WorldWideScience

Sample records for silica core-shell nanoparticles

  1. Fabrication of Magnetite/Silica/Titania Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Cem Pang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized via a sol-gel method with the aid of sonication. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were being encapsulated within discrete silica nanospheres, and a layer of TiO2 shell was then coated directly onto each silica nanosphere. As-synthesized Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles showed enhanced photocatalytic properties as evidenced by the enhanced photodegradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation.

  2. Chemical and thermal stability of core-shelled magnetite nanoparticles and solid silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sikora, Pawel; Zielinska, Beata; Horszczaruk, Elzbieta; Mijowska, Ewa

    2017-06-01

    Pristine nanoparticles of magnetite were coated by solid silica shell forming core/shell structure. 20 nm thick silica coating significantly enhanced the chemical and thermal stability of the iron oxide. Chemical and thermal stability of this structure has been compared to the magnetite coated by mesoporous shell and pristine magnetite nanoparticles. It is assumed that six-membered silica rings in a solid silica shell limit the rate of oxygen diffusion during thermal treatment in air and prevent the access of HCl molecules to the core during chemical etching. Therefore, the core/shell structure with a solid shell requires a longer time to induce the oxidation of iron oxide to a higher oxidation state and, basically, even strong concentrated acid such as HCl is not able to dissolve it totally in one month. This leads to the desired performance of the material in potential applications such as catalysis and environmental protection.

  3. Synthesis of N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles and their enhanced antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Alideertu; Wang Tao; Xiao Linghan; Wang Weiwei; Zhao Tianyi; Zheng Xin; Liu Fengqi; Gao Ge; Huang Jinfeng; Chen Yuxin; Lan Shi

    2011-01-01

    N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced antibacterial activity were synthesized through the encapsulation of silica nanoparticles as support with polymeric N-halamine. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). These N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles displayed powerful antibacterial performance against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, and their antibacterial activities have been greatly improved compared with their bulk counterparts. Therefore, these N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles have the potential for various significant applications such as in medical devices, healthcare products, water purification systems, hospitals, dental office equipment, food packaging, food storage, household sanitation, etc.

  4. Synthesis of N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles and their enhanced antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Alideertu; Wang Tao; Xiao Linghan; Wang Weiwei; Zhao Tianyi; Zheng Xin; Liu Fengqi; Gao Ge [College of Chemistry, Jilin University and MacDiarmid Laboratory, Changchun 130021 (China); Huang Jinfeng; Chen Yuxin [Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Lan Shi, E-mail: gaoge@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, Tongliao 028000 (China)

    2011-07-22

    N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced antibacterial activity were synthesized through the encapsulation of silica nanoparticles as support with polymeric N-halamine. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). These N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles displayed powerful antibacterial performance against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, and their antibacterial activities have been greatly improved compared with their bulk counterparts. Therefore, these N-halamine-functionalized silica-polymer core-shell nanoparticles have the potential for various significant applications such as in medical devices, healthcare products, water purification systems, hospitals, dental office equipment, food packaging, food storage, household sanitation, etc.

  5. Hierarchical Mesoporous Organosilica-Silica Core-Shell Nanoparticles Capable of Controlled Fungicide Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Leilei; Liang, Yucang; Erichsen, Egil Severin; Anwander, Reiner

    2018-05-17

    A new class of hierarchically structured mesoporous silica core-shell nanoparticles (HSMSCSNs) with a periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) core and a mesoporous silica (MS) shell is reported. The applied one-pot, two-step strategy allows rational control over the core/shell chemical composition, topology, and pore/particle size, simply by adjusting the reaction conditions in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as structure-directing agent under basic conditions. The spherical, ethylene- or methylene-bridged PMO cores feature hexagonal (p6mm) or cage-like cubic symmetry (Pm3‾ n) depending on the organosilica precursor. The hexagonal MS shell was obtained by n-hexane-induced controlled hydrolysis of TEOS followed by directional co-assembly/condensation of silicate/CTAB composites at the PMO cores. The HSMSCSNs feature a hierarchical pore structure with pore diameters of about 2.7 and 5.6 nm in the core and shell domains, respectively. The core sizes and shell thicknesses are adjustable in the ranges of 90-275 and 15-50 nm, respectively, and the surface areas (max. 1300 m 2  g -1 ) and pore volumes (max. 1.83 cm 3  g -1 ) are among the highest reported for core-shell nanoparticles. The adsorption and controlled release of the fungicide propiconazole by the HSMSCSNs showed a three-stage release profile. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Core-shell fluorescent silica nanoparticles for sensing near-neutral pH values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, F.; Chen, X.; Ye, Q.; Yao, Z.; Guo, X.; Wang, L.

    2011-01-01

    pH-responsive fluorescent core-shell silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were prepared by encapsulating the pH-sensitive fluorophore 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3, 6-trisulfonate into their silica shell via a facile reverse microemulsion method. The resulting SiNPs were characterized by SEM, TEM, fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy, photobleaching experiments, and photoluminescence. The core-shell structure endows the SiNPs with reduced photobleaching, excellent photostability, minimized solvatachromic shift, and increased fluorescence efficiency compared to the free fluorophore in aqueous solution. The dynamic range for sensing pH ranges from 5. 5 to 9. 0. The nanosensors show excellent stability, are highly reproducible, and enable rapid detection of pH. The results obtained with the SiNPs are in good agreement with data obtained with a glass electrode. (author)

  7. A novel thermal decomposition approach for the synthesis of silica-iron oxide core–shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, P.N.R.; Jeevanandam, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silica-iron oxide core–shell nanoparticles have been synthesized by a novel thermal decomposition approach. ► The silica-iron oxide core–shell nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. ► The silica-iron oxide core–shell nanoparticles serve as good photocatalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B. - Abstract: A simple thermal decomposition approach for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles consisting of silica as core and iron oxide nanoparticles as shell has been reported. The iron oxide nanoparticles were deposited on the silica spheres (mean diameter = 244 ± 13 nm) by the thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate, in diphenyl ether, in the presence of SiO 2 . The core–shell nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, field emission-scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. The results confirm the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles on the silica core. The core–shell nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature indicating the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles on silica. The core–shell nanoparticles have been demonstrated as good photocatalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B.

  8. Benefits of Silica Core-Shell Structures on the Temperature Sensing Properties of Er,Yb:GdVO4 Up-Conversion Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchuk, Oleksandr A; Carvajal, Joan J; Cascales, C; Aguiló, M; Díaz, F

    2016-03-23

    We studied the temperature-dependent luminescence of GdVO4 nanoparticles co-doped with Er(3+) (1 mol %) and Yb(3+) (20 mol %) and determined their thermal sensing properties through the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) technique. We also analyzed how a silica coating, in a core-shell structure, affects the temperature sensing properties of this material. Spectra were recorded in the range of biological temperatures (298-343 K). The absolute sensitivity for temperature determination calculated for the core-shell nanoparticles is double the one calculated for bare nanoparticles, achieving a thermal resolution of 0.4 K. Moreover, silica-coated nanoparticles show good dispersibility in different solvents, such as water, DMSO, and methanol. Also, they show good luminescence stability without interactions with solvent molecules. Furthermore, we also observed that the silica coating shell prevents progressive heating of the nanoparticles during prolonged excitation periods with the 980 nm laser, preventing effects on their thermometric applications.

  9. Palladium nanoparticles encapsulated in core-shell silica: A structured hydrogenation catalyst with enhanced activity for reduction of oxyanion water pollutants

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yin; Liu, Jinyong; Wang, Peng; Werth, Charles; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles have been applied to mediate catalytic removal of toxic oxyanions and halogenated hydrocarbons in contaminated water using H2 as a clean and sustainable reductant. However, activity loss by nanoparticle aggregation and difficulty of nanoparticle recovery are two major challenges to widespread technology adoption. Herein, we report the synthesis of a core-shell-structured catalyst with encapsulated Pd nanoparticles and its enhanced catalytic activity in reduction of bromate (BrO3-), a regulated carcinogenic oxyanion produced during drinking water disinfection process, using 1 atm H2 at room temperature. The catalyst material consists of a nonporous silica core decorated with preformed octahedral Pd nanoparticles that were further encapsulated within an ordered mesoporous silica shell (i.e., SiO2@Pd@mSiO2). Well-defined mesopores (2.3 nm) provide a physical barrier to prevent Pd nanoparticle (6 nm) movement, aggregation, and detachment from the support into water. Compared to freely suspended Pd nanoparticles and SiO2@Pd, encapsulation in the mesoporous silica shell significantly enhanced Pd catalytic activity (by a factor of 10) under circumneutral pH conditions that are most relevant to water purification applications. Mechanistic investigation of material surface properties combined with Langmuir-Hinshelwood modeling of kinetic data suggest that mesoporous silica shell enhances activity by promoting BrO3- adsorption near the Pd active sites. The dual function of the mesoporous shell, enhancing Pd catalyst activity and preventing aggregation of active nanoparticles, suggests a promising general strategy of using metal nanoparticle catalysts for water purification and related aqueous-phase applications.

  10. Palladium nanoparticles encapsulated in core-shell silica: A structured hydrogenation catalyst with enhanced activity for reduction of oxyanion water pollutants

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yin

    2014-10-03

    Noble metal nanoparticles have been applied to mediate catalytic removal of toxic oxyanions and halogenated hydrocarbons in contaminated water using H2 as a clean and sustainable reductant. However, activity loss by nanoparticle aggregation and difficulty of nanoparticle recovery are two major challenges to widespread technology adoption. Herein, we report the synthesis of a core-shell-structured catalyst with encapsulated Pd nanoparticles and its enhanced catalytic activity in reduction of bromate (BrO3-), a regulated carcinogenic oxyanion produced during drinking water disinfection process, using 1 atm H2 at room temperature. The catalyst material consists of a nonporous silica core decorated with preformed octahedral Pd nanoparticles that were further encapsulated within an ordered mesoporous silica shell (i.e., SiO2@Pd@mSiO2). Well-defined mesopores (2.3 nm) provide a physical barrier to prevent Pd nanoparticle (6 nm) movement, aggregation, and detachment from the support into water. Compared to freely suspended Pd nanoparticles and SiO2@Pd, encapsulation in the mesoporous silica shell significantly enhanced Pd catalytic activity (by a factor of 10) under circumneutral pH conditions that are most relevant to water purification applications. Mechanistic investigation of material surface properties combined with Langmuir-Hinshelwood modeling of kinetic data suggest that mesoporous silica shell enhances activity by promoting BrO3- adsorption near the Pd active sites. The dual function of the mesoporous shell, enhancing Pd catalyst activity and preventing aggregation of active nanoparticles, suggests a promising general strategy of using metal nanoparticle catalysts for water purification and related aqueous-phase applications.

  11. Core/shell fluorescent magnetic silica-coated composite nanoparticles for bioconjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rong; You, Xiaogang; Shao, Jun; Gao, Feng; Pan, Bifeng; Cui, Daxiang

    2007-08-01

    A new class of highly fluorescent, photostable, and magnetic core/shell nanoparticles has been synthesized from a reverse microemulsion method. The obtained bifunctional nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry, photoluminescence (PL) spectrometry, and fluorescence microscopy in a magnetic field. To further improve their biocompatibility, the silica-coated nanoparticles were functionalized with amino groups. The fluorescent magnetic composite nanoparticles (FMCNPs) had a typical diameter of 50 ± 5 nm and a saturation magnetization of 3.21 emu g-1 at room temperature, and exhibited strong excitonic photoluminescence. Through activation with glutaraldehyde, the FMCNPs were successfully conjugated with goat anti-mouse immunoglobin G (GM IgG), and the bioactivity and binding specificity of the as-prepared FMCNPs-GM IgG were confirmed via immunofluorescence assays, commonly used in bioanalysis. So they are potentially useful for many applications in biolabelling, imaging, drug targeting, bioseparation and bioassays.

  12. Core/shell fluorescent magnetic silica-coated composite nanoparticles for bioconjugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Rong; You Xiaogang; Shao Jun; Gao Feng; Pan Bifeng; Cui Daxiang

    2007-01-01

    A new class of highly fluorescent, photostable, and magnetic core/shell nanoparticles has been synthesized from a reverse microemulsion method. The obtained bifunctional nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry, photoluminescence (PL) spectrometry, and fluorescence microscopy in a magnetic field. To further improve their biocompatibility, the silica-coated nanoparticles were functionalized with amino groups. The fluorescent magnetic composite nanoparticles (FMCNPs) had a typical diameter of 50 ± 5 nm and a saturation magnetization of 3.21 emu g -1 at room temperature, and exhibited strong excitonic photoluminescence. Through activation with glutaraldehyde, the FMCNPs were successfully conjugated with goat anti-mouse immunoglobin G (GM IgG), and the bioactivity and binding specificity of the as-prepared FMCNPs-GM IgG were confirmed via immunofluorescence assays, commonly used in bioanalysis. So they are potentially useful for many applications in biolabelling, imaging, drug targeting, bioseparation and bioassays

  13. Fluorescence lifetime measurements to determine the core-shell nanostructure of FITC-doped silica nanoparticles: An optical approach to evaluate nanoparticle photostability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Swadeshmukul; Liesenfeld, Bernd; Bertolino, Chiara; Dutta, Debamitra; Cao Zehui; Tan Weihong; Moudgil, Brij M.; Mericle, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we described a novel fluorescence lifetime-based approach to determine the core-shell nanostructure of FITC-(fluorescein isothiocyanate, isomer I) doped fluorescent silica nanoparticles (FSNPs). Because of phase homogeneity between the core and the shell, electron microscopic technique could not be used to characterize such core-shell nanostructure. Our optical approach not only revealed the core-shell nanostructure of FSNPs but also evaluated photobleaching of FSNPs both in the solvated and non-solvated (dry) states. The FSNPs were produced via Stoeber's method by hydrolysis and co-condensation reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and fluorescein linked (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (FITC-APTS conjugate) in the presence of ammonium hydroxide catalyst. To obtain a pure silica surface coating, FSNPs were then post-coated with TEOS. The average particle size was 135 nm as determined by TEM (transmission electron microscope) measurements. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectral data demonstrated successful doping of FITC dye molecules in FSNPs. Fluorescence lifetime data revealed that approximately 62% of dye molecules remained in the solvated silica shell, while 38% of dye molecules remained in the non-solvated (dry) silica core. Photobleaching experiments of FSNPs were conducted both in DI water (solution state) and in air (dry state). Severe photobleaching of FSNPs was observed in air. However, FSNPs were moderately photostable in the solution state. Photostability of FSNPs in both solution and dry states was explained on the basis of fluorescence lifetime data

  14. Modeling of absorption and scattering properties of core -shell nanoparticles for application as nanoantenna in optical domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Jutika; Saikia, Rashmi; Datta, Pranayee

    2016-10-01

    The present paper describes the study of core-shell nanoparticles for application as nanoantenna in the optical domain. To obtain the absorption and extinction efficiencies as well as the angular distribution of the far field radiation pattern and the resonance wavelengths for these metal-dielectric, dielectric-metal and metal-metal core-shell nanoparticles in optical domain, we have used Finite Element Method based COMSOL Multiphysics Software and Mie Theory. From the comparative study of the extinction efficiencies of core-shell nanoparticles of different materials, it is found that for silica - gold core - shell nanoparticles, the resonant wavelength is greater than that of the gold - silver, silver-gold and gold-silica core - shell nanoparticles and also the radiation pattern of the silica-gold core-shell nanoparticle is the most suitable one from the point of view of directivity. The dielectric functions of the core and shell material as well as of the embedded matrix are extremely important and plays a very major role to tune the directivity and resonance wavelength. Such highly controllable parameters of the dielectric - metal core - shell nanoparticles make them suitable for efficient coupling of optical radiation into nanoscale structures for a broad range of applications in the field of communications.

  15. Modeling of absorption and scattering properties of core -shell nanoparticles for application as nanoantenna in optical domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Jutika; Datta, Pranayee; Saikia, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    The present paper describes the study of core-shell nanoparticles for application as nanoantenna in the optical domain. To obtain the absorption and extinction efficiencies as well as the angular distribution of the far field radiation pattern and the resonance wavelengths for these metal-dielectric, dielectric-metal and metal-metal core-shell nanoparticles in optical domain, we have used Finite Element Method based COMSOL Multiphysics Software and Mie Theory. From the comparative study of the extinction efficiencies of core-shell nanoparticles of different materials, it is found that for silica - gold core - shell nanoparticles, the resonant wavelength is greater than that of the gold - silver, silver-gold and gold-silica core - shell nanoparticles and also the radiation pattern of the silica-gold core-shell nanoparticle is the most suitable one from the point of view of directivity. The dielectric functions of the core and shell material as well as of the embedded matrix are extremely important and plays a very major role to tune the directivity and resonance wavelength. Such highly controllable parameters of the dielectric - metal core - shell nanoparticles make them suitable for efficient coupling of optical radiation into nanoscale structures for a broad range of applications in the field of communications. (paper)

  16. Synthesis and characterization of multifunctional silica core-shell nanocomposites with magnetic and fluorescent functionalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhiya; Dosev, Dosi; Nichkova, Mikaela; Dumas, Randy K.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Liu Kai; Kennedy, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Multifunctional core-shell nanocomposites with a magnetic core and a silica shell doped with lanthanide chelate have been prepared by a simple method. First, citric acid-modified magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical coprecipitation method. Then the magnetite nanoparticles were coated with silica shells doped with terbium (Tb 3+ ) complex by a modified Stoeber method based on hydrolyzing and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and a silane precursor. These multifunctional nanocomposites are potentially useful in a variety of biological areas such as bio-imaging, bio-labeling and bioassays because they can be simultaneously manipulated with an external magnetic field and exhibit unique phosphorescence properties.

  17. Synthesis of magnetic CoPt/SiO{sub 2} core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Takafumi [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Koga, Kenji [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takano, Fumiyoshi [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Akinaga, Hiroyuki [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Orii, Takaaki [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Hirasawa, Makoto [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Murayama, Mitsuhiro [National Institute for Material Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    Core-shell nanoparticles composed of ferromagnetic cobalt platinum cores covered by non-magnetic silica shells were synthesized by laser ablating a composite target in a helium background gas. The average diameter of the CoPt core was controlled by adjusting the CoPt/SiO{sub 2} ratio of the ablation target. The particles were also classified in the gas phase using an electrical mobility classifier. The present method successfully synthesized nearly monodispersed nanoparticles with an average core diameter of 2.5nm. This article describes the synthesis of the core-shell nanoparticles and investigates their magnetic properties.

  18. Magnetoliposomes based on nickel/silica core/shell nanoparticles: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ana Rita O.; Gomes, I.T.; Almeida, Bernardo G. [Centro de Física (CFUM), Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Araújo, J.P. [IFIMUP/IN – Instituto de Nanociência e Nanotecnologia, R. Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Castanheira, Elisabete M.S. [Centro de Física (CFUM), Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Coutinho, Paulo J.G., E-mail: pcoutinho@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Física (CFUM), Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2014-12-15

    In the present work, nickel magnetic nanoparticles with diameters lower than 100 nm, with and without silica shell, were synthesized by microheterogeneous templating. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles show a typical ferromagnetic behavior with a coercive field of 80 Oe. Dry magnetoliposomes (DMLs) with diameter between 58 nm and 76 nm were obtained from the synthesis of nanoparticles in the presence of a lipid or surfactant layer, and aqueous magnetoliposomes (AMLs) were obtained by encapsulation of the nanoparticles in liposomes. FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) experiments were performed to study the non-specific interactions between aqueous magnetoliposomes and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), as models of cell membranes. It was possible to detect membrane fusion between GUVs and AMLs containing both NBD-C{sub 6}-HPC (donor) and the dye Nile Red (acceptor). - Highlights: • Magnetic nickel nanoparticles were synthesized in microheterogeneous media. • The nanoparticles were covered with a silica shell to improve biocompatibility. • Aqueous and dry magnetoliposomes were prepared, the latter with diameter around 70 nm. • Membrane fusion between magnetoliposomes and models of cell membranes was detected by FRET.

  19. Magnetoliposomes based on nickel/silica core/shell nanoparticles: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Ana Rita O.; Gomes, I.T.; Almeida, Bernardo G.; Araújo, J.P.; Castanheira, Elisabete M.S.; Coutinho, Paulo J.G.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, nickel magnetic nanoparticles with diameters lower than 100 nm, with and without silica shell, were synthesized by microheterogeneous templating. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles show a typical ferromagnetic behavior with a coercive field of 80 Oe. Dry magnetoliposomes (DMLs) with diameter between 58 nm and 76 nm were obtained from the synthesis of nanoparticles in the presence of a lipid or surfactant layer, and aqueous magnetoliposomes (AMLs) were obtained by encapsulation of the nanoparticles in liposomes. FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) experiments were performed to study the non-specific interactions between aqueous magnetoliposomes and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), as models of cell membranes. It was possible to detect membrane fusion between GUVs and AMLs containing both NBD-C 6 -HPC (donor) and the dye Nile Red (acceptor). - Highlights: • Magnetic nickel nanoparticles were synthesized in microheterogeneous media. • The nanoparticles were covered with a silica shell to improve biocompatibility. • Aqueous and dry magnetoliposomes were prepared, the latter with diameter around 70 nm. • Membrane fusion between magnetoliposomes and models of cell membranes was detected by FRET

  20. Amperometric glucose sensor based on enhanced catalytic reduction of oxygen using glucose oxidase adsorbed onto core-shell Fe3O4-silica-Au magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aijun; Li Yongfang; Li Zhonghua; Feng Jiuju; Sun Yanli; Chen Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    Monodisperse Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared under facile solvothermal conditions and successively functionalized with silica and Au to form core/shell Fe 3 O 4 -silica-Au NPs. Furthermore, the samples were used as matrix to construct a glucose sensor based on glucose oxidase (GOD). The immobilized GOD retained its bioactivity with high protein load of 3.92 × 10 −9 mol·cm −2 , and exhibited a surface-controlled quasi-reversible redox reaction, with a fast heterogeneous electron transfer rate of 7.98 ± 0.6 s −1 . The glucose biosensor showed a broad linear range up to 3.97 mM with high sensitivity of 62.45 μA·mM −1 cm −2 and fast response (less than 5 s). - Graphical abstract: Core-shell structured Fe 3 O 4 -silica-Au nanoparticles were prepared and used as matrix to construct an amperometric glucose sensor based on glucose oxidase, which showed broad linear range, high sensitivity, and fast response. Highlights: ► Synthesis of monodispersed Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. ► Fabrication of core/shell Fe 3 O 4 -silica-Au nanoparticles. ► Construction of a novel glucose sensor with wide linear range, high sensitivity and fast response.

  1. Magnetic core-shell silica particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claesson, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with magnetic silica core-shell colloids and related functionalized silica structures. Synthesis routes have been developed and optimized. The physical properties of these colloids have been investigated, such as the magnetic dipole moment, dipolar structure formation and

  2. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous silica core-shell particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Nikolić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell particles were formed by deposition of primary silica particles synthesized from sodium silicate solution on functionalized silica core particles (having size of ~0.5 µm prepared by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylortosilicate. The obtained mesoporous shell has thickness of about 60 nm and consists of primary silica particles with average size of ~21 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and zeta potential measurements showed that continuous silica shell exists around functionalized core particles which was additionally proved by FTIR and TEM results.

  3. Synthesis of Various Silica Nanoparticles for Foam Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Suk Bon; Yoon, Inho; Jung, Chonghun; Kim, Chorong; Choi, Wangkyu; Moon, Jeikwon

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of the non-porous silica nanoparticles with uniform sizes has been reported through the Sto ber method, the synthesis of meso porous silica nanoparticles with a specific morphology such as core-shell, rod-like, and hexagonal shapes is not so common. As a synthetic strategy for controlling the particle size, shape, and porosity, the synthesis of core-shell silicas with meso porous shells formed on silica particle cores through the self-assembly of silica precursor and organic templates or spherical meso porous silicas using modified Sto ber method was also reported. Recently, in an effort to reduce the amount of radioactive waste and enhance the decontamination efficiency during the decontamination process of nuclear facilities contaminated with radionuclides, a few research for the preparation of the decontamination foam containing solid nanoparticles has been reported. In this work, the silica nanoparticles with various sizes, shapes, and structures were synthesized based on the previous literatures. The resulting silica nanoparticles were used to investigate the effect of the nanoparticles on the foam stability. In a study on the foam stability using various silica nanoparticles, the results showed that the foam volume and liquid volume in foam was enhanced when using a smaller size and lower density of the silica nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles with various sizes, shapes, and structures such as a non-porous, meso porous core-shell, and meso porous silica were synthesized to investigate the effect of the foam stability. The sizes and structural properties of the silica nanoparticles were easily controlled by varying the amount of silica precursor, surfactant, and ammonia solution as a basic catalyst. The foam prepared using various silica nanoparticles showed that foam the volume and liquid volume in the foam were enhanced when using a smaller size and lower density of the silica nanoparticles

  4. Synthesis and characterization of fluorescence-labelled silica core-shell and noble metal-decorated ceria nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Herrmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review article covers work done in the cluster NPBIOMEM in the DFG priority programme SPP 1313 and focuses on synthesis and characterization of fluorescent silica and ceria nanoparticles. Synthetic methods for labelling of silica and polyorganosiloxane/silica core–shell nanoparticles with perylenediimide derivatives are described, as well as the modification of the shell with thiol groups. Photometric methods for the determination of the number of thiol groups and an estimate for the number of fluorescent molecules per nanoparticles, including a scattering correction, have been developed. Ceria nanoparticles decorated with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Rh are models for the decomposition products of automobile catalytic converters which appear in the exhaust gases and finally interact with biological systems including humans. The control of the degree of agglomeration of small ceria nanoparticles is the basis for their synthesis. Almost monodisperse agglomerates (40 ± 4–260 ± 40 nm diameter can be prepared and decorated with noble metal nanoparticles (2–5 nm diameter. Fluorescence labelling with ATTO 647N gave the model particles which are now under biophysical investigation.

  5. Synthesis and Adsorption Property of SiO2@Co(OH2 Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongde Meng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Silica nanoparticles were directly coated with cobalt hydroxide by homogeneous precipitation of slowly decomposing urea in cobalt nitrate solution. The cobalt hydroxide was amorphous, and its morphology was nanoflower-like. The BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of the core-shell composite was 221 m2/g. Moreover, the possible formation procedure is proposed: the electropositive cobalt ions were first adsorbed on the electronegative silica nanoparticles surface, which hydrolyzed to form cobalt hydroxide nanoparticles. Then, the cobalt hydroxide nanoparticles were aggregated to form nanoflakes. Finally, the nanoflakes self-assembled, forming cobalt hydroxide nanoflowers. Adsorption measurement showed that the core-shell composite exhibited excellent adsorption capability of Rhodamine B (RB.

  6. Amperometric glucose sensor based on enhanced catalytic reduction of oxygen using glucose oxidase adsorbed onto core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-silica-Au magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Aijun [College of Geography and Environmental Science, College of Chemistry and Life Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Li Yongfang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Li Zhonghua [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Feng Jiuju, E-mail: jjfengnju@gmail.com [College of Geography and Environmental Science, College of Chemistry and Life Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Sun Yanli [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Chen Jianrong [College of Geography and Environmental Science, College of Chemistry and Life Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)

    2012-08-01

    Monodisperse Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared under facile solvothermal conditions and successively functionalized with silica and Au to form core/shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-silica-Au NPs. Furthermore, the samples were used as matrix to construct a glucose sensor based on glucose oxidase (GOD). The immobilized GOD retained its bioactivity with high protein load of 3.92 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} mol{center_dot}cm{sup -2}, and exhibited a surface-controlled quasi-reversible redox reaction, with a fast heterogeneous electron transfer rate of 7.98 {+-} 0.6 s{sup -1}. The glucose biosensor showed a broad linear range up to 3.97 mM with high sensitivity of 62.45 {mu}A{center_dot}mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} and fast response (less than 5 s). - Graphical abstract: Core-shell structured Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-silica-Au nanoparticles were prepared and used as matrix to construct an amperometric glucose sensor based on glucose oxidase, which showed broad linear range, high sensitivity, and fast response. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of monodispersed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of core/shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-silica-Au nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Construction of a novel glucose sensor with wide linear range, high sensitivity and fast response.

  7. One-pot synthesis and characterization of rhodamine derivative-loaded magnetic core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jin, E-mail: jzhang@eng.uwo.ca; Li Jiaxin [University of Western Ontario, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (Canada); Razavi, Fereidoon S. [Brock University, Department of Physics (Canada); Mumin, Abdul Md. [University of Western Ontario, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    A new method to produce elaborate nanostructure with magnetic and fluorescent properties in one entity is reported in this article. Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) coated with fluorescent silica (SiO{sub 2}) shell was produced through the one-pot reaction, in which one reactor was utilized to realize the synthesis of superparamagnetic core of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, the formation of SiO{sub 2} coating through the condensation and polymerization of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), and the encapsulation of tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate-dextran (TRITC-dextran) within silica shell. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were carried out to investigate the core-shell structure. The magnetic core of the core-shell nanoparticles is 60 {+-} 10 nm in diameter. The thickness of the fluorescent SiO{sub 2} shell is estimated at 15 {+-} 5 nm. In addition, the fluorescent signal of the SiO{sub 2} shell has been detected by the laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) with emission wavelength ({lambda}{sub em}) at 566 nm. In addition, the magnetic properties of TRITC-dextran loaded silica-coating iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2} NPs) were studied. The hysteresis loop of the core-shell NPs measured at room temperature shows that the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) is not reached even at the field of 70 kOe (7T). Meanwhile, the very low coercivity (H{sub c}) and remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) are 0.375 kOe and 6.6 emu/g, respectively, at room temperature. It indicates that the core-shell particles have the superparamagnetic properties. The measured blocking temperature (T{sub B}) of the TRITC-dextran loaded Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2} NPs is about 122.5 K. It is expected that the multifunctional core-shell nanoparticles can be used in bio-imaging.

  8. Gradual growth of gold nanoseeds on silica for SiO2-gold homogeneous nano core/shell applications by the chemical reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvani Nikabadi, H; Shahtahmasebi, N; Rezaee Rokn-Abadi, M; Bagheri Mohagheghi, M M; Goharshadi, E K

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a facile method for the synthesis of gold nanoseeds on the functionalized surface of silica nanoparticles has been investigated. Mono-dispersed silica particles and gold nanoparticles were prepared by the chemical reduction method. The thickness of the Au shell was well controlled by repeating the reduction time of HAuCl 4 on silica/3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)/initial gold nanoparticles. The prepared SiO 2 -gold core/shell nanoparticles were studied using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The TEM images indicated that the silica nanoparticles were spherical in shape with 100 nm diameters and functionalizing silica nanoparticles with a layer of bi-functional APTES molecules and tetrakis hydroxy methyl phosphonium chloride. The gold nanoparticles show a narrow size of up to 5 nm and by growing gold nanoseeds over the silica cores a red shift in the maximum absorbance of UV-Vis spectroscopy from 524 to 637 nm was observed.

  9. Core/shell magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles with radially oriented wide mesopores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Ž. Knežević

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Core/shell nanoparticles, containing magnetic iron-oxide (maghemite core and mesoporous shell with radial porous structure, were prepared by dispersing magnetite nanoparticles and adding tetraethylorthosilicate to a basic aqueous solution containing structure-templating cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and a pore-swelling mesithylene. The material is characterized by SEM and TEM imaging, nitrogen sorption and powder X-ray diffraction. Distinctive features of the prepared material are its high surface area (959 m2/g, wide average pore diameter (12.4 nm and large pore volume (2.3 cm3/g. The material exhibits radial pore structure and the high angle XRD pattern characteristic for maghemite nanoparticles, which are obtained upon calcination of the magnetite-containing material. The observed properties of the prepared material may render the material applicable in separation, drug delivery, sensing and heterogeneous catalysis.

  10. Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mélinon, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.melinon@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Léon Brillouin, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Begin-Colin, Sylvie [IPCMS et OMNT, 23 rue du Loess BP 43, 67034 STRASBOURG Cedex 2 (France); Duvail, Jean Luc [IMN UMR 6502 et OMNT Campus Sciences : 2 rue de la Houssinire, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex3 (France); Gauffre, Fabienne [SPM et OMNT : Institut des sciences chimiques de Rennes - UMR 6226, 263 Avenue du General Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Boime, Nathalie Herlin [IRAMIS-NIMBE, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CEA CNRS URA 2453) et OMNT, Bat 522, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ledoux, Gilles [Institut Lumière Matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Alfred Kastler 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Plain, Jérôme [Universit de technologie de Troyes LNIO-ICD, CNRS et OMNT 12 rue Marie Curie - CS 42060 - 10004 Troyes cedex (France); Reiss, Peter [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM, UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-UJF et OMNT, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Silly, Fabien [CEA, IRAMIS, SPEC, TITANS, CNRS 2464 et OMNT, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [CEMES-CNRS, Université de Toulouse et OMNT, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig F 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2014-10-20

    It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed.

  11. Nitride stabilized core/shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian Abraham; Sasaki, Kotaro; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2018-01-30

    Nitride stabilized metal nanoparticles and methods for their manufacture are disclosed. In one embodiment the metal nanoparticles have a continuous and nonporous noble metal shell with a nitride-stabilized non-noble metal core. The nitride-stabilized core provides a stabilizing effect under high oxidizing conditions suppressing the noble metal dissolution during potential cycling. The nitride stabilized nanoparticles may be fabricated by a process in which a core is coated with a shell layer that encapsulates the entire core. Introduction of nitrogen into the core by annealing produces metal nitride(s) that are less susceptible to dissolution during potential cycling under high oxidizing conditions.

  12. Synthesis of parallel and antiparallel core-shell triangular nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Gourab; Satpati, Biswarup

    2018-04-01

    Core-shell triangular nanoparticles were synthesized by seed mediated growth. Using triangular gold (Au) nanoparticle as template, we have grown silver (Ag) shellto get core-shell nanoparticle. Here by changing the chemistry we have grown two types of core-shell structures where core and shell is having same symmetry and also having opposite symmetry. Both core and core-shell nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to know the crystal structure and composition of these synthesized core-shell nanoparticles. From diffraction pattern analysis and energy filtered TEM (EFTEM) we have confirmed the crystal facet in core is responsible for such two dimensional growth of core-shell nanostructures.

  13. Reinforcement of Natural Rubber with Core-Shell Structure Silica-Poly(Methyl Methacrylate Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghuang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly performing natural rubber/silica (NR/SiO2 nanocomposite with a SiO2 loading of 2 wt% was prepared by combining similar dissolve mutually theory with latex compounding techniques. Before polymerization, double bonds were introduced onto the surface of the SiO2 particles with the silane-coupling agent. The core-shell structure silica-poly(methyl methacrylate, SiO2-PMMA, nanoparticles were formed by grafting polymerization of MMA on the surface of the modified SiO2 particles via in situ emulsion, and then NR/SiO2 nanocomposite was prepared by blending SiO2-PMMA and PMMA-modified NR (NR-PMMA. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results show that PMMA has been successfully introduced onto the surface of SiO2, which can be well dispersed in NR matrix and present good interfacial adhesion with NR phase. Compared with those of pure NR, the thermal resistance and tensile properties of NR/SiO2 nanocomposite are significantly improved.

  14. Synthesis of eccentric titania-silica core-shell and composite particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; van Blaaderen, A.; Imhof, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel method to synthesize colloidal particles with an eccentric core-shell structure. Titania-silica core-shell particles were synthesized by silica coating of porous titania particles under Sto¨ber (Sto¨ber et al. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1968, 26, 62) conditions. We can control

  15. Electrostatically assisted fabrication of silver-dielectric core/shell nanoparticles thin film capacitor with uniform metal nanoparticle distribution and controlled spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Niitsoo, Olivia; Couzis, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    An electrostatically-assisted strategy for fabrication of thin film composite capacitors with controllable dielectric constant (k) has been developed. The capacitor is composed of metal-dielectric core/shell nanoparticle (silver/silica, Ag@SiO2) multilayer films, and a backfilling polymer. Compared with the simple metal particle-polymer mixtures where the metal nanoparticles (NP) are randomly dispersed in the polymer matrix, the metal volume fraction in our capacitor was significantly increased, owing to the densely packed NP multilayers formed by the electrostatically assisted assembly process. Moreover, the insulating layer of silica shell provides a potential barrier that reduces the tunneling current between neighboring Ag cores, endowing the core/shell nanocomposites with a stable and relatively high dielectric constant (k) and low dielectric loss (D). Our work also shows that the thickness of the SiO2 shell plays a dominant role in controlling the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites. Control over metal NP separation distance was realized not only by variation the shell thickness of the core/shell NPs but also by introducing a high k nanoparticle, barium strontium titanate (BST) of relatively smaller size (∼8nm) compared to 80-160nm of the core/shell Ag@SiO2 NPs. The BST assemble between the Ag@SiO2 and fill the void space between the closely packed core/shell NPs leading to significant enhancement of the dielectric constant. This electrostatically assisted assembly method is promising for generating multilayer films of a large variety of NPs over large areas at low cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cyclodextrin-Triazole Derivative Functionalized on Ag-SiO{sub 2} Core-Shell Nanoparticles via Click Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gun Bae; Singu, Bal Sydulu; Hong, Sang Eun; Yoon, Kuk Ro [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Click chemistry has provided a versatile strategy for functionalization in solution chemistry under mild reaction conditions with a high degree of functional group compatibility. Initially, silver (Ag) nanoparticles were prepared by the chemical reduction method, followed by the synthesis of silver–silica (Ag–SiO{sub 2}) core–shell nanoparticles by the Stöber method. The Ag–SiO2 core shell nanoparticles were functionalized with the alkyne derivative. The cycloaddition reaction between the azide-functionalized cyclodextrin and the alkyne-functionalized Ag–SiO{sub 2} core–shell nanoparticles was carried out via the copper-catalyzed click reaction, leading to the formation of the cyclodextrin-triazole derivative on the Ag–SiO{sub 2} core–shell nanoparticles. The presence of the resulting cyclodextrin-triazole derivative on the silver–silica core–shell nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  17. Synthesis of Pt-Sn core-shell nanoparticles deposited on SBA-15 modified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Contreras, L.; Alonso-Lemus, I. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia (Mexico); Botte, G. G. [Ohio University, Center for Electrochemical Engineering Research, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States); Verde-Gomez, Y., E-mail: ysmaelverde@yahoo.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Cancun (Mexico)

    2013-07-15

    A novel one-step synthesis method to prepare Pt-Sn bimetallic nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica with high surface area (SBA-15, 700 m{sup 2}/g) and narrow pore size distribution (around 9.5 nm) was developed. Tin incorporation plays an important dual role, to create active sites into the silica walls that serve as particles anchors center, and to grow Pt-Sn core-shell nanoparticles. High-resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction pattern confirm the formation of the Pt-Sn core-shell type nanoparticles ( Almost-Equal-To 1-10 nm). The metal loading was 2.2 and 2.3 wt% for Pt and Sn, respectively. Electron microscopy results show that the metal nanoparticles were deposited not only on the matrix, but also inside of it. Structural, textural, and morphological features of the SBA-15 were slightly affected after the nanoparticles deposition, maintaining its high surface area. The results obtained suggest that Pt-Sn on SBA-15 could be attractive material for several catalytic applications, due to the narrow particle size distribution achieved (from 1 to 10 nm) the high dispersion on the support, as well as the Pt-Sn alloy developed.Graphical Abstract.

  18. Magnetic and fluorescent core-shell nanoparticles for ratiometric pH sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapresta-Fernandez, Alejandro; Doussineau, Tristan; Moro, Artur J; Dutz, Silvio; Steiniger, Frank; Mohr, Gerhard J

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation of nanoparticles composed of a magnetic core surrounded by two successive silica shells embedding two fluorophores, showing uniform nanoparticle size (50-60 nm in diameter) and shape, which allow ratiometric pH measurements in the pH range 5-8. Uncoated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (∼10 nm in diameter) were formed by the coprecipitation reaction of ferrous and ferric salts. Then, they were added to a water-in-oil microemulsion where the hydrophilic silica shells were obtained through hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxyorthosilicate together with the corresponding silylated dye derivatives-a sulforhodamine was embedded in the inner silica shell and used as the reference dye while a pH-sensitive fluorescein was incorporated in the outer shell as the pH indicator. The magnetic nanoparticles were characterized using vibrating sample magnetometry, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The relationship between the analytical parameter, that is, the ratio of fluorescence between the sensing and reference dyes versus the pH was adjusted to a sigmoidal fit using a Boltzmann type equation giving an apparent pK a value of 6.8. The fluorescence intensity of the reference dye did not change significantly (∼3.0%) on modifying the pH of the nanoparticle dispersion. Finally, the proposed method was statistically validated against a reference procedure using samples of water and physiological buffer with 2% of horse serum, indicating that there are no significant statistical differences at a 95% confidence level.

  19. Polystyrene-Core, Silica-Shell Scintillant Nanoparticles for Low-Energy Radionuclide Quantification in Aqueous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczak, Colleen M; Calderon, Isen A C; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Aspinwall, Craig A

    2018-02-07

    β-particle emitting radionuclides are useful molecular labels due to their abundance in biomolecules. Detection of β-emission from 3 H, 35 S, and 33 P, important biological isotopes, is challenging due to the low energies (E max ≤ 300 keV) and short penetration depths (≤0.6 mm) in aqueous media. The activity of biologically relevant β-emitters is usually measured in liquid scintillation cocktail (LSC), a mixture of energy-absorbing organic solvents, surfactants, and scintillant fluorophores, which places significant limitations on the ability to acquire time-resolved measurements directly in aqueous biological systems. As an alternative to LSC, we developed polystyrene-core, silica-shell nanoparticle scintillators (referred to as nanoSCINT) for quantification of low-energy β-particle emitting radionuclides directly in aqueous solutions. The polystyrene acts as an absorber for energy from emitted β-particles and can be loaded with a range of hydrophobic scintillant fluorophores, leading to photon emission at visible wavelengths. The silica shell serves as a hydrophilic shield for the polystyrene core, enabling dispersion in aqueous media and providing better compatibility with water-soluble analytes. While polymer and inorganic scintillating microparticles are commercially available, their large size and/or high density complicates effective dispersion throughout the sample volume. In this work, nanoSCINT nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. nanoSCINT responds to 3 H, 35 S, and 33 P directly in aqueous solutions, does not exhibit a change in scintillation response between pH 3.0 and 9.5 or with 100 mM NaCl, and can be recovered and reused for activity measurements in bulk aqueous samples, demonstrating the potential for reduced production of LSC waste and reduced total waste volume during radionuclide quantification. The limits of detection for 1 mg/mL nanoSCINT are 130 nCi/mL for 3 H, 8 nCi/mL for 35 S, and <1 nCi/mL for 33 P.

  20. The Synthesis and Characterization of Gold-Core/LDH-Shell Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearick, Colton

    In recent years, the field of nanomedicine has progressed at an astonishing rate, particularly with respect to applications in cancer treatment and molecular imaging. Although organic systems have been the frontrunners, inorganic systems have also begun to show promise, especially those based upon silica and magnetic nanoparticles (NPs). Many of these systems are being designed for simultaneous therapeutic and diagnostic capabilities, thus coining the term, theranostics. A unique class of inorganic systems that shows great promise as theranostics is that of layered double hydroxides (LDH). By synthesis of a core/shell structures, e.g. a gold nanoparticle (NP) core and LDH shell, the multifunctional theranostic may be developed without a drastic increase in the structural complexity. To demonstrate initial proof-of-concept of a potential (inorganic) theranostic platform, a Au-core/LDH-shell nanovector has been synthesized and characterized. The LDH shell was heterogeneously nucleated and grown on the surface of silica coated gold NPs via a coprecipitation method. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was introduced in the initial synthesis steps to improve crystallinity and colloidal stability. Additionally, during synthesis, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was intercalated into the interlayer spacing of the LDH. In contrast to the PEG stabilization, a post synthesis citric acid treatment was used as a method to control the size and short-term stability. The heterogeneous core-shell system was characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). A preliminary in vitro study carried out with the assistance of Dr. Kaushal Rege's group at Arizona State University was to demonstrate the endocytosis capability of homogeneously-grown LDH NPs. The DLS measurements of the core-shell NPs indicated an average particle size of 212nm. The PXRD analysis showed that PEG

  1. Current directions in core-shell nanoparticle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schärtl, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    Ten years ago I wrote a review about the important field of core-shell nanoparticles, focussing mainly on our own work about tracer systems, and briefly addressing polymer-coated nanoparticles as fillers for homogeneous polymer-colloid composites. Since then, the potential use of core-shell nanoparticles as multifunctional sensors or potential smart drug-delivery vehicles in biology and medicine has gained more and more importance, affording special types of multi-functionalized and bio-compatible nanoparticles. In this new review article, I try to address the most important developments during the last ten years. This overview is mainly based on frequently cited and more specialized recent review articles from leaders in their respective field. We will consider a variety of nanoscopic core-shell architectures from highly fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs), protected magnetic NPs, multifunctional NPs, thermoresponsive NPs and biocompatible systems to, finally, smart drug-delivery systems.Ten years ago I wrote a review about the important field of core-shell nanoparticles, focussing mainly on our own work about tracer systems, and briefly addressing polymer-coated nanoparticles as fillers for homogeneous polymer-colloid composites. Since then, the potential use of core-shell nanoparticles as multifunctional sensors or potential smart drug-delivery vehicles in biology and medicine has gained more and more importance, affording special types of multi-functionalized and bio-compatible nanoparticles. In this new review article, I try to address the most important developments during the last ten years. This overview is mainly based on frequently cited and more specialized recent review articles from leaders in their respective field. We will consider a variety of nanoscopic core-shell architectures from highly fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs), protected magnetic NPs, multifunctional NPs, thermoresponsive NPs and biocompatible systems to, finally, smart drug-delivery systems

  2. DNA nanoparticles with core-shell morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Preethi L; Dimitriadis, Emilios K; Lisziewicz, Julianna; Speransky, Vlad; Horkay, Ferenc

    2014-10-14

    Mannobiose-modified polyethylenimines (PEI) are used in gene therapy to generate nanoparticles of DNA that can be targeted to the antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. We report that the sugar modification alters the DNA organization within the nanoparticles from homogenous to shell-like packing. The depth-dependent packing of DNA within the nanoparticles was probed using AFM nano-indentation. Unmodified PEI-DNA nanoparticles display linear elastic properties and depth-independent mechanics, characteristic of homogenous materials. Mannobiose-modified nanoparticles, however, showed distinct force regimes that were dependent on indentation depth, with 'buckling'-like response that is reproducible and not due to particle failure. By comparison with theoretical studies of spherical shell mechanics, the structure of mannobiosylated particles was deduced to be a thin shell with wall thickness in the order of few nanometers, and a fluid-filled core. The shell-core structure is also consistent with observations of nanoparticle denting in altered solution conditions, with measurements of nanoparticle water content from AFM images, and with images of DNA distribution in Transmission Electron Microscopy.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Ti-Phenyl at SiO2 Core-Shell Nanoparticles Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamsi Aini; Jon Efendi; Syamsi Aini; Jon Efendi

    2012-01-01

    This study highlights the potential use of Ti-Phenyl at SiO 2 core-shell nanoparticles as heterogeneous catalysis in oxidation reaction. The Ti-Phenyl at SiO 2 was synthesized by reduction of TiCl 4 and diazonium salt with sodium borohydride to produce phenyl titanium nanoparticles (Ti-Phenyl), followed by the silica shell coating using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The Ti-Phenyl at SiO 2 nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, diffuse reflectance (DR) UV-visible spectrometer, thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometer, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The core-shell size of Ti-Phenyl at SiO 2 was in the range of 40 to 100 nm with its core composed with an agglomeration of Ti-Phenyl. The Ti-Phenyl at SiO 2 was active as a catalyst in the liquid phase epoxidation of 1-octene with aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. (author)

  4. Silica encapsulation of luminescent silicon nanoparticles: stable and biocompatible nanohybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurice, Vincent [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPAM-LFP (France); Rivolta, Ilaria [University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Experimental Medicine (DIMS) (Italy); Vincent, Julien [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPAM-LFP (France); Raccurt, Olivier [CEA Grenoble, Department of Nano Materials, NanoChemistry and NanoSafety Laboratory (DRT/LITEN/DTNM/LCSN) (France); Rouzaud, Jean-Noel [Ecole Normale superieure de Paris, Laboratoire de Geologie (France); Miserrochi, Giuseppe [University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Experimental Medicine (DIMS) (Italy); Doris, Eric [CEA, Service de Chimie Bioorganique et de Marquage, iBiTecS (France); Reynaud, Cecile; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.herlin@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPAM-LFP (France)

    2012-02-15

    This article presents a process for surface coating and functionalization of luminescent silicon nanoparticles. The particles were coated with silica using a microemulsion process that was adapted to the fragile silicon nanoparticles. The as-produced core-shell particles have a mean diameter of 35 nm and exhibit the intrinsic photoluminescence of the silicon core. The silica layer protects the core from aqueous oxidation for several days, thus allowing the use of the nanoparticles for biological applications. The nanoparticles were further coated with amines and functionalized with polyethylene glycol chains and the toxicity of the particles has been evaluated at the different stages of the process. The core-shell nanoparticles exhibit no acute toxicity towards lung cells, which is promising for further development.

  5. Synthesis and cytotoxicity study of magnesium ferrite-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonkumwong, Jeeranan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Pakawanit, Phakkhananan [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wipatanawin, Angkana [Division of Biochemistry and Biochemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Jantaratana, Pongsakorn [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 11900 (Thailand); Ananta, Supon [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Srisombat, Laongnuan, E-mail: slaongnuan@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the core-magnesium ferrite (MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal technique. Completed gold (Au) shell coating on the surfaces of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was obtained by varying core/shell ratios via a reduction method. Phase identification, morphological evolution, optical properties, magnetic properties and cytotoxicity to mammalian cells of these MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} core coated with Au nanoparticles were examined by using a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), vibrating sample magnetometry and resazurin microplate assay techniques. In general, TEM images revealed different sizes of the core-shell nanoparticles generated from various core/shell ratios and confirmed the completed Au shell coating on MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} core nanoparticles via suitable core/shell ratio with particle size less than 100 nm. The core-shell nanoparticle size and the quality of coating influence the optical properties of the products. The UV–vis spectra of complete coated MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanoparticles exhibit the absorption bands in the near-Infrared (NIR) region indicating high potential for therapeutic applications. Based on the magnetic property measurement, it was found that the obtained MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanoparticles still exhibit superparamagnetism with lower saturation magnetization value, compared with MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} core. Both of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell also showed in vitro non-cytotoxicity to mouse areola fibroblast (L-929) cell line. - Highlights: • Synthesis of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanoparticles with particle size < 100 nm • Complete Au shell coating on the surfaces of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles • In vitro cytotoxicity study of complete coated MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell

  6. Synthesis and cytotoxicity study of magnesium ferrite-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonkumwong, Jeeranan; Pakawanit, Phakkhananan; Wipatanawin, Angkana; Jantaratana, Pongsakorn; Ananta, Supon; Srisombat, Laongnuan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the core-magnesium ferrite (MgFe_2O_4) nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal technique. Completed gold (Au) shell coating on the surfaces of MgFe_2O_4 nanoparticles was obtained by varying core/shell ratios via a reduction method. Phase identification, morphological evolution, optical properties, magnetic properties and cytotoxicity to mammalian cells of these MgFe_2O_4 core coated with Au nanoparticles were examined by using a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), vibrating sample magnetometry and resazurin microplate assay techniques. In general, TEM images revealed different sizes of the core-shell nanoparticles generated from various core/shell ratios and confirmed the completed Au shell coating on MgFe_2O_4 core nanoparticles via suitable core/shell ratio with particle size less than 100 nm. The core-shell nanoparticle size and the quality of coating influence the optical properties of the products. The UV–vis spectra of complete coated MgFe_2O_4-Au core-shell nanoparticles exhibit the absorption bands in the near-Infrared (NIR) region indicating high potential for therapeutic applications. Based on the magnetic property measurement, it was found that the obtained MgFe_2O_4-Au core-shell nanoparticles still exhibit superparamagnetism with lower saturation magnetization value, compared with MgFe_2O_4 core. Both of MgFe_2O_4 and MgFe_2O_4-Au core-shell also showed in vitro non-cytotoxicity to mouse areola fibroblast (L-929) cell line. - Highlights: • Synthesis of MgFe_2O_4-Au core-shell nanoparticles with particle size < 100 nm • Complete Au shell coating on the surfaces of MgFe_2O_4 nanoparticles • In vitro cytotoxicity study of complete coated MgFe_2O_4-Au core-shell nanoparticles

  7. Process to make core-shell structured nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhrs, Claudia; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N

    2014-01-07

    Disclosed is a process for making a composite material that contains core-shell structured nanoparticles. The process includes providing a precursor in the form of a powder a liquid and/or a vapor of a liquid that contains a core material and a shell material, and suspending the precursor in an aerosol gas to produce an aerosol containing the precursor. In addition, the process includes providing a plasma that has a hot zone and passing the aerosol through the hot zone of the plasma. As the aerosol passes through the hot zone of the plasma, at least part of the core material and at least part of the shell material in the aerosol is vaporized. Vapor that contains the core material and the shell material that has been vaporized is removed from the hot zone of the plasma and allowed to condense into core-shell structured nanoparticles.

  8. Core@shell Nanoparticles: Greener Synthesis Using Natural Plant Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Khatami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Among an array of hybrid nanoparticles, core-shell nanoparticles comprise of two or more materials, such as metals and biomolecules, wherein one of them forms the core at the center, while the other material/materials that were located around the central core develops a shell. Core-shell nanostructures are useful entities with high thermal and chemical stability, lower toxicity, greater solubility, and higher permeability to specific target cells. Plant or natural products-mediated synthesis of nanostructures refers to the use of plants or its extracts for the synthesis of nanostructures, an emerging field of sustainable nanotechnology. Various physiochemical and greener methods have been advanced for the synthesis of nanostructures, in contrast to conventional approaches that require the use of synthetic compounds for the assembly of nanostructures. Although several biological resources have been exploited for the synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles, but plant-based materials appear to be the ideal candidates for large-scale green synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles. This review summarizes the known strategies for the greener production of core-shell nanoparticles using plants extract or their derivatives and highlights their salient attributes, such as low costs, the lack of dependence on the use of any toxic materials, and the environmental friendliness for the sustainable assembly of stabile nanostructures.

  9. Thermally stable silica-coated hydrophobic gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehara, Masayuki; Watanabe, Yuka; Teranishi, Toshiharu

    2009-01-01

    We have successfully developed a method for silica coating on hydrophobic dodecanethiol-protected Au nanoparticles with coating thickness ranging from 10 to 40 nm. The formation of silica-coated Au nanoparticles could be accomplished via the preparation of hydrophilic Au nanoparticle micelles by cationic surfactant encapsulation in aqueous phase, followed by hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate on the hydrophilic surface of gold nanoparticle micelles. Silica-coated Au nanoparticles exhibited quite high thermal stability, that is, no agglomeration of the Au cores could be observed after annealing at 600 degrees C for 30 min. Silica-coated Au nanoparticles could serve as a template to derive hollow nanoparticles. An addition of NaCN solution to silica-coated Au nanoparticles led the formation of hollow silica nanoparticles, which were redispersible in deionized water. The formation of the hollow silica nanoparticles results from the mesoporous structures of the silica shell and such a mesoporous structure is applicable to both catalyst support and drug delivery.

  10. Sensing behavior study of silica-coated Ag nanoparticles deposited on glassy carbon toward nitrobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, Pooja; Reddy, Pramod [CSIR, Sector-30C, Central Scientific Instruments Organization (India); Arora, Swati [Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University (India); Singh, Suman; Ghanshyam, C.; Singla, M. L., E-mail: singla_min@yahoo.co.in [CSIR, Sector-30C, Central Scientific Instruments Organization (India)

    2012-10-15

    In this study, we report the synthesis and characterization of silica-coated silver core/shell nanostructures (NSs) and their sensing behavior when deposited on glassy carbon (GC) electrode for nitrobenzene (NB) detection. Synthesized silica-coated silver core/shell NSs were characterized for their chemical, structural and morphological properties. TEM analysis confirmed that the silica-coated silver nanoparticles (size {approx}200 nm) are spherical in shape and the core diameter is {approx}38 nm. FT-IR spectra also confirmed the coating of silica on the surface of silver nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry studies of NB with silica-coated silver core-shell nanoparticles-modified GC electrodes revealed two cathodic peaks at -0.74 V (C{sub 1}) and -0.34 V (C{sub 2}) along with two anodic peaks at -0.64 V (A{sub 1}) and -0.2 V (A{sub 2}). Enhanced cathodic peak current (C{sub 1}, I{sub P}) of the core-shell NSs-modified electrode is observed relative to bare and silica-modified electrodes. Amperometric studies revealed a very high current sensitivity (114 nA/nM) and linearly dependent reduction current with NB amount in the low concentration range and a detection limit of 25 nM. Moreover, the core-shell NSs-modified electrode showed good reproducibility and selectivity toward NB in the presence of many cationic, anionic, and organic interferents.

  11. Optical absorption of carbon-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaolong; Quan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhuomin; Cheng, Ping

    2018-01-01

    In order to enhance the solar thermal energy conversion efficiency, we propose to use carbon-gold core-shell nanoparticles dispersed in liquid water. This work demonstrates theoretically that an absorbing carbon (C) core enclosed in a plasmonic gold (Au) nanoshell can enhance the absorption peak while broadening the absorption band; giving rise to a much higher solar absorption than most previously studied core-shell combinations. The exact Mie solution is used to evaluate the absorption efficiency factor of spherical nanoparticles in the wavelength region from 300 nm to 1100 nm as well as the electric field and power dissipation profiles inside the nanoparticles at specified wavelengths (mostly at the localized surface plasmon resonance wavelength). The field enhancement by the localized plasmons at the gold surfaces boosts the absorption of the carbon particle, resulting in a redshift of the absorption peak with increased peak height and bandwidth. In addition to spherical nanoparticles, we use the finite-difference time-domain method to calculate the absorption of cubic core-shell nanoparticles. Even stronger enhancement can be achieved with cubic C-Au core-shell structures due to the localized plasmonic resonances at the sharp edges of the Au shell. The solar absorption efficiency factor can exceed 1.5 in the spherical case and reach 2.3 in the cubic case with a shell thickness of 10 nm. Such broadband absorption enhancement is in great demand for solar thermal applications including steam generation.

  12. Study the effect of calcination temperature on physical and magnetic properties of bare Cobalt nanoparticles and that coated with silica shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, H.; Pourarian, F.; Chahkandinejad, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, in order to investigate the effect of calcination temperature on the structural and magnetic properties of cobalt nanoparticles, samples have been prepared by Co-precipitation method at different calcination temperature. Cobalt nanoparticles have been prepared by Co-precipitation method at room temperature using hydrazine as reducing in ethanol hydrazine alkaline environment. This agent reduces cobalt salts to Cobalt nanoparticles in FCC and HCP phases. Phase analysis and investigation of Structural properties of the samples using X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) confirm the formation of hexagonal phases of Co nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy was used for determining the size and shape morphology of nanoparticles. Magnetic properties of these nanoparticles have been investigated using a Vibrating sample magnetometer. The results indicate that these nanoparticles are ferromagnetic at room temperature. In addition, in this paper Co nanoparticles coated with silica shell have been prepared by the wet chemical method. Transmission electron microscopy images showed the cobalt core with average diameter of 17-20 nm coated by a silica shell with thickness of 5-7 nm. Hysteresis Loop of these Co nanoparticles coated by silica shell illustrates 16.9 emu/gr for saturation magnetization at 10000 (Oe), which is much less than that of Cobalt nanoparticles

  13. Modified ferrite core-shell nanoparticles magneto-structural characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klekotka, Urszula; Piotrowska, Beata; Satuła, Dariusz; Kalska-Szostko, Beata

    2018-06-01

    In this study, ferrite nanoparticles with core-shell structures and different chemical compositions of both the core and shell were prepared with success. Proposed nanoparticles have in the first and second series magnetite core, and the shell is composed of a mixture of ferrites with Fe3+, Fe2+ and M ions (where M = Co2+, Mn2+ or Ni2+) with a general composition of M0.5Fe2.5O4. In the third series, the composition is inverted, the core is composed of a mixture of ferrites and as a shell magnetite is placed. Morphology and structural characterization of nanoparticles were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Infrared spectroscopy (IR). While room temperature magnetic properties were measured using Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS). It is seen from Mössbauer measurements that Co always increases hyperfine magnetic field on Fe atoms at RT, while Ni and Mn have opposite influences in comparison to pure Fe ferrite, regardless of the nanoparticles structure.

  14. Synthesis of CuO-NiO core-shell nanoparticles by homogeneous precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayal, Nisha; Jeevanandam, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CuO-NiO core-shell nanoparticles have been synthesized using a simple homogeneous precipitation method for the first time. ► Mechanism of the formation of core-shell nanoparticles has been investigated. ► The synthesis route may be extended for the synthesis of other mixed metal oxide core-shell nanoparticles. - Abstract: Core-shell CuO–NiO mixed metal oxide nanoparticles in which CuO is the core and NiO is the shell have been successfully synthesized using homogeneous precipitation method. This is a simple synthetic method which produces first a layered double hydroxide precursor with core-shell morphology which on calcination at 350 °C yields the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles with the retention of core-shell morphology. The CuO–NiO mixed metal oxide precursor and the core-shell nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The chemical reactivity of the core-shell nanoparticles was tested using catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol with NaBH 4 . The possible growth mechanism of the particles with core-shell morphology has also been investigated.

  15. Electrosprayed core-shell polymer-lipid nanoparticles for active component delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb, Megdi; Stride, Eleanor; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-11-01

    A key challenge in the production of multicomponent nanoparticles for healthcare applications is obtaining reproducible monodisperse nanoparticles with the minimum number of preparation steps. This paper focus on the use of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) techniques to produce core-shell polymer-lipid structures with a narrow size distribution in a single step process. These nanoparticles are composed of a hydrophilic core for active component encapsulation and a lipid shell. It was found that core-shell nanoparticles with a tunable size range between 30 and 90 nm and a narrow size distribution could be reproducibly manufactured. The results indicate that the lipid component (stearic acid) stabilizes the nanoparticles against collapse and aggregation and improves entrapment of active components, in this case vanillin, ethylmaltol and maltol. The overall structure of the nanoparticles produced was examined by multiple methods, including transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, to confirm that they were of core-shell form.

  16. Surface zwitterionicalization of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes from the entrapped reactive core-shell silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Jing; Zhu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Pei-Bin; Zhu, Bao-Ku; Xu, You-Yi

    2016-04-15

    We demonstrate the preparation and properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) filtration membranes modified via surface zwitterionicalization mediated by reactive core-shell silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs). The organic/inorganic hybrid SiO2 NPs grafted with poly(methyl meth acrylate)-block-poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) copolymer (PMMA-b-PDMAEMA) shell were prepared by surface-initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (SI-RAFT) polymerization and then used as a membrane-making additive of PVDF membranes. The PDMAEMA exposed on membrane surface and pore walls were quaternized into zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) using 1,3-propane sultone (1,3-PS) as the quaternization agent. The membrane surface chemistry and morphology were analyzed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The hydrophilicity, permeability and antifouling ability of the investigated membranes were evaluated in detail. It was found that the PSBMA chains brought highly-hydrophilic and strong fouling resistant characteristics to PVDF membranes due to the powerful hydration of zwitterionic surface. The SiO2 cores and PMMA chains in the hybrid NPs play a role of anchors for the linking of PSBMA chains to membrane surface. Compared to the traditional strategies for membrane hydrophilic modification, the developed method in this work combined the advantages of both blending and surface reaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Amine-functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles for DNA separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Wei; Wei, Wei; Li, Junjian; Qi, Xiaoliang; Zuo, Gancheng; Chen, Qi; Pan, Xihao; Dong, Wei, E-mail: weidong@njust.edu.cn

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}@EDPS with uniform size and good dispersity is prepared. • We fabricated MMSN@EDPS with distinct core-shell–shell triple-layer composition. • DNA adsorption capacity of MMSN@EDPS is considerable. - Abstract: We report a modified approach for the functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSN) using polymer microspheres incorporated with magnetic nanoparticles in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the core-shell magnetic silica nanoparticles (MSN). These particles were functionalized with amino groups via the addition of aminosilane directly to the particle sol. We then evaluate their DNA separation abilities and find the capacity of DNA binding significantly increased (210.22 μg/mg) compared with normal magnetic silica spheres (138.44 μg/mg) by using an ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV). The morphologies, magnetic properties, particle size, pore size, core-shell structure and Zeta potential are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). This work demonstrates that our MMSN own an excellent potential application in bioseparation and drug delivery.

  18. Synthesis of highly monodisperse particles composed of a magnetic core and fluorescent shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Mikio; Yamauchi, Noriko; Matsumoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Konno, Mikio

    2008-09-02

    Highly monodisperse particles composed of a magnetic silica core and fluorescent polymer shell were synthesized with a combined technique of heterocoagulation and soap-free emulsion polymerization. Prior to heterocoagulation, monodisperse, submicrometer-sized silica particles were prepared with the Stober method, and magnetic nanoparticles were prepared with a modified Massart method in which a cationic silane coupling agent of N-trimethoxysilylpropyl- N, N, N-trimethylammonium chloride was added just after coprecipitation of Fe (2+) and Fe (3+). The silica particles with negative surface potential were heterocoagulated with the magnetic nanoparticles with positive surface potential. The magnetic silica particles obtained with the heterocoagulation were treated with sodium silicate to modify their surfaces with silica. In the formation of a fluorescent polymer shell onto the silica-coated magnetic silica cores, an amphoteric initiator of 2,2'-azobis[ N-(2-carboxyethyl)-2-2-methylpropionamidine] (VA-057) was used to control the colloidal stability of the magnetic cores during the polymer coating. The polymerization of St in the presence of a hydrophobic fluorophore of pyrene could coat the cores with fluorescent polymer shells, resulting in monodisperse particles with a magnetic silica core and fluorescent polymer shell. Measurements of zeta potential for the composite particles in different pH values indicated that the composite particles had an amphoteric property originating from VA-057 initiator.

  19. Magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles with diluted magnet-like behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garza-Navarro, Marco; Torres-Castro, Alejandro; Gonzalez, Virgilio; Ortiz, Ubaldo; De la Rosa, Elder

    2010-01-01

    In the present work is reported the use of the biopolymer chitosan as template for the preparation of magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems, following a two step procedure of magnetite nanoparticles in situ precipitation and subsequent silver ions reduction. The crystalline and morphological characteristics of both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems were analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nanobeam diffraction patterns (NBD). The results of these studies corroborate the core/shell morphology and the crystalline structure of the magnetite core and the silver shell. Moreover, magnetization temperature dependent, M(T), measurements show an unusual diluted magnetic behavior attributed to the dilution of the magnetic ordering in the magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems. - Graphical abstract: Biopolymer chitosan was used as stabilization media to synthesize both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles. Results of HRTEM and NBD patterns confirm core/shell morphology of the obtained nanoparticles. It was found that the composites show diluted magnet-like behavior.

  20. Core/Shell Structured Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biological Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Jung, Myung Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used for biomedical applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia, drug delivery and cell signaling. The surface modification of the nanomaterials is required for biomedical use to give physiogical stability, surface reactivity and targeting properties. Among many approaches for the surface modification with materials, such as polymers, organic ligands and metals, one of the most attractive ways is using metals. The fabrication of metal-based, monolayer-coated magnetic nanoparticles has been intensively studied. However, the synthesis of metal-capped magnetic nanoparticles with monodispersities and controllable sizes is still challenged. Recently, gold-capped magnetic nanoparticles have been reported to increase stability and to provide biocompatibility. Magnetic nanoparticle with gold coating is an attractive system, which can be stabilized in biological conditions and readily functionalized in biological conditions and readily functionalized through well-established surface modification (Au-S) chemistry. The Au coating offers plasmonic properties to magnetic nanoparticles. This makes the magnetic/Au core/shell combinations interesting for magnetic and optical applications. Herein, the synthesis and characterization of gold capped-magnetic core structured nanomaterials with different gold sources, such as gold acetate and chloroauric acid have been reported. The core/shell nanoparticles were transferred from organic to aqueous solutions for biomedical applications. Magnetic core/shell structured nanoparticles have been prepared and transferred from organic phase to aqueous solutions. The resulting Au-coated magnetic core nanoparticles might be an attractive system for biomedical applications, which are needed both magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging

  1. Spectroscopic and magnetic studies of highly dispersible superparamagnetic silica coated magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadyszak, Krzysztof [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Molecular Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Mariana Smo.luchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Kertmen, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmet.kertmen@pg.gda.pl [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Coy, Emerson [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Andruszkiewicz, Ryszard; Milewski, Sławomir [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Kardava, Irakli; Scheibe, Błażej; Jurga, Stefan [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Chybczyńska, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.chybczynska@ifmpan.poznan.pl [Institute of Molecular Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Mariana Smo.luchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Superparamagnetic core-shell nanoparticles of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@Silica were obtained. • Magnetic response was studied by DC, AC magnetometry and EPR spectroscopy. • Nanoparticles show magnetite structure with a well-defined Verwey transition. • Samples show no inter particle magnetic interactions or agglomeration. - Abstract: Superparamagnetic behavior in aqueously well dispersible magnetite core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles is presented. The magnetic properties of core-shell nanoparticles were measured with use of the DC, AC magnetometry and EPR spectroscopy. Particles where characterized by HR-TEM and Raman spectroscopy, showing a crystalline magnetic core of 11.5 ± 0.12 nm and an amorphous silica shell of 22 ± 1.5 nm in thickness. The DC, AC magnetic measurements confirmed the superparamagnetic nature of nanoparticles, additionally the EPR studies performed at much higher frequency than DC, AC magnetometry (9 GHz) have confirmed the paramagnetic nature of the nanoparticles. Our results show the excellent magnetic behavior of the particles with a clear magnetite structure, which are desirable properties for environmental remediation and biomedical applications.

  2. Gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Timea; Boca, Sanda [Babes-Bolyai University, Nanobiophotonics and Laser Microspectroscopy Center, Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences and Faculty of Physics (Romania); Biro, Dominic [Sapientia University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences (Romania); Baldeck, Patrice [Universite Joseph Fourier and CNRS, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique, UMR 5588, CNRS (France); Astilean, Simion, E-mail: simion.astilean@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babes-Bolyai University, Nanobiophotonics and Laser Microspectroscopy Center, Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences and Faculty of Physics (Romania)

    2013-04-15

    This study presents the synthesis of gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles by a two-step method and investigates their biological impact on cancer cells, specifically nanoparticle internalization and cytotoxicity. Uniform, 9-10-nm-sized, hydrophobic gold nanoparticles were synthesized in organic phase by reducing gold salt with oleylamine, after which oleylamine-protected gold nanoparticles were phase-transferred into aqueous medium using Pluronic F127 block copolymer, resulting in gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles with a mean hydrodynamic diameter of {approx}35 nm. The formation and phase-transfer of gold nanoparticles were analyzed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. The obtained gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles proved to be highly stable in salted solution. Cytotoxicity tests showed no modification of cellular viability in the presence of properly purified particles. Furthermore, dark-field cellular imaging demonstrated that gold-Pluronic nanoparticles were able to be efficiently uptaken by cells, being internalized through nonspecific endocytosis. The high stability, proven biocompatibility, and imaging properties of gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles hold promise for relevant intracellular applications, with such a design providing the feasibility to combine all multiple functionalities in one nanoparticle for simultaneous detection and imaging.

  3. A microemulsion preparation of nanoparticles of europium in silica with luminescence enhancement using silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhiya; Dosev, Dosi; Kennedy, Ian M

    2009-01-01

    A facile one-pot microemulsion method has been developed for the synthesis of spherical silver core-silica shell (Ag-SiO 2 ) nanoparticles with europium chelates doped in the shell through a silane agent. The method is significantly more straightforward than other extant methods. Measurements of the luminescent emissions from the Ag-SiO 2 nanoparticles, in comparison with control silica nanoparticles without silver cores, showed that the presence of the silver cores can increase the fluorescence intensity approximately 24-fold and decrease the luminescence lifetime. This enhancement offers a potential increase in overall particle detectability with increased fluorophore photostability.

  4. Intracellular pH-sensing using core/shell silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, B; Woolley, R; DeCourcey, J; Wencel, D; Loscher, C E; McDonagh, C

    2014-07-01

    An in-depth understanding of biochemical processes occurring within biological systems is key for early diagnosis of disease and identification of appropriate treatments. Nanobiophotonics offers huge potential benefits for intracellular diagnostics and therapeutics. Intracellular sensing using fluorescent nanoparticles is a potentially useful tool for real-time, in vivo monitoring of important cellular analytes. This work is focused on synthesis of optical chemical nanosensors for the quantitative analysis of pH inside living cells. The structure of the nanosensor comprises a biofriendly silica matrix with co-encapsulated Texas Red, acting as a reference dye, and pH-sensitive fluorescein isothiocyanate enabling ratiometric quantitative environmental detection. In order to obtain silica-based nanoparticles -70 nm in size, a modified sol-gel-based Stöber method was employed. The potential of these nanosensors for intracellular pH monitoring is demonstrated inside a live human embryonic kidney cell line whereby a significant change in fluorescence is observed when the cell pH is switched from acidic to basic. High loading efficiencies of nanoparticles into the cells is seen, with little effect on cell morphology even following extended nanoparticle exposure (up to 72 h). Nanoparticle incubation time and the fast response of the nanosensor (-2 s) make it a very powerful tool in monitoring the processes occurring within the cytosol.

  5. Synthesis of Fe5C2@SiO2 core@shell nanoparticles as a potential candidate for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpoor, Fatemeh; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Delavari H, Hamid; Christiansen, Gunna; Saber, Reza

    2018-05-01

    A new strategy for water-dispersibility of hydrophobic carbide nanostructures was proposed. In this regard, hydrophobic Fe5C2 nanoparticles (NPs) with size ranging 25–40 nm were synthesized and coated with 12–15 nm silica shell for biomedical applications. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed that Fe5C2 NPs with monoclinic structure were successfully prepared. The crystalline structure of Fe5C2 NPs was remained unchanged and saturation magnetization of core remained nearly constant after coating with silica shell. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy identified D-band of amorphous carbon shells which was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, Fe5C2@SiO2 core@shell NPs demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity and appropriate heat generating which makes them a promising candidate for magnetic fluid hyperthermia applications.

  6. Silica nanoparticle stability in biological media revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seon-Ah; Choi, Sungmoon; Jeon, Seon Mi; Yu, Junhua

    2018-01-09

    The stability of silica nanostructure in the core-silica shell nanomaterials is critical to understanding the activity of these nanomaterials since the exposure of core materials due to the poor stability of silica may cause misinterpretation of experiments, but unfortunately reports on the stability of silica have been inconsistent. Here, we show that luminescent silver nanodots (AgNDs) can be used to monitor the stability of silica nanostructures. Though relatively stable in water and phosphate buffered saline, silica nanoparticles are eroded by biological media, leading to the exposure of AgNDs from AgND@SiO 2 nanoparticles and the quenching of nanodot luminescence. Our results reveal that a synergistic effect of organic compounds, particularly the amino groups, accelerates the erosion. Our work indicates that silica nanostructures are vulnerable to cellular medium and it may be possible to tune the release of drug molecules from silica-based drug delivery vehicles through controlled erosion.

  7. Sensing behavior study of silica-coated Ag nanoparticles deposited on glassy carbon toward nitrobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Pooja; Reddy, Pramod; Arora, Swati; Singh, Suman; Ghanshyam, C.; Singla, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis and characterization of silica-coated silver core/shell nanostructures (NSs) and their sensing behavior when deposited on glassy carbon (GC) electrode for nitrobenzene (NB) detection. Synthesized silica-coated silver core/shell NSs were characterized for their chemical, structural and morphological properties. TEM analysis confirmed that the silica-coated silver nanoparticles (size ∼200 nm) are spherical in shape and the core diameter is ∼38 nm. FT-IR spectra also confirmed the coating of silica on the surface of silver nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry studies of NB with silica-coated silver core–shell nanoparticles-modified GC electrodes revealed two cathodic peaks at −0.74 V (C 1 ) and −0.34 V (C 2 ) along with two anodic peaks at −0.64 V (A 1 ) and −0.2 V (A 2 ). Enhanced cathodic peak current (C 1 , I P ) of the core–shell NSs-modified electrode is observed relative to bare and silica-modified electrodes. Amperometric studies revealed a very high current sensitivity (114 nA/nM) and linearly dependent reduction current with NB amount in the low concentration range and a detection limit of 25 nM. Moreover, the core–shell NSs-modified electrode showed good reproducibility and selectivity toward NB in the presence of many cationic, anionic, and organic interferents.

  8. Fabrication of Ni@Ti core-shell nanoparticles by modified gas aggregation source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuš, J.; Vaidulych, M.; Kylián, O.; Choukourov, A.; Kousal, J.; Khalakhan, I.; Cieslar, M.; Solař, P.; Biederman, H.

    2017-11-01

    Ni@Ti core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by a vacuum based method using the gas aggregation source (GAS) of nanoparticles. Ni nanoparticles fabricated in the GAS were afterwards coated by a Ti shell. The Ti shell was deposited by means of magnetron sputtering. The Ni nanoparticles were decelerated in the vicinity of the magnetron to the Ar drift velocity in the second deposition chamber. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis of the nanoparticles showed the core-shell structure. It was shown that the thickness of the shell can be easily tuned by the process parameters with a maximum achieved thickness of the Ti shell ~2.5 nm. The core-shell structure was confirmed by the STEM analysis of the particles.

  9. Nanocellulose Derivative/Silica Hybrid Core-Shell Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell silica microspheres with a nanocellulose derivative in the hybrid shell were successfully prepared as a chiral stationary phase by a layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The hybrid shell assembled on the silica core was formed using a surfactant as template by the copolymerization reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate and the nanocellulose derivative bearing triethoxysilyl and 3,5-dimethylphenyl groups. The resulting nanocellulose hybrid core-shell chiral packing materials (CPMs were characterized and packed into columns, and their enantioseparation performance was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that CPMs exhibited uniform surface morphology and core-shell structures. Various types of chiral compounds were efficiently separated under normal and reversed phase mode. Moreover, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran as mobile phase additives could obviously improve the resolution during the chiral separation processes. CPMs still have good chiral separation property when eluted with solvent systems with a high content of tetrahydrofuran and chloroform, which proved the high solvent resistance of this new material.

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2002-01-01

    We present studies of the structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. alpha-Fe nanoparticles were fabricated by sputtering and subsequently covered with a protective nanocrystalline oxide shell consisting of either maghaemite (gamma-Fe2O3) or partially oxidized...... magnetite (Fe3O4). We observed that the nanoparticles were stable against further oxidation, and Mossbauer spectroscopy at high applied magnetic fields and low temperatures revealed a stable form of partly oxidized magnetite. The nanocrystalline structure of the oxide shell results in strong canting...... of the spin structure in the oxide shell, which thereby modifies the magnetic properties of the core-shell nanoparticles....

  11. Alternating current dielectrophoresis of core-shell nanoparticles: Experiments and comparison with theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chungja

    Nanoparticles are fascinating where physical and optical properties are related to size. Highly controllable synthesis methods and nanoparticle assembly are essential for highly innovative technological applications. Well-defined shaped and sized nanoparticles enable comparisons between experiments, theory and subsequent new models to explain experimentally observed phenomena. Among nanoparticles, nonhomogeneous core-shell nanoparticles (CSnp) have new properties that arise when varying the relative dimensions of the core and the shell. This CSnp structure enables various optical resonances, and engineered energy barriers, in addition to the high charge to surface ratio. Assembly of homogeneous nanoparticles into functional structures has become ubiquitous in biosensors (i.e. optical labeling), nanocoatings, and electrical circuits. Limited nonhomogenous nanoparticle assembly has only been explored. Many conventional nanoparticle assembly methods exist, but this work explores dielectrophoresis (DEP) as a new method. DEP is particle polarization via non-uniform electric fields while suspended in conductive fluids. Most prior DEP efforts involve microscale particles. Prior work on core-shell nanoparticle assemblies and separately, nanoparticle characterizations with dielectrophoresis and electrorotation, did not systematically explore particle size, dielectric properties (permittivity and electrical conductivity), shell thickness, particle concentration, medium conductivity, and frequency. This work is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to systematically examine these dielectrophoretic properties for core-shell nanoparticles. Further, we conduct a parametric fitting to traditional core-shell models. These biocompatible core-shell nanoparticles were studied to fill a knowledge gap in the DEP field. Experimental results (chapter 5) first examine medium conductivity, size and shell material dependencies of dielectrophoretic behaviors of spherical CSnp into 2D and

  12. Core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for on-chip RF inductors

    KAUST Repository

    Koh, Kisik

    2013-01-01

    FeNi3 based core-shell magnetic nanoparticles are demonstrated as the magnetic core material for on-chip, radio frequency (RF) inductors. FeNi3 nanoparticles with 50-150 nm in diameter with 15-20 nm-thick SiO2 coating are chemically synthesized and deposited on a planar inductor as the magnetic core to enhance both inductance (L) and quality factor (Q) of the inductor. Experimentally, the ferromagnetic resonant frequency of the on-chip inductors based on FeNi3 core-shell nanoparticles has been shown to be over several GHz. A post-CMOS process has been developed to integrate the magnetic nanoparticles to a planar inductor and inductance enhancements up to 50% of the original magnitude with slightly enhanced Q-factor up to 1 GHz have been achieved. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Tuning dipolar magnetic interactions by controlling individual silica coating of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas Rojas, P. C.; Tancredi, P.; Moscoso Londoño, O.; Knobel, M.; Socolovsky, L. M.

    2018-04-01

    Single and fixed size core, core-shell nanoparticles of iron oxides coated with a silica layer of tunable thickness were prepared by chemical routes, aiming to generate a frame of study of magnetic nanoparticles with controlled dipolar interactions. The batch of iron oxides nanoparticles of 4.5 nm radii, were employed as cores for all the coated samples. The latter was obtained via thermal decomposition of organic precursors, resulting on nanoparticles covered with an organic layer that was subsequently used to promote the ligand exchange in the inverse microemulsion process, employed to coat each nanoparticle with silica. The amount of precursor and times of reaction was varied to obtain different silica shell thicknesses, ranging from 0.5 nm to 19 nm. The formation of the desired structures was corroborated by TEM and SAXS measurements, the core single-phase spinel structure was confirmed by XRD, and superparamagnetic features with gradual change related to dipolar interaction effects were obtained by the study of the applied field and temperature dependence of the magnetization. To illustrate that dipolar interactions are consistently controlled, the main magnetic properties are presented and analyzed as a function of center to center minimum distance between the magnetic cores.

  14. Novel method for the preparation of core-shell nanoparticles with movable Ag core and polystyrene loop shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weijun; Zhang Zhicheng; He Weidong; Zheng Cheng; Ge Xuewu; Li, Jian; Liu Huarong; Jiang Hao

    2006-01-01

    Core/shell nanoparticles with movable silver (Ag) core and polystyrene (PSt) shell (Ag at PSt nanoparticle) were successfully synthesized at room temperature and under ambient pressure via two steps: γ-irradiation and interfacial-initiated polymerization. Firstly, mono-dispersed Ag nanoparticles with diameters 20 nm were synthesized in inversed microemulsion by reducing silver nitrate under γ-irradiation. Then, Ag nanoparticles were coated with PSt via interfacial-initiated polymerization with cumene hydroperoxide/ferrous sulfate/disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate/sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate (CHPO-Fe 2+ -EDTA-SFS) as the redox initiation pair. The resulted Ag at PSt nanoparticles were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

  15. Recent advances in the synthesis of Fe3O4@AU core/shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salihov, Sergei V.; Ivanenkov, Yan A.; Krechetov, Sergei P.; Veselov, Mark S.; Sviridenkova, Natalia V.; Savchenko, Alexander G.; Klyachko, Natalya L.; Golovin, Yury I.; Chufarova, Nina V.; Beloglazkina, Elena K.; Majouga, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    Fe 3 O 4 @Au core/shell nanoparticles have unique magnetic and optical properties. These nanoparticles are used for biomedical applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging, photothermal therapy, controlled drug delivery, protein separation, biosensors, DNA detection, and immunosensors. In this review, recent methods for the synthesis of core/shell nanoparticles are discussed. We divided all of the synthetic methods in two groups: methods of synthesis of bi-layer structures and methods of synthesis of multilayer composite structures. The latter methods have a layer of “glue” material between the core and the shell. - Highlights: • Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles are promising for biomedical applications but have some disadvantages. • Covering Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with Au shell leads to better stability and biocompatibility. • Core/shell nanoparticles are widely used for biomedical applications. • There are two types of Fe 3 O 4 @Au core/shell nanoparticles structures: bi-layer and multilayer composite. • Different synthetic methods enable production of nanoparticles of different sizes

  16. Characterization of core-shell nanoparticles by small angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strunz, P. [Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI), Rez (Czech Republic); Research Centre Rez, Rez (Czech Republic); Mukherji, D. [TU Braunschweig, IfW, Braunschweig (Germany); Pigozzi, G. [ETH Zuerich, Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gilles, R. [TU Muenchen, ZWE FRM-II, Garching (Germany); Geue, T. [PSI and ETH Zuerich, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Pranzas, K. [GKSS Research Centre, Institute of Materials Research, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    The Ni{sub 3}Si-type nanoparticles dispersed in a mixture of H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O were characterised by SANS using the contrast variation method. The existence of a core-shell structure in the nanoparticles with a Ni{sub 3}Si(Al) core and amorphous SiO{sub x} shell is confirmed by the SANS measurements. The nanoparticles were produced by extracting precipitates from a bulk Ni-13.3Si-2Al (at. %) alloy using electrochemical phase separation technique and were pre-characterised by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. By comparing the precipitate morphology in the Ni-Si-Al alloy with the extracted nanoparticles in the SANS measurements, it is clearly established that the precipitates shape and size are unaffected by the extraction process and that the amorphous shell forms on top of the particle core. However, the present measurement could not confirm or exclude the presence of H atoms in the shell structure. (orig.)

  17. Self-Assembly of Fluorescent Hybrid Core-Shell Nanoparticles and Their Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Tang, Fu; Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Lidong

    2015-06-24

    In this work, a fluorescent hybrid core-shell nanoparticle was prepared by coating a functional polymer shell onto silver nanoparticles via a facile one-pot method. The biomolecule poly-L-lysine (PLL) was chosen as the polymer shell and assembled onto the silver core via the amine-reactive cross-linker, 3,3'-dithiobis(sulfosuccinimidylpropionate). The fluorescent anticancer drug, doxorubicin, was incorporated into the PLL shell through the same linkage. As the cross-linker possesses a thiol-cleavable disulfide bond, disassembly of the PLL shell was observed in the presence of glutathione, leading to controllable doxorubicin release. The silver core there provided an easily modified surface to facilitate the shell coating and ensures the efficient separation of as-prepared nanoparticles from their reaction mixture through centrifugation. Cell assays show that the prepared hybrid fluorescent nanoparticles can internalize into cells possessing excellent biocompatibility prior to the release of doxorubicin, terminating cancer cells efficiently as the doxorubicin is released at the intracellular glutathione level. Such properties are important for designing smart containers for target drug delivery and cellular imaging.

  18. Functionalized porous silica&maghemite core-shell nanoparticles for applications in medicine: design, synthesis and immunotoxicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zasońska, Beata Anna; Líšková, A.; Kuricová, M.; Tulinská, J.; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Čiampor, F.; Vávra, I.; Dušinská, M.; Ilavská, S.; Horváthová, M.; Horák, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2016), s. 165-178 ISSN 0353-9504 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC16-01128J Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : core-shell maghemite nanoparticles * proliferative activity of lymphocytes * phagocytic activity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.619, year: 2016 http://www.cmj.hr/2016/57/2/27106358.htm

  19. Biological Fate of Fe3O4 Core-Shell Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Depending on Particle Surface Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascol, Estelle; Daurat, Morgane; Da Silva, Afitz; Maynadier, Marie; Dorandeu, Christophe; Charnay, Clarence; Garcia, Marcel; Lai-Kee-Him, Joséphine; Bron, Patrick; Auffan, Mélanie; Angeletti, Bernard; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Guari, Yannick; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Chopineau, Joël

    2017-01-01

    The biological fate of nanoparticles (NPs) for biomedical applications is highly dependent of their size and charge, their aggregation state and their surface chemistry. The chemical composition of the NPs surface influences their stability in biological fluids, their interaction with proteins, and their attraction to the cell membranes. In this work, core-shell magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Fe3O4@MSN), that are considered as potential theranostic candidates, are coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) or 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) lipid bilayer. Their biological fate is studied in comparison to the native NPs. The physicochemical properties of these three types of NPs and their suspension behavior in different media are investigated. The attraction to a membrane model is also evaluated using a supported lipid bilayer. The surface composition of NPs strongly influences their dispersion in biological fluids mimics, protein binding and their interaction with cell membrane. While none of these types of NPs is found to be toxic on mice four days after intravenous injection of a dose of 40 mg kg−1 of NPs, their surface coating nature influences the in vivo biodistribution. Importantly, NP coated with DMPC exhibit a strong accumulation in liver and a very low accumulation in lung in comparison with nude or PEG ones. PMID:28665317

  20. Antimicrobial active silver nanoparticles and silver/polystyrene core-shell nanoparticles prepared in room-temperature ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Jing; Wang Desong; Luo Qingzhi; Yuan Xiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    Uniform silver nanoparticles and silver/polystyrene core-shell nanoparticles were successfully synthesized in a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM].BF 4 ). [BMIM].BF 4 plays a protective role to prevent the nanoparticles from aggregation during the preparation process. Transmission electron micrographs confirm that both silver nanoparticles and core-shell nanoparticles are regular spheres with the sizes in the range of 5-15 nm and 15-25 nm, respectively. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the face-centered cubic geometry of silver nanoparticles. The as-prepared nanoparticles were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, antimicrobial activities against E. coli and S. aureus were studied and the results show that both silver nanoparticles and core-shell nanoparticles possess excellent antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial mechanism of the as-prepared nanoparticles was discussed.

  1. Plasma-activated core-shell gold nanoparticle films with enhanced catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorca, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.llorca@upc.edu; Casanovas, Albert; Dominguez, Montserrat; Casanova, Ignasi [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques (Spain); Angurell, Inmaculada; Seco, Miquel; Rossell, Oriol [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Quimica Inorganica (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    Catalytically active gold nanoparticle films have been prepared from core-shell nanoparticles by plasma-activation and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Methane can be selectively oxidized into formic acid with an O{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture in a catalytic wall reactor functionalized with plasma-activated gold nanoparticle films containing well-defined Au particles of about 3.5 nm in diameter. No catalytic activity was recorded over gold nanoparticle films prepared by thermal decomposition of core-shell nanoparticles due to particle agglomeration.

  2. Plasma-activated core-shell gold nanoparticle films with enhanced catalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorca, Jordi; Casanovas, Albert; Dominguez, Montserrat; Casanova, Ignasi; Angurell, Inmaculada; Seco, Miquel; Rossell, Oriol

    2008-01-01

    Catalytically active gold nanoparticle films have been prepared from core-shell nanoparticles by plasma-activation and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Methane can be selectively oxidized into formic acid with an O 2 -H 2 mixture in a catalytic wall reactor functionalized with plasma-activated gold nanoparticle films containing well-defined Au particles of about 3.5 nm in diameter. No catalytic activity was recorded over gold nanoparticle films prepared by thermal decomposition of core-shell nanoparticles due to particle agglomeration

  3. Multi-photon excited luminescence of magnetic FePt core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, K M; Kuhn, B

    2014-07-01

    We present magnetic FePt nanoparticles with a hydrophilic, inert, and biocompatible silico-tungsten oxide shell. The particles can be functionalized, optically detected, and optically manipulated. To show the functionalization the fluorescent dye NOPS was bound to the FePt core-shell nanoparticles with propyl-triethoxy-silane linkers and fluorescence of the labeled particles were observed in ethanol (EtOH). In aqueous dispersion the NOPS fluorescence is quenched making them invisible using 1-photon excitation. However, we observe bright luminescence of labeled and even unlabeled magnetic core-shell nanoparticles with multi-photon excitation. Luminescence can be detected in the near ultraviolet and the full visible spectral range by near infrared multi-photon excitation. For optical manipulation, we were able to drag clusters of particles, and maybe also single particles, by a focused laser beam that acts as optical tweezers by inducing an electric dipole in the insulated metal nanoparticles. In a first application, we show that the luminescence of the core-shell nanoparticles is bright enough for in vivo multi-photon imaging in the mouse neocortex down to cortical layer 5.

  4. (FeCo)3Si-SiOx core-shell nanoparticles fabricated in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Jianmin; Xu Yunhao; Thomas, John; Wang Jianping

    2007-01-01

    A method of fabricating core-shell nanoparticles by using an integrated nanoparticle deposition technique in the gas phase is reported. The principle of the method is based on nanoparticle growth from the vapour phase, during which elements showing lower surface energies prefer to form the shells and elements showing higher surface energies prefer to stay in the cores. This method was applied successfully to the Fe-Co-Si ternary system to fabricate core-shell-type nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were exposed in air after collection to achieve oxidation. The analysis results based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) showed that the core parts are magnetic materials of body-centred cubic (bcc) structured (FeCo) 3 Si of 15 nm in diameter, and the shell parts are amorphous SiO x of 2 nm in thickness. These core-shell-type nanoparticles show a magnetic anisotropy constant of about 7 x 10 5 erg cm -3 and a saturation magnetization of around 1160 emu cm -3 , which is much higher than that of iron oxide. After annealing at 300 deg. C in air (FeCo) 3 Si-SiO x core-shell-type nanoparticles showed a little bit of a drop in magnetic moment, while pure FeCo nanopariticles totally lost their magnetic moment. This means that the shells of SiO x are dense enough to prevent the magnetic cores from oxidation

  5. Novel chiral core-shell silica microspheres with trans-(1R,2R)-diaminocyclohexane bridged in the mesoporous shell: synthesis, characterization and application in high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiabing; You, Linjun; Di, Bin; Hao, Weiqiang; Su, Mengxiang; Gu, Yu; Shen, Lingling

    2013-07-19

    Novel chiral core-shell silica microspheres with trans-(1R,2R)-diaminocyclohexane (DACH) moiety bridged in the mesoporous shell were synthesized using layer-by-layer method. The chiral mesoporous shell around the nonporous silica core was formed by the co-condensation of N,N'-bis-[(triethoxysilyl)propyl]-trans-(1R,2R)-bis-(ureido)-cyclohexane (DACH-BS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) using octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C18TMACl) and triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer (P123) as the templates. The functionalized core-shell silica microspheres were characterized and tested as chiral stationary phases for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). R/S-1,1'-bi-2,2'-naphthol, R/S-6,6'-dibromo-1,1'-bi-2-naphthol and R/S-1,1'-bi-2,2'-phenanthrol were enantioseparated rapidly on the column packed with the DACH core-shell silica particles. Moreover, the column packed with core-shell particles exhibited better performance than the column packed with the DACH functionalized periodic mesoporous organosilicas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Akhilesh; Chaudhary, Minakshi; Ahmad, Absar; Bhargava, Suresh; Sastry, Murali

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles. The triangular gold core is obtained by the reduction of gold ions by lemongrass extract. Utilizing the negative charge on the gold nanotriangles, silver ions are bound to their surface and thereafter reduced by ascorbic acid under alkaline conditions. The thickness of the silver shell may be modulated by varying the pH of the reaction medium. The formation of the Au core-Ag shell triangular nanostructures has been followed by UV-vis-NIR Spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The sharp vertices of the triangles coupled with the core-shell structure is expected to have potential for application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and in the sensitive detection of biomolecules

  7. Strain distribution of confined Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles engineered by growth environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenyan; Yuan, Cailei; Luo, Xingfang; Yu, Ting; Wang, Gongping

    2016-02-01

    The strain distributions of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles confined in different host matrix grown by surface oxidation are investigated. The simulated results by finite element method demonstrated that the strains of the Ge core and the GeO2 shell strongly depend on the growth environments of the nanoparticles. Moreover, it can be found that there is a transformation of the strain on Ge core from tensile to compressive strain during the growth of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles. And, the transformation of the strain is closely related with the Young's modulus of surrounding materials of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles.

  8. Optical properties of supported core-shell and alloy silver/gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubenthal, Frank; Traeger, Frank [Universitaet Kassel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    For many applications like surface enhanced Raman scattering in which the optical field enhancement associated with surface plasmon excitation is exploited, tunability of this collective resonance over a wide range is required. For this purpose we have prepared core-shell and alloy nanoparticles consisting of Ag and Au. The core-shell nanoparticles were made by subsequent deposition of Ag and Au atoms and vice versa on dielectric substrates followed by diffusion and nucleation. One of the most interesting among the numerous results is that the plasmon frequency can be tuned from 2.8 eV (442 nm) to 2.1 eV (590 nm) depending on the Au shell thickness. Subsequent annealing of the core-shell nanoparticles causes a shift of the resonance frequency to 2.6 eV. Theoretical modelling allows us to attribute this observation to the formation of alloy nanoparticles. Finally, we have measured the dephasing time T{sub 2} of the alloy nanoparticles by means of spectral hole burning. T{sub 2} amounts to 8.1{+-}1.6 fs, in good agreement with the dephasing time T{sub 2}=8.9 fs that is included in the dielectric function of the bulk.

  9. Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To synthesize and characterize a C-Dot silica-based nanoparticle containing 'clickable' groups for the subsequent attachment of targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) and multiple contrast agents (e.g., radionuclides with high specific activity) (1,2). These new constructs will be tested in suitable tumor models in vitro and in vivo to ensure maintenance of target-specificity and high specific activity. Methods: Cy5 dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the core-shell C-Dot (Figure 1) (2). A 'click' chemistry approach has been used to functionalize the silica shell with radionuclides conferring high contrast and specific activity (e.g. 64Cu and 89Zr) and peptides for tumor targeting (e.g. cRGD and octreotate) (3). Based on the selective Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene, the reaction is bioorthogonal, highyielding, rapid, and water-compatible. This radiolabeling approach has already been employed successfully with both short peptides (e.g. octreotate) and antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab) as model systems for the ultimate labeling of the nanoparticles (1). Results: PEGylated C-Dots with a Cy5 core and labeled with tetrazine have been synthesized (d = 55 nm, zeta potential = -3 mV) reliably and reproducibly and have been shown to be stable under physiological conditions for up to 1 month. Characterization of the nanoparticles revealed that the immobilized Cy5 dye within the C-Dots exhibited fluorescence intensities over twice that of the fluorophore alone. The nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with Cu-64. Efforts toward the conjugation of targeting peptides (e.g. cRGD) are underway. In vitro stability, specificity, and uptake studies as well as in vivo imaging and biodistribution investigations will be presented. Conclusions: C-Dot silica-based nanoparticles offer a robust, versatile, and multi

  10. Ni3Si(Al)/a-SiOx core shell nanoparticles: characterization, shell formation, and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigozzi, G.; Mukherji, D.; Gilles, R.; Barbier, B.; Kostorz, G.

    2006-08-01

    We have used an electrochemical selective phase dissolution method to extract nanoprecipitates of the Ni3Si-type intermetallic phase from two-phase Ni-Si and Ni-Si-Al alloys by dissolving the matrix phase. The extracted nanoparticles are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, x-ray powder diffraction, and electron powder diffraction. It is found that the Ni3Si-type nanoparticles have a core-shell structure. The core maintains the size, the shape, and the crystal structure of the precipitates that existed in the bulk alloys, while the shell is an amorphous phase, containing only Si and O (SiOx). The shell forms around the precipitates during the extraction process. After annealing the nanoparticles in nitrogen at 700 °C, the tridymite phase recrystallizes within the shell, which remains partially amorphous. In contrast, on annealing in air at 1000 °C, no changes in the composition or the structure of the nanoparticles occur. It is suggested that the shell forms after dealloying of the matrix phase, where Si atoms, the main constituents of the shell, migrate to the surface of the precipitates.

  11. Core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present studies of the magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. By combining Mossbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have been able to measure the change from a Fe3O4-like to a gamma-Fe2O3-like composition from the interface to the surface. Furthermore, we have...

  12. Core - shell upconversion nanoparticle - semiconductor heterostructures for photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Qing Qing; Rengaramchandran, Adith; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Zhang, Yong

    2015-02-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with diverse chemical compositions have been attracting greater attention in recent years. However, it has been a challenge to develop CSNPs with different crystal structures due to the lattice mismatch of the nanocrystals. Here we report a rational design of core-shell heterostructure consisting of NaYF4:Yb,Tm upconversion nanoparticle (UCN) as the core and ZnO semiconductor as the shell for potential application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The core-shell architecture (confirmed by TEM and STEM) enables for improving the loading efficiency of photosensitizer (ZnO) as the semiconductor is directly coated on the UCN core. Importantly, UCN acts as a transducer to sensitize ZnO and trigger the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) to induce cancer cell death. We also present a firefly luciferase (FLuc) reporter gene based molecular biosensor (ARE-FLuc) to measure the antioxidant signaling response activated in cells during the release of ROS in response to the exposure of CSNPs under 980 nm NIR light. The breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and 4T1) exposed to CSNPs showed significant release of ROS as measured by aminophenyl fluorescein (APF) and ARE-FLuc luciferase assays, and ~45% cancer cell death as measured by MTT assay, when illuminated with 980 nm NIR light.

  13. Recent advances in the synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@AU core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salihov, Sergei V. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy, Building 9, Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation, (Russian Federation); Ivanenkov, Yan A.; Krechetov, Sergei P.; Veselov, Mark S. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), 9 Institutskiy lane, Dolgoprudny City, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Sviridenkova, Natalia V.; Savchenko, Alexander G. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy, Building 9, Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation, (Russian Federation); Klyachko, Natalya L. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy, Building 9, Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation, (Russian Federation); Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Lenins kie gory, Building 1/3, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Golovin, Yury I. [Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Lenins kie gory, Building 1/3, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Chufarova, Nina V., E-mail: chnv@pharmcluster.ru [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), 9 Institutskiy lane, Dolgoprudny City, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Beloglazkina, Elena K. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy, Building 9, Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation, (Russian Federation); Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Lenins kie gory, Building 1/3, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Majouga, Alexander G., E-mail: majouga@org.chem.msu.ru [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy, Building 9, Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation, (Russian Federation); Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Lenins kie gory, Building 1/3, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Au core/shell nanoparticles have unique magnetic and optical properties. These nanoparticles are used for biomedical applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging, photothermal therapy, controlled drug delivery, protein separation, biosensors, DNA detection, and immunosensors. In this review, recent methods for the synthesis of core/shell nanoparticles are discussed. We divided all of the synthetic methods in two groups: methods of synthesis of bi-layer structures and methods of synthesis of multilayer composite structures. The latter methods have a layer of “glue” material between the core and the shell. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are promising for biomedical applications but have some disadvantages. • Covering Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with Au shell leads to better stability and biocompatibility. • Core/shell nanoparticles are widely used for biomedical applications. • There are two types of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Au core/shell nanoparticles structures: bi-layer and multilayer composite. • Different synthetic methods enable production of nanoparticles of different sizes.

  14. Cu₂-xSe@mSiO₂-PEG core-shell nanoparticles: a low-toxic and efficient difunctional nanoplatform for chemo-photothermal therapy under near infrared light radiation with a safe power density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xijian; Wang, Qian; Li, Chun; Zou, Rujia; Li, Bo; Song, Guosheng; Xu, Kaibing; Zheng, Yun; Hu, Junqing

    2014-04-21

    A low-toxic difunctional nanoplatform integrating both photothermal therapy and chemotherapy for killing cancer cells using Cu₂-xSe@mSiO₂-PEG core-shell nanoparticles is reported. Silica coating and further PEG modification improve the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of copper selenide nanoparticles. As-prepared Cu₂-xSe@mSiO₂-PEG nanoparticles not only display strong near infrared (NIR) region absorption and good photothermal effect, but also exhibit excellent biocompatibility. The mesoporous silica shell is provided as the carrier for loading the anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). Moreover, the release of DOX from Cu₂-xSe@mSiO₂-PEG core-shell nanoparticles can be triggered by pH and NIR light, resulting in a synergistic effect for killing cancer cells. Importantly, the combination of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy driven by NIR radiation with safe power density significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy, and demonstrates better therapeutic effects for cancer treatment than individual therapy.

  15. Simple and convenient preparation of Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles on surface via a seed growth method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Lei; Sha Yufang; Yang Xiurong

    2006-01-01

    Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles were prepared on glass surface by a seed growth method. Gold nanoparticles were used as seeds and ascorbic acid-H 2 PtCl 6 solutions as growth solutions to deposit Pt shell on the surface of gold nanoparticles. These core-shell nanoparticles and their growth process were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and field-emission environmental scanning electron microscopy and the results indicated that the deposition speed was fast and nanoparticles with obvious core-shell structure could be obtained after 2 min. Moreover, this seed growth method for preparation of the core-shell nanoparticles is simple and convenient compared with other seed growth methods with NH 4 OH as a mild reductant. In addition, electrochemical experiments indicated that these Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles had similar electrochemical properties to those of the bulk Pt electrode

  16. Hypersonic vibrations of Ag@SiO2 (cubic core)-shell nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing Ya; Wang, Zhi Kui; Lim, Hock Siah; Ng, Ser Choon; Kuok, Meng Hau; Tran, Toan Trong; Lu, Xianmao

    2010-12-28

    The intriguing optical and catalytic properties of metal-silica core-shell nanoparticles, inherited from their plasmonic metallic cores together with the rich surface chemistry and increased stability offered by their silica shells, have enabled a wide variety of applications. In this work, we investigate the confined vibrational modes of a series of monodisperse Ag@SiO(2) (cubic core)-shell nanospheres synthesized using a modified Stöber sol-gel method. The particle-size dependence of their mode frequencies has been mapped by Brillouin light scattering, a powerful tool for probing hypersonic vibrations. Unlike the larger particles, the observed spheroidal-like mode frequencies of the smaller ones do not scale with inverse diameter. Interestingly, the onset of the deviation from this linearity occurs at a smaller particle size for higher-energy modes than for lower-energy ones. Finite element simulations show that the mode displacement profiles of the Ag@SiO(2) core-shells closely resemble those of a homogeneous SiO(2) sphere. Simulations have also been performed to ascertain the effects that the core shape and the relative hardness of the core and shell materials have on the vibrations of the core-shell as a whole. As the vibrational modes of a particle have a bearing on its thermal and mechanical properties, the findings would be of value in designing core-shell nanostructures with customized thermal and mechanical characteristics.

  17. Advances in Multicompartment Mesoporous Silica Micro/Nanoparticles for Theranostic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Liu, Tingting; Pan, Jian; Liu, Shaomin; Lu, G Q Max

    2018-04-04

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are promising functional nanomaterials for a variety of biomedical applications, such as bioimaging, drug/gene delivery, and cancer therapy. This is due to their low density, low toxicity, high biocompatibility, large specific surface areas, and excellent thermal and mechanical stability. The past decade has seen rapid advances in the development of MSNs with multiple compartments. These include hierarchical porous structures and core-shell, yolk-shell, and Janus structured particles for efficient diagnosis and therapeutic applications. We review advances in this area, covering the categories of multicompartment MSNs and their synthesis methods, with an emphasis on hierarchical structures and the incorporation of multiple functions. We classify multicompartment mesoporous silica micro/nanostructures, ranging from core-shell and yolk-shell structures to Janus and raspberry-like nanoparticles, and discuss their synthesis methods. We review applications of these multicompartment MSNs, including bioimaging, targeted drug/gene delivery, chemotherapy, phototherapy, and in vitro diagnostics. We also highlight the latest trends and new opportunities. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Volume 9 is June 7, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  18. Shape-controlled synthesis of Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles exhibiting polyhedral morphologies by modified polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Asaka, Toru; Matsubara, Takashi; Nogami, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple synthetic method. First, Pt nanoparticles were synthesized in a controlled manner via the reduction of chloroplantinic acid hexahydrate in ethylene glycol (EG) at 160 deg. C in the presence of silver nitrate and the stabilization of polyvinylpyrrolidon. AgNO 3 used acts as a structure-modifying agent to the morphology of the Pt nanoparticles. These Pt nanoparticles function as the seeds for the successive reduction of sodium tetrachloropalladate (II) hydrate in EG under stirring for 15 min at 160 deg. C in order to synthesize Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles. To characterize the as-prepared Pt-Pd nanoparticles, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM are used. The high-resolution elemental mappings were carried out using the combination of scanning TEM and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The results also demonstrate the homogeneous nucleation and growth of the Pd metal shell on the definite Pt core. The synthesized Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles exhibit a sharp and polyhedral morphology. The epitaxial growth of the controlled Pd shells on the Pt cores via a polyol method was observed. It is suggested that Frank-van der Merwe and Stranski-Krastanov growth modes coexisted in the nucleation and growth of Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles.

  19. Synthesis and properties MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Co) nanoparticles and core-shell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelenich, O. V.; Solopan, S. O.; Greneche, J. M.; Belous, A. G.

    2015-08-01

    Individual Fe3-xO4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, as well as Fe3-xO4/CoFe2O4 core/shell structures were synthesized by the method of co-precipitation from diethylene glycol solutions. Core/shell structure were synthesized with CoFe2O4-shell thickness of 1.0, 2.5 and 3.5 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns of individual nanoparticles and core/shell are similar and indicate that all synthesized samples have a cubic spinel structure. Compares Mössbauer studies of CoFe2O4, Fe3-xO4 nanoparticles indicate superparamagnetic properties at 300 K. It was shown that individual magnetite nanoparticles are transformed into maghemite through oxidation during the synthesis procedure, wherein the smallest nanoparticles are completely oxidized while a magnetite core does occur in the case of the largest nanoparticles. The Mössbauer spectra of core/shell nanoparticles with increasing CoFe2O4-shell thickness show a gradual decrease in the relative intensity of the quadrupole doublet and significant decrease of the mean isomer shift value at both RT and 77 K indicating a decrease of the superparamagnetic relaxation phenomena. Specific loss power for the prepared ferrofluids was experimentally calculated and it was determined that under influence of ac-magnetic field magnetic fluid based on individual CoFe2O4 and Fe3-xO4 particles are characterized by very low heating temperature, when magnetic fluids based on core/shell nanoparticles demonstrate higher heating effect.

  20. Core/shell structured ZnO/SiO2 nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Jing; Tao Xia; Pu Yuan; Zeng Xiaofei; Chen Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple chemical synthesis route. Subsequently, SiO 2 layers were successfully coated onto the surface of ZnO nanoparticles to modify the photocatalytic activity in acidic or alkaline solutions. The obtained particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and zeta potential. It was found that ultrafine core/shell structured ZnO/SiO 2 nanoparticles were successfully obtained. The photocatalytic performance of ZnO/SiO 2 core/shell structured nanoparticles in Rhodamine B aqueous solution at varied pH value were also investigated. Compared with uncoated ZnO nanoparticles, core/shell structured ZnO/SiO 2 nanoparticles with thinner SiO 2 shell possess improved stability and relatively better photocatalytic activity in acidic or alkaline solutions, which would broaden its potential application in pollutant treatment.

  1. Single-step generation of fluorophore-encapsulated gold nanoparticle core-shell materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardar, R; Shem, P M; Pecchia-Bekkum, C; Bjorge, N S; Shumaker-Parry, J S

    2010-01-01

    We report a simple route to produce fluorophore-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in a single step under aqueous conditions using the fluorophore 1-pyrenemethylamine (PMA). Different amounts of PMA were used and the resulting core-shell gold nanoparticles were analyzed using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Electron microscopy analysis shows nanoparticles consisting of a gold nanoparticle core which is encapsulated with a lower contrast shell. In the UV-visible spectra, we observed a significant red shift (37 nm) of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption maximum (λ max ) compared to citrate-stabilized AuNPs of a similar size. We attribute the prominent LSPR wavelength shift for PMA-AuNP conjugates to the increase in the local dielectric environment near the gold nanoparticles due to the shell formation. This simple, aqueous-based synthesis is a new approach to the production of fluorophore-encapsulated AuNPs that could be applicable in biological sensing systems and photonic device fabrication.

  2. Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles study by first principle: The structural, magnetic and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hai-Xia [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Xiao-Xu [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Computing Center, Beijing 100094 (China); Hu, Yao-Wen [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Hong-Quan; Huo, Jin-Rong; Li, Lu [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Qian, Ping, E-mail: ustbqianp@163.com [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Song, Yu-Jun [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles of around 72 atoms have been investigated by the density functional theory, revealing proving for the first time that the core-shell structure exhibits a shrinkage phenomenon from outer shell in agreement with the other studies in literatures. Our calculations predict that the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure is a ferromagnetic spin polarized state, and the magnetism mainly stems from the spin splitting of 2p electrons of O atoms. In addition, the total and partial DOS of Ag@ZnO indicate that the nanostructure is a half-metallic nanoparticle and has the characters of the p-type semiconductor. Furthermore, the optical properties calculations show that the absorption edge of Ag@ZnO have a red shift and good photocatalysis compare to that of the bulk ZnO. These results of the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure obtain a well agreement with the experimental measurement. - Graphical abstract: Geometric structure of (a) Ag@ZnO core-shell nanostructure; (b) the core of Ag; (c) the shell of ZnO The core-shell nanoparticle Ag@ZnO contains Ag inner core of radius of 4 Å and ZnO outer shell with thickness of 2 Å. Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles of around 72 atoms have been proved for the first time that the core-shell structure exhibit a shrinkage phenomenon from outer shell. Our calculations predict that the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure is a half-metallic nanoparticle and has the characters of the p-type semiconductor. The absorption edge of Ag@ZnO have a red shift and get good photo-catalysis compare to that of the bulk ZnO.

  3. Ni(3)Si(Al)/a-SiO(x) core-shell nanoparticles: characterization, shell formation, and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigozzi, G; Mukherji, D; Gilles, R; Barbier, B; Kostorz, G

    2006-08-28

    We have used an electrochemical selective phase dissolution method to extract nanoprecipitates of the Ni(3)Si-type intermetallic phase from two-phase Ni-Si and Ni-Si-Al alloys by dissolving the matrix phase. The extracted nanoparticles are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, x-ray powder diffraction, and electron powder diffraction. It is found that the Ni(3)Si-type nanoparticles have a core-shell structure. The core maintains the size, the shape, and the crystal structure of the precipitates that existed in the bulk alloys, while the shell is an amorphous phase, containing only Si and O (SiO(x)). The shell forms around the precipitates during the extraction process. After annealing the nanoparticles in nitrogen at 700 °C, the tridymite phase recrystallizes within the shell, which remains partially amorphous. In contrast, on annealing in air at 1000 °C, no changes in the composition or the structure of the nanoparticles occur. It is suggested that the shell forms after dealloying of the matrix phase, where Si atoms, the main constituents of the shell, migrate to the surface of the precipitates.

  4. Core-shell polymer nanoparticles for prevention of GSH drug detoxification and cisplatin delivery to breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surnar, Bapurao; Sharma, Kavita; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2015-10-01

    Platinum drug delivery against the detoxification of cytoplasmic thiols is urgently required for achieving efficacy in breast cancer treatment that is over expressed by glutathione (GSH, thiol-oligopeptide). GSH-resistant polymer-cisplatin core-shell nanoparticles were custom designed based on biodegradable carboxylic functional polycaprolactone (PCL)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) diblock copolymers. The core of the nanoparticle was fixed as 100 carboxylic units and the shell part was varied using various molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ethers (MW of PEGs = 100-5000 g mol-1) as initiator in the ring-opening polymerization. The complexation of cisplatin aquo species with the diblocks produced core-shell nanoparticles of 75 nm core with precise size control the particles up to 190 nm. The core-shell nanoparticles were found to be stable in saline solution and PBS and they exhibited enhanced stability with increase in the PEG shell thickness at the periphery. The hydrophobic PCL layer on the periphery of the cisplatin core behaved as a protecting layer against the cytoplasmic thiol residues (GSH and cysteine) and exhibited embryonic fibroblast cells (Wt-MEFs), and breast cancer (MCF-7) and cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. Free cisplatin and polymer drug core-shell nanoparticles showed similar cytotoxicity effects in the HeLa cells. In MCF-7 cells, the free cisplatin drug exhibited 50% cell death whereas complete cell death (100%) was accomplished by the polymer-cisplatin core-shell nanoparticles. Confocal microscopic images confirmed that the core-shell nanoparticles were taken up by the MCF-7 and HeLa cells and they were accumulated both at the cytoplasm as well at peri-nuclear environments. The present investigation lays a new foundation for the polymer-based core-shell nanoparticles approach for overcoming detoxification in platinum drugs for the treatment of GSH over-expressed breast cancer cells.Platinum drug delivery against the detoxification

  5. Core-shell designs of photoluminescent nanodiamonds with porous silica coatings for bioimaging and drug delivery II: application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Neeraj; Näreoja, Tuomas; von Haartman, Eva; Karaman, Didem Şen; Jiang, Hua; Koho, Sami; Dolenko, Tatiana A; Hänninen, Pekka E; Vlasov, Denis I; Ralchenko, Victor G; Hosomi, Satoru; Vlasov, Igor I; Sahlgren, Cecilia; Rosenholm, Jessica M

    2013-05-07

    Recent advances within materials science and its interdisciplinary applications in biomedicine have emphasized the potential of using a single multifunctional composite material for concurrent drug delivery and biomedical imaging. Here we present a novel composite material consisting of a photoluminescent nanodiamond (ND) core with a porous silica (SiO2) shell. This novel multifunctional probe serves as an alternative nanomaterial to address the existing problems with delivery and subsequent tracing of the particles. Whereas the unique optical properties of ND allows for long-term live cell imaging and tracking of cellular processes, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have proven to be efficient drug carriers. The advantages of both ND and MSNs were hereby integrated in the new composite material, ND@MSN. The optical properties provided by the ND core rendered the nanocomposite suitable for microscopy imaging in fluorescence and reflectance mode, as well as super-resolution microscopy as a STED label; whereas the porous silica coating provided efficient intracellular delivery capacity, especially in surface-functionalized form. This study serves as a demonstration how this novel nanomaterial can be exploited for both bioimaging and drug delivery for future theranostic applications.

  6. Soft template synthesis of yolk/silica shell particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Xu, Dongsheng

    2010-04-06

    Yolk/shell particles possess a unique structure that is composed of hollow shells that encapsulate other particles but with an interstitial space between them. These structures are different from core/shell particles in that the core particles are freely movable in the shell. Yolk/shell particles combine the properties of each component, and can find potential applications in catalysis, lithium ion batteries, and biosensors. In this Research News article, a soft-template-assisted method for the preparation of yolk/silica shell particles is presented. The demonstrated method is simple and general, and can produce hollow silica spheres incorporated with different particles independent of their diameters, geometry, and composition. Furthermore, yolk/mesoporous silica shell particles and multishelled particles are also prepared through optimization of the experimental conditions. Finally, potential applications of these particles are discussed.

  7. Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason S. Lewis

    2012-04-09

    Objectives: To synthesize and characterize a C-Dot silica-based nanoparticle containing 'clickable' groups for the subsequent attachment of targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) and multiple contrast agents (e.g., radionuclides with high specific activity) [1,2]. These new constructs will be tested in suitable tumor models in vitro and in vivo to ensure maintenance of target-specificity and high specific activity. Methods: Cy5 dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the core-shell C-Dot (Figure 1) [2]. A 'click' chemistry approach has been used to functionalize the silica shell with radionuclides conferring high contrast and specific activity (e.g. 64Cu and 89Zr) and peptides for tumor targeting (e.g. cRGD and octreotate) [3]. Based on the selective Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene, the reaction is bioorthogonal, highyielding, rapid, and water-compatible. This radiolabeling approach has already been employed successfully with both short peptides (e.g. octreotate) and antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab) as model systems for the ultimate labeling of the nanoparticles [1]. Results: PEGylated C-Dots with a Cy5 core and labeled with tetrazine have been synthesized (d = 55 nm, zeta potential = -3 mV) reliably and reproducibly and have been shown to be stable under physiological conditions for up to 1 month. Characterization of the nanoparticles revealed that the immobilized Cy5 dye within the C-Dots exhibited fluorescence intensities over twice that of the fluorophore alone. The nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with Cu-64. Efforts toward the conjugation of targeting peptides (e.g. cRGD) are underway. In vitro stability, specificity, and uptake studies as well as in vivo imaging and biodistribution investigations will be presented. Conclusions: C-Dot silica-based nanoparticles offer a robust

  8. Core-shell microspheres with porous nanostructured shells for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adham; Skinley, Kevin; Herodotou, Stephanie; Zhang, Haifei

    2018-01-01

    The development of new stationary phases has been the key aspect for fast and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography separation with relatively low backpressure. Core-shell particles, with a solid core and porous shell, have been extensively investigated and commercially manufactured in the last decade. The excellent performance of core-shell particles columns has been recorded for a wide range of analytes, covering small and large molecules, neutral and ionic (acidic and basic), biomolecules and metabolites. In this review, we first introduce the advance and advantages of core-shell particles (or more widely known as superficially porous particles) against non-porous particles and fully porous particles. This is followed by the detailed description of various methods used to fabricate core-shell particles. We then discuss the applications of common silica core-shell particles (mostly commercially manufactured), spheres-on-sphere particles and core-shell particles with a non-silica shell. This review concludes with a summary and perspective on the development of stationary phase materials for high-performance liquid chromatography applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Supramolecular core-shell nanoparticles for photoconductive device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Chia; Chen, Jem-Kun; Shieh, Yeong-Tarng; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-08-01

    We report a breakthrough discovery involving supramolecular-based strategies to construct novel core-shell heterojunction nanoparticles with hydrophilic adenine-functionalized polythiophene (PAT) as the core and hydrophobic phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the shell, which enables the conception of new functional supramolecular assemblies for constructing functional nanomaterials for applications in optoelectronic devices. The generated nanoparticles exhibit uniform spherical shape, well-controlled tuning of particle size with narrow size distributions, and excellent electrochemical stability in solution and the solid state owing to highly efficient energy transfer from PAT to PCBM. When the PAT/PCBM nanoparticles were fabricated into a photoconducting layer in an electronic device, the resulting device showed excellent electric conduction characteristics, including an electrically-tunable voltage-controlled switch, and high short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage. These observations demonstrate how the self-assembly of PAT/PCBM into specific nanostructures may help to promote efficient charge generation and transport processes, suggesting potential for a wide variety of applications as a promising candidate material for bulk heterojunction polymer devices.

  10. HPLC-CUPRAC post-column derivatization method for the determination of antioxidants: a performance comparison between porous silica and core-shell column packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Syed A; Cañete, Socrates Jose P

    2018-01-01

    An HPLC method employing a post-column derivatization strategy using the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity reagent (CUPRAC reagent) for the determining antioxidants in plant-based materials leverages the separation capability of regular HPLC approaches while allowing for detection specificity for antioxidants. Three different column types, namely core-shell and porous silica including two chemically different core-shell materials (namely phenyl-hexyl and C18), were evaluated to assess potential improvements that could be attained by changing from a porous silica matrix to a core-shell matrix. Tea extracts were used as sample matrices for the evaluation specifically looking at catechin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Both the C18 and phenyl-hexyl core-shell columns showed better performance compared to the C18 porous silica one in terms of separation, peak shape, and retention time. Among the two core-shell materials, the phenyl-hexyl column showed better resolving power compared to the C18 column. The CUPRAC post-column derivatization method can be improved using core-shell columns and suitable for quantifying antioxidants, exemplified by catechin and EGCG, in tea samples.

  11. Uniform silver/polypyrrole core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shibin [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shi Gaoquan [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: gshi@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2007-04-15

    Uniformly sized silver/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal reaction of pyrrole and silver nitrate in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as protection agent. The morphology and structures of the nanoparticles have been studied by scanning and transmission electronic microscopes, X-ray diffractometer and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the particles had 120 nm silver cores with 20 nm polypyrrole (PPy) coatings. The reaction conditions have strong effects on the morphology of the nanoparticles.

  12. Uniform silver/polypyrrole core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shibin; Shi Gaoquan

    2007-01-01

    Uniformly sized silver/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal reaction of pyrrole and silver nitrate in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as protection agent. The morphology and structures of the nanoparticles have been studied by scanning and transmission electronic microscopes, X-ray diffractometer and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the particles had 120 nm silver cores with 20 nm polypyrrole (PPy) coatings. The reaction conditions have strong effects on the morphology of the nanoparticles

  13. Synthesis of highly fluorescent silica nanoparticles in a reverse microemulsion through double-layered doping of organic fluorophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hyojong; Pak, Joonsung

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble, highly fluorescent double-layered silica nanoparticles (FL-DLSN) have been successfully synthesized through a reverse (water-in-oil) microemulsion method. The microemulsion was prepared by mixing a surfactant (Brij35), co-surfactant, organic solvent, water, and fluorescein as an organic fluorophore. The sizes of the silica nanoparticles were successfully controlled in the reverse microemulsion using Brij35 by changing the water-to-Brij35 ratio and by adding HCl. Initially, tetraethylorthosilicate was hydrolyzed by adding NH 4 OH as a catalyst and then polymerized to generate core fluorescent silica nanoparticles with fluorescein. 3-(Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTS) was sequentially added into the reaction mixture, and reacted on the surface of pre-generated core silica nanoparticles to form the second layer in the form of a shell. The second silica layer that was derived from the condensation of APTS effectively protected the fluorescein dye within the silica matrix. This is a novel and simple synthetic approach to generate highly fluorescent, monodispersed silica nanoparticles by doping organic molecules into a silica matrix.Graphical Abstract

  14. Synthesis of highly fluorescent silica nanoparticles in a reverse microemulsion through double-layered doping of organic fluorophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyojong, E-mail: hyojong@hallym.ac.kr; Pak, Joonsung [Hallym University, Department of Chemistry (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Water-soluble, highly fluorescent double-layered silica nanoparticles (FL-DLSN) have been successfully synthesized through a reverse (water-in-oil) microemulsion method. The microemulsion was prepared by mixing a surfactant (Brij35), co-surfactant, organic solvent, water, and fluorescein as an organic fluorophore. The sizes of the silica nanoparticles were successfully controlled in the reverse microemulsion using Brij35 by changing the water-to-Brij35 ratio and by adding HCl. Initially, tetraethylorthosilicate was hydrolyzed by adding NH{sub 4}OH as a catalyst and then polymerized to generate core fluorescent silica nanoparticles with fluorescein. 3-(Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTS) was sequentially added into the reaction mixture, and reacted on the surface of pre-generated core silica nanoparticles to form the second layer in the form of a shell. The second silica layer that was derived from the condensation of APTS effectively protected the fluorescein dye within the silica matrix. This is a novel and simple synthetic approach to generate highly fluorescent, monodispersed silica nanoparticles by doping organic molecules into a silica matrix.Graphical Abstract.

  15. Morphological control of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles and production of hollow NiO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Nitin; Claypoole, Leslie; Bachas, Leonidas G.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical synthesis coupled with a microwave irradiation process allowed for the control of size (6-40 nm), shape, and shell thickness of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. In this unique synthetic route, the size of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) was strongly influenced by the nickel salt-to-stabilizer ratio and the amount of the stabilizer. Interestingly, it was observed that the shape of the nanoparticles was altered by varying the reaction time, where longer reaction times resulted in annealing effects and rupture of the stabilizer micelle leading to distinct shapes of Ni/NiO core/shell nanostructures. Product cooling rate was another important parameter identified in this study that not only affected the shape, but also the crystal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles. In addition, a simple and cost-effective method of microwave irradiation of NiNPs led to the formation of distinctly shaped hollow NiO nanoparticles. These high surface area core/shell nanoparticles with well-controlled morphologies are important and can lead to significant advancement in the design of improved fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, and catalysis systems.

  16. Morphological control of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles and production of hollow NiO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Nitin [University of Alabama, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Center for Materials for Information Technology (MINT) (United States); Claypoole, Leslie [Fairmont State University (United States); Bachas, Leonidas G., E-mail: bachas@uky.ed [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Chemical synthesis coupled with a microwave irradiation process allowed for the control of size (6-40 nm), shape, and shell thickness of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. In this unique synthetic route, the size of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) was strongly influenced by the nickel salt-to-stabilizer ratio and the amount of the stabilizer. Interestingly, it was observed that the shape of the nanoparticles was altered by varying the reaction time, where longer reaction times resulted in annealing effects and rupture of the stabilizer micelle leading to distinct shapes of Ni/NiO core/shell nanostructures. Product cooling rate was another important parameter identified in this study that not only affected the shape, but also the crystal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles. In addition, a simple and cost-effective method of microwave irradiation of NiNPs led to the formation of distinctly shaped hollow NiO nanoparticles. These high surface area core/shell nanoparticles with well-controlled morphologies are important and can lead to significant advancement in the design of improved fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, and catalysis systems.

  17. Angle Dependent Optics of Plasmonic Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-21

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2018-0014 Angle-Dependent Optics of Plasmonic Core-Shell Nanoparticles G.V. Pavan Kumar INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION AND... EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 900, NCL Innovation Park, Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan PUNE, 411008 IN 8.  PERFORMING ORGANIZATION      REPORT NUMBER 9...function of spherical co-ordinates: azimuthal and polar angles. Absorption, scattering and emission of light from nanoparticles, especially when they are

  18. The role of interfacial metal silicates on the magnetism in FeCo/SiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 49%}Co{sub 49%}V{sub 2%}/SiO{sub 2} core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desautels, R. D., E-mail: rddesautels@physics.umanitoba.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Toyota Research Institute of North America, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48169 (United States); Freeland, J. W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rowe, M. P. [Toyota Research Institute of North America, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48169 (United States); Lierop, J. van [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2015-05-07

    We have investigated the role of spontaneously formed interfacial metal silicates on the magnetism of FeCo/SiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 49%}Co{sub 49%}V{sub 2%}/SiO{sub 2} core/shell nanoparticles. Element specific x-ray absorption and photoelectron spectroscopy experiments have identified the characteristic spectral features of metallic iron and cobalt from within the nanoparticle core. In addition, metal silicates of iron, cobalt, and vanadium were found to have formed spontaneously at the interface between the nanoparticle core and silica shell. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments indicated that the elemental magnetism was a result of metallic iron and cobalt with small components from the iron, cobalt, and vanadium silicates. Magnetometry experiments have shown that there was no exchange bias loop shift in the FeCo nanoparticles; however, exchange bias from antiferromagnetic vanadium oxide was measured in the V-doped nanoparticles. These results showed clearly that the interfacial metal silicates played a significant role in the magnetism of these core/shell nanoparticles, and that the vanadium percolated from the FeCo-cores into the SiO{sub 2}-based interfacial shell.

  19. Fabrication of Au-Pd Core-shell Nanoparticles using Au Thin-Film Dewetting at High Temperature and Chemical Synthesis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Gyu; Lee, Hye-Jung; Oh, Yong-Jun [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have received a lot of attention in the fields of catalysts and hydrogen sensors. In this study, Au-Pd core-shell NP arrays were successfully fabricated using two steps: formation of the ordered array of Au NPs cores via solid-state dewetting of a Au thin film on a topographic silica substrate, and Pd shell formation via chemical synthesis using two different surfactants (CTAB and CTAC). Using the CTAB surfactant in particular, a 2-D composite structure comprised of an ordered array of Au-Pd NPs, with smaller Pd NPs on the nanoscopic gaps between the Au-Pd NPs, could be formed. This structure is expected to have potential application in resistance-base hydrogen sensors.

  20. Investigation of novel inverted NiO@NixCo1-xO core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Samiul; Mayanovic, R. A.; Benamara, Mourad

    2018-05-01

    Inverse core-shell nanoparticles, comprised of an antiferromagnetic (AFM) core covered by a ferromagnetic (FM) or ferrimagnetic (FiM) shell, are of current interest due to their different potential application and due to the tunability of their magnetic properties. The antiferromagnetic nature of NiO and high Néel temperature (523 K) makes this material well suited for inverse core-shell nanoparticle applications. Our primary objective in this project has been to synthesize and characterize inverted core-shell nanoparticles (CSNs) comprised of a NiO (AFM) core and a shell consisting of a NixCo1-xO (FiM) compound. The synthesis of the CSNs was made using a two-step process. The NiO nanoparticles were synthesized using a chemical reaction method. Subsequently, the NiO nanoparticles were used to grow the NiO@NixCo1-xO CSNs using our hydrothermal nano-phase epitaxy method. XRD structural characterization shows that the NiO@NixCo1-xO CSNs have the rock salt cubic crystal structure. SEM-EDS data indicates the presence of Co in the CSNs. Magnetic measurements show that the CSNs exhibit AFM/FiM characteristics with a small coercivity field of 30 Oe at 5 K. The field cooled vs zero field cooled hysteresis loop measurements show a magnetization axis shift which is attributed to the exchange bias effect between the AFM NiO core and an FiM NixCo1-xO shell of the CSNs. Our ab initio based calculations of the NixCo1-xO rock salt structure confirm a weak FiM character and a charge transfer insulator property of the compound.

  1. Investigation of novel inverted NiO@NixCo1-xO core-shell nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiul Hasan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Inverse core-shell nanoparticles, comprised of an antiferromagnetic (AFM core covered by a ferromagnetic (FM or ferrimagnetic (FiM shell, are of current interest due to their different potential application and due to the tunability of their magnetic properties. The antiferromagnetic nature of NiO and high Néel temperature (523 K makes this material well suited for inverse core-shell nanoparticle applications. Our primary objective in this project has been to synthesize and characterize inverted core-shell nanoparticles (CSNs comprised of a NiO (AFM core and a shell consisting of a NixCo1-xO (FiM compound. The synthesis of the CSNs was made using a two-step process. The NiO nanoparticles were synthesized using a chemical reaction method. Subsequently, the NiO nanoparticles were used to grow the NiO@NixCo1-xO CSNs using our hydrothermal nano-phase epitaxy method. XRD structural characterization shows that the NiO@NixCo1-xO CSNs have the rock salt cubic crystal structure. SEM-EDS data indicates the presence of Co in the CSNs. Magnetic measurements show that the CSNs exhibit AFM/FiM characteristics with a small coercivity field of 30 Oe at 5 K. The field cooled vs zero field cooled hysteresis loop measurements show a magnetization axis shift which is attributed to the exchange bias effect between the AFM NiO core and an FiM NixCo1-xO shell of the CSNs. Our ab initio based calculations of the NixCo1-xO rock salt structure confirm a weak FiM character and a charge transfer insulator property of the compound.

  2. From core/shell to hollow Fe/γ-Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles: evolution of the magnetic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemati, Z; Khurshid, H; Alonso, J; Phan, M H; Mukherjee, P; Srikanth, H

    2015-01-01

    High quality Fe/γ-Fe_2O_3 core/shell, core/void/shell, and hollow nanoparticles with two different sizes of 8 and 12 nm were synthesized, and the effect of morphology, surface and finite-size effects on their magnetic properties including the exchange bias (EB) effect were systematically investigated. We find a general trend for both systems that as the morphology changes from core/shell to core/void/shell, the magnetization of the system decays and inter-particle interactions become weaker, while the effective anisotropy and the EB effect increase. The changes are more drastic when the nanoparticles become completely hollow. Noticeably, the morphological change from core/shell to hollow increases the mean blocking temperature for the 12 nm particles but decreases for the 8 nm particles. The low-temperature magnetic behavior of the 12 nm particles changes from a collective super-spin-glass system mediated by dipolar interactions for the core/shell nanoparticles to a frustrated cluster glass-like state for the shell nanograins in the hollow morphology. On the other hand for the 8 nm nanoparticles core/shell and hollow particles the magnetic behavior is more similar, and a conventional spin glass-like transition is obtained at low temperatures. In the case of the hollow nanoparticles, the coupling between the inner and outer spin layers in the shell gives rise to an enhanced EB effect, which increases with increasing shell thickness. This indicates that the morphology of the shell plays a crucial role in this kind of exchange-biased systems. (paper)

  3. Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet@metal-organic framework core-shell nanoparticles for photo-chemo combination therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Zhang, Jinfeng; Wang, Yu; Chen, Xianfeng; Zapien, J. Antonio; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-10-01

    Recently, nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) have started to be developed as a promising platform for bioimaging and drug delivery. On the other hand, combination therapies using multiple approaches are demonstrated to achieve much enhanced efficacy. Herein, we report, for the first time, core-shell nanoparticles consisting of a photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) agent and a MOF shell while simultaneously carrying a chemotherapeutic drug for effective combination therapy. In this work, core-shell nanoparticles of zeolitic-imadazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as shell embedded with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets as core are fabricated by growing ZIF-8 in the presence of g-C3N4 nanosheets. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) is then loaded into the ZIF-8 shell of the core-shell nanoparticles. The combination of the chemotherapeutic effects of DOX and the PDT effect of g-C3N4 nanosheets can lead to considerably enhanced efficacy. Furthermore, the red fluorescence of DOX and the blue fluorescence of g-C3N4 nanosheets provide the additional function of dual-color imaging for monitoring the drug release process.Recently, nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) have started to be developed as a promising platform for bioimaging and drug delivery. On the other hand, combination therapies using multiple approaches are demonstrated to achieve much enhanced efficacy. Herein, we report, for the first time, core-shell nanoparticles consisting of a photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) agent and a MOF shell while simultaneously carrying a chemotherapeutic drug for effective combination therapy. In this work, core-shell nanoparticles of zeolitic-imadazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as shell embedded with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets as core are fabricated by growing ZIF-8 in the presence of g-C3N4 nanosheets. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) is then loaded into the ZIF-8 shell of the core-shell nanoparticles. The combination of the chemotherapeutic effects of DOX

  4. Determination of Core-Shell Structures in Pd-Hg Nanoparticles by STEM-EDX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deiana, Davide; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Malacrida, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The structural and elemental configuration of a high-performing Pd-Hg electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction to hydrogen peroxide has been studied by means of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Pd-Hg nanoparticles are shown to have a crystalline core-shell structure, with a Pd...... core and a Pd-Hg ordered alloy shell. The ordered shell is responsible for the high oxygen reduction selectivity to H2O2....

  5. Silica-modified luminescent LaPO4 :Eu@LaPO4 @SiO2 core/shell nanorods: Synthesis, structural and luminescent properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Anees A

    2018-02-01

    Monoclinic-type tetragonal LaPO 4 :Eu (core) and LaPO 4 :Eu@LaPO 4 (core/shell) nanorods (NRs) were successfully prepared using a urea-based co-precipitation process under ambient conditions. An amorphous silica layer was coated around the luminescent core/shell NRs via the sol-gel process to improve their solubility and colloidal stability in aqueous and non-aqueous media. The prepared nano-products were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and FTIR, UV/Vis, and photoluminescence spectroscopy to examine their phase purity, crystal phase, surface chemistry, solubility and luminescence characteristics. The length and diameter of the nano-products were in the range 80-120 nm and 10-15 nm, respectively. High solubility of the silica-modified core/shell/Si NRs was found for the aqueous medium. The luminescent core NRs exhibited characteristic excitation and emission transitions in the visible region that were greatly affected by surface growth of insulating LaPO 4 and silica layers due to the multiphonon relaxation rate. Our luminescence spectral results clearly show a distinct difference in intensities for core, core/shell, and core/shell/Si NRs. Highly luminescent NRs with good solubility could be useful candidates for a variety of photonic-based biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Surface-engineered core-shell nano-size ferrites and their antimicrobial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraliya, Jagdish D.; Joshi, Hiren H.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of biological study on core-shell structured MFe 2 O 4 (where M = Co, Mn, Ni) nanoparticles and influence of silica- DEG dual coating on their antimicrobial activity. Spherical MFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were prepared via a Co-precipitation method. The microstructures and morphologies of these nanoparticles were studied by x-ray diffraction and FTIR. The antimicrobial activity study carried out in nutrient agar medium with addition of antimicrobial synthesis compound which is tested for its activity against different types of bacteria

  7. Fabrication of poly(o-anisidine) coated silica core-shell microspheres and their electrorheological response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Joo; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2017-11-01

    In this work, silica/poly(o-anisidine) (POA) core-shell structured microspheres were synthesized by coating the silica core surface with POA with a help of a chemical grafting agent, N-[(3-trimethoxylsilyl)-propyl] aniline. The synthesized silica microspheres were then applied as a polymer/inorganic composite particle-based electrorheological (ER) fluid. The morphology of the silica/POA microspheres was examined by using both transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, while their thermal properties and chemical structure were checked by thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The ER properties of the silica/POA particle-based ER fluid were examined by using a Couette-type rotational rheometer equipped with a high-voltage power supplier and analyzed by the Bingham model and modified Mason number. In order to obtain additional information about the electrical polarization properties, the dielectric spectra were measured by an LCR meter and fitted by using the Cole-Cole equation. Furthermore, suspension stability of the ER fluid was tested using Turbiscan.

  8. Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Multimetallic Core-Shell and Hollow-Like Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Calderon, Alejandra

    A thorough control of nanoscale systems is crucial for developing and improving their activity in a variety of application fields. These range from nanocatalysis, plasmonics, nanosensors, nanomedicine, communications, and others. Controlling and understanding the growth and spatial distribution of multi metallic systems allow us to explore the correlation between the characteristics of the nanoparticle (composition, surface chemistry, crystallinity, etc.) and their properties (mechanical, optical, structural, etc.). In this dissertation bimetallic and multi-metallic nanoparticles were obtained by a seed mediated method and galvanic replacement. Combinations of the type core shell of Au Ag, Au Pd and Au Pd-Au Au multi-metallic systems were studied. A galvanic replacement method was used to obtain hollow-like Au/Pt nanoboxes and Au AgM (M = Au, Pd or Pt) yolk-shell structures with voids in the middle shell. Characterization regarding composition, morphology, optical properties and atomic structures was performed. The mechanical properties of Au Pd nanocubes were studied in situ by the use of a TEM-AFM nanomechanical holder. The nanoparticles strengthening mechanism relies on the Au core resistance to the motion of partial dislocations. The catalytic efficiency of core-shell and nanorattles structures were tested with a model reaction for the decomposition of 4-ntp to 4-amp. Yolk-shell systems exhibit an enhancement in the catalytic decomposition rate in comparison with solid and bimetallic system. Finally, the development of an Electrospray assisted Langmuir Blodgett technique was successfully employed for the deposition of nanoparticles monolayer on a substrate. High particle density and coverage of the substrate makes this a promising technique to finely tune nanoparticles self-assembly.

  9. The impact of aminated surface ligands and silica shells on the stability, uptake, and toxicity of engineered silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonventre, Josephine A.; Pryor, Joseph B.; Harper, Bryan J.; Harper, Stacey L., E-mail: stacey.harper@oregonstate.edu [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Inherent nanomaterial characteristics, composition, surface chemistry, and primary particle size, are known to impact particle stability, uptake, and toxicity. Nanocomposites challenge our ability to predict nanoparticle reactivity in biological systems if they are composed of materials with contrasting relative toxicities. We hypothesized that toxicity would be dominated by the nanoparticle surface (shell vs core), and that modulating the surface ligands would have a direct impact on uptake. We exposed developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) to a series of ∼70 nm amine-terminated silver nanoparticles with silica shells (AgSi NPs) to investigate the relative influence of surface amination, composition, and size on toxicity. Like-sized aminated AgSi and Si NPs were more toxic than paired hydroxyl-terminated nanoparticles; however, both AgSi NPs were more toxic than the Si NPs, indicating a significant contribution of the silver core to the toxicity. Incremental increases in surface amination did not linearly increase uptake and toxicity, but did have a marked impact on dispersion stability. Mass-based exposure metrics initially supported the hypothesis that smaller nanoparticles (20 nm) would be more toxic than larger particles (70 nm). However, surface area-based metrics revealed that toxicity was independent of size. Our studies suggest that nanoparticle surfaces play a critical role in the uptake and toxicity of AgSi NPs, while the impact of size may be a function of the exposure metric used. Overall, uptake and toxicity can be dramatically altered by small changes in surface functionalization or exposure media. Only after understanding the magnitude of these changes, can we begin to understand the biologically available dose following nanoparticle exposure.

  10. Determining the size of nanoparticles in the example of magnetic iron oxide core-shell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzębski, Maciej; Kościński, Mikołaj; Białopiotrowicz, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    The size of nanoparticles is one of the most important factors for their possible applications. Various techniques for the nanoparticle size characterization are available. In this paper selected techniques will be considered base on the prepared core-shell magnetite nanoparticles. Magnetite is one of the most investigated and developed magnetic material. It shows interesting magnetic properties which can be used for biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, hypothermia and also as a contrast agent. To reduce the toxic effects of Fe3O4, magnetic core was covered by dextran and gelatin. Moreover, the shell was doped by fluorescent dye for confocal microscopy investigation. The main investigation focused on the methods for particles size determination of modified magnetite nanoparticles prepared with different techniques. The size distribution were obtained by nanoparticle tracking analysis, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, fluorescent correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and confocal microscopy were used to compare the results for particle size determination of core-shell systems.

  11. Enhancement of curcumin water dispersibility and antioxidant activity using core-shell protein-polysaccharide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Xulin; Gong, Yushi; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Kun

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin has strong antioxidant activity, but poor water-solubility and chemical stability, which limits its utilization as a nutraceutical in many applications. Previously, we developed a core-shell (zein-pectin) nanoparticle delivery system with high curcumin loading efficiency, high particle yield, and good water dispersibility. However, this system was unstable to aggregation around neutral pH and moderate ionic strengths due to weakening of electrostatic repulsion between nanoparticles. In the current study, we used a combination of alginate (high charge density) and pectin (low charge density) to form the shell around zein nanoparticles. Replacement of 30% of pectin with alginate greatly improved aggregation stability at pH 5 to 7 and at high ionic strengths (2000mM NaCl). Curcumin encapsulated within these core-shell nanoparticles exhibited higher antioxidant and radical scavenging activities than curcumin solubilized in ethanol solutions as determined by Fe (III) reducing power, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·), and 2, 2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical cation (ABTS· + ) scavenging analysis. These core-shell nanoparticles may be useful for incorporating chemically unstable hydrophobic nutraceuticals such as curcumin into functional foods, dietary supplements, and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Silver-nickel oxide core-shell nanoparticle array electrode with enhanced lithium-storage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wenjia; Du, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of Ag-NiO core-shell nanoparticle arrays via a one-step solution-immersion process and subsequent RF-sputtering technique. The Ag nanoparticle arrays on copper substrate are firstly prepared by a displacement reaction at mild temperature of 303K. Then, a NiO layer is deposited onto the surface of the Ag nanoparticles via RF-sputtering technique. When evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries, the Ag-NiO core-shell electrode shows higher capacity and better cycling performance than the planar NiO electrode. The in-situ synthesized Ag nanoparticles can enhance the interfacial strength between the active material and substrate, andimprove the electrical conductivity of the electrode, which may be responsible for the enhanced performance

  13. A Platinum Monolayer Core-Shell Catalyst with a Ternary Alloy Nanoparticle Core and Enhanced Stability for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiong Nan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize a platinum monolayer core-shell catalyst with a ternary alloy nanoparticle core of Pd, Ir, and Ni. A Pt monolayer is deposited on carbon-supported PdIrNi nanoparticles using an underpotential deposition method, in which a copper monolayer is applied to the ternary nanoparticles; this is followed by the galvanic displacement of Cu with Pt to generate a Pt monolayer on the surface of the core. The core-shell Pd1Ir1Ni2@Pt/C catalyst exhibits excellent oxygen reduction reaction activity, yielding a mass activity significantly higher than that of Pt monolayer catalysts containing PdIr or PdNi nanoparticles as cores and four times higher than that of a commercial Pt/C electrocatalyst. In 0.1 M HClO4, the half-wave potential reaches 0.91 V, about 30 mV higher than that of Pt/C. We verify the structure and composition of the carbon-supported PdIrNi nanoparticles using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and we perform a stability test that confirms the excellent stability of our core-shell catalyst. We suggest that the porous structure resulting from the dissolution of Ni in the alloy nanoparticles may be the main reason for the catalyst’s enhanced performance.

  14. Improved microbial growth inhibition activity of bio-surfactant induced Ag–TiO{sub 2} core shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nithyadevi, D. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Kumar, P. Suresh [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Meena, P. [Department of Physics, PSGR Krishnammal college for women, Coimbatore 641 004 (India)

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolysis process and Ag nanoparticles were prepared by using hydrazine reduction method. • Ag–TiO{sub 2} core shell nanoparticles were synthesized by reverse micelle method. • Coatings of TiO{sub 2} shell leads to decrease the usage of silver particles and also it reduces the release of silver ions from the matrix. • Optimum ratio of TiO{sub 2} particles: Ag atoms are needed for better antibacterial activity. • Sodium alginate (Bio-copolymer) induced core shell nanoparticles results 100% cell growth inhibition toward Staphylococcus aureus. - Abstract: Surfactant induced silver–titanium dioxide core shell nanoparticles within the size range of 10–50 nm were applied in the antibacterial agent to inhibit the growth of bacterial cells. The single crystalline silver was located in the core part of the composite powder and the titanium dioxide components were uniformly distributed in the shell part. HRTEM and XRD results indicated that silver was completely covered by titanium dioxide and its crystal structure was not affected after being coated by titanium dioxide. The effect of silver–titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the inhibition of bacterial cell growth was studied by means of disk diffusion method. The inhibition zone results reveal that sodium alginate induced silver–titanium dioxide nanoparticles exhibit 100% more antibacterial activity than that with cetyltrimethylbromide or without surfactant. UV–vis spectroscopic analysis showed a large concentration of silver was rapidly released into phosphate buffer solution (PBS) within a period of 1 day, with a much smaller concentration being released after this 1-day period. It was concluded that sodium alginate induced silver–titanium dioxide core shell nanoparticles could enhance long term cell growth inhibition in comparison with cetyltrimethylbromide or without surfactant. The surfactant mediated core shell

  15. Tailored Synthesis of Core-Shell Mesoporous Silica Particles—Optimization of Dye Sorption Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Baliś

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse spherical silica particles, with solid cores and mesoporous shells (SCMS, were synthesized at various temperatures using a one-pot method utilizing a cationic surfactant template. The temperature of the synthesis was found to significantly affect the diameters of both the cores (ca. 170–800 nm and shells (ca. 11–80 nm of the particles, which can be tailored for specific applications that require a high specific surface area of the nanocarriers (mesoporous shells and simultaneously their mechanical robustness for, e.g., facile isolation from suspensions (dense cores. The applied method enabled the formation of the relatively thick mesoporous shells at conditions below room temperature. Radially ordered pores with narrow distributions of their sizes in 3–4 nm range were found in the shells. The adsorption ability of the SCMS particles was studied using rhodamine 6G as a model dye. Decolorization of the dye solution in the presence of the SCMS particles was correlated with their structure and specific surface area and reached its maximum for the particles synthesized at 15 °C. The presented strategy may be applied for the fine-tuning of the structure of SCMS particles and the enhancement of their adsorption capabilities.

  16. Anisotropic deformation of metallo-dielectric core-shell colloids under MeV ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penninkhof, J.J.; Dillen, T. van; Roorda, S.; Graf, C.; Blaaderen, A. van; Vredenberg, A.M.; Polman, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the deformation of metallo-dielectric core-shell colloids under 4 MeV Xe, 6 and 16 MeV Au, 30 MeV Si and 30 MeV Cu ion irradiation. Colloids of silica surrounded by a gold shell, with a typical diameter of 400 nm, show anisotropic plastic deformation under MeV ion irradiation, with the metal flowing conform the anisotropically deforming silica core. The 20 nm thick metal shell imposes a mechanical constraint on the deforming silica core, reducing the net deformation strain rate compared to that of pure silica. In colloids consisting of a Au core and a silica shell, the silica expands perpendicular to the ion beam, while the metal core shows a large elongation along the ion beam direction, provided the silica shell is thick enough (>40 nm). A minimum electronic energy loss of 3.3 keV/nm is required for shape transformation of the metal core. Silver cores embedded in a silica shell show no elongation, but rather disintegrate. Also in planar SiO 2 films, Au and Ag colloids show entirely different behavior under MeV irradiation. We conclude that the deformation model of core-shell colloids must include ion-induced particle disintegration in combination with thermodynamical effects, possibly in combination with mechanical effects driven by stresses around the ion tracks

  17. Anisotropic deformation of metallo-dielectric core shell colloids under MeV ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninkhof, J. J.; van Dillen, T.; Roorda, S.; Graf, C.; van Blaaderen, A.; Vredenberg, A. M.; Polman, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the deformation of metallo-dielectric core-shell colloids under 4 MeV Xe, 6 and 16 MeV Au, 30 MeV Si and 30 MeV Cu ion irradiation. Colloids of silica surrounded by a gold shell, with a typical diameter of 400 nm, show anisotropic plastic deformation under MeV ion irradiation, with the metal flowing conform the anisotropically deforming silica core. The 20 nm thick metal shell imposes a mechanical constraint on the deforming silica core, reducing the net deformation strain rate compared to that of pure silica. In colloids consisting of a Au core and a silica shell, the silica expands perpendicular to the ion beam, while the metal core shows a large elongation along the ion beam direction, provided the silica shell is thick enough (>40 nm). A minimum electronic energy loss of 3.3 keV/nm is required for shape transformation of the metal core. Silver cores embedded in a silica shell show no elongation, but rather disintegrate. Also in planar SiO2 films, Au and Ag colloids show entirely different behavior under MeV irradiation. We conclude that the deformation model of core-shell colloids must include ion-induced particle disintegration in combination with thermodynamical effects, possibly in combination with mechanical effects driven by stresses around the ion tracks.

  18. Synthesis of Core/Shell MnFe2O4/Au Nanoparticles for Advanced Proton Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan

    2014-01-01

    Among many approaches for the surface modification with materials, such as polymers, organic ligands and metals, one of the most attractive ways is using metals. The fabrication of metal-based, monolayer-coated magnetic nanoparticles has been intensively studied. However, the synthesis of metal-capped magnetic nanoparticles with monodIspersities and controllable sizes is still challenged. Recently, gold-capped magnetic nanoparticles have been reported to increase stability and to provide biocompatibility. Magnetic nanoparticle with gold coating is an attractive system, which can be stabilized in biological conditions and readily functionalized through well-established surface modification (Au-S) chemistry. The Au coating offers plasmonic properties to magnetic nanoparticles. The core/shell nanoparticles were transferred from organic to aqueous solutions for biomedical applications. The core/shell structured MnFe 2 O 4 /Au nanoparticles have been prepared and transferred from organic phase to aqueous solutions. The resulting Au-coated nanocrystals may be an attractive system for biomedical applications, which are needed both magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging. The phase transferred core/shell nanoparticles can be decorated with targeting moiety, such as antibodies, peptides, aptamers, small molecules and ligands for biological applications. The proton treatment with the resulting Au-MnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles is undergoing.

  19. Zirconium(IV) oxide: New coating material for nanoresonators for shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajczewski, Jan; Abdulrahman, Heman Burhanalden; Kołątaj, Karol; Kudelski, Andrzej

    2018-03-01

    One tool that can be used for determining the structure and composition of surfaces of various materials (even in in situ conditions) is shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS). In SHINERS measurements, the surface under investigation is covered with a layer of surface-protected plasmonic nanoparticles, and then the Raman spectrum of the surface analysed is recorded. The plasmonic cores of the used core-shell structures act as electromagnetic nanoresonators, significantly locally enhancing the intensity of the electric field of the incident radiation, leading to a large increase in the efficiency of the generation of the Raman signal from molecules in the close proximity to the deposited SHINERS nanoresonators. A protective layer (from transparent dielectrics such as SiO2, Al2O3 or TiO2) prevents direct interaction between the plasmonic metal and the analysed surface (such interactions may lead to changes in the structure of the surface) and, in the case of plasmonic cores other than gold cores, the dielectric layer increases the chemical stability of the metal core. In this contribution, we show for the first time that core-shell nanoparticles having a silver core (both a solid and hollow one) and a shell of zirconium(IV) oxide are very efficient SHINERS nanoresonators that are significantly more stable in acidic and alkaline media than the silver-silica core-shell structures typically used for SHINERS experiments.

  20. Synthesis of composite nanoparticles using co-precipitation of a magnetic iron-oxide shell onto core nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primc, Darinka; Belec, Blaž; Makovec, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Composite nanoparticles can be synthesized by coating a shell made of one material onto core nanoparticles made of another material. Here we report on a novel method for coating a magnetic iron oxide onto the surface of core nanoparticles in an aqueous suspension. The method is based on the heterogeneous nucleation of an initial product of Fe"3"+/Fe"2"+ co-precipitation on the core nanoparticles. The close control of the supersaturation of the precipitating species required for an exclusively heterogeneous nucleation and the growth of the shell were achieved by immobilizing the reactive Fe"3"+ ions in a nitrate complex with urea ([Fe((CO(NH_2)_2)_6](NO_3)_3) and by using solid Mg(OH)_2 as the precipitating reagent. The slow thermal decomposition of the complex at 60 °C homogeneously releases the reactive Fe"3"+ ions into the suspension of the core nanoparticles. The key stage of the process is the thermal hydrolysis of the released Fe"3"+ ions prior to the addition of Mg(OH)_2. The thermal hydrolysis results in the formation of γ-FeOOH, exclusively at the surfaces of the core nanoparticles. After the addition of the solid hydroxide Mg(OH)_2, the pH increases and at pH ~ 5.7 the Fe"2"+ precipitates and reacts with the γ-FeOOH to form magnetic iron oxide with a spinel structure (spinel ferrite) at the surfaces of the core nanoparticles. The proposed low-temperature method for the synthesis of composite nanoparticles is capable of forming well-defined interfaces between the two components, important for the coupling of the different properties. The procedure is environmentally friendly, inexpensive, and appropriate for scaling up to mass production.Graphical abstract

  1. Optical studies of CdSe/HgSe and CdSe/Ag2Se core/shell nanoparticles embedded in gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhniuk, Yu M; Dzhagan, V M; Valakh, M Ya; Raevskaya, A E; Stroyuk, A L; Kuchmiy, S Ya; Zahn, D R T

    2008-01-01

    CdSe/HgSe and CdSe/Ag 2 Se core-shell nanoparticles are obtained by colloidal synthesis from aqueous solutions in the presence of gelatin. Optical absorption, luminescence, and Raman spectra of the nanoparticles obtained are measured. The variation of the optical spectra of CdSe/HgSe and CdSe/Ag 2 Se core-shell nanoparticles with the shell thickness is discussed. Sharp non-monotonous variation of the photoluminescence spectra at low shell coverage is observed.

  2. A Study on the Plasmonic Properties of Silver Core Gold Shell Nanoparticles: Optical Assessment of the Particle Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Derrick; Lee, JaeDong; Thi Bich Thuy, Nguyen; Aoki, Yoshiya; Singh, Prerna; Maenosono, Shinya

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports a qualitative comparison between the optical properties of a set of silver core, gold shell nanoparticles with varying composition and structure to those calculated using the Mie solution. To achieve this, silver nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous phase from a silver hydroxide precursor with sodium acrylate as dual reducing-capping agent. The particles were then coated with a layer of gold with controllable thickness through a reduction-deposition process. The resulting nanoparticles reveal well defined optical properties that make them suitable for comparison to ideal calculated results using the Mie solution. The discussion focuses on the correlation between the synthesized core shell nanoparticles with varying Au shell thickness and the Mie solution results in terms of the optical properties. The results give insight in how to design and synthesize silver core, gold shell nanoparticles with controllable optical properties (e.g., SPR band in terms of intensity and position), and has implications in creating nanoparticle materials to be used as biological probes and sensing elements.

  3. The influence of shell thickness of Au@TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles on the plasmonic enhancement effect in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Liang; Lin, Fan-Cheng; Yang, Yu-Chen; Huang, Chen-Hsien; Gwo, Shangjr; Huang, Michael H; Huang, Jer-Shing

    2013-09-07

    Plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles (PCSNPs) can function as nanoantennas and improve the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To achieve maximum enhancement, the morphology of PCSNPs needs to be optimized. Here we precisely control the morphology of Au@TiO2 PCSNPs and systematically study its influence on the plasmonic enhancement effect. The enhancement mechanism was found to vary with the thickness of the TiO2 shell. PCSNPs with a thinner shell mainly enhance the current, whereas particles with a thicker shell improve the voltage. While pronounced plasmonic enhancement was found in the near infrared regime, wavelength-independent enhancement in the visible range was observed and attributed to the plasmonic heating effect. Emission lifetime measurement confirms that N719 molecules neighboring nanoparticles with TiO2 shells exhibit a longer lifetime than those in contact with metal cores. Overall, PCSNPs with a 5 nm shell give the highest efficiency enhancement of 23%. Our work provides a new synthesis route for well-controlled Au@TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles and gains insight into the plasmonic enhancement in DSSCs.

  4. New method to evaluate optical properties of core-shell nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria-Tapia, V. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Ameca, Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Centro Universitario de Los Valles (Mexico); Franco, A., E-mail: alfredofranco@fisica.unam.mx; Garcia-Macedo, J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Departamento de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    A new method is presented to calculate, for metallic core-dielectric shell nanostructures, the local refractive index, resonance condition, maximum spectral shift, plasma wavelength, and the sensitivity of the wavelength maximum to variations in the refractive index of the environment. The equations that describe these properties are directly related to the surface plasmon peak position, refractive index of the shell, and to the surrounding medium. The method is based on the approach that a layered core dispersed in a dielectric environment (core-shell model) can be figured out as an uncoated sphere dispersed in a medium with a local refractive index (local refractive index model). Thus, in the Mie theory, the same spectral position of the surface plasmon resonance peak can be obtained by varying the volume fraction of the shell or by varying the local refractive index. The assumed equivalence between plasmon resonance wavelengths enable us to show that the local refractive index depends geometrically on the shell volume fraction. Hence, simple relationships between optical and geometrical properties of these core-shell nanostructures are obtained. Furthermore, good agreement is observed between the new relationships and experimental data corresponding to gold nanoparticles (radius = 7.5 nm) covered with silica shells (with thicknesses up to 29.19 nm), which insured that the equivalence hypothesis is correct.

  5. Magnetothermal release of payload from iron oxide/silica drug delivery agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luong, T.T., E-mail: thientai.luong@chem.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Department of Chemistry, Celestijnenlaan 200D, Heverlee 3001 (Belgium); Hanoi National University of Education, Faculty of Chemistry, Xuan Thuy 136, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Knoppe, S.; Bloemen, M.; Brullot, W.; Strobbe, R. [KU Leuven, Department of Chemistry, Celestijnenlaan 200D, Heverlee 3001 (Belgium); Locquet, J.-P. [KU Leuven, Department of Physics, Celestijnenlaan 200D, Heverlee 3001 (Belgium); Verbiest, T. [KU Leuven, Department of Chemistry, Celestijnenlaan 200D, Heverlee 3001 (Belgium)

    2016-10-15

    The release of covalently bound Rhodamine B from iron oxide/mesoporous silica core/shell nanoparticles under magnetically induced heating was studied. The system acts as a model to study drug delivery and payload release under magnetothermal heating. - Graphical abstract: The release of covalently bound Rhodamine B from iron oxide/mesoporous silica core/shell nanoparticles under magnetically induced heating was studied. - Highlights: • Iron oxide/mesoporous-SiO{sub 2} core-shell NPs were synthesized. • The dye was covalently bound to SiO{sub 2} shells. • The release of dye under magnetothermal heating was studied. • The results are relevant for controlled drug release.

  6. Gold/silver core-shell 20 nm nanoparticles extracted from citrate solution examined by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhard, Mark H.; Smith, Jordan N.; Baer, Donald R.

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles of many types are widely used in consumer and medical products. The surface chemistry of particles and the coatings that form during synthesis or use in many types of media can significantly impact the behaviors of particles including dissolution, transformation and biological or environmental impact. Consequently it is useful to be able to extract information about the thickness of surface coatings and other attributes of nanoparticles produced in a variety of ways. It has been demonstrated that X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) can be reliably used to determine the thickness of organic and other nanoparticles coatings and shells. However, care is required to produce reliable and consistent information. Here we report the XPS spectra from gold/silver core-shell nanoparticles of nominal size 20 nm removed from a citrate saturated solution after one and two washing cycles. The Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA) program had been used to model peak amplitudes to obtain information on citrate coatings that remain after washing and demonstrate the presence of the gold core. This data is provided so that others can compare use of SESSA or other modeling approaches to quantify the nature of coatings to those already published and to explore the impacts particle non-uniformities on XPS signals from core-shell nanoparticles.

  7. Dependences of optical properties of spherical two-layered nanoparticles on parameters of gold core and material shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovalov, V.K.; Astafyeva, L.G.; Zharov, V.P.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of nonlinear dependences of optical properties of spherical two-layered gold core and some material shell nanoparticles (NPs) placed in water on parameters of core and shell was carried out on the basis of the extended Mie theory. Efficiency cross-sections of absorption, scattering and extinction of radiation with wavelength 532 nm by core–shell NPs in the ranges of core radii r 00 =5–40 nm and of relative NP radii r 1 /r 00 =1–8 were calculated (r 1 —radius of two-layered nanoparticle). Shell materials were used with optical indexes in the ranges of refraction n 1 =0.2–1.5 and absorption k 1 =0–3.5 for the presentation of optical properties of wide classes of shell materials (including dielectrics, metals, polymers, vapor shell around gold core). Results show nonlinear dependences of optical properties of two-layered NPs on optical indexes of shell material, core r 00 and relative NP r 1 /r 00 radii. Regions with sharp decrease and increase of absorption, scattering and extinction efficiency cross-sections with changing of core and shell parameters were investigated. These dependences should be taken into account for applications of two-layered NPs in laser nanomedicine and optical diagnostics of tissues. The results can be used for experimental investigation of shell formation on NP core and optical determination of geometrical parameters of core and shell of two-layered NPs. -- Highlights: • Absorption, scattering and extinction of two-layered nanoparticles are studied. • Shell materials change in wide regions of materials (metals, dielectrics, vapor). • Effect of sharp decrease and increase of optical characteristics is established. • Explanation of sharp decreasing and increasing optical characteristics is presented

  8. Whiter, brighter, and more stable cellulose paper coated with TiO2 /SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles using a layer-by-layer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Lorch, Mark; Sajedin, Seyed Mani; Kelly, Stephen M; Kornherr, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    To inhibit the photocatalytic degradation of organic material supports induced by small titania (TiO2 ) nanoparticles, four kinds of TiO2 nanoparticles, that is, commercial P25-TiO2 , commercial rutile phase TiO2 , rutile TiO2 nanorods and rutile TiO2 spheres, prepared from TiCl4 , were coated with a thin, but dense, coating of silica (SiO2 ) using a conventional sol-gel technique to form TiO2 /SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles. These core/shell particles were deposited and fixed as a very thin coating onto the surface of cellulose paper samples by a wet-chemistry polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer approach. The TiO2 /SiO2 nanocoated paper samples exhibit higher whiteness and brightness and greater stability to UV-bleaching than comparable samples of blank paper. There are many potential applications for this green chemistry approach to protect cellulosic fibres from UV-bleaching in sunlight and to improve their whiteness and brightness. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A facile approach for cupric ion detection in aqueous media using polyethyleneimine/PMMA core-shell fluorescent nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian; Zeng Fang; Wu Shuizhu; Su Junhua; Zhao Jianqing; Tong Zhen

    2009-01-01

    A facile approach was developed to produce a dye-doped core-shell nanoparticle chemosensor for detecting Cu 2+ in aqueous media. The core-shell nanoparticle sensor was prepared by a one-step emulsifier-free polymerization, followed by the doping of the fluorescent dye Nile red (9-diethylamino- 5H-benzo[alpha] phenoxazine-5-one, NR) into the particles. For the nanoparticles, the hydrophilic polyethyleneimine (PEI) chain segments serve as the shell and the hydrophobic polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) constitutes the core of the nanoparticles. The non-toxic and biocompatible PEI chain segments on the nanoparticle surface exhibit a high affinity for Cu 2+ ions in aqueous media, and the quenching of the NR fluorescence is observed upon binding of Cu 2+ ions. This makes the core-shell nanoparticle system a water-dispersible chemosensor for Cu 2+ ion detection. The quenching of fluorescence arises through intraparticle energy transfer (FRET) from the dye in the hydrophobic PMMA core to the Cu 2+ /PEI complexes on the nanoparticle surface. The energy transfer efficiency for PEI/PMMA particles with different diameters was determined, and it is found that the smaller nanoparticle sample exhibits higher quenching efficiency, and the limit for Cu 2+ detection is 1 μM for a nanoparticle sample with a diameter of ∼30 nm. The response of the fluorescent nanoparticle towards different metal ions was investigated and the nanoparticle chemosensor displays high selectivity and antidisturbance for the Cu 2+ ion among the metal ions examined (Na + , K + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Zn 2+ , Hg 2+ , Mn 2+ , Fe 2+ , Ni 2+ , Co 2+ and Pb 2+ ). This emulsifier-free, biocompatible and sensitive fluorescent nanoparticle sensor may find applications in cupric ion detection in the biological and environmental areas.

  10. A facile approach for cupric ion detection in aqueous media using polyethyleneimine/PMMA core-shell fluorescent nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Zeng, Fang; Wu, Shuizhu; Su, Junhua; Zhao, Jianqing; Tong, Zhen

    2009-09-09

    A facile approach was developed to produce a dye-doped core-shell nanoparticle chemosensor for detecting Cu(2+) in aqueous media. The core-shell nanoparticle sensor was prepared by a one-step emulsifier-free polymerization, followed by the doping of the fluorescent dye Nile red (9-diethylamino- 5H-benzo[alpha] phenoxazine-5-one, NR) into the particles. For the nanoparticles, the hydrophilic polyethyleneimine (PEI) chain segments serve as the shell and the hydrophobic polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) constitutes the core of the nanoparticles. The non-toxic and biocompatible PEI chain segments on the nanoparticle surface exhibit a high affinity for Cu(2+) ions in aqueous media, and the quenching of the NR fluorescence is observed upon binding of Cu(2+) ions. This makes the core-shell nanoparticle system a water-dispersible chemosensor for Cu(2+) ion detection. The quenching of fluorescence arises through intraparticle energy transfer (FRET) from the dye in the hydrophobic PMMA core to the Cu(2+)/PEI complexes on the nanoparticle surface. The energy transfer efficiency for PEI/PMMA particles with different diameters was determined, and it is found that the smaller nanoparticle sample exhibits higher quenching efficiency, and the limit for Cu(2+) detection is 1 microM for a nanoparticle sample with a diameter of approximately 30 nm. The response of the fluorescent nanoparticle towards different metal ions was investigated and the nanoparticle chemosensor displays high selectivity and antidisturbance for the Cu(2+) ion among the metal ions examined (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Hg(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+) and Pb(2+)). This emulsifier-free, biocompatible and sensitive fluorescent nanoparticle sensor may find applications in cupric ion detection in the biological and environmental areas.

  11. A facile approach for cupric ion detection in aqueous media using polyethyleneimine/PMMA core-shell fluorescent nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Zeng, Fang; Wu, Shuizhu; Su, Junhua; Zhao, Jianqing; Tong, Zhen

    2009-09-01

    A facile approach was developed to produce a dye-doped core-shell nanoparticle chemosensor for detecting Cu2+ in aqueous media. The core-shell nanoparticle sensor was prepared by a one-step emulsifier-free polymerization, followed by the doping of the fluorescent dye Nile red (9-diethylamino- 5H-benzo[alpha] phenoxazine-5-one, NR) into the particles. For the nanoparticles, the hydrophilic polyethyleneimine (PEI) chain segments serve as the shell and the hydrophobic polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) constitutes the core of the nanoparticles. The non-toxic and biocompatible PEI chain segments on the nanoparticle surface exhibit a high affinity for Cu2+ ions in aqueous media, and the quenching of the NR fluorescence is observed upon binding of Cu2+ ions. This makes the core-shell nanoparticle system a water-dispersible chemosensor for Cu2+ ion detection. The quenching of fluorescence arises through intraparticle energy transfer (FRET) from the dye in the hydrophobic PMMA core to the Cu2+/PEI complexes on the nanoparticle surface. The energy transfer efficiency for PEI/PMMA particles with different diameters was determined, and it is found that the smaller nanoparticle sample exhibits higher quenching efficiency, and the limit for Cu2+ detection is 1 µM for a nanoparticle sample with a diameter of ~30 nm. The response of the fluorescent nanoparticle towards different metal ions was investigated and the nanoparticle chemosensor displays high selectivity and antidisturbance for the Cu2+ ion among the metal ions examined (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Hg2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Pb2+). This emulsifier-free, biocompatible and sensitive fluorescent nanoparticle sensor may find applications in cupric ion detection in the biological and environmental areas.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of fluorinated magnetic core-shell nanoparticles for inhibition of insulin amyloid fibril formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaat, Hadas; Margel, Shlomo; Belfort, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) magnetic nanoparticles of 15.0 ± 2.1 nm are formed by nucleation followed by controlled growth of maghemite thin films on gelatin-iron oxide nuclei. Uniform magnetic γ-Fe 2 O 3 /poly (2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluorobutyl acrylate) (γ-Fe 2 O 3 /PHFBA) core-shell nanoparticles are prepared by emulsion polymerization of the fluorinated monomer 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluorobutyl acrylate (HFBA) in the presence of the maghemite nanoparticles. The kinetics of the insulin fibrillation process in the absence and in the presence of the γ-Fe 2 O 3 /PHFBA core-shell nanoparticles are elucidated. A significant direct slow transition from α-helix to β-sheets during insulin fibril formation is observed in the presence of the γ-Fe 2 O 3 /PHFBA nanoparticles. This is in contradiction to our previous manuscript, which illustrated that the γ-Fe 2 O 3 core nanoparticles do not affect the kinetics of the formation of the insulin fibrils, and to other previous publications that describe acceleration of the fibrillation process by using various types of nanoparticles. These core-shell nanoparticles may therefore be also useful for the inhibition of conformational changes of other amyloidogenic proteins that lead to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, mad cow and prion diseases.

  13. Shape-controlled synthesis of Au@Pd core-shell nanoparticles and their corresponding electrochemical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min

    2012-01-01

    The shape-controlled synthesis of Au@Pd core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) was successfully achieved through the emulsion phase generated during the phase transfer from organic to aqueous medium. Contrary to conventional epitaxial growth for obtaining core-shell structures, this method does not require high temperatures and does not have shape restrictions. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. In vivo magnetic resonance and fluorescence dual imaging of tumor sites by using dye-doped silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Haeyun; Lee, Chaedong; Nam, Gi-Eun; Quan, Bo; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Yoo, Jung Sun; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2016-01-01

    The difficulty in delineating tumor is a major obstacle for better outcomes in cancer treatment of patients. The use of single-imaging modality is often limited by inadequate sensitivity and resolution. Here, we present the synthesis and the use of monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles coated with fluorescent silica nano-shells for fluorescence and magnetic resonance dual imaging of tumor. The as-synthesized core–shell nanoparticles were designed to improve the accuracy of diagnosis via simultaneous tumor imaging with dual imaging modalities by a single injection of contrast agent. The iron oxide nanocrystals (∼11 nm) were coated with Rhodamine B isothiocyanate-doped silica shells via reverse microemulsion method. Then, the core–shell nanoparticles (∼54 nm) were analyzed to confirm their size distribution by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic laser scattering. Photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to characterize the fluorescent property of the dye-doped silica shell-coated nanoparticles. The cellular compatibility of the as-prepared nanoparticles was confirmed by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay and the potential as a dual-imaging contrast agent was verified by in vivo fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging. The experimental results show that the uniform-sized core–shell nanoparticles are highly water dispersible and the cellular toxicity of the nanoparticles is negligible. In vivo fluorescence imaging demonstrates the capability of the developed nanoparticles to selectively target tumors by the enhanced permeability and retention effects and ex vivo tissue analysis was corroborated this. Through in vitro phantom test, the core/shell nanoparticles showed a T2 relaxation time comparable to Feridex ® with smaller size, indicating that the as-made nanoparticles are suitable for imaging tumor. This new dual-modality-nanoparticle approach has promised for enabling more accurate tumor imaging.

  15. In vivo magnetic resonance and fluorescence dual imaging of tumor sites by using dye-doped silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Haeyun; Lee, Chaedong [Seoul National University, Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Gi-Eun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Quan, Bo [Seoul National University, Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyuck Jae [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jung Sun [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Smart Humanity Convergence Center (Korea, Republic of); Piao, Yuanzhe, E-mail: parkat9@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The difficulty in delineating tumor is a major obstacle for better outcomes in cancer treatment of patients. The use of single-imaging modality is often limited by inadequate sensitivity and resolution. Here, we present the synthesis and the use of monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles coated with fluorescent silica nano-shells for fluorescence and magnetic resonance dual imaging of tumor. The as-synthesized core–shell nanoparticles were designed to improve the accuracy of diagnosis via simultaneous tumor imaging with dual imaging modalities by a single injection of contrast agent. The iron oxide nanocrystals (∼11 nm) were coated with Rhodamine B isothiocyanate-doped silica shells via reverse microemulsion method. Then, the core–shell nanoparticles (∼54 nm) were analyzed to confirm their size distribution by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic laser scattering. Photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to characterize the fluorescent property of the dye-doped silica shell-coated nanoparticles. The cellular compatibility of the as-prepared nanoparticles was confirmed by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay and the potential as a dual-imaging contrast agent was verified by in vivo fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging. The experimental results show that the uniform-sized core–shell nanoparticles are highly water dispersible and the cellular toxicity of the nanoparticles is negligible. In vivo fluorescence imaging demonstrates the capability of the developed nanoparticles to selectively target tumors by the enhanced permeability and retention effects and ex vivo tissue analysis was corroborated this. Through in vitro phantom test, the core/shell nanoparticles showed a T2 relaxation time comparable to Feridex{sup ®} with smaller size, indicating that the as-made nanoparticles are suitable for imaging tumor. This new dual-modality-nanoparticle approach has promised for enabling more accurate tumor imaging.

  16. In-situ observation of Cu-Pt core-shell nanoparticles in the atomic scale by XAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xusheng; Liu, Shoujie; Chen, Xing; Cheng, Jie; Ye, Qing; Pan, Zhiyun; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Ziyu; Marcelli, Augosto

    2013-01-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles play an important role in potential industrial applications, such as catalysis, optoelectronics, information storage and biological labeling. Herein, homogeneous Cu-Pt core-shell nanoparticles with the averaged size of 8 nm have been synthesized by chemical methods. Cu atoms diffusion process, which motivated by heating, was observed in-situ by using temperature-dependent x-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Results show that Cu diffuse gradually from Cu core to Pt shell in these nanoparticles with increasing temperature. We also found the surface ligand (O) bonded Pt at the room temperature and were removed gradually by heating the sample. The analysis of the diffusion process in bimetallic nanoparticles will provide important guideline for their designing and tuning.

  17. One-step synthesis, toxicity assessment and degradation in tumoral pH environment of SiO2@Ag core/shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteis, Valeria; Rizzello, Loris; Di Bello, Maria Pia; Rinaldi, Rosaria

    2017-06-01

    The unique physicochemical properties of SiO2@Ag core/shell nanoparticles make them a promising tool in nanomedicine, where they are used as nanocarriers for several biomedical applications, including (but not restricted to) cancer treatment. However, a comprehensive estimation of their potential toxicity, as well as their degradation in the tumor microenvironment, has not been extensively addressed yet. We investigated in vitro the viability, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, the DNA damage level, and the nanoparticle uptake on HeLa cells, used as model cancer cells. In addition, we studied the NPs degradation profile at pH 6.5, to mimic the tumor microenvironment, and at the neutral and physiological (pH 7-7.4). Our experiments demonstrate that the silver shell dissolution is promoted under acidic conditions, which could be related to cell death induction. Our evidences demonstrate that SiO2@Ag nanoparticles possess the ability of combining an effective cancer cell treatment (through local silver ions release) together with a possible controlled release of bioactive compounds encapsulated in the silica as future application.

  18. Controlled Release from Core-Shell Nanoporous Silica Particles for Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingmao Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium (Ce corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated into hexagonally ordered nanoporous silica particles via single-step aerosol-assisted self-assembly. The core/shell structured particles are effective for corrosion inhibition of aluminum alloy AA2024-T3. Numerical simulation proved that the core-shell nanostructure delays the release process. The effective diffusion coefficient elucidated from release data for monodisperse particles in water was 1.0×10−14 m2s for Ce3+ compared to 2.5×10−13 m2s for NaCl. The pore size, pore surface chemistry, and the inhibitor solubility are crucial factors for the application. Microporous hydrophobic particles encapsulating a less soluble corrosion inhibitor are desirable for long-term corrosion inhibition.

  19. Preparation of Multifunctional Fe@Au Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Surface Grafting as a Potential Treatment for Magnetic Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ren-Jei; Shih, Hui-Ting

    2014-01-24

    Iron core gold shell nanoparticles grafted with Methotrexate (MTX) and indocyanine green (ICG) were synthesized for the first time in this study, and preliminarily evaluated for their potential in magnetic hyperthermia treatment. The core-shell Fe@Au nanoparticles were prepared via the microemulsion process and then grafted with MTX and ICG using hydrolyzed poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA) to obtain core-shell Fe@Au-PSMA-ICG/MTX nanoparticles. MTX is an anti-cancer therapeutic, and ICG is a fluorescent dye. XRD, TEM, FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry were performed to characterize the nanoparticles. The data indicated that the average size of the nanoparticles was 6.4 ± 09 nm and that the Au coating protected the Fe core from oxidation. MTX and ICG were successfully grafted onto the surface of the nanoparticles. Under exposure to high frequency induction waves, the superparamagnetic nanoparticles elevated the temperature of a solution in a few minutes, which suggested the potential for an application in magnetic hyperthermia treatment. The in vitro studies verified that the nanoparticles were biocompatible; nonetheless, the Fe@Au-PSMA-ICG/MTX nanoparticles killed cancer cells (Hep-G2) via the magnetic hyperthermia mechanism and the release of MTX.

  20. Boronic Acid functionalized core-shell polymer nanoparticles prepared by distillation precipitation polymerization for glycopeptide enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yanyan; Liu, Jianxi; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2012-07-16

    The boronic acid-functionalized core-shell polymer nanoparticles, poly(N,N-methylenebisacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid)@4-vinylphenylboronic acid (poly(MBA-co-MAA)@VPBA), were successfully synthesized for enriching glycosylated peptides. Such nanoparticles were composed of a hydrophilic polymer core prepared by distillation precipitation polymerization (DPP) and a boronic acid-functionalized shell designed for capturing glycopeptides. Owing to the relatively large amount of residual vinyl groups introduced by DPP on the core surface, the VPBA monomer was coated with high efficiency, working as the shell. Moreover, the overall polymerization route, especially the use of DPP, made the synthesis of nanoparticles facile and time-saving. With the poly(MBA-co-MAA)@VPBA nanoparticles, 18 glycopeptides from horseradish peroxidase (HRP) digest were captured and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis, relative to eight glycopeptides enriched by using commercially available meta-aminophenylboronic acid agarose under the same conditions. When the concentration of the HRP digest was decreased to as low as 5 nmol, glycopeptides could still be selectively isolated by the prepared nanoparticles. Our results demonstrated that the synthetic poly(MBA-co-MAA)@VPBA nanoparticles might be a promising selective enrichment material for glycoproteome analysis. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Development of silane grafted ZnO core shell nanoparticles loaded diglycidyl epoxy nanocomposites film for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S; Saravanan, P; Jayamoorthy, K; Ananda Kumar, S; Karthikeyan, S

    2016-07-01

    In this article a series of epoxy nanocomposites film were developed using amine functionalized (ZnO-APTES) core shell nanoparticles as the dispersed phase and a commercially available epoxy resin as the matrix phase. The functional group of the samples was characterized using FT-IR spectra. The most prominent peaks of epoxy resin were found in bare epoxy and in all the functionalized ZnO dispersed epoxy nanocomposites (ZnO-APTES-DGEBA). The XRD analysis of all the samples exhibits considerable shift in 2θ, intensity and d-spacing values but the best and optimum concentration is found to be 3% ZnO-APTES core shell nanoparticles loaded epoxy nanocomposites supported by FT-IR results. From TGA measurements, 100wt% residue is obtained in bare ZnO nanoparticles whereas in ZnO core shell nanoparticles grafted DGEBA residue percentages are 37, 41, 45, 46 and 52% for 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7% ZnO-APTES-DGEBA respectively, which is confirmed with ICP-OES analysis. From antimicrobial activity test, it was notable that antimicrobial activity of 7% ZnO-APTES core shell nanoparticles loaded epoxy nanocomposite film has best inhibition zone effect against all pathogens under study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticles design and development for the selective determination of Vitamin B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Deivasigamani Ranjith; Manoj, Devaraj; Santhanalakshmi, Jayadevan; Shim, Jae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Seed mediated growth of Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticle. • Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticle provided good peak current for pyridoxine. • Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC exhibited excellent vitamin B 6 peak separation with other vitamin. - Abstract: This paper reports the synthesis of gold (core)-copper oxide (shell) nanoparticles using a simple seed mediated growth method. Pre-synthesized Au nanoparticles were used as seed materials for copper oxide shell growth, which were shown to be effective for Au-CuO core-shell formation. The novelty of this assembly strategy is that the exploitation of the Cu-ligand, which is thermolyzed on the Au nanoseed surface, results in the formation of CuO. Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The as prepared Au-CuO was used to fabricate a Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC-modified electrode, which was applied to Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine) determination by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The MWCNTs enhance the pyridoxine oxidation rate by increasing the peak current with Au-CuO, hence pyridoxine oxidized lower operating potentials. The Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC-modified electrode showed excellent electrochemical performance towards pyridoxine (PY) in the presence of other typical vitamins, such as riboflavin, ascorbic acid and uric acid. The linear calibration graph was obtained over the PY concentration range of 0.79 μM–18.4 μM and the detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.15 μM. The Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC-modified electrode showed good stability, repeatability and recovery of real sample analysis

  3. TiO2@C Core-Shell Nanoparticles Formed by Polymeric Nano-Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra eVasei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 semiconducting nanoparticles are known to be photocatalysts of moderate activity due to their high band-gap and high rate of electron-hole recombination. The formation of a shell of carbon around the core of TiO2, i.e. the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles, is believed to partly alleviate these problems. It is usually achieved by a hydrothermal treatment in a presence of a sugar derivative. We present here a novel method for the formation of highly uniform C shell around TiO2 nanoparticles. For this purpose, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in water using an oligomeric dispersant prepared by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT polymerization. Then the nanoparticles were engaged into an emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile, resulting in the formation of a shell of polyacrylonitrile (PAN around each TiO2 nanoparticles. Upon pyrolisis, the PAN was transformed into carbon, resulting in the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles. The structure of the resulting particles was elucidated by X-Ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy as well as TEM microscopy. Preliminary results about the use of the TiO2@C particles as photocatalysts for the splitting of water are presented. They indicate that the presence of the C shell is responsible for a significant enhancement of the photocurrent.

  4. Enhanced bio-compatibility of ferrofluids of self-assembled superparamagnetic iron oxide-silica core-shell nanoparticles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narayanan, T.N.; Mary, A.P.R.; Swalih, P.K.A.; Kumar, D.S.; Makarov, D.; Albrecht, M.; Puthumana, J.; Anas, A.; Anantharaman, A.

    -interacting, monodispersed and hence the synthesis of such nanostructures has great relevance in the realm of nanoscience. Silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles based ferrofluids were prepared using polyethylene glycol as carrier fluid by employing a...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of silver-copper core-shell nanoparticles using polyol method for antimicrobial agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikmah, N.; Idrus, N. F.; Jai, J.; Hadi, A.

    2016-06-01

    Silver and copper nanoparticles are well-known as the good antimicrobial agent. The nano-size of particles influences in enhancing the antimicrobial activity. This paper discusses the effect of molarity on the microstructure and morphology of silver-copper core-shell nanoparticles prepared by a polyol method. In this study, silver-copper nanoparticles are synthesized through the green approach of polyol method using ethylene glycol (EG) as green solvent and reductant, and polyoxyethylene-(80)-sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) as a nontoxic stabilizer. The phase and morphology of silver-copper nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results XRD confirm the pure crystalline of silver and copper nanoparticles with face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. FESEM and TEM analysis confirm the existence of Ag and Cu nanoparticles in core-shell shape.

  6. Ni@Ru and NiCo@Ru Core-Shell Hexagonal Nanosandwiches with a Compositionally Tunable Core and a Regioselectively Grown Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyeyoun; Kwon, Taehyun; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Jongsik; Oh, Aram; Kim, Byeongyoon; Baik, Hionsuck; Joo, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwangyeol

    2018-01-01

    The development of highly active electrocatalysts is crucial for the advancement of renewable energy conversion devices. The design of core-shell nanoparticle catalysts represents a promising approach to boost catalytic activity as well as save the use of expensive precious metals. Here, a simple, one-step synthetic route is reported to prepare hexagonal nanosandwich-shaped Ni@Ru core-shell nanoparticles (Ni@Ru HNS), in which Ru shell layers are overgrown in a regioselective manner on the top and bottom, and around the center section of a hexagonal Ni nanoplate core. Notably, the synthesis can be extended to NiCo@Ru core-shell nanoparticles with tunable core compositions (Ni 3 Co x @Ru HNS). Core-shell HNS structures show superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) to a commercial RuO 2 black catalyst, with their OER activity being dependent on their core compositions. The observed trend in OER activity is correlated to the population of Ru oxide (Ru 4+ ) species, which can be modulated by the core compositions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. One pot synthesis of Pb S/Cu2S core-shell nanoparticles and their optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, T.; Gomez, I.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of Pb S/Cu 2 S core-shell nanoparticles with emission on the visible range and with improved luminescence properties was carried out by the colloidal solution-phase growth method by using simple stabilizers such as trisodium citrate and 3-mercaptopropionic acid. The core shell arrangement for particles with different crystalline structure was achieved, in addition this is the first report related to the synthesis Pb S/C 2 S core-shell system. The data obtained from absorption spectra, Pl spectra, and HRTEM image provided direct proof of the formation of Pb S core with size around 11 nm and Cu 2 S shell of 5 nm thickness. According to the UV-vis absorption and Pl spectrum the optical characteristics observed in the synthesized material correspond to a Pb S/Cu 2 S system that has a higher confinement effect than the pure Pb S nanoparticles. The Q Y was improved in 15% from Pb S/C 2 S nanoparticles. The estimated band (Homo-Lumo) alignment determined by C V measurements corresponds to a type-I core shell arrangement. The synthesized material was studied with different techniques. The size and dispersion of the particles were determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), photoluminescence and quantum yield, Dynamic Light Scattering method and X-ray diffraction with copper radiation (λ = 0.15418 nm). (Author)

  8. Controlled Release from Core-Shell Nano porous Silica Particles for Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Rathod, Sh.; Shah, P.; Brinker, C.J.; Jiang, X.; Jiang, Y.; Liu, N.; Xu, H.; Brinker, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cerium (Ce) corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated into hexagonally ordered nanoporous silica particles via single-step aerosol-assisted self-assembly. The core/shell structured particles are effective for corrosion inhibition of aluminum alloy AA2024-T3. Numerical simulation proved that the core-shell nanostructure delays the release process. The effective diffusion coefficient elucidated from release data for monodisperse particles in water was 1.0x10-14 m 2 s for Ce 3+ compared to 2.5x10-13 m 2 s for NaCl. The pore size, pore surface chemistry, and the inhibitor solubility are crucial factors for the application. Microporous hydrophobic particles encapsulating a less soluble corrosion inhibitor are desirable for long-term corrosion inhibition.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of fluorinated magnetic core-shell nanoparticles for inhibition of insulin amyloid fibril formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaat, Hadas; Margel, Shlomo [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Belfort, Georges [Howard P Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)], E-mail: ch348@mail.biu.ac.il, E-mail: belfog@rpi.edu, E-mail: Shlomo.margel@mail.biu.ac.il

    2009-06-03

    Maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) magnetic nanoparticles of 15.0 {+-} 2.1 nm are formed by nucleation followed by controlled growth of maghemite thin films on gelatin-iron oxide nuclei. Uniform magnetic {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/poly (2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluorobutyl acrylate) ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PHFBA) core-shell nanoparticles are prepared by emulsion polymerization of the fluorinated monomer 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluorobutyl acrylate (HFBA) in the presence of the maghemite nanoparticles. The kinetics of the insulin fibrillation process in the absence and in the presence of the {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PHFBA core-shell nanoparticles are elucidated. A significant direct slow transition from {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheets during insulin fibril formation is observed in the presence of the {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PHFBA nanoparticles. This is in contradiction to our previous manuscript, which illustrated that the {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} core nanoparticles do not affect the kinetics of the formation of the insulin fibrils, and to other previous publications that describe acceleration of the fibrillation process by using various types of nanoparticles. These core-shell nanoparticles may therefore be also useful for the inhibition of conformational changes of other amyloidogenic proteins that lead to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, mad cow and prion diseases.

  10. Preparation of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles for pH measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jinshui; Zang, Lingjie; Wang, Yiru; Liu, Guoning

    2014-01-01

    Acridine orange was first encapsulated into silica shell via a facile reverse microemusion method to built core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are all in spherical shape and have a narrow size distribution, and its application as a optical pH sensor has been demonstrated. This novel sensor is based on the pH-dependent fluorescence intensities of acridine orange in different pH value. The fluorescence intensity of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles was decreased by increasing pH value. Under optimum conditions, the changes of fluorescence intensity were proportional to the pH value in the range of 8.00–10.90. In addition, the sensor can be easily separated by centrifugation and adds no pollution to the environment compared to the free dyes. Furthermore, the effects of ionic strength and co-existing substances were proved to have little influence on the determination of pH. The sensor has been successfully applied to determine the pH of two artificial samples. Hence, the core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles show potential for practical application. -- Highlights: • Acridine orange was encapsulated into silica shell via a facile reverse microemusion method to built core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles. • The fluorescence intensity of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles was decreased by increasing pH value. • Its can be used as an optical pH sensor. • The sensor can be easily separated by centrifugation and adds no pollution to the environment compared to the free dyes. • The sensor has been successfully applied to determine the pH of artificial samples

  11. Protective agent-free synthesis of Ni-Ag core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.-H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: chendh@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Wang, S.-R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2006-12-10

    Ni-Ag core-shell nanoparticles have been prepared by successive hydrazine reduction in ethylene glycol in the absence of protective agents. TEM analysis indicated the product was very fine and the thickness of Ag nanoshells could be controlled by the added silver nitrate concentration. The analyses of electron diffraction pattern and XRD revealed that both Ni cores and Ag shells had a fcc structure. The surface composition analysis by XPS indicated that Ni cores were fully covered by Ag nanoshells. Because of the absence of protective agent, the appropriate nickel concentration for the coating of Ag nanoshells should be less than 1.0 mM to avoid particle agglomeration. The product possessed the surface character of Ag and the magnetic property of Ni, and may have many potential applications in optical, magnetic, catalytic, biochemical, and biomedical fields.

  12. PLGA-lecithin-PEG core-shell nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Juliana M; Zhang, Liangfang; Yuet, Kai P; Liao, Grace; Rhee, June-Wha; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C

    2009-03-01

    Current approaches to encapsulate and deliver therapeutic compounds have focused on developing liposomal and biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), resulting in clinically approved therapeutics such as Doxil/Caelyx and Genexol-PM, respectively. Our group recently reported the development of biodegradable core-shell NP systems that combined the beneficial properties of liposomal and polymeric NPs for controlled drug delivery. Herein we report the parameters that alter the biological and physicochemical characteristics, stability, drug release properties and cytotoxicity of these core-shell NPs. We further define scalable processes for the formulation of these NPs in a reproducible manner. These core-shell NPs consist of (i) a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) hydrophobic core, (ii) a soybean lecithin monolayer, and (iii) a poly(ethylene glycol) shell, and were synthesized by a modified nanoprecipitation method combined with self-assembly. Preparation of the NPs showed that various formulation parameters such as the lipid/polymer mass ratio and lipid/lipid-PEG molar ratio controlled NP physical stability and size. We encapsulated a model chemotherapy drug, docetaxel, in the NPs and showed that the amount of lipid coverage affected its drug release kinetics. Next, we demonstrated a potentially scalable process for the formulation, purification, and storage of NPs. Finally, we tested the cytotoxicity using MTT assays on two model human cell lines, HeLa and HepG2, and demonstrated the biocompatibility of these particles in vitro. Our data suggest that the PLGA-lecithin-PEG core-shell NPs may be a useful new controlled release drug delivery system.

  13. Preparation of Multifunctional Fe@Au Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Surface Grafting as a Potential Treatment for Magnetic Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jei Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron core gold shell nanoparticles grafted with Methotrexate (MTX and indocyanine green (ICG were synthesized for the first time in this study, and preliminarily evaluated for their potential in magnetic hyperthermia treatment. The core-shell Fe@Au nanoparticles were prepared via the microemulsion process and then grafted with MTX and ICG using hydrolyzed poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid (PSMA to obtain core-shell Fe@Au-PSMA-ICG/MTX nanoparticles. MTX is an anti-cancer therapeutic, and ICG is a fluorescent dye. XRD, TEM, FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry were performed to characterize the nanoparticles. The data indicated that the average size of the nanoparticles was 6.4 ± 09 nm and that the Au coating protected the Fe core from oxidation. MTX and ICG were successfully grafted onto the surface of the nanoparticles. Under exposure to high frequency induction waves, the superparamagnetic nanoparticles elevated the temperature of a solution in a few minutes, which suggested the potential for an application in magnetic hyperthermia treatment. The in vitro studies verified that the nanoparticles were biocompatible; nonetheless, the Fe@Au-PSMA-ICG/MTX nanoparticles killed cancer cells (Hep-G2 via the magnetic hyperthermia mechanism and the release of MTX.

  14. Folic acid-functionalized magnetic ZnFe2O4 hollow microsphere core/mesoporous silica shell composite particles: synthesis and application in drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dandan; Wei, Kaiwei; Liu, Qi; Yang, Yong; Guo, Xue; Rong, Hongren; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Wang, Guoxiu

    2013-07-01

    A drug delivery system was designed by deliberately combining the useful functions into one entity, which was composed of magnetic ZnFe2O4 hollow microsphere as the core, and mesoporous silica with folic acid molecules as the outer shell. Amine groups coated magnetic ZnFe2O4 hollow microsphere core/mesoporous silica shell (MZHM-MSS-NH2) composite particles were first synthesized by a one-pot direct co-condensation method. Subsequently a novel kind of folic acid-functionalized magnetic ZnFe2O4 hollow microsphere core/mesoporous silica shell (MZHM-MSS-NHFA) composite particles were synthesized by conjugating folic acid as targeted molecule to MZHM-MSS-NH2. Ibuprofen, a well-known antiphlogistic drug, was used as a model drug to assess the loading and releasing behavior of the composite microspheres. The results show that the MZHM-MSS-NHFA system has the higher capacity of drug storage and good sustained drug-release property. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation of core (polystyrene)-shell (polybenzimidazole) nanoparticles using sulfonated polystyrene as template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Mousumi; Arunbabu, Dhamodaran; Jana, Tushar

    2010-11-15

    We report formation of core (polystyrene)-shell (polybenzimidazole) nanoparticles from a new blend system consisting of an amorphous polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI) and an ionomer sodium salt of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS-Na). The ionomer used for the blending is spherical in shape with sulfonate groups on the surface of the particles. An in depth investigation of the blends at various sulfonation degrees and compositions using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy provides direct evidence of specific hydrogen bonding interactions between the N-H groups of PBI and the sulfonate groups of SPS-Na. The disruption of PBI chains self association owing to the interaction between the functional groups of these polymer pairs is the driving force for the blending. Thermodynamical studies carried out by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) establish partially miscible phase separated blending of these polymers in a wider composition range. The two distinguishable glass transition temperatures (T(g)) which are different from the neat components and unaltered with the blends composition attribute that the domain size of heterogeneity (d(d)) of the blends is >20 nm since one of the blend component (SPS-Na particle) diameter is ∼70 nm. The diminish of PBI chains self association upon blending with SPS-Na particles and the presence of invariant T(g)'s of the blends suggest the wrapping of PBI chains over the SPS-Na spherical particle surface and hence resulting a core-shell morphology. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study provides direct evidence of core-shell nanoparticle formation; where core is the polystyrene and shell is the PBI. The sulfonation degree affects the blends phase separations. The higher degree of sulfonation favors the disruption of PBI self association and thus forms partially miscible two phases blends with core-shell morphology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Immobilization of cholesterol oxidase on magnetic fluorescent core-shell-structured nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jun, E-mail: hjun@whut.edu.cn; Liu, Huichao; Zhang, Peipei; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Mengshi; Ding, Liyun

    2015-12-01

    The magnetic fluorescent core-shell structured nanoparticles, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}(F)@meso–SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, were prepared. Cholesterol oxidase (COD) was immobilized on their surface to form Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}(F)@meso–SiO{sub 2}@COD nanoparticles. Optimal immobilization was achieved with 2.5% (v/v) APTES, 2.0% (v/v) GA, 10 mg COD (in 15 mg carrier) and solution pH of 7.0. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}(F)@meso–SiO{sub 2}@COD nanoparticles showed maximal catalytic activity at pH 7.0 and 50 °C. The thermal, storage and operational stabilities of COD were improved greatly after its immobilization. After the incubation at 50 °C for 5 h, the nanoparticles and free COD retained 80% and 46% of its initial activity, respectively. After kept at 4 °C for 30 days, the nanoparticles and free COD maintained 86% and 65% of initial activity, respectively. The nanoparticles retained 71% of its initial activity after 7 consecutive operations. Since Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}(F)@meso–SiO{sub 2}@COD nanoparticles contained tris(2,2-bipyridyl)dichloro-ruthenium(II) hexahydrate (Ru(bpy){sub 3}Cl{sub 2}) and were optical sensitive to oxygen in solution, it might be used as the sensing material and has the application potential in multi parameter fiber optic biosensor based on enzyme catalysis and oxygen consumption. - Highlights: • COD was immobilized on magnetic fluorescent core-shell structured nanoparticles. • The nanoparticles were optical sensitive to oxygen in water solution. • The nanoparticles have remarkable improved stability compared with free COD. • The nanoparticles can probably be used in multi parameter fiber optic Biosensor.

  17. Eco-friendly microwave-assisted green and rapid synthesis of well-stabilized gold and core-shell silver-gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Mehrez E; Shaheen, Tharwat I; Fouda, Moustafa M G; Hebeish, Ali A

    2016-01-20

    Herein, we present a new approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) individually and as bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles (AgNPs-AuNPs). The novelty of the approach is further maximized by using curdlan (CRD) biopolymer to perform the dual role of reducing and capping agents and microwave-aided technology for affecting the said nanoparticles with varying concentrations in addition to those affected by precursor concentrations. Thus, for preparation of AuNPs, curdlan was solubilized in alkali solution followed by an addition of tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4). The curdlan solution containing HAuCl4 was then subjected to microwave radiation for up to 10 min. The optimum conditions obtained with the synthesis of AuNPs were employed for preparation of core-shell silver-gold nanoparticles by replacing definite portion of HAuCl4 with an equivalent portion of silver nitrate (AgNO3). The portion of AgNO3 was added initially and allowed to be reduced by virtue of the dual role of curdlan under microwave radiation. The corresponding portion of HAuCl4 was then added and allowed to complete the reaction. Characterization of AuNPs and AgNPs-AuNPs core-shell were made using UV-vis spectra, TEM, FTIR, XRD, zeta potential, and AFM analysis. Accordingly, strong peaks of the colloidal particles show surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at maximum wavelength of 540 nm, proving the formation of well-stabilized gold nanoparticles. TEM investigations reveal that the major size of AuNPs formed at different Au(+3)concentration lie below 20 nm with narrow size distribution. Whilst, the SPR bands of AgNPs-AuNPs core-shell differ than those obtained from original AgNPs (420 nm) and AuNPs (540 nm). Such shifting due to SPR of Au nanoshell deposited onto AgNPs core was significantly affected by the variation of bimetallic ratios applied. TEM micrographs show variation in contrast between dark silver core and the lighter gold shell. Increasing the ratio of silver ions leads to

  18. Novel thermo-sensitive core-shell nanoparticles for targeted paclitaxel delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuanpei; Pan Shirong; Zhang Wei; Du Zhuo

    2009-01-01

    Novel thermo-sensitive nanoparticles self-assembled from poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide- co-acrylamide)-block-poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate) were designed for targeted drug delivery in localized hyperthermia. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of nanoparticles was adjusted to a level between physiological body temperature (37 deg. C) and that used in local hyperthermia (about 43 deg. C). The temperature-dependent performances of the core-shell nanoparticles were systemically studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and atom force microscopy (AFM). The mean diameter of the nanoparticles increased slightly from 110 to 129 nm when paclitaxel (PTX), a poorly water-soluble anti-tumor drug, was encapsulated. A stability study in bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution indicated that the PTX loaded nanoparticles may have a long circulation time under physiological environments as the LCST was above physiological body temperature and the shell remained hydrophilic at 37 deg.C. The PTX release profiles showed thermo-sensitive controlled behavior. The proliferation inhibiting activity of PTX loaded nanoparticles was evaluated against Hela cells in vitro, compared with Taxol (a formulation of paclitaxel dissolved in Cremophor EL and ethanol). The cytotoxicity of PTX loaded nanoparticles increased obviously when hyperthermia was performed. The nanoparticles synthesized here could be an ideal candidate for thermal triggered anti-tumor PTX delivery system.

  19. Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of poly(acrylic)/SiO2-TiO2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Wen-Chen; Yu, Yang-Yen; Chen, Po-Kan; Yu, Hui-Huan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, poly(acrylic)/SiO 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films were successfully synthesized by microwave-assisted polymerization. The coupling agent 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MSMA) was hydrolyzed with colloidal SiO 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticles, and then polymerized with two acrylic monomers and initiator to form a precursor solution. The results of this study showed that the spin-coated hybrid films had relatively good surface planarity, high thermal stability, a tunable refractive index (1.525 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films, for potential use in optical applications.

  20. Controllable synthesis and characterization of novel copper-carbon core-shell structured nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Jing; Tao, Xia; Pu, Yuan; Zeng, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We reported a facile, green and cheap hydrothermal method to obtain novel copper-carbon core-shell nanoparticles. → The as-formed particles with controllable size and morphology are antioxidant. → The particles with organic-group-loaded surfaces and protective shells are expected to be applied in fields of medicine, electronics, sensors and lubricant. -- Abstract: A facile hydrothermal method was developed for preparing copper-carbon core-shell structured particles through a reaction at 160 o C in which glucose, copper sulfate pentahydrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as starting materials. The original copper-carbon core-shell structured particles obtained were sized of 100-250 nm. The thickness of carbonaceous shells was controlled ranging from 25 to 100 nm by adjusting the hydrothermal duration time and the concentrations of glucose in the process. Products were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Since no toxic materials were involved in the preparation, particles with stable carbonaceous framework and reactive surface also showed promising applications in medicine, electronics, sensors, lubricant, etc.

  1. Controllable synthesis and characterization of novel copper-carbon core-shell structured nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Jing [Sin-China Nano Technology Center, Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, No. 15 Beisanhuan Dong Lu, Beijing 100029 (China); Tao, Xia; Pu, Yuan; Zeng, Xiao-Fei [Sin-China Nano Technology Center, Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen, Jian-Feng, E-mail: chenjf@mail.buct.edu.cn [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, No. 15 Beisanhuan Dong Lu, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} We reported a facile, green and cheap hydrothermal method to obtain novel copper-carbon core-shell nanoparticles. {yields} The as-formed particles with controllable size and morphology are antioxidant. {yields} The particles with organic-group-loaded surfaces and protective shells are expected to be applied in fields of medicine, electronics, sensors and lubricant. -- Abstract: A facile hydrothermal method was developed for preparing copper-carbon core-shell structured particles through a reaction at 160 {sup o}C in which glucose, copper sulfate pentahydrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as starting materials. The original copper-carbon core-shell structured particles obtained were sized of 100-250 nm. The thickness of carbonaceous shells was controlled ranging from 25 to 100 nm by adjusting the hydrothermal duration time and the concentrations of glucose in the process. Products were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Since no toxic materials were involved in the preparation, particles with stable carbonaceous framework and reactive surface also showed promising applications in medicine, electronics, sensors, lubricant, etc.

  2. Nonlinear thermo-optical properties of two-layered spherical system of gold nanoparticle core and water vapor shell during initial stage of shell expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astafyeva Liudmila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nonlinear thermo-optical properties of two-layered spherical system of gold nanoparticle core and water vapor shell, created under laser heating of nanoparticle in water, were theoretically investigated. Vapor shell expansion leads to decreasing up to one to two orders of magnitude in comparison with initial values of scattering and extinction of the radiation with wavelengths 532 and 633 nm by system while shell radius is increased up to value of about two radii of nanoparticle. Subsequent increasing of shell radius more than two radii of nanoparticle leads to rise of scattering and extinction properties of system over initial values. The significant decrease of radiation scattering and extinction by system of nanoparticle-vapor shell can be used for experimental detection of the energy threshold of vapor shell formation and investigation of the first stages of its expansion. PACS: 42.62.BE. 78.67. BF

  3. A novel enzyme-mimic nanosensor based on quantum dot-Au nanoparticle@silica mesoporous microsphere for the detection of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang; Ma, Qiang; Liu, Ziping [Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Xinyan [Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Su, Xingguang, E-mail: suxg@jlu.edu.cn [Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • Design QD-Au NP@silica mesoporous microspheres as a novel enzyme-mimic nanosensor. • Composition of two kinds of nanoparticle can be controlled through silica layers coating. • Our nanosensor for glucose detection has high sensitivity and selectivity. - Abstract: QD-Au NP@silica mesoporous microspheres have been fabricated as a novel enzyme-mimic nanosensor. CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were loaded into the core, and Au nanoparticles (NPs) were encapsulated in the outer mesoporous shell. QDs and Au NPs were separated in the different space of the nanosensor, which prevent the potential energy or electron transfer process between QDs and Au NPs. As biomimetic catalyst, Au NPs in the mesoporous silica shell can catalytically oxidize glucose as glucose oxidase (GOx)-mimicking. The resultant hydrogen peroxide can quench the photoluminescence (PL) signal of QDs in the microsphere core. Therefore the nanosensor based on the decrease of the PL intensity of QDs was established for the glucose detection. The linear range for glucose was in the range of 5–200 μM with a detection limit (3σ) of 1.32 μM.

  4. Methanol oxidation reaction on core-shell structured Ruthenium-Palladium nanoparticles: Relationship between structure and electrochemical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Markus; Jurzinsky, Tilman; Ziegenbalg, Dirk; Cremers, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    In this work the relationship between structural composition and electrochemical characteristics of Palladium(Pd)-Ruthenium(Ru) nanoparticles during alkaline methanol oxidation reaction is investigated. The comparative study of a standard alloyed and a precisely Ru-core-Pd-shell structured catalyst allows for a distinct investigation of the electronic effect and the bifunctional mechanism. Core-shell catalysts benefit from a strong electronic effect and an efficient Pd utilization. It is found that core-shell nanoparticles are highly active towards methanol oxidation reaction for potentials ≥0.6 V, whereas alloyed catalysts show higher current outputs in the lower potential range. However, differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) experiments reveal that the methanol oxidation reaction on core-shell structured catalysts proceeds via the incomplete oxidation pathway yielding formaldehyde, formic acid or methyl formate. Contrary, the alloyed catalyst benefits from the Ru atoms at its surface. Those are found to be responsible for high methanol oxidation activity at lower potentials as well as for complete oxidation of CH3OH to CO2 via the bifunctional mechanism. Based on these findings a new Ru-core-Pd-shell-Ru-terrace catalyst was synthesized, which combines the advantages of the core-shell structure and the alloy. This novel catalyst shows high methanol electrooxidation activity as well as excellent selectivity for the complete oxidation pathway.

  5. Synthesis of bi-phase dispersible core-shell FeAu@ZnO magneto-opto-fluorescent nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Mei; Liu, Hong-Ling; Liu, Xiao; Fang, Ning; Wang, Xian-Hong; Wu, Jun-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Bi-phase dispersible core-shell FeAu@ZnO magneto-opto-fluorescent nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified nanoemulsion process using poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEO-PPO-PEO) as the surfactant. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanoparticles were studied by TEM/HRTEM and XRD. The nanoparticles manifest soft ferromagnetic and/or near superparamagnetic behavior with a small coercivity of ~19 Oe at room temperature. The corresponding magnetic hysteresis curves were elucidated by the modified Langevin equation. The FTIR study confirms the PEO-PPO-PEO molecules on the surface of the nanoparticles. The UV-vis and PL results reveal the well-behaved absorption bands including surface plasmon resonance and multiple visible fingerprint photoluminescent emissions of the nanoparticles dispersed in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic solvents. Moreover, the processes of solvent dispersion-collection of the nanoparticles were demonstrated for application readiness of such core-shell nanostructures.

  6. PEG-stabilized core-shell surface-imprinted nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczko, Ewa; Guerreiro, Antonio; Piletska, Elena; Piletsky, Sergey

    2013-08-06

    Here we present a simple technique to produce target-specific molecularly imprinted polymeric nanoparticles (MIP NPs) and their surface modification in order to prevent the aggregation process that is ever-present in most nanomaterial suspensions/dispersions. Specifically, we studied the influence of surface modification of MIP NPs with polymerizable poly(ethylene glycol) on their degree of stability in water, in phosphate buffer, and in the presence of serum proteins. Grafting a polymer shell on the surface of nanoparticles decreases the surface energy, enhances the polarity, and as a result improves the dispersibility, storage, and colloidal stability as compared to those of core (unmodified) particles. Because of the unique solid-phase approach used for synthesis, the binding sites of MIP NPs are protected during grafting, and the recognition properties of nanoparticles are not affected. These results are significant for developing nanomaterials with selective molecular recognition, increased biocompatibility, and stability in solution. Materials synthesized this way have the potential to be used in a variety of technological fields, including in vivo applications such as drug delivery and imaging.

  7. Use of specific polysaccharide-immobilized monodisperse poly(glycidyl methacrylate) core-silica shell microspheres for affinity purification of lectins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonyuk, V.; Grama, Silvia; Plichta, Zdeněk; Magorivska, I.; Horák, Daniel; Stoika, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2015), s. 783-787 ISSN 0269-3879 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polysaccharide-immobilized microspheres * core-silica shell with amino groups * yeast mannan Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.729, year: 2015

  8. Tuning the synthesis of platinum-copper nanoparticles with a hollow core and porous shell for the selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuangshuang; Yang, Nating; Wang, Shibin; Sun, Yuhan; Zhu, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Pt-Cu nanoparticles constructed with a hollow core and porous shell have been synthesized in which Pt-Cu cages with multiporous outermost shells are formed at the initial stage and then the Pt and Cu atoms in solution continuously fed these hollow-core of cages by passing through the porous tunnels of the outermost shells, finally leading to the formation of hollow structures with different sizes. Furthermore, these hollow-core Pt-Cu nanoparticles are more effective than the solid-core Pt-Cu nanoparticles for the catalytic hydrogenation of furfural toward furfuryl alcohol. The former can achieve almost 100% conversion of furfural with 100% selectivity toward the alcohol.Pt-Cu nanoparticles constructed with a hollow core and porous shell have been synthesized in which Pt-Cu cages with multiporous outermost shells are formed at the initial stage and then the Pt and Cu atoms in solution continuously fed these hollow-core of cages by passing through the porous tunnels of the outermost shells, finally leading to the formation of hollow structures with different sizes. Furthermore, these hollow-core Pt-Cu nanoparticles are more effective than the solid-core Pt-Cu nanoparticles for the catalytic hydrogenation of furfural toward furfuryl alcohol. The former can achieve almost 100% conversion of furfural with 100% selectivity toward the alcohol. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03894h

  9. Large-scale synthesis of Ni-Ag core-shell nanoparticles with magnetic, optical and anti-oxidation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chung-Che; Chen, Dong-Hwang [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2006-07-14

    The large-scale synthesis and characterization of Ni-core/Ag-shell (Ni at Ag) nanoparticles by the successive hydrazine reduction of nickel chloride and silver nitrate in ethylene glycol using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a protective agent are described. The resultant Ni at Ag nanoparticles had a mean core diameter of 6.2 nm and a shell thickness of 0.85 nm, without significant change in the nickel concentration of 0.25-25 mM for the Ag coating. Also, both Ni cores and Ag nanoshells had an fcc structure and PEI was capped on the particle surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the Ni cores were fully covered by Ag nanoshells. In addition, the Ni at Ag nanoparticles exhibited a characteristic absorption band at 430 nm and were nearly superparamagnetic. Based on the weight of Ni cores, the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}), remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) and coercivity (H{sub c}) were obtained as 17.2 emu g{sup -1}, 4.0 emu g{sup -1} and 81 Oe, respectively. Furthermore, the resultant Ni at Ag nanoparticles exhibited better anti-oxidation properties than Ni nanoparticles did due to the protection of the Ag nanoshells.

  10. One pot synthesis of Pb S/Cu{sub 2}S core-shell nanoparticles and their optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, T.; Gomez, I., E-mail: maria.gomez@uanl.edu.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Laboratorio de Materiales, Pedro de Alba, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The synthesis of Pb S/Cu{sub 2}S core-shell nanoparticles with emission on the visible range and with improved luminescence properties was carried out by the colloidal solution-phase growth method by using simple stabilizers such as trisodium citrate and 3-mercaptopropionic acid. The core shell arrangement for particles with different crystalline structure was achieved, in addition this is the first report related to the synthesis Pb S/C{sub 2}S core-shell system. The data obtained from absorption spectra, Pl spectra, and HRTEM image provided direct proof of the formation of Pb S core with size around 11 nm and Cu{sub 2}S shell of 5 nm thickness. According to the UV-vis absorption and Pl spectrum the optical characteristics observed in the synthesized material correspond to a Pb S/Cu{sub 2}S system that has a higher confinement effect than the pure Pb S nanoparticles. The Q Y was improved in 15% from Pb S/C{sub 2}S nanoparticles. The estimated band (Homo-Lumo) alignment determined by C V measurements corresponds to a type-I core shell arrangement. The synthesized material was studied with different techniques. The size and dispersion of the particles were determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), photoluminescence and quantum yield, Dynamic Light Scattering method and X-ray diffraction with copper radiation (λ = 0.15418 nm). (Author)

  11. Silica-covered star-shaped Au-Ag nanoparticles as new electromagnetic nanoresonators for Raman characterisation of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajczewski, Jan; Kołątaj, Karol; Pietrasik, Sylwia; Kudelski, Andrzej

    2018-03-01

    One of the tools used for determining the composition of surfaces of various materials is shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS). SHINERS is a modification of "standard" surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), in which, before Raman spectra are recorded, the surfaces analysed are covered with a layer of plasmonic nanoparticles protected by a very thin layer of a transparent dielectric. The plasmonic cores of the core-shell nanoparticles used in SHINERS measurements generate a local enhancement of the electric field of the incident electromagnetic radiation, whereas the transparent coatings prevent the metal cores from coming into direct contact with the material being analysed. In this contribution, we propose a new type of SHINERS nanoresonators that contain spiky, star-shaped metal cores (produced from a gold/silver alloy). These spiky, star-shaped Au-Ag nanoparticles have been covered by a layer of silica. The small radii of the ends of the tips of the spikes of these plasmonic nanostructures make it possible to generate a very large enhancement of the electromagnetic field there, with the result that such SHINERS nanoresonators are significantly more efficient than the standard semi-spherical nanostructures. The Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles were synthesised by the reduction of a solution containing silver nitrate and chloroauric acid by ascorbic acid. The final geometry of the nanostructures thus formed was controlled by changing the ratio between the concentrations of AuCl4- and Ag+ ions. The shape of the synthesised star-shaped Au-Ag nanoparticles does not change significantly during the two standard procedures for depositing a layer of silica (by the decomposition of sodium silicate or the decomposition of tetraethyl orthosilicate).

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of CoO-Pt core-shell nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeleňáková, A.; Zeleňák, V.; Michalik, Štefan; Kováč, J.; Meisel, M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 10 (2014), "104417-1"-"104417-10" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : CoO-Pt core shell nanoparticles * superparamagnetism * superspin glass state * x-ray diffraction * x-ray absorption spectroscopy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  13. Synthesis of Novel Mesoporous Silica Materials with Hierarchical Pore Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Bon; Choi, Wang Kyu; Choi, Byung Seon; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Porous materials with various pore sizes in the range of micropore (< 2 nm), mesopore (2-50 nm), and macropore (> 50 nm) are attractive due to their many emerging applications such as catalysts, separation systems, and low dielectric constant materials. The discovery of new M41S mesoporous silica families with pore sizes larger than 2 nm in diameter in 1992 extended the applications into much wider pore ranges, bringing in a new prosperous era in porous material research. The synthesis of these silica materials has been mainly accomplished through a self-assembly between surfactant molecules and inorganic species under various pH conditions. Recently, core-shell nanoparticles with a silica core and mesoporous shell under basic conditions were synthesized using the silica nanoparticles as a core, and a silica precursor (TEOS) and cationic surfactant (CTABr) as a material for the formation of the mesoporous shell. The resultant materials were very monodispersive in size and showed a narrow pore size distribution in the range of ca 2-3 nm in diameter, depending on the alkyl-chain length of the surfactants used. In this work, the mesoporous shell coated-fumed silicas (denoted as MS M-5s) were synthesized by using fumed silica instead of the silica nanoparticle as a core based on previous reports. Also, the structural properties of the MS M-5s such as the specific surface area and pore volume were easily controlled by varying the amount of the silica precursor and surfactant. The resultant materials exhibited a BET surface area of ca 279-446 m{sup 2}/g and total pore volume of ca 0.64-0.74 cm{sup 3}/g and showed a narrow pore size distribution (PSD) due to the removal of the organic surfactant molecules

  14. Tunable thermodynamic stability of Au-CuPt core-shell trimetallic nanoparticles by controlling the alloy composition: insights from atomistic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rao; Shao, Gui-Fang; Wen, Yu-Hua; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2014-11-07

    A microscopic understanding of the thermal stability of metallic core-shell nanoparticles is of importance for their synthesis and ultimately application in catalysis. In this article, molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to investigate the thermodynamic evolution of Au-CuPt core-shell trimetallic nanoparticles with various Cu/Pt ratios during heating processes. Our results show that the thermodynamic stability of these nanoparticles is remarkably enhanced upon rising Pt compositions in the CuPt shell. The melting of all the nanoparticles initiates at surface and gradually spreads into the core. Due to the lattice mismatch among Au, Cu and Pt, stacking faults have been observed in the shell and their numbers are associated with the Cu/Pt ratios. With the increasing temperature, they have reduced continuously for the Cu-dominated shell while more stacking faults have been produced for the Pt-dominated shell because of the significantly different thermal expansion coefficients of the three metals. Beyond the overall melting, all nanoparticles transform into a trimetallic mixing alloy coated by an Au-dominated surface. This work provides a fundamental perspective on the thermodynamic behaviors of trimetallic, even multimetallic, nanoparticles at the atomistic level, indicating that controlling the alloy composition is an effective strategy to realize tunable thermal stability of metallic nanocatalysts.

  15. Magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles on microporous silica spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godsell, Jeffrey F.; Donegan, Keith P.; Tobin, Joseph M.; Copley, Mark P.; Rhen, Fernando M.F.; Otway, David J.; Morris, Michael A.; O'Donnell, Terence; Holmes, Justin D.; Roy, Saibal

    2010-01-01

    Ni nanoparticles (∼32 nm particle diameter) have been synthesized on the walls of microporous (∼1 nm pore diameter) silica spheres (∼2.6 μm sphere diameter) and characterised magnetically to potentially produce a new class of core (silica micro-spheres)-shell (nanometallic)-type nanocomposite material. These magnetic nanocomposite materials display a characteristic increase in coercivity with reducing temperature. The average particle size has been used to calculate the anisotropy constant for the system, K. The discussion postulates the potential mechanisms contributing to the difference between the calculated K value and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant of bulk Ni. Various factors such as surface anisotropy and interparticle interactions are discussed as possible contributing factors to the anisotropy values calculated in the paper.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Fe3O4–TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefan, M.; Pana, O.; Leostean, C.; Silipas, D.; Bele, C.; Senila, M.; Gautron, E.

    2014-01-01

    Composite core-shell nanoparticles may have morpho-structural, magnetic, and optical (photoluminescence (PL)) properties different from each of the components considered separately. The properties of Fe 3 O 4 –TiO 2 nanoparticles can be controlled by adjusting the titania amount (shell thinness). Core–shell nanoparticles were prepared by seed mediated growth of semiconductor (TiO 2 ) through a modified sol-gel process onto preformed magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) cores resulted from the co-precipitation method. The structure and morphology of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high resolution-TEM respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was correlated with ICP-AES. Magnetic measurements, optical absorption spectra, as well as PL spectroscopy indicate the presence of a charge/spin transfer from the conduction band of magnetite into the band gap of titania nanocrystals. The process modifies both Fe 3 O 4 and TiO 2 magnetic and optical properties, respectively.

  17. Development of gold nanoparticle radiotracers for investigating multiphase system in process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Amirul Syafiq Mohd Yunos; Jaafar Abdullah; Engku Fahmi Engku Chik; Noraishah Othman

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of colloidal 197 Au-SiO 2 with core-shell structure nanoparticle radiotracers. Using conventional citrate-reduction method, gold nanoparticles were prepared from its corresponding metal salts in aqueous solution then coated with uniform shells of amorphous silica via a sol-gel reaction. This target material of radiotracer application used to investigate multiphase system in process industries without disturbing the system operation. The citrate-reduction-based method provides gold nanoparticles with higher concentration and narrow size distribution. By using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the resultant of particle size and silica coatings could be varied from tens to several hundred of nanometers by controlling the catalyzer and precipitation time. 197 Au-SiO 2 core-shell nano structure is good to prevent the particles from getting conglomerate resulting in a big mass. In addition, silica surface offer very good chances that make the hydrophobicity behavior on the gold nanoparticles. EDXRF spectrum has proven that 197 Au-SiO 2 core-shell nanoparticles sample consists purely of a gold and silica particles. (author)

  18. Investigation of Ni@CoO core-shell nanoparticle films synthesized by sequential layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadaro, M.C.; Luches, P.; Benedetti, F.; Valeri, S.; Turchini, S.; Bertoni, G.; Ferretti, A.M.; Capetti, E.; Ponti, A.; D’Addato, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied Ni/CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NP) obtained with a gas aggregation source. • The NP oxide shells were produced bye reactive deposition of Co in Oxygen atmosphere (p_O_2 ≈ 10"−"7 mbar). • XPS, SEM, STEM were used to obtain information on Ni chemical state and NP structure and morphology. • XMCD result showed evidence of remanent magnetization at room temperature. • We interpret XMCD results as due to stabilization induced by exchange bias due to AFM/FM coupling at the core/shell interface. - Abstract: Films of Ni@CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NP Ni core size d ≈ 11 nm) have been grown on Si/SiO_x and lacey carbon supports, by a sequential layer deposition method: a first layer of CoO was evaporated on the substrate, followed by the deposition of a layer of pre-formed, mass-selected Ni NPs, and finally an overlayer of CoO was added. The Ni NPs were formed by a magnetron gas aggregation source, and mass selected with a quadrupole mass filter. The morphology of the films was investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. The Ni NP cores have a shape compatible with McKay icosahedron, caused by multitwinning occurring during their growth in the source, and the Ni NP layer shows the typical random paving growth mode. After the deposition of the CoO overlayer, CoO islands are observed, gradually extending and tending to merge with each other, with the formation of shells that enclose the Ni NP cores. In situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy showed that a few Ni atomic layers localized at the core-shell interface are oxidized, hinting at the possibility of creating an intermediate NiO shell between Ni and CoO, depending on the deposition conditions. Finally, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism at the Ni L_2_,_3 absorption edge showed the presence of magnetization at room temperature even at remanence, revealing the possibility of magnetic stabilization of the NP film.

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic properties of core/shell mesoporous silica nanospheres supporting nanocrystalline titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cendrowski, K.; Chen, X.; Zielinska, B.; Kalenczuk, R. J.; Rümmeli, M. H.; Büchner, B.; Klingeler, R.; Borowiak-Palen, E.

    2011-01-01

    The facile bulk synthesis of silica nanospheres makes them an attractive support for the transport of chemical compounds such as nanocrystalline titanium dioxide. In this contribution we present a promising route for the synthesis of mesoporous silica nanospheres (m-SiO 2 ) with diameter in range 200 nm, which are ideal supports for nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ). The detailed microscopic and spectroscopic characterizations of core/shell structure (m-SiO 2 /TiO 2 ) were conducted. Moreover, the photocatalytic potential of the nanostructures was investigated via phenol decomposition and hydrogen generation. A clear enhancement of photoactivity in both reactions as compared to commercial TiO 2 -Degussa P25 catalyst is detected.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic properties of core/shell mesoporous silica nanospheres supporting nanocrystalline titania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendrowski, K.; Chen, X.; Zielinska, B.; Kalenczuk, R. J.; Rümmeli, M. H.; Büchner, B.; Klingeler, R.; Borowiak-Palen, E.

    2011-11-01

    The facile bulk synthesis of silica nanospheres makes them an attractive support for the transport of chemical compounds such as nanocrystalline titanium dioxide. In this contribution we present a promising route for the synthesis of mesoporous silica nanospheres (m-SiO2) with diameter in range 200 nm, which are ideal supports for nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2). The detailed microscopic and spectroscopic characterizations of core/shell structure (m-SiO2/TiO2) were conducted. Moreover, the photocatalytic potential of the nanostructures was investigated via phenol decomposition and hydrogen generation. A clear enhancement of photoactivity in both reactions as compared to commercial TiO2-Degussa P25 catalyst is detected.

  1. Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Feng; Deng, Renren; Wang, Juan; Wang, Qingxiao; Han, Yu; Zhu, Haomiao; Chen, Xueyuan; Liu, Xiaogang

    2011-01-01

    Photon upconversion is promising for applications such as biological imaging, data storage or solar cells. Here, we have investigated upconversion processes in a broad range of gadolinium-based nanoparticles of varying composition. We show that by rational design of a core-shell structure with a set of lanthanide ions incorporated into separated layers at precisely defined concentrations, efficient upconversion emission can be realized through gadolinium sublattice-mediated energy migration for a wide range of lanthanide activators without long-lived intermediary energy states. Furthermore, the use of the core-shell structure allows the elimination of deleterious cross-relaxation. This effect enables fine-tuning of upconversion emission through trapping of the migrating energy by the activators. Indeed, the findings described here suggest a general approach to constructing a new class of luminescent materials with tunable upconversion emissions by controlled manipulation of energy transfer within a nanoscopic region. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Feng

    2011-10-23

    Photon upconversion is promising for applications such as biological imaging, data storage or solar cells. Here, we have investigated upconversion processes in a broad range of gadolinium-based nanoparticles of varying composition. We show that by rational design of a core-shell structure with a set of lanthanide ions incorporated into separated layers at precisely defined concentrations, efficient upconversion emission can be realized through gadolinium sublattice-mediated energy migration for a wide range of lanthanide activators without long-lived intermediary energy states. Furthermore, the use of the core-shell structure allows the elimination of deleterious cross-relaxation. This effect enables fine-tuning of upconversion emission through trapping of the migrating energy by the activators. Indeed, the findings described here suggest a general approach to constructing a new class of luminescent materials with tunable upconversion emissions by controlled manipulation of energy transfer within a nanoscopic region. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. Addressing Challenges and Scalability in the Synthesis of Thin Uniform Metal Shells on Large Metal Nanoparticle Cores: Case Study of Ag-Pt Core-Shell Nanocubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Umar; Linic, Suljo

    2017-12-13

    Bimetallic nanoparticles in which a metal is coated with an ultrathin (∼1 nm) layer of a second metal are often desired for their unique chemical and physical properties. Current synthesis methods for producing such core-shell nanostructures often require incremental addition of a shell metal precursor which is rapidly reduced onto metal cores. A major shortcoming of this approach is that it necessitates precise concentrations of chemical reagents, making it difficult to perform at large scales. To address this issue, we considered an approach whereby the reduction of the shell metal precursor was controlled through in situ chemical modification of the precursor. We used this approach to develop a highly scalable synthesis for coating atomic layers of Pt onto Ag nanocubes. We show that Ag-Pt core-shell nanostructures are synthesized in high yields and that these structures effectively combine the optical properties of the plasmonic Ag nanocube core with the surface properties of the thin Pt shell. Additionally, we demonstrate the scalability of the synthesis by performing a 10 times scale-up.

  4. The effect of SiO2/Au core-shell nanoparticles on breast cancer cell's radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darfarin, Ghazal; Salehi, Roya; Alizadeh, Effat; Nasiri Motlagh, Behnam; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Farajollahi, Alireza

    2018-05-09

    Recently it has been shown that radiation dose enhancement could be achievable in radiotherapy using nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, evaluation was made to determine efficiency of gold-silica shell-core NP in megavoltage irradiation of MCF7 breath cancer cells. Gold-silicon oxide shell-core NPs were obtained by conjugation of gold NP with amine or thiol functionalized silica NPs (AuN@SiO 2 and AuS@SiO 2 ). Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of NPs were examined by fluorescent microscopy and MTT assay, respectively. MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with both NPs and irradiation was made with X-ray energies of 6 and 18 MV to the absorbed dose of 2, 4 and 8 Gy using Simense linear accelerator. The efficiency of radiation therapy was then evaluated by MTT and Brdu assay, DAPI staining and cell cycle analysis. TEM images indicated that synthesized NPs had average diameter of 25 nm. Cellular uptake demonstrated that the internalization of AuS@SiO 2 and AuN@SiO 2 NPs amounted to 18% and 34%, 3 h post treatment, respectively. Nontoxicity of prepared NPs on MCF-7 cells was proved by MTT and Brdu assays as well as DAPI staining and cell cycle studies. The highest enhancement in radiation dose was observed in the cells that irradiated with radiation energy of 18 MV and absorbed of 8 Gy at NPs concentration of 200 ppm. The Brdu findings revealed that the cytotoxicity and apoptosis on MCF-7 cells are dose dependent with a significantly more death in AuN@SiO 2 (amine) exposed cells (p < .05). Analysis also revealed interruption in cell cycle by demonstrating lack of cells, in S phase in amine treated cells (AuN@SiO 2 ) at given dose of 8 Gy using 18 MV X-ray in comparison to thiol treated cells. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that the gold-silicon oxide shell-core NPs could play an effective role in radiotherapy of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

  5. pH-sensitive chitosan/alginate core-shell nanoparticles for efficient and safe oral insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Piyasi; Chakraborty, Souma; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Mishra, Roshnara; Kundu, P P

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan-alginate (CS/ALG) nanoparticles were prepared by formation of an ionotropic pre-gelation of an alginate (ALG) core entrapping insulin, followed by chitosan (CS) polyelectrolyte complexation, for successful oral insulin administration. Mild preparation process without harsh chemicals is aimed at improving insulin bio-efficiency in in vivo model. The nanoparticles showed an average particle size of 100-200 nm in dynamic light scattering (DLS), with almost spherical or sub-spherical shape and ∼ 85% of insulin encapsulation. Again, retention of almost entire amount of encapsulated insulin in simulated gastric buffer followed by its sustained release in simulated intestinal condition proved its pH sensitivity in in vitro release studies. Significant hypoglycemic effects with improved insulin-relative bioavailability (∼ 8.11%) in in vivo model revealed the efficacy of these core-shell nanoparticles of CS/ALG as an oral insulin carrier. No systemic toxicity was found after its peroral treatment, suggesting these core-shell nanoparticles as a promising device for potential oral insulin delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Facile synthesis and excellent microwave absorption properties of FeCo-C core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bingbing; Wang, Shiliang; Kuang, Daitao; Hou, Lizhen; Yu, Bowen; Lin, Liangwu; Deng, Lianwen; Huang, Han; He, Jun

    2018-02-01

    FeCo-C core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) with diameters of 10-50 nm have been fabricated on a large scale by one-step metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using the mixture of cobalt acetylacetonate and iron acetylacetonate as the precursor. The Fe/Co molar ratio of the alloy nanocores and graphitization degree of C shells, and thus the magnetic and electric properties of the core-shell NPs, can be tuned by the deposition temperature ranging from 700 °C to 900 °C. Comparative tests reveal that a relatively high Fe/Co molar ratio and low graphitization degree benefit the microwave absorption (MA) performance of the core-shell NPs. The composite with 20 wt% core-shell NP obtained at 800 °C and 80 wt% paraffin exhibits an optimal reflection loss ({{R}}{{L}}) of -60.4 dB at 7.5 GHz with a thickness of 3.3 mm, and an effective absorption bandwidth (frequency range for RL ≤10 dB) of 9.2 GHz (8.8-18.0 GHz) under an absorber thickness of 2.5 mm. Our study provides a facile route for the fabrication of alloy-C core-shell nanostructures with high MA performance.

  7. Room temperature nanojoining of Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles and nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiaqi; Shin, Seungha

    2017-01-01

    Room temperature (T room , 300 K) nanojoining of Ag has been widely employed in fabrication of microelectronic applications where the shapes and structures of microelectronic components must be maintained. In this research, the joining processes of pure Ag nanoparticles (NPs), Cu-Ag core-shell NPs, and nanowires (NWs) are studied using molecular dynamics simulations at T room . The evolution of densification, potential energy, and structural deformation during joining process are analyzed to identify joining mechanisms. Depending on geometry, different joining mechanisms including crystallization-amorphization, reorientation, Shockley partial dislocation are determined. A three-stage joining scenario is observed in both joining process of NPs and NWs. Besides, the Cu core does not participate in all joining processes, however, it enhances the mobility of Ag shell atoms, contributing to a higher densification and bonding strength at T room , compared with pure Ag nanomaterials. The tensile test shows that the nanojoint bears higher rupture strength than the core-shell NW itself. This study deepens understanding in the underlying joining mechanisms and thus nanojoint with desirable thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties could be potentially achieved.

  8. Nonspecific Organelle-Targeting Strategy with Core-Shell Nanoparticles of Varied Lipid Components/Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Jiashu; Wang, Yilian; Wang, Jiancheng; Shi, Xinghua; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-07-19

    We report a nonspecific organelle-targeting strategy through one-step microfluidic fabrication and screening of a library of surface charge- and lipid components/ratios-varied lipid shell-polymer core nanoparticles. Different from the common strategy relying on the use of organelle-targeted moieties conjugated onto the surface of nanoparticles, here, we program the distribution of hybrid nanoparticles in lysosomes or mitochondria by tuning the lipid components/ratios in shell. Hybrid nanoparticles with 60% 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and 20% 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) can intracellularly target mitochondria in both in vitro and in vivo models. While replacing DOPE with the same amount of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), the nanoparticles do not show mitochondrial targeting, indicating an incremental effect of cationic and fusogenic lipids on lysosomal escape which is further studied by molecular dynamics simulations. This work unveils the lipid-regulated subcellular distribution of hybrid nanoparticles in which target moieties and complex synthetic steps are avoided.

  9. Characterization of the core-shell interaction of differently stabilized transition-metal nanoparticles by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, S.

    2002-05-01

    Transition metal nanoparticles with different surfactants were investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to obtain information about the interaction between metal core and protecting shell. For tetraalkylammoniumchloride stabilized Pd- and Co-colloids, a detailed model of the interaction between the metal core and the stabilizing shell could be established, in which chlorine is the connecting element between the metal core and the organic protection cover. Different lengths of the alkyl-chains can cause different equilibrium positions for the chlorine atoms. At aluminum-organic stabilized Pt-colloids, Al K-XANES and Pt L III -XAS were carried out. In this case, it turned out that aluminum is the connecting element between metal core and protection shell. After modification of the shell by connecting different molecules to the outside of the shell, rearrangements of the shell could be observed. In contrast to the surfactant stabilized systems discussed above, metallic covers, especially gold coatings, of Co-particles did not lead to a complete protection shell. In all cases, the cobalt in the nanoparticles was oxidized. A core shell structure could not be verified for any of the metallic stabilized colloids. (orig.)

  10. Continuous production of core-shell protein nanoparticles by antisolvent precipitation using dual-channel microfluidization: Caseinate-coated zein nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Sandra; Koo, Charmaine K W; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian

    2017-02-01

    Antisolvent precipitation is commonly used to fabricate protein nanoparticles using a simple batch method that involves injecting a protein-solvent mixture into an antisolvent. In this study, the potential of producing core-shell protein nanoparticles by antisolvent precipitation using a continuous dual-channel microfluidization method was investigated. The solvent phase (zein in ethanol) and antisolvent phase (casein in water) were made to impinge on each other at high velocity, which generates intense shear, turbulent, and cavitation forces that ensure thorough mixing and breakup of the phases. Relatively small core-shell protein nanoparticles (dnanoparticles went from positive at low pH to negative at high pH, with a point of zero charge around pH5. Electron microscopy indicated that the protein particles formed had a roughly spherical shape. The results suggest that the dual-channel microfluidizer could be used to continuously form protein nanoparticles by antisolvent precipitation. Nevertheless, when the microfluidization method was compared with the simple batch method the size of the particles produced under similar conditions were fairly similar. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modifying Cement Hydration with NS@PCE Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that fine particles could accelerate cement hydration process, or, more specifically, this accelerating effect can be attributed to additional surface area introduced by fine particles. In addition to this view, the surface state of fine particles is also an important factor, especially for nanoparticles. In the previous study, a series of nano-SiO2-polycarboxylate superplasticizer core-shell nanoparticles (NS@PCE were synthesized, which have a similar particle size distribution but different surface properties. In this study, the impact of NS@PCE on cement hydration was investigated by heat flow calorimetry, mechanical property measurement, XRD, and SEM. Results show that, among a series of NS@PCE, NS@PCE-2 with a moderate shell-core ratio appeared to be more effective in accelerating cement hydration. As dosage increases, the efficiency of NS@PCE-2 would reach a plateau which is quantified by various characteristic values. Compressive strength results indicate that strength has a linear correlation with cumulative heat release. A hypothesis was proposed to explain the modification effect of NS@PCE, which highlights a balance between initial dispersion and pozzolanic reactivity. This paper provides a new understanding for the surface modification of supplementary cementitious materials and their application and also sheds a new light on nano-SiO2 for optimizing cement-based materials.

  12. Fabrication of superhydrophobic fluorinated silica nanoparticles for multifunctional liquid marbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qianqian; Hu, Lihong; Hu, Yun; Liu, Chengguo; Zhou, Yonghong

    2018-01-01

    A facile one-pot method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic fluorinated silica nanoparticles is reported. Fluorinated aggregated silica (A-SiO2/FAS) nanoparticles were synthesized by controlling the nanoparticles assembly, in situ fixation and overgrowth of particle seeds with the assist of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in ethanol/water solution and then modification with fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) molecules. Such kind of A-SiO2/FAS nanoparticles showed superhydrophobicity and was not wetted by water, thus it could be served as the encapsulating shells to manipulate liquid droplets. Liquid marbles fabricated from A-SiO2/FAS nanoparticles were used for ammonia gas sensing or emitting by taking advantage of the porosity and superhydrophobicity of the liquid marble shells. In addition, the posibility of A-SiO2/FAS-based liquid marbles as microreactor for dopamine polymerization also was explored.

  13. Organic-Inorganic Hydrophobic Nanocomposite Film with a Core-Shell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method to prepare novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite films was proposed by a site-specific polymerization process. The inorganic part, the core of the nanocomposite, is a ternary SiO2–Al2O3–TiO2 nanoparticles, which is grafted with methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane (KH570, and wrapped by fluoride and siloxane polymers. The synthesized samples are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, contact angle meter (CA, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results indicate that the novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite with a core-shell structure was synthesized successfully. XRD analysis reveals the nanocomposite film has an amorphous structure, and FTIR analysis indicates the nanoparticles react with a silane coupling agent (methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane KH570. Interestingly, the morphology of the nanoparticle film is influenced by the composition of the core. Further, comparing with the film synthesized by silica nanoparticles, the film formed from SiO2–Al2O3–TiO2 nanoparticles has higher hydrophobic performance, i.e., the contact angle is greater than 101.7°. In addition, the TEM analysis reveals that the crystal structure of the particles can be changed at high temperatures.

  14. Synthesis and detection the oxidization of Co cores of Co@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles by in situ XRD and EXAFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kunhao; Zhao, Ziyan; Wu, Zhonghua; Zhou, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Co@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel method. The oxidization of Co core nanoparticles was studied by the synchrotron radiation-based techniques including in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) up to 800°C in air and N2 protection conditions, respectively. It was found that the oxidization of Co cores is undergoing three steps regardless of being in air or in N2 protection condition. In the first step ranging from room temperature to 200°C, the Co cores were dominated by Co(0) state as well as small amount of Co(2+) ions. When temperature was above 300°C, the interface between Co cores and SiO2 shells was gradually oxidized into Co(2+), and the CoO layer was observed. As the temperature increasing to 800°C, the Co cores were oxidized to Co3O4 or Co3O4/CoO. Nevertheless, the oxidization kinetics of Co cores is different for the Co@SiO2 in air and N2 gas conditions. Generally, the O2 in the air could get through the SiO2 shells easily onto the Co core surface and induce the oxidization of the Co cores due to the mesoporous nature of the SiO2 shells. However, in N2 gas condition, the O atoms can only be from the SiO2 shells, so the diffusion effect of O atoms in the interface between Co core and SiO2 shell plays a key role.

  15. Silica-covered star-shaped Au-Ag nanoparticles as new electromagnetic nanoresonators for Raman characterisation of surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajczewski, Jan; Kołątaj, Karol; Pietrasik, Sylwia; Kudelski, Andrzej

    2018-03-15

    One of the tools used for determining the composition of surfaces of various materials is shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS). SHINERS is a modification of "standard" surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), in which, before Raman spectra are recorded, the surfaces analysed are covered with a layer of plasmonic nanoparticles protected by a very thin layer of a transparent dielectric. The plasmonic cores of the core-shell nanoparticles used in SHINERS measurements generate a local enhancement of the electric field of the incident electromagnetic radiation, whereas the transparent coatings prevent the metal cores from coming into direct contact with the material being analysed. In this contribution, we propose a new type of SHINERS nanoresonators that contain spiky, star-shaped metal cores (produced from a gold/silver alloy). These spiky, star-shaped Au-Ag nanoparticles have been covered by a layer of silica. The small radii of the ends of the tips of the spikes of these plasmonic nanostructures make it possible to generate a very large enhancement of the electromagnetic field there, with the result that such SHINERS nanoresonators are significantly more efficient than the standard semi-spherical nanostructures. The Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles were synthesised by the reduction of a solution containing silver nitrate and chloroauric acid by ascorbic acid. The final geometry of the nanostructures thus formed was controlled by changing the ratio between the concentrations of AuCl 4 - and Ag + ions. The shape of the synthesised star-shaped Au-Ag nanoparticles does not change significantly during the two standard procedures for depositing a layer of silica (by the decomposition of sodium silicate or the decomposition of tetraethyl orthosilicate). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Two emissive-magnetic composite platforms for Hg(II) sensing and removal: The combination of magnetic core, silica molecular sieve and rhodamine chemosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hanping; Liu, Zhongshou

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a composite sensing platform for Hg(II) optical sensing and removal was designed and reported. A core-shell structure was adopted, using magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles as the core, silica molecular sieve MCM-41 as the shell, respectively. Two rhodamine derivatives were synthesized as chemosensor and covalently immobilized into MCM-41 tunnels. Corresponding composite samples were characterized with SEM/TEM images, XRD analysis, IR spectra, thermogravimetry and N2 adsorption/desorption analysis, which confirmed their core-shell structure. Their emission was increased by Hg(II), showing emission turn on effect. High selectivity, linear working curves and recyclability were obtained from these composite samples.

  17. Substitution of manganese and iron into hydroxyapatite: Core/shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pon-On, Weeraphat; Meejoo, Siwaporn; Tang, I.-Ming

    2008-01-01

    The bioceramics, hydroxyapatite (HAP), is a material which is biocompatible to the human body and is well suited to be used in hyperthermia applications for the treatment of bone cancer. We investigate the substitution of iron and manganese into the hydroxyapatite to yield ceramics having the empirical formula Ca 9.4 Fe 0.4 Mn 0.2 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 . The samples were prepared by the co-precipitation method. The formation of the nanocrystallites in the HAP structure as the heating temperatures were raised to obtain a glass-ceramic system are confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED) and electron spin resonance (ESR). TEM images show the core/shell structure of the nanoparticles, with the core being formed by the ferrites and the shell by the hydroxyapatite. The ED patterns indicate the nanoparticles formed at 500 deg. C have an amorphous structure while the nanoparticles formed at 1000 deg. C are crystalline. ESR spectroscopy indicated that the Fe 3+ ions have a g-factor of 4.23 and the Mn 2+ ions have a g-factor of 2.01. The values of the parameters in the spin Hamiltonian which describes the interaction between the transition metal ions and the Ca 2+ ions, indicate that the Mn 2+ ion substitute into the Ca 2+ sites which are ninefold coordinated, i.e., the Ca(1) sites

  18. Fabrication, characterization and screen printing of conductive ink based on carbon@Ag core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Shuanglei; Zhang, Shaofeng; Zhang, Hongbo; Jiang, Changzhong

    2014-08-01

    The large-scale synthesis and characterization of carbon-core/Ag-shell (C@Ag) nanoparticles by the successive reduction of silver ammonia are described. The resultant C@Ag nanoparticles had a mean core diameter of 360 nm and a controllable shell thickness from 10 to 40 nm by simple adjustments of repeat coating times. Various analysis techniques confirmed that the carbon cores were fully covered by Ag nanoshells. The results also show that C/Ag composite nanomaterials-based conductive inks, which can be easily produced on a large scale and possess outstanding electronic properties, have great potential for the convenient fabrication of flexible and low-cost carbon-based electronic devices and replace the traditional pure silver paste, by using a simple screen printing technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gold core@silver semishell Janus nanoparticles prepared by interfacial etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Limei; Deming, Christopher P.; Peng, Yi; Hu, Peiguang; Stofan, Jake; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-07-01

    Gold core@silver semishell Janus nanoparticles were prepared by chemical etching of Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles at the air/water interface. Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical deposition of a silver shell onto gold seed colloids followed by the self-assembly of 1-dodecanethiol onto the nanoparticle surface. The nanoparticles then formed a monolayer on the water surface of a Langmuir-Blodgett trough, and part of the silver shell was selectively etched away by the mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ammonia in the water subphase, where the etching was limited to the side of the nanoparticles that was in direct contact with water. The resulting Janus nanoparticles exhibited an asymmetrical distribution of silver on the surface of the gold cores, as manifested in transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis absorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Interestingly, the Au@Ag semishell Janus nanoparticles exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity in oxygen reduction reactions, as compared to their Au@Ag and Ag@Au core-shell counterparts, likely due to a synergistic effect between the gold cores and silver semishells that optimized oxygen binding to the nanoparticle surface.Gold core@silver semishell Janus nanoparticles were prepared by chemical etching of Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles at the air/water interface. Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical deposition of a silver shell onto gold seed colloids followed by the self-assembly of 1-dodecanethiol onto the nanoparticle surface. The nanoparticles then formed a monolayer on the water surface of a Langmuir-Blodgett trough, and part of the silver shell was selectively etched away by the mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ammonia in the water subphase, where the etching was limited to the side of the nanoparticles that was in direct contact with water. The resulting Janus nanoparticles exhibited an asymmetrical distribution of silver on the surface of the gold

  20. Luminescence study of Eu3+ doped GdVO4 nanoparticles: Concentration, particle size, and core/shell effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. Shanta; Ningthoujam, R. S.; Devi, L. Romila; Yaiphaba, N.; Sudarsan, V.; Singh, S. Dorendrajit; Vatsa, R. K.; Tewari, R.

    2008-11-01

    Nanoparticles of GdVO4 doped with Eu3+ and core/shell of GdVO4:Eu3+/GdVO4 are prepared by urea hydrolysis method using ethylene glycol as capping agent as well as reaction medium at 130 °C. Unit cell volume increases when GdVO4 is doped with Eu3+ indicating the substitution of Gd3+ lattice sites by Eu3+. From luminescence study, it is confirmed that there is no particle size effect on emission positions of Eu3+. Optimum luminescence intensity is found to be in 5-10 at. % Eu3+. Above these concentrations, luminescence intensity decreases due to concentration quenching effect. There is an enhancement in luminescence intensity of core/shell nanoparticles. This has been attributed to the reduction in surface inhomogenities of Eu3+ surroundings by bonding to GdVO4 shell. The lifetime for D50 level increases with annealing and core/shell formation.

  1. Enhanced Oxidation-Resistant Cu@Ni Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Printed Flexible Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Gon; Park, Hye Jin; Woo, Kyoohee; Jeong, Sunho; Choi, Youngmin; Lee, Su Yeon

    2018-01-10

    In this work, the fabrication and application of highly conductive, robust, flexible, and oxidation-resistant Cu-Ni core-shell nanoparticle (NP)-based electrodes have been reported. Cu@Ni core-shell NPs with a tunable Ni shell thickness were synthesized by varying the Cu/Ni molar ratios in the precursor solution. Through continuous spray coating and flash photonic sintering without an inert atmosphere, large-area Cu@Ni NP-based conductors were fabricated on various polymer substrates. These NP-based electrodes demonstrate a low sheet resistance of 1.3 Ω sq -1 under an optical energy dose of 1.5 J cm -2 . In addition, they exhibit highly stable sheet resistances (ΔR/R 0 flexible heater fabricated from the Cu@Ni film is demonstrated, which shows uniform heat distribution and stable temperature compared to those of a pure Cu film.

  2. Ultrathin Interface Regime of Core-Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles for Effective Magnetism Tailoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seung Ho; Noh, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Shin, Tae-Hyun; Lim, Yongjun; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2017-02-08

    The magnetic exchange coupling interaction between hard and soft magnetic phases has been important for tailoring nanoscale magnetism, but spin interactions at the core-shell interface have not been well studied. Here, we systematically investigated a new interface phenomenon termed enhanced spin canting (ESC), which is operative when the shell thickness becomes ultrathin, a few atomic layers, and exhibits a large enhancement of magnetic coercivity (H C ). We found that ESC arises not from the typical hard-soft exchange coupling but rather from the large magnetic surface anisotropy (K S ) of the ultrathin interface. Due to this large increase in magnetism, ultrathin core-shell nanoparticles overreach the theoretical limit of magnetic energy product ((BH) max ) and exhibit one of the largest values of specific loss power (SLP), which testifies to their potential capability as an effective mediator of magnetic energy conversion.

  3. Investigation of Ni@CoO core-shell nanoparticle films synthesized by sequential layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadaro, M.C., E-mail: mariachiara.spadaro@unimore.it [CNR-NANO, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Luches, P. [Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Benedetti, F.; Valeri, S. [CNR-NANO, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Turchini, S. [CNR-ISM, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bertoni, G. [CNR-IMEM, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/a, 43124 Parma (Italy); Ferretti, A.M.; Capetti, E.; Ponti, A. [Laboratorio di Nanotecnologie, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via G. Fantoli 16/15, 20138 Milano (Italy); D’Addato, S. [CNR-NANO, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • We studied Ni/CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NP) obtained with a gas aggregation source. • The NP oxide shells were produced bye reactive deposition of Co in Oxygen atmosphere (p{sub O2} ≈ 10{sup −7} mbar). • XPS, SEM, STEM were used to obtain information on Ni chemical state and NP structure and morphology. • XMCD result showed evidence of remanent magnetization at room temperature. • We interpret XMCD results as due to stabilization induced by exchange bias due to AFM/FM coupling at the core/shell interface. - Abstract: Films of Ni@CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NP Ni core size d ≈ 11 nm) have been grown on Si/SiO{sub x} and lacey carbon supports, by a sequential layer deposition method: a first layer of CoO was evaporated on the substrate, followed by the deposition of a layer of pre-formed, mass-selected Ni NPs, and finally an overlayer of CoO was added. The Ni NPs were formed by a magnetron gas aggregation source, and mass selected with a quadrupole mass filter. The morphology of the films was investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. The Ni NP cores have a shape compatible with McKay icosahedron, caused by multitwinning occurring during their growth in the source, and the Ni NP layer shows the typical random paving growth mode. After the deposition of the CoO overlayer, CoO islands are observed, gradually extending and tending to merge with each other, with the formation of shells that enclose the Ni NP cores. In situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy showed that a few Ni atomic layers localized at the core-shell interface are oxidized, hinting at the possibility of creating an intermediate NiO shell between Ni and CoO, depending on the deposition conditions. Finally, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism at the Ni L{sub 2,3} absorption edge showed the presence of magnetization at room temperature even at remanence, revealing the possibility of magnetic stabilization of the NP film.

  4. Engineered magnetic core shell nanoprobes: Synthesis and applications to cancer imaging and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Samir; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2016-02-26

    Magnetic core shell nanoparticles are composed of a highly magnetic core material surrounded by a thin shell of desired drug, polymer or metal oxide. These magnetic core shell nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in biomedical research, more specifically in tissue imaging, drug delivery and therapeutics. The present review discusses the up-to-date knowledge on the various procedures for synthesis of magnetic core shell nanoparticles along with their applications in cancer imaging, drug delivery and hyperthermia or cancer therapeutics. Literature in this area shows that magnetic core shell nanoparticle-based imaging, drug targeting and therapy through hyperthermia can potentially be a powerful tool for the advanced diagnosis and treatment of various cancers.

  5. Decomposition of formic acid over silica encapsulated and amine functionalised gold nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Kegnæs, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Formic acid has recently attracted considerable attention as a safe and convenient source of hydrogen for sustainable chemical synthesis and renewable energy storage. Here, we show that silica encapsulated and amine functionalised gold nanoparticles are highly active catalysts for the production...... of hydrogen by vapour phase decomposition of formic acid. The core-shell catalysts are prepared in a reverse micelle system that makes it possible to control the size of the Au nanoparticles and the thickness of the SiO2 shells, which has a large impact on the catalytic activity. The smallest gold...... nanoparticles are 2.2 ± 0.3 nm in diameter and have a turnover frequency (TOF) of up to 958 h−1 at a temperature of 130 °C. Based on detailed in situ ATR-FTIR studies and results from kinetic isotope labelling experiments we propose that the active site is a low-coordinated and amine functionalised Au atom...

  6. Preparation of Fe(3)O(4)@C@CNC multifunctional magnetic core/shell nanoparticles and their application in a signal-type flow-injection photoluminescence immunosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chengchao; Li, Meng; Li, Long; Ge, Shenguang; Ge, Lei; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2013-11-01

    We describe here the preparation of carbon-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles that were further fabricated into multifunctional core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4@C@CNCs) through a layer-by-layer self-assembly process of carbon nanocrystals (CNCs). The nanoparticles were applied in a photoluminescence (PL) immunosensor to detect the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and CEA primary antibody was immobilized onto the surface of the nanoparticles. In addition, CEA secondary antibody and glucose oxidase were covalently bonded to silica nanoparticles. After stepwise immunoreactions, the immunoreagent was injected into the PL cell using a flow-injection PL system. When glucose was injected, hydrogen peroxide was obtained because of glucose oxidase catalysis and quenched the PL of the Fe3O4@C@CNC nanoparticles. The here proposed PL immunosensor allowed us to determine CEA concentrations in the 0.005–50 ng·mL-1 concentration range, with a detection limit of 1.8 pg·mL-1.

  7. Ru-core/Cu-shell bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled size formed in one-pot synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgadottir, I; Freychet, G; Arquillière, P; Maret, M; Gergaud, P; Haumesser, P H; Santini, C C

    2014-12-21

    Suspensions of bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) of Ru and Cu have been synthesized by simultaneous decomposition of two organometallic compounds in an ionic liquid. These suspensions have been characterized by Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (ASAXS) at energies slightly below the Ru K-edge. It is found that the NPs adopt a Ru-core, a Cu-shell structure, with a constant Ru core diameter of 1.9 nm for all Ru : Cu compositions, while the Cu shell thickness increases with Cu content up to 0.9 nm. The formation of RuCuNPs thus proceeds through rapid decomposition of the Ru precursor into RuNPs of constant size followed by the reaction of the Cu precursor and agglomeration as a Cu shell. Thus, the different decomposition kinetics of precursors make possible the elaboration of core-shell NPs composed of two metals without chemical affinity.

  8. Shape-controlled synthesis of Au@Pd core-shell nanoparticles and their corresponding electrochemical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2012-01-01

    The shape-controlled synthesis of Au@Pd core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) was successfully achieved through the emulsion phase generated during the phase transfer from organic to aqueous medium. Contrary to conventional epitaxial growth for obtaining

  9. Tuning the synthesis of platinum-copper nanoparticles with a hollow core and porous shell for the selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuangshuang; Yang, Nating; Wang, Shibin; Sun, Yuhan; Zhu, Yan

    2016-08-07

    Pt-Cu nanoparticles constructed with a hollow core and porous shell have been synthesized in which Pt-Cu cages with multiporous outermost shells are formed at the initial stage and then the Pt and Cu atoms in solution continuously fed these hollow-core of cages by passing through the porous tunnels of the outermost shells, finally leading to the formation of hollow structures with different sizes. Furthermore, these hollow-core Pt-Cu nanoparticles are more effective than the solid-core Pt-Cu nanoparticles for the catalytic hydrogenation of furfural toward furfuryl alcohol. The former can achieve almost 100% conversion of furfural with 100% selectivity toward the alcohol.

  10. Room temperature nanojoining of Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles and nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiaqi; Shin, Seungha, E-mail: sshin@utk.edu [The University of Tennessee, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Room temperature (T{sub room}, 300 K) nanojoining of Ag has been widely employed in fabrication of microelectronic applications where the shapes and structures of microelectronic components must be maintained. In this research, the joining processes of pure Ag nanoparticles (NPs), Cu-Ag core-shell NPs, and nanowires (NWs) are studied using molecular dynamics simulations at T{sub room}. The evolution of densification, potential energy, and structural deformation during joining process are analyzed to identify joining mechanisms. Depending on geometry, different joining mechanisms including crystallization-amorphization, reorientation, Shockley partial dislocation are determined. A three-stage joining scenario is observed in both joining process of NPs and NWs. Besides, the Cu core does not participate in all joining processes, however, it enhances the mobility of Ag shell atoms, contributing to a higher densification and bonding strength at T{sub room}, compared with pure Ag nanomaterials. The tensile test shows that the nanojoint bears higher rupture strength than the core-shell NW itself. This study deepens understanding in the underlying joining mechanisms and thus nanojoint with desirable thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties could be potentially achieved.

  11. Exchange bias and asymmetric hysteresis loops from a microscopic model of core/shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Oscar; Batlle, Xavier; Labarta, Amilcar

    2007-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo simulations of hysteresis loops of a model of a magnetic nanoparticle with a ferromagnetic core and an antiferromagnetic shell with varying values of the core/shell interface exchange coupling which aim to clarify the microscopic origin of exchange bias observed experimentally. We have found loop shifts in the field direction as well as displacements along the magnetization axis that increase in magnitude when increasing the interfacial exchange coupling. Overlap functions computed from the spin configurations along the loops have been obtained to explain the origin and magnitude of these features microscopically

  12. Profound Interfacial Effects in CoFe2O4/Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/CoFe2O4 Core/Shell Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, Dmytro; Nedelko, Natalia; Solopan, Sergii; Ślawska-Waniewska, Anna; Zamorskyi, Vladyslav; Tovstolytkin, Alexandr; Belous, Anatolii

    2018-03-01

    Two sets of core/shell magnetic nanoparticles, CoFe2O4/Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/CoFe2O4, with a fixed diameter of the core ( 4.1 and 6.3 nm for the former and latter sets, respectively) and thickness of shells up to 2.5 nm were synthesized from metal chlorides in a diethylene glycol solution. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic measurements. The analysis of the results of magnetic measurements shows that coating of magnetic nanoparticles with the shells results in two simultaneous effects: first, it modifies the parameters of the core-shell interface, and second, it makes the particles acquire combined features of the core and the shell. The first effect becomes especially prominent when the parameters of core and shell strongly differ from each other. The results obtained are useful for optimizing and tailoring the parameters of core/shell spinel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles for their use in various technological and biomedical applications.

  13. Hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min

    2012-09-27

    Hybrid alloys among gold, palladium and platinum become a new category of catalysts primarily due to their enhanced catalytic effects. Enhancement means not only their effectiveness, but also their uniqueness as catalysts for the reactions that individual metals may not catalyze. Here, preparation of hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) and their use as electrocatalysts are reported. Galvanic displacement with Ag NPs is used to obtain hollow NPs, and higher reduction potential of Au compared to Ag, Pd, and Pt helps to produce hollow Au cores first, followed by Pd or Pt shell growth. Continuous and highly crystalline shell growth was observed in Au@Pd core-shell NPs, but the sporadic and porous-like structure was observed in Au@Pt core-shell NPs. Along with hollow core-shell NPs, hollow porous Pt and hollow Au NPs are also prepared from Ag seed NPs. Twin boundaries which are typically observed in large size (>20 nm) Au NPs were not observed in hollow Au NPs. This absence is believed to be due to the role of the hollows, which significantly reduce the strain energy of edges where the two lattice planes meet. In ethanol oxidation reactions in alkaline medium, hollow Au@Pd core-shell NPs show highest current density in forward scan. Hollow Au@Pt core-shell NPs maintain better catalytic activities than metallic Pt, which is thought to be due to the better crystallinity of Pt shells as well as the alloy effect of Au cores. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia, E-mail: nataliarin@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Departamento de Física & IUTA, EPI, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33203 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Fernández Barquín, Luis [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm{sup −2}, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40–50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size. - Highlights: • Comparison of the exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles. • Universal temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Suggested similar physical origin of the effect in both systems. • Size and crystallinity of the NiO shell hold the key for exchange bias properties.

  15. Synthesis of hydrophobic zeolite X-SiO{sub 2} core-shell composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Liying [School of Material and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO-2CRC) (Australia); Singh, Ranjeet; Li Gang; Xiao Gongkui [Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO-2CRC) (Australia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Webley, Paul A., E-mail: paul.webley@eng.monash.edu.au [Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO-2CRC) (Australia); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zhai Yuchun [School of Material and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China)

    2012-04-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrophobic 13X zeolite composites with silicalite and mesoporous silica shells are designed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These core-shell composites are silynated and their hydrophobicity is tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of silica layer increases the density of surface hydroxyl groups which makes the improvement of the hydrophobicity possible by further silynation. - Abstract: Core-shell structures of zeolite X coated with silicalite as well as mesoporous (MCM-41) have been synthesized. Furthermore, the surfaces of the silicalite and mesoporous silica shells were silylated using organosilanes. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the properties of zeolite 13X-silicalite and zeolite 13X-mesoporous silica core-shells composite structures are well maintained even after the modification. As expected, the shell thickness increased with increase in synthesis time, however, the micropore volume decreased. Silylation with smaller organosilanes (trimethyl chlorosilane) resulted in decrease in surface area as they diffused through the pores; however, bulkier silane reacted with surface hydroxyl groups and maintained the pore structure. Contact angle measurements revealed that hydrophobicity of zeolite 13X was enhanced by the microporous and mesoporous shell coating and was further improved by silylation.

  16. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye under visible irradiation by water soluble ZnS:Mn/ZnS core/shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaparde, Rohini A.; Acharya, Smita A.

    2018-05-01

    ZnS:Mn/ ZnS core/shell nanoparticles was prepared by two step synthesis method. In first step, oleic acid - coated Mn doped ZnS core nanoparticles were prepared which were charged through ligand exchange. Shell of ZnS NPs was finally deposited upon the surface of charged Mn doped ZnS core. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image exhibit morphological confirmation of ZnS:Mn/ZnS core/shell. As Nano ZnS are the most suitable candidates for photocatalyst that extensively involved in degradation and complete mineralization of various toxic organic pollutants owing to its high efficiency, strong oxidizing power, non-toxicity, high photochemical and biological stability, corrosive resistance and low cost. Photodegradation of malachite green is systematically investigated by adding different molar proportional of ZnS:Mn/ZnS core/shell in the dye. The rate of de-coloration of dye is detected by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. Efficient detoriation in the colour of dye is attributed to the core /shell morphology of the particles.

  17. Synthesis of internally functionalized silica nanoparticles for theranostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Nathan Isaac

    hydroboration, to make the nanoparticles into water-dispersible boron carriers that also have potential boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications. Lastly, Chapter 4 provides a general description of NCT, specifically that involving boron-10 and gadolinium-157. It further describes the synthetic methodology used in producing fatty acid coated boron nanoparticles (BNPs). The BNPs are encapsulated with silica to add a hydrophilic shell so that they can potentially be used in biological systems as BNCT agents. The silica shell is also modified with a fluorophore, dansyl chloride, so that the particle hybrid could be imaged during cell studies.

  18. Synthesis of Lutetium Phosphate/Apoferritin Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Potential Applications in Radioimmunoimaging and Radioimmunotherapy of Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Jun; Fisher, Darrell R.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-01-01

    We report a novel approach for synthesizing LuPO4/apoferritin core-shell nanoparticles based on an apoferritin template, conjugated to the protein biotin. To prepare the nanoparticle conjugates, we used non-radioactive lutetium as a model target or surrogate for radiolutetium (177Lu). The central cavity, multi-channel structure, and chemical properties of apoferritin are well-suited for sequentially diffusing lutetium and phosphate ions into the cavity--resulting in a stable core-shell composite. We characterized the synthesized LuPO4/apoferritin nanoparticle using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We tested the pre-targeting capability of biotin-modified lutetium/apoferritin nanoparticle using streptavidin-modified magnetic beads and streptavidin-modified fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) tracer. This paper presents a simple, fast, and efficient method for synthesizing LuPO4/apoferritin nanoparticle conjugates with biotin for potential applications in radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoimaging of cancer

  19. Synthesis of TiC/W core–shell nanoparticles by precipitate-coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Min; Yan Qingzhi; Xu Lei; Zhu Lingxu; Guo Hongyan; Ge Changchun

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Well-dispersed titanium carbide/tungsten (TiC/W) core-shell nanoparticles with high-purity and uniform diameters were firstly synthesized by precipitate-coating process. Such unique process suggests a new method for preparing X/W (X refers the water-insoluble nanoparticles) core-shell nanoparticles with different cores. Abstract: Well-dispersed titanium carbide/tungsten (TiC/W) core–shell nanoparticles with high-purity and uniform diameters were firstly synthesized by precipitate-coating process. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Filed-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS). Results revealed that the as-synthesized nanoparticles possess uniform diameters about 100 nm, and high purity. TEM and the corresponding FFT images demonstrate that TiC nanoparticles were well-encapsulated by W shells. Such unique process suggests a new method for preparing X/W (X refers the water-insoluble nanoparticles) core–shell nanoparticles with different cores.

  20. Synthesis of SiOx@CdS core–shell nanoparticles by simple thermal decomposition approach and studies on their optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandula, Syam; Jeevanandam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SiO x @CdS nanoparticles have been synthesized by a novel thermal decomposition approach. • The method is easy and there is no need for surface functionalization of silica core. • SiO x @CdS nanoparticles show different optical properties compared to pure CdS. - Abstract: SiO x @CdS core–shell nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple thermal decomposition approach. The synthesis involves two steps. In the first step, SiO x spheres were synthesized using StÖber’s process. Then, cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were deposited on the SiO x spheres by the thermal decomposition of cadmium acetate and thiourea in ethylene glycol at 180 °C. Electron microscopy results show uniform deposition of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the surface of SiO x spheres. Electron diffraction patterns confirm crystalline nature of the cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on silica and high resolution transmission electron microscopy images clearly show the lattice fringes due to cubic cadmium sulfide. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy results show blue shift of band gap absorption of SiO x @CdS core–shell nanoparticles with respect to bulk cadmium sulfide and this is attributed to quantum size effect. Photoluminescence results show enhancement in intensity of band edge emission and weaker emission due to surface defects in SiO x @CdS core–shell nanoparticles compared to pure cadmium sulfide nanoparticles

  1. Characterization of magnetic core-shell nanoparticles by fluxgate magnetorelaxometry, ac susceptibility, transmission electron microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy-A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Frank; Heim, Erik; Schilling, Meinhard

    2009-01-01

    We have compared the structure parameters of magnetic core-shell nanoparticles determined from fluxgate magnetorelaxometry measurements applying the moment superposition model with the results from other methods. For the characterization of the magnetic cores, the nanoparticles are immobilized by freeze-drying. The core size distribution estimated for superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with polyacrylic acid shell agrees well with that from transmission electron microscopy measurements. The distribution of hydrodynamic diameters of nanoparticle suspensions estimated from magnetorelaxometry measurements is in good agreement with that obtained from ac susceptibility and photon correlation spectroscopy measurements. Advantages of magnetorelaxometry compared to the other two integral techniques are that it is fast and the signal is less dominated by larger particles.

  2. Drug release from core-shell PVA/silk fibroin nanoparticles fabricated by one-step electrospraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Liu, Fengqiu; Chen, Yuli; Yu, Tao; Lou, Deshuai; Guo, Yuan; Li, Pan; Wang, Zhigang; Ran, Haitao

    2017-09-20

    Silk fibroin (SF), a FDA-approved natural protein, is renowned for its great biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical properties. SF-based nanoparticles provide new options for drug delivery with their tunable drug loading and release properties. To take advantage of the features of carrier polymers, we present a one-step electrospraying method that combines SF, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and therapeutic drugs without an emulsion process. A distinct core-shell structure was obtained with the PVA core and silk shell after the system was properly set up. The model drug, doxorubicin, was encapsulated in the core with a greater than 90% drug encapsulation efficiency. Controllable drug release profiles were achieved by alternating the PVA/SF ratio. Although the initial burst release of the drug was minimized by the SF coating, a large number of drug molecules remained entrapped by the carrier polymers. To promote and trigger drug release on demand, low intensity focused ultrasound (US) was applied. The US was especially advantageous for accelerating the drug diffusion and release. The apoptotic activity of MDA-MB-231 cells incubated with drug-loaded nanoparticles was found to increase with time. In addition, we also observed PVA/SF nanoparticles that could elicit a drug release in response to pH.

  3. Synthesis and surface modification of hydrophobic magnetite to processible magnetite at silica-propylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Kyoungja [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Nanomaterials Research Center, P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kjwoo@kist.re.kr; Hong, Jangwon [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Nanomaterials Research Center, P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jae-Pyoung [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Nanomaterials Research Center, P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-05-15

    Hydrophobic magnetite nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution were prepared by thermal decomposition of Fe(CO){sub 5} in octyl ether solution of oleic acid and by consecutive aeration. The nanoparticles were converted into magnetite core/silica shell (magnetite at silica) structured particles with hydrophilic and processible aminopropyl groups on their surfaces.

  4. Chemical changes in carbon Nanotube-Nickel/Nickel Oxide Core/Shell nanoparticle heterostructures treated at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Nitin; McWhinney, Hylton G.; Shi Wenwu

    2011-01-01

    Heterostructures composed of carbon nanotube (CNT) coated with Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles (denoted as CNC heterostructures) were synthesized in a wet-chemistry and single-step synthesis route involving direct nucleation of nanoparticles on CNT surface. Two different aspects of CNC heterostructures were studied here. First, it was observed that the nanoparticle coatings were more uniform on the as-produced and non-purified CNTs compared to purified (or acid treated) CNTs. These heterostructures were characterized using electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Second, thermal stability of CNC heterostructures was studied by annealing them in N 2 -rich (O 2 -lean) environment between 125 and 750 deg. C for 1 h. A detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of annealing temperatures on chemical composition, phases, and stability of the heterostructures. It was observed that the CNTs present in the heterostructures completely decomposed and core Ni nanoparticle oxidized significantly between 600 and 750 deg. C. - Research Highlights: → Heterostructures composed of CNTs coated with Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. → Poor nanoparticle coverage on purified CNT surface compared to non-purified CNTs. → CNTs in heterostructures decompose between 600 and 750 deg. C in N 2 -rich atmosphere. → Metallic species in heterostructures were oxidized at higher temperatures.

  5. Controlled self-assembly of multiferroic core-shell nanoparticles exhibiting strong magneto-electric effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasulu, Gollapudi; Hamilton, Sean L.; Lehto, Piper R.; Srinivasan, Gopalan, E-mail: srinivas@oakland.edu [Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401 (United States); Popov, Maksym [Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401 (United States); Radiophysics Department, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Chavez, Ferman A. [Chemistry Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401 (United States)

    2014-02-03

    Ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composites show strain mediated coupling between the magnetic and electric sub-systems due to magnetostriction and piezoelectric effects associated with the ferroic phases. We have synthesized core-shell multiferroic nano-composites by functionalizing 10–100 nm barium titanate and nickel ferrite nanoparticles with complementary coupling groups and allowing them to self-assemble in the presence of a catalyst. The core-shell structure was confirmed by electron microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. Evidence for strong strain mediated magneto-electric coupling was obtained by static magnetic field induced variations in the permittivity over 16–18 GHz and polarization and by electric field induced by low-frequency ac magnetic fields.

  6. Complete Au@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced plasmonic absorption enabling significantly improved photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiqiang; Sun, Yugang; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Guozhu; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Dilong; Cai, Weiping; Li, Yue; Yang, Xianfeng; Li, Cuncheng

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic absorption in the visible range due to the Au NP cores. They also show a significantly improved photocatalytic performance in comparison with their single-component counterparts, i.e., the Au NPs and ZnO NPs. Moreover, the high catalytic activity of the as-synthesized Au@ZnO core-shell NPs can be maintained even after many cycles of photocatalytic reaction. Our results shed light on the fact that the Au@ZnO core-shell NPs represent a promising class of candidates for applications in plasmonics, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, light harvest devices, solar energy conversion, and degradation of organic pollutants.Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic

  7. Luminescence study on Eu3+ doped Y2O3 nanoparticles: particle size, concentration and core-shell formation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, L Robindro; Ningthoujam, R S; Sudarsan, V; Srivastava, Iti; Singh, S Dorendrajit; Dey, G K; Kulshreshtha, S K

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticles of Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 (core) and Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 covered with Y 2 O 3 shell (core-shell) are prepared by urea hydrolysis for 3 h in ethylene glycol medium at a relatively low temperature of 140 deg. C, followed by heating at 500 and 900 deg. C. Particle sizes determined from x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic studies are 11 and 18 nm for 500 and 900 deg. C heated samples respectively. Based on the luminescence studies of 500 and 900 deg. C heated samples, it is confirmed that there is no particle size effect on the peak positions of Eu 3+ emission, and optimum luminescence intensity is observed from the nanoparticles with a Eu 3+ concentration of 4-5 at.%. A luminescence study establishes that the Eu 3+ environment in amorphous Y (OH) 3 is different from that in crystalline Y 2 O 3 . For a fixed concentration of Eu 3+ doping, there is a reduction in Eu 3+ emission intensity for core-shell nanoparticles compared to that of core nanoparticles, and this has been attributed to the concentration dilution effect. Energy transfer from the host to Eu 3+ increases with increase of crystallinity

  8. Synthesis of Magnetic Rattle-Type Silica with Controllable Magnetite and Tunable Size by Pre-Shell-Post-Core Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Tan, Longfei; Meng, Xianwei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have developed the pre-shell-post-core route to synthesize the magnetic rattle-type silica. This method has not only simplified the precursor's process and reduced the reacting time, but also ameliorated the loss of magnetite and made the magnetite content and the inner core size controllable and tunable. The magnetite contents and inner core size can be easily controlled by changing the type and concentration of alkali, reaction system and addition of water. The results show that alkali aqueous solution promotes the escape of the precursor iron ions from the inner space of rattle-type silica and results in the loss of magnetite. In this case, NaOH ethanol solution is better for the formation of magnetite than ammonia because it not only offers an appropriate alkalinity to facilitate the synthesis of. magnetic particles, but also avoids the escape of the iron ions from the mesopores of rattle-type silica. The synthesis process is very simple and efficient, and it takes no more than 2 hours to complete the total preparation and handling of the magnetic rattle-type silica. The end-product Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposites also have good magnetic properties which will perform potential application in biomedical science.

  9. Core/shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/BiOI nanoparticles with high photocatalytic activity and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liyun, E-mail: zhengliyun@126.com [Hebei University of Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Wang, Shuling; Zhao, Lixin [Hebei University of Engineering, College of Mechanical and Equipment Engineering (China); Zhao, Shuguo [Handan Polytechnic College, Mechanical and Electrical Department (China)

    2016-11-15

    Core/shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/BiOI nanoparticles with BiOI sheath have been synthesized by a solvothermal reaction method and were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with an energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), high-resolution TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by methylene blue (MB) under the simulated solar light. The results indicate that the spherical Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were coated with BiOI sheath when the sample were synthesized at 160 °C with ethylene glycol and deionized water, forming a core/shell structure. The degradation rate of MB assisted with the core/shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/BiOI catalysts reached 98 % after 40-min irradiation. The catalytic performance enhancement of the core/shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/BiOI catalysts mainly attributes to the band structure that can improve the generation efficiency, separation and transfer process of the photo-induced electron–hole pairs and decrease their recombination. The magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core not only contributes to the efficient separation of electron and holes, but also helps catalysts be collected conveniently using a magnet for reuse. After five repeated trials, the degradation rate of MB still maintains over 90 % and the saturated magnetization of the catalysts remains 51.5 emu/g, which indicate that the core/shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/BiOI nanoparticles have excellent photocatalytic stability and are recyclable for decomposing organic pollutants under visible light irradiation.

  10. Adherence of paclitaxel drug in magnetite chitosan nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Zapata, Edna V.; Martínez Pérez, Carlos A.; Rodríguez González, Claudia A.; Castro Carmona, Javier S.; Quevedo Lopez, Manuel A.; García-Casillas, Perla E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Chitosan silica magnetite adsorbs antineoplastic drug. ► Silica coating improve the drug adherence. - Abstract: Cancer treatment is a big challenge in medicine where chemotherapies and radiotherapies are aggressive and poorly effective having side effects as delirium, fatigue, insomnia, nausea and vomiting which are common problems for cancer patients. For this reason, during the last two decades, many researchers have developed several techniques to improve the current therapies; one of them is the functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery. In this work, magnetic nanoparticles with an average crystallite size 21.8 nm were covered in a core/shell type; magnetite/silica, magnetite/chitosan, and a double shell magnetite/silica/chitosan were developed for attaching an antineoplastic drug. The mechanism for the functionalization of the nanoparticles with a single and double shell was studied with Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adherence of an antineoplastic drug, paclitaxel, onto functionalized nanoparticles was analyzed with a UV–Visible spectroscopy at a wavelength of 253 nm. It was found that the adherence of the drug is improved up to 18% when magnetite nanoparticles are coated with a single chitosan shell, and when the nanoparticles are coated with a silica/chitosan shell the adherence increases up to 29%.

  11. Fluorescent pH sensor based on Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhenhua; Chen, Rui; Si, Peng; Huang, Youju; Sun, Handong; Kim, Dong-Hwan

    2013-06-26

    We have demonstrated a novel method for the preparation of a fluorescence-based pH sensor by combining the plasmon resonance band of Ag core and pH sensitive dye (HPTS). A thickness-variable silica shell is placed between Ag core and HPTS dye to achieve the maximum fluorescence enhancement. At the shell thickness of 8 nm, the fluorescence intensity increases 4 and 9 times when the sensor is excited at 405 and 455 nm, respectively. At the same time, the fluorescence intensity shows a good sensitivity toward pH value in the range of 5-9, and the ratio of emission intensity at 513 nm excited at 455 nm to that excited at 405 nm versus the pH value in the range of 5-9 is determined. It is believed that the present pH sensor has the potential for determining pH real time in the biological sample.

  12. 'Smart' Diblock Copolymers as Templates for Magnetic-Core Gold-Shell Nanoparticle Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Michael A.; Lai, James J.; Hoffman, Allan S.; Yager, Paul; Stayton, Partick S.

    2010-01-01

    We report a new strategy for synthesizing temperature-responsive γ-Fe 2 O 3 -core/Au-shell nanoparticles (Au-mNPs) from diblock copolymer micelles. The amphiphilic diblock copolymer chains were synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) with a thermally responsive 'smart' poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) block and an amine-containing poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethylacrylamide) (DMAEAm) block that acted as a reducing agent during gold shell formation. The Au-mNPs reversibly aggregated upon heating the solution above the transition temperature of pNIPAAm, resulting in a red-shifted localized surface plasmon resonance.

  13. Sub-10 nm Fe3O4@Cu2-xS core-shell nanoparticles for dual-modal imaging and photothermal therapy

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Qiwei

    2013-06-12

    Photothermal nanomaterials have recently attracted significant research interest due to their potential applications in biological imaging and therapeutics. However, the development of small-sized photothermal nanomaterials with high thermal stability remains a formidable challenge. Here, we report the rational design and synthesis of ultrasmall (<10 nm) Fe3O 4@Cu2-xS core-shell nanoparticles, which offer both high photothermal stability and superparamagnetic properties. Specifically, these core-shell nanoparticles have proven effective as probes for T 2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and infrared thermal imaging because of their strong absorption at the near-infrared region centered around 960 nm. Importantly, the photothermal effect of the nanoparticles can be precisely controlled by varying the Cu content in the core-shell structure. Furthermore, we demonstrate in vitro and in vivo photothermal ablation of cancer cells using these multifunctional nanoparticles. The results should provide improved understanding of synergistic effect resulting from the integration of magnetism with photothermal phenomenon, important for developing multimode nanoparticle probes for biomedical applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Sub-10 nm Fe3O4@Cu2-xS core-shell nanoparticles for dual-modal imaging and photothermal therapy

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Qiwei; Hu, Junqing; Zhu, Yihan; Zou, Rujia; Chen, Zhigang; Yang, Shiping; Li, Runwei; Su, Qianqian; Han, Yu; Liu, Xiaogang

    2013-01-01

    Photothermal nanomaterials have recently attracted significant research interest due to their potential applications in biological imaging and therapeutics. However, the development of small-sized photothermal nanomaterials with high thermal stability remains a formidable challenge. Here, we report the rational design and synthesis of ultrasmall (<10 nm) Fe3O 4@Cu2-xS core-shell nanoparticles, which offer both high photothermal stability and superparamagnetic properties. Specifically, these core-shell nanoparticles have proven effective as probes for T 2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and infrared thermal imaging because of their strong absorption at the near-infrared region centered around 960 nm. Importantly, the photothermal effect of the nanoparticles can be precisely controlled by varying the Cu content in the core-shell structure. Furthermore, we demonstrate in vitro and in vivo photothermal ablation of cancer cells using these multifunctional nanoparticles. The results should provide improved understanding of synergistic effect resulting from the integration of magnetism with photothermal phenomenon, important for developing multimode nanoparticle probes for biomedical applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Pt@Ag and Pd@Ag core/shell nanoparticles for catalytic degradation of Congo red in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed A.; Bakr, Eman A.; El-Attar, Heba G.

    2018-01-01

    Platinum/silver (Pt@Ag) and palladium/silver (Pd@Ag) core/shell NPs have been synthesized in two steps reaction using the citrate method. The progress of nanoparticle formation was followed by the UV/Vis spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical shaped core/shell nanoparticles with average particle diameter 32.17 nm for Pt@Ag and 8.8 nm for Pd@Ag. The core/shell NPs were further characterized by FT-IR and XRD. Reductive degradation of the Congo red dye was chosen to demonstrate the excellent catalytic activity of these core/shell nanostructures. The nanocatalysts act as electron mediators for the transfer of electrons from the reducing agent (NaBH4) to the dye molecules. Effect of reaction parameters such as nanocatalyst dose, dye and NaBH4 concentrations on the dye degradation was investigated. A comparison between the catalytic activities of both nanocatalysts was made to realize which of them the best in catalytic performance. Pd@Ag was the higher in catalytic activity over Pt@Ag. Such greater activity is originated from the smaller particle size and larger surface area. Pd@Ag nanocatalyst was catalytically stable through four subsequent reaction runs under the utilized reaction conditions. These findings can thus be considered as possible economical alternative for environmental safety against water pollution by dyes.

  16. Enhanced pervaporative desulfurization by polydimethylsiloxane membranes embedded with silver/silica core-shell microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Ruijian; Zhang Xiongfei; Wu Hong; Wang Jingtao; Liu Xiaofei; Jiang Zhongyi

    2011-01-01

    Pervaporative desulfurization based on membrane technology provides a promising alternative for removal of sulfur substances (as represented by thiophene) in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline. The present study focused on the performance enhancement of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane by incorporation of core-shell structured silver/silica microspheres. A silane coupling agent, N-[3-(trimethoxysily)propyl]-ethylenediamine (TSD), was used to chelate the Ag + via its amino groups and attach the silver seeds onto the silica surface via condensation of its methoxyl groups. The resultant microspheres were characterized by Zeta-positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (ZetaPALS), inductively coupled plasmaoptical emission spectrophotometer (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ag + /SiO 2 -PDMS composite membranes were prepared by blending PDMS with the as-synthesized silver/silica microspheres. PALS analysis was used to correlate the apparent fractional free volume with permeation flux. The sorption selectivity towards thiophene was enhanced after incorporation of silver/silica microspheres due to the π-complexation between the silver on the microsphere surface and the thiophene molecules. The pervaporative desulfurization performance of the composite membrane was investigated using thiophene/n-octane mixture as a model gasoline. The composite membrane exhibited an optimum desulfurization performance with a permeation flux of 7.76 kg/(m 2 h) and an enrichment factor of 4.3 at the doping content of 5%.

  17. Silica-Assisted Nucleation of Polymer Foam Cells with Nanoscopic Dimensions : Impact of Particle Size, Line Tension, and Surface Functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shanqiu; Eijkelenkamp, Rik; Duvigneau, Joost; Vancso, G. Julius

    2017-01-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles consisting of silica as core and surface-grafted poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as shell with different diameters were prepared and used as heterogeneous nucleation agents to obtain CO2-blown poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite foams. PDMS was selected as the shell

  18. Synthesis and characterization of the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles modified with cationic chitosan and coated with silica shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowska-Łańcucka, Joanna, E-mail: lewandow@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Staszewska, Magdalena; Szuwarzyński, Michał; Kępczyński, Mariusz [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Romek, Marek [Department of Cytology and Histology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Tokarz, Waldemar [Department of Solid State Physics, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Szpak, Agnieszka; Kania, Gabriela; Nowakowska, Maria [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The new, facile methodology for synthesis of silica covered SPIONs is proposed. • The SPIONs was modified with cationic chitosan and coated with silica shell. • Negatively charged, rounded in shape particles of ca. 330 nm were obtained. • The product exhibits the superparamagnetic properties. • The product properties imply its potential applications in biomedicine areas. -- Abstract: Novel method for synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) modified with a cationic chitosan (CCh) and coated with a silica shell, SPION-CCh-SiO{sub 2} was developed. The process was carried out in two steps. In the first step the chitosan coated SPIONs were obtained by co-precipitation of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} with ammonium hydroxide in aqueous solution of CCh. In the second one, the silica shell is formed on their surfaces. The formation of SPION-CCh-SiO{sub 2} was achieved by direct decomposition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) adsorbed on a surface of SPION-CCh dispersed in aqueous phase under sonication and mechanical stirring at room temperature. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of the materials were determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The morphology of the particles was evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Magnetic properties were confirmed using Atomic Force Microscopy/Magnetic Force Microscopy (AFM/MFM) and magnetization measurements. The resulting products are negatively charged, rounded in shape and exhibit the superparamagnetic properties what implies their potential applications in engineering and biomedicine areas.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles modified with cationic chitosan and coated with silica shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowska-Łańcucka, Joanna; Staszewska, Magdalena; Szuwarzyński, Michał; Kępczyński, Mariusz; Romek, Marek; Tokarz, Waldemar; Szpak, Agnieszka; Kania, Gabriela; Nowakowska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The new, facile methodology for synthesis of silica covered SPIONs is proposed. • The SPIONs was modified with cationic chitosan and coated with silica shell. • Negatively charged, rounded in shape particles of ca. 330 nm were obtained. • The product exhibits the superparamagnetic properties. • The product properties imply its potential applications in biomedicine areas. -- Abstract: Novel method for synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) modified with a cationic chitosan (CCh) and coated with a silica shell, SPION-CCh-SiO 2 was developed. The process was carried out in two steps. In the first step the chitosan coated SPIONs were obtained by co-precipitation of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ with ammonium hydroxide in aqueous solution of CCh. In the second one, the silica shell is formed on their surfaces. The formation of SPION-CCh-SiO 2 was achieved by direct decomposition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) adsorbed on a surface of SPION-CCh dispersed in aqueous phase under sonication and mechanical stirring at room temperature. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of the materials were determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The morphology of the particles was evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Magnetic properties were confirmed using Atomic Force Microscopy/Magnetic Force Microscopy (AFM/MFM) and magnetization measurements. The resulting products are negatively charged, rounded in shape and exhibit the superparamagnetic properties what implies their potential applications in engineering and biomedicine areas

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, M., E-mail: maria.stefan@itim-cj.ro; Pana, O.; Leostean, C.; Silipas, D. [National Institute for R and D of Isotopic and Molecular Technology, 67–103 Donat St., 400295 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Bele, C. [University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 3-5 Calea Mănăştur, 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Senila, M. [INCDO-INOE 2000, Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, 65 Donat St., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Gautron, E. [Institute of Materials Jean Rouxel, 2 rue de la Houssière, P.O. Box 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2014-09-21

    Composite core-shell nanoparticles may have morpho-structural, magnetic, and optical (photoluminescence (PL)) properties different from each of the components considered separately. The properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles can be controlled by adjusting the titania amount (shell thinness). Core–shell nanoparticles were prepared by seed mediated growth of semiconductor (TiO{sub 2}) through a modified sol-gel process onto preformed magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) cores resulted from the co-precipitation method. The structure and morphology of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high resolution-TEM respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was correlated with ICP-AES. Magnetic measurements, optical absorption spectra, as well as PL spectroscopy indicate the presence of a charge/spin transfer from the conduction band of magnetite into the band gap of titania nanocrystals. The process modifies both Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2} magnetic and optical properties, respectively.

  1. Preparation of novel magnetic polyurethane foam nanocomposites by using core-shell nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Nikje,Mir Mohammad Alavi; Moghaddam,Sahebeh Tamaddoni; Noruzian,Maede

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (NP's) converted to the core- shell structres by reacting with by n-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (AEAP) incorporated in polyurethane flexible (PUF) foam formulations. Fourier transform spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron images, thermo-mechanical analysis and magnetic properties of the prepared nanocomposites were studied. Obtained data shown that by the increasing of the amine modified magnetic iron oxide NP's u...

  2. Inorganic/organic nanocomposites: Reaching a high filler content without increasing viscosity using core-shell structured nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhadjala, W., E-mail: warda.benhadjala@cea.fr [IMS Laboratory - UMR CNRS 5218, University of Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France); CEA, LETI, Minatec Campus, 38000 Grenoble (France); Gravoueille, M.; Weiss, M. [EDF, Centre d' Expertise et d' Inspection dans les Domaines de la Réalisation et de l' Exploitation (CEIDRE), Chinon, BP 80, 37420 Avoine (France); Bord-Majek, I.; Béchou, L.; Ousten, Y. [IMS Laboratory - UMR CNRS 5218, University of Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France); Suhir, E. [Maseeh College of Engineering and Computer Science, Portland State University, Oregon 97201 (United States); Buet, M.; Louarn, M.; Rougé, F.; Gaud, V. [Polyrise SAS, 16 Avenue Pey Berland, 33607 Pessac (France)

    2015-11-23

    Extensive research is being conducted on the development of inorganic/organic nanocomposites for a wide variety of applications in microelectronics, biotechnologies, photonics, adhesives, or optical coatings. High filler contents are usually required to fully optimize the nanocomposites properties. However, numerous studies demonstrated that traditional composite viscosity increases with increasing the filler concentration reducing therefore significantly the material processability. In this work, we synthesized inorganic/organic core-shell nanocomposites with different shell thicknesses. By reducing the shell thickness while maintaining a constant core size, the nanoparticle molecular mass decreases but the nanocomposite filler fraction is correlatively increased. We performed viscosity measurements, which clearly highlighted that intrinsic viscosity of hybrid nanoparticles decreases as the molecular mass decreases, and thus, as the filler fraction increases, as opposed to Einstein predictions about the viscosity of traditional inorganic/polymer two-phase mixtures. This exceptional behavior, modeled by Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation, proves to be a significant breakthrough for the development of industrializable nanocomposites with high filler contents.

  3. Core-Shell-Corona Micelles with a Responsive Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohy, Jean-François; Willet, Nicolas; Varshney, Sunil; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Jérôme, Robert

    2001-09-03

    A reactor for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is one of the uses of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) which forms core-shell-corona micelles in water. Very low polydispersity spherical micelles are observed that consist of a PS core surrounded by a pH-sensitive P2VP shell and a corona of PEO chains end-capped by a hydroxyl group. The corona can act as a site for attaching responsive or sensing molecules. © 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  4. Face-specific Replacement of Calcite by Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, M.; Milke, R.; Neusser, G.; Mizaikoff, B.

    2016-12-01

    Amorphous silica, composed of nanoscale spheres, is an important biomineral, alteration product of silicate rocks on the Earth's surface, and precursor material for stable silicate minerals. Despite constant progress in silica sphere synthesis, fundamental knowledge of natural silica particle interaction and ordering processes leading to colloidal crystals is absent so far. To understand the formation pathways of silica spheres in a geologic environment, we investigated silicified Cretaceous mollusk shell pseudomorphs from Coober Pedy (South Australia) using focused ion beam (FIB)-SEM tomography, petrographic microscopy, µ-XRD, and EMPA. The shells consist of replaced calcite crystals (ionic strength remain constant throughout the replacement process, permitting continuous silica nanoparticle formation and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation. Our study provides a natural example of the transformation of an atomic crystal to an amorphous, mesoscale ordered material; thus, links the research fields of natural colloidal crystal formation, carbonate-silica replacement, and crystallization by oriented particle aggregation (CPA).

  5. Gold Core Mesoporous Organosilica Shell Degradable Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging and Gemcitabine Monophosphate Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Rhamani, Saher

    2017-09-12

    The synthesis of gold core degradable mesoporous organosilica shell nanoparticles is described. The nanopaticles were very efficient for two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells and for in vitro gemcitabine monophosphate delivery, allowing promising theranostic applications in the nanomedicine field.

  6. Gold Core Mesoporous Organosilica Shell Degradable Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging and Gemcitabine Monophosphate Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Rhamani, Saher; Chaix, Arnaud; Aggad, Dina; Hoang, Phuong Mai; Moosa, Basem; Garcia, Marcel; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Charnay, Clarence; Almalik, Abdulaziz; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of gold core degradable mesoporous organosilica shell nanoparticles is described. The nanopaticles were very efficient for two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells and for in vitro gemcitabine monophosphate delivery, allowing promising theranostic applications in the nanomedicine field.

  7. Centrifugal Deposited Au-Pd Core-Shell Nanoparticle Film for Room-Temperature Optical Detection of Hydrogen Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han; Luo, Zhijie; Liu, Mingyao; Zhang, Gang; Peng, Wang; Wang, Boyi; Zhu, Yong

    2018-05-06

    In the present work, centrifugal deposited Au-Pd core-shell nanoparticle (NP) film was proposed for the room-temperature optical detection of hydrogen gas. The size dimension of 44, 48, 54, and 62 nm Au-Pd core-shell nanocubes with 40 nm Au core were synthesized following a solution-based seed-mediated growth method. Compared to a pure Pd NP, this core-shell structure with an inert Au core could decrease the H diffusion length in the Pd shell. Through a modified centrifugal deposition process, continues film samples with different core-shell NPs were deposited on 10 mm diameter quartz substrates. Under various hydrogen concentration conditions, the optical response properties of these samples were characterized by an intensity-based optical fiber bundle sensor. Experimental results show that the continues film that was composed of 62 nm Au-Pd core-shell NPs has achieved a stable and repeatable reflectance response with low zero drift in the range of 4 to 0.1% hydrogen after a stress relaxation mechanism at first few loading/unloading cycles. Because of the short H diffusion length due to the thinner Pd shell, the film sample composed of 44 nm Au-Pd NPs has achieved a dramatically decreased response/recovery time to 4 s/30 s. The experiments present the promising prospect of this simple method to fabricate optical hydrogen sensors with controllable high sensitivity and response rate at low cost.

  8. In vitro toxicity of FemOn, FemOn-SiO2 composite, and SiO2-FemOn core-shell magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toropova YG

    2017-01-01

    of uncoated, FemOn-SiO2 composite flake-like, and SiO2-FemOn core-shell IONPs on cell viability, function, and morphology were tested 48 h postincubation in human umbilical vein endothelial cell culture. Cell viability and apoptosis/necrosis rate were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and annexin V-phycoerythrin kit, respectively. Cell morphology was evaluated using bright-field microscopy and forward and lateral light scattering profiles obtained with flow cytometry analysis. All tested IONP types were used at three different doses, that is, 0.7, 7.0, and 70.0 µg. Dose-dependent changes in cell morphology, viability, and apoptosis rate were shown. At higher doses, all types of IONPs caused formation of binucleated cells suggesting impaired cytokinesis. FemOn-SiO2 composite flake-like and SiO2-FemOn core-shell IONPs were characterized by similar profile of cytotoxicity, whereas bare IONPs were shown to be less toxic. The presence of either silica core or silica nanoflakes in composite IONPs can promote cytotoxic effects. Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, composite nanoparticles, silica coating, silica nanoflakes, cytotoxicity

  9. Interparticle interactions of FePt core and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} shell in FePt/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hossein, E-mail: Akbari.ph@iauardabil.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zeynali, Hossein [Department of Physics, Kashan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bakhshayeshi, Ali [Department of Physics, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-22

    Monodisperse FePt nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using simple wet chemical method. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was used as a magnetic shell around each FePt nanoparticles. In FePt/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core/shell system, core thickness is 2 nm and shell thickness varies from zero to 2.5 nm. A theoretical model presented to calculate the shell thickness dependence of Coercivity. Presented model is compared with the results from Stoner–Wohlfarth model to interpret the shell thickness dependence of Coercivity in FePt/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core/shell nanoparticles. There is a difference between the results from Stoner–Wohlfarth model and experimental data when the shell thickness increases. In the presented model, the effects of interparticle exchange and random magneto crystalline anisotropy are added to the previous models of magnetization reversal for core/shell nanostructures in order to achieve a better agreement with experimental data. For magnetic shells in FePt/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core/shell, effective coupling between particles increases with increasing shell thickness which leads to Coercivity destruction for stronger couplings. According to the boundary conditions, in the harder regions with higher exchange stiffness, there is small variation in magnetization and so the magnetization modes become more localized. We discussed both localized and non-localized magnetization modes. For non-zero shell thickness, non-localized modes propagate in the soft phase which effects the quality of particle exchange interactions. - Highlights: • Monodisperse FePt nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using simple wet chemical method. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was used as a magnetic shell around each FePt nanoparticles. • A theoretical model presented to calculate the shell thickness dependence of Coercivity. • Magnetic shells increase effective coupling between particles with increasing shell thickness. • Magnetization modes are more localized in the regions with

  10. Synthesis and characterization of water-dispersible core/shell Mn-doped magnetite/Au nanoparticles for proton radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan

    2015-01-01

    The surface modification of the nanomaterials is required for the biomedical use to give physiological stability, surface reactivity and targeting properties. Among many approaches for the surface modification with materials, such as polymers, organic ligands and metals, one of the most attractive ways is to employ metals. The fabrication of metal-based, monolayer coated magnetic nanoparticles has been intensively studied. However, the synthesis of metal-capped magnetic nanoparticles with monodispersities and controllable sizes is still challenged. Recently, gold-capped magnetic nanoparticles have been reported to increase stability and to provide biocompatibility. Gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles are an attractive system, which can be stabilized in biological conditions and readily functionalized through well-established surface modification chemistry. In addition, the Au coating offers plasmonic properties to magnetic nanoparticles. This makes the magnetic/Au core/shell combinations interesting for magnetic and optical applications. The monodisperse Mn:Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles have been prepared in organic solvent first and then transferred from an organic phase to an aqueous solution. The resulting core/shell-structured nanoparticles may be an attractive system for biomedical applications, which are needed both magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging. In addition, the resulting nanoparticles may be useful for proton radiotherapy due to the enhanced therapeutic effects of secondary radiation stemmed from gold and proton beam bombardment

  11. Effect of shell thickness on the exchange bias blocking temperature and coercivity in Co-CoO core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Reethu, K.; Thanveer, T.; Myint, M. T. Z.; Al-Harthi, S. H.

    2017-08-01

    The exchange bias blocking temperature distribution of naturally oxidized Co-CoO core-shell nanoparticles exhibits two distinct signatures. These are associated with the existence of two magnetic entities which are responsible for the temperature dependence of an exchange bias field. One is from the CoO grains which undergo thermally activated magnetization reversal. The other is from the disordered spins at the Co-CoO interface which exhibits spin-glass-like behavior. We investigated the oxide shell thickness dependence of the exchange bias effect. For particles with a 3 nm thick CoO shell, the predominant contribution to the temperature dependence of exchange bias is the interfacial spin-glass layer. On increasing the shell thickness to 4 nm, the contribution from the spin-glass layer decreases, while upholding the antiferromagnetic grain contribution. For samples with a 4 nm CoO shell, the exchange bias training was minimal. On the other hand, 3 nm samples exhibited both the training effect and a peak in coercivity at an intermediate set temperature Ta. This is explained using a magnetic core-shell model including disordered spins at the interface.

  12. Titania-coated manganite nanoparticles: Synthesis of the shell, characterization and MRI properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirák, Zdeněk; Kuličková, Jarmila [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Herynek, Vít [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Vídeňská 1958/9, 140 21 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Maryško, Miroslav [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Koktan, Jakub [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Kaman, Ondřej, E-mail: kamano@seznam.cz [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)

    2017-04-01

    Novel procedure for coating of oxide nanoparticles with titania, employing hydrolysis and polycondensation of titanium alkoxides under high-dilution conditions and cationic surfactants, is developed and applied to magnetic cores of perovskite manganite. Bare particles of the ferromagnetic La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} phase, possessing high magnetization, M{sub 10} {sub kOe}(4.5 K) = 63.5 emu g{sup −1}, and Curie temperature, T{sub C} = 355 K, are synthesized by sol-gel procedure and subsequently coated with titania. Further, a comparative silica-coated product is prepared. In order to analyse the morphology, colloidal stability, and surface properties of these two types of coated particles, a detailed study by means of transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta-potential measurements, and IR spectroscopy is carried out. The experiments on the titania-coated sample reveal a continuous though porous character of the TiO{sub 2} shell, the nature of which is amorphous but can be transformed to anatase at higher temperatures. Finally, the relaxometric study at the magnetic field of 0.5 T, performed to quantity the transverse relaxivity and its temperature dependence, reveals important differences between the titania-coated and silica-coated nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Magnetic nanoparticles of perovskite La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} phase are coated with TiO{sub 2}. • The titania forms a continuous and amorphous shell and provides colloidal stability. • Morphology and surface properties are compared to a silica-coated product. • MRI properties of both the titania- and silica-coated particles are studied at 0.5 T. • The temperature dependence of r{sub 2} is strongly affected by the type of coating.

  13. Core-Shell Composite Fibers for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Zeyang; Barrios, Elizabeth; Zhai, Lei

    2018-01-31

    Core-shell nanofibers containing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and manganese oxide nanoparticles as the core and polypyrrole (PPy) as the shell were fabricated through electrospinning the solution of PAA and manganese ions (PAA/Mn 2+ ). The obtained nanofibers were stabilized by Fe 3+ through the interaction between Fe 3+ ions and carboxylate groups. Subsequent oxidation of Mn 2+ by KMnO 4 produced uniform manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) nanoparticles in the fibers. A PPy shell was created on the fibers by immersing the fibers in a pyrrole solution where the Fe 3+ ions in the fiber polymerized the pyrrole on the fiber surfaces. In the MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers, MnO 2 nanoparticles function as high-capacity materials, while the PPy shell prevents the loss of MnO 2 during the charge/discharge process. Such a unique structure makes the composite fibers efficient electrode materials for supercapacitors. The gravimetric specific capacity of the MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers was 564 F/g based on cyclic voltammetry curves at 10 mV/s and 580 F/g based on galvanostatic charge/discharge studies at 5 A/g. The MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers also present stable cycling performance with 100% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles.

  14. Magnetite Core-Shell Nanoparticles in Nondestructive Flaw Detection of Polymeric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetti, Mimi; Wei, Qiang; Pohl, Rainer; Casperson, Ralf; Bartusch, Matthias; Neu, Volker; Pospiech, Doris; Voit, Brigitte

    2016-10-04

    Nondestructive flaw detection in polymeric materials is important but difficult to achieve. In this research, the application of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) in nondestructive flaw detection is studied and realized, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Superparamagnetic and highly magnetic (up to 63 emu/g) magnetite core-shell nanoparticles are prepared by grafting bromo-end-group-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (Br-PGMA) onto surface-modified Fe 3 O 4 NPs. These Fe 3 O 4 -PGMA NPs are blended into bisphenol A diglycidylether (BADGE)-based epoxy to form homogeneously distributed magnetic epoxy nanocomposites (MENCs) after curing. The core Fe 3 O 4 of the Fe 3 O 4 -PGMA NPs endows the MENCs with magnetic property, which is crucial for nondestructive flaw detection of the materials, while the shell PGMA promotes colloidal stability and prevents NP aggregation during curing. The eddy current testing (ET) technique is first applied to detect flaws in the MENCs. Through the brightness contrast of the ET image, surficial and subsurficial flaws in MENCs can be detected, even for MENCs with low content of Fe 3 O 4 -PGMA NPs (1 wt %). The incorporation of Fe 3 O 4 -PGMA NPs can be easily extended to other polymer and polymer-based composite systems and opens a new and very promising pathway toward MNP-based nondestructive flaw detection in polymeric materials.

  15. Synthesis and morphology of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles produced by high pressure gas condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xing, Lijuan; ten Brink, Gert H.; Chen, Bin; Schmidt, Franz P.; Haberfehlner, Georg; Hofer, Ferdinand; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Core-shell structured Fe nanoparticles (NPs) produced by high pressure magnetron sputtering gas condensation were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, electron diffraction, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), tomographic reconstruction, and Wulff shape construction

  16. Hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Sougrat, Rachid; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2012-01-01

    that individual metals may not catalyze. Here, preparation of hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) and their use as electrocatalysts are reported. Galvanic displacement with Ag NPs is used to obtain hollow NPs, and higher reduction potential of Au

  17. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Au Nanoparticles onto Thermosensitive Magnetic Core-Shell Microgels for Thermally Tunable and Magnetically Recyclable Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Wang, Daoai; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin

    2015-06-01

    A facile route to fabricate a nanocomposite of Fe3O4@poly[N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA)]@Au (Fe3O4@PND@Au) is developed for magnetically recyclable and thermally tunable catalysis. The negatively charged Au nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm are homogeneously loaded onto positively charged thermoresponsive magnetic core-shell microgels of Fe3O4@poly(NIPAM-co-DMAEMA) (Fe3O4@PND) through electrostatic self-assembly. This type of attachment offers perspectives for using charged polymeric shell on a broad variety of nanoparticles to immobilize the opposite-charged nanoparticles. The thermosensitive PND shell with swollen or collapsed properties can be as a retractable Au carrier, thereby tuning the aggregation or dispersion of Au nanoparticles, which leads to an increase or decrease of catalytic activity. Therefore, the catalytic activity of Fe3O4@PND@Au can be modulated by the volume transition of thermosensitive microgel shells. Importantly, the mode of tuning the aggregation or dispersion of Au nanoparticles using a thermosensitive carrier offers a novel strategy to adjust and control the catalytic activity, which is completely different with the traditional regulation mode of controlling the diffusion of reactants toward the catalytic Au core using the thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) network as a nanogate. Concurrent with the thermally tunable catalysis, the magnetic susceptibility of magnetic cores enables the Fe3O4@PND@Au nanocomposites to be capable of serving as smart nanoreactors for thermally tunable and magnetically recyclable catalysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Energy storage in ferroelectric polymer nanocomposites filled with core-shell structured polymer@BaTiO3 nanoparticles: understanding the role of polymer shells in the interfacial regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Huang, Xingyi; Yang, Ke; Zhai, Xing; Zhang, Jun; He, Jinliang; Jiang, Pingkai

    2014-11-26

    The interfacial region plays a critical role in determining the electrical properties and energy storage density of dielectric polymer nanocomposites. However, we still know a little about the effects of electrical properties of the interfacial regions on the electrical properties and energy storage of dielectric polymer nanocomposites. In this work, three types of core-shell structured polymer@BaTiO3 nanoparticles with polymer shells having different electrical properties were used as fillers to prepare ferroelectric polymer nanocomposites. All the polymer@BaTiO3 nanoparticles were prepared by surface-initiated reversible-addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and the polymer shells were controlled to have the same thickness. The morphology, crystal structure, frequency-dependent dielectric properties, breakdown strength, leakage currents, energy storage capability, and energy storage efficiency of the polymer nanocomposites were investigated. On the other hand, the pure polymers having the same molecular structure as the shells of polymer@BaTiO3 nanoparticles were also prepared by RAFT polymerization, and their electrical properties were provided. Our results show that, to achieve nanocomposites with high discharged energy density, the core-shell nanoparticle filler should simultaneously have high dielectric constant and low electrical conductivity. On the other hand, the breakdown strength of the polymer@BaTiO3-based nanocomposites is highly affected by the electrical properties of the polymer shells. It is believed that the electrical conductivity of the polymer shells should be as low as possible to achieve nanocomposites with high breakdown strength.

  19. Enhanced near-infrared photoacoustic imaging of silica-coated rare-earth doped nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Yang [Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, 8 Somapah Road, Singapore 487372 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Liao, Lun-De [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Rd., Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan, ROC (China); Singapore Institute for Neurotechnology (SINAPSE), National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, #05-COR, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Bandla, Aishwarya [Singapore Institute for Neurotechnology (SINAPSE), National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, #05-COR, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Rd, Singapore 119077 (Singapore); Liu, Yu-Hang [Singapore Institute for Neurotechnology (SINAPSE), National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, #05-COR, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Rd, Singapore 119077 (Singapore); Yuan, Jun [Singapore Institute for Neurotechnology (SINAPSE), National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, #05-COR, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Thakor, Nitish [Singapore Institute for Neurotechnology (SINAPSE), National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, #05-COR, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Rd, Singapore 119077 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Rd, Singapore 119077 (Singapore); Tan, Mei Chee, E-mail: meichee.tan@sutd.edu.sg [Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, 8 Somapah Road, Singapore 487372 (Singapore)

    2017-01-01

    Near-infrared photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging diagnostic technology that utilizes the tissue transparent window to achieve improved contrast and spatial resolution for deep tissue imaging. In this study, we investigated the enhancement effect of the SiO{sub 2} shell on the PA property of our core/shell rare-earth nanoparticles (REs) consisting of an active rare-earth doped core of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Er (REDNPs) and an undoped NaYF{sub 4} shell. We observed that the PA signal amplitude increased with SiO{sub 2} shell thickness. Although the SiO{sub 2} shell caused an observed decrease in the integrated fluorescence intensity due to the dilution effect, fluorescence quenching of the rare earth emitting ions within the REDNPs cores was successfully prevented by the undoped NaYF{sub 4} shell. Therefore, our multilayer structure consisting of an active core with successive functional layers was demonstrated to be an effective design for dual-modal fluorescence and PA imaging probes with improved PA property. The result from this work addresses a critical need for the development of dual-modal contrast agent that advances deep tissue imaging with high resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. - Graphical abstract: Illustration of multilayer structured imaging probe with REDNPs as active core, undoped NaYF{sub 4} as intermediate layer and SiO{sub 2} as outer shell. The PA signal amplitude of REs/SiO{sub 2} was increased with the SiO{sub 2} shell thickness. - Highlights: • Silica coating was demonstrated to be much more effective in enhancing the PA signal amplitude comparing to soft polymer. • PA enhancement was attributed to the increased phonon modes and phonon energy with the introduction of the SiO{sub 2} coating. • Multilayer structure was an effective design for dual-modal fluorescence and PA imaging probes with improved PA property.

  20. Adherence of paclitaxel drug in magnetite chitosan nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar Zapata, Edna V.; Martinez Perez, Carlos A.; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Claudia A.; Castro Carmona, Javier S. [Instituto de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Ave. Del Charro 610 norte, Col. Partido Romero, C.P. 32320, Cd. Juarez Chihuahua (Mexico); Quevedo Lopez, Manuel A. [Departamento de Polimeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Garcia-Casillas, Perla E., E-mail: pegarcia@uacj.mx [Instituto de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Ave. Del Charro 610 norte, Col. Partido Romero, C.P. 32320, Cd. Juarez Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitosan silica magnetite adsorbs antineoplastic drug. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silica coating improve the drug adherence. - Abstract: Cancer treatment is a big challenge in medicine where chemotherapies and radiotherapies are aggressive and poorly effective having side effects as delirium, fatigue, insomnia, nausea and vomiting which are common problems for cancer patients. For this reason, during the last two decades, many researchers have developed several techniques to improve the current therapies; one of them is the functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery. In this work, magnetic nanoparticles with an average crystallite size 21.8 nm were covered in a core/shell type; magnetite/silica, magnetite/chitosan, and a double shell magnetite/silica/chitosan were developed for attaching an antineoplastic drug. The mechanism for the functionalization of the nanoparticles with a single and double shell was studied with Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adherence of an antineoplastic drug, paclitaxel, onto functionalized nanoparticles was analyzed with a UV-Visible spectroscopy at a wavelength of 253 nm. It was found that the adherence of the drug is improved up to 18% when magnetite nanoparticles are coated with a single chitosan shell, and when the nanoparticles are coated with a silica/chitosan shell the adherence increases up to 29%.

  1. Development of SiO2@TiO2 core-shell nanospheres for catalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsou, I.; Panagopoulos, P.; Maggos, Th.; Arkas, M.; Tsetsekou, A.

    2018-05-01

    Silica-titania core-shell nanospheres, CSNp, were prepared via a simple and environmentally friendly two step route. First, silica cores were prepared through the hydrolysis-condensation reaction of silicic acid in the presence of hyperbranched poly(ethylene)imine (HBPEI) followed by repeating washing, centrifugation and, finally, calcination steps. To create the core-shell structure, various amounts of titanium isopropoxide were added to the cores and after that a HBPEI-water solution was added to hydrolyze the titanium precursor. Washing with ethanol and heat treatment followed. The optimization of processing parameters led to well-developed core-shell structures bearing a homogeneous nanocrystalline anatase coating over each silica core. The photocatalytic activity for NO was examined in a continuous flux photocatalytic reactor under real environmental conditions. The results revealed a very potent photocatalyst as the degradation percentage reached 84.27% for the core-shell material compared to the 82% of pure titania with the photodecomposition rates measured at 0.62 and 0.55 μg·m-2·s-1, respectively. In addition, catalytic activities of the CSNp and pure titania were investigated by monitoring the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol by an excess of NaBH4. Both materials exhibited excellent catalytic activity (100%), making the core-shell material a promising alternative catalyst to pure titania for various applications.

  2. Nitrite sensing composite systems based on a core-shell emissive-superamagnetic structure: Construction, characterization and sensing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Liu, Liang; Zha, Jianhua; Yuan, Ningyi

    2017-04-01

    Two recyclable nitrite sensing composite samples were designed and constructed through a core-shell structure, with Fe3O4 nanoparticles as core, silica molecular sieve MCM-41 as shell and two rhodamine derivatives as chemosensors, respectively. These samples and their structure were identified with their electron microscopy images, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, magnetic response, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. Their nitrite sensing behavior was discussed based on emission intensity quenching, their limit of detection was found as low as 1.2 μM. Further analysis suggested a static sensing mechanism between nitrite and chemosensors through an additive reaction between NO+ and chemosensors. After finishing their nitrite sensing, these composite samples and their emission could be recycled and recovered by sulphamic acid.

  3. Magnetic properties of Co-ferrite-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles having a core/shell structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petchsang, N.; Pon-On, W.; Hodak, J.H.; Tang, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic properties of Co-ferrite-doped hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles of composition Ca 10-3x Fe 2x Co x (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 (where x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5% mole) are studied. Transmission electron microscope micrograms show that the 90 nm size nanoparticles annealed at 1250 o C have a core/shell structure. Their electron diffraction patterns show that the shell is composed of the hydroxyapatite and the core is composed of the Co-ferrite, CoFe 2 O 4 . Electron spin resonance measurements indicate that the Co 2+ ions are being substituted into the Ca(1) sites in HAP lattice. X-ray diffraction studies show the formation of impurity phases as higher amounts of the Fe 3+ /Co 2+ ions which are substituted into the HAP host matrix. The presence of two sextets (one for the A-site Fe 3+ and the other for the B-site Fe 3+ ) in the Moessbauer spectrum for all the doped samples clearly indicates that the CoFe 2 O 4 .cores are in the ferromagnetic state. Evidence of the impurity phases is seen in the appearance of doublet patterns in the Moessbauer spectrums for the heavier-doped (x=0.4 and 0.5) specimens. The decrease in the saturation magnetizations and other magnetic properties of the nanoparticles at the higher doping levels is consistent with some of the Fe 3+ and Co 2+ which being used to form the CoO and Fe 2 O 3 impurity phase seen in the XRD patterns.

  4. Porous Core-Shell Nanostructures for Catalytic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Trevor David

    Porous core-shell nanostructures have recently received much attention for their enhanced thermal stability. They show great potential in the field of catalysis, as reactant gases can diffuse in and out of the porous shell while the core particle is protected from sintering, a process in which particles coalesce to form larger particles. Sintering is a large problem in industry and is the primary cause of irreversible deactivation. Despite the obvious advantages of high thermal stability, porous core-shell nanoparticles can be developed to have additional interactive properties from the combination of the core and shell together, rather than just the core particle alone. This dissertation focuses on developing new porous core-shell systems in which both the core and shell take part in catalysis. Two types of systems are explored; (1) yolk-shell nanostructures with reducible oxide shells formed using the Kirkendall effect and (2) ceramic-based porous oxide shells formed using sol-gel chemistry. Of the Kirkendall-based systems, Au FexOy and Cu CoO were synthesized and studied for catalytic applications. Additionally, ZnO was explored as a potential shelling material. Sol-gel work focused on optimizing synthetic methods to allow for coating of small gold particles, which remains a challenge today. Mixed metal oxides were explored as a shelling material to make dual catalysts in which the product of a reaction on the core particle becomes a reactant within the shell.

  5. A study of the compartmentalization of core-shell nanoparticles through fluorescence energy transfer of dopants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Jorge L; Jiang Hui; Duran, Randolph S, E-mail: rduran@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, PO Box 117200, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2010-02-05

    Hybrid organic-inorganic templates and core-shell nanoparticles were used as models to study the communication between fluorescent probes placed inside nanoparticles. The hybrid templates were prepared on the basis of a mixed-surfactant system using octadecyltrimethoxysilane as a reactive amphiphile. The core-shell particles were obtained after coating of the templates with a siloxane shell, using the silanol groups on their surface. Atomic force microscopy imaging showed that the templates were made of a flexible material that flattened significantly after deposition on a substrate and evaporation of the solvent. Pyrene was sequestered by the templates in an aqueous suspension, which placed it in a nonpolar environment, as observed by its fluorescence response. Subsequently, double-doped templates were prepared by sequestering coumarin 153 (C153), with pyrene-doped hybrid templates. The communication between these probes was studied on the basis of their spectral properties, by means of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Energy transfer between the dyes with efficiencies up to 55% was observed. Similarly, double-doped core-shell particles prepared on the basis of the hybrid templates were doped with this pair of dyes. Despite the presence of the shell, which was intended to increment the average separation between the probes, interaction of the dyes was observed, although with lower efficiencies. A similar study was performed with C153 and 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-p-(dimethylamino)styryl-4H-pyran (DCM). FRET studies indicated that the probes were placed in proximity to each other. We confirmed these observations by means of fluorescence lifetime measurements, which showed a decrease in the lifetime of the donor upon addition of the acceptor.

  6. Plasmonic nanodiamonds: targeted core-shell type nanoparticles for cancer cell thermoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehor, Ivan; Lee, Karin L; Chen, Kevin; Hajek, Miroslav; Havlik, Jan; Lokajova, Jana; Masat, Milan; Slegerova, Jitka; Shukla, Sourabh; Heidari, Hamed; Bals, Sara; Steinmetz, Nicole F; Cigler, Petr

    2015-02-18

    Targeted biocompatible nanostructures with controlled plasmonic and morphological parameters are promising materials for cancer treatment based on selective thermal ablation of cells. Here, core-shell plasmonic nanodiamonds consisting of a silica-encapsulated diamond nanocrystal coated in a gold shell are designed and synthesized. The architecture of particles is analyzed and confirmed in detail using electron tomography. The particles are biocompatibilized using a PEG polymer terminated with bioorthogonally reactive alkyne groups. Azide-modified transferrin is attached to these particles, and their high colloidal stability and successful targeting to cancer cells overexpressing the transferrin receptor are demonstrated. The particles are nontoxic to the cells and they are readily internalized upon binding to the transferrin receptor. The high plasmonic cross section of the particles in the near-infrared region is utilized to quantitatively ablate the cancer cells with a short, one-minute irradiation by a pulse 750-nm laser. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Synthesis, characterization of Ag-Au core-shell bimetal nanoparticles and its application for electrocatalytic oxidation/sensing of L-methionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugavelu, M.; Karthikeyan, B., E-mail: bkarthi_au@yahoo.com

    2017-01-01

    The Ag-Au core-shell bimetal nanoparticles (BNPs) was prepared using chemical reduction method. The prepared Ag-Au core-shell BNPs were characterized by UV–Visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) pattern. These results showed the Ag-Au BNPs exhibited core-shell shape. The Ag-Au core-shell BNPs was examined towards electrocatalytic oxidation of L-methionine (L-Met) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and chronoamperometry. According to the results, L-Met is determined with detection limit of 30 μM. Interference studies in biological buffer was also studied. - Highlights: • The Ag-Au core-shell BNPs are synthesized and characterized • Ag-Au core-shell BNPs modified (Ag-Au/GCE) has been examined for L-methionine oxidation/sensing by using electrochemical method. • The Ag-Au/GCE exhibited good performance for the detection of L-methionine.

  8. Microwave absorption properties of the core/shell-type iron and nickel nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, B.; Dong, X. L.; Huang, H.; Zhang, X. F.; Zhu, X. G.; Lei, J. P.; Sun, J. P.

    Iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) nanoparticles were prepared by the DC arc-discharge method in a mixture of hydrogen and argon gases, using bulk metals as the raw materials. The microstructure of core/shell (metal/metal oxide) in nanoparticle formed after in situ passivation process. The complex electromagnetic parameters (permittivity ɛ=ɛr'+iɛr″ and permeability μ=μr'+iμr″) of the paraffin-mixed nanocomposite samples (paraffin:nanoparticles=1:1 in mass ratio) were measured in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. The polarization mechanisms of the space charge and dipole coexist in both the Fe and Ni nanoparticles. The orientational polarization is a particular polarization for Fe nanoparticles and brings a relatively higher dielectric loss. Natural resonance is the main reason for magnetic loss and the corresponding frequencies are 11.6 and 5.2 GHz for the Fe and Ni nanoparticles, respectively. The paraffin composite with Fe nanoparticles provided excellent microwave absorption properties (reflection loss <-20 dB) in the range 6.8-16.6 GHz over the absorber thickness of 1.1-2.3 mm.

  9. Polystyrene Core-Silica Shell Particles with Defined Nanoarchitectures as a Versatile Platform for Suspension Array Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Dominik; Gawlitza, Kornelia; Rurack, Knut

    2016-04-19

    The need for rapid and high-throughput screening in analytical laboratories has led to significant growth in interest in suspension array technologies (SATs), especially with regard to cytometric assays targeting a low to medium number of analytes. Such SAT or bead-based assays rely on spherical objects that constitute the analytical platform. Usually, functionalized polymer or silica (SiO2) microbeads are used which each have distinct advantages and drawbacks. In this paper, we present a straightforward synthetic route to highly monodisperse SiO2-coated polystyrene core-shell (CS) beads for SAT with controllable architectures from smooth to raspberry- and multilayer-like shells by varying the molecular weight of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), which was used as the stabilizer of the cores. The combination of both organic polymer core and a structurally controlled inorganic SiO2 shell in one hybrid particle holds great promises for flexible next-generation design of the spherical platform. The particles were characterized by electron microscopy (SEM, T-SEM, and TEM), thermogravimetry, flow cytometry, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption, offering comprehensive information on the composition, size, structure, and surface area. All particles show ideal cytometric detection patterns and facile handling due to the hybrid structure. The beads are endowed with straightforward modification possibilities through the defined SiO2 shells. We successfully implemented the particles in fluorometric SAT model assays, illustrating the benefits of tailored surface area which is readily available for small-molecule anchoring. Very promising assay performance was shown for DNA hybridization assays with quantification limits down to 8 fmol.

  10. The novel albumin-chitosan core-shell nanoparticles for gene delivery: preparation, optimization and cell uptake investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Mahdi [Tarbiat Modares University, Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Avci, Pinar [Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman Center for Photomedicine (United States); Mobasseri, Rezvan [Tarbiat Modares University, Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamblin, Michael R. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman Center for Photomedicine (United States); Naderi-Manesh, Hossein, E-mail: naderman@modares.ac.ir [Tarbiat Modares University, Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Natural polymers and proteins such as chitosan (CS) and albumin (Alb) have recently attracted much attention both in drug delivery and gene delivery. The underlying rationale is their unique properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility and controlled release. This study aimed to prepare novel albumin-chitosan-DNA (Alb-CS-DNA) core-shell nanoparticles as a plasmid delivery system and find the best conditions for their preparation. Phase separation method and ionic interaction were used for preparation of Alb nanoparticles and Alb-CS-DNA core-shell nanoparticles, respectively. The effects of three important independent variables (1) CS/Alb mass ratio, (2) the ratios of moles of the amine groups of cationic polymers to those of the phosphate groups of DNA (N/P ratio), and (3) Alb concentration, on the nanoparticle size and loading efficiency of the plasmid were investigated and optimized through Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions were found to be CS/Alb mass ratio = 3, N/P ratio = 8.24 and Alb concentration = 0.1 mg/mL. The most critical factors for the size of nanoparticles and loading efficiency were Alb concentration and N/P ratio. The optimized nanoparticles had an average size of 176 {+-} 3.4 nm and loading efficiency of 80 {+-} 3.9 %. Cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated that the prepared nanoparticles were not toxic. The high cellular uptake of nanoparticles ({approx}85 %) was shown by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy.

  11. Magnetic and optical properties of Ag@SiO{sub 2}-FITC-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Ning [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon–INL, UMR CNRS 5270, Site Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, F-69134 Ecully Cedex (France); College of Material Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Monnier, Virginie, E-mail: virginie.monnier@ec-lyon.fr [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon–INL, UMR CNRS 5270, Site Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, F-69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Salvia, Marie-Virginie; Chevolot, Yann; Souteyrand, Eliane [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon–INL, UMR CNRS 5270, Site Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, F-69134 Ecully Cedex (France)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • New magnetic/fluorescent nanoparticles were synthesized. • The silver core led to a maximum 4-fold enhanced fluorescence of fluorophore. • Maximum enhancement factor was obtained when metal-fluorophore distance is 5 nm. • Magnetism and fluorescence appeared simultaneously for nanoparticles in solution. -- Abstract: Nanoparticles composed of a silver core coated with a silica shell (Ag@SiO{sub 2}) were prepared. A dye, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), was further encapsulated during the growth of a second silica shell onto Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The proximity of silver nanoparticles led to a 4-fold maximal enhancement in the fluorescence of FITC when the first silica shell thickness was set at 5 nm. After amino-functionalization of Ag@SiO{sub 2}-FITC nanoparticles, iron oxide nanoparticles were bonded to their surface. The magnetic and metal-enhanced fluorescence properties appeared simultaneously when Ag@SiO{sub 2}-FITC-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid nanoparticles were dispersed in a solution.

  12. Silver, gold and the corresponding core shell nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Fraser; Yanez, Ramon; Ros, Josep; Marin, Sergio; Escosura-Muniz, Alfredo de la; Alegret, Salvador; Merkoci, Arben

    2008-01-01

    Simple strategies for producing silver and gold nanoparticles (AgNP and AuNP) along with the corresponding core shell nanoparticles (Au-Ag and Ag-Au) by reduction of the metal salts AgBF 4 and HAuCl 4 by NaBH 4 in water will be presented. The morphologies of the obtained nanoparticles are determined by the order of addition of reactants. The obtained NPs, with sizes in the range 3-40 nm, are characterized by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, so as to evaluate their qualities. Moreover, a direct electrochemical detection protocol based on a cyclic voltammetry in water solution that involves the use of glassy carbon electrode is also applied to characterize the prepared NPs. The developed NPs and the related electroanalytical method seem to be with interest for future sensing and biosensing applications including DNA sensors and immunosensors.

  13. Magnetic, Fluorescence and Transition Metal Ion Response Properties of 2,6-Diaminopyridine Modified Silica-Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Zhai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-functional nanoparticles possessing magnetic, fluorescence and transition metal ion response properties were prepared and characterized. The particles have a core/shell structure that consists of silica-coated magnetic Fe3O4 and 2,6-diaminopyridine anchored on the silica surface via organic linker molecules. The resultant nanoparticles were found by transmission electron microscopy to be well-dispersed spherical particles with an average diameter of 10–12 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis suggested the existence of Fe3O4 and silica in/on the particle. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that 2,6-diaminopyridine molecules were successfully covalently bonded to the surface of magnetic composite nanoparticles. The prepared particles possessed an emission peak at 364 nm with an excitation wavelength of 307 nm and have a strong reversible response property for some transition metal ions such as Cu2+ and Zn2+. This new material holds considerable promise in selective magneto separation and optical determination applications.

  14. Estimation of sensing characteristics for refractory nitrides based gain assisted core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishodia, Manmohan Singh; Pathania, Pankaj

    2018-04-01

    Refractory transition metal nitrides such as zirconium nitride (ZrN), hafnium nitride (HfN) and titanium nitride (TiN) have emerged as viable alternatives to coinage metals based plasmonic materials, e.g., gold (Au) and silver (Ag). The present work assesses the suitability of gain assisted ZrN-, HfN- and TiN-based conventional core-shell nanoparticles (CCSNPs) and multilayered core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNPs) for refractive index sensing. We report that the optical gain incorporation in the dielectric layer leads to multifold enhancement of the scattering efficiency (Qsca), substantial reduction of the spectral full width at half maximum, and a higher figure of merit (FOM). In comparison with CCSNPs, the MCSNP system exhibits superior sensing characteristics such as higher FOM, ˜ 45% reduction in the critical optical gain, response shift towards the biological window, and higher degree of tunability. Inherent biocompatibility, growth compatibility, chemical stability and flexible spectral tuning of refractory nitrides augmented by superior sensing properties in the present work may pave the way for refractory nitrides based low cost sensing.

  15. Selective fishing and analysis of xanthine oxidase binders from two Fabaceae species by coupling enzyme functionalized core-shell magnetic nanoparticles with HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangliang; Shi, Shuyun; Zhao, Huading; Yu, Jingang; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-15

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD) immobilized core-shell magnetic silica (Fe3O4@SiO2-XOD) nanoparticles coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was developed to fish out and analyze XOD binders from two Fabaceae species, Puerariae lobata flower and Glycyrrhiza uralensis root. The prepared Fe3O4@SiO2-XOD nanoparticles exhibited good specificity for XOD binders, better dispersion in aqueous solution and reusability than those of Fe3O4-XOD nanoparticles. The amount of XOD immobilized onto Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles was 339.9μg/mg and the activity of Fe3O4@SiO2-XOD nanoparticles remained 95% after ten times usage. The optimum conditions of selective fishing were optimized, and finally incubating pH was set at 7, incubating temperature at 25°C and adsorption time at 30min. Twelve XOD binders were successfully identified from ethyl acetate extract of P. lobata flower and G. uralensis root. The developed method provides a rapid, purposeful and effective way to identify active compounds from natural complex mixtures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanostructured core-shell electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Long-bo; Yuan, Xing-zhong; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Hou; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2016-11-01

    Core-shell nanostructure represents a unique system for applications in electrochemical energy storage devices. Owing to the unique characteristics featuring high power delivery and long-term cycling stability, electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have emerged as one of the most attractive electrochemical storage systems since they can complement or even replace batteries in the energy storage field, especially when high power delivery or uptake is needed. This review aims to summarize recent progress on core-shell nanostructures for advanced supercapacitor applications in view of their hierarchical architecture which not only create the desired hierarchical porous channels, but also possess higher electrical conductivity and better structural mechanical stability. The core-shell nanostructures include carbon/carbon, carbon/metal oxide, carbon/conducting polymer, metal oxide/metal oxide, metal oxide/conducting polymer, conducting polymer/conducting polymer, and even more complex ternary core-shell nanoparticles. The preparation strategies, electrochemical performances, and structural stabilities of core-shell materials for ECs are summarized. The relationship between core-shell nanostructure and electrochemical performance is discussed in detail. In addition, the challenges and new trends in core-shell nanomaterials development have also been proposed.

  17. Synthesis of Pt-immobilized on silica and polystyrene-encapsulated silica and their applications as electrocatalysts in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Sung-Chul; Kim, Chang Young; Jung, Chi Young; Jeong, Sung Hoon; Kim, Wha Jung

    2011-01-01

    Nano sized Pt particles were successfully immobilized onto SiO 2 and polystyrene-encapsulated silica core shell (SiO 2 @PS). To make the immobilization of Pt onto both silica and polystyrene-encapsulated silica core shell, SiO 2 was first functionalized with -NH 2 using 3-amino propyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS) while for core shell, the negatively charged surface of polystyrene (PS) was changed with positive charge by cationic surfactant such as cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl) to make the formation of SiO 2 shell on preformed PS sphere. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) images shows that Pt nanoparticles immobilized onto SiO 2 and SiO 2 @PS were to be 3-4 nm without agglomeraiton. The energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) shows that Pt contents on both SiO 2 and SiO 2 @PS were to be 21.45% and 20.28%, respectively. In case of Pt-SiO 2 @PS, it is believed that Pt should have been immobilized onto PS surface and pore within SiO 2 shell as well as SiO 2 surface. The MEA fabricated with Pt-SiO 2 @PS shows better cell performance than of Pt-SiO 2 .

  18. Copper Ferrocyanide Functionalized Core-Shell Magnetic Silica Composites for the Selective Removal of Cesium Ions from Radioactive Liquid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Kyu; Yang, Da Som; Oh, Wonzin; Choi, Sang-June

    2016-06-01

    The copper ferrocyanide functionalized core-shell magnetic silica composite (mag@silica-CuFC) was prepared and was found to be easily separated from aqueous solutions by using magnetic field. The synthesized mag@silica-CuFC composite has a high sorption ability of Cs owing to its strong affinity for Cs as well as the high surface area of the supports. Cs sorption on the mag@silica-CuFC composite quickly reached the sorption equilibrium after 2 h of contact time. The effect of the presence of salts with a high concentration of up to 3.5 wt% on the efficiency of Cs sorption onto the composites was also studied. The maximum sorption ability was found to be maintained in the presence of up to 3.5 wt% of NaCl in the solution. Considering these results, the mag@silica-CuFC composite has great potential for use as an effective sorbent for the selective removal of radioactive Cs ions.

  19. Influence of surface functionalization on structural and photo-luminescence properties of CeF{sub 3}:Tb nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Anees A., E-mail: aneesaansari@gmail.com

    2017-07-01

    Graphical abstract: We designed highly aqueous dispersible CeF{sub 3}:Tb@LaF{sub 3}@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The epitaxial growth of inert LaF{sub 3} shell and further amorphous silica, respectively, enhanced their optical and luminescence properties, which is highly usable for luminescent biolabeling, and optical bio-probe etc. - Abstract: Highly luminescent and aqueous soluble CeF{sub 3}:Tb (core),CeF{sub 3}:Tb@LaF{sub 3}(core/shell) and CeF{sub 3}:Tb@LaF{sub 3}@ SiO{sub 2} (core/shell/Si) nanoparticles(NPs) with mean particle size 12 nm were prepared by co-precipitation method at low temperature. X-ray diffraction pattern verified the phase purity, high crystallinity of hexagonal structure. The TEM image and SAED pattern revealed the single phase polycrystalline nature, well-dispersed irregular shaped hexagonal structure. FTIR spectra show the characteristic infrared peaks of silica, it suggests the successful silica surface coating around the core/shell NPs. The excitation and emission intensity of core/shell NPs were remarkably increased then their counterpart core NPs. It implies that a significant amount of nonradiative transition centers existing on the surface of core NPs has been eliminated due to the formation of passivated LaF{sub 3} layer. The silica surface modification over the core/shell NPs strikingly enhanced the solubility character in an aqueous environment.

  20. Repetitive heterocoagulation of oppositely charged particles for enhancement of magnetic nanoparticle loading into monodisperse silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Nagao, Daisuke; Konno, Mikio

    2010-03-16

    Oppositely charged particles were repetitively heterocoagulated to fabricate highly monodisperse magnetic silica particles with high loading of magnetic nanoparticles. Positively charged magnetic nanoparticles prepared by surface modification with N-trimethoxysilylpropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (TSA) were used to heterocoagulate with silica particles under basic conditions to give rise to negative silica surface charge and prevent the oxidation of the magnetic nanoparticles. The resultant particles of silica core homogeneously coated with the magnetic nanoparticles were further coated with thin silica layer with sodium silicate in order to enhance colloidal stability and avoid desorption of the magnetic nanoparticles from the silica cores. Five repetitions of the heterocoagulation and the silica coating could increase saturation magnetization of the magnetic silica particles to 27.7 emu/g, keeping the coefficient of variation of particle sizes (C(V)) less than 6.5%. Highly homogeneous loading of the magnetic component was confirmed by measuring Fe-to-Si atomic ratios of individual particles with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  1. Synthesis and controllable oxidation of monodisperse cobalt-doped wüstite nanoparticles and their core-shell stability and exchange-bias stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Jung; Chiang, Ray-Kuang; Kamali, Saeed; Wang, Sue-Lein

    2015-09-14

    Cobalt-doped wüstite (CWT), Co0.33Fe0.67O, nanoparticles were prepared via the thermal decomposition of CoFe2-oleate complexes in organic solvents. A controllable oxidation process was then performed to obtain Co0.33Fe0.67O/CoFe2O4 core-shell structures with different core-to-shell volume ratios and exchange bias properties. The oxidized core-shell samples with a ∼4 nm CoFe2O4 shell showed good resistance to oxygen transmission. Thus, it is inferred that the cobalt ferrite shell provides a better oxidation barrier performance than magnetite in the un-doped case. The hysteresis loops of the oxidized 19 nm samples exhibited a high exchange bias field (H(E)), an enhanced coercivity field (H(C)), and a pronounced vertical shift, thus indicating the presence of a strong exchange bias coupling effect. More importantly, the onset temperature of H(E) was found to be higher than 200 K, which suggests that cobalt doping increases the Néel temperature (T(N)) of the CWT core. In general, the results show that the homogeneous dispersion of Co in iron precursors improves the stability of the final CWT nanoparticles. Moreover, the CoFe2O4 shells formed following oxidation increase the oxidation resistance of the CWT cores and enhance their anisotropy energy.

  2. Influence of Shell Thickness on the Colloidal Stability of Magnetic Core-Shell Particle Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Frances; Moreno-Atanasio, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    We present a Discrete Element study of the behavior of magnetic core-shell particles in which the properties of the core and the shell are explicitly defined. Particle cores were considered to be made of pure iron and thus possessed ferromagnetic properties, while particle shells were considered to be made of silica. Core sizes ranged between 0.5 and 4.0 μm with the actual particle size of the core-shell particles in the range between 0.6 and 21 μm. The magnetic cores were considered to have a magnetization of one tenth of the saturation magnetization of iron. This study aimed to understand how the thickness of the shell hinders the formation of particle chains. Chain formation was studied with different shell thicknesses and particle sizes in the presence and absence of an electrical double layer force in order to investigate the effect of surface charge density on the magnetic core-shell particle interactions. For core sizes of 0.5 and 4.0 μm the relative shell thicknesses needed to hinder the aggregation process were approximately 0.4 and 0.6 respectively, indicating that larger core sizes are detrimental to be used in applications in which no flocculation is needed. In addition, the presence of an electrical double layer, for values of surface charge density of less than 20 mC/m 2 , could stop the contact between particles without hindering their vertical alignment. Only when the shell thickness was considerably larger, was the electrical double layer able to contribute to the full disruption of the magnetic flocculation process.

  3. Oxygen Sensing with Perfluorocarbon-Loaded Ultraporous Mesostructured Silica Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amani L; Gee, Clifford T; Weegman, Bradley P; Einstein, Samuel A; Juelfs, Adam R; Ring, Hattie L; Hurley, Katie R; Egger, Sam M; Swindlehurst, Garrett; Garwood, Michael; Pomerantz, William C K; Haynes, Christy L

    2017-06-27

    Oxygen homeostasis is important in the regulation of biological function. Disease progression can be monitored by measuring oxygen levels, thus producing information for the design of therapeutic treatments. Noninvasive measurements of tissue oxygenation require the development of tools with minimal adverse effects and facile detection of features of interest. Fluorine magnetic resonance imaging ( 19 F MRI) exploits the intrinsic properties of perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquids for anatomical imaging, cell tracking, and oxygen sensing. However, the highly hydrophobic and lipophobic properties of perfluorocarbons require the formation of emulsions for biological studies, though stabilizing these emulsions has been challenging. To enhance the stability and biological loading of perfluorocarbons, one option is to incorporate perfluorocarbon liquids into the internal space of biocompatible mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Here, we developed perfluorocarbon-loaded ultraporous mesostructured silica nanoparticles (PERFUMNs) as 19 F MRI detectable oxygen-sensing probes. Ultraporous mesostructured silica nanoparticles (UMNs) have large internal cavities (average = 1.8 cm 3 g -1 ), facilitating an average 17% loading efficiency of PFCs, meeting the threshold fluorine concentrations needed for imaging studies. Perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether PERFUMNs have the highest equivalent nuclei per PFC molecule and a spin-lattice (T 1 ) relaxation-based oxygen sensitivity of 0.0032 mmHg -1 s -1 at 16.4 T. The option of loading PFCs after synthesizing UMNs, rather than traditional in situ core-shell syntheses, allows for use of a broad range of PFC liquids from a single material. The biocompatible and tunable chemistry of UMNs combined with the intrinsic properties of PFCs makes PERFUMNs a MRI sensor with potential for anatomical imaging, cell tracking, and metabolic spectroscopy with improved stability.

  4. Low-Cost Label-Free Biosensing Bimetallic Cellulose Strip with SILAR-Synthesized Silver Core-Gold Shell Nanoparticle Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wansun; Lee, Jae-Chul; Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Hun-Kuk; Lee, Anbok; Choi, Samjin

    2017-06-20

    We introduce a label-free biosensing cellulose strip sensor with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-encoded bimetallic core@shell nanoparticles. Bimetallic nanoparticles consisting of a synthesis of core Ag nanoparticles (AgNP) and a synthesis of shell gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were fabricated on a cellulose substrate by two-stage successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. The bimetallic nanoparticle-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effects were theoretically verified by computational calculations with finite element models of optimized bimetallic nanoparticles interacting with an incident laser source. Well-dispersed raspberry-like bimetallic nanoparticles with highly polycrystalline structure were confirmed through X-ray and electron analyses despite ionic reaction synthesis. The stability against silver oxidation and high sensitivity with superior SERS enhancement factor (EF) of the low-cost SERS-encoded cellulose strip, which achieved 3.98 × 10 8 SERS-EF, 6.1%-RSD reproducibility, and <10%-degraded sustainability, implicated the possibility of practical applications in high analytical screening methods, such as single-molecule detection. The remarkable sensitivity and selectivity of this bimetallic biosensing strip in determining aquatic toxicities for prohibited drugs, such as aniline, sodium azide, and malachite green, as well as monitoring the breast cancer progression for urine, confirmed its potential as a low-cost label-free point-of-care test chip for the early diagnosis of human diseases.

  5. Fixed-bed adsorption separation of xylene isomers over sio2/silicallite-1 core-shell adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Easir A.; Rajendran, Arvind; Lai, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    SiO2/Silicalite-1 core-shell material has been demonstrated as potential shape selective adsorbent in gas phase separation of p-xylene from a mixture of p/o-xylene isomers. The core-shell composite comprised of large silica core and thin

  6. Enhanced linear photonic nanojet generated by core-shell optical microfibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang; Yen, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Chien-Wen

    2017-05-01

    The generation of linear photonic nanojet using core-shell optical microfiber is demonstrated numerically and experimentally in the visible light region. The power flow patterns for the core-shell optical microfiber are calculated by using the finite-difference time-domain method. The focusing properties of linear photonic nanojet are evaluated in terms of length and width along propagation and transversal directions. In experiment, the silica optical fiber is etched chemically down to 6 μm diameter and coated with metallic thin film by using glancing angle deposition. We show that the linear photonic nanojet is enhanced clearly by metallic shell due to surface plasmon polaritons. The large-area superresolution imaging can be performed by using a core-shell optical microfiber in the far-field system. The potential applications of this core-shell optical microfiber include micro-fluidics and nano-structure measurements.

  7. Green synthesis and characterization of Au@Pt core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles using gallic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojun; Zheng, Hongmei; Shen, Ming; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiaosan

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we developed a facile and benign green synthesis approach for the successful fabrication of well-dispersed urchin-like Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) using gallic acid (GA) as both a reducing and protecting agent. The proposed one-step synthesis exploits the differences in the reduction potentials of AuCl4- and PtCl62-, where the AuCl4- ions are preferentially reduced to Au cores and the PtCl62- ions are then deposited continuously onto the Au core surface as a Pt shell. The as-prepared Au@Pt NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM); high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM); scanning electron microscope (SEM); UV-vis absorption spectra (UV-vis); X-ray diffraction (XRD); Fourier transmission infrared spectra (FT-IR). We systematically investigated the effects of some experimental parameters on the formation of the Au@Pt NPs, i.e., the reaction temperature, the molar ratios of HAuCl4/H2PtCl6, and the amount of GA. When polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP) was used as a protecting agent, the Au@Pt core-shell NPs obtained using this green synthesis method were better dispersed and smaller in size. The as-prepared Au@Pt NPs exhibited better catalytic activity in the reaction where NaBH4 reduced p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol. However, the results showed that the Au@Pt bimetallic NPs had a lower catalytic activity than the pure Au NPs obtained by the same method, which confirmed the formation of Au@Pt core-shell nanostructures because the active sites on the surfaces of the Au NPs were covered with a Pt shell.

  8. Core–shell-typed Ag-SiO2 nanoparticles as solar selective coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Tao; Jelle, Bjørn Petter; Gustavsen, Arild

    2013-01-01

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles with typical diameter of about 50 nm have been prepared via a polyol process. The as-prepared Ag nanoparticles are well crystallized and exhibit a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band centered at ∼423 nm. The SPR band shows a strong dependence on the sizes of Ag nanoparticles and the types of the dielectric medium. Core–shell-typed Ag-SiO 2 nanoparticles have also been prepared by depositing a thin layer (∼25 nm) of silica on Ag nanoparticles. The core–shell-typed Ag-SiO 2 nanoparticles show similar optical behaviors (absorption, transmission, and reflection) but enhanced stability compared to those of the Ag nanoparticles, indicating that the core–shell-typed Ag-SiO 2 nanoparticles may be used as solar selective coating materials for architectural window applications.

  9. A fluorescent and chemiluminescent difunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticle as a label for the ultrasensitive detection of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Liang [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Song Chaojun; Sun Yuanjie [Department of Immunology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Li Xiaohua; Li Yunyun [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Jin Boquan [Department of Immunology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhang Zhujun, E-mail: zhangzj@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Yang Kun, E-mail: yangkunkun@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Difunctional amino mesoporous silica nanoparticles (FCMSN) were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence and chemiluminescence properties of the FCMSN were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NaIO{sub 4} oxidation method was used for modification of the FCMSN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Liver cancer 7721 cell was detected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The specificity affected by FCMSN's amino groups was studied. - Abstract: A new kind of ultrabright fluorescent and chemiluminescent difunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticle (FCMSN) is reported. A luminescent dye, Rhodamine 6G or tris(2,2 Prime -bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (Rubpy), is doped inside nanochannels of a silica matrix. The hydrophobic groups in the silica matrix avoid the leakage of dye from open channels. The amines groups on the surface of the FCMSN improve the modification performance of the nanoparticle. Because the nanochannels are isolated by a network skeleton of silica, fluorescence quenching based on the inner filter effect of the fluorescent dyes immobilized in nanochannels is weakened effectively. The Quantum Yield of obtained 90 nm silica particles was about 61%. Compared with the fluorescent core-shell nanoparticle, the chemiluminescence reagents can freely enter the nanoparticles to react with fluorescent dyes to create chemiluminescence. The results show that the FCMSN are both fluorescent labels and chemiluminescent labels. In biological applications, the NaIO{sub 4} oxidation method was proven to be superior to the glutaraldehyde method. The amount of amino could affect the specificity of the FCMSN. The fluorescence microscopy imaging demonstrated that the FCMSN is viable for biological applications.

  10. Nanoengineering of methylene blue loaded silica encapsulated magnetite nanospheres and nanocapsules for photodynamic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andhariya, Nidhi [Bhavnagar University, Department of Physics (India); Chudasama, Bhupendra, E-mail: bnchudasama@gmail.com [Thapar University, School of Physics and Materials Science (India); Mehta, R. V. [Bhavnagar University, Department of Physics (India); Upadhyay, R. V. [Charotar University of Science and Technology, P.D. Patel Institute of Applied Sciences (India)

    2011-09-15

    Core-shell nanostructures have emerged as an important class of functional materials with potential applications in diverse fields, especially in health sciences. In this article, nanoengineering of novel magnetic colloidal dispersion containing surface modifiable silica with a core of single domain magnetite nanoparticles loaded with photosensitizer (PS) drug 'Methylene blue' (MB) has been described. Magnetite core is produced by the well-established chemical coprecipitation technique and silica shell is formed over it by the modified hydrolysis and condensation of TEOS (tetraethyl orthosilicate). Conditions for reaction kinetics have been established to tailor the core-shell structures in the form of nanospheres and nanocapsules. MB is loaded into the nanostructures by demethylation reaction. The major conclusion drawn from this study is that the synthesis route yields stable, non-aggregated MB loaded superparamagnetic magnetite-silica nanostructures with tailored morphology, tunable loading, and excellent magnetic properties.

  11. Microwave absorption properties of the core/shell-type iron and nickel nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, B.; Dong, X.L.; Huang, H.; Zhang, X.F.; Zhu, X.G.; Lei, J.P.; Sun, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) nanoparticles were prepared by the DC arc-discharge method in a mixture of hydrogen and argon gases, using bulk metals as the raw materials. The microstructure of core/shell (metal/metal oxide) in nanoparticle formed after in situ passivation process. The complex electromagnetic parameters (permittivity ε r =ε r ' +iε r '' and permeability μ r =μ r ' +iμ r '' ) of the paraffin-mixed nanocomposite samples (paraffin:nanoparticles=1:1 in mass ratio) were measured in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. The polarization mechanisms of the space charge and dipole coexist in both the Fe and Ni nanoparticles. The orientational polarization is a particular polarization for Fe nanoparticles and brings a relatively higher dielectric loss. Natural resonance is the main reason for magnetic loss and the corresponding frequencies are 11.6 and 5.2 GHz for the Fe and Ni nanoparticles, respectively. The paraffin composite with Fe nanoparticles provided excellent microwave absorption properties (reflection loss <-20 dB) in the range 6.8-16.6 GHz over the absorber thickness of 1.1-2.3 mm

  12. Characterization of the electronic and magnetic structure of multifunctional NaREF{sub 4} (RE = rare earth) core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Lilli; Kuepper, Karsten [Physics Department, University of Osnabrueck (Germany); Rinkel, Thorben; Haase, Markus [Institute of Chemistry, University of Osnabrueck (Germany); Chrobak, Artur [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    Rare earth (RE) based nanoparticles of type NaREF{sub 4} have attracted lot of attention in the last few years due to their upconverting luminescence. Here, we want to concentrate on electronic and magnetic properties of NaREF{sub 4}/NaGdF{sub 4} nanocrystals, since the magnetic behaviour of these fluorescent nanoparticles are of utmost importance from fundamental and applicative point of view as well. Hexagonal β-phase nanocrystals (3-22 nm) were prepared and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A detailed study of the electronic structure and magnetic coupling phenomena of the different core-shell nanoparticles is performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), magnetometry (SQUID) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). First SQUID measurements of NaEuF{sub 4}/NaGdF{sub 4} core-shell nanoparticles show butterfly shaped hysteresis loops at low temperature (2 K) in contrast to superparamagnetic behaviour observed for the corresponding ''pure'' NaEuF{sub 4} and NaGdF{sub 4} nanoparticles.

  13. Core shell structured nanoparticles of Eu3+ doped SnO2 with SiO2 shell: luminescence studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ningthoujam, R.S.; Sudarsan, V.; Kulshreshtha, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Re dispersible SnO 2 nanoparticles with and without Eu 3+ doping nanoparticles were prepared at 185 deg C by the urea hydrolysis of Sn 4+ in ethylene glycol medium. X-ray diffraction and 119 Sn MAS NMR studies of these particles revealed that these nanoparticles are crystalline with Cassiterite structure having an average crystallite size of 7 nm. Undoped SnO 2 gave a emission peak centered around 470 nm characteristic of the traps present in the nanoparticles. For Eu 3+ doped samples, emission around 590 and 615 nm was observed on both direct excitation as well as indirect excitation through traps, indicating that there is an energy transfer between the traps present in the nanoparticles and Eu 3+ ions. The asymmetric ratio of luminescence (relative intensity ratio of 590 to 615 nm transitions) has been found to be 1.2. For SnO 2 :Eu(5%)-SiO 2 nanoparticles, the asymmetric ratio of luminescence change significantly indicating the formation of nanoparticles with SnO 2 :Eu(5%) core covered with SiO 2 shell. (author)

  14. Modified Organosilica Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Stable pH Sensing in Biological Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kye J; Huynh, Gabriel T; Kouskousis, Betty P; Fletcher, Nicholas L; Houston, Zachary H; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Corrie, Simon R

    2018-04-19

    Continuous monitoring using nanoparticle-based sensors has been successfully employed in complex biological systems, yet the sensors still suffer from poor long-term stability partially because of the scaffold materials chosen to date. Organosilica core-shell nanoparticles containing a mixture of covalently incorporated pH-sensitive (shell) and pH-insensitive (core) fluorophores is presented as a continuous pH sensor for application in biological media. In contrast to previous studies focusing on similar materials, we sought to investigate the sensor characteristics (dynamic range, sensitivity, response time, stability) as a function of material properties. The ratio of the fluorescence intensities at specific wavelengths was found to be highly sensitive to pH over a physiologically relevant range (4.5-8) with a response time of pH-specific signals when stored at room temperature for more than 80 days. Finally, we demonstrated that the nanosensors successfully monitored the pH of a bacterial culture over 15 h and that pH changes in the skin of mouse cadavers could also be observed via in vivo fluorescence imaging following subcutaneous injection. The understanding gained from linking sensor characteristics and material properties will inform the next generation of optical nanosensors for continuous-monitoring applications.

  15. Chalcone dendrimer stabilized core-shell nanoparticles—a comparative study on Co@TiO2, Ag@TiO2 and Co@AgCl nanoparticles for antibacterial and antifungal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanathi Vijayalakshmi, R.; Praveen Kumar, P.; Selvarani, S.; Rajakumar, P.; Ravichandran, K.

    2017-10-01

    A series of core@shell nanoparticles (Co@TiO2, Ag@TiO2 and Co@AgCl) stabilized with zeroth generation triazolylchalcone dendrimer was synthesized using reduction transmetalation method. The coordination of chalcone dendrimer with silver ions was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The NMR spectrum ensures the number of protons and carbon signals in the chalcone dendrimer. The prepared samples were structurally characterized by XRD, FESEM and HRTEM analysis. The SAED and XRD analyses exhibited the cubic structure with d hkl   =  2.2 Å, 1.9 Å and 1.38 Å. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the dendrimer stabilized core@shell nanoparticles (DSCSNPs) were tested against the pathogens Bacillus subtilis, Proteus mirabilis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus nigir from which it is identified that the dendrimer stabilized core shell nanoparticles with silver ions at the shell (Co@AgCl) shows effectively high activity against the tested pathogen following the other core@shell nanoparticles viz Ag@TiO2 and Co@TiO2.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and nitrite ion sensing performance of reclaimable composite samples through a core-shell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao; Yuqing, Zhao; Cui, Jiantao; Zheng, Qian; Bo, Wang

    2018-02-01

    The following paper reported and discussed a nitrite ion optical sensing platform based on a core-shell structure, using superamagnetic nanoparticles as the core, a silica molecular sieve MCM-41 as the shell and two rhodamine derivatives as probe, respectively. This superamagnetic core made this sensing platform reclaimable after finishing nitrite ion sensing procedure. This sensing platform was carefully characterized by means of electron microscopy images, porous structure analysis, magnetic response, IR spectra and thermal stability analysis. Detailed analysis suggested that the emission of these composite samples was quenchable by nitrite ion, showing emission turn off effect. A static sensing mechanism based on an additive reaction between chemosensors and nitrite ion was proposed. These composite samples followed Demas quenching equation against different nitrite ion concentrations. Limit of detection value was obtained as low as 0.4 μM. It was found that, after being quenched by nitrite ion, these composite samples could be reclaimed and recovered by sulphamic acid, confirming their recyclability.

  17. Core/shell CdS/ZnS nanoparticles: Molecular modelling and characterization by photocatalytic decomposition of Methylene Blue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Praus, P.; Svoboda, L.; Tokarský, J.; Hospodková, Alice; Klemm, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 292, Feb (2014), s. 813-822 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : core/shell nanoparticles * CdS/ZnS * molecular modelling * electron tunnelling * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014

  18. Silver-gold core-shell nanoparticles containing methylene blue as SERS labels for probing and imaging of live cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, X.; Guo, Z.; Jin, Y.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, W.; Huang, D.

    2012-01-01

    We report on silver-gold core-shell nanostructures that contain Methylene Blue (MB) at the gold/x96silver interface. They can be used as reporter molecules in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) labels. The labels are stable and have strong SERS activity. TEM imaging revealed that these nanoparticles display bright and dark stripe structures. In addition, these labels can act as probes that can be detected and imaged through the specific Raman signatures of the reporters. We show that such SERS probes can identify cellular structures due to enhanced Raman spectra of intrinsic cellular molecules measured in the local optical fields of the core-shell nanostructures. They also provide structural information on the cellular environment as demonstrated for these nanoparticles as new SERS-active and biocompatible substrates for imaging of live cells. (author)

  19. Modified solvothermal synthesis and characterization of CdS/ZnS core/shell nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baby Suganthi, A.R.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2013-01-01

    Core/shell CdS/ZnS nanorods were synthesized using a two-step solvothermal approach. The first step is the formation of CdS nanoparticles initiated using nucleation followed by growth through coalescence-exchange and particle coagulation. The second step leads to the formation of ZnS and further coalescence-exchange leading to deposition and growth of a ZnS shell around CdS nanoparticles. The structural, morphological and chemical studies were performed using X-ray diffraction, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) Scanning electron Microscopy (SEM), UV–vis absorption spectra and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), provide direct evidence for shell growth. The present synthesis provides a rational approach to the design of novel core/shell nanomaterials with appealing applications in optoelectronic devices. - Graphical abstract: From the resulting TEM images, the formation of core/shell could be observed. The apparent microscopy contrast between the CdS core and the ZnS shell offers evidence for the formation of CdS/ZnS core/shell nanostructures. It is clearly evident that the surfaces of the nanorods became rough after coating and also the diameter of the nanorod is seen increased up to 40–50 nm. Highlights: ► CdS/ZnS core/shell nanorods were synthesized using two-step solvothermal approach. ► The nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM, UV–vis and TEM. ► SEM images revealed the surface roughness after ZnS shell growth. ► TEM microscopy offers evidence for the formation of core/shell nanostructures

  20. Plasmonic Nanodiamonds – Targeted Core-shell Type Nanoparticles for Cancer Cell Thermoablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehor, Ivan; Lee, Karin L.; Chen, Kevin; Hajek, Miroslav; Havlik, Jan; Lokajova, Jana; Masat, Milan; Slegerova, Jitka; Shukla, Sourabh; Heidari, Hamed; Bals, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Targeted biocompatible nanostructures with controlled plasmonic and morphological parameters are promising materials for cancer treatment based on selective thermal ablation of cells. Here, core-shell plasmonic nanodiamonds consisting of a silica-encapsulated diamond nanocrystal coated in a gold shell is designed and synthesized. The architecture of particles is analyzed and confirmed in detail using 3-dimensional transmission electron microscope tomography. The particles are biocompatibilized using a PEG polymer terminated with bioorthogonally reactive alkyne groups. Azide-modified transferrin is attached to these particles, and their high colloidal stability and successful targeting to cancer cells overexpressing the transferrin receptor is demonstrated. The particles are nontoxic to the cells and they are readily internalized upon binding to the transferrin receptor. The high plasmonic cross section of the particles in the near-infrared region is utilized to quantitatively ablate the cancer cells with a short, one-minute irradiation by a pulse 750-nm laser. PMID:25336437

  1. Physical property control in core/shell inorganic nanostructures for fluorescence and magnetic targeting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen K.

    Nanomaterials show immense promise for the future in numerous areas of application. Properties that are unique from the bulk material and are tunable allow for innovation in material design. This thesis will focus on controlling the physical properties of core/shell nanostructures to enhance the utility of the materials. The first focus is on the impact of different solvent mixtures during the shell growth phase of SILAR based core/shell quantum dot synthesis is studied. Gaining insight into the mechanism for SILAR growth of core/shell nanoparticles allows improved synthetic yields and precursor binding, providing enhanced control to synthesis of core/shell nanoparticles. The second focus of this thesis is exploring the use of magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic drug targeting for cardiovascular conditions. Magnetic targeting for drug delivery enables increased local drug concentration, while minimizing non-specific interactions. In order to be effective for magnetic targeting, it must be shown that low magnetic strength is sufficient to capture flowing nanoparticles. By demonstrating the binding of a therapeutic agent to the surface at medicinal levels, the viability for use as a nanoparticle drug delivery system is improved.

  2. Effects of crystalline grain size and packing ratio of self-forming core/shell nanoparticles on magnetic properties at up to GHz bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetsuna, Tomohiro; Suenaga, Seiichi; Sakurada, Shinya; Harada, Koichi; Tomimatsu, Maki; Takahashi, Toshihide

    2011-01-01

    Self-forming core/shell nanoparticles of magnetic metal/oxide with crystalline grain size of less than 40 nm were synthesized. The nanoparticles were highly concentrated in an insulating matrix to fabricate a nanocomposite, whose magnetic properties were investigated. The crystalline grain size of the nanoparticles strongly influenced the magnetic anisotropy field, magnetic coercivity, relative permeability, and loss factor (tan δ=μ''/μ') at high frequency. The packing ratio of the magnetic metallic phase in the nanocomposite also influenced those properties. High permeability with low tan δ of less than 1.5% at up to 1 GHz was obtained in the case of the nanoparticles with crystalline grain size of around 15 nm with large packing ratio of the nanoparticles. - Research highlights: → Self-forming core/shell nanoparticles of magnetic metal/oxide were synthesized. → Crystalline grain size of the nanoparticle and its packing ratio were controlled. → Magnetic properties changed according to the size and packing ratio.

  3. Structure and stability of nickel/nickel oxide core-shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Addato, S; Grillo, V; Valeri, S; Frabboni, S; Altieri, S; Tondi, R

    2011-01-01

    The results of a combined x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) study of Ni nanoparticles (NP), before and after oxidation, are presented. An experimental set-up was realized for the preparation and study of pre-formed NP films, concentrating the attention on Ni NP in the diameter range between 4 and 8 nm. The XPS data were taken in situ from NPs after different stages of oxidation, including controlled dosing of O 2 gas in the experimental system and exposure to the atmosphere. The Ni 2p structure is a combination of spectra from metallic Ni in the NP core and from the oxide shell. The signal from the NP core was observed even for samples after exposure to air. From the comparison of HR-TEM experimental images with theoretical simulations, it was found that the Ni NP core has a regular multitwinned icosahedral structure, composed of single-crystal tetrahedra with (111) faces. The NiO phase is clearly observed forming islands on the NP surface.

  4. Structure and stability of nickel/nickel oxide core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Addato, S; Grillo, V; Valeri, S; Frabboni, S [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Altieri, S; Tondi, R, E-mail: sergio.daddato@unimore.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy)

    2011-05-04

    The results of a combined x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) study of Ni nanoparticles (NP), before and after oxidation, are presented. An experimental set-up was realized for the preparation and study of pre-formed NP films, concentrating the attention on Ni NP in the diameter range between 4 and 8 nm. The XPS data were taken in situ from NPs after different stages of oxidation, including controlled dosing of O{sub 2} gas in the experimental system and exposure to the atmosphere. The Ni 2p structure is a combination of spectra from metallic Ni in the NP core and from the oxide shell. The signal from the NP core was observed even for samples after exposure to air. From the comparison of HR-TEM experimental images with theoretical simulations, it was found that the Ni NP core has a regular multitwinned icosahedral structure, composed of single-crystal tetrahedra with (111) faces. The NiO phase is clearly observed forming islands on the NP surface.

  5. Defect-tuning exchange bias of ferromagnet/antiferromagnet core/shell nanoparticles by numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Zhongquan; Chen Xi; Zhan Xiaozhi

    2012-01-01

    The influence of non-magnetic defects on the exchange bias (EB) of ferromagnet (FM)/antiferromagnet (AFM) core/shell nanoparticles is studied by Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that the EB can be tuned by defects in different positions. Defects at both the AFM and FM interfaces reduce the EB field while they enhance the coercive field by decreasing the effective interface coupling. However, the EB field and the coercive field show respectively a non-monotonic and a monotonic dependence on the defect concentration when the defects are located inside the AFM shell, indicating a similar microscopic mechanism to that proposed in the domain state model. These results suggest a way to optimize the EB effect for applications. (paper)

  6. Design and optimization of Ag-dielectric core-shell nanostructures for silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Xiang Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal-dielectric core-shell nanostructures have been proposed as a light trapping scheme for enhancing the optical absorption of silicon solar cells. As a potential application of such enhanced effects, the scattering efficiencies of three core-shell structures (Ag@SiO2, Ag@TiO2, and Ag@ZrO2 are discussed using the Mie Scattering theory. For compatibility with experiment results, the core diameter and shell thickness are limited to 100 and 30 nm, respectively, and a weighted scattering efficiency is introduced to evaluate the scattering abilities of different nanoparticles under the solar spectrum AM 1.5. The simulated results indicate that the shell material and thickness are two key parameters affecting the weighted scattering efficiency. The SiO2 is found to be an unsuitable shell medium because of its low refractive index. However, using the high refractive index mediumTiO2 in Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles, only the thicker shell (30 nm is more beneficial for light scattering. The ZrO2 is an intermediate refractive index material, so Ag@ZrO2 nanoparticles are the most effective core-shell nanostructures in these silicon solar cells applications.

  7. Selective degradation of model pollutants in the presence of core@shell TiO{sub 2}@SiO{sub 2} photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadrah, Peter, E-mail: peter.nadrah@zag.si [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimičeva ul. 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gaberšček, Miran [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova ul. 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sever Škapin, Andrijana [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimičeva ul. 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} encapsulated in mesoporous silica exhibits selective photocatalytic degradation of low-molecular-weight molecules. • Core@shell photocatalyst degrades rhodamine B in presence of fivefold mass concentration of starch, while pure TiO{sub 2} does not. • Potential use for removing water pollutants, while retaining non-harmful and beneficial macromolecules. - Abstract: Photocatalytic TiO{sub 2} degrades organic matter unselectively. However, in certain applications, such as degradation of pollutants, selectivity towards pollutants is beneficial. We synthesized core@shell TiO{sub 2}@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with photocatalytic activity featuring a significantly faster preferential degradation of model pollutant (rhodamine B) in presence of abundant concentration of natural organic matter compared to pure TiO{sub 2} (P25). The material’s photocatalytic activity was tested in aqueous medium. The selectivity of prepared effect of core@shell materials is explained based on transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-ray powder diffraction and zeta potential measurements.

  8. Semiconducting, Magnetic or Superconducting Nanoparticles encapsulated in Carbon Shells by RAPET method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon Gedanken

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, solvent-free, environmentally friendly, RAPET (Reactions under Autogenic Pressure at Elevated Temperaturesynthetic approach is discussed for the fabrication of core-shell nanostructures. The semiconducting, magnetic orsuperconducting nanoparticles are encapsulated in a carbon shell. RAPET is a one-step, thermal decomposition reaction ofchemical compound (s followed by the formation of core-shell nanoparticles in a closed stainless steel reactor. Therepresentative examples are discussed, where a variety of nanomaterials are trapped in situ in a carbon shell that offersfascinating properties.

  9. Nano-structured silica coated mesoporous carbon micro-granules for potential application in water filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Avik; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Ghosh, A. K.

    2017-05-01

    A novel nano-composite spherical micro-granule has been synthesized using a facile technique of solvent evaporation induced assembly of nanoparticles for potential application in water filtration. The spherical micro-granule is comprised of nano-structured shell of hydrophilic silica encapsulating a hydrophobic mesoporous carbon at the core. Hierarchical structure of such core-shell micro-granules has been rigorously characterized using small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering techniques and complemented with scanning electron microscopy. The hydrophilic silica envelope around the carbon core helps in incorporation of such granules into the hydrophilic polymeric ultra-filtration membrane. The interstitial micro-pores present in the silica shell can serve as water transport channels and the mesoporus carbon core enhances the separation performance due its well adsorption characteristics. It has been found that the incorporation of such granules inside the ultra-filtration membrane indeed enhances the water permeability as well as the separation performance in a significant way.

  10. Characterization of a Porous Carbon Material Functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.; Rasul, Shahid; Roldan-Gutierrez, Manuel A.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2016-01-01

    A nanoporous carbon (C) material, functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt (CoO/Co) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), was structurally and chemically characterized with transmission electron microcopy (TEM) while its electrochemical response

  11. Monodisperse metal nanoparticle catalysts on silica mesoporous supports: synthesis, characterizations, and catalytic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2009-09-14

    addition, Pt-mesoporous silica core-shell structured NPs (Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2}) were prepared, where the individual Pt NP is encapsulated by the mesoporous silica layer. The Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} catalysts showed promising catalytic activity in high temperature CO oxidation. The design of catalytic structures with tunable parameters by rational synthetic methods presents a major advance in the field of catalyst synthesis, which would lead to uncover the structure-function relationships in heterogeneous catalytic reactions.

  12. Preparation and unique electrical behaviors of monodispersed hybrid nanorattles of metal nanocores with hairy electroactive polymer shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tao; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Yu; Wang, Cheng; Zhu, Chun Xiang; Neoh, Koon-Gee; Kang, En-Tang

    2014-03-03

    A versatile template-assisted strategy for the preparation of monodispersed rattle-type hybrid nanospheres, encapsulating a movable Au nanocore in the hollow cavity of a hairy electroactive polymer shell (Au@air@PTEMA-g-P3HT hybrid nanorattles; PTEMA: poly(2-(thiophen-3-yl)ethyl methacrylate; P3HT: poly(3-hexylthiophene), was reported. The Au@silica core-shell nanoparticles, prepared by the modified Stöber sol-gel process on Au nanoparticle seeds, were used as templates for the synthesis of Au@silica@PTEMA core-double shell nanospheres. Subsequent oxidative graft polymerization of 3-hexylthiophene from the exterior surface of the Au@silica@PTEMA core-double shell nanospheres allowed the tailoring of surface functionality with electroactive P3HT brushes (Au@silica@PTEMA-g-P3HT nanospheres). The Au@air@ PTEMA-g-P3HT hybrid nanorattles were obtained after etching of the silica interlayer by HF. The as-prepared nanorattles were dispersed into an electrically insulating polystyrene matrix and for the first time used to fabricate nonvolatile memory devices. As a result, unique electrical behaviors, including insulator behavior, write-once-read-many-times and rewritable memory effects, and conductor behavior as well, were observed in the Al/Au@air@PTEMA-g-P3HT+PS/ITO (ITO: indium-tin oxide) sandwich thin-film devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Design of epoxy-functionalized Fe3O4@MCM-41 core-shell nanoparticles for enzyme immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Ahmet; Ozcan, Imren; Koytepe, Suleyman; Ates, Burhan

    2018-05-01

    The scope of our research was to prepare the organosilane-modified Fe 3 O 4 @MCM-41 core-shell magnetic nanoparticles, used for L-ASNase immobilization and explored screening of immobilization conditions such as pH, temperature, thermal stability, kinetic parameters, reusability and storage stability. In this content, Fe 3 O 4 core-shell magnetic nanoparticles were prepared via co-precipitation method and coated with MCM-41. Then, Fe 3 O 4 @MCM-41 magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized by (3-glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) as an organosilane compound. Subsequently, L-ASNase was covalently immobilized on epoxy-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 @MCM-41 magnetic nanoparticles. The immobilized L-ASNase had greater activity at high pH and temperature values. It also maintained >92% of the initial activity after incubation at 55 °C for 3 h. Regarding kinetic values, immobilized L-ASNase showed a higher Vmax and lower Km compared to native L-ASNase. In addition, it displayed excellent reusability for 12 successive cycles. After 30 days of storage at 4 °C and 25 °C, immobilized L-ASNase retained 54% and 26% of its initial activities while native L-ASNase lost about 68% and 84% of its initial activity, respectively. As a result, the immobilization of L-ASNase onto magnetic nanoparticles may provide an advantage in terms of removal of L-ASNase from reaction media. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Improving the sensitivity of immunoassay based on MBA-embedded Au@SiO2 nanoparticles and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao; Xu, Min-Min; Fang, Cong-Wei; Jin, Qi; Yuan, Ya-Xian; Yao, Jian-Lin

    2017-03-01

    Traditional "sandwich" structure immunoassay is mainly based on the self-assembly of "antibody on solid substrate-antigen-antibody with nanotags" architectures, and the sensitivity of this strategy is critically depended on the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities and stability of nanotags. Therefore, the rational design and fabrication on the SERS nanotags attracts the common interests to the bio-related detecting and imaging. Herein, silica encapsulated Au with mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) core-shell nanoparticles (Au-MBA@SiO2) are fabricated instead of the traditional naked Au or Ag nanoparticles for the SERS-based immunoassay on human and mouse IgG antigens. The MBA molecules facilitate the formation of continuous pinhole-free silica shell and are also used as SERS labels. The silica shell is employed to protect MBA labels and to isolate Au core from the ambient solution for blocking the aggregation. This shell also played the similar role to BSA in inhibiting the nonspecific bindings, which allowed the procedures for constructing "sandwich" structures to be simplified. All of these merits of the Au-MBA@SiO2 brought the high performance in the related immunoassay. Benefiting from the introduction of silica shell to encapsulate MBA labels, the detection sensitivity was improved by about 1- 2 orders of magnitude by comparing with the traditional approach based on naked Au-MBA nanoparticles. This kind of label-embedded core-shell nanoparticles could be developed as the versatile nanotags for the bioanalysis and bioimaging.

  15. Multifunctional EuYVO4 nanoparticles coated with mesoporous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justino, Larissa G.; Nigoghossian, Karina; Capote, Ticiana S.O.; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel M.; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.; Caiut, José Maurício A.

    2016-01-01

    Mesoporous structures are interesting materials for the incorporation of dyes, drugs, and luminescent systems, leading to materials with important multifunctionalities. In a very unique way, these guest/host materials combine the high stability of inorganic systems, new guest-structuring features, and adsorption mechanisms in their well-defined pores. This work evaluates the luminescent properties of rare earth-doped YVO 4 nanoparticles coated with a mesoporous silica shell. The use of two different synthesis methodologies allowed for particle size control. The crystalline phase emerged without further heat treatment. The mesoporous shell decreased undesirable quenching effects on YVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles and rendered them biocompatible. The materials prepared herein could have interesting applications as luminescent markers or drug release systems.

  16. Quantitative optical extinction-based parametric method for sizing a single core-shell Ag-Ag2O nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillan, J M J; Scaffardi, L B; Schinca, D C

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a parametric method for determining the core radius and shell thickness in small silver-silver-oxide core-shell nanoparticles (Nps) based on single particle optical extinction spectroscopy. The method is based on the study of the relationship between plasmon peak wavelength, full width at half maximum (FWHM) and contrast of the extinction spectra as a function of core radius and shell thickness. This study reveals that plasmon peak wavelength is strongly dependent on shell thickness, whereas FWHM and contrast depend on both variables. These characteristics may be used for establishing an easy and fast stepwise procedure to size core-shell NPs from single particle absorption spectrum. The importance of the method lies in the possibility of monitoring the growth of the silver-oxide layer around small spherical silver Nps in real time. Using the electrostatic approximation of Mie theory, core-shell single particle extinction spectra were calculated for a silver particle's core size smaller than about 20 nm and different thicknesses of silver oxide around it. Analysis of the obtained curves shows a very particular characteristic of the plasmon peak of small silver-silver-oxide Nps, expressed in the fact that its position is strongly dependent on oxide thickness and weakly dependent on the core radius. Even a very thin oxide layer shifts the plasmon peak noticeably, enabling plasmon tuning with appropriate shell thickness. This characteristic, together with the behaviour of FWHM and contrast of the extinction spectra can be combined into a parametric method for sizing both core and shell of single silver Nps in a medium using only optical information. In turn, shell thickness can be related to oxygen content in the Np's surrounding media. The method proposed is applied to size silver Nps from single particle extinction spectrum. The results are compared with full optical spectrum fitting using the electrostatic approximation in Mie theory. The method

  17. Modeling of exchange bias in the antiferromagnetic (core)/ferromagnetic (shell) nanoparticles with specialized shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yong; Liu Yan; Du An

    2011-01-01

    Zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) hysteresis loops of egg- and ellipsoid-shaped nanoparticles with inverted ferromagnetic (FM)-antiferromagnetic (AFM) core-shell morphologies are simulated using a modified Monte Carlo method, which takes into account both the thermal fluctuations and energy barriers during the rotation of spin. Pronounced exchange bias (EB) fields and reduced coercivities are obtained in the FC hysteresis loops. The analysis of the microscopic spin configurations allows us to conclude that the magnetization reversal occurs by means of the nucleation process during both the ZFC and FC hysteresis branches. The nucleation takes place in the form of 'sparks' resulting from the energy competition and the morphology of the nanoparticle. The appearance of EB in the FC hysteresis loops is only dependent on that the movements of 'sparks' driven by magnetic field at both branches of hysteresis loops are not along the same axis, which is independent of the strength of AFM anisotropy. The tilt of 'spark' movement with respect to the symmetric axis implies the existence of additional unidirectional anisotropy at the AFM/FM interfaces as a consequence of the surplus magnetization in the AFM core, which is the commonly accepted origin of EB. Our simulations allow us to clarify the microscopic mechanisms of the observed EB behavior, not accessible in experiments. - Highlights: → A modified Monte Carlo method considers thermal fluctuations and energy barriers. → Egg and ellipsoid nanoparticles with inverted core-shell morphology are studied. → Pronounced exchange bias fields and reduced coercivities may be detected. → 'Sparks' representing nucleation sites due to energy competition are observed. → 'Sparks' can reflect or check directly and vividly the origin of exchange bias.

  18. Platinum-nanoparticle-supported core-shell polymer nanospheres with unexpected water stability and facile further modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Conghui; Xu, Yiting; Luo, Weiang; Zeng, Birong; Qiu, Wuhui; Liu, Jie; Huang, Huiling; Dai, Lizong

    2012-05-01

    Core-shell nanospheres (CSNSs) with hydrophobic cores and hydrophilic shells were fabricated via a simple mini-emulsion polymerization for the stabilization of platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs). The CSNSs showed extremely high loading capacity of Pt-NPs (the largest loading amount of the Pt-NPs was about 49.2 wt%). Importantly, the Pt-NPs/CSNSs nanocomposites had unexpected stability in aqueous solution. DLS results revealed that the CSNSs loaded with Pt-NPs exhibited almost no aggregation after standing for a long time . However, the Pt-NPs immobilized on the CSNSs were not straitlaced: they could transport and redistribute between CSNSs freely when the environmental temperature was higher than the melting point of the CSNS shell. Owing to their excellent stability in aqueous solution, the surface of the Pt-NPs/CSNSs nanocomposites could be further decorated easily. For example, polyaniline (PANI)-coated Pt-NPs/CSNSs, nickel (Ni)-coated Pt-NPs/CSNSs and PANI/Pt-NPs dual-layer hollow nanospheres were facilely fabricated from the Pt-NPs/CSNS nanocomposites.

  19. Glass transition of poly (methyl methacrylate) filled with nanosilica and core-shell structured silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yihu; Bu, Jing; Zuo, Min

    2017-01-01

    transition and segmental dynamics of PMMA in the nanocomposites prepared via solution casting was compared. The remarkable depression (≥10 °C) of glass transition temperature (Tg) induced by the incorporation of SiO2 and CS was both observed at low loadings. Here, different mechanisms were responsible...... for the effect of SiO2 and CS on the segmental acceleration of PMMA matrix. The formation of rigid amorphous fraction (RAF) layer around SiO2 with the thickness of 16.4 nm led to the adjacent molecular packing frustration, while the “lubrication” effect of nonwetting interface between the grafted crosslinked......Core-shell (CS) nanocomposite particles with 53.4 wt% cross-linked poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) shell of 11.6 nm in thickness were fabricated via miniemulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate in the presence of modified nanosilica. The influence of nanosilica and CS nanoparticles on glass...

  20. Novel synthesis of core-shell Au-Pt dendritic nanoparticles supported on carbon black for enhanced methanol electro-oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ribing; Xia, Tiantian; Zhu, Ruizhi; Liu, Zhihua; Guo, Jinming; Chang, Gang; Zhang, Zaoli; Liu, Xiong; He, Yunbin

    2018-03-01

    Core-shell Au-Pt dendritic nanoparticles (Au-Pt NPs) has been synthesized via a facile seed-mediated growth method, in which dendritic Pt nanoparticles as shell grow on the surface of gold nanocores by using ascorbic acid (AA) as "green" reducing reagents. The morphologies and compositions of the as-prepared nanocomposites with core-shell structure are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical experiments, including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) are performed to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of the Au-Pt NPs loaded carbon black composites (Au-Pt NPs/V) towards methanol oxidation in an alkaline solution. It is found that the reduction time of AA could regulate the thickness and amount of Pt on the Au nanocores, which significantly affect catalytic activity of the Au-Pt NPs/V toward methanol oxidation. Au-Pt NPs/V with optimum reduction time 4 h exhibit 2.3-times higher electrocatalytic activity than that of a commercial catalyst (Pt/carbon black) and an excellent CO tolerance toward methanol oxidation. This behavior is attributed to large active electrochemical area of the bimetallic nanocomposites and the change in the electronic structure of Pt when Au surface modified with fewer Pt nanoparticles.

  1. Ellipsoidal all-dielectric Fano resonant core-shell metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reena, Reena; Kalra, Yogita; Kumar, Ajeet

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, ellipsoidal core (Si) and shell (SiO2) metamaterial has been proposed for highly directional properties. At the wavelength of magnetic resonance, Fano dip occurs in the backward scattering cross section and forward scattering enhancement takes place at the same wavelength so that there is an increment in the directivity. Effect on the directivity by changing the length of ellipsoidal nanoparticle along semi-axes has been analyzed. Two Fano resonances have been observed by decreasing the length of the nanoparticle along the semi-axis having electric polarization, where first and second Fano resonances are attributed to the dipole and quadrupole moments, respectively. These Fano resonant wavelengths in ellipsoidal nanoparticle exhibit higher directivity than the Kerker's type scattering or forward scattering shown by symmetrical structures like sphere. So, this core-shell metamaterial can act as an efficient directional nanoantenna.

  2. Effects of hydrophobic drug-polyesteric core interactions on drug loading and release properties of poly(ethylene glycol)-polyester-poly(ethylene glycol) triblock core-shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoee, Sepideh; Hassanzadeh, Salman; Goliaie, Bahram

    2007-01-01

    BAB amphiphilic triblock copolymers consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) (B) (PEG) as the hydrophilic segment and different polyesters (A) as the hydrophobic block were prepared by a polycondensation reaction as efficient model core-shell nanoparticles to assay the effect of interactions between the hydrophobic drug and the polyesteric core in terms of drug loading content and release profile. PEG-poly(hexylene adipate)-PEG (PEG-PHA-PEG) and PEG-poly(butylene adipate)-PEG (PEG-PBA-PEG) to PEG-poly(ethylene adipate)-PEG (PEG-PEA-PEG) core-shell type nanoparticles entrapping quercetin (an anticarcinogenic, allergy inhibitor and antibacterial agent), were prepared by a nanoprecipitation method and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. It was found that the obtained nanoparticles showed a smooth surface and spherical shape with controllable sizes in the range of 64-74 nm, while drug loading varied from 7.24% to 19% depending on the copolymer composition and the preparation conditions. The in vitro release behaviour exhibited a sustained release and was affected by the polymer-drug interactions. UV studies revealed the presence of hydrogen bonding as the main existing interaction between quercetin and polyesters in the nanosphere cores

  3. Hiding the interior region of core-shell nanoparticles with quantum invisible cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeng Yi; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2014-04-01

    Based on the scattering cancellation, we provide a method not only making a nanoparticle nearly invisible, but also hiding its interior region from the outside probing matter wave. By applying the interplay among the nodal points of partial waves along with the concept of streamline in fluid dynamics for probability flux, a quantum invisible cloak to the electron transport in a host semiconductor is demonstrated by simultaneously guiding the probability flux outside a hidden region and keeping the total scattering cross section negligible. As the probability flux vanishes in the interior region, one can embed any materials inside a multiple core-shell nanoparticle without affecting physical observables from the outside. Our results reveal the possibility to design a protection shield layer for fragile interior parts from the impact of transport electrons.

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanoparticle-decorated ZnO/TiO2 core/shell nanorod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meili; Huang Changgang; Cao Yongge; Deng Zhonghua; Liu Yuan; Huang Zhi; Huang Jiquan; Huang Qiufeng; Guo Wang; Liang Jingkui; Yu Qingjiang

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) decorated ZnO/TiO 2 core/shell nanorod arrays were fabricated on transparent conductive glass substrates by sequential plasma deposition and post-annealing processes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications. The NPs decorated ZnO/TiO 2 nanorods were composed of single-crystalline ZnO nanorods, homogeneously coated thin TiO 2 shells and entirely covered anatase TiO 2 NPs. The photocurrent density of the composite electrode was largely enhanced due to the enlarged surface area, the dark current was suppressed and the open-circuit voltage was increased because of the energy barrier formed at the interface between the ZnO core and the TiO 2 shell. The increased photocurrent and open-circuit voltage led to an improvement of twice the energy conversion efficiency.

  5. Human nitric oxide biomarker as potential NO donor in conjunction with superparamagnetic iron oxide @ gold core shell nanoparticles for cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nimisha; Patel, Khushbu; Sahoo, Suban K; Kumar, Rajender

    2018-03-01

    Nitric oxide releasing superparamagnetic (Fe 3 O 4 -Au@NTHP) nanoparticles were synthesized by conjugation of human biomarker of nitric oxide, N-nitrosothioproline with iron oxide-gold (Fe 3 O 4 -Au) core shell nanoparticles. The structure and morphology of the prepared nanoparticles were confirmed by ATR-FTIR, HR-TEM, EDAX, XPS, DLS and VSM measurements. N-nitrosothioproline is a natural molecule and nontoxic to humans. Thus, the core shell nanoparticles prepared were highly biocompatible. The prepared Fe 3 O 4 -Au@NTHP nanoparticles also provided an excellent release of nitric oxide in dark and upon light irradiation for cancer treatment. The amount of NO release was controllable with the wavelength of light and time of irradiation. The developed nanoparticles provided efficient cellular uptake and good cytotoxicity in picomolar range when tested on HeLa cancerous cells. These nanoparticles on account of their controllable NO release can also be used to release small amount of NO for killing cancerous cells without any toxic effect. Furthermore, the magnetic and photochemical properties of these nanoparticles provides dual platform for magneto therapy and phototherapy for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrafast Dynamics of Metallo-Dielectric Core-Shell Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, X.

    2008-01-01

    Optical properties of metallic nano-structures have attracted a lot of attention in the past decades. In this thesis, we focus on nano-sized silica-core gold-shell particles, study the linear, nonlinear and acoustic vibrations of the particles. The linear optical properties in the visible range of

  7. Mössbauer Studies of Core-Shell FeO/Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamzin, A. S.; Valiullin, A. A.; Khurshid, H.; Nemati, Z.; Srikanth, H.; Phan, M. H.

    2018-02-01

    FeO/Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition. Electron microscopy revealed that these nanoparticles were of the core-shell type and had a spherical shape with an average size of 20 nm. It was found that the obtained FeO/Fe3O4 nanoparticles had exchange coupling. The effect of anisotropy on the efficiency of heating (hyperthermic effect) of FeO/Fe3O4 nanoparticles by an external alternating magnetic field was examined. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of the studied nanoparticles was 135 W/g in the experiment with an external alternating magnetic field with a strength of 600 Oe and a frequency of 310 kHz. These data led to an important insight: the saturation magnetization is not the only factor governing the SAR, and the efficiency of heating of magnetic FeO/Fe3O4 nanoparticles may be increased by enhancing the effective anisotropy. Mössbauer spectroscopy of the phase composition of the synthesized nanoparticles clearly revealed the simultaneous presence of three phases: magnetite Fe3O4, maghemite γ-Fe2O3, and wustite FeO.

  8. A solar-thermal energy harvesting scheme: enhanced heat capacity of molten HITEC salt mixed with Sn/SiO(x) core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Chung; Chang, Wen-Chih; Hu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zhiming M; Lu, Ming-Chang; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2014-05-07

    We demonstrated enhanced solar-thermal storage by releasing the latent heat of Sn/SiO(x) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a eutectic salt. The microstructures and chemical compositions of Sn/SiO(x) core-shell NPs were characterized. In situ heating XRD provides dynamic crystalline information about the Sn/SiO(x) core-shell NPs during cyclic heating processes. The latent heat of ∼29 J g(-1) for Sn/SiO(x) core-shell NPs was measured, and 30% enhanced heat capacity was achieved from 1.57 to 2.03 J g(-1) K(-1) for the HITEC solar salt without and with, respectively, a mixture of 5% Sn/SiO(x) core-shell NPs. In addition, an endurance cycle test was performed to prove a stable operation in practical applications. The approach provides a method to enhance energy storage in solar-thermal power plants.

  9. Simple Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Core/Shell CdSe/SiOx Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhang Dai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell-structured CdSe/SiOx nanowires were synthesized on an equilateral triangle Si (111 substrate through a simple one-step thermal evaporation process. SEM, TEM, and XRD investigations confirmed the core-shell structure; that is, the core zone is single crystalline CdSe and the shell zone is SiOx amorphous layer and CdSe core was grown along (001 direction. Two-stage growth process was present to explain the growth mechanism of the core/shell nanwires. The silicon substrate of designed equilateral triangle providing the silicon source is the key factor to form the core-shell nanowires, which is significant for fabrication of nanowire-core sheathed with a silica system. The PL of the product studied at room temperature showed two emission bands around 715 and 560 nm, which originate from the band-band transition of CdSe cores and the amorphous SiOx shells, respectively.

  10. Morphology and electronic structure of the oxide shell on the surface of iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongmin; Baer, Donald R; Amonette, James E; Engelhard, Mark H; Antony, Jiji; Qiang, You

    2009-07-01

    An iron (Fe) nanoparticle exposed to air at room temperature will be instantly covered by an oxide shell that is typically approximately 3 nm thick. The nature of this native oxide shell, in combination with the underlying Fe(0) core, determines the physical and chemical behavior of the core-shell nanoparticle. One of the challenges of characterizing core-shell nanoparticles is determining the structure of the oxide shell, that is, whether it is FeO, Fe(3)O(4), gamma-Fe(2)O(3), alpha-Fe(2)O(3), or something else. The results of prior characterization efforts, which have mostly used X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy, electron diffraction, and transmission electron microscopic imaging, have been framed in terms of one of the known Fe-oxide structures, although it is not necessarily true that the thin layer of Fe oxide is a known Fe oxide. In this Article, we probe the structure of the oxide shell on Fe nanoparticles using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) at the oxygen (O) K-edge with a spatial resolution of several nanometers (i.e., less than that of an individual particle). We studied two types of representative particles: small particles that are fully oxidized (no Fe(0) core) and larger core-shell particles that possess an Fe core. We found that O K-edge spectra collected for the oxide shell in nanoparticles show distinct differences from those of known Fe oxides. Typically, the prepeak of the spectra collected on both the core-shell and the fully oxidized particles is weaker than that collected on standard Fe(3)O(4). Given the fact that the origin of this prepeak corresponds to the transition of the O 1s electron to the unoccupied state of O 2p hybridized with Fe 3d, a weak pre-edge peak indicates a combination of the following four factors: a higher degree of occupancy of the Fe 3d orbital; a longer Fe-O bond length; a decreased covalency of the Fe-O bond; and a measure of cation vacancies. These results suggest that the coordination configuration in

  11. Mannose-functionalized porous silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for two-photon imaging or PDT of cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrier, Marine; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Lartigue, Lenaïc; Brevet, David; Morère, Alain; Garcia, Marcel; Maillard, Philippe; Raehm, Laurence; Guari, Yannick; Larionova, Joulia; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Mongin, Olivier; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    An original fluorophore engineered for two-photon excitation or a porphyrin derivative were entrapped in the silica shell of magnetic porous silica nanoparticles during the synthesis of the silica moiety without damaging the structure of the organic part. The mild conditions involved allowed obtaining microporous or mesoporous silica magnetic nanoparticles, respectively. Mannose was grafted on the surface of the nanoparticles to target MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The studies of magnetic properties of these hybrid nanoparticles show that they present a blocking temperature at 190 K. The nano-objects designed with the two-photon fluorophore were efficient for two-photon imaging of MCF-7 cancer cells, whereas the nano-objects with the photosensitizer efficiently killed cancer cells. The presence of the mannose moiety was demonstrated to improve both imaging and therapy properties.

  12. Mannose-functionalized porous silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for two-photon imaging or PDT of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrier, Marine [UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier (France); Gary-Bobo, Magali [Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Montpellier 1, Universite Montpellier 2, Institut des Biomolecules Max Mousseron UMR 5247 CNRS (France); Lartigue, Lenaiec; Brevet, David [UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier (France); Morere, Alain; Garcia, Marcel [Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Montpellier 1, Universite Montpellier 2, Institut des Biomolecules Max Mousseron UMR 5247 CNRS (France); Maillard, Philippe [Universite Paris-Sud, UMR 176 CNRS, Institut Curie (France); Raehm, Laurence; Guari, Yannick, E-mail: yannick.guari@um2.fr; Larionova, Joulia; Durand, Jean-Olivier, E-mail: durand@univ-montp2.fr [UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier (France); Mongin, Olivier [Universite de Rennes 1, Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, CNRS UMR 6226 (France); Blanchard-Desce, Mireille [Universite Bordeaux, Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 5255 (France)

    2013-05-15

    An original fluorophore engineered for two-photon excitation or a porphyrin derivative were entrapped in the silica shell of magnetic porous silica nanoparticles during the synthesis of the silica moiety without damaging the structure of the organic part. The mild conditions involved allowed obtaining microporous or mesoporous silica magnetic nanoparticles, respectively. Mannose was grafted on the surface of the nanoparticles to target MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The studies of magnetic properties of these hybrid nanoparticles show that they present a blocking temperature at 190 K. The nano-objects designed with the two-photon fluorophore were efficient for two-photon imaging of MCF-7 cancer cells, whereas the nano-objects with the photosensitizer efficiently killed cancer cells. The presence of the mannose moiety was demonstrated to improve both imaging and therapy properties.

  13. Magnetic core-shell nanoparticles for drug delivery by nebulization

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Verma, Navin Kumar

    2013-01-23

    AbstractBackgroundAerosolized therapeutics hold great potential for effective treatment of various diseases including lung cancer. In this context, there is an urgent need to develop novel nanocarriers suitable for drug delivery by nebulization. To address this need, we synthesized and characterized a biocompatible drug delivery vehicle following surface coating of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with a polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). The polymeric shell of these engineered nanoparticles was loaded with a potential anti-cancer drug quercetin and their suitability for targeting lung cancer cells via nebulization was evaluated.ResultsAverage particle size of the developed MNPs and PLGA-MNPs as measured by electron microscopy was 9.6 and 53.2 nm, whereas their hydrodynamic swelling as determined using dynamic light scattering was 54.3 nm and 293.4 nm respectively. Utilizing a series of standardized biological tests incorporating a cell-based automated image acquisition and analysis procedure in combination with real-time impedance sensing, we confirmed that the developed MNP-based nanocarrier system was biocompatible, as no cytotoxicity was observed when up to 100 mug\\/ml PLGA-MNP was applied to the cultured human lung epithelial cells. Moreover, the PLGA-MNP preparation was well-tolerated in vivo in mice when applied intranasally as measured by glutathione and IL-6 secretion assays after 1, 4, or 7 days post-treatment. To imitate aerosol formation for drug delivery to the lungs, we applied quercitin loaded PLGA-MNPs to the human lung carcinoma cell line A549 following a single round of nebulization. The drug-loaded PLGA-MNPs significantly reduced the number of viable A549 cells, which was comparable when applied either by nebulization or by direct pipetting.ConclusionWe have developed a magnetic core-shell nanoparticle-based nanocarrier system and evaluated the feasibility of its drug delivery capability via aerosol administration. This study has

  14. VCAM-1-targeted core/shell nanoparticles for selective adhesion and delivery to endothelial cells with lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation under shear flow and cellular magnetic resonance imaging in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Zhao, Fenglong; Li, Ying; Xu, Mingming; Li, Li; Wu, Chunhui; Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Liu, Yiyao

    2013-01-01

    Multifunctional nanomaterials with unique magnetic and luminescent properties have broad potential in biological applications. Because of the overexpression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) receptors in inflammatory endothelial cells as compared with normal endothelial cells, an anti-VCAM-1 monoclonal antibody can be used as a targeting ligand. Herein we describe the development of multifunctional core-shell Fe(3)O(4)@SiO2 nanoparticles with the ability to target inflammatory endothelial cells via VCAM-1, magnetism, and fluorescence imaging, with efficient magnetic resonance imaging contrast characteristics. Superparamagnetic iron oxide and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were loaded successfully inside the nanoparticle core and the silica shell, respectively, creating VCAM-1-targeted Fe(3)O(4)@SiO2(FITC) nanoparticles that were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectrometry, zeta potential assay, and fluorescence microscopy. The VCAM-1-targeted Fe(3)O(4)@SiO2(FITC) nanoparticles typically had a diameter of 355 ± 37 nm, showed superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, and cumulative and targeted adhesion to an inflammatory subline of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC-CS) activated by lipopolysaccharide. Further, our data show that adhesion of VCAM-1-targeted Fe(3)O(4)@SiO2(FITC) nanoparticles to inflammatory HUVEC-CS depended on both shear stress and duration of exposure to stress. Analysis of internalization into HUVEC-CS showed that the efficiency of delivery of VCAM-1-targeted Fe(3)O(4)@SiO2(FITC) nanoparticles was also significantly greater than that of nontargeted Fe(3)O(4)@SiO2(FITC)-NH2 nanoparticles. Magnetic resonance images showed that the superparamagnetic iron oxide cores of the VCAM-1-targeted Fe(3)O(4)@SiO2(FITC) nanoparticles could also act as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. Taken together, the cumulative adhesion and uptake potential of

  15. Exploration of the growth process of ultrathin silica shells on the surface of gold nanorods by the localized surface plasmon resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chong; Li, Yujie; Ling, Yunyang; Lai, Yangwei; Wu, Chuanliu; Zhao, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    Ultrathin silica coating (UTSC) has emerged as an effective way to improve the compatibility and stability of nanoparticles without attenuating their intrinsic optical properties. Exploration strategies to probe the growth process of ultrathin silica shells on the surface of nanoparticles would represent a valuable innovation that would benefit the development of ultrathin silica coated nanoparticles and their relevant applications. In this work, we report a unique, very effective and straightforward strategy for probing the growth of ultrathin silica shells on the surface of gold nanorods (Au NRs), which exploits the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) as a reporting signal. The thickness of the ultrathin silica shells on the surface of Au NRs can be quantitatively measured and predicted in the range of 0.5–3.5 nm. It is demonstrated that the LSPR shift accurately reflects the real-time change in the thickness of the ultrathin silica shells on Au NRs during the growth process. By using the developed strategy, we further analyze the growth of UTSC on the surface of Au NRs via feeding of Na 2 SiO 3 in a stepwise manner. The responsiveness analysis of LSPR also provides important insight into the shielding effect of UTSC on the surface of Au NRs that is not accessible with conventional strategies. This LSPR-based strategy permits exploration of the surface-mediated sol–gel reactions of silica from a new point of view. (paper)

  16. Preparation and Characterization of WS2@SiO2 and WS2@PANI Core-Shell Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Sade

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two tungsten disulfide (WS2-based core-shell nanocomposites were fabricated using readily available reagents and simple procedures. The surface was pre-treated with a surfactant couple in a layer-by-layer approach, enabling good dispersion of the WS2 nanostructures in aqueous media and providing a template for the polymerization of a silica (SiO2 shell. After a Stöber-like reaction, a conformal silica coating was achieved. Inspired by the resulting nanocomposite, a second one was prepared by reacting the surfactant-modified WS2 nanostructures with aniline and an oxidizing agent in an aqueous medium. Here too, a conformal coating of polyaniline (PANI was obtained, giving a WS2@PANI nanocomposite. Both nanocomposites were analyzed by electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and FTIR, verifying the core-shell structure and the character of shells. The silica shell was amorphous and mesoporous and the surface area of the composite increases with shell thickness. Polyaniline shells slightly differ in their morphologies dependent on the acid used in the polymerization process and are amorphous like the silica shell. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy of the WS2@PANI nanocomposite showed variation between bulk PANI and the PANI shell. These two nanocomposites have great potential to expand the use of transition metals dichalcogenides (TMDCs for new applications in different fields.

  17. Synthesis of Pd@Pt Core-shell Nanoparticles based on Photochemical Seed Growth Method and Co-reduction Method and the Electrocatalytic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shanshan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of Pd@Pt nanoparticles were synthesized based on electrochemical seed growth method and co-reduction method in polyethylene-glycol and acetone solution system. The TEM/HR-TEM and XPS characterization proved that the prepared composite nanoparticles present core-shell structure and analyzed the chemical state of the particles. The electrocatalytic performance of Pd@Pt particles was studied by using the electrochemical workstation. The results showed that the Pd@Pt/C catalyst of different molar ratios of Pd to Pt exhibited preferable catalytic activity and stability for the methanol catalytic oxidation reaction. Among which, the Pd@Pt nanoparticles (Pd:Pt=1:1 prepared by co-reduction method, presented highest catalytic activity, which is 2 times higher than that of Pt/C catalyst. The high catalytic activity produced by the core-shell structure was briefly discussed.

  18. Quantitative optical extinction-based parametric method for sizing a single core-shell Ag-Ag{sub 2}O nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillan, J M J; Scaffardi, L B; Schinca, D C, E-mail: lucias@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp), (CONICET La Plata-CIC) (Argentina)

    2011-03-16

    This paper develops a parametric method for determining the core radius and shell thickness in small silver-silver-oxide core-shell nanoparticles (Nps) based on single particle optical extinction spectroscopy. The method is based on the study of the relationship between plasmon peak wavelength, full width at half maximum (FWHM) and contrast of the extinction spectra as a function of core radius and shell thickness. This study reveals that plasmon peak wavelength is strongly dependent on shell thickness, whereas FWHM and contrast depend on both variables. These characteristics may be used for establishing an easy and fast stepwise procedure to size core-shell NPs from single particle absorption spectrum. The importance of the method lies in the possibility of monitoring the growth of the silver-oxide layer around small spherical silver Nps in real time. Using the electrostatic approximation of Mie theory, core-shell single particle extinction spectra were calculated for a silver particle's core size smaller than about 20 nm and different thicknesses of silver oxide around it. Analysis of the obtained curves shows a very particular characteristic of the plasmon peak of small silver-silver-oxide Nps, expressed in the fact that its position is strongly dependent on oxide thickness and weakly dependent on the core radius. Even a very thin oxide layer shifts the plasmon peak noticeably, enabling plasmon tuning with appropriate shell thickness. This characteristic, together with the behaviour of FWHM and contrast of the extinction spectra can be combined into a parametric method for sizing both core and shell of single silver Nps in a medium using only optical information. In turn, shell thickness can be related to oxygen content in the Np's surrounding media. The method proposed is applied to size silver Nps from single particle extinction spectrum. The results are compared with full optical spectrum fitting using the electrostatic approximation in Mie theory

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and 3D-FDTD simulation of Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles for shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzayisenga, Viviane; Lin, Xiao-Dong; Li, Li-Mei; Anema, Jason R; Yang, Zhi-Lin; Huang, Yi-Fan; Lin, Hai-Xin; Li, Song-Bo; Li, Jian-Feng; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2012-06-19

    Au-seed Ag-growth nanoparticles of controllable diameter (50-100 nm), and having an ultrathin SiO(2) shell of controllable thickness (2-3 nm), were prepared for shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS). Their morphological, optical, and material properties were characterized; and their potential for use as a versatile Raman signal amplifier was investigated experimentally using pyridine as a probe molecule and theoretically by the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) method. We show that a SiO(2) shell as thin as 2 nm can be synthesized pinhole-free on the Ag surface of a nanoparticle, which then becomes the core. The dielectric SiO(2) shell serves to isolate the Raman-signal enhancing core and prevent it from interfering with the system under study. The SiO(2) shell also hinders oxidation of the Ag surface and nanoparticle aggregation. It significantly improves the stability and reproducibility of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal intensity, which is essential for SERS applications. Our 3D-FDTD simulations show that Ag-core SHINERS nanoparticles yield at least 2 orders of magnitude greater enhancement than Au-core ones when excited with green light on a smooth Ag surface, and thus add to the versatility of our SHINERS method.

  20. Controlled-release and preserved bioactivity of proteins from (self-assembled core-shell double-walled microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan W

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Weien Yuan1,2, Zhenguo Liu11Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In order to address preserved protein bioactivities and protein sustained-release problems, a method for preparing double-walled microspheres with a core (protein-loaded nanoparticles with a polymer-suspended granule system-formed core and a second shell (a polymer-formed shell for controlled drug release and preserved protein bioactivities has been developed using (solid-in-oil phase-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (S/O/Oh/W phases. The method, based on our previous microsphere preparation method (solid-in-oil phase-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (S/O/Oh/W, employs different concentric poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide, poly(D,L-lactide, and protein-loaded nanoparticles to produce a suspended liquid which then self-assembles to form shell-core microspheres in the hydrophilic oil phase, which are then solidified in the water phase. Variations in the preparation parameters allowed complete encapsulation by the shell phase, including the efficient formation of a poly(D,L-lactide shell encapsulating a protein-loaded nanoparticle-based poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide core. This method produces core-shell double-walled microspheres that show controlled protein release and preserved protein bioactivities for 60 days. Based upon these results, we concluded that the core-shell double-walled microspheres might be applied for tissue engineering and therapy for chronic diseases, etc.Keywords: protein delivery, protein stability, core-shell microspheres, dextran nanoparticles

  1. Synthesis of novel core-shell structured dual-mesoporous silica nanospheres and their application for enhancing the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chao, E-mail: wuchao27@126.com [Department of Pharmaceutics, Liaoning Medical University, 40 Songpo Road, Linghe District, Jinzhou, Liaoning Province 121001 (China); Sun, Xiaohu [Management Center for Experiments, Bohai University, 19 Keji Road, Songshan District, Jinzhou, Liaoning Province 121000 (China); Zhao, Zongzhe; Zhao, Ying; Hao, Yanna; Liu, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutics, Liaoning Medical University, 40 Songpo Road, Linghe District, Jinzhou, Liaoning Province 121001 (China); Gao, Yu, E-mail: gaoyu_1116@163.com [Department of Medical Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, 40 Songpo Road, Linghe District, Jinzhou, Liaoning Province 121001 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Novel core-shell dual-mesoporous silica nanospheres (DMSS) with a tunable pore size were synthesized successfully using a styrene monomer as a channel template for the core and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as a channel template for the shell in order to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. Simvastatin was used as a model drug and loaded into DMSS and the mesoporous core without the shell (MSC) by the solvent evaporation method. The drug loading efficiency of DMSS and MSC were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV). Characterization, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that simvastatin adsorbed in DMSS and MSC was in an amorphous state, and in vitro release test results demonstrated that both DMSS and MSC increased the water solubility and dissolution rate of simvastatin. The shell structure of DMSS was able to regulate the release of simvastatin compared with MSC. It is worth noting that DMSS has significant potential as a carrier for improving the dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs and reducing the rapid release. - Highlights: • A novel core-shell DMSS is prepared for improving the dissolution rate of simvastatin. • The diffusional resistance of the mesoporous shell can delay and regulate drug release. • Simvastatin absorbed in DMSS exists in amorphous form due to spatial confinement.

  2. Synthesis of novel core-shell structured dual-mesoporous silica nanospheres and their application for enhancing the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chao; Sun, Xiaohu; Zhao, Zongzhe; Zhao, Ying; Hao, Yanna; Liu, Ying; Gao, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Novel core-shell dual-mesoporous silica nanospheres (DMSS) with a tunable pore size were synthesized successfully using a styrene monomer as a channel template for the core and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as a channel template for the shell in order to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. Simvastatin was used as a model drug and loaded into DMSS and the mesoporous core without the shell (MSC) by the solvent evaporation method. The drug loading efficiency of DMSS and MSC were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV). Characterization, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that simvastatin adsorbed in DMSS and MSC was in an amorphous state, and in vitro release test results demonstrated that both DMSS and MSC increased the water solubility and dissolution rate of simvastatin. The shell structure of DMSS was able to regulate the release of simvastatin compared with MSC. It is worth noting that DMSS has significant potential as a carrier for improving the dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs and reducing the rapid release. - Highlights: • A novel core-shell DMSS is prepared for improving the dissolution rate of simvastatin. • The diffusional resistance of the mesoporous shell can delay and regulate drug release. • Simvastatin absorbed in DMSS exists in amorphous form due to spatial confinement

  3. An ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for glucose using CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot as ultrafast electron transfer relay between graphene-gold nanocomposite and gold nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhiguo; Yang Shuping; Li Zaijun; Sun Xiulan; Wang Guangli; Fang Yinjun; Liu Junkang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We first reported an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for glucose using CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot as ultrafast electron transfer relay between graphene-gold nanocomposite and gold nanoparticle. Since promising their electrocatalytic synergy towards glucose was achieved, the biosensor showed high sensitivity (5762.8 nA nM -1 cm -2 ), low detection limit (S/N = 3) (3 x 10 -12 M) and fast response time (0.045 s). - Abstract: The paper reported an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for glucose which was based on CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot as ultrafast electron transfer relay between graphene-gold nanocomposite and gold nanoparticle. Since efficient electron transfer between glucose oxidase and the electrode was achieved, the biosensor showed high sensitivity (5762.8 nA nM -1 cm -2 ), low detection limit (S/N = 3) (3 x 10 -12 M), fast response time (0.045 s), wide calibration range (from 1 x 10 -11 M to 1 x 10 -8 M) and good long-term stability (26 weeks). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of the glucose oxidase on the medium, 5.24 x 10 -6 mM, indicates excellent bioelectrocatalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme towards glucose oxidation. Moreover, the effects of omitting graphene-gold nanocomposite, CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot and gold nanoparticle were also investigated. The result showed sensitivity of the biosensor is 7.67-fold better if graphene-gold nanocomposite, CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot and gold nanoparticle are used. This could be ascribed to improvement of the conductivity between graphene nanosheets due to introduction of gold nanoparticles, ultrafast charge transfer from CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot to graphene nanosheets and gold nanoparticle due to unique electrochemical properties of the CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot and good biocompatibility of gold nanoparticle for glucose oxidase. The biosensor is of best sensitivity in all glucose biosensors based on graphene nanomaterials up to

  4. An ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for glucose using CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot as ultrafast electron transfer relay between graphene-gold nanocomposite and gold nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Zhiguo; Yang Shuping [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Li Zaijun, E-mail: zaijunli@263.net [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Sun Xiulan [School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wang Guangli [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Fang Yinjun [Zhejiang Zanyu Technology Co., Ltd., Hangzhou 310009 (China); Liu Junkang [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2011-10-30

    Graphical abstract: We first reported an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for glucose using CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot as ultrafast electron transfer relay between graphene-gold nanocomposite and gold nanoparticle. Since promising their electrocatalytic synergy towards glucose was achieved, the biosensor showed high sensitivity (5762.8 nA nM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), low detection limit (S/N = 3) (3 x 10{sup -12} M) and fast response time (0.045 s). - Abstract: The paper reported an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for glucose which was based on CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot as ultrafast electron transfer relay between graphene-gold nanocomposite and gold nanoparticle. Since efficient electron transfer between glucose oxidase and the electrode was achieved, the biosensor showed high sensitivity (5762.8 nA nM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), low detection limit (S/N = 3) (3 x 10{sup -12} M), fast response time (0.045 s), wide calibration range (from 1 x 10{sup -11} M to 1 x 10{sup -8} M) and good long-term stability (26 weeks). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of the glucose oxidase on the medium, 5.24 x 10{sup -6} mM, indicates excellent bioelectrocatalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme towards glucose oxidation. Moreover, the effects of omitting graphene-gold nanocomposite, CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot and gold nanoparticle were also investigated. The result showed sensitivity of the biosensor is 7.67-fold better if graphene-gold nanocomposite, CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot and gold nanoparticle are used. This could be ascribed to improvement of the conductivity between graphene nanosheets due to introduction of gold nanoparticles, ultrafast charge transfer from CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot to graphene nanosheets and gold nanoparticle due to unique electrochemical properties of the CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot and good biocompatibility of gold nanoparticle for glucose oxidase. The biosensor is of best sensitivity in all glucose

  5. Enhanced charge storage capability of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, C L; Lee, P S

    2008-01-01

    A Ge/GeO 2 core/shell nanostructure embedded in an Al 2 O 3 gate dielectrics matrix was produced. A larger memory window with good data retention was observed in the fabricated metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor for Ge/GeO 2 core/shell nanoparticles compared to Ge nanoparticles only, which is due to the high percentage of defects located on the surface and grain boundaries of the GeO 2 shell. We believe that the findings presented here provide physical insight and offer useful guidelines to controllably modify the charge storage properties of indirect semiconductors through defect engineering

  6. Enhanced charge storage capability of Ge/GeO(2) core/shell nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C L; Lee, P S

    2008-09-03

    A Ge/GeO(2) core/shell nanostructure embedded in an Al(2)O(3) gate dielectrics matrix was produced. A larger memory window with good data retention was observed in the fabricated metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor for Ge/GeO(2) core/shell nanoparticles compared to Ge nanoparticles only, which is due to the high percentage of defects located on the surface and grain boundaries of the GeO(2) shell. We believe that the findings presented here provide physical insight and offer useful guidelines to controllably modify the charge storage properties of indirect semiconductors through defect engineering.

  7. Encapsulation of antigen-loaded silica nanoparticles into microparticles for intradermal powder injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yibin; Mathaes, Roman; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2014-10-15

    Epidermal powder immunisation (EPI) is being investigated as a promising needle-free delivery methods for vaccination. The objective of this work was to prepare a nanoparticles-in-microparticles (nano-in-micro) system, integrating the advantages of nanoparticles and microparticles into one vaccine delivery system for epidermal powder immunisation. Cationic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNP-NH2) were prepared and loaded with ovalbumin as a model antigen. Loading was driven by electrostatic interactions. Ovalbumin-loaded silica nanoparticles were subsequently formulated into sugar-based microparticles by spray-freeze-drying. The obtained microparticles meet the size requirement for EPI. Confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate that the nanoparticles are homogeneously distributed in the microparticles. Furthermore, the silica nanoparticles in the dry microparticles can be re-dispersed in aqueous solution showing no aggregation. The recovered ovalbumin shows integrity compared to native ovalbumin. The present nano-in-micro system allows (1) nanoparticles to be immobilized and finely distributed in microparticles, (2) microparticle formation and (3) re-dispersion of nanoparticles without subsequent aggregation. The nanoparticles inside microparticles can (1) adsorb proteins to cationic shell/surface voids in spray-dried products without detriment to ovalbumin stability, (2) deliver antigens in nano-sized modes to allow recognition by the immune system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stabilization of Palladium Nanoparticles on Nanodiamond-Graphene Core-Shell Supports for CO Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyun; Liu, Hongyang; Huang, Xing; Sun, Xueping; Jiang, Zheng; Schlögl, Robert; Su, Dangsheng

    2015-12-21

    Nanodiamond-graphene core-shell materials have several unique properties compared with purely sp(2) -bonded nanocarbons and perform remarkably well as metal-free catalysts. In this work, we report that palladium nanoparticles supported on nanodiamond-graphene core-shell materials (Pd/ND@G) exhibit superior catalytic activity in CO oxidation compared to Pd NPs supported on an sp(2) -bonded onion-like carbon (Pd/OLC) material. Characterization revealed that the Pd NPs in Pd/ND@G have a special morphology with reduced crystallinity and are more stable towards sintering at high temperature than the Pd NPs in Pd/OLC. The electronic structure of Pd is changed in Pd/ND@G, resulting in weak CO chemisorption on the Pd NPs. Our work indicates that strong metal-support interactions can be achieved on a non-reducible support, as exemplified for nanocarbon, by carefully tuning the surface structure of the support, thus providing a good example for designing a high-performance nanostructured catalyst. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Characterization of a Porous Carbon Material Functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2016-04-18

    A nanoporous carbon (C) material, functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt (CoO/Co) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), was structurally and chemically characterized with transmission electron microcopy (TEM) while its electrochemical response for Lithium ion battery (LIB) applications was evaluated as well. The results herein show that the nanoporous C material was uniformly functionalized with the CoO/Co core-shell NPs. Further the NPs were crystalline with fcc-Type lattice on the Co2+ oxide shell and hcp-Type core of metallic Co0. The electrochemical study was carried out by using galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling at a current density of 1000 mA g-1. The potential of this hybrid material for LIB applications was confirmed and it is attributed to the successful dispersion of the Co2+/ Co0 NPs in the C support.

  10. Core/shell AgNi/PtAgNi nanoparticles as methanol-tolerant oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dengfeng; Cheng, Daojian

    2015-01-01

    A core/shell AgNi/PtAgNi nanoparticle (NP) was synthesized via a new seed-mediated growth method in organic solvent medium. The as-synthesized AgNi/PtAgNiNP exhibits an AgNi core coated with PtAgNi shell, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst possesses higher oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and better durability compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. It is found that the ORR polarization curve of the AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst shows an onset potential of 0.91 V vs. RHE, which is superior to the commercial Pt/C (0.88 V vs. RHE). In addition, the AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst shows much better durability than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More interestingly, the AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst displays much higher methanol tolerance than the commercial Pt/C catalyst in 0.1 M KOH solution in the presence of 0.5 M methanol. Our results show that core/shell AgNi/PtAgNiNPs possess selective activity for ORR even in the presence of methanol, showing potential application as methanol-tolerant cathode catalysts in direct methanol fuel cells.

  11. Controllable synthesis of a novel magnetic core-shell nanoparticle for dual-modal imaging and pH-responsive drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Yingxi; Li, Liu; Li, Ling; Whittaker, Andrew K.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, novel magnetic core-shell nanoparticles Fe3O4@La-BTC/GO have been synthesized by the layer-by-layer self-assembly (LBL) method and further modified by attachment of amino-modified PEG chains. The nanoparticles were thoroughly characterized by x-ray diffraction, FTIR, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The core-shell structure was shown to be controlled by the LBL method. The drug loading of doxorubicin (DOX) within the Fe3O4@La-BTC/GO-PEG nanoparticles with different numbers of deposited layers was investigated. It was found that DOX loading increased with increasing number of metal organic framework coating layers, indicating that the drug loading can be controlled through the controllable LBL method. Cytotoxicity assays indicated that the Fe3O4@La-BTC/GO-PEG nanoparticles were biocompatible. The DOX was released rapidly at pH 3.8 and pH 5.8, but at pH 7.4 the rate and extent of release was greatly attenuated. The nanoparticles therefore demonstrate an excellent pH-triggered drug release. In addition, the particles could be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence optical imaging (FOI). A clear dose-dependent contrast enhancement in T 2-weighted MR images and fluorescence images indicate the potential of these nanoparticles as dual-mode MRI/FOI contrast agents.

  12. Fixed-bed adsorption separation of xylene isomers over sio2/silicallite-1 core-shell adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Easir A.

    2013-12-29

    SiO2/Silicalite-1 core-shell material has been demonstrated as potential shape selective adsorbent in gas phase separation of p-xylene from a mixture of p/o-xylene isomers. The core-shell composite comprised of large silica core and thin polycrystalline silicalite-1 shell which was synthesized via a self-assembly of silicalite-1 nanocrystals on core silica surface followed by a secondary seeded growth method. The core materials, SiO2 used in this study has mesoporosity with an average pore diameter of 60Å and hence offers no shape selectivity for xylene isomers. However, the shell, silicalite-1 contains rigid pore structures and preferentially adsorbs p-xylene from their isomers mixtures. A series of adsorption fixed bed breakthrough adsorption/desorption experiment was performed to obtain the equilibrium isotherms and adsorption isotherm parameters of xylene isomers. The equilibrium isotherms of xylene isomers follow the Langmuir\\'s model. A chromatographic adsorption model has been used to describe the fixed-bed breakthrough profiles of xylene isomers. The model has successfully predicted the responses of the binary mixtures of p/o-xylene isomers. The SiO2/silicalite-1 core-shell adsorbents have shown para-selectivity as high as 15. © Bangladesh Uni. of Engg. & Tech.

  13. Transferrin targeted core-shell nanomedicine for combinatorial delivery of doxorubicin and sorafenib against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2014-11-01

    Combinatorial drug delivery is an attractive, but challenging requirement of next generation cancer nanomedicines. Here, we report a transferrin-targeted core-shell nanomedicine formed by encapsulating two clinically used single-agent drugs, doxorubicin and sorafenib against liver cancer. Doxorubicin was loaded in poly(vinyl alcohol) nano-core and sorafenib in albumin nano-shell, both formed by a sequential freeze-thaw/coacervation method. While sorafenib from the nano-shell inhibited aberrant oncogenic signaling involved in cell proliferation, doxorubicin from the nano-core evoked DNA intercalation thereby killing >75% of cancer cells. Upon targeting using transferrin ligands, the nanoparticles showed enhanced cellular uptake and synergistic cytotoxicity in ~92% of cells, particularly in iron-deficient microenvironment. Studies using 3D spheroids of liver tumor indicated efficient penetration of targeted core-shell nanoparticles throughout the tissue causing uniform cell killing. Thus, we show that rationally designed core-shell nanoparticles can effectively combine clinically relevant single-agent drugs for exerting synergistic activity against liver cancer. Transferrin-targeted core-shell nanomedicine encapsulating doxorubicin and sorafenib was studied as a drug delivery system against hepatocellular carcinoma, resulting in enhanced and synergistic therapeutic effects, paving the way towards potential future clinical applications of similar techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, I-Ju [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine

  15. Silica nanoparticles as the adjuvant for the immunisation of mice using hepatitis B core virus-like particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dace Skrastina

    Full Text Available Advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials have facilitated the development of silicon dioxide, or Silica, particles as a promising immunological adjuvant for the generation of novel prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. In the present study, we have compared the adjuvanting potential of commercially available Silica nanoparticles (initial particles size of 10-20 nm with that of aluminium hydroxide, or Alum, as well as that of complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvants for the immunisation of BALB/c mice with virus-like particles (VLPs formed by recombinant full-length Hepatitis B virus core (HBc protein. The induction of B-cell and T-cell responses was studied after immunisation. Silica nanoparticles were able to adsorb maximally 40% of the added HBc, whereas the adsorption capacity of Alum exceeded 90% at the same VLPs/adjuvant ratio. Both Silica and Alum formed large complexes with HBc VLPs that sedimented rapidly after formulation, as detected by dynamic light scattering, spectrophotometry, and electron microscopy. Both Silica and Alum augmented the humoral response against HBc VLPs to the high anti-HBc level in the case of intraperitoneal immunisation, whereas in subcutaneous immunisation, the Silica-adjuvanted anti-HBc level even exceeded the level adjuvanted by Alum. The adjuvanting of HBc VLPs by Silica resulted in the same typical IgG2a/IgG1 ratios as in the case of the adjuvanting by Alum. The combination of Silica with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL led to the same enhancement of the HBc-specific T-cell induction as in the case of the Alum and MPL combination. These findings demonstrate that Silica is not a weaker putative adjuvant than Alum for induction of B-cell and T-cell responses against recombinant HBc VLPs. This finding may have an essential impact on the development of the set of Silica-adjuvanted vaccines based on a long list of HBc-derived virus-like particles as the biological component.

  16. Evaluation of superparamagnetic and biocompatible properties of mesoporous silica coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized via microwave modified Pechini method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibshahian, M. [Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzaee, O., E-mail: O_mirzaee@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nourbakhsh, M.S. [Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    Cobalt ferrite nano particles were synthesized by Pechini sol-gel method and calcined at 700 °C in electrical and microwave furnace. The microwave calcined sample was coated with mesoporous silica by hydrothermal method. Characterization was performed by XRD, FESEM, TEM, VSM, BET and FTIR analysis. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay with 3T3 fibroblast cells. The XRD and FTIR results confirmed spinal formation in both cases and verified the formation of silica coating on the nanoparticles. For microwave calcination, The XRD and SEM results demonstrated smaller and flat adhesion forms of nanoparticles with the average size of 15 nm. The VSM results demonstrated nearly superparamagnetic nanoparticles with significant saturation magnetization equal to 64 emu/g. By coating, saturation magnetization was decreased to 36 emu/g. Moreover, the BET results confirmed the formation of mesoporous coating with the average pore diameters of 2.8 nm and average pore volume of 0.82 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. Microwave calcined nanoparticles had the best structural and magnetic properties. - Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized using the microwave modified Pechini method. • The Effect of calcination route and silica coating on NPs properties was studied. • The nearly superparamagnetic nanoparticles were achieved by microwave calcination. • MFC NPs had the best magnetic properties and MTT assay showed no toxicity for MFC-MSC NPs. • A useful scheme was designed to achieve biological superparamagnetic core/shell NPs.

  17. Multi-core MgO NPs(at)C core-shell nanospheres for selective CO2 capture under mild conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae Kyung Kim; Kyung Joo Lee; Hoi Ri Moon; Junhan Yuh; Sang Kyu Kwak

    2014-01-01

    The core-shell structures have attracted attention in catalysis, because the outer shells isolate the catalytically active NP cores and prevent the possibility of sintering of core particles during catalytic reaction under physically and chemically harsh conditions. We aimed to adopt this core-shell system for CO 2 sorption materials. In this study, a composite material of multi-core 3 nm-sized magnesium oxide nanoparticles embedded in porous carbon nanospheres (MgO NPs(at)C) was synthesized by a gas phase reaction via a solvent-free process. It showed selective CO 2 adsorption capacity over N 2 under mild regeneration conditions. (authors)

  18. Determination of Organophosphorous Pesticides in Environmental Water Samples Using Surface-Engineered C18 Functionalized Silica-Coated Core-Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles-Based Extraction Coupled with GC-MS/MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Kumari, Supriya; Nair, Kishore; Alam, Samsul; Raza, Syed K

    2017-05-01

    The present paper depicts a novel method based on magnetic SPE (MSPE) for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) such as phorate, malathion, and chlorpyrifos in environmental water samples. In this study, C18 functionalized silica-coated core-shell iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used as a surface-engineered magnetic sorbent for the selective extraction of pesticides from aqueous samples, followed by GC-MS and GC-tandem MS analysis for confirmative determination of the analytes. Various important method parameters, including quantity of MNP adsorbent, volume of sample, effective time for extraction, nature of the desorbing solvent, and pH of the aqueous sample, were investigated and optimized to obtain maximum method performance. Under the optimized instrumental analysis conditions, good linearity (r2 value ≥0.994) was achieved at the concentration range of 0.5-500 μg/L. Recoveries were in the range of 79.2-96.3 and 80.4-97.5% in selective-ion monitoring and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes, respectively, at the spiking concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 μg/L. MRM mode showed better sensitivity, selectivity, and low-level detection (0.5 μg/L) of analytes. The novel MSPE method is a simple, cheap, rapid, and eco-friendly method for the determination of OPs in environmental water samples.

  19. Simulations of the Light Scattering Properties of Metal/Oxide Core/Shell Nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffino, F.; Piccitto, G.; Grimaldi, M.G.; Ruffino, F.; Grimaldi, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of the optical properties of metal/dielectric core/shell nanoparticles, in this work we focus our attention on the light scattering properties, within the Mie framework, of some specific categories of these noteworthy nano structures. In particular, we report theoretical results of angle-dependent light scattering intensity and scattering efficiency for Ag/Ag 2 O, Al/Al 2 O 2 , Cu/Cu 2 O, Pd/PdO, and Ti/TiO 2 core/shell nanoparticles as a function of the core radius/shell thickness ratio and on a relative comparison. The results highlight the light scattering characteristics of these systems as a function of the radius/shell thickness ratio, helping in the choice of the more suitable materials and sizes for specific applications (i.e., dynamic light scattering for biological and molecular recognition, increasing light trapping in thin-film silicon, organic solar cells for achieving a higher photocurrent).

  20. Multifunctional EuYVO{sub 4} nanoparticles coated with mesoporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justino, Larissa G. [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Nigoghossian, Karina [Inst. of Chemistry – São Paulo State University- UNESP, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Capote, Ticiana S.O.; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel M. [Department of Morphology, Dental School at Araraquara, Univ. Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Sidney J.L. [Inst. of Chemistry – São Paulo State University- UNESP, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Caiut, José Maurício A., E-mail: caiut@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Mesoporous structures are interesting materials for the incorporation of dyes, drugs, and luminescent systems, leading to materials with important multifunctionalities. In a very unique way, these guest/host materials combine the high stability of inorganic systems, new guest-structuring features, and adsorption mechanisms in their well-defined pores. This work evaluates the luminescent properties of rare earth-doped YVO{sub 4} nanoparticles coated with a mesoporous silica shell. The use of two different synthesis methodologies allowed for particle size control. The crystalline phase emerged without further heat treatment. The mesoporous shell decreased undesirable quenching effects on YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles and rendered them biocompatible. The materials prepared herein could have interesting applications as luminescent markers or drug release systems.

  1. Electrosprayed core–shell polymer–lipid nanoparticles for active component delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, Megdi; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Stride, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    A key challenge in the production of multicomponent nanoparticles for healthcare applications is obtaining reproducible monodisperse nanoparticles with the minimum number of preparation steps. This paper focus on the use of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) techniques to produce core–shell polymer–lipid structures with a narrow size distribution in a single step process. These nanoparticles are composed of a hydrophilic core for active component encapsulation and a lipid shell. It was found that core–shell nanoparticles with a tunable size range between 30 and 90 nm and a narrow size distribution could be reproducibly manufactured. The results indicate that the lipid component (stearic acid) stabilizes the nanoparticles against collapse and aggregation and improves entrapment of active components, in this case vanillin, ethylmaltol and maltol. The overall structure of the nanoparticles produced was examined by multiple methods, including transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, to confirm that they were of core–shell form. (paper)

  2. The characters of self-assembly core/shell nanoparticles of amphiphilic hyperbranched polyethers as drug carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajun Wan; Yuxia, Kou

    2008-01-01

    The characters of self-assembly core/shell nanoparticles of amphiphilic hyperbranched polyethers (HP-g-PEO) as drug carriers were investigated. The HP-g-PEO consisting of hydrophobic HP-g-PEO core and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) arms was prepared by the cation ring-opening polymerization. A series of HP-g-PEO samples with different degree of branching (DB) were synthesized under various reaction temperatures. Nanoparticles (NP) were obtained by self-assembly of HP-g-PEO in aqueous media. The structure of resulting HP-g-PEO was characterized by IR, 13 CNMR and GPC. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy were applied to characterize the sizes and size distributions of NP. The results demonstrated that the mean diameters of NP were less than 100 nm, which exhibited uniform spherical formations and narrow size distributions. Using hydrophobic drug Probucol (PRO) as model drug, the particle sizes of drug loaded NP were larger than relative blank NP. The drug loading efficiency (LE) and incorporation efficiency (IE) of these NP were achieved to 35 and 89%, respectively. The in vitro release of PRO from the NP exhibited a sustained release and the cumulative drugs released for more than 600 h. The most important factor to affect drug release was the value of DB of HP-g-PEO. With the DB of HP-g-PEO increasing, the size and size distribution of NP decreased as well as the release rate. However, the small DB was beneficial to the LE of NP. Nanoparticle size and size distribution, LE, IE, and drug release rate were slightly affected by the initial solution concentration of polyethers. The co-incorporated hydrophilic drug had influence slightly on the release of drug from drug loaded NP. The results of in vitro drug release suggested that the core/shell NP performed good controlled release behaviors with potential practice as novelty drug delivery vehicles

  3. Development of Antibody-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles for Biomarker Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Chapa Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have great potential in biomedical applications because of their magnetic response offers the possibility to direct them to specific areas and target biological entities. Magnetic separation of biomolecules is one of the most important applications of MNPs because their versatility in detecting cancer biomarkers. However, the effectiveness of this method depends on many factors, including the type of functionalization onto MNPs. Therefore, in this study, magnetite nanoparticles have been developed in order to separate the 5′-nucleotidase enzyme (5eNT. The 5eNT is used as a bio-indicator for diagnosing diseases such as hepatic ischaemia, liver tumor, and hepatotoxic drugs damage. Magnetic nanoparticles were covered in a core/shell type with silica, aminosilane, and a double shell of silica-aminosilane. A ScFv (fragment antibody and anti-CD73 antibody were attached to the coated nanoparticles in order to separate the enzyme. The magnetic separation of this enzyme with fragment antibody was found to be 28% higher than anti-CD73 antibody and the enzyme adsorption was improved with the double shell due to the increased length of the polymeric chain. Magnetite nanoparticles with a double shell (silica-aminosilane were also found to be more sensitive than magnetite with a single shell in the detection of biomarkers.

  4. Double-Layer Magnetic Nanoparticle-Embedded Silica Particles for Efficient Bio-Separation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Kyeong

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs based nanomaterials have been exploited in various biotechnology fields including biomolecule separation. However, slow accumulation of Fe3O4 NPs by magnets may limit broad applications of Fe3O4 NP-based nanomaterials. In this study, we report fabrication of Fe3O4 NPs double-layered silica nanoparticles (DL MNPs with a silica core and highly packed Fe3O4 NPs layers. The DL MNPs had a superparamagnetic property and efficient accumulation kinetics under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the magnetic field-exposed DL MNPs show quantitative accumulation, whereas Fe3O4 NPs single-layered silica nanoparticles (SL MNPs and silica-coated Fe3O4 NPs produced a saturated plateau under full recovery of the NPs. DL MNPs are promising nanomaterials with great potential to separate and analyze biomolecules.

  5. Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnSe core-shell quantum dots of one-pot preparation in octadecene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Q.; Kong, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2008-01-01

    CdSe/ZnSe core-shell quantum dots were synthesized using a new one-pot procedure where the core was prepared in octadecene. A ZnSe shell around a CdSe nanoparticle was formed by the reaction of selenium-richness on the surfaces of CdSe nanoparticles with Zn2+ from the injected zinc stearate

  6. Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanostructures for surface enhanced Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.A.; Adams, S.A.; Zhang, J.Z. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lopez-Luke, T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Cento de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948 Leon, Gto. 37150 (Mexico); Torres-Castro, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, A.P. 126-F, Monterrey, NL, 66450 (Mexico)

    2012-11-15

    The synthesis, structural and optical characterization, and application of superparamagnetic and water-dispersed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanoparticles for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is reported. The structure of the nanoparticles was determined by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). STEM images of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanoparticles reveal an average diameter of 120 nm and a high degree of surface roughness. The nanoparticles, which display superparamagnetic properties due to the core Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} material, exhibit a visible surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaked at 580 nm due to the outer gold shell. The nanoparticles are used as a substrate for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with rhodamine 6G (R6G) as a Raman reporter molecule. The SERS enhancement factor is estimated to be on the order of 10{sup 6}, which is {proportional_to} 2 times larger than that of conventional gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) under similar conditions. Significantly, magnetically-induced aggregation of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanoparticles substantially enhanced SERS activity compared to non-magnetically-aggregated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanoparticles. This is attributed to both increased scattering from the aggregates as well as ''hot spots'' due to more junction sites in the magnetically-induced aggregates. The magnetic properties of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core, coupled with the optical properties of the Au shell, make the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanoparticles unique for various potential applications including biological sensing and therapy. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Comprehensive investigation of core-shell dimer nanoparticles size, distance and thicknesses on performance of a hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Hamid

    2018-03-01

    Significant performance enhancement in an ultrathin perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) solar cell is done using plasmonic embedded core–shell dimer nanoparticles. Three-dimensional finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used. A perovskite absorber with a volume of 400 × 400 × 200 nm3 is considered. At first, a cell with one embedded nanoparticle is simulated. Absorptance of CH3NH3PbI3 absorber and gold nanoparticle are obtained. An optimization is done. Then a cell with embedded dimer nanoparticles is evaluated. The results show higher photocurrent enhancement for that in compared to a cell with one embedded nanoparticle. To further photocurrent enhancement, gold-SiO2 core–shell nanoparticles are used. Photocurrents of 23.37 mA cm‑2, 23.3 mA cm‑2, 22.5 mA cm‑2 and 21.47 mA cm‑2 are obtained for a cell with two embedded core–shell nanoparticles with core radius of 60 nm and shell thickness of 2 nm, 5 nm, 10 nm and 20 nm, respectively. It is important to mention that the photocurrent is 17.9 mA cm‑2 for reference cell and 19.8 mA cm‑2 for a cell with one embedded nanoparticle. Higher photocurrent is due to the near-field plasmonic effect.

  8. Size selectivity of magnetite core- (Ag/Au) shell nanoparticles for multimodal imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pinki; Upadhyay, Chandan

    2017-10-01

    The magnetic and optical properties of nanomaterials play a significant role in the selection of the materials to be used for contrast enhancement in different biological and cell imaging techniques. These nanoparticles can also be used as drug delivery agents. The calculation of absorption efficiency and surface plasmon resonance wavelength has been performed using Mie theory and MATLAB programs. The study of spectrum calculated indicates the dependence of several optical properties such as resonance and absorption efficiency peak on ratio of core radius to the thickness of shell. A systematic study on the effect of nanoparticle dimension has been presented which clearly indicates that the optical properties can be modulated across the visible and near infrared range by changing these parameters. These properties of nanomaterials make them suitable for their application as multimodal imaging agents as they are also magnetically active and biocompatible.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell Fe3O4-gold-chitosan nanostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehizadeh Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fe3O4-gold-chitosan core-shell nanostructure can be used in biotechnological and biomedical applications such as magnetic bioseparation, water and wastewater treatment, biodetection and bioimaging, drug delivery, and cancer treatment. Results Magnetite nanoparticles with an average size of 9.8 nm in diameter were synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation method. A gold-coated Fe3O4 monotonous core-shell nanostructure was produced with an average size of 15 nm in diameter by glucose reduction of Au3+ which is then stabilized with a chitosan cross linked by formaldehyde. The results of analyses with X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM indicated that the nanoparticles were regularly shaped, and agglomerate-free, with a narrow size distribution. Conclusions A rapid, mild method for synthesizing Fe3O4-gold nanoparticles using chitosan was investigated. A magnetic core-shell-chitosan nanocomposite, including both the supermagnetic properties of iron oxide and the optical characteristics of colloidal gold nanoparticles, was synthesized.

  10. Silica-Assisted Nucleation of Polymer Foam Cells with Nanoscopic Dimensions: Impact of Particle Size, Line Tension, and Surface Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanqiu; Eijkelenkamp, Rik; Duvigneau, Joost; Vancso, G Julius

    2017-11-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles consisting of silica as core and surface-grafted poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as shell with different diameters were prepared and used as heterogeneous nucleation agents to obtain CO 2 -blown poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite foams. PDMS was selected as the shell material as it possesses a low surface energy and high CO 2 -philicity. The successful synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The cell size and cell density of the PMMA micro- and nanocellular materials were determined by scanning electron microscopy. The cell nucleation efficiency using core-shell nanoparticles was significantly enhanced when compared to that of unmodified silica. The highest nucleation efficiency observed had a value of ∼0.5 for nanoparticles with a core diameter of 80 nm. The particle size dependence of cell nucleation efficiency is discussed taking into account line tension effects. Complete engulfment by the polymer matrix of particles with a core diameter below 40 nm at the cell wall interface was observed corresponding to line tension values of approximately 0.42 nN. This line tension significantly increases the energy barrier of heterogeneous nucleation and thus reduces the nucleation efficiency. The increase of the CO 2 saturation pressure to 300 bar prior to batch foaming resulted in an increased line tension length. We observed a decrease of the heterogeneous nucleation efficiency for foaming after saturation with CO 2 at 300 bar, which we attribute to homogenous nucleation becoming more favorable at the expense of heterogeneous nucleation in this case. Overall, it is shown that the contribution of line tension to the free energy barrier of heterogeneous foam cell nucleation must be considered to understand foaming of viscoelastic materials. This finding emphasizes the need for new strategies including the use of

  11. Controllable dielectric and electrical performance of polymer composites with novel core/shell-structured conductive particles through biomimetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dan; Tian, Ming; Wang, Wencai; Li, Dongdong; Li, Runyuan; Liu, Haoliang; Zhang, Liqun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Conductive core/shell-structured particles were synthesized by biomimetic method. ► These particles with silica/poly(dopamine)/silver core and poly(dopamine) shell. ► Dielectric composites were prepared with resulted particles and silicone elastomer. ► The dielectric properties of the composites can be controlled by shell thickness. ► This biomimetic method is simple, nontoxic, efficient and easy to control. - Abstract: Novel silica/poly(dopamine)/silver (from inner to outer) (denoted as SiO 2 /PDA/Ag) conductive micro-particles were first synthesized by biomimetic poly(dopamine) coating. These micro-particles were then coated with a poly(dopamine) layer to form core/shell-structured particles, with silica/poly(dopamine)/silver core and poly(dopamine) shell (denoted as SiO 2 /PDA/Ag/PDA). This multilayer core/shell micro-particles were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope. Polymer composites were then prepared by mechanical blending of poly(dimethyl siloxane) and the core/shell-structured particles. It was found that the silver layer and the poly(dopamine) shell had good adhesion with substrate and they kept intact even under violent shearing stress during mechanical mixing. The effect of the thickness of outermost poly(dopamine) shell as well as the loading amount of this filler on the dielectric and electrical properties of the composites was further studied. The results showed that the dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and conductivity of the composites decreased with increasing shell thickness (10–53 nm) at the same loading level. And the maximal dielectric constant of composites was achieved in the composites filled with SiO 2 /PDA/Ag/PDA (with 10–15 nm PDA shell) particles, which was much larger than that of the composite filled with SiO 2 /PDA/Ag particles without insulative PDA shell. At the same time, the composites can change

  12. Core-shelled mesoporous CoFe2O4-SiO2 material with good adsorption and high-temperature magnetic recycling capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi'ang; Wang, Jianlin; Liu, Min; Chen, Tong; Chen, Jifang; Ge, Wen; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran; Zhai, Xiaofang; Lu, Yalin

    2018-04-01

    Residues of organic dye in industrial effluents cause severe water system pollution. Although several methods, such as biodegradation and activated carbon adsorption, are available for treating these effluents before their discharge into waterbodies, secondary pollution by adsorbents and degrading products remains an issue. Therefore, new materials should be identified to solve this problem. In this work, CoFe2O4-SiO2 core-shell structures were synthesized using an improved Stöber method by coating mesoporous silica onto CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The specific surface areas of the synthesized particles range from 30 m2/g to 150 m2/g and vary according to the dosage amount of tetraethoxysilane. Such core-shelled nanoparticles have the following advantages for treating industrial effluents mixed with dye: good adsorption capability, above-room-temperature magnetic recycling capability, and heat-enduring stability. Through adsorption of methylene blue, a typical dyeing material, the core-shell-structured particles show a good adsorption capability of approximately 33 mg/L. The particles are easily and completely collected by magnets, which is possible due to the magnetic property of core CoFe2O4. Heat treatment can burn out the adsorbed dyes and good adsorption performance is sustained even after several heat-treating loops. This property overcomes the common problem of particles with Fe3O4 as a core, by which Fe3O4 is oxidized to nonmagnetic α-Fe2O3 at the burning temperature. We also designed a miniature of effluent-treating pipeline, which demonstrates the potential of the application.

  13. Preparation of novel magnetic polyurethane foam nanocomposites by using core-shell nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Alavi Nikje

    Full Text Available Abstract Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (NP's converted to the core- shell structres by reacting with by n-(2-aminoethyl-3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (AEAP incorporated in polyurethane flexible (PUF foam formulations. Fourier transform spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron images, thermo-mechanical analysis and magnetic properties of the prepared nanocomposites were studied. Obtained data shown that by the increasing of the amine modified magnetic iron oxide NP's up to 3% in the polymer matrix, thermal and magnetic properties improved in comparison with pristine foams. In addition, due to the presence of functional groups on the magnetic NP's surface, hard phases formation decrease in the bulk polymer and cause decreasing of glass transition temperature.

  14. The influence of oxidation process on exchange bias in egg-shaped FeO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczyński, Błażej, E-mail: b.leszczynski@amu.edu.pl [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Hadjipanayis, George C.; El-Gendy, Ahmed A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 Sharp Lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Załęski, Karol [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Śniadecki, Zbigniew [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Musiał, Andrzej [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Jarek, Marcin [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Jurga, Stefan [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Skumiel, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-10-15

    Egg-shaped nanoparticles with a core–shell morphology were synthesized by thermal decomposition of an iron oleate complex. XRD and M(T) magnetic measurements confirmed the presence of FeO (wustite) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (magnetite) phases in the nanoparticles. Oxidation of FeO to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was found to be the mechanism for the shell formation. As-made nanoparticles exhibited high values of exchange bias at 2 K. Oxidation led to decrease of exchange field from 2880 Oe (in as-made sample) to 330 Oe (in oxidized sample). At temperatures higher than the Néel temperature of FeO (200 K) there was no exchange bias. An interesting observation was made showing the exchange field to be higher than the coercive field at temperatures close to magnetite's Verwey transition. - Highlights: • Synthesis of monodispersed FeO nanoparticles is shown. • As-made FeO nanoparticle is antiferromagnetically ordered, when it is oxidized to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, the FeO core becomes small and disordered. • Exchange bias in well-ordered and disordered core is different.

  15. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Magnetic Iron Oxide@SiO₂-Au@C Particles with Core-Shell Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Li, Xiangcun; Qi, Xinhong; Luo, Fan; He, Gaohong

    2015-05-12

    The preparation of nonspherical magnetic core-shell nanostructures with uniform sizes still remains a challenge. In this study, magnetic iron oxide@SiO2-Au@C particles with different shapes, such as pseduocube, ellipsoid, and peanut, were synthesized using hematite as templates and precursors of magnetic iron oxide. The as-obtained magnetic particles demonstrated uniform sizes, shapes, and well-designed core-shell nanostructures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis showed that the Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) of ∼6 nm were uniformly distributed between the silica and carbon layers. The embedding of the metal nanocrystals into the two different layers prevented the aggregation and reduced the loss of the metal nanocrystals during recycling. Catalytic performance of the peanut-like particles kept almost unchanged without a noticeable decrease in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in 8 min even after 7 cycles, indicating excellent reusability of the particles. Moreover, the catalyst could be readily recycled magnetically after each reduction by an external magnetic field.

  16. Core-Shell-Structured Copolyaniline-Coated Polymeric Nanoparticle Suspension and Its Viscoelastic Response under Various Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Jae Moon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Semi-conducting poly(n-methylaniline (PNMA-coated poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA composite nanoparticles were synthesized using cross-linked and grafted PMMA particles as a core, and then, the PNMA shell was coated via chemical oxidative polymerization on the surface of modified PMMA nanoparticles. Their electroresponsive electrorheological characteristics when dispersed in silicone were confirmed under applied electric fields using a rotational rheometer, focusing on their viscoelastic response. Using a frequency sweep test, the frequency dependence of both the storage and loss moduli was confirmed to increase upon increasing the electric field, with a stable plateau regime over the entire angular frequency range.

  17. Core/shell-type nanorods of Tb{sup 3+}-doped LaPO{sub 4}, modified with amine groups, revealing reduced cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runowski, Marcin [Adam Mickiewicz University, Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Dąbrowska, Krystyna [Polish Academy of Sciences, Bacteriophage Laboratory, Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy (Poland); Grzyb, Tomasz [Adam Mickiewicz University, Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Miernikiewicz, Paulina [Polish Academy of Sciences, Bacteriophage Laboratory, Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy (Poland); Lis, Stefan, E-mail: blis@amu.edu.pl [Adam Mickiewicz University, Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland)

    2013-11-15

    A simple co-precipitation reaction between Ln{sup 3+} cations (Ln = lanthanide) and phosphate ions in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG), including post-treatment under hydrothermal conditions, leads to the formation of Tb{sup 3+}-doped LaPO{sub 4} crystalline nanorods. The nanoparticles obtained can be successfully coated with amorphous and porous silica, forming core/shell-type nanorods. Both products reveal intensive green luminescence under UV lamp irradiation. The surface of the core/shell-type product can also be modified with –NH{sub 2} groups via silylation procedure, using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as a modifier. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy confirm the desired structure and needle-like shape of the products synthesized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and specific surface area measurements by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method reveal a successful surface modification with amine groups of the core/shell-type nanoparticles prepared. The nanomaterials synthesized exhibit green luminescence characteristic of Tb{sup 3+} ions, as solid powders and aqueous colloids, examined by spectrofluorometry. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies reveal different degree toxicity of the products. LaPO{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+}@SiO{sub 2}@NH{sub 2} exhibits the smallest toxicity against B16F0 mouse melanoma cancer cells and human skin microvascular endothelial cell lines, in contrast to the most toxic LaPO{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+}@SiO{sub 2}.Graphical Abstract.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and biomedical application of multifunctional luminomagnetic core–shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Changqing [Key Laboratory of Biochip Technology, Biotech and Health Centre, Shenzhen Research Institutes of City University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen (China); Key Laboratory of Sensing Technology and Biomedical Instruments (Guangdong Province), School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Lei [Key Laboratory of Biochip Technology, Biotech and Health Centre, Shenzhen Research Institutes of City University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen (China); College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Chemical Biology Key Laboratory of Hebei Province, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Ministry of Education, Hebei University, Baoding (China); Li, Cheuk-Wing [Key Laboratory of Biochip Technology, Biotech and Health Centre, Shenzhen Research Institutes of City University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen (China); Zhang, Jinchao, E-mail: jczhang6970@163.com [Key Laboratory of Biochip Technology, Biotech and Health Centre, Shenzhen Research Institutes of City University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen (China); College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Chemical Biology Key Laboratory of Hebei Province, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Ministry of Education, Hebei University, Baoding (China); Yang, Mengsu, E-mail: bhmyang@cityu.edu.hk [Key Laboratory of Biochip Technology, Biotech and Health Centre, Shenzhen Research Institutes of City University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen (China)

    2015-01-01

    It has been well-established that nanomaterials provide a robust framework into which two or more functional moieties can be integrated to offer multifunctional and synergetic applications. We report here the facile synthesis and systematical investigation of the luminomagnetic core–shell nanoparticles (NPs) with the magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core coated with a silica shell incorporating fluorescent [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+}. The luminomagnetic NPs were monodisperse and spherical in shape with a diameter of 60 ± 10 nm. The luminomagnetic NPs possessed not only the desirable optical signature of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} but also the distinctive magnetic profile of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, where a strong red-orange emission and the super-paramagnetic characteristics with the saturation magnetization values ca. 10 emu/g were observed for the luminomagnetic NPs. As revealed by Alamar blue assay and flow cytometry analysis, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs decrease the cell viability of HepG2 by ca. 10%, while an increase by ca. 10% on HepG2 cell proliferation was revealed after the silica shell was coated onto Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs, suggesting that the silica shell serves as a protective layer to increase the biocompatibility of the luminomagnetic NPs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, transition electron microscopy and magnetic resonance (MR) images confirmed that the luminomagnetic NPs can enter into the interiors of HepG2 cells without damage, highlighting their capabilities for simultaneous optical fluorescence imaging and T2 MR imaging. Taking advantage of versatility of silica shell towards different surface modification protocols, the luminomagnetic NPs were successfully functionalized with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody for HepG2 cell recognition. All the results illustrated that the luminomagnetic NPs should be a potential candidate for future cancer diagnosis and therapy. - Highlights: • The luminomagnetic NPs were prepared by a water-in-oil reverse

  19. Multifunctional material based on ionic transition metal complexes and gold-silica nanoparticles: synthesis and photophysical characterization for application in imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Loredana; Martini, Matteo; Tillement, Olivier; Sancey, Lucie; Perriat, Pascal; Ghedini, Mauro; Szerb, Elisabeta I; Yadav, Yogesh J; La Deda, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    A new combination of luminescent ionic transition-metal complexes (M = Ru(II) or Ir(III)) with gold silica-based nanoparticles (GSNPs) gives a promising nanomaterial for application in biomedical fields. Herein we report the synthesis and the photophysical properties of Ru(II) and Ir(III) complexes doped gold core-polysiloxane shell particles prepared by microemulsion method and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity and photodynamic activity of the obtained 50 nm-diameter nanoparticles were evaluated in vitro, providing noteworthy results. Furthermore, their intrinsic phosphorescence allows the localization of the photosensitizing nanoparticles into the cytosol of tumor cells by fluorescence confocal microscope. These valuable features designate them as multifunctional nanoplatforms for theranostic purposes.

  20. Development of magnetic luminescent core/shell nanocomplex particles with fluorescence using Rhodamine 6G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Uk; Song, Yoon Seok [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 5 Ga, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chulhwan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Wook, E-mail: kimsw@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 5 Ga, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► A simple method was developed to synthesize Co-B/SiO{sub 2}/dye/SiO{sub 2} composite particles. ► The magnetic particle shows that highly luminescent and core/shell particles are formed. ► Such core/shell particles can be easily suspended in water. ► The magnetic particles could detect fluorescence for the application of biosensor. -- Abstract: A simple and reproducible method was developed to synthesize a novel class of Co-B/SiO{sub 2}/dye/SiO{sub 2} composite core/shell particles. Using a single cobalt core, Rhodamine 6G of organic dye molecules was entrapped in a silica shell, resulting in core/shell particles of ∼200 nm diameter. Analyses using a variety of techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibration sample magnetometry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and fluorescence intensity demonstrated that dye molecules were trapped inside the core/shell particles. A photoluminescence investigation showed that highly luminescent and photostable core/shell particles were formed. Such core/shell particles can be easily suspended in water. The synthesized magnetic particles could be used to detect fluorescence on glass substrate arrays for bioassay and biosensor applications.

  1. Fabrication of high specificity hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles assisted by Eudragit for targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xiaodong; Chen, Lijue; Velleman, Leonora; Li, Chengpeng; Zhu, Haijin; He, Canzhong; Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Duan, Wei; Kong, Lingxue

    2015-05-01

    Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) are one of the most promising carriers for effective drug delivery due to their large surface area, high volume for drug loading and excellent biocompatibility. However, the non-ionic surfactant templated HMSNs often have a broad size distribution and a defective mesoporous structure because of the difficulties involved in controlling the formation and organization of micelles for the growth of silica framework. In this paper, a novel "Eudragit assisted" strategy has been developed to fabricate HMSNs by utilising the Eudragit nanoparticles as cores and to assist in the self-assembly of micelle organisation. Highly dispersed mesoporous silica spheres with intact hollow interiors and through pores on the shell were fabricated. The HMSNs have a high surface area (670 m(2)/g), small diameter (120 nm) and uniform pore size (2.5 nm) that facilitated the effective encapsulation of 5-fluorouracil within HMSNs, achieving a high loading capacity of 194.5 mg(5-FU)/g(HMSNs). The HMSNs were non-cytotoxic to colorectal cancer cells SW480 and can be bioconjugated with Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) for efficient and specific cell internalization. The high specificity and excellent targeting performance of EGF grafted HMSNs have demonstrated that they can become potential intracellular drug delivery vehicles for colorectal cancers via EGF-EGFR interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In Situ Generation of Two-Dimensional Au–Pt Core–Shell Nanoparticle Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Madiha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two-dimensional assemblies of Au–Pt bimetallic nanoparticles are generated in situ on polyethyleneimmine (PEI silane functionalized silicon and indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass surfaces. Atomic force microscopy (AFM, UV–Visible spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements reveal the formation of core–shell structure with Au as core and Pt as shell. The core–shell structure is further supported by comparing with the corresponding data of Au nanoparticle assemblies. Static contact angle measurements with water show an increase in hydrophilic character due to bimetallic nanoparticle generation on different surfaces. It is further observed that these Au–Pt core–shell bimetallic nanoparticle assemblies are catalytically active towards methanol electro-oxidation, which is the key reaction for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs.

  3. Size-Dependent Specific Surface Area of Nanoporous Film Assembled by Core-Shell Iron Nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Antony

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous films of core-shell iron nanoclusters have improved possibilities for remediation, chemical reactivity rate, and environmentally favorable reaction pathways. Conventional methods often have difficulties to yield stable monodispersed core-shell nanoparticles. We produced core-shell nanoclusters by a cluster source that utilizes combination of Fe target sputtering along with gas aggregations in an inert atmosphere at 7∘C. Sizes of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoclusters are observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The specific surface areas of the porous films obtained from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET process are size-dependent and compared with the calculated data.

  4. Design and synthesis of plasmonic magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jit Kang; Tilton, Robert D.; Eggeman, Alexander; Majetich, Sara A.

    2007-01-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles containing both iron oxide and gold are proposed for bioseparation applications. The surface plasmon resonance of gold makes it possible to track the positions of individual particles, even when they are smaller than the optical diffraction limit. The synthesis of water-dispersible iron oxide-gold nanoparticles is described. Absorption spectra show the plasmon peaks for Au shells on silica particles, suggesting that thin shells may be sufficient to impart a strong surface plasmon resonance to iron oxide-gold nanoparticles. Dark field optical microscopy illustrates the feasibility of single-particle detection. Calculations of magnetophoretic and drag forces for particles of different sizes reveal design requirements for effective separation of these small particles

  5. Monomer functionalized silica coated with Ag nanoparticles for enhanced SERS hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmai, M. Boazbou; Verma, Manoj; Kumar, P. Senthil

    2018-05-01

    Mesoporous silica (SiO2) spheres are well-known for their excellent chromatographic properties such as the relatively high specific surface, large pore volume, uniform particle size, narrow pore size distribution with favorable pore connectivity; whereas the noble metal Ag nanoparticles have unique size/shape dependant surface plasmon resonance with wide ranging applications. Thus, the desire to synchronize both their properties for specific applications has naturally prompted research in the design and synthesis of core-shell type novel nanoAg@mesoSiO2 nanocomposites, which display potential utility in applications such as photothermal therapy, photocatalysis, molecular sensing, and photovoltaics. In the present work, SiO2 spheres were carefully functionalized with the monomer, N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), which cohesively controls the uniform mass transfer of Ag+ metal ions, thereby enabling its sequential reduction to zerovalent Ag (in the presence of slightly excess NaOH) by electron transfer from nucleophilic attack of the NVP vinyl group by the water molecules even under ambient conditions. Complete metal nanoshell coverage of the silica surface was obtained after multiple Ag deposition cycles, as systematically confirmed from the BET, TEM, optical and FTIR characterization. Our present Ag-coated silica spheres were directly utilized as viable SERS substrates with high sensitivity in contrast with other long chain polymer/surfactant coated silica spheres, owing to the presence of significant number of nanogaps enhanced SERS 'hotspots', which were methodically analyzed utilizing two example analytes, such as crystal violet (CV) and calendula officinalis (CaF).

  6. Effects of Core-Shell Rubber (CSR) Nanoparticles on the Fracture Toughness of an Epoxy Resin at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Cannon, S. A.; Schneider, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of core-shell rubber (CSR) nanoparticles on the fracture toughness of an epoxy resin at liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures. Varying amounts of Kane Ace (Registered TradeMark) MX130 toughening agent were added to a commercially available EPON 862/W epoxy resin. Resulting fracture toughness was evaluated by the use of Charpy impact tests conducted on an instrumented drop tower. The size and distribution of the CSR nanoparticles were characterized using Transmission Electric Microscopy (TEM) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Up to nominal 4.6% addition of the CSR nanoparticles, resulted in a nearly 5 times increase in the measured breaking energy. However, further increases in the amount of CSR nanoparticles had no appreciable affect on the breaking energy.

  7. Oxidative degradation of the antibiotic oxytetracycline by Cu@Fe3O4 core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Van Luan; Kim, Do-Gun; Ko, Seok-Oh

    2018-08-01

    A core-shell nanostructure composed of zero-valent Cu (core) and Fe 3 O 4 (shell) (Cu@Fe 3 O 4 ) was prepared by a simple reduction method and was evaluated for the degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), an antibiotic. The Cu core and the Fe 3 O 4 shell were verified by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy. The optimal molar ratio of [Cu]/[Fe] (1/1) in Cu@Fe 3 O 4 created an outstanding synergic effect, leading to >99% OTC degradation as well as H 2 O 2 decomposition within 10min at the reaction conditions of 1g/L Cu@Fe 3 O 4 , 20mg/L OTC, 20mM H 2 O 2 , and pH3.0 (and even at pH9.0). The OTC degradation rate by Cu@Fe 3 O 4 was higher than obtained using single nanoparticle of Cu or Fe 3 O 4 . The results of the study using radical scavengers showed that OH is the major reactive oxygen species contributing to the OTC degradation. Finally, good stability, reusability, and magnetic separation were obtained with approximately 97% OTC degradation and no notable change in XRD patterns after the Cu@Fe 3 O 4 catalyst was reused five times. These results demonstrate that Cu@Fe 3 O 4 is a novel prospective candidate for the pharmaceutical and personal care products degradation in the aqueous phase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis of Core-Shell MgO Alloy Nanoparticles for Steelmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinglong Qu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, we aimed to reduce the wetting angle of nanoparticles (NPs in molten steel and thus, increase their utilization ratio in steel. In order to achieve this, a two-step process was used to synthesize a core-shell AlTi-MgO@C NP structure for steelmaking through a dopamine polymerization process, which used an ammonium persulfate oxidant and high-temperature carbonization. The NP surface characterization was tested by scanning electron microscopy and field emission transmission electron microscopy, while the hydrodynamic NP size was measured by dynamic light scattering. The results showed that a carbon coating that had a thickness of 10 nm covered the NP surface, with the dispersion and stability of the particles in the aqueous solution having improved after the coating. The contact angle of the surface-treated NP was less than that of the uncoated NP in high-temperature molten steel and the corresponding wetting energy was smaller, which indicated improved wettability.

  9. Core–shell composite particles composed of biodegradable polymer particles and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Chiemi; Ushimaru, Kazunori [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Horiishi, Nanao [Bengala Techno Laboratory, 9-5-1006, 1-1 Kodai, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki 216-0007 (Japan); Tsuge, Takeharu [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kitamoto, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kitamoto.y.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Core–shell composite particles with biodegradability and superparamagnetic behavior were prepared using a Pickering emulsion for targeted drug delivery based on magnetic guidance. The composite particles were composed of a core of biodegradable polymer and a shell of assembled magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. It was found that the dispersibility of the nanoparticles is crucial for controlling the core–shell structure. The addition of a small amount of dispersant into the nanoparticle's suspension could improve the dispersibility and led to the formation of composite particles with a thin magnetic shell covering a polymeric core. The composite particles were also fabricated with a model drug loaded into the core, which was released via hydrolysis of the core under strong alkaline conditions. Because the core can also be biodegraded by lipase, this result suggests that the slow release of the drug from the composite particles should occur inside the body. - Highlights: • Core−shell composites with biodegradability and magnetism are prepared. • O/W emulsion stabilized by iron oxide nanoparticles is utilized for the preparation. • The nanoparticle's dispersibility is crucial for controlling the composite structure. • Composites loading a model drug are also prepared. • The model drug is released with decomposition of the composites.

  10. Monte Carlo simulations of core/shell nanoparticles containing interfacial defects: Role of disordered ferromagnetic spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Le Bin; Lan, Tran Nguyen; Hai, Tran Hoang

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we have used the Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the magnetic properties of an isolated composite magnetic nanoparticle with ferromagnetic (FM) core and antiferromagnetic (AFM) shell morphology. The defects were assumed to be randomly located at the AFM interface. The Néel anisotropy was used for the FM interface spins at where there are the lacks of crystal symmetry due to the vacancies at AFM interface. With a moderate defect concentration, the coercive field non-monotonously depends on the Néel anisotropy. We have examined the dependence of coercivity, exchange bias field, and vertical shift on defect concentration. We found that in addition to AFM shell, the disordered FM interface is another pining-source for exchange bias phenomenon. We discuss our simulated results in the relation to recent experimental findings

  11. Using silicon-coated gold nanoparticles to enhance the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dot and improve the sensing ability of mercury (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Chang, Hui; Li, Jian-Jun; Li, Xin; Zhao, Jun-Wu

    2018-01-01

    The effect of silicon-coated gold nanoparticles with different gold core diameter and silica shell thickness on the fluorescence emission of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) was investigated. For gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 15 nm, silica coating can only results in fluorescence recover of the bare gold nanoparticle-induced quenching of QDs. However, when the size of gold nanoparticle is increased to 60 nm, fluorescence enhancement of the QDs could be obtained by silica coating. Because of the isolation of the silica shell-reduced quenching effect and local electric field effect, the fluorescence of QDs gets intense firstly and then decreases. The maximum fluorescence enhancement takes place as the silica shell has a thickness of 30 nm. This enhanced fluorescence from silicon-coated gold nanoparticles is demonstrated for sensing of Hg2 +. Under optimal conditions, the enhanced fluorescence intensity decreases linearly with the concentration of Hg2 + ranging from 0 to 200 ng/mL. The limit of detection for Hg2 + is 1.25 ng/mL. Interference test and real samples detection indicate that the influence from other metal ions could be neglected, and the Hg2 + could be specifically detected.

  12. A general and high-yield galvanic displacement approach to Au-M (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) core-shell nanostructures with porous shells and enhanced electrocatalytic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Long; Geng, Baoyou; Wang, Shaozhen; Sang, Yan

    2012-07-23

    In this work, we utilize the galvanic displacement synthesis and make it a general and efficient method for the preparation of Au-M (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) core-shell nanostructures with porous shells, which consist of multilayer nanoparticles. The method is generally applicable to the preparation of Au-Au, Au-Pd, and Au-Pt core-shell nanostructures with typical porous shells. Moreover, the Au-Au isomeric core-shell nanostructure is reported for the first time. The lower oxidation states of Au(I), Pd(II), and Pt(II) are supposed to contribute to the formation of porous core-shell nanostructures instead of yolk-shell nanostructures. The electrocatalytic ethanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance of porous Au-Pd core-shell nanostructures are assessed as a typical example for the investigation of the advantages of the obtained core-shell nanostructures. As expected, the Au-Pd core-shell nanostructure indeed exhibits a significantly reduced overpotential (the peak potential is shifted in the positive direction by 44 mV and 32 mV), a much improved CO tolerance (I(f)/I(b) is 3.6 and 1.63 times higher), and an enhanced catalytic stability in comparison with Pd nanoparticles and Pt/C catalysts. Thus, porous Au-M (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) core-shell nanostructures may provide many opportunities in the fields of organic catalysis, direct alcohol fuel cells, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and so forth. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Radiation-induced preparation of core/shell gold/albumin nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Constanza Y.; Achilli, Estefania; Grasselli, Mariano

    2018-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the most promising nanomaterials to be used in the biomedical field. Gold NPs (Au-NPs) have been covered with monolayers of many different molecules and macromolecules to prepare different kinds of biosensors. However, these coatings based on physisorption methods are not stable enough to prepare functional nanomaterials to be used in complex mixtures or in vivo applications. The aim of this work was to prepare a protein coating of Au-NPs based on a protein multilayer covering, stabilized by a novel radiation-induced crosslinking process. Albumins from human and bovine source were added to Au-NPs suspension and followed by ethanol addition to induce protein aggregation. Samples were irradiated with a gamma source at 10 kGy to induce a protein crosslinking according to recent findings. Samples containing 30%v/v ethanol showed a plasmon peak at about 532 nm, demonstrating the presence of non-aggregated Au-NPs. Using higher ethanol concentrations, the absorbance of plasmon peak showed NP aggregation. By Dynamic Light Scattering measurements, a new particle population with an average diameter of about 60 nm was found. Moreover, TEM images showed that the NPs had spherical shape and the presence of a low-density halo around the metal core confirmed the presence of the protein shell. An irradiation dose of one kGy was enough to show changes in the plasmon peak characteristics. The increase in the chemical stability of protein shell was demonstrated by the reduction in the NP dissolution kinetics in presence of cyanate.

  14. Synthesis of Ni-SiO2/silicalite-1 core-shell micromembrane reactors and their reaction/diffusion performance

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Easir A.

    2010-12-15

    Core-shell micromembrane reactors are a novel class of materials where a catalyst and a shape-selective membrane are synergistically housed in a single particle. In this work, we report the synthesis of micrometer -sized core-shell particles containing a catalyst core and a thin permselective zeolite shell and their application as a micromembrane reactor for the selective hydrogenation of the 1-hexene and 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene isomers. The bare catalyst, which is made from porous silica loaded with catalytically active nickel, showed no reactant selectivity between hexene isomers, but the core-shell particles showed high selectivities up to 300 for a 1-hexene conversion of 90%. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Radiosensitizing Silica Nanoparticles Encapsulating Docetaxel for Treatment of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Jodi; Castilla-Ojo, Noelle; Sridhar, Srinivas; Kumar, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    The applications of nanoparticles in oncology include enhanced drug delivery, efficient tumor targeting, treatment monitoring, and diagnostics. The "theranostic properties" associated with nanoparticles have shown enhanced delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs with superior imaging capabilities and minimal toxicities. In conventional chemotherapy, only a fraction of the administered drug reaches the tumor site or cancer cells. For successful translation of these formulations, it is imperative to evaluate the design and properties of these nanoparticles. Here, we describe the design of ultra-small silica nanoparticles to encapsulate a radiosensitizing drug for combined chemoradiation therapy. The small size of nanoparticles allows for better dispersion and uptake of the drug within the highly vascularized tumor tissue. Silica nanoparticles are synthesized using an oil-in-water microemulsion method. The microemulsion method provides a robust synthetic route in which the inner hydrophobic core is used to encapsulate chemotherapy drug, docetaxel while the outer hydrophilic region provides dispersibility of the synthesized nanoparticles in an aqueous environment. Docetaxel is commonly used for treatment of resistant or metastatic prostate cancer, and is known to have radiosensitizing properties. Here, we describe a systematic approach for synthesizing these theranostic nanoparticles for application in prostate cancer.

  16. Melting and solidification behavior of Cu/Al and Ti/Al bimetallic core/shell nanoparticles during additive manufacturing by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Farzin; Jeon, Jungmin; Jiang, Shan; Nouranian, Sasan

    2018-05-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate the role of core volume fraction and number of fusing nanoparticles (NPs) on the melting and solidification of Cu/Al and Ti/Al bimetallic core/shell NPs during a superfast heating and slow cooling process, roughly mimicking the conditions of selective laser melting (SLM). One recent trend in the SLM process is the rapid prototyping of nanoscopically heterogeneous alloys, wherein the precious core metal maintains its particulate nature in the final manufactured part. With this potential application in focus, the current work reveals the fundamental role of the interface in the two-stage melting of the core/shell alloy NPs. For a two-NP system, the melting zone gets broader as the core volume fraction increases. This effect is more pronounced for the Ti/Al system than the Cu/Al system because of a larger difference between the melting temperatures of the shell and core metals in the former than the latter. In a larger six-NP system (more nanoscopically heterogeneous), the melting and solidification temperatures of the shell Al roughly coincide, irrespective of the heating or cooling rate, implying that in the SLM process, the part manufacturing time can be reduced due to solidification taking place at higher temperatures. The nanostructure evolution during the cooling of six-NP systems is further investigated. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Lignosulfonate-stabilized selenium nanoparticles and their deposition on spherical silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzejewska-Sikorska, Anna; Konował, Emilia; Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Jurga, Stefan; Jesionowski, Teofil; Milczarek, Grzegorz

    2017-10-01

    We report a novel room-temperature synthesis of selenium nanoparticles, which for the first time uses lignosulfonate as a stabilizer. Various lignosulfonates obtained both from hardwood and softwood were tested. Selenium oxide was used as the precursor of zero-valent selenium. Three different reducers were tested - sodium borohydride, hydrazine and ascorbic acid - and the latter proved most effective in terms of the particle size and stability of the final colloid. The lignosulfonate-stabilized selenium nanoparticles had a negative zeta potential, dependent on pH, which for some lignosulfonates reached -50mV, indicating the excellent stability of the colloid. When spherical silica particles were introduced to the synthesis mixture, selenium nanoparticles were deposited on their surface. Additionally, star-like structures consisting of sharp selenium needles with silica cores were observed. After drying, the selenium-functionalized silica had a grey metallic hue. The method reported here is simple and cost-effective, and can be used for the preparation of large quantities of selenium colloids or the surface modification of other materials with selenium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Glycerol capped PbS/CdS core/shell nanoparticles at different molar ratio and its application in biosensors: An optical properties study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, D., E-mail: ddasphy014@gmail.com; Hussain, A. M. P. [Department of Physics, Cotton College, Guwahati, Assam, India- 781001 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Glycerol capped PbS/CdS core/shell type nanoparticles fabricated with two different molar ratios are characterized for study of structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern exhibits cubic phased polycrystalline nanocrystals. The calculated grain sizes from Williamson-Hall plot were found to be around 6 nm with increased strain. HRTEM investigation confirms the formation of core/shell nanostructures and the sizes of the particles were found to be around 7 nm which is in good agreement with the results of the W-H plot. An increase of band gap with the decrease in precursor concentration is confirmed from the blue shift in the absorption spectra and also from Tauc plot. A clear blue shifted intense emission is observed in the photoluminescence spectra with decrease in particle size. Intense luminescence from the core/shell nanostructure may be applied in bio labelling and biosensors.

  19. Core-shell nanoparticles optical sensors - Rational design of zinc ions fluorescent nanoprobes of improved analytical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźnica, Emilia; Gasik, Joanna; Kłucińska, Katarzyna; Kisiel, Anna; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof; Michalska, Agata

    2017-10-01

    In this work the effect of affinity of an analyte to a receptor on the response of nanostructural fluorimetric probes is discussed. Core-shell nanoparticles sensors are prepared that benefit from the properties of the phases involved leading to improved analytical performance. The optical transduction system chosen is independent of pH, thus the change of sample pH can be used to control the analyte - receptor affinity through the "conditional" binding constant prevailing within the lipophilic phase. It is shown that by affecting the "conditional" binding constant the performance of the sensor can be fine-tuned. As expected, increase in "conditional" affinity of the ligand embedded in the lipophilic phase to the analyte results in higher sensitivity over narrow concentration range - bulk reaction and sigmoidal shape response of emission intensity vs. logarithm of concentration changes. To induce a linear dependence of emission intensity vs. logarithm of analyte concentration covering a broad concentration range, a spatial confinement of the reaction zone is proposed, and application of core-shell nanostructures. The core material, polypyrrole nanospheres, is effectively not permeable for the analyte - ligand complex, thus the reaction is limited to the outer shell layer of the polymer prepared from poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene). For herein introduced system a linear dependence of emission intensity vs. logarithm of Zn2+ concentration was obtained within the range from 10-7 to 10-1 M.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell gold nanoparticles with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) from a new precursor salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, M.; Ram, S.

    2013-02-01

    In this article, we report a facile one-step chemical synthesis of gold (Au) nanoparticles (GNPs) from a new precursor salt i.e., gold hydroxide in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) polymer. The non-aqueous dispersion of GNPs was comprehensively characterized by UV-Visible, FTIR, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscope (TEM). A strong surface plasmon resonance band at 529 nm in the UV-Visible spectrum confirms the formation of GNPs in the Au colloid. The FTIR spectroscopic results showed that PVP molecules get chemisorbed onto the surface of GNP via O-atom of carbonyl group. A negative zeta potential of (-)16 mV reveals accumulation of nonbonding electrons of O-atom of carbonyl group of PVP molecules on the nanosurface of GNP. TEM images demonstrate a core-shell nanostructure with an Au-crystalline core covered by a thin amorphous PVP-shell. PVP-capped GNPs could be a potential candidate for bio-sensing, catalysis, and other applications.

  1. Combination chemotherapy using core-shell nanoparticles through the self-assembly of HPMA-based copolymers and degradable polyester

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jäger, Eliezer; Jäger, Alessandro; Chytil, Petr; Etrych, Tomáš; Říhová, Blanka; Giacomelli, F. C.; Štěpánek, Petr; Ulbrich, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 2 (2013), s. 153-161 ISSN 0168-3659 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00500803; GA ČR GA202/09/2078; GA ČR GPP207/11/P551 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : combination therapy * polymeric core-shell nanoparticles * docetaxel Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; EC - Immunology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 7.261, year: 2013

  2. Magnetic core/shell nanoparticle thin films deposited by MAPLE: Investigation by chemical, morphological and in vitro biological assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, R.; Popescu, C.; Socol, G.; Iordache, I.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Mihaiescu, D.E.; Grumezescu, A.M.; Balan, A.; Stamatin, I.; Chifiriuc, C.; Bleotu, C.; Saviuc, C.; Popa, M.; Chrisey, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We deposit magnetic Fe 3 O 4 /oleic acid/cephalosporin nanoparticle thin films by MAPLE. ► Thin films have a chemical structure similar to the starting material. ► Cephalosporins have an additive effect on the grain size and induce changes in grain shape. ► MAPLE can be used to develop novel strategies for fighting medical biofilms associated with chronic infections. - Abstract: We report on thin film deposition of nanostructured Fe 3 O 4 /oleic acid/ceftriaxone and Fe 3 O 4 /oleic acid/cefepime nanoparticles (core/shell/adsorption-shell) were fabricated by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) onto inert substrates. The thin films were characterized by profilometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and investigated by in vitro biological assays. The biological properties tested included the investigation of the microbial viability and the microbial adherence to the glass coverslip nanoparticle film, using Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains with known antibiotic susceptibility behavior, the microbial adherence to the HeLa cells monolayer grown on the nanoparticle pellicle, and the cytotoxicity on eukaryotic cells. The proposed system, based on MAPLE, could be used for the development of novel anti-microbial materials or strategies for fighting pathogenic biofilms frequently implicated in the etiology of biofilm associated chronic infections.

  3. Influence of the ammonium hydroxide concentration in morphological control of meso porous silica particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sukbon; Jung, Chonghun; Yoon, Inho; Kim, Changki; Choi, Wangkyu; Moon, Jeikwon

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new M41S meso porous silica families in 1992 extended the applications into much wider pore ranges, bringing in a new prosperous era in porous material research. The synthesis of these meso porous silicas has been mainly accomplished through a self-assembly between surfactant molecules and inorganic species under various pH conditions. Meanwhile, many studies have been conducted on the application as catalysts, adsorbents, and packing materials for separation columns due to their unique properties such as high specific surface area, large pore volume, tuneable pore size, and narrow pore size distribution. The pore sizes of these materials can be easily controlled by changing the alkyl-chain length of the surfactant used. However, the control of the morphology and the pore structure is not so common. The morphological control of these materials in particular is one of the major challenges for their industrial application. Recently, the meso porous silica materials with various shapes such as fibers, films, polyhedral particles, and spheres have been reported. In our previous study, the core-shell nanoparticles with a silica core and a meso porous shell under basic conditions were synthesized using the silica nanoparticles as a core and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr)-NH 4 OH-H 2 O-C 2 H 5 OH system. In this work, we report the synthesis of the most well known hexagonal MCM-41 among three main mesophases in the M41S families using TEOS-CTABr-NH 4 OH-H 2 O system. Also, in the control of the morphology and pore structure of the meso porous silica materials, the influence of the NH 4 OH concentration was investigated

  4. Paclitaxel loaded folic acid targeted nanoparticles of mixed lipid-shell and polymer-core: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peiqi; Wang, Hanjie; Yu, Man; Liao, Zhenyu; Wang, Xianhuo; Zhang, Fei; Ji, Wei; Wu, Bing; Han, Jinghua; Zhang, Haichang; Wang, Huaqing; Chang, Jin; Niu, Ruifang

    2012-06-01

    A functional drug carrier comprised of folic acid modified lipid-shell and polymer-core nanoparticles (FLPNPs) including poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) core, PEGylated octadecyl-quaternized lysine modified chitosan (PEG-OQLCS) as lipid-shell, folic acid as targeting ligand and cholesterol was prepared and evaluated for targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX). Confocal microscopy analysis confirmed the coating of the lipid-shell on the polymer-core. Physicochemical characterizations of FLPNPs, such as particle size, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro PTX release, were also evaluated. The internalization efficiency and targeting ability of FLPNPs were demonstrated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. PTX loaded FLPNPs showed a significantly higher cytotoxicity than the commercial PTX formulation (Taxol®). The intravenous administration of PTX encapsulated FLPNPs led to tumor regression and improvement of animal survival in a murine model, compared with that observed with Taxol® and biodistribution study showed that PTX concentration in tumor for PTX encapsulated FLPNPs was higher than other PTX formulations. Our data indicate that PTX loaded FLPNPs are a promising nano-sized drug formulation for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In Situ Generation of Pd-Pt Core-Shell Nanoparticles on Reduced Graphene Oxide (Pd@Pt/rGO) Using Microwaves: Applications in Dehalogenation Reactions and Reduction of Olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Anandarup; Rathi, Anuj K; Aparicio, Claudia; Tomanec, Ondrej; Petr, Martin; Pocklanova, Radka; Gawande, Manoj B; Varma, Rajender S; Zboril, Radek

    2017-01-25

    Core-shell nanocatalysts are a distinctive class of nanomaterials with varied potential applications in view of their unique structure, composition-dependent physicochemical properties, and promising synergism among the individual components. A one-pot microwave (MW)-assisted approach is described to prepare the reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-supported Pd-Pt core-shell nanoparticles, (Pd@Pt/rGO); spherical core-shell nanomaterials (∼95 nm) with Pd core (∼80 nm) and 15 nm Pt shell were nicely distributed on the rGO matrix in view of the choice of reductant and reaction conditions. The well-characterized composite nanomaterials, endowed with synergism among its components and rGO support, served as catalysts in aromatic dehalogenation reactions and for the reduction of olefins with high yield (>98%), excellent selectivity (>98%) and recyclability (up to 5 times); both Pt/rGO and Pd/rGO and even their physical mixtures showed considerably lower conversions (20 and 57%) in dehalogenation of 3-bromoaniline. Similarly, in the reduction of styrene to ethylbenzene, Pd@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (without rGO support) possess considerably lower conversion (60%) compared to Pd@Pt/rGO. The mechanism of dehalogenation reactions with Pd@Pt/rGO catalyst is discussed with the explicit premise that rGO matrix facilitates the adsorption of the reducing agent, thus enhancing its local concentration and expediting the hydrazine decomposition rate. The versatility of the catalyst has been validated via diverse substrate scope for both reduction and dehalogenation reactions.

  6. Predictable Particle Engineering: Programming the Energy Level, Carrier Generation, and Conductivity of Core-Shell Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Conghui; Wu, Tong; Mao, Jie; Chen, Ting; Li, Yuntong; Li, Min; Xu, Yiting; Zeng, Birong; Luo, Weiang; Yu, Lingke; Zheng, Gaofeng; Dai, Lizong

    2018-06-20

    Core-shell structures are of particular interest in the development of advanced composite materials as they can efficiently bring different components together at nanoscale. The advantage of this structure greatly relies on the crucial design of both core and shell, thus achieving an intercomponent synergistic effect. In this report, we show that decorating semiconductor nanocrystals with a boronate polymer shell can easily achieve programmable core-shell interactions. Taking ZnO and anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals as inner core examples, the effective core-shell interactions can narrow the band gap of semiconductor nanocrystals, change the HOMO and LUMO levels of boronate polymer shell, and significantly improve the carrier density of core-shell particles. The hole mobility of core-shell particles can be improved by almost 9 orders of magnitude in comparison with net boronate polymer, while the conductivity of core-shell particles is at most 30-fold of nanocrystals. The particle engineering strategy is based on two driving forces: catechol-surface binding and B-N dative bonding and having a high ability to control and predict the shell thickness. Also, this approach is applicable to various inorganic nanoparticles with different components, sizes, and shapes.

  7. Functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles for U removal from low and high pH groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dien, E-mail: dien.li@srs.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Egodawatte, Shani [Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Larsen, Sarah C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Serkiz, Steven M. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Seaman, John C. [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles were functionalized with organic molecules. • The functionalized nanoparticles had high surface areas and consistent pore sizes. • The functionalized nanoparticles were easily separated due to their magnetism. • They exhibited high capacity for uranium removal from low- or high-pH groundwater. - Abstract: U(VI) species display limited adsorption onto sediment minerals and synthetic sorbents in pH <4 or pH >8 groundwater. In this work, magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNs) with magnetite nanoparticle cores were functionalized with various organic molecules using post-synthetic methods. The functionalized MMSNs were characterized using N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherms, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), {sup 13}C cross polarization and magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), which indicated that mesoporous silica (MCM-41) particles of 100–200 nm formed around a core of magnetic iron oxide, and the functional groups were primarily grafted into the mesopores of ∼3.0 nm in size. The functionalized MMSNs were effective for U removal from pH 3.5 and 9.6 artificial groundwater (AGW). Functionalized MMSNs removed U from the pH 3.5 AGW by as much as 6 orders of magnitude more than unfunctionalized nanoparticles or silica and had adsorption capacities as high as 38 mg/g. They removed U from the pH 9.6 AGW as much as 4 orders of magnitude greater than silica and 2 orders of magnitude greater than the unfunctionalized nanoparticles with adsorption capacities as high as 133 mg/g. These results provide an applied solution for treating U contamination that occurs at extreme pH environments and a scientific foundation for solving critical industrial issues related to environmental stewardship and nuclear power production.

  8. Core and shell sizing of small silver-coated nanospheres by optical extinction spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinca, D C; Scaffardi, L B

    2008-01-01

    Silver metal nanoparticles (Nps) are extensively used in different areas of research and technology due to their interesting optical, thermal and electric properties, especially for bare core and core-shell nanostructures with sizes smaller than 10 nm. Since these properties are core-shell size-dependent, size measurement is important in manipulating their potential functionalization and applications. Bare and coated small silver Nps fabricated by physical and chemical methods present specific characteristics in their extinction spectra that are potentially useful for sizing purposes. This work presents a novel procedure to size mean core radius smaller than 10 nm and mean shell thickness of silver core-shell Nps based on a comparative study of the characteristics in their optical extinction spectra in different media as a function of core radii, shell thickness and coating refractive index. From the regularities derived from these relationships, it can be concluded that plasmon full width at half-maximum (FWHM) is sensitive to core size but not to coating thickness, while plasmon resonance wavelength (PRW) is related to shell thickness and mostly independent of core radius. These facts, which allow sizing simultaneously both mean core radius and shell thickness, can also be used to size bare silver Nps as a special case of core-shell Nps with zero shell thickness. The proposed method was applied to size experimental samples and the results show good agreement with conventional TEM microscopy.

  9. Investigating the Role of Shell Thickness and Field Cooling on Saturation Magnetization and Its Temperature Dependence in Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 Core/Shell Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihab M. Obaidat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding saturation magnetization and its behavior with particle size and temperature are essential for medical applications such magnetic hyperthermia. We report the effect of shell thickness and field cooling on the saturation magnetization and its behavior with temperature in Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 core/shell nanoparticles of fixed core diameter (8 nm and several shell thicknesses. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM were used to investigate the phase and the morphology of the samples. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED confirmed the core/shell structure and phases. Using a SQUID (San Diego, CA, USA, magnetic measurements were conducted in the temperature range of 2 to 300 K both under zero field-cooling (ZFC and field-cooling (FC protocols at several field-cooling values. In the ZFC state, considerable enhancement of saturation magnetization was obtained with the increase of shell thickness. After field cooling, we observed a drastic enhancement of the saturation magnetization in one sample up to 120 emu/g (50% larger than the bulk value. In both the FC and ZFC states, considerable deviations from the original Bloch’s law were observed. These results are discussed and attributed to the existence of interface spin-glass clusters which are modified by the changes in the shell thickness and the field-cooling.

  10. Silica artificial opal incorporated with silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wenjiang, E-mail: wjli@zju.edu.cn [Center for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory for Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Joint Research Center of Photonics of the Royal Institute of Technology and Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Room 210, East Building 5, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Sun Tan [Center for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory for Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Joint Research Center of Photonics of the Royal Institute of Technology and Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Room 210, East Building 5, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The silica artificial opal with a three-dimensional (3D) periodic structure was prepared using highly monodispersed silica microspheres by a force packing method in ITO glass cell. The silica artificial opal incorporated with silver nanoparticles was fabricated by the electroplating technique. The optical microscope images of the synthetic sample and the corresponding optical properties were measured after each treatment of electroplating-washing-drying circle. The transmission and reflection spectra presented a red shift, showing that the effective refractive index of the complex silver/silica opal increased after each electroplating. Combining the SEM images, it was seen that the silver nanoparticles could be directly deposited on the surface of silica spheres in the opaline structure. The silver/silica complex opal film could provide a simple way to tune the opal properties by controlling silver nanoparticles in the silica opal. The silver/silica opal crystal structures could be used for nano-photonic circuits, white-light LEDs or as photocatalysts.

  11. Silica artificial opal incorporated with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjiang; Sun Tan

    2009-01-01

    The silica artificial opal with a three-dimensional (3D) periodic structure was prepared using highly monodispersed silica microspheres by a force packing method in ITO glass cell. The silica artificial opal incorporated with silver nanoparticles was fabricated by the electroplating technique. The optical microscope images of the synthetic sample and the corresponding optical properties were measured after each treatment of electroplating-washing-drying circle. The transmission and reflection spectra presented a red shift, showing that the effective refractive index of the complex silver/silica opal increased after each electroplating. Combining the SEM images, it was seen that the silver nanoparticles could be directly deposited on the surface of silica spheres in the opaline structure. The silver/silica complex opal film could provide a simple way to tune the opal properties by controlling silver nanoparticles in the silica opal. The silver/silica opal crystal structures could be used for nano-photonic circuits, white-light LEDs or as photocatalysts.

  12. Synthesis of core-shell hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoplates: Quantitative analysis of the particle structure and shape, high coercivity and low cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marin; Kopanja, Lazar; Panjan, Matjaz; Kralj, Slavko; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Stojanovic, Zoran

    2017-05-01

    Hematite core-shell nanoparticles with plate-like morphology were synthesized using a one-step hydrothermal synthesis. An XRPD analysis indicates that the sample consist of single-phase α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. SEM and TEM measurements show that the hematite sample is composed of uniform core-shell nanoplates with 10-20 nm thickness, 80-100 nm landscape dimensions (aspect ratio ∼5) and 3-4 nm thickness of the surface shells. We used computational methods for the quantitative analysis of the core-shell particle structure and circularity shape descriptor for the quantitative shape analysis of the nanoparticles from TEM micrographs. The calculated results indicated that a percentage of the shell area in the nanoparticle area (share [%]) is significant. The determined values of circularity in the perpendicular and oblique perspective clearly show shape anisotropy of the nanoplates. The magnetic properties revealed the ferromagnetic-like properties at room temperature with high coercivity HC = 2340 Oe, pointing to the shape and surface effects. These results signify core-shell hematite nanoparticles' for practical applications in magnetic devices. The synthesized hematite plate-like nanoparticles exhibit low cytotoxicity levels on the human lung fibroblasts (MRC5) cell line demonstrating the safe use of these nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

  13. Silica-Polystyrene Nanocomposite Particles Synthesized by Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerization and Their Encapsulation through Miniemulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérangère Bailly

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene (PS chains with molecular weights comprised between 8000 and 64000 g⋅mol-1 and narrow polydispersities were grown from the surface of silica nanoparticles (Aerosil A200 fumed silica and Stöber silica, resp. through nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP. Alkoxyamine initiators based on N-tert-butyl-1-diethylphosphono-2,2-dimethylpropyl nitroxide (DEPN and carrying a terminal functional group have been synthesized in situ and grafted to the silica surface. The resulting grafted alkoxyamines have been employed to initiate the growth of polystyrene chains from the inorganic surface. The maximum grafting density of the surface-tethered PS chains was estimated and seemed to be limited by initiator confinement at the interface. Then, the PS-grafted Stöber silica nanoparticles were entrapped inside latex particles via miniemulsion polymerization. Transmission electron microscopy indicated the successful formation of silica-polystyrene core-shell particles.

  14. Synthesis, surface modification/decoration of luminescent–magnetic core/shell nanomaterials, based on the lanthanide doped fluorides (Fe3O4/SiO2/NH2/PAA/LnF3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runowski, Marcin; Lis, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The synthesized magnetite nanoparticles (10–15 nm) were successfully coated with amine modified silica nanoshell, which led to the formation of core/shell type nanostructures (30–50 nm). The as-prepared nanoparticles were surface modified with polyacrylic acid (PAA) via electrostatic interactions of –NH 2 and –COOH groups. Afterwards, the surface PAA molecules acted as complexing agents of the introduced lanthanide (Ln 3+ ) ions. Subsequently, the as-prepared nanostructures were surface decorated with luminescent LnF 3 nanoparticles, forming Eu 3+ or Tb 3+ doped Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /NH 2 /PAA/LnF 3 nanomaterials (50–100 nm). The obtained luminescent–magnetic products exhibited simultaneously bright red or green emission under UV lamp irradiation (λ ex =254 nm), and a response for the applied magnetic field (strong magnet attracts the colloidal particles, dispersed in aqueous medium). After the synthesis, properties of the nanomaterials were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and spectrofluorometry (analysis of excitation/emission spectra and luminescence decay curves). Such advanced nanomaterials can be potentially used in multimodal imaging, targeted therapies and as multifunctional contrast agents, novel luminescent–magnetic tracers, protection of documents, etc. - Highlights: • Luminescent–magnetic nanomaterials Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /NH 2 /PAA/LnF 3 were synthesized. • Core/shell nanostructures were obtained by surface modification of nanoparticles. • Luminescent lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles doped with Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ ions. • Multifunctional core/shell nanostructures exhibited red or green emission. • Nanomaterials formed stable aqueous colloids.

  15. Effects of Core-Shell Rubber (CSR) Nanoparticles on the Cryogenic Fracture Toughness of CSR Modified Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Magee, Daniel; Schneider, Judy; Cannon, Seth

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of core-shell rubber (CSR) nanoparticles on the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of an epoxy resin at ambient and liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures. Varying amounts of Kane Ace(Registered TradeMark) MX130 and Kane Ace(Registered TradeMark) MX960 toughening agent were added to a commercially available EPON 862/Epikure W epoxy resin. Elastic modulus was calculated using quasi-static tensile data. Fracture toughness was evaluated by the resulting breaking energy measured in Charpy impact tests conducted on an instrumented drop tower. The size and distribution of the CSR nanoparticles were characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to study the fracture surface morphology. The addition of the CSR nanoparticles increased the breaking energy with negligible change in elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress (UTS). At ambient temperature the breaking energy increased with increasing additions of the CSR nanoparticles up to 13.8wt%, while at LN2 temperatures, it reached a plateau at much lower CSR concentration.

  16. Influence of layer eccentricity on the resonant properties of cylindrical active coated nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, R. O.; Arslanagic, Samel

    2015-01-01

    We report on the influence of the layer eccentricity on the resonant properties of active coated nano-particles made of a silver core and gain impregnated silica shell illuminated by a near-by magnetic line source. For a fixed over-all size of the particle, designs with small and large cores...

  17. Stacked dipole line source excitation of active nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel

    This work investigates electromagnetic properties of cylindrical active coated nano-particles excited by a stac- ked electric dipole line source. The nano-particles consist of a silica nano-core, layered by silver, gold, or copper nano-shell. Attention is devoted to the influence of the source...... location and dipole orientation, the gain constant, and the nano-particle material composition on the electromagnetic field distributions and radiated powers. The results are contrasted to those for the magnetic line source illumination of the nano-particles....

  18. Laser oxidative pyrolysis synthesis and annealing of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles embedded in carbon–silica shells/matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleaca, C.T. [National Institute for Plasma, Laser and Radiation Physics (NILPRP), Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 36, R-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, Physics Department, Independentei 313, Bucharest (Romania); Scarisoreanu, M., E-mail: monica.scarisoreanu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Plasma, Laser and Radiation Physics (NILPRP), Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 36, R-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Morjan, I.; Luculescu, C.; Niculescu, A.-M.; Badoi, A. [National Institute for Plasma, Laser and Radiation Physics (NILPRP), Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 36, R-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Vasile, E. [“Politehnica” University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Gh. Polizu 1-7, Bucharest (Romania); Kovacs, G. [“Babes-Boyai” University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}-based nanocomposites were obtained by one-step laser oxidative pyrolysis. • Titania particles are surrounded by/embedded in carbon/silica shells/matrix. • They contain an anatase/rutile mixture with mean crystalline diameters up to 24 nm. • Their carbon content decreased with the increasing of introduced air coflow. • Their bandgap energy decreased due to the carbon incorporation. - Abstract: Titania nanoparticles containing a mixture of anatase and rutile phases (with mean crystalline sizes up to 24 nm) covered with/embedded in carbon/silica thin layers or matrix were obtained in a single step using laser oxidative pyrolysis. Titanium tetrachloride and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) vapors were separately introduced into the reaction zone – both together with the laser-absorbing agent (sensitizer) ethylene – which acts also as carbon source – and the oxidant (air) – through the inner and the concentric nozzle, respectively. By increasing the air flow through the annular nozzle, while keeping constant the TiC{sub 4}, inner air, HMDSO and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} flows, the atomic carbon concentration as well as the rutile to anatase ratio in the resulted nanopowders decrease. A much brighter and extended flame was observed for the experiment involving the greatest air flow. The Ti/Si atomic ratio in the resulted nanocomposites was higher than that from the introduced precursors (1.8), indicating a partial siloxane conversion to silica. The annealed powders (at 450 °C to further carbon content reducing) exhibit a lower bandgap energy than those of the reference sample without silica (and also lower than the commercial Degussa P25 nano-TiO{sub 2})

  19. Improving the electrode performance of Ge through Ge@C core-shell nanoparticles and graphene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ding-Jiang; Xin, Sen; Yan, Yang; Jiang, Ke-Cheng; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2012-02-08

    Germanium is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries, but it usually exhibits poor cycling stability because of its huge volume variation during the lithium uptake and release process. A double protection strategy to improve the electrode performance of Ge through the use of Ge@C core-shell nanostructures and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) networks has been developed. The as-synthesized Ge@C/RGO nanocomposite showed excellent cycling performance and rate capability in comparison with Ge@C nanoparticles when used as an anode material for Li ion batteries, which can be attributed to the electronically conductive and elastic RGO networks in addition to the carbon shells and small particle sizes of Ge. The strategy is simple yet very effective, and because of its versatility, it may be extended to other high-capacity electrode materials with large volume variations and low electrical conductivities.

  20. Silica coated ionic liquid templated mesoporous