic character on a glass substrate and enhances its wear resistance. 1-Perfluorohexene (PFH) was chosen as a low-surface-energy precursor to promote a hydrophobic character. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) was chosen for its contribution to the improvement of wear resistance by the formation of siloxane bonds. The objective of this work was to determine which of the precursors’ mixtures that were tested provides the coating with the most balanced enhancement of both hydrophobicity and wear resistance, given that coatings deposited with fluorocarbon-based precursors such as PFH are usually low in resistance to wear and coatings deposited with APTES are generally hydrophilic. The coatings obtained were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), static Water Contact Angle (WCA) measurements, tribological ball-on-disc tests and contact profilometry. A relationship between the achievement of a hydrophobic character and the modifications to roughness and surface morphology and the incorporation of fluorocarbon groups in the surface chemistry was observed. Also, it was seen that the wear resistance was influenced by the SiOSi content of the coatings. In turn, the SiOSi content appears to be directly related to the percentage of APTES used in the mixture of precursors. The best conjunction of

  12. Enhancement of nonlinear optical properties of compounds of silica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a method for enhancing the nonlinear optical properties in silica glass by using metallic nanoparticles. First, the T-matrix method is developed to calculate the effective dielectric constant for the compound of silica glass and metallic nanoparticles, both of which possess nonlinear dielectric ...

  13. The Largest Bio-Silica Structure on Earth: The Giant Basal Spicule from the Deep-Sea Glass Sponge Monorhaphis chuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The depth of the ocean is plentifully populated with a highly diverse fauna and flora, from where the Challenger expedition (1873–1876 treasured up a rich collection of vitreous sponges [Hexactinellida]. They have been described by Schulze and represent the phylogenetically oldest class of siliceous sponges [phylum Porifera]; they are eye-catching because of their distinct body plan, which relies on a filigree skeleton. It is constructed by an array of morphologically determined elements, the spicules. Later, during the German Deep Sea Expedition “Valdivia” (1898-1899, Schulze could describe the largest siliceous hexactinellid sponge on Earth, the up to 3 m high Monorhaphis chuni, which develops the equally largest bio-silica structures, the giant basal spicules (3 m × 10 mm. With such spicules as a model, basic knowledge on the morphology, formation, and development of the skeletal elements could be elaborated. Spicules are formed by a proteinaceous scaffold which mediates the formation of siliceous lamellae in which the proteins are encased. Up to eight hundred 5 to 10 μm thick lamellae can be concentrically arranged around an axial canal. The silica matrix is composed of almost pure silicon and oxygen, providing it with unusual optophysical properties that are superior to those of man-made waveguides. Experiments indicated that the spicules function in vivo as a nonocular photoreception system. In addition, the spicules have exceptional mechanical properties, combining mechanical stability with strength and stiffness. Like demosponges the hexactinellids synthesize their silica enzymatically, via the enzyme silicatein. All these basic insights will surely contribute also to a further applied utilization and exploration of bio-silica in material/medical science.

  14. The largest Bio-Silica Structure on Earth: The Giant Basal Spicule from the Deep-Sea Glass Sponge Monorhaphis chuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Gan, Lu; Jochum, Klaus P; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2011-01-01

    The depth of the ocean is plentifully populated with a highly diverse fauna and flora, from where the Challenger expedition (1873-1876) treasured up a rich collection of vitreous sponges [Hexactinellida]. They have been described by Schulze and represent the phylogenetically oldest class of siliceous sponges [phylum Porifera]; they are eye-catching because of their distinct body plan, which relies on a filigree skeleton. It is constructed by an array of morphologically determined elements, the spicules. Later, during the German Deep Sea Expedition "Valdivia" (1898-1899), Schulze could describe the largest siliceous hexactinellid sponge on Earth, the up to 3 m high Monorhaphis chuni, which develops the equally largest bio-silica structures, the giant basal spicules (3 m × 10 mm). With such spicules as a model, basic knowledge on the morphology, formation, and development of the skeletal elements could be elaborated. Spicules are formed by a proteinaceous scaffold which mediates the formation of siliceous lamellae in which the proteins are encased. Up to eight hundred 5 to 10 μm thick lamellae can be concentrically arranged around an axial canal. The silica matrix is composed of almost pure silicon and oxygen, providing it with unusual optophysical properties that are superior to those of man-made waveguides. Experiments indicated that the spicules function in vivo as a nonocular photoreception system. In addition, the spicules have exceptional mechanical properties, combining mechanical stability with strength and stiffness. Like demosponges the hexactinellids synthesize their silica enzymatically, via the enzyme silicatein. All these basic insights will surely contribute also to a further applied utilization and exploration of bio-silica in material/medical science.

  15. Large piezoelectric strain with ultra-low strain hysteresis in highly c-axis oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 films with columnar growth on amorphous glass substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Minh D.; Houwman, Evert P.; Rijnders, Guus

    2017-01-01

    Thin films of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) with largely detached columnar grains, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on amorphous glass substrates covered with Ca2Nb3O10 nanosheets as growth template and using LaNiO3 electrode layers, are shown to exhibit very high unipolar piezoelectric strain

  16. Enzymatic polymerization of aniline in the presence of different inorganic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Loyola, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Blvd. Enrique Reyna No. 140, CP 25100 Saltillo, Coah (Mexico); Escuela de Ciencias Biologicas, UA de C. Carr. Torreon-Matamoros Km 7.5, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 27400 Torreon, Coah. (Mexico)], E-mail: erika-flores@mail.uadec.mx; Cruz-Silva, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEM. Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, CP 62210, Cuernavaca Mor. (Mexico); Romero-Garcia, J.; Angulo-Sanchez, J.L. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Blvd. Enrique Reyna No. 140, CP 25100 Saltillo, Coah (Mexico); Castillon, F.F.; Farias, M.H. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada de la UNAM, Apdo. Postal 2681, CP 22800 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2007-09-15

    The effect of different inorganic substrates in the structure of polyaniline synthesized by enzymatic oxidation was studied. The polymer characterization was done by electronic absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The substrates studied were: controlled pore glass, mordenite, zeolite Y, zeolite MCM-41, Wollastonite, silica gel, fuming silica and short glass fibers type E. Polyaniline was synthesized in the presence of the substrates under acidic aqueous conditions, using hydrogen peroxide as oxidizer and HRP or SBP enzymes as catalyst. The composition of the substrates strongly affected the degree of electronic conjugation of the synthesized polyaniline, whereas the pore size and the enzyme type apparently had no effect. The chemical structure of polyaniline enzymatically synthesized was more sensitive to the substrate composition than that chemically synthesized. Apparently substrates containing alkaline ions, such as sodium and calcium, promoted the formation of the branched, non-conductive polyaniline form. The effect of the substrates on the polyaniline structure can be explained considering the local pH effect of the templates surface on the coupling reaction of aniline radicals.

  17. Thermally induced atomic diffusion at the interface between release agent coating and mould substrate in a glass moulding press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Jun; Fukase, Yasushi [Toshiba Machine Co., Ltd, Ooka 2068-3, Numazu-Shi, Shizuoka-Ken, 410-8510 (Japan); Yan Jiwang; Zhou Tianfeng; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto, E-mail: yanjw@pm.mech.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Systems and Design, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-01, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-06-01

    In a glass moulding press (GMP) for refractive/diffractive hybrid lenses, to improve the service life of nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) plated moulds, it is necessary to control the diffusion of constituent elements from the mould into the release agent coating. In this study, diffusion phenomena of constituents of Ni-P plating are investigated for two types of release agent coatings, iridium-platinum (Ir-Pt) and iridium-rhenium (Ir-Re), by cross-sectional observation, compositional analysis and stress measurements. The results show that Ni atoms in the plating layer flow from regions of compressive stress to regions of tensile stress. In the case of the Ir-Pt coated mould, the diffusion of Ni is promoted from the grain boundaries between the Ni and Ni{sub 3}P phases in the plating towards the surface of the Ir-Pt coating. However, in the Ir-Re coated mould, the diffusion of Ni is suppressed because the diffusion coefficient of Ni in the Ir-Re alloy is smaller than that in the Ir-Pt alloy, although the stress state is similar in both cases. By controlling the diffusion of Ni atoms, the use of Ir-Re alloy as a release agent coating for Ni-P plated moulds is expected to lead to a high degree of durability.

  18. Research on high-efficiency polishing technology of photomask substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shijie; Xie, Ruiqing; Zhou, Lian; Liao, Defeng; Chen, Xianhua; Wang, Jian

    2018-03-01

    A method of photomask substrate fabrication is demonstrated ,that the surface figure and roughness of fused silica will converge to target precision rapidly with the full aperture polishing. Surface figure of optical flats in full aperture polishing processes is primarily dependent on the surface profile of polishing pad, therefor, a improved function of polishing mechanism was put forward based on two axis lapping machine and technology experience, and the pad testing based on displacement sensor and the active conditioning method of the pad is applied in this research. Moreover , the clamping deformation of the thin glass is solved by the new pitch dispensing method. The experimental results show that the surface figure of the 152mm×152mm×6.35mm optical glass is 0.25λ(λ=633nm) and the roughness is 0.32nm ,which has meet the requirements of mask substrate for 90 45nm nodes.

  19. Optical substrate materials for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.; Paquin, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    The authors consider the materials choices available for making optical substrates for synchrotron radiation beam lines. They find that currently the optical surfaces can only be polished to the required finish in fused silica and other glasses, silicon, CVD silicon carbide, electroless nickel and 17-4 PH stainless steel. Substrates must therefore be made of one of these materials or of a metal that can be coated with electroless nickel. In the context of material choices for mirrors they explore the issues of dimensional stability, polishing, bending, cooling, and manufacturing strategy. They conclude that metals are best from an engineering and cost standpoint while the ceramics are best from a polishing standpoint. They then give discussions of specific materials as follows: silicon carbide, silicon, electroless nickel, Glidcop trademark, aluminum, precipitation-hardening stainless steel, mild steel, invar and superinvar. Finally they summarize conclusions and propose ideas for further research

  20. Structural and optical properties of DC magnetron sputtered ZnO films on glass substrate and their modification by Ag ions implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R.; Afzal, Naveed; Amjad, U.; Jabbar, S.; Hussain, T.; Hussnain, A.

    2017-07-01

    This work is focused on investigating the effects of deposition time and Ag ions implantation on structural and optical properties of ZnO film. The ZnO film was prepared on glass substrate by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of pure Zn target in reactive oxygen environment for 2 h, 3 h, 4 h and 5 h respectively. X-ray diffraction results revealed polycrystalline ZnO film whose crystallinity was improved with increase of the deposition time. The morphological features indicated agglomeration of smaller grains into larger ones by increasing the deposition time. The UV-vis spectroscopy analysis depicted a small decrease in the band gap of ZnO from 3.36 eV to 3.27 eV with increase of deposition time. The Ag ions implantation in ZnO films deposited for 5 h on glass was carried out by using Pelletron Accelerator at different ions fluences ranging from 1  ×  1011 ions cm-2 to 2  ×  1012 ions cm-2. XRD patterns of Ag ions implanted ZnO did not show significant change in crystallite size by increasing ions fluence from 1  ×  1011 ions cm-2 to 5  ×  1011 ions cm-2. However, with further increase of the ions fluence, the crystallite size was decreased. The band gap of Ag ions implanted ZnO indicated anomalous variations with increase of the ions fluence.

  1. Effect of thermal annealing on the redistribution of alkali metals in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells on glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikawa, Yukiko; Nishinaga, Jiro; Ishizuka, Shogo; Tayagaki, Takeshi; Guthrey, Harvey; Shibata, Hajime; Matsubara, Koji; Niki, Shigeru

    2018-03-01

    The precise control of alkali-metal concentrations in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells via post deposition treatment (PDT) has recently attracted attention. When PDT is performed at an elevated temperature, an accompanying annealing effect is expected. Here, we investigate how thermal annealing affects the redistribution of alkali metals in CIGS solar cells on glass substrates and the properties of the solar cells. In addition, we investigate the origin of non-homogeneous alkali-metal depth profiles that are typical of CIGS grown using a three-stage process. In particular, we use secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurements of the ion concentration as a function of distance from the CIGS surface to investigate the impact of thermal annealing on the distribution of alkali metals (Na, Ka, and Rb) and constituent elements (Ga and In) in the CIGS absorbers. We find that the depth profiles of the alkali metals strongly reflect the density of sites that tend to accommodate alkali metals, i.e., vacancies. Annealing at elevated temperature caused a redistribution of the alkali metals. The thermal-diffusion kinetics of alkali metals depends strongly on the species involved. We introduced low flux potassium fluoride (KF) to study a side effect of KF-PDT, i.e., Na removal from CIGS, separately from its predominant effects such as surface modification. When sufficient amounts of Na are supplied from the soda lime glass via annealing at an elevated temperature, the negative effect was not apparent. Conversely, when the Na supply was not sufficient, it caused a deterioration of the photovoltaic properties.

  2. Effect of Thermal Annealing on the Redistribution of Alkali Metals in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells on Glass Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrey, Harvey L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kamikawa, Yukiko [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); Nishinaga, Jiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); Ishizuka, Shogo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); Tayagaki, Takeshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); Shibata, Hajime [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); Matsubara, Koji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); Niki, Shigeru [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)

    2018-03-02

    The precise control of alkali-metal concentrations in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells via post deposition treatment (PDT) has recently attracted attention. When PDT is performed at an elevated temperature, an accompanying annealing effect is expected. Here, we investigate how thermal annealing affects the redistribution of alkali metals in CIGS solar cells on glass substrates and the properties of the solar cells. In addition, we investigate the origin of non-homogeneous alkali-metal depth profiles that are typical of CIGS grown using a three-stage process. In particular, we use secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurements of the ion concentration as a function of distance from the CIGS surface to investigate the impact of thermal annealing on the distribution of alkali metals (Na, Ka, and Rb) and constituent elements (Ga and In) in the CIGS absorbers. We find that the depth profiles of the alkali metals strongly reflect the density of sites that tend to accommodate alkali metals, i.e., vacancies. Annealing at elevated temperature caused a redistribution of the alkali metals. The thermal-diffusion kinetics of alkali metals depends strongly on the species involved. We introduced low flux potassium fluoride (KF) to study a side effect of KF-PDT, i.e., Na removal from CIGS, separately from its predominant effects such as surface modification. When sufficient amounts of Na are supplied from the soda lime glass via annealing at an elevated temperature, the negative effect was not apparent. Conversely, when the Na supply was not sufficient, it caused a deterioration of the photovoltaic properties.

  3. CuS p-type thin film characterization deposited on Ti, ITO and glass substrates using spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) for light emitting diode (LED) application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabah, Fayroz A., E-mail: fayroz-arif@yahoo.com [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad (Iraq); Ahmed, Naser M., E-mail: naser@usm.my; Hassan, Z., E-mail: zai@usm.my; Azzez, Shrook A. [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Rasheed, Hiba S., E-mail: hibasaad1980@yahoo.com [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Department of Physics, College of Education, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad (Iraq); Al-Hazim, Nabeel Z., E-mail: nabeelnano333@gmail.com [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Ministry of Education, the General Directorate for Educational Anbar (Iraq)

    2016-07-06

    The copper sulphide (CuS) thin films were grown with good adhesion by spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) on Ti, ITO and glass substrates at 200 °C. The distance between nozzle and substrate is 30 cm. The composition was prepared by mixing copper chloride CuCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O as a source of Cu{sup 2+} and sodium thiosulfate Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}.5H{sub 2}O as a source of and S{sup 2−}. Two concentrations (0.2 and 0.4 M) were used for each CuCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} to be prepared and then sprayed (20 ml). The process was started by spraying the solution for 3 seconds and after 10 seconds the cycle was repeated until the solution was sprayed completely on the hot substrates. The structural characteristics were studied using X-ray diffraction; they showed covellite CuS hexagonal crystal structure for 0.2 M concentration, and covellite CuS hexagonal crystal structure with two small peaks of chalcocite Cu{sub 2}S hexagonal crystal structure for 0.4 M concentration. Also the surface and electrical characteristics were investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and current source device, respectively. The surface study for the CuS thin films showed nanorods to be established for 0.2 M concentration and mix of nanorods and nanoplates for 0.4 M concentration. The electrical study showed ohmic behavior and low resistivity for these films. Hall Effect was measured for these thin films, it showed that all samples of CuS are p- type thin films and ensured that the resistivity for thin films of 0.2 M concentration was lower than that of 0.4 M concentration; and for the two concentrations CuS thin film deposited on ITO had the lowest resistivity. This leads to the result that the conductivity was high for CuS thin film deposited on ITO substrate, and the conductivity of the three thin films of 0.2 M concentration was higher than that of 0.4 M concentration.

  4. Insitu synthesis of self-assembled gold nanoparticles on glass or silicon substrates through reactive inkjet printing

    KAUST Repository

    Abulikemu, Mutalifu

    2013-12-18

    A facile and low cost method for the synthesis of self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) with minimal size variation and chemical waste by using reactive inkjet printing was developed. Gold NPs with diameters as small as (8±2)nm can be made at low temperature (120 °C). The size of the resulting NPs can be readily controlled through the concentration of the gold precursor and oleylamine ink. The pure gold composition of the synthesized NPs was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) analysis. High-resolution SEM (HRSEM) and TEM (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction revealed their size and face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure, respectively. Owing to the high density of the NP film, UV/Vis spectroscopy showed a red shift in the intrinsic plasmonic resonance peak. We envision the extension of this approach to the synthesis of other nanomaterials and the production of tailored functional nanomaterials and devices. Midas touch: The use of low-cost manufacturing approaches in the synthesis of nanoparticles is critical for many applications. Reactive inkjet printing, along with a judicious choice of precursor/solvent system, was used to synthesize a relatively uniform assembly of crystalline gold nanoparticles, with diameters as small as (8±2)nm, over a given substrate surface. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH.

  5. Characterization of Optic Properties ZnO:Al Thin Film on Glass Substrate for Solar Cell Window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiryoadi; Yunanto; Bambang Siswanto; Sri Sulamdari; Sudjatmoko

    2002-01-01

    It has been characterized a ZnO:Al thin film growth using sputtering technique for solar cell window. The aims of this research is to get a ZnO:Al thin film that can be used as a TCO (Transparent Conducting Oxide) on amorphous silicon solar cell. To get an optimum properties, deposition process has been done for various parameters, such as composition/concentration of Al, substrate temperature, gas pressure and deposition time. Based on experiments result, it is found that the optimum result was achieved at temperature 450 o C, gas pressure 6 x 10 -2 torr and time 1.5 hours. From optical properties (transmittance) measurements using UV-vis, it was found that the optimum results was achieved at temperature 450 o C. At this conditions, wave length (500 - 800) nm, the transmittance was (50 - 82) %, at pressure 6 x 10 -2 torr the transmittance was (50 - 80) % and at deposition time 1.5 hours was (49 - 81) %. For ZnO thin film, was at wave length (500 - 800) nm, the transmittance was (78 - 80) %. From micro structure analysis using SEM, it was found that the thickness layer of ZnO was 1.5 μm and 1.3 μm for ZnO: Al. While from surface morphology it was found that for ZnO thin layer the grains was distributed homogeneously, while for ZnO: Al the grains was distributed unhomogeneously. (author)

  6. Photoluminescence of CdSe/ZnS/TOPO nanocrystals expanded on silica glass substrates: Adsorption and desorption effects of polar molecules on nanocrystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masaru; Tsukamoto, Junpei; Hasegawa, Atsushi; Iwami, Noriya; Nishiura, Ken; Hagiwara, Izumi; Ando, Naohisa; Horiuchi, Hiromi; Tani, Toshiro

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated photoluminescence (PL) properties of CdSe/ZnS/TOPO nanocrystals (NCs) in various kinds of gases at one atmospheric pressure. Increase of PL intensity with spectral shift is observed under 488 nm cw light irradiation in all cases. Especially, the PL intensity increases more than twice after 1200 s irradiation in nitrogen gases saturated with vapor of polar molecules, such as H 2 O and NH 3 . The increased PL intensity with the spectral shift mostly recovers to its previous values when the sample is evacuated under continuous light irradiation. These results indicate that photo-adsorption of the polar molecules onto NC surfaces provides some reversible restoring functions to the PL quenching defects or trap sites on or near the surfaces. The existence of the trap sites on NC surfaces is already widely introduced for describing e.g., blinking phenomena. Assuming part of these traps being charged, we propose the photo-induced effects can be understood as charge-compensated inactivation of the trap sites due to the adsorption of the polar molecules consistently

  7. Creating large second-order optical nonlinearity in optical waveguides written by femtosecond laser pulses in boro-aluminosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong-Lin; Arriola, Alexander; Gross, Simon; Fuerbach, Alexander; Withford, Michael J.; Fleming, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The thermal poling technique was applied to optical waveguides embedded in a commercial boro-aluminosilicate glass, resulting in high levels of induced second-order optical nonlinearity. The waveguides were fabricated using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique, and thermally poled samples were characterized with second harmonic optical microscopy to reveal the distribution profile of the induced nonlinearity. It was found that, in contrast to fused silica, the presence of waveguides in boro-aluminosilicate glass led to an enhancement of the creation of the second-order nonlinearity, which is larger in the laser written waveguiding regions when compared to the un-modified substrate. The magnitude of the nonlinear coefficient d33 achieved in the core of the laser-written waveguides, up to 0.2 pm/V, was comparable to that in thermally poled fused silica, enabling the realization of compact integrated electro-optic devices in boro-aluminosilicate glasses.

  8. (110)-Textured Ca-doped BiFeO_3 film on refined Pt(111) electrode layer on glass substrate at reduced temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.W.; Shen, C.Y.; Yuan, F.T.; Tien, S.H.; Lin, S.Y.; Chen, W.A.; Wang, C.R.; Tu, C.S.; Jen, S.U.

    2016-01-01

    Multiferroic and photovoltaic properties of polycrystalline Bi_0_._8_5Ca_0_._1_5FeO_3 (BCFO) film on refined Pt(111) electrode buffered glass substrate have been studied. Optimized Pt(111) electrode layer having large grain size and smooth morphology enables the development of highly (110)-textured BCFO film at a temperature as low as 450 °C. The prepared BCFO film has dense microstructure, fine grain size, and smooth surface morphology. Good ferroelectric properties with the remanent polarization (2P_r) of 108 μC/cm"2 and electrical coercive field of 405 kV/cm are achieved. Improved ferromagnetic properties with magnetization of 9.2 emu/cm"3 and coercivity of 1250 Oe are also attained. Significant PV properties with open-circuit photovoltage of 0.49 V and the short-circuit photocurrent of 67.4 μA/cm"2 at illumination intensity of 228 mW/cm"2 are observed, which are comparable to BCFO ceramics or BFO epitaxial films. - Highlights: • BCFO polycrystalline film with (110) texture is formed on Pt(111) electrode. • Pt(111) underlayer induces BCFO(110) film with fine grain and flat surface. • Good multiferroic and photovoltaic properties are achieved simultaneously. • Improved multiferroic and photovoltaic properties makes BCFO film a multifunctional material for advanced applications.

  9. Effect of applied voltage on the structural properties of SnO2 nanostuctures grown on indium-tin-oxide coated glass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dea Uk; Yun, Dong Yeol; No, Young Soo; Hwang, Jun Ho; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2013-11-01

    SnO2 nanostuctures were formed on indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates by using an electrochemical deposition (ECD) method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed the existence of elemental Sn and O in the samples, indicative of the formation of SnO2 materials. An XPS spectrum showing the O 1s peak at a binding energy of 531.5 eV indicated that the oxygen atoms were bonded to the SnO2. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images showed that the samples formed by using the ECD method had SnO2 nanostructures with a size between 280 and 350 nm. FE-SEM images showed that the size of the SnO2 nanostructures formed at 65 degrees C for 30 min increased with decreasing applied voltage. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the SnO2 nanostrucures had tetragonal structures with cell parameters of a = 4.738 A and c = 3.187 A. XRD results showed that the peak intensity of the (110) plane increased with decreasing applied voltage, indicative of a preferencial orientation of the (110) plane.

  10. Improved transparent-conducting properties in N2- and H2- annealed GaZnO thin films grown on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Deukyoung; Lee, Sejoon

    2012-01-01

    The effects of N 2 - and H 2 - annealing on the transparent-conducting properties of Ga-doped ZnO (GaZnO) were examined. The as-grown GaZnO thin film, which was deposited on a soda-lime glass substrate by r.f. magnetron sputtering, exhibited moderate transparent-conducting properties: a resistivity of ∼10 0 Ω·cm and an optical transmittance of ∼86%. After annealing in N 2 or H 2 , the GaZnO samples showed great improvements in both the electrical and the optical properties. Particularly, in the H 2 -annealed sample, a dramatic decrease in the resistivity (7 x 10 -4 Ω·cm) with a considerable increase in the carrier concentration (4.22 x 10 21 cm -3 ) was observed. This is attributed to both an increase in the number of Ga-O bonds and a reduction in the number of chemisorbed oxygen atoms though H 2 annealing. The sample revealed an enhanced optical transmittance (∼91%), which comes from the Burstein-Moss effect. Namely, a blue-shift of the optical absorption edge, which results from the increased carrier concentration, was observed in the H 2 -annealed sample. The results suggest that hydrogen annealing can help improve the transparent conducting properties of GaZnO via a modification of the electrochemical bonding structures.

  11. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of polycrystalline NbO_2 thin films grown on glass substrates by solid phase crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Shoichiro; Kamisaka, Hideyuki; Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the structural, electrical, and optical properties of polycrystalline NbO_2 thin films on glass substrates. The NbO_2 films were crystallized from amorphous precursor films grown by pulsed laser deposition at various oxygen partial pressures (P_O_2). The electrical and optical properties of the precursor films systematically changed with P_O_2, demonstrating that the oxygen content of the precursor films can be finely controlled with P_O_2. The precursors were crystallized into polycrystalline NbO_2 films by annealing under vacuum at 600 C. The NbO_2 films possessed extremely flat surfaces with branching patterns. Even optimized films showed a low resistivity (ρ) of 2 x 10"2 Ω cm, which is much lower than the bulk value of 1 x 10"4 Ω cm, probably because of the inferior crystallinity of the films compared with that of a bulk NbO_2 crystal. Both oxygen-rich and -poor NbO_2 films showed lower ρ than that of the stoichiometric film. The NbO_2 film with the highest ρ showed an indirect bandgap of 0.7 eV. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of polycrystalline NbO{sub 2} thin films grown on glass substrates by solid phase crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Shoichiro [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki (Japan); Kamisaka, Hideyuki [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki (Japan); Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    We investigated the structural, electrical, and optical properties of polycrystalline NbO{sub 2} thin films on glass substrates. The NbO{sub 2} films were crystallized from amorphous precursor films grown by pulsed laser deposition at various oxygen partial pressures (P{sub O2}). The electrical and optical properties of the precursor films systematically changed with P{sub O2}, demonstrating that the oxygen content of the precursor films can be finely controlled with P{sub O2}. The precursors were crystallized into polycrystalline NbO{sub 2} films by annealing under vacuum at 600 C. The NbO{sub 2} films possessed extremely flat surfaces with branching patterns. Even optimized films showed a low resistivity (ρ) of 2 x 10{sup 2} Ω cm, which is much lower than the bulk value of 1 x 10{sup 4} Ω cm, probably because of the inferior crystallinity of the films compared with that of a bulk NbO{sub 2} crystal. Both oxygen-rich and -poor NbO{sub 2} films showed lower ρ than that of the stoichiometric film. The NbO{sub 2} film with the highest ρ showed an indirect bandgap of 0.7 eV. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. A 45° saw-dicing process applied to a glass substrate for wafer-level optical splitter fabrication for optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, M. J.; Costa, C. G.; Silva, M. F.; Gonçalves, S. B.; Peixoto, A. C.; Ribeiro, A. Fernando; Wolffenbuttel, R. F.; Correia, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on the development of a technology for the wafer-level fabrication of an optical Michelson interferometer, which is an essential component in a micro opto-electromechanical system (MOEMS) for a miniaturized optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The MOEMS consists on a titanium dioxide/silicon dioxide dielectric beam splitter and chromium/gold micro-mirrors. These optical components are deposited on 45° tilted surfaces to allow the horizontal/vertical separation of the incident beam in the final micro-integrated system. The fabrication process consists of 45° saw dicing of a glass substrate and the subsequent deposition of dielectric multilayers and metal layers. The 45° saw dicing is fully characterized in this paper, which also includes an analysis of the roughness. The optimum process results in surfaces with a roughness of 19.76 nm (rms). The actual saw dicing process for a high-quality final surface results as a compromise between the dicing blade’s grit size (#1200) and the cutting speed (0.3 mm s-1). The proposed wafer-level fabrication allows rapid and low-cost processing, high compactness and the possibility of wafer-level alignment/assembly with other optical micro components for OCT integrated imaging.

  14. Fluorescence metrology of silica sol–gels – The effect of D2O and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    industrial quality control and helping fundamental research. ... Of all the possible syntheses, sodium silicate (i.e. water glass) production of silica gel, ... fine silica gel powders used in many applications (e.g. chromatography, toothpaste etc).

  15. a study on silica sand quality in yazaram and mugulbu deposits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENGR. G A DUVUNA

    A STUDY ON SILICA SAND QUALITY IN YAZARAM AND MUGULBU ... the lowest percentage of silica content of 77.60% and the grain morphology was found to be angular with specific ..... things.com/articles/glass colouring.html, accessed.

  16. Effect of Ag film thickness on the optical and the electrical properties in CuAlO2/Ag/CuAlO2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Dohyun; No, Young Soo; Kim, Su Youn; Cho, Woon Jo; Kwack, Kae Dal; Kim, Tae Whan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: The CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films were grown on glass substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Effects of Ag film thickness on the optical and the electrical properties in CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the phase of the CuAlO 2 layer was amorphous. Atomic force microscopy images showed that Ag films with a thickness of a few nanometers had island structures. The morphology Ag films with a thickness of 8 nm was uniform. The morphology of the Ag films inserted in the CuAlO 2 films significantly affected the optical transmittance and the resistivity of the CuAlO 2 films deposited on glass substrates. The maximum transmittance of the CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films with a thickness of 8 nm was 89.16%. The resistivity of the CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films with an Ag film thickness of 18 nm was as small as about 2.8 x 10 -5 Ω cm. The resistivity of the CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films was decreased as a result of the thermal annealing treatment. These results indicate that CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates hold promise for potential applications as TCO films in solar cells. - Abstract: Effects of Ag film thickness on the optical and the electrical properties in CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates were investigated. Atomic force microscopy images showed that Ag films with a thickness of a few nanometers had island structures. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the phase of the CuAlO 2 layer was amorphous. The resistivity of the 40 nm-CuAlO 2 /18 nm-Ag/40 nm-CuAlO 2 multilayer films was 2.8 x 10 -5 Ω cm, and the transmittance of the multilayer films with an Ag film thickness of 8 nm was approximately 89.16%. These results indicate that CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates hold promise for potential applications as

  17. Persistent superhydrophilicity of sol-gel derived nanoporous silica thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganjoo, S; Azimirad, R; Akhavan, O; Moshfegh, A Z

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, sol-gel synthesized nanoporous silica thin films, annealed at different temperatures, with long time superhydrophilic property have been studied. Two kinds of sol-gel silica thin films were fabricated by dip-coating of glass substrates in two different solutions; with low and high water. The transparent coated films were dried at 100 deg. C and then annealed in a temperature range of 200-500 deg. C. The average water contact angle of the silica films prepared with low water content and annealed at 300 deg. C measured about 5 deg. for a long time (6 months) without any UV irradiation. Instead, adding water into the sol resulted in silica films with an average water contact angle greater than 60 deg. Atomic force microscopic analysis revealed that the silica films prepared with low water had a rough surface (∼30 nm), while the films prepared with high water had a smoother surface (∼2 nm). Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we have shown that with a decrease in the surface water on the film, its hydrophilicity increases logarithmically.

  18. Glass leaching performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chick, L.A.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1983-05-01

    Current understanding of the leaching performance of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is summarized. The empirical model of waste glass leaching behavior developed shows that at high water flow rates the glass leach rate is kinetically limited to a maximum value. At intermediate water flow rates, leaching is limited by the solution concentration of silica and decreases with decreasing water flow rates. Release of soluble elements is controlled by silica dissolution because silica forms the binding network of the glass. At low water flow rates, mass loss rates reach values controlled by formation rates of alteration minerals, or by diffusion of dissolution products through essentially stagnant water. The parameters reviewed with respect to their quantifiable influence on leaching behavior include temperature, pH, leachant composition, glass composition, thermal history, and radiation. Of these, temperature is most important since the rate of mass loss approximately doubles with each 10 0 C increase in dilute solutions. The pH has small effects within the 4 to 10 range. The chemical composition of the leachant is most important with regard to its influence on alteration product formation. Glass composition exhibits the largest effects at high flow rates where improved glasses leach from ten to thirty times slower than glass 76 to 68. The effects of the thermal history (devitrification) of the glass are not likely to be significant. Radiation effects are important primarily in that radiolysis can potentially drive pH values to less than 4. Radiation damage to the glass causes insignificant changes in leaching performance

  19. Effect of radiation-induced substrate defects on microstrip gas chamber gain behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallares, A.; Brom, J.M.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Coffin, J.; Eberle, H.; Sigward, M.H.; Fontaine, J.C.; Barthe, S.; Schunck, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify the influence of radiation-induced substrate defects on microstrip gas chamber (MSGC) gain behaviour. The first part of this paper focuses on radiation effects on a typical MSGC substrate: Desag D263 glass. Defect generation was studied for Desag D263 with pure silica (Suprasil 1) as a reference. We studied the evolution of defect concentration with respect to accumulated doses up to 480 kGy. Annealing studies of defects in Desag D263 were also performed. In the second part, the radiation sensitivity of Desag D263 glass has been linked to the behaviour of the detector under irradiation. Comparative gain measurements were taken before and after substrate irradiation at 10 and 80 kGy the minimal dose received during LHC operation and the dose for which defect density is maximum (respectively). (orig.)

  20. Effect of radiation-induced substrate defects on microstrip gas chamber gain behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallares, A.; Brom, J.M.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Coffin, J.; Eberle, H.; Sigward, M.H. [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Fontaine, J.C. [Universite de Haute Alsace, GRPHE, 61 rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Barthe, S.; Schunck, J.P. [Laboratoire PHASE (UPR 292 du CNRS), 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify the influence of radiation-induced substrate defects on microstrip gas chamber (MSGC) gain behaviour. The first part of this paper focuses on radiation effects on a typical MSGC substrate: Desag D263 glass. Defect generation was studied for Desag D263 with pure silica (Suprasil 1) as a reference. We studied the evolution of defect concentration with respect to accumulated doses up to 480 kGy. Annealing studies of defects in Desag D263 were also performed. In the second part, the radiation sensitivity of Desag D263 glass has been linked to the behaviour of the detector under irradiation. Comparative gain measurements were taken before and after substrate irradiation at 10 and 80 kGy the minimal dose received during LHC operation and the dose for which defect density is maximum (respectively). (orig.) 26 refs.

  1. Zirconium based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.K.; Neogy, S.; Savalia, R.T.; Tewari, R.; Srivastava, D.; Banerjee, S.

    2006-01-01

    Metallic glasses have come into prominence in recent times because their nanocrystalline atomic arrangement imparts many useful and unusual properties to these metallic solids. In this study, bulk glasses have been obtained in Zr based multicomponent alloy by induction melting these alloys in silica crucibles and casting these in form of rods 3 and 6 mm in diameter in a copper mould

  2. Assembly of metallic nanoparticle arrays on glass via nanoimprinting and thin-film dewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Kyu Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a nanofabrication process to generate large-area arrays of noble metal nanoparticles on glass substrates via nanoimprinting and dewetting of metallic thin films. Glass templates were made via pattern transfer from a topographic Si mold to an inorganically cross-linked sol–gel (IGSG resist on glass using a two-layer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS stamp followed by annealing, which turned the imprinted resist into pure silica. The transparent, topographic glass successfully templated the assembly of Au and Ag nanoparticle arrays via thin-film deposition and dewetting at elevated temperatures. The microstructural and mechanical characteristics that developed during the processes were discussed. The results are promising for low-cost mass fabrication of devices for several photonic applications.

  3. Assembly of metallic nanoparticle arrays on glass via nanoimprinting and thin-film dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Kyu; Hwang, Sori; Kim, Yoon-Kee; Oh, Yong-Jun

    2017-01-01

    We propose a nanofabrication process to generate large-area arrays of noble metal nanoparticles on glass substrates via nanoimprinting and dewetting of metallic thin films. Glass templates were made via pattern transfer from a topographic Si mold to an inorganically cross-linked sol-gel (IGSG) resist on glass using a two-layer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp followed by annealing, which turned the imprinted resist into pure silica. The transparent, topographic glass successfully templated the assembly of Au and Ag nanoparticle arrays via thin-film deposition and dewetting at elevated temperatures. The microstructural and mechanical characteristics that developed during the processes were discussed. The results are promising for low-cost mass fabrication of devices for several photonic applications.

  4. The influence of glass composition on crystalline phase stability in glass-ceramic wasteforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddrell, Ewan; Thornber, Stephanie; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Crystalline phase formation shown to depend on glass matrix composition. • Zirconolite forms as the sole crystalline phase only for most aluminous glasses. • Thermodynamics indicate that low silica activity glasses stabilise zirconolite. - Abstract: Zirconolite glass-ceramic wasteforms were prepared using a suite of Na 2 O–Al 2 O 3 –B 2 O 3 –SiO 2 glass matrices with variable Al:B ratios. Zirconolite was the dominant crystalline phase only for the most alumina rich glass compositions. As the Al:B ratio decreased zirconolite was replaced by sphene, zircon and rutile. Thermodynamic data were used to calculate a silica activity in the glass melt below which zirconolite is the favoured crystalline phase. The concept of the crystalline reference state of glass melts is then utilised to provide a physical basis for why silica activity varies with the Al:B ratio

  5. Adhesion and friction in polymer films on solid substrates: conformal sites analysis and corresponding surface measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Rong; Huang, Liangliang; Mineart, Kenneth P; Dong, Yihui; Spontak, Richard J; Gubbins, Keith E

    2017-05-21

    In this work, we present a statistical mechanical analysis to elucidate the molecular-level factors responsible for the static and dynamic properties of polymer films. This analysis, which we term conformal sites theory, establishes that three dimensionless parameters play important roles in determining differences from bulk behavior for thin polymer films near to surfaces: a microscopic wetting parameter, α wx , defined as the ratio of polymer-substrate interaction to polymer-polymer interaction; a dimensionless film thickness, H*; and dimensionless temperature, T*. The parameter α wx introduced here provides a more fundamental measure of wetting than previous metrics, since it is defined in terms of intermolecular forces and the atomic structure of the substrate, and so is valid at the nanoscale for gas, liquid or solid films. To test this theoretical analysis, we also report atomic force microscopy measurements of the friction coefficient (μ), adhesion force (F A ) and glass transition temperature (T g ) for thin films of two polymers, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS), on two planar substrates, graphite and silica. Both the friction coefficient and the glass transition temperature are found to increase as the film thickness decreases, and this increase is more pronounced for the graphite than for the silica surface. The adhesion force is also greater for the graphite surface. The larger effects encountered for the graphite surface are attributed to the fact that the microscopic wetting parameter, α wx , is larger for graphite than for silica, indicating stronger attraction of polymer chains to the graphite surface.

  6. On the optical, structural, and morphological properties of ZrO2 and TiO2 dip-coated thin films supported on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueto, Luisa F.; Sanchez, Enrique; Torres-Martinez, Leticia M.; Hirata, Gustavo A.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the optical and morphological properties of dip-coated TiO 2 and ZrO 2 thin films on soda-lime glass substrates by metal-organic decomposition (MOD) of titanium IV and zirconium IV acetylacetonates respectively. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (DTA-TG) were performed on the precursor powders, indicating pure TiO 2 anatase and tetragonal ZrO 2 phase formation. Phase crystallization processes took place in the range of 300-500 deg. C for anatase and of 410-500 deg. C for ZrO 2 . Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to confirm precursor bidentate ligand formation with keno-enolic equilibrium character. Deposited films were heated at different temperatures, and their structural, optical and morphological properties were studied by grazing-incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) respectively. Film thinning and crystalline phase formation were enhanced with increasing temperature upon chelate decomposition. The optimum annealing temperature for both pure anatase TiO 2 and tetragonal ZrO 2 thin films was found to be 500 deg. C since solid volume fraction increased with temperature and film refractive index values approached those of pure anatase and tetragonal zirconia. Conditions for clean stoichiometric film formation with an average roughness value of 2 nm are discussed in terms of material binding energies indicated by XPS analyses, refractive index and solid volume fraction obtained indirectly by UV-Vis spectra, and crystalline peak identification provided by GIXRD

  7. Sol-gel synthesis, characterization and optical properties of mercury-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited on ITO glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechiakh, R., E-mail: raouf_mechiakh@yahoo.fr [Departement de Medecine, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Hadj Lakhdar, Batna (Algeria); Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Ben Sedrine, N.; Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-08-15

    The Hg-doped and undoped nano-crystalline TiO{sub 2} films on ITO glass substrates surface and polycrystalline powders were prepared by sol-gel dip coating technique. The crystal structure and surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} were characterized by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The results indicated that the powder of TiO{sub 2}, doped with 5% Hg in room temperature was only composed of the anatase phase whereas in the undoped powder exhibits an amorphous phase were present. After heat treatments of thin films, titanium oxide starts to crystallize at the annealing temperature 400 {sup o}C. The average crystallite size of the undoped TiO{sub 2} films was about 8.17 nm and was increased with Hg-doping in the TiO{sub 2} films. Moreover, the grains distributed more uniform and the surface roughness was greater in the Hg-doped TiO{sub 2} films than in the undoped one. Refractive index and porosity were calculated from the measured transmittance spectrum. The values of the index of refraction are in the range (1.95-2.49) and the porosity is in the range (47-2.8). The coefficient of transmission varies from 60 to 90%. SE study was used to determine the annealing temperature effect on the optical properties in the wavelength range from 0.25 to 2 {mu}m and the optical gap of the Hg-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films.

  8. Improved transparent-conducting properties in N{sub 2{sup -}} and H{sub 2{sup -}} annealed GaZnO thin films grown on glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Deukyoung; Lee, Sejoon [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The effects of N{sub 2{sup -}} and H{sub 2{sup -}} annealing on the transparent-conducting properties of Ga-doped ZnO (GaZnO) were examined. The as-grown GaZnO thin film, which was deposited on a soda-lime glass substrate by r.f. magnetron sputtering, exhibited moderate transparent-conducting properties: a resistivity of {approx}10{sup 0} {Omega}{center_dot}cm and an optical transmittance of {approx}86%. After annealing in N{sub 2} or H{sub 2}, the GaZnO samples showed great improvements in both the electrical and the optical properties. Particularly, in the H{sub 2}-annealed sample, a dramatic decrease in the resistivity (7 x 10{sup -4} {Omega}{center_dot}cm) with a considerable increase in the carrier concentration (4.22 x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}) was observed. This is attributed to both an increase in the number of Ga-O bonds and a reduction in the number of chemisorbed oxygen atoms though H{sub 2} annealing. The sample revealed an enhanced optical transmittance ({approx}91%), which comes from the Burstein-Moss effect. Namely, a blue-shift of the optical absorption edge, which results from the increased carrier concentration, was observed in the H{sub 2}-annealed sample. The results suggest that hydrogen annealing can help improve the transparent conducting properties of GaZnO via a modification of the electrochemical bonding structures.

  9. ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition on soda lime glass substrates for the ultraviolet inactivation of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Mosnier, Richard J O'Haire, Enda McGlynn, Martin O Henry, Stephen J McDonnell, Maria A Boyle and Kevin G McGuigan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We found that a ZnO film of 2 μm thickness which was laser-deposited at room temperature onto a plain soda lime glass substrate, exhibits notable antibacterial activity against a biofilm of Staphylococcus epidermidis when back-illuminated by a UVA light source with a peak emission wavelength of about 365 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS were used to characterize the ZnO films before and after the interactions with the biofilm and the ultraviolet light, respectively. The as-deposited film was highly textured with the wurtzite (0002 in-plane orientation (c-axis perpendicular to ZnO surface and had a surface rms roughness of 49.7 nm. In the as-deposited film, the Zn to O ratio was 1 to 0.95. After the UV and biofilm treatments, the ZnO film surface had become rougher (rms roughness 68.1 nm and presented uniform micron-sized pitting randomly distributed, while the zinc to oxygen ratio had become 1 to 2.2. In this case, both the UV-visible and Raman spectra pointed to degradation of the structural quality of the material. On the strength of these data, we propose a model for the mediation of the bactericidal activity in which the photogeneration of highly oxidizing species and the presence of active surface defect sites both play an important role. This study is of particular interest for the acute problem of disinfection of pathogenic biofilms which form on medical device/implant surfaces.

  10. Substrate-Versatile Approach to Robust Antireflective and Superhydrophobic Coatings with Excellent Self-Cleaning Property in Varied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tingting; He, Junhui

    2017-10-04

    Robust antireflective and superhydrophobic coatings are highly desired in wide applications, such as optical devices, solar cell panels, architectural and automotive glasses, lab-on chip systems, and windows for electronic devices. Meanwhile, simple, low-cost, and substrate-versatile fabrication is also essential toward real applications of such coatings. Herein, we developed a substrate-versatile strategy to fabricate robust antireflective and superhydrophobic coatings with excellent self-cleaning property in varied environments, including air and oil and after oil contamination. A mixed ethanol suspension, which consists of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane modified dual-sized silica nanoparticles and acid-catalyzed silica precursor, was first synthesized. The acid-catalyzed silica precursor could help to form a highly cross-linked silica network by connecting the silica nanoparticles, thus significantly enhancing the robustness of coatings. The as-prepared coatings were able to withstand a water drop impact test, sand abrasion test, tape adhesion test, and knife and pencil scratching tests. More importantly, it was also found that the wettability and self-cleaning property of coatings after oil contamination were surprisingly different from those in air and oil. These observations are explainable by the alteration of interface; i.e., the alteration of interface has significant effects on the functional properties of coatings. Additionally, the mixed suspension could be sprayed onto various hard and soft substrates including glass, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polycarbonate (PC), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), opening up a feasible route toward varied practical applications in solar cell panels, optical devices, architectural and automotive glasses, droplet manipulators, and fluid control.

  11. Anomalous enthalpy relaxation in vitreous silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling) has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here, we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system) exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy...... relaxation compared to fragile oxide systems. The anomalous enthalpy relaxation of vitreous silica is discovered by performing the hyperquenching-annealing-calorimetry experiments. We argue that the strong systems like vitreous silica and vitreous Germania relax in a structurally cooperative manner, whereas...... the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica....

  12. Bleeding evaluation of the stationary phase from a few novel macroporous silica-substrate polymeric materials used for radionuclide partitioning from HLLW in MAREC process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, A.; Wei, Y.; Kumagai, M.

    2005-01-01

    To separate minor actinides from HLLW by extraction chromatography, a few novel silica-based di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), 4,4',(5')-di(tert-butylcyclohexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), and N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentane-1,5-diamide (TODGA) polymeric adsorption materials (HDEHP/SiO 2 -P, DtBuCH18C6/SiO 2 -P, CMPO/SiO 2 -P, and TODGA/SiO 2 -P) were synthesized by impregnating HDEHP, DtBuCH18C6, CMPO, and TODGA into the pores of porous SiO 2 -P particles, which were the new kind of inorganic/organic composites consisted of macroporous SiO 2 and copolymer. The bleeding behavior of these composites was investigated by examining the effect of contact time and HNO 3 concentration. It was found that in the tested HNO 3 concentration range, a noticeable quantity of DtBuCH18C6, at least 600 ppm, leaked out from DtBuCH18C6/SiO 2 -P because of the protonation of DtBuCH18C6 with hydrogen ion, while the others were lower and basically equivalent to the solubility of HDEHP, CMPO, or TODGA in corresponding acidities solutions. Based on the batch experiment, the bleeding of CMPO/SiO 2 -P and TODGA/SiO 2 -P, the main adsorbents used in MAREC process for HLLW partitioning, was evaluated by column operation in 0.01M HNO 3 and 3M HNO 3 . The quantity of CMPO leaked was ∼48 ppm in 0.01M HNO 3 and ∼37 ppm in 3.0M HNO 3 . The bleeding of TODGA decreased from 23.2 ppm to 7.27 ppm at the initial stage and then basically kept constant. An actual bleeding of TODGA was evaluated by the separation of Sr(II) from a 2.0M HNO 3 solution containing 5.0 x 10 -3 M of 6 typically simulated elements. (author)

  13. Incorporation of Nanohybrid Films of Silica into Recycled Polystyrene Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Hernández-Padrón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative for the reutilization of polystyrene waste containers consisting in creating a hybrid material made of SiO2 nanoparticles embedded in a matrix of recycled polystyrene (PSR has been developed. Recycled polystyrene functionalized (PSRF was used to influence the morphological and antifog properties by the sol-gel synthesis of nanohybrid silica. To this end, silica nanoparticles were produced from alkoxide precursors in the presence of recycled polystyrene. The functionalization of this polymeric matrix was with the purpose of uniting in situ carboxyl and silanol groups during the sol-gel process. In this way, opaque or transparent solid substrates can be obtained, with each of these endowed with optical conditions that depend on the amount of reactants employed to prepare each nanohybrid specimen. The nanohybrids were labelled as SiO2/PSR (HPSR and SiO2/PSRF (HPSRF and their properties were then compared to those of commercial polystyrene (PS. All the prepared samples were used for coating glass substrates. The hydrophobicity of the resultant coatings was determined through contact angle measurement. The nanohybrid materials were characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR techniques. Additionally, TGA and SEM were employed to determine their thermal and textural properties.

  14. Scratch resistance of SiO2 and SiO2 - ZrO2 sol-gel coatings on glass-ceramic obtained by sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, V. O.; Soares, P.; Peitl, O.; Zanotto, E. D.; Duran, A.; Castro, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The sol-gel process is widely used to obtain coatings on glass-ceramic substrates in order to improve the scratch and abrasion resistance, also providing a bright and homogeneous appearance of a glaze avoiding expensive final polishing treatments. This paper describes the preparation of silica and silica / zirconia coatings by sol-gel method on Li 2 O-Al 2 O3-SiO 2 (LAS) glassceramic substrates produced by sintering. The coatings were deposited by dip-coating on LAS substrates and characterized by optical microscopy and spectral ellipsometry. On the other hand, hardness and elastic modulus, coefficient of friction and abrasion and scratch resistance of the coatings were determined and compared with the substrate properties. Coatings deposited on LAS glass-ceramic confere the substrate a bright and homogeneous aspect, similar to a glaze, improving the appearance and avoiding the final polishing. However these coatings do not increase the scratch resistance of the substrate only equaling the properties of the glass-ceramic. (Author)

  15. Stress relaxation in tempered glass caused by heat soak testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jens; Hilcken, Jonas; Aronen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Heat soak testing of tempered glass is a thermal process required after the tempering process itself to bring glasses of commercial soda-lime-silica-glass to failure that are contaminated with nickel sulphide inclusions, diameter 50 mm to 500 mm typically. Thus, the tests avoid a so-called "spont...... of commercial soda-lime-silica glass, it causes stress relaxation in tempered glass and the fracture pattern of the glass changes accordingly, especially thin glasses are affected. Based on the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Model, this paper comprises the theoretical background of the stress...

  16. Fused silica segments: a possible solution for x-ray telescopes with very high angular resolution like Lynx/XRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaso, Bianca; Basso, Stefano; Civitani, Marta; Ghigo, Mauro; Hołyszko, Joanna; Spiga, Daniele; Vecchi, Gabriele; Pareschi, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    In order to look beyond Chandra, the Lynx/XRS mission has been proposed in USA and is currently studied by NASA. The optic will have an effective area of 2.5 m2 and an angular resolution of 0.5 arcsec HEW at 1 keV. In order to fulfill these requirements different technologies are considered, with the approaches of both full and segmented shells (that, possibly, can be also combined together). Concerning the production of segmented mirrors, a variety of thin substrates (glass, metal, silicon) are envisaged, that can be produced using both direct polishing or replication methods. Innovative post-fabrication correction methods (such as piezoelectric or magneto-restrictive film actuators on the back surface, differential deposition, ion implantation) are being also considered in order to reach the final tolerances. In this paper we are presenting a technology development based on fused silica (SiO2) segmented substrates, owing the low coefficient of thermal expansion of Fused Silica and its high chemical stability compared to other glasses. Thin SiO2 segmented substrates (typically 2 mm thick) are figured by direct polishing combined with final profile ion figuring correction, while the roughness reduction is reached with pitch tools. For the profile and roughness correction, the segments are glued to a substrate. In this paper we present the current status of this technology.

  17. Enhancement of metal-nanoparticle precipitation by co-irradiation of high-energy heavy ions and laser in silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, N.; Umeda, N.; Takeda, Y.; Kishimoto, N.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous laser irradiation under ion irradiation is conducted to control nanoparticle precipitation in amorphous (a-)SiO 2 . Copper ions of 3 MeV and photons of 532 nm by Nd:YAG laser are irradiated to substrates of a-SiO 2 . The ion dose rate and total dose are set at 2-10 μA/cm 2 and 3.0 x 10 16 -3.0 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 , respectively, and the laser power density is 0.05-0.2 J/cm 2 pulse at 10 Hz. The laser is simultaneously irradiated with ions in the co-irradiation mode, and the result is compared to that in the sequential and ion-only irradiation. Cross-sectional TEM of the irradiated specimens is conducted after measuring optical absorption spectra. In the case of co-irradiation of intense laser power and high dose (0.2 J/cm 2 pulse and 3.0 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 ), Cu nanoparticles precipitate much more extensively than in the sequential irradiation, increasing both the particle diameter and the total Cu atoms in the nanoparticles. The optical absorption spectra show a surface plasmon peak of the nanoparticles. The precipitation enhancement in the co-irradiation mode suggests that the electronic energy is absorbed by the dynamic electronic states and promotes the Cu precipitation via enhancing the atomic migration

  18. Thermomechanical Modeling of Laser-Induced Structural Relaxation and Deformation of Glass: Volume Changes in Fused Silica at High Temperatures [Thermo-mechanical modeling of laser-induced structural relaxation and deformation of SiO2 glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignes, Ryan M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Soules, Thomas F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Stolken, James S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Settgast, Randolph R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Elhadj, Selim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Matthews, Manyalibo J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Mauro, J.

    2012-12-17

    In a fully coupled thermomechanical model of the nanoscale deformation in amorphous SiO2 due to laser heating is presented. Direct measurement of the transient, nonuniform temperature profiles was used to first validate a nonlinear thermal transport model. Densification due to structural relaxation above the glass transition point was modeled using the Tool-Narayanaswamy (TN) formulation for the evolution of structural relaxation times and fictive temperature. TN relaxation parameters were derived from spatially resolved confocal Raman scattering measurements of Si–O–Si stretching mode frequencies. These thermal and microstructural data were used to simulate fictive temperatures which are shown to scale nearly linearly with density, consistent with previous measurements from Shelby et al. Volumetric relaxation coupled with thermal expansion occurring in the liquid-like and solid-like glassy states lead to residual stresses and permanent deformation which could be quantified. But, experimental surface deformation profiles between 1700 and 2000 K could only be reconciled with our simulation by assuming a roughly 2 × larger liquid thermal expansion for a-SiO2 with a temperature of maximum density ~150 K higher than previously estimated by Bruckner et al. Calculated stress fields agreed well with recent laser-induced critical fracture measurements, demonstrating accurate material response prediction under processing conditions of practical interest.

  19. The polarization modulation and fabrication method of two dimensional silica photonic crystals based on UV nanoimprint lithography and hot imprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuai; Niu, Chunhui; Liang, Liang; Chai, Ke; Jia, Yaqing; Zhao, Fangyin; Li, Ya; Zou, Bingsuo; Liu, Ruibin

    2016-10-04

    Based on a silica sol-gel technique, highly-structurally ordered silica photonic structures were fabricated by UV lithography and hot manual nanoimprint efforts, which makes large-scale fabrication of silica photonic crystals easy and results in low-cost. These photonic structures show perfect periodicity, smooth and flat surfaces and consistent aspect ratios, which are checked by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, glass substrates with imprinted photonic nanostructures show good diffraction performance in both transmission and reflection mode. Furthermore, the reflection efficiency can be enhanced by 5 nm Au nanoparticle coating, which does not affect the original imprint structure. Also the refractive index and dielectric constant of the imprinted silica is close to that of the dielectric layer in nanodevices. In addition, the polarization characteristics of the reflected light can be modulated by stripe nanostructures through changing the incident light angle. The experimental findings match with theoretical results, making silica photonic nanostructures functional integration layers in many optical or optoelectronic devices, such as LED and microlasers to enhance the optical performance and modulate polarization properties in an economical and large-scale way.

  20. Water sensitivity and microporosity in organosilica glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dral, Albertine Petra

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation the water sensitivityand microporosity of organosilica glasses are studied. The research focuses onfundamental material understanding, but stands in close relation with theindustrial application of organically bridged silicas as molecular sievingmembranes. Chapter1 presents a

  1. Erbium-doped borosilicate glasses containing various amounts of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Influence of the silica content on the structure and thermal, physical, optical and luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourhis, Kevin [Politecnico di Torino, DISAT, Istituto di Ingegneria e Fisica dei Materiali, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Massera, Jonathan [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, FI-33720 Tampere (Finland); BioMediTech, Tampere (Finland); Petit, Laeticia, E-mail: laeticia.petit@nlight.net [Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); nLIGHT Corporation, Sorronrinne 9, FI-08500 Lohja (Finland); Koponen, Joona [nLIGHT Corporation, Sorronrinne 9, FI-08500 Lohja (Finland); Fargues, Alexandre; Cardinal, Thierry [CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, ISM, 351 Cours de la Libération, F-33405 Talence (France); Hupa, Leena; Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Dussauze, Marc; Rodriguez, Vincent [CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr Schweitzer, F-33608 Pessac (France); Ferraris, Monica [Politecnico di Torino, DISAT, Istituto di Ingegneria e Fisica dei Materiali, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Er{sup 3+} doped borosilicate glasses were processed with different compositions and characterizations. • An increase in the SiO{sub 2} content leads to a silicate-rich environment around the Er{sup 3+} site. • An increase in the SiO{sub 2} content decreases the Er{sup 3+} absorption cross-section at 980 nm. • Glasses with 60 mol% of SiO{sub 2} exhibit a stronger emission intensity at 1530 nm than glasses with x = 50. • Highest 1.5 μm emission intensity was achieved for the Al and P containing glass with 60 mol% of SiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: The influence of the silica content on several properties of Er-doped borosilicate glasses in the presence of various amounts of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been investigated. The introduction of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and/or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are responsible for structural modifications in the glass network through a charge-compensation mechanism related to the formation of negatively-charged PO{sub 4} and AlO{sub 4} groups or through the formation of AlPO{sub 4}-like structural units. In this paper, we show that an increase in the SiO{sub 2} content leads to a silicate-rich environment around the Er{sup 3+} site, resulting in an increased dependence of the Er{sup 3+} ions optical and luminescence properties on the P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and/or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. The highest emission intensity at 1.5 μm was achieved for the glass with an equal proportion of P and Al in the glass system with 60 mol% of SiO{sub 2}.

  2. Designer silica layers for advanced applications: Processing and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Adam

    , including glasses, metals, fibers, polymers, and plastics. This process has the potential to enable common organosilicon-based chemistries on polymer surfaces, but before the potential impact of this technology can be realized, the fundamental groundwork must be laid. In this work, a series of investigations into the properties of the vapor deposited silica layer are conducted. It is determined that the morphology of the silica layer depends strongly on the relative pressures of the precursor gases. Furthermore, the vapor deposited silica layer has many commonalities with conventionally prepared silica materials (fumed or precipitated) and does support the formation of self-assembled monolayers for organosilicon-based precursors. However, there are also some differences in chemical reactivity of surface groups on the vapor deposited silica layer relative to the surface of conventionally prepared silica materials, which contribute to different chemical behavior in some circumstances. Also, the deposition of the silica layers under study here is confirmed on several model polymeric substrates by ATR-FTIR and atomic force microscopy.

  3. Biomimetic silica encapsultation of living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroch, David Benjamin

    Living cells perform complex chemical processes on size and time scales that artificial systems cannot match. Cells respond dynamically to their environment, acting as biological sensors, factories, and drug delivery devices. To facilitate the use of living systems in engineered constructs, we have developed several new approaches to create stable protective microenvironments by forming bioinspired cell-membrane-specific silica-based encapsulants. These include vapor phase deposition of silica gels, use of endogenous membrane proteins and polysaccharides as a site for silica nucleation and polycondensation in a saturated environment, and protein templated ordered silica shell formation. We demonstrate silica layer formation at the surface of pluripotent stem-like cells, bacterial biofilms, and primary murine and human pancreatic islets. Materials are characterized by AFM, SEM and EDS. Viability assays confirm cell survival, and metabolite flux measurements demonstrate normal function and no major diffusion limitations. Real time PCR mRNA analysis indicates encapsulated islets express normal levels of genetic markers for β-cells and insulin production. The silica glass encapsulant produces a secondary bone like calcium phosphate mineral layer upon exposure to media. Such bioactive materials can improve device integration with surrounding tissue upon implantation. Given the favorable insulin response, bioactivity, and long-term viability observed in silica-coated islets, we are currently testing the encapsulant's ability to prevent immune system recognition of foreign transplants for the treatment of diabetes. Such hybrid silica-cellular constructs have a wide range of industrial, environmental, and medical applications.

  4. Silica artificial opal incorporated with silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wenjiang, E-mail: wjli@zju.edu.cn [Center for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory for Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Joint Research Center of Photonics of the Royal Institute of Technology and Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Room 210, East Building 5, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Sun Tan [Center for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory for Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Joint Research Center of Photonics of the Royal Institute of Technology and Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Room 210, East Building 5, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The silica artificial opal with a three-dimensional (3D) periodic structure was prepared using highly monodispersed silica microspheres by a force packing method in ITO glass cell. The silica artificial opal incorporated with silver nanoparticles was fabricated by the electroplating technique. The optical microscope images of the synthetic sample and the corresponding optical properties were measured after each treatment of electroplating-washing-drying circle. The transmission and reflection spectra presented a red shift, showing that the effective refractive index of the complex silver/silica opal increased after each electroplating. Combining the SEM images, it was seen that the silver nanoparticles could be directly deposited on the surface of silica spheres in the opaline structure. The silver/silica complex opal film could provide a simple way to tune the opal properties by controlling silver nanoparticles in the silica opal. The silver/silica opal crystal structures could be used for nano-photonic circuits, white-light LEDs or as photocatalysts.

  5. Silica artificial opal incorporated with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjiang; Sun Tan

    2009-01-01

    The silica artificial opal with a three-dimensional (3D) periodic structure was prepared using highly monodispersed silica microspheres by a force packing method in ITO glass cell. The silica artificial opal incorporated with silver nanoparticles was fabricated by the electroplating technique. The optical microscope images of the synthetic sample and the corresponding optical properties were measured after each treatment of electroplating-washing-drying circle. The transmission and reflection spectra presented a red shift, showing that the effective refractive index of the complex silver/silica opal increased after each electroplating. Combining the SEM images, it was seen that the silver nanoparticles could be directly deposited on the surface of silica spheres in the opaline structure. The silver/silica complex opal film could provide a simple way to tune the opal properties by controlling silver nanoparticles in the silica opal. The silver/silica opal crystal structures could be used for nano-photonic circuits, white-light LEDs or as photocatalysts.

  6. Enhancement of the glass corrosion in the presence of clay minerals: testing experimental results with an integrated glass dissolution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godon, N.; Vernaz, E.Y.

    1992-01-01

    Recent glass dissolution experiments, conducted at 90 deg C in the presence of potential backfill materials, indicate remarkably faster glass corrosion in the presence of clay, compared to tests where the glass is leached either alone or with alternative backfill materials. This effect correlates with the clay content in the backfill, and may be attributed to the removal of silica from solution. Scorpion, or dissolution with reprecipitation of a silica-rich clay, have been proposed as possible mechanisms for the silica consumption. The results of some experiments have been tested against a glass dissolution model, in which a widely used kinetic equation for glass corrosion is coupled with diffusive silica transport through a single porosity, linearly sorbing medium, which represents the backfilling. Because the glass corrosion rates imposed by the kinetic equation are inversely proportional to the silicic acid concentration of the leachant contacting the glass, the model predicts enhanced glass dissolution if silica is sorbed by the porous medium. The experimental data proved to be consistent with the predicted enhancement of the glass dissolution. Moreover, the model-estimated distribution coefficients for silica sorption (K d ) fall within the range of values extracted from available literature data, thus supporting the hypothesis that the observed high corrosion rates are due to sorption of silica on the clay mineral surfaces. (author)

  7. Photon emission induced by brittle fracture of borosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiota, Tadashi, E-mail: tshiota@ceram.titech.ac.jp [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramic Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Sato, Yoshitaka [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramic Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Kishi, Tetsuo [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Yasuda, Kouichi [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramic Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Photon emission (PE) at wavelength ranges of 430–490 nm (B-PE), 500–600 nm (G-PE) and 610–680 nm (R-PE) caused by brittle fracture was simultaneously measured in the nanosecond-to-microsecond and millisecond time domains for two types of borosilicate glasses: Pyrex-type Tempax glass and BK7 glass. The results were compared to those for silica and soda lime glasses. The time dependence of the PE of Tempax glass was similar to that of silica glass, while the PE intensity was lower. Because Tempax glass contains both silica-rich and borate-rich amorphous phases, the PE must be mainly produced by the fracture of the silica-rich phase. Moreover, the proportion of B-PE of Tempax glass was higher than that of silica glass. This suggests that the measured B-PE might also include very weak PE caused by the fracture of the borate-rich phase. The PE time dependence of BK7 glass was similar to that of soda lime glass, which was different from the case for Tempax glass. The PE intensity of BK7 glass was slightly higher than that of soda lime glass, but much lower than that of Tempax glass. The result indicates that non-bridging oxygen in the glasses affects crack propagation behavior and reduces the PE. - Highlights: • Photon emission (PE) upon brittle fracture of borosilicate glasses was measured. • Pyrex-type Tempax and BK7 glasses showed different PE characteristics. • The rupture of Si–O bonds produces much stronger PE than that of B–O bonds. • Non-bridging oxygen in glass affects crack propagation behavior and reduces the PE.

  8. Fluorescence metrology of silica sol-gels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have developed a new method for measuring in-situ the growth of the nanometre-size silica particles which lead to the formation of sol-gel glasses. This technique is based on the decay of fluorescence polarisation anisotropy due to Brownian rotation of dye molecules bound to the particles. Results to date give near ...

  9. Effect of Radiation on Silicon and Borosilicate Glass

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allred, Clark

    2003-01-01

    .... These two glasses are commonly used as substrates for silicon microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices, and radiation-induced compaction in a substrate can have deleterious effects on device performance...

  10. Large piezoelectric strain with ultra-low strain hysteresis in highly c-axis oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 films with columnar growth on amorphous glass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh D; Houwman, Evert P; Rijnders, Guus

    2017-10-10

    Thin films of PbZr 0 . 52 Ti 0 . 48 O 3 (PZT) with largely detached columnar grains, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on amorphous glass substrates covered with Ca 2 Nb 3 O 10 nanosheets as growth template and using LaNiO 3 electrode layers, are shown to exhibit very high unipolar piezoelectric strain and ultra-low strain hysteresis. The observed increase of the piezoelectric coefficient with increasing film thickness is attributed to the reduction of clamping, because of the increasingly less dense columnar microstructure (more separation between the grains) with across the film thickness. A very large piezoelectric coefficient (490 pm/V) and a high piezoelectric strain (~0.9%) are obtained in 4-µm-thick film under an applied electric field of 200 kV/cm, which is several times larger than in usual PZT ceramics. Further very low strain hysteresis (H≈2-4%) is observed in 4 to 5 µm thick films. These belong to the best values demonstrated so far in piezoelectric films. Fatigue testing shows that the piezoelectric properties are stable up to 10 10 cycles. The growth of high quality PZT films with very large strain and piezoelectric coefficients, very low hysteresis and with long-term stability on a technologically important substrate as glass is of great significance for the development of practical piezo driven microelectromechanical actuator systems.

  11. Indium-tin oxide thin films deposited at room temperature on glass and PET substrates: Optical and electrical properties variation with the H2–Ar sputtering gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; Andrés, A. de; Prieto, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ITO deposition on glass and PET at room temperature by using H. • High transparency and low resistance is obtained by tuning the H. • The figure of merit for ITO films on PET becomes maximal for thickness near 100 nm. - Abstract: The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. A clear evolution of optical transparency and sheet resistance with the content of H 2 in the gas mixture of H 2 and Ar during magnetron sputtering deposition is observed. An optimized performance of the transparent conductive properties ITO films on PET was achieved for samples prepared using H 2 /(Ar + H 2 ) ratio in the range of 0.3–0.6%. Moreover, flexible ITO-PET samples show a better transparent conductive figure of merit, Φ TC = T 10 /R S , than their glass counterparts. These results provide valuable insight into the room temperature fabrication and development of transparent conductive ITO-based flexible devices

  12. Manufacturing method of enamel substrate for solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Jun; Fukamachi, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1987-12-01

    This invention is an inexpensive manufacturing method of an enamel substrate which improved such defects as crack and stripping, and gives both flatness and pliability of the substrate surface. In other words, in forming a glass layer fritted on at least one surface of a stainless steel strake, frit with the content of SiO/sub 2/ 40-65%, Na/sub 2/O 10-30%, B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 6-20%, PbO 10-35% is used, wherein SiO/sub 2/ gives flexibility, Na/sub 2/O and B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ increases thermal expansion coefficient, and B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ further endows elastic flexibility to the baked surface. PbO enhances the elasticity of the glass layer. Frit with additional content of K/sub 2/O (2-5%), TiO/sub 2/ (5-8%), CaO (0.5-3.0%) gives further effect. Addition of 1-5 parts of colloidal silica per 100 pts of frit gives an effect with good flatness in spite of thin glass layer. ( 3 tabs )

  13. Optically transparent, superhydrophobic methyltrimethoxysilane based silica coatings without silylating reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavale, Mahendra S.; Mahadik, D.B.; Parale, V.G.; Wagh, P.B.; Gupta, Satish C.; Rao, A.Venkateswara; Barshilia, Harish C.

    2011-01-01

    The superhydrophobic surfaces have drawn lot of interest, in both academic and industries because of optically transparent, adherent and self-cleaning behavior. Surface chemical composition and morphology plays an important role in determining the superhydrophobic nature of coating surface. Such concert of non-wettability can be achieved, using surface modifying reagents or co-precursor method in sol-gel process. Attempts have been made to increase the hydrophobicity and optical transparency of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) based silica coatings using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) instead of formal routes like surface modification using silylating reagents. The optically transparent, superhydrophobic uniform coatings were obtained by simple dip coating method. The molar ratio of MTMS:MeOH:H 2 O was kept constant at 1:5.63:1.58, respectively with 0.5 M NH 4 F as a catalyst and the weight percent of PMMA varied from 1 to 8. The hydrophobicity of silica coatings was analyzed by FTIR and contact angle measurements. These substrates exhibited 91% optical transmittance as compared to glass and water drop contact angle as high as 171 ± 1 deg. The effect of humidity on hydrophobic nature of coating has been studied by exposing these films at relative humidity of 90% at constant temperature of 30 deg. C for a period of 45 days. The micro-structural studies carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  14. Phase transitions and glass transition in a hyperquenched silica–alumina glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y.F.; Zhao, D.H.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2017-01-01

    We investigate phase transitions, glass transition, and dynamic behavior in the hyperquenched 69SiO2–31Al2O3 (mol%) glass (SA glass). Upon reheating, the SA glass exhibits a series of thermal responses. Subsequent to the sub-Tg enthalpy release, the glass undergoes a large jump in isobaric heat...... capacity (ΔCp) during glass transition, implying the fragile nature of the SA glass. The mullite starts to form before the end of glass transition, indicating that the SA glass is extremely unstable against crystallization. After the mullite formation, the remaining glass phase exhibits an increased Tg...... and a suppressed ΔCp. The formation of cristobalite at 1553 K indicates the dominance of silica in the remaining glass matrix. The cristobalite gradually re-melts as the isothermal heat-treatment temperature is raised from 1823 to 1853 K, which is well below the melting point of cristobalite, while the amount...

  15. Waste glass/metal interactions in brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W.; Pederson, L.R.; McVay, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Leaching studies of MCC 76-68 glass in synthetic brines high in NaCl were performed from 50 to 150 0 C and included interactive testing with ductile iron and titanium. Hydrolysis of the glass matrix was generally slower in saturated brines than in deionized water, due to a lower solubility of silica in the brines. Inclusion of ductile iron in the tests resulted in accelerated leach rates because irion-silica reactions occurred which reduced the silica saturation fraction. At 150 0 C, iron also accelerated the rate of crystalline reaction product formation which were primarily Fe-bearing sepiolite and talc. 16 references

  16. Development of silica RO membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Ayumi; Kawamoto, Takashi; Matsuyama, Emi; Utsumi, Keisuke; Nomura, Mikihiro; Sugimoto, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Silica based membranes have been developed by using a counter diffusion CVD method. Effects of alkyl groups in the silica precursors and deposition temperatures had investigated in order to control pore sizes of the silica membranes. In this study, this type of a silica membrane was applied for RO separation. Effects of silica sources, deposition temperatures and post treatments had been investigated. Tetramethoxysilane (TMOS), Ethyltrimethoxysilane (ETMOS) and Phenyltrimethoxysilane (PhTMOS) were used as silica precursors. A counter diffusion CVD method was carried out for 90 min at 270 - 600degC on γ-alumina capillary substrates (effective length: 50 mm, φ: 4 nm: NOK Co.). O 3 or O 2 was introduced into the inside of the substrate at the O 2 rate of 0.2 L min -1 . Ion beam irradiation was carried out for a post treatment using Os at 490 MeV for 1.0 x 10 10 ions cm -2 or 3.0 x 10 10 ions cm -2 . Single gas permeance was measured by using H 2 , N 2 and SF 6 . RO tests were employed at 3.0 or 5.4 MPa for 100 mg L -1 of feed NaCl solution. First, effects of the silica sources were investigated. The total fluxes increased by increasing N 2 permeance through the silica membrane deposited by ETMOS. The maximum NaCl rejection was 28.2% at 12.2 kg m -2 h -1 of the total flux through the membrane deposited at 270degC. N 2 permeance was 9.6 x 10 -9 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 . While, total fluxes through the membrane deposited by using PhTMOS were smaller than those through the ETMOS membranes. The phenyl groups for the PhTMOS membrane must be important for the hydrophobic properties through the membrane. Next, effects of ion beam irradiation were tested for the TMOS membranes. Water is difficult to permeate through the TMOS membranes due to the low N 2 permeance through the membrane (3.1 x 10 -11 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 ). N 2 permeance increased to 7.3 x 10 -9 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 by the irradiation. Irradiation amounts had little effects on N 2 permeance. However, NaCl rejections

  17. Sputtering characteristics, crystal structures, and transparent conductive properties of TiO{sub x}N{sub y} films deposited on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0 0 0 1) and glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akazawa, Housei, E-mail: akazawa.housei@lab.ntt.co.jp [NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactive sputtering of TiO{sub x}N{sub y} films was achieved under metal-mode conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Partially substituting O in TiO{sub 2} with N formed anatase rather than rutile. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x} on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0 0 0 1) was more transparent and conductive than on glass substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nb{sup 5+} ions could be doped as donors in TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x} anatase crystals. - Abstract: Adding N{sub 2} gas during reactive sputtering of a Ti target prevented the target surface from being severely poisoned by oxygen atoms and sustained a high deposition rate for titanium oxynitride films under metal-mode-like sputtering conditions. With progress in the degree of oxidization, films deposited onto a glass substrate varied from TiO{sub 1-x}N{sub x} having a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure to TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x} having an anatase structure. Titanium oxynitride films deposited on an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0 0 0 1) substrate were epitaxial with major orientations toward the (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) directions for fcc-TiO{sub 1-x}N{sub x} and (1 1 2) for anatase-TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}. Intermediately oxidized films between TiO{sub 1-x}N{sub x} and TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x} were amorphous on the glass substrate but crystallized into a Magneli phase, Ti{sub n}O(N){sub 2n-1}, on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0 0 0 1) substrate. Partially substituting oxygen in TiO{sub 2} with nitrogen as well as continuously irradiating the growing film surface with a Xe plasma stream preferentially formed anatase rather than rutile. However, the occupation of anion sites with enough oxygen rather than nitrogen was the required condition for anatase crystals to form. The transparent conductive properties of epitaxial TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x} films on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0 0 0 1) were superior to those of microcrystalline films on the glass substrate. Since resistivity and optical transmittance of Ti

  18. A Robust Fiber Bragg Grating Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using Platinum-Supported Silica Catalyst Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kurohiji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust fiber Bragg grating (FBG hydrogen gas sensor for reliable multipoint-leakage monitoring has been developed. The sensing mechanism is based on shifts of center wavelength of the reflection spectra due to temperature change caused by catalytic combustion heat. The sensitive film which consists of platinum-supported silica (Pt/SiO2 catalyst film was obtained using sol-gel method. The precursor solution was composed of hexachloroplatinic acid and commercially available silica precursor solution. The atom ratio of Si : Pt was fixed at 13 : 1. A small amount of this solution was dropped on the substrate and dried at room temperature. After that, the film was calcined at 500°C in air. These procedures were repeated and therefore thick hydrogen-sensitive films were obtained. The catalytic film obtained by 20-time coating on quartz glass substrate showed a temperature change 75 K upon exposure to 3 vol.% H2. For realizing robust sensor device, this catalytic film was deposited and FBG portion was directly fixed on titanium substrate. The sensor device showed good performances enough to detect hydrogen gas in the concentration range below lower explosion limit at room temperature. The enhancement of the sensitivity was attributed to not only catalytic combustion heat but also re