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Sample records for silage-based total mixed

  1. Fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration silages based on desert wormwood (Artemisia desertorum Spreng.) combining with early stage corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guomei; Bai, Chunsheng; Sun, Juanjuan; Sun, Lin; Xue, Yanlin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Heping; Yu, Zhu; Liu, Sibo; Zhang, Kewei

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages based on desert wormwood (DW) combined with early stage corn (ESC) as forage and determine an optimum formula. Desert wormwood and ESC were harvested, chopped, and mixed with other ingredients according to a formula, packed into laboratory silos at densities of 500-550 g/L, and stored in the dark for 60 days. The DW proportions in the forage of TMR were 1, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25 and 0, based on fresh weight. As the proportion of DW decreased, the pH also decreased (P total nitrogen in the TMR silages with DW proportions of 0.75, 0.25 and 0 in the forage was more than 10%. These results indicated that the quality of the TMR silage containing DW alone as forage was poor, TMR silages containing DW proportions of 0.75 and 0.25, and ESC alone, in the forage were not well preserved. The optimum TMR silage formula contained a DW proportion of 0.5 in the forage. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Short communication: Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash and indigestible neutral detergent fiber as total-tract digestibility markers in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and indigestible NDF (iNDF) as intrinsic digestibility markers in comparison with total fecal collection (TC) in dairy cows fed corn silage- and alfalfa haylage-based diets. The experiment was part of a larger experiment, which involved 8 Holstein cows [102±28.4 d in milk, 26.4±0.27 kg/d of dry matter (DM) intake, and 43±5.3 kg/d milk yield]. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with the following treatments: metabolizable protein (MP)-adequate diet [15.6% crude protein (CP); high-CP], MP-deficient diet (14.0% CP; low-CP), and 2 other low-CP diets supplemented (top-dressed) with ruminally protected Lys or Lys and Met. Data for the 3 low-CP diets were combined for this analysis. Total feces were collected for 5 consecutive days during each period to estimate total-tract apparent digestibility. Digestibility was also estimated using AIA (digestion with 2 N HCl) and iNDF (12-d ruminal incubation in 25-μm-pore-size bags). Significant diet × digestibility method interactions were observed for fecal output of nutrients and digestibility. Fecal output of nutrients estimated using AIA or iNDF was lower compared with TC and fecal output of DM, organic matter, and CP tended to be higher for iNDF compared with AIA for the high-CP diet. For the low-CP diet, however, fecal output of all nutrients was lower for AIA compared with TC and was higher for iNDF compared with TC. Data from this experiment showed that, compared with TC, AIA underestimated fecal output and overestimated digestibility, particularly evident with the fiber fractions and the protein-deficient diet. Compared with TC, fecal output was overestimated and digestibility of the low-CP diet was underestimated when iNDF was used as a marker, although the magnitude of the difference was smaller compared with that for AIA. In the conditions of the current study, iNDF appeared to be a more reliable digestibility marker

  3. The effects of a ration change from a total mixed ration to pasture on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption characteristics, and morphology of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schären, M.; Seyfang, G.M.; Steingass, H.; Dieho, K.; Dijkstra, J.; Hüther, L.; Frahm, J.; Beineke, A.; Soosten, von D.; Meyer, U.; Breves, G.; Dänicke, S.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the change from a concentrate and silage-based ration (total mixed ration, TMR) to a pasture-based ration, a 10-wk trial (wk 1-10) was performed, including 10 rumen- and duodenum-fistulated German Holstein dairy cows (182 ± 24 d in milk, 23.5 ± 3.5 kg of milk/d; mean

  4. Ruminal pH and temperature, papilla characteristics, and animal performance of fattening calves fed concentrate or maize silage-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Bodas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding systems can play an important role, not only in beef farm profitability but also in animal health and performance. Fourteen Avilena-Negra Iberica bulls, with an initial weight of 270 kg (SE 22.6 kg and aged 223 d (SE 16.2 were used to study the effect of two feeding systems on ruminal pH and temperature and animal performance when calves were kept in loose housing conditions. Feeding systems were barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grain-based concentrate plus barley straw (CONC and maize (Zea mays L. silage-based total mixed ration (TMR. Internal wireless boluses were used to collect pH and temperature values every 10 min throughout the measurement period (15 d. Diet did not modify (P > 0.10 average daily gain, carcass weight, dressing percentage, ruminal mucosa color, or papilla counts. Papilla width and papilla width/lamina propria thickness were significantly lower (P 0.10. Although animal performance is not affected, feeding fattening calves on a concentrate plus barley straw diet can result in better rumen conditions than using maize silage-based TMR.

  5. Mixed total screening for sulfur isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Bin; Zhao Lei; Zhan Zhaoyang; He Zhijun

    2003-01-01

    The research on modern economic geology indicates that most ore deposits formed with characters of multi-origin, multi-stage and multi-genesis. Quantificational research of Sulfur isotope origin is a difficult problem that puzzles Geochemists all along. So the formation process of an ore deposit can be taken as the mix or the superposition of multi totals, which can be described by the mathematics model of mixed total screening. In the study of mid-down Yangtze River and Dongpo ore field in Hunan province, the authors successfully applied the mathematics model of mixed total screening, quantificationally resolved the problem of Sulfur isotope origin and mineralizing matter origin, and found out the mineralizing mechanism. This is very valuable. (authors)

  6. Short communication: Effect of straw inclusion rate in a dry total mixed ration on the behavior of weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, M J; Steele, M A; DeVries, T J

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of straw inclusion levels on the feeding behavior of young, weaned calves adapted to a dry total mixed ration (TMR) composed of a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw. A secondary objective was to determine how developed feeding patterns persist after calves were switched to a conventional silage-based diet. Ten Holstein bull calves (91 ± 2.4d of age, weighing 136 ± 12.3 kg) were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a TMR containing [dry matter (DM) basis] either (1) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 10 wk (wk 1 to 10) or (2) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 1 to 5), then 70% concentrate and 30% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 6 to 10). After 10 wk, all animals were transitioned to a TMR containing (DM basis) 42.3% corn silage and 57.7% haylage for 2 wk (wk 11 to 12). During wk 1 to 5, all calves had similar DMI (5.5 kg/d), average daily gain (1.7 kg/d), feed efficiency (3.5 kg of DM/kg of gain), and eating time (151.9 min/d). During wk 6 to 10, calves transitioned to the 70% diet ate less DM (5.5 vs. 7.4 kg/d), grew more slowly (1.3 vs. 1.6 kg/d), sorted more against long forage particles (62.8 vs. 103.8%), and had greater feeding times (194.9 vs. 102.6 min/d). The difference in feeding time occurred only during the first 8 h after feed delivery. Despite similar DMI (5.2 kg/d) and average daily gain (1.1 kg/d) in wk 11 to 12, differences in behavior were observed resulting from previous diets. In wk 11 to 12, calves previously fed the 70% diet continued to have a longer meal immediately after feed delivery. Overall, the results indicate that diluting a dry TMR containing a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw with more straw resulted in calves spending more time feeding and having longer meals immediately after feed delivery; this feeding pattern carried over after calves were transitioned to a silage-based ration. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  7. Monitoring total mixed rations and feed delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelberg, Thomas J; Stone, William

    2014-11-01

    This article is intended to give practitioners a method to evaluate total mixed ration (TMR) consistency and to give them practical solutions to improve TMR consistency that will improve cattle performance and health. Practitioners will learn how to manage the variation in moisture and nutrients that exists in haylage and corn silage piles and in bales of hay, and methods to reduce variation in the TMR mixing and delivery process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mixed Gaussian-Impulse Noise Image Restoration Via Total Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    deblurring under impulse noise ,” J. Math. Imaging Vis., vol. 36, pp. 46–53, January 2010. [5] B. Li, Q. Liu, J. Xu, and X. Luo, “A new method for removing......Several Total Variation (TV) regularization methods have recently been proposed to address denoising under mixed Gaussian and impulse noise . While

  9. Total mixed ration in exercising horse: digestibility and nitrogen metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Magni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the apparent digestibility of a total mixed ration (TMR versus a traditional mixed hay/cereals diet. Four adult trained Standardbred geldings – BW = 478±37 kg - were used. The two diets consisted of 20 kg of a commercial TMR - corn silage, alfalfa hay, wet brewers’ grain, oat, apple pomace, molasses cane, soybean oil and mineral/vitamin supplement - (Diet 1 or 7 kg of meadow hay and 4.5 kg of cereal-mix - corn, oat, barley and protein/mineral/vitamin supplement - (Diet 2. The trial was conducted according to a Latin Square design (2x2. After an adaptation period of four weeks, total faeces and urine were collected for 6 days. Both feed and faeces samples were analysed for DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, ADL and GE. Data were analysed by ANOVA. The apparent digestibility and nitrogen balance of the two diets were compared. DM, OM, CP and GE apparent digestibility were significantly different between the diets, with higher values for unifeed diet than traditional diet. Energy requirement was satisfied by both diets (96.54 vs 95.55 MJ. Nitrogen balance showed negative values in both diets (- 61.67 vs - 9.05, but the hay/cereals supplemented diet showed the best protein utilisation.

  10. Digestion and ruminal fermentation of cocoa pod silage based ration enriched by gliricidia and calliandra leaves on goats

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    Puastuti W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In term of availability, cacao pod is potential for ruminant feed. According to its nutrients content, cacao pod can be used as feed fiber source. Protein sources materials must be added when cacao pod was ensilaged due to low protein content of this material. The aim of this study was to investigate digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation of goat fed grass or cacao pod based ration. Randomized block design and 20 heads of lambs (16.95±2.36 kg to evaluated 5 type of rations: R (50% grass + 50% concentrate; S (50% cacao pod silage + 50% concentrate; SG (50% cacao pod-gliricidia silage + 50% concentrate; SK (50% cacao pod-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate dan SC (50% cacao pod-mixture of gliricidia-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate. Feeding trial was conducted for over 15 weeks. Measurements were taken on feed digestibility and rumen-fermentation end-products after 3 weeks of treatments. Results shows that nutrients digestibility was different significantly among the groups of treatments (P<0.05. Digestibillity of organic matter, NDF and energy of R ration was those of higher significantly (P<0.05 than those of other groups. N-ammonia of rumen from goat feed R ration was higher (P<0.05 than other groups. Total VFA and each component were different among the groups (P<0.05, however the value was similar among the groups of cacao pod silage rations. It is concluded that cacao pod silaged based rations enriched by Gliricidia and Calliandra leaves did not produce similar digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation with grass based ration.

  11. Maximizing profit on New England organic dairy farms: an economic comparison of 4 total mixed rations for organic Holsteins and Jerseys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, S P; Clark, G W; Anderson, G W; Kersbergen, R J; Lunak, M; Marcinkowski, D P; Murphy, M R; Schwab, C G; Erickson, P S

    2011-06-01

    The objective of these experiments was to compare 4 total mixed rations fed to USDA-certified organic dairy cows in New England. Forty-eight Jersey cows from the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and 64 Holstein cows from the University of Maine (UMaine) were assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments testing the main effects of corn silage versus grass silage as the forage base and commodity concentrates versus a complete pelleted concentrate mixture. Treatment diets were fed as a total mixed ration for 8 wk during the winter and spring months of 2007, 2008, and 2009. Milk yield, component, and quality data were recorded and used to calculate the value of the milk produced for each cow. The dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded and used to calculate the average cost per cow per day of each diet. Income over feed costs were calculated for each diet using milk value and feed cost data. Feed cost and income over feed cost data were resampled using bootstrap methodology to examine potential patterns. Milk yield, milk fat and true protein concentrations, and SCC were similar among treatments. Cows at UNH fed corn silage tended to have higher DMI and lower milk urea nitrogen than did cows fed grass silage, whereas cows fed pellets had higher DMI than cows fed commodities. Cows at UNH fed commodities tended to have higher body condition scores than those fed pellets. Cows at UMaine fed commodities tended to have higher DMI than did cows fed pellets, and cows fed corn silage had lower milk urea nitrogen than did cows fed grass silage. Body weights and body condition scores were not different for cows at UMaine. Feed costs were significantly higher for corn silage diets and diets at UNH containing pellets, but not at UMaine. The calculated value of the milk and income over feed costs did not differ among treatments at either university. Bootstrap replications indicated that the corn silage with commodities diet generally had the highest feed cost at both UNH

  12. Frequency of mixed onychomycosis with total nail dystrophy in patients attended in a Guatemalan Dermatology Center

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Herrera, Erick; Schlager-Ospino, Herbert; Torres-Guerrero, Edoardo; Porras-López, Carlos; Betancourt, Laura Ramos; Camarena, Stefanie Arroyo; Arenas, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Onychomycosis are fungal nail infections that can be caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic molds and yeasts, which are capable of breaking down keratin. Mixed onychomycosis are a controversial subject and they are the outcome of the combination of two dermatophytes, dermatophytes/nondermatophytic molds or dermatophytes/yeast. Objetives: To determine the frequency of total dystrophic onychomycosis caused by more than one etiological agent (mixed onychomycosis) in ...

  13. The effects of a ration change from a total mixed ration to pasture on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption characteristics, and morphology of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schären, M; Seyfang, G M; Steingass, H; Dieho, K; Dijkstra, J; Hüther, L; Frahm, J; Beineke, A; von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Breves, G; Dänicke, S

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the change from a concentrate and silage-based ration (total mixed ration, TMR) to a pasture-based ration, a 10-wk trial (wk 1-10) was performed, including 10 rumen- and duodenum-fistulated German Holstein dairy cows (182±24 d in milk, 23.5±3.5kg of milk/d; mean ± standard deviation). The cows were divided in either a pasture group (PG, n=5) or a confinement group (CG, n=5). The CG stayed on a TMR-based ration (35% corn silage, 35% grass silage, 30% concentrate; dry matter basis), whereas the PG was gradually transitioned from a TMR to a pasture-based ration (wk 1: TMR only; wk 2: 3 h/d on pasture wk 3 and 4: 12 h/d on pasture wk 5-10: pasture only). Ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), NH3-N, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations were measured in rumen fluid samples collected medially and ventrally on a weekly basis. Ruminal pH was continuously recorded during 1 to 4 consecutive days each week using ruminal pH measuring devices. In wk 1, 5, and 10, rumen contents were evacuated and weighed, papillae were collected from 3 locations in the rumen, and subsequently a VFA absorption test was performed. In the PG, mean rumen pH and molar acetate proportions decreased, and molar butyrate proportions increased continuously over the course of the trial, which can most likely be ascribed to an increased intake of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates. During the first weeks on a full grazing ration (wk 5-7), variation of rumen pH decreased, and in wk 5 a lower rumen content, papillae surface area, and potential for VFA absorption were observed. In wk 8 to 10, variation of rumen pH and total VFA concentrations increased again, and acetate/propionate ratio decreased. In wk-10 rumen content, papillae area and VFA absorption characteristics similar to initial levels were observed. Although continuous rumen pH assessments and LPS concentrations did not reveal an increased risk for subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) during the adaption period

  14. Frequency of mixed onychomycosis with total nail dystrophy in patients attended in a Guatemalan Dermatology Center

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    Erick Martinez Herrera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Onychomycosis are fungal nail infections that can be caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic molds and yeasts, which are capable of breaking down keratin. Mixed onychomycosis are a controversial subject and they are the outcome of the combination of two dermatophytes, dermatophytes/nondermatophytic molds or dermatophytes/yeast. Objetives: To determine the frequency of total dystrophic onychomycosis caused by more than one etiological agent (mixed onychomycosis in outpatients from a Dermatologic Center in Guatemala and to establish the characteristics associated with this fungal infection. Methods: Prospective observational study from August to December of 2012. Nail samples were obtained from patients with total dystrophic onychomycosis to identify the causal agents by culture in Sabouraud dextrose and Mycosel® agar. Results: 32 of 130 patients had mixed onychomycosis. 68.5% were associated to tinea pedis. The most common association was between T. rubrum + Candida, T. rubrum + M. canis and T. rubrum + opportunist fungi. Conclusions: Mixed onychomycosis represent 25% of the total dystrophic onychomycosis in Guatemala. We observed an important relationship between diabetes and the main association was T. rubrum with Candida spp.

  15. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huili; Hao, Wei; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Methods Whole crop corn (WCC) silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencin...

  16. Effect of concentrate feeding strategy on the performance of dairy cows fed total mixed rations

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    H. KHALILI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available concerning the effects of offering additional concentrates with total mixed ration (TMR on milk production. The aim of the present study was to compare TMR representing simplified feeding (TMR1 with TMR combined with a decreasing amount of additional concentrate (TMR2C. Finnish Ayrshire cows (39 were housed in a loose housing barn. TMR1 consisted of a mixed ration of grass silage (0.49 and concentrates (0.51. In TMR2C, the same grass silage and concentrate were mixed in a ratio of 55:45. In TMR2C, cows were offered additional concentrates from automatic feeders differing in composition from the concentrate in TMR1 [6.5 kg d-1 (first 100 days, Phase 1, 3.0 kg d-1 (subsequent 50 days, Phase 2 and no concentrate thereafter (Phase 3]. During the whole experiment (224 days, total consumption of concentrates per cow averaged 2426 kg dry matter (TMR1 and 2414 kg dry matter (TMR2C. There were no significant differences in mean total dry matter, metabolizable energy, crude protein or absorbed amino acid intakes. During Phase 2, total intake of all cows fed TMR2C was one kg lower (P = 0.10 than for cows fed TMR1. This was due to differences in total feed intake of multiparous cows. Average yields (kg d-1 of milk, energy corrected milk, protein, fat and lactose were not significantly different between diets. During Phase 2, primiparous cows tended to produce more energy corrected milk on TMR2C than on TMR1. The results showed that both TMR1 and TMR2C were equal feeding strategies for early lactating cows and cows did not benefit from greater concentrate consumption in early stage of lactation when total consumption of concentrates was similar.;

  17. Mix ratio measurements of pozzolanic blends by Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.

    1992-07-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, involves mixing the wastes with pozzolanic grout-forming solid blends. Checking the quality of each blend component and its mix ratio will ensure processibility of the blend and the long-term performance of the resulting waste grout. In earlier work at Hanford laboratories, Fourier transform infrared-transmission method (FTIR-TR) using KBr pellet was applied successfully in the analysis of blends consisting of cement, fly ash, and clays. This method involves time-consuming sample preparation resulting in slow turnaround for repetitive sampling. Because reflection methods do not require elaborate sample preparation, they have the potential to reduce turnaround analysis time. Neat samples may be examined making these methods attractive for quality control. This study investigates the capability of Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance method (FTIR-ATR) to analyze pozzolanic blends

  18. Exploring the Feasibility of Using Silage-Based Feed with Alternative Sources of Protein in Organic Pig Rations

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    Ruth C. Clements

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Current regulations for organic pig and poultry production systems permit feed ingredients of non-organic origin at an inclusion rate of up to 5 per cent. This is primarily due to concerns that there is an insufficient supply of organic protein on the European Union market, in terms of quality and quantity, to meet the nutritional requirements of pigs and poultry raised on organic farms. However, 100 per cent organic diets for monogastric livestock will become compulsory in the EU from 1 January 2018, and there is therefore a need to develop sustainable feeding strategies based on organic feeds. This feed trial conducted in the UK explores the feasibility of using a silage-based feeding system for Gloucester Old Spot pigs, and compares the inclusion of soya, beans and peas as protein sources in terms of pig growth performance. No significant difference in the pen mean daily live weight gain was observed during the grower phase (pen mean age of 11-14 weeks between the diet groups. However, during the finisher phase (pen mean age of 15-22 weeks, pigs on the soya and pea rations had significantly faster growth rates than pigs fed the bean ration. It is speculated that the slight shortfall in growth rate observed in the pigs fed the bean ration may be offset by the lower cost of production of beans in the UK. This feasibility trial demonstrates that a 100 per cent organic diet for pigs using alternative, locally-grown sources of protein as part of a forage-based ration can provide a viable alternative to a soya-based diet.

  19. Feeding of Total Mixed Ration on the Productivity of Friesian Holstein Cross-Grade Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarso; Christiyanto, M.; Nuswantara, L. K.

    2018-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate feeding of total mixed ration (TMR) on the productivity of Friesian Holstein (FH) male cross-grade cattle at Semarang Municipality. TMR was a ration formulated with agricultural and agro-industrial by-product (no grass and/or green forage were used) to fulfilled the nutrient requirement of beef cattle. Total mixed ration were formulated on iso-energy of 66% of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and different level of crude protein (CP) content of 11%, 12%, 13%, and 14%. Twenty (20) heads of FH male cross-grade cattle with initial body weight of 292.40+33.06 kg were used in this experiment, and were arranged into 5 treatments T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4), and 4 replications. Data collected were analysed statistically using analyses of variance (Anova) based on the completely randomized design (CRD), then followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) for different among treatments. Results of the experiment showed significantly different effect (P0.05) on feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed efficiency. Others parameter showed that there were no significantly different (P>0.05) effect on the dry matter and organic matter digestibility in vitro, rumen ammonia concentration, and volatile fatty acid’s rumen concentration. It was concluded that feeding TMR was potentially prospected for fattening of beef cattle, particularly as feeding strategy when there was no grass and/or green forage anymore.

  20. Supported Mixed Oxide Catalysts for the Total Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Jirátová, Květa

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 176, č. 1 (2011), s. 110-115 ISSN 0920-5861. [International Symposium on Air Pollution Abatement Catalysis (APAC) /2./. Cracow, 08.09.2010-10.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/10/1762; GA ČR GA106/09/1664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : layered double hydroxides * mixed oxides * ethanol total oxidation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  1. Biomass energy in Jordan, and its potential contribution towards the total energy mix of the Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1994-04-01

    An evaluation of Jordan's bio-energy status was carried out. Available sources and the viability of exploitation were studied in order to identify the size of contribution that bio-energy could provide to the total energy mix of the Kingdom. The advantages of biogas technology were discussed, and a general description of Jordan's experience in this field was presented. Data on Jordan' animal, municipal, and agricultural wastes that are available as a potential source of bio-energy was tabulated. The report ascertained the economic feasibility of biogas utilization in Jordan, and concluded that the annual energy production potential from biogas, with only animal wastes being utilized, would amount to 80,000 ton oil equivalent. This amount of energy is equivalent to 2% of Jordan's total energy consumption in 1992. The utilization of biogas from municipal wastes would produce an additional 2.5% of the total energy consumption of Jordan. The annual value of utilizing animal and municipal wastes would reach 23 million Jordanian Dinars (JD). This value would increase to 61.5 million JD with the utilization of human wastes. The investment required for the utilization of bio-energy sources in Amman and its suburbs on the scale of family unit fermenters was estimated to be in the order of a million JD. The size of investment for industrial scale utilization for power generation with an electricity feed to the national grid, would range from 3 to 4 million JD. (A.M.H.). 8 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Distribution of Various Mycotoxins in Compound Feed, Total Mix Ration and Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sultana, A. Rashid, I. Tahira, H. U. Hanif1 and N. Q. Hanif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to assess the spectrum of natural occurrence of aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A and A-B trichothecenes in dairy feed, silage and total mixed rations. One hundred and seventy one samples were analyzed by chromatographic technique. In cattle compound feed, there was a high incidence of aflatoxin B1 (97.3% followed by aflatoxin B2 (50.3%, aflatoxin G1 (10.7%, aflatoxin G2 (1.5%, zearalenone (39.3%, ochratoxin A (37.5% and deoxynivalenol (2.9% with average values of 29, 8, 21, 10, 862, 64 and 813 ng/g respectively. Nine samples were found tainted with T-2 toxin (282ng/g, nivalenol (285ng/g and fusarenon-x (1625ng/g respectively. However, frequency distribution showed that positive seventy-seven (51.6%samples found to be contaminated with aflatoxin B1 levels higher than permissible level of European Commission (<20ng/g. For zearalenone, forty-four (32.5% samples were tainted with levels ranging from ≥500 to 3750ng/gi.e. higher than recommendations by European commission (<500ng/g. In contrast to compound feed, mycotoxin analysis in silage samples demonstrated the high prevalence of ochratoxin A (77.8 % followed by AFB1 (25% with mean of 53 and 8.71ng/g respectively. A scrutiny of mycotoxin for total mixed ration depicted that all samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A with an average of 30 and 48.5ng/g respectively. As far as multi-mycotoxin co-existence is concerned, compound feed was concurrently contaminated with two, three and four types of mycotoxins.

  3. Effect of anionic salts in concentrate mixture and magnesium intake on some blood and urine minerals and acid-base balance of dry pregnant cows on grass silage based feeding

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    S. TAURIAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Friesian cows were randomly assigned to one of four prepartum diets in a 2 x 2 factorially designed experiment to determine the effect of anionic salts contained in a concentrate mixture and magnesium (Mg intake on some blood and urine minerals in cows fed a grass silage based diet. Four diets provided either 16 g or 33 g total dietary Mg/day, and had either a low or high cation-anion difference. Dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB of the diets, calculated as milliequivalents [(Na+ + K+ - (Cl- + S2-], was +31 mEq/kg dry matter (DM in the low DCAB group and +340 mEq/kg DM in the high DCAB group. DCAB was formulated using NH4Cl, (NH42SO4 and MgCl2 as anionic salts. Cows received grass silage (5.2 kg DM, hay (1.0 kg DM and concentrate mixture (1.5 kg DM until calving. Blood and urine samples were collected 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before the expected calving date, at calving, the day after calving and 1 week following calving. Cows fed the low DCAB diet had a lower urinary pH (P

  4. In vitro evaluation of total mixed ration supplemented with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes for crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Mohan Lunagariya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the levels of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE on in vitro digestibilities of dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM, total gas production (TGP, metabolizable energy (ME content, and microbial biomass production (MBP. Materials and Methods: The total mixed ration (TMR was prepared using 30% each of sorghum hay and groundnut straw and 40% compound concentrate mixture to meet nutritional requirement of cow (500 kg producing 12 kg fat corrected milk. The EFE was incorporated at 0, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, and 400 mg/kg TMR. The TMR substrates with different levels of EFE were in vitro incubated to ascertain their effect on digestibility, gas production, and nutritive values. Results: The significantly (p<0.05 higher and optimum in vitro digestibilities of DM (63.03% and OM (63.62% as well as TGP (72.35 ml/500 mg TMR were observed at supplementation of 240 mg EFE/kg TMR, while ME (7.16 MJ/kg DM and MBP (97.63 mg/500 mg TMR were also better. Conclusion: The incorporation of EFE at 240 mg/kg TMR resulted significantly (p<0.05 higher and optimum in vitro digestibilities of DM and OM. The TGP, ME, and MBP were also better. The levels of EFE 240 mg/kg TMR were found suitable for further in vivo study in crossbred cows.

  5. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo

    1996-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  6. Fermentation Characteristics and Lactic Acid Bacteria Succession of Total Mixed Ration Silages Formulated with Peach Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB. The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages.

  7. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  8. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Hao, Wei; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Whole crop corn (WCC) silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencing analyses of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain. Characteristics (assimilation and tolerance) of the yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration were investigated. In addition to species of Candida glabrata and Pichia kudriavzevii ( P. kudriavzevii ) previously isolated in WCC and TMR, Pichia manshurica ( P. manshurica ), Candida ethanolica ( C. ethanolica ), and Zygosaccharomyces bailii ( Z. bailii ) isolated at great frequency during deterioration, were capable of assimilating lactic or acetic acid and tolerant to acetic acid and might function more in deteriorating TMR silages at early fermentation (7 d and 14 d). With ensiling prolonged to 28 d, silages became more (p<0.01) stable when exposed to air, coinciding with the inhibition of yeast to below the detection limit. Species of P. manshurica that were predominant in deteriorating WCC silages were not detectable in TMR silages. In addition, the predominant yeast species of Z. bailii in deteriorating TMR silages at later fermentation (28 d and 56 d) were not observed in both WCC and WCC silages. The inhibition of yeasts, particularly P. kudriavzevii , probably account for the improved aerobic stability of TMR silages at later fermentation. Fewer species seemed to be involved in aerobic deterioration of silages at later fermentation and Z. bailii was most likely to initiate the aerobic deterioration of TMR silages at later fermentation. The use of WCC in TMR might not influence the predominant yeast species during aerobic

  9. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Methods Whole crop corn (WCC silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencing analyses of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain. Characteristics (assimilation and tolerance of the yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration were investigated. Results In addition to species of Candida glabrata and Pichia kudriavzevii (P. kudriavzevii previously isolated in WCC and TMR, Pichia manshurica (P. manshurica, Candida ethanolica (C. ethanolica, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (Z. bailii isolated at great frequency during deterioration, were capable of assimilating lactic or acetic acid and tolerant to acetic acid and might function more in deteriorating TMR silages at early fermentation (7 d and 14 d. With ensiling prolonged to 28 d, silages became more (p<0.01 stable when exposed to air, coinciding with the inhibition of yeast to below the detection limit. Species of P. manshurica that were predominant in deteriorating WCC silages were not detectable in TMR silages. In addition, the predominant yeast species of Z. bailii in deteriorating TMR silages at later fermentation (28 d and 56 d were not observed in both WCC and WCC silages. Conclusion The inhibition of yeasts, particularly P. kudriavzevii, probably account for the improved aerobic stability of TMR silages at later fermentation. Fewer species seemed to be involved in aerobic deterioration of silages at later fermentation and Z. bailii was most likely to initiate the aerobic deterioration of TMR silages at later fermentation. The use of WCC in TMR might not influence the predominant

  10. Effects of microbial enzymes on starch and hemicellulose degradation in total mixed ration silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ning

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the association of enzyme-producing microbes and their enzymes with starch and hemicellulose degradation during fermentation of total mixed ration (TMR silage. Methods The TMRs were prepared with soybean curd residue, alfalfa hay (ATMR or Leymus chinensis hay (LTMR, corn meal, soybean meal, vitamin-mineral supplements, and salt at a ratio of 25:40:30:4:0.5:0.5 on a dry matter basis. Laboratory-scale bag silos were randomly opened after 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days of ensiling and subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, carbohydrates loss, microbial amylase and hemicellulase activities, succession of dominant amylolytic or hemicellulolytic microbes, and their microbial and enzymatic properties. Results Both ATMR and LTMR silages were well preserved, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. In addition to the substantial loss of water soluble carbohydrates, loss of starch and hemicellulose was also observed in both TMR silages with prolonged ensiling. The microbial amylase activity remained detectable throughout the ensiling in both TMR silages, whereas the microbial hemicellulase activity progressively decreased until it was inactive at day 14 post-ensiling in both TMR silages. During the early stage of fermentation, the main amylase-producing microbes were Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis in ATMR silage and B. flexus, B. licheniformis, and Paenibacillus xylanexedens (P. xylanexedens in LTMR silage, whereas Enterococcus faecium was closely associated with starch hydrolysis at the later stage of fermentation in both TMR silages. B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis and B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, and P. xylanexedens were the main source of microbial hemicellulase during the early stage of fermentation in ATMR and LTMR silages, respectively. Conclusion The microbial amylase contributes to starch hydrolysis during the

  11. Short communication: Effect of straw inclusion rate in a dry total mixed ration on the behavior of weaned dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, M.J.; Steele, M.A.; DeVries, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of straw inclusion levels on the feeding behavior of young, weaned calves adapted to a dry total mixed ration (TMR) composed of a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw. A secondary objective was to determine how developed feeding

  12. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to

  13. Association of total-mixed-ration chemical composition with milk, fat, and protein yield lactation curves at the individual level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccamo, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Licitra, G.; Petriglieri, R.; Terra, La F.; Pozzebon, A.; Ferguson, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the chemical composition of a total mixed ration (TMR) tested quarterly from March 2006 through December 2008 for milk, fat, and protein yield curves for 27 herds in Ragusa, Sicily. Before this study, standard yield curves were generated on

  14. Hematologic status of mice submitted to sublethal total body irradiation with mixed neutron-gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Court, L.

    1989-01-01

    The hematologic status of mice exposed to sublethal whole body irradiation with mixed neutron-gamma radiation (mainly neutrons) is studied. A slight decrease of the blood cell count is still observed below 1 Gy. The recovery of bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitors seems to require more time than after pure gamma irradiation [fr

  15. Blood profile and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian steers finished on total mixed ration or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellet mixed with reed canary grass haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, D T; Lee, S G; Baek, K H; Chung, W S; Chung, I A; Kim, D I; Kim, G Y; Lee, S K

    2018-02-01

    Holstein-Friesian steer beef production is renowned globally as a secondary product of the milk industry. Grass feeding is a common practice in raising Holstein steers because of its low cost. Furthermore, grass feeding is an alternative way to produce beef with a balanced n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) ratio. However, the performance and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian cattle is more likely to depend on a high-quality diet. The aim of this study was to observe whether feeding two mixed diets; a corn-based total mixed ration (TMR) with winter ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellets with reed canary grass haylage (n-3 mix) provided benefits on carcass weight, meat quality and FA composition compared with cattle fed with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) haylage alone. In all, 15 21-month-old Holstein-Friesian steers were randomly assigned to three group pens, were allowed free access to water and were fed different experimental diets for 150 days. Blood samples were taken a week before slaughter. Carcass weight and meat quality were evaluated after slaughter. Plasma lipid levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were determined. Diet did not affect plasma triglyceride levels and GGT activity. Plasma cholesterol levels, including low-density and high-density lipoproteins, were higher in both mixed-diet groups than in the haylae group. The highest activities of plasma AST, CK and ALP were observed in the haylage group, followed by n-3 mix and TMR groups, respectively. Carcass weight was lower in the haylage group than in the other groups and no differences were found between the TMR and n-3 mix groups. Although the n-3 mix-fed and haylage-fed beef provided lower n-6 to n-3 FAs ratio than TMR-fed beef, the roasted beef obtained from the TMR group was more acceptable with better overall meat physicochemical properties and sensory scores

  16. Static, Mixed-Array Total Evaporation for Improved Quantitation of Plutonium Minor Isotopes in Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, F. E.; Byerly, Benjamin L.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Spencer, Khalil J.

    2016-06-01

    Actinide isotope measurements are a critical signature capability in the modern nuclear forensics "toolbox", especially when interrogating anthropogenic constituents in real-world scenarios. Unfortunately, established methodologies, such as traditional total evaporation via thermal ionization mass spectrometry, struggle to confidently measure low abundance isotope ratios (evaporation techniques as a straightforward means of improving plutonium minor isotope measurements, which have been resistant to enhancement in recent years because of elevated radiologic concerns. Results are presented for small sample (~20 ng) applications involving a well-known plutonium isotope reference material, CRM-126a, and compared with traditional total evaporation methods.

  17. BRICKS WITH TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF CLAY BY FLY ASH MIXED WITH DIFFERENT MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    J.N Akhtar; J.Alam; M.N Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash is a powdery substance obtained from the dust collectors in the Thermal power plants that use coal as fuel. From the cement point of view the mineralogy of Fly ash is important as it contains 80% - 90% of glass. The impurities in coal-mostly clays, shale’s, limestone & dolomite; they cannot be burned so they turn up as ash. The Fly ash of class C category was used as a raw material to total replacement of clay for making Fly ash bricks. In present study the effect of Fly ash with high...

  18. Mixed Total Variation and L1 Regularization Method for Optical Tomography Based on Radiative Transfer Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical tomography is an emerging and important molecular imaging modality. The aim of optical tomography is to reconstruct optical properties of human tissues. In this paper, we focus on reconstructing the absorption coefficient based on the radiative transfer equation (RTE. It is an ill-posed parameter identification problem. Regularization methods have been broadly applied to reconstruct the optical coefficients, such as the total variation (TV regularization and the L1 regularization. In order to better reconstruct the piecewise constant and sparse coefficient distributions, TV and L1 norms are combined as the regularization. The forward problem is discretized with the discontinuous Galerkin method on the spatial space and the finite element method on the angular space. The minimization problem is solved by a Jacobian-based Levenberg-Marquardt type method which is equipped with a split Bregman algorithms for the L1 regularization. We use the adjoint method to compute the Jacobian matrix which dramatically improves the computation efficiency. By comparing with the other imaging reconstruction methods based on TV and L1 regularizations, the simulation results show the validity and efficiency of the proposed method.

  19. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  20. Simultaneous measurement of milk intake and total energy expenditure in mixed-fed infants: Methodological approach and prediction of total body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.C.K.; Davies, P.S.W.; Coward, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of the energy metabolism that underlies the new WHO breast-fed growth reference requires simultaneous measurements of milk volume intake (MVI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) by stable isotope methodologies. In young infants, such data is collected without difficulty using the dose-to-the-infant method. In older infants, where breast-milk is supplemented with non-milk foods, MVI must be measured by dosing the mother instead of the infant. This procedure would interfere with a simple measurement of infant TEE using the standard dose-to-the-infant method. Theoretically, this difficulty can be resolved by dosing the mother with deuterium and the infant with 18-oxygen, and using curve-peeling methods to calculate the infant deuterium kinetics. We propose to ascertain whether such an approach is viable in practice, such that MVI, TEE and body composition could all be measured simultaneously in mixed-fed infants. Where MVI in older infants is measured on its own, there is a need to predict infant body water in order to estimate the deuterium dilution space. Using a database of 234 infants aged 1.5 to 12 months, we provide new predictive equations by which such values may be obtained. (author)

  1. Prediction of manure nitrogen and organic matter excretion for young Holstein cattle fed on grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of sex (steers vs. heifers) of young Holstein cattle on N and OM excretion in feces and urine and to use these data to develop prediction models for N and OM excretion. Data used were derived from a study with 20 autumn-born Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) with N and OM intake and output measured at age of 6, 12, 18, and 22 mo, respectively. The cattle were offered a typical diet used on U.K. commercial farms containing a single grass silage mixed with concentrates. In each period, the cattle were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, individually in metabolism units for the next 3 d, and then in calorimeter chambers for the final 5 d with feed intake, feces, and urine excretion measured during the final 4 d. Within each period, sex had no effect (P > 0.05) on N or OM intake or excretion or N utilization efficiency, with exceptions of steers having a greater intake of N (P = 0.036) and OM (P = 0.018) at age of 18 mo and a lower ratio of fecal N:N intake (P = 0.023) at age of 6 mo. A range of regression relationships (P 0.05) on accumulated N or OM intake or N or OM excretion in feces and urine or retained N and OM during the first or second year of life. On average for the 2 sexes at first and second year of age, the accumulated N excretions in feces were 11.4 and 21.1 kg and in urine 11.6 and 30.6 kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for accumulated OM excretions were respectively 241.5, 565.7, 30.3 and 81.5 kg. A number of equations were developed to predict accumulated N and OM excretion in feces and urine (kg) using BW (kg; P r(2) = 0.95 to 0.97). The accurate prediction of N and OM excretion in feces and urine is essential for reducing N pollution to ground and surface water and calculating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure management of dairy and beef production systems. These data can add novel information to the scientific

  2. Total cross section measurement of muon neutrinos on isoscalar target. Exact determination of the electroweak mixing parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, R.

    1987-09-01

    The work presented in this thesis is concerned with high energy muon-neutrino nucleon interactions. The experiment was performed at CERN in 1984 using the CHARM marble target-calorimeter exposed to the 160 GeV narrow band beam. The experimental analysis is based on an event-by-event classification of neutral currents (NC) and charged currents (CC) interactions and on precise measurements of neutrinos and antineutrinos fluxes. This leads to precise measurements of CC total cross-sections of neutrinos and antineutrinos between 10 and 160 GeV and of NC to CC ratios of total cross-sections of events with hadron energy greater than 4 GeV: R n eutrino and R a ntineutrino. From the measurements of R n eutrino and of the ratio of CC total cross-sections of antineutrinos and neutrinos, we obtain a high precision value of the electroweak mixing angle. Comparison of this result with those obtained in proton-antiproton collisions make it possible to derive a measurement of electroweak radiative corrections and a precise determination of ρ [fr

  3. From rationality to cooperativeness: The totally mixed Nash equilibrium in Markov strategies in the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan S Menshikov

    Full Text Available In this research, the social behavior of the participants in a Prisoner's Dilemma laboratory game is explained on the basis of the quantal response equilibrium concept and the representation of the game in Markov strategies. In previous research, we demonstrated that social interaction during the experiment has a positive influence on cooperation, trust, and gratefulness. This research shows that the quantal response equilibrium concept agrees only with the results of experiments on cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemma prior to social interaction. However, quantal response equilibrium does not explain of participants' behavior after social interaction. As an alternative theoretical approach, an examination was conducted of iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game in Markov strategies. We built a totally mixed Nash equilibrium in this game; the equilibrium agrees with the results of the experiments both before and after social interaction.

  4. A Mixed-Ligand Chiral Rhodium(II) Catalyst Enables the Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Piperarborenine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panish, Robert A; Chintala, Srinivasa R; Fox, Joseph M

    2016-04-11

    A novel, mixed-ligand chiral rhodium(II) catalyst, Rh2(S-NTTL)3(dCPA), has enabled the first enantioselective total synthesis of the natural product piperarborenine B. A crystal structure of Rh2(S-NTTL)3(dCPA) reveals a "chiral crown" conformation with a bulky dicyclohexylphenyl acetate ligand and three N-naphthalimido groups oriented on the same face of the catalyst. The natural product was prepared on large scale using rhodium-catalyzed bicyclobutanation/ copper-catalyzed homoconjugate addition chemistry in the key step. The route proceeds in ten steps with an 8% overall yield and 92% ee. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Profile of Rumen Fermentation and Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentration of Kacang Goat Fed Total Mixed Ration Vs. Roughage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiwinarti, R.; Kustantinah; Budisatria, I. G. S.; Rusman; Indarto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Kacang goat is usually reared traditionally fed natural grass and having inferior performance. Many researches had been done to improve the performance. Total mixed ration (TMR) containing soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM) could increase the performance of Kacang goat, but the profile of rumen fermentation has not been published. Therefore, this study investigated the profile of rumen fermentation and blood urea Nitrogen concentration (BUN) in Kacang goat fed natural grass (roughage) and TMR. Twelve yearling Kacang buck, 15.2-19.6 kg were arranged in completely randomized design. The treatments were NG (natural grass), FM (TMR containing FM), and SBM (TMR containing SBM). The TMR were formulated containing 15% crude protein and 56-58% TDN. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Rumen pH 6 hours after feeding of NG (7.4) was higher (P<0.01) than that of FM (6.2) and SBM (6.4). This lowering pH of TMR was caused by increasing volatile fatty acids (VFA). The VFA total of FM (129.7 mmol/l) and SBM (153.1 mmol/l) were higher than that of NG (86.4 mmol/l). At 3 and 6 hours after feeding, ammonia in the rumen of SBM was higher than that of NG and FM, indicating higher degraded protein. The BUN at 3 hours after feeding of SBM was higher than that of NG. It can be concluded that protein in SBM was degraded higher than others and the lower pH in rumen of TMR goats was caused by higher VFA produced by TMR goats compared to NG goats.

  6. [Dynamics of total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrological processes in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of Dinghushan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guangcai; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang; Wang, Xu; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Yan

    2005-09-01

    The total flux and concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrological processes in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of Dinghushan were measured from July 2002 to July 2003. The results showed that the TOC input by precipitation was 41.80 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), while its output by surface runoff and groundwater (soil solution at 50 cm depth) was 17.54 and 1.80 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), respectively. The difference between input and output was 22.46 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), indicating that the ecosystem TOC was in positive balance. The monthly variation of TOC flux in hydrological processes was very similar to that in precipitation. The mean TOC concentration in precipitation was 3.64 mg x L(-1), while that in throughfall and stemflow increased 6.10 and 7.39 times after rain passed through the tree canopies and barks. The mean TOC concentration in surface runoff and in soil solution at 25 and 50 cm depths was 12.72, 7.905 and 3.06 mg x L(-1), respectively. The monthly TOC concentration in throughfall and stemflow had a similar changing tendency, showing an increase at the beginning of growth season (March), a decrease after September, and a little increase in December. The TOC concentration in runoff was much higher during high precipitation months. No obvious monthly variation was observed in soil solution TOC concentration (25 and 50 cm below the surface). Stemflow TOC concentration differed greatly between different tree species. The TOC concentration in precipitation, throughfall, and soil solution (25 and 50 cm depths) decreased with increasing precipitation, and no significant relationship existed between the TOC concentrations in stemflow, surface runoff and precipitation. The TOC concentrations in the hydrological processes fluctuated with precipitation intensity, except for that in stemflow and soil solutions.

  7. Effect of corn grain particle size on ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites of Holstein steers fed total mixed ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Hyung Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of corn grain particle size on ruminant fermentation and blood metabolites in Holstein steers fed total mixed ration (TMR as a basal diet to explain fundamental data of corn grain for cattle in Korea. Methods Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (body weight 592±29.9 kg fed TMR as a basal diet were housed individually in an auto temperature and humidity modulated chamber (24°C and 60% for 22 h/d. Treatments in a 4×4 Latin square design were TMR only (control, TMR with whole corn grain (WC, coarsely ground corn grain (CC, and finely ground corn grain (FC, respectively. The corn feeds substituted for 20% energy intake of TMR intake. To measure the ruminal pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acids (VFA, ruminal digesta was sampled through ruminal cannula at 1 h intervals after the morning feeding to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics. Blood was sampled via the jugular vein after the ruminal digesta sampling. Results There was no difference in dry matter (DM intake between different corn particle size because the DM intake was restricted to 1.66% of body weight. Different corn particle size did not change mean ammonia N and total VFA concentrations whereas lower (p<0.05 ruminal pH and a ratio of acetate to propionate, and higher (p<0.05 propionate concentration were noted when the steers consumed CC compared with WC and FC. Concentration of blood metabolites were not affected by different particle size of corn grain except for blood triglyceride concentration, which was significantly (p<0.05 increased by FC. Conclusion Results indicate that feeding CC may increase feed digestion in the rumen, whereas the FC group seemed to obtain inadequate corn retention time for microbial degradation in the rumen.

  8. In vitro fermentation of total mixed diets differing in concentrate proportion: relative effects of inocula and substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serment, Amélie; Giger-Reverdin, Sylvie; Schmidely, Philippe; Dhumez, Ophélie; Broudiscou, Laurent P; Sauvant, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    In vitro techniques are used to predict ruminant feedstuff values or characterise rumen fermentation. As the results are influenced by several factors, such as the relative effects of inocula and substrates, this study aimed to examine in vitro incubation of two total mixed rations (substrates) differing in their proportion of concentrate [low (L): 350 g kg(-1) vs. high (H): 700 g kg(-1)] incubated in inocula provided by goats fed either a L or a H diet. Gas production and composition in carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4 ) and hydrogen (H2), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), soluble carbohydrates (SCs) and ammonia (NH3) concentrations, and pH of the fermentation fluid were measured. In comparison with the L inoculum and L substrate, the H ones produced more CO2 and CH4 gas, which led to higher SCs and VFA concentrations, and lower acetate-to-propionate ratio and NH3 concentration, with a predominant effect of the inoculum. The effects of the inocula and of the substrates were additive using donor animals adapted to the diets. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effect of fermented total mixed rations on the growth performance, carcass and meat quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Il; Mayakrishnan, Vijayakumar; Lim, Dong-Hyun; Yeon, Jeong-Ha; Baek, Kwang-Soo

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of fermented total mixed ration (FTMR) on the growth performance, carcass and meat quality traits of Hanwoo steers. The present study evidenced that the FTMR had a strong effect on dry matter intake, body weight, daily gain, slaughter weight and carcass characteristics compared with control animals. The results showed that the dry matter intake (7.17 ± 0.13 kg), average body weight (615.20 ± 112.82 kg), and daily gain (0.56 ± 0.16 kg) were greater in animals receiving FTMR than in control animals (P quality characteristics indicated that cooking loss and the pH values did not vary between control and FTMR treated animals; however, animals in the treated groups (FTMR) had higher meat quality grades, carcass weight (396.13 ± 18.35), fat thickness (13.25 ± 1.75), marbling score (5.63 ± 0.56), meat color (40.06 ± 1.23), crude fat (18.39 ± 1.32) and sensory characteristics (flavor 5.03 ± 0.17; tenderness 4.42 ± 0.33; juiciness 5.10 ± 0.16). Nevertheless, the shear force values decreased significantly in FTMR-treated animals compared with control group steers. Overall, FTMR may not only improve the growth performance, biochemical metabolites, and fatty and acetic acid profiles of steers, but may also enhance the carcass and meat quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Regarding economics, our research findings suggest that FTMR-based feeds may enhance Hanwoo steer meat quality at a low cost. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Adding liquid feed to a total mixed ration reduces feed sorting behavior and improves productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, T J; Gill, R M

    2012-05-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of adding a molasses-based liquid feed (LF) supplement to a total mixed ration (TMR) on the feed sorting behavior and production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (88.2±19.5 DIM) were exposed, in a crossover design with 21-d periods, to each of 2 treatment diets: 1) control TMR and 2) control TMR with 4.1% dietary dry matter LF added. Dry matter intake (DMI), sorting, and milk yield were recorded for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for composition analysis for the last 3 d of each treatment period; these data were used to calculate 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk yield. Sorting was determined by subjecting fresh feed and orts samples to particle separation and expressing the actual intake of each particle fraction as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Addition of LF did not noticeably change the nutrient composition of the ration, with the exception of an expected increase in dietary sugar concentration (from 4.0 to 5.4%). Liquid feed supplementation affected the particle size distribution of the ration, resulting in a lesser amount of short and a greater amount of fine particles. Cows sorted against the longest ration particles on both treatment diets; the extent of this sorting was greater on the control diet (55.0 vs. 68.8%). Dry matter intake was 1.4 kg/d higher when cows were fed the LF diet as compared with the control diet, resulting in higher acid-detergent fiber, neutral-detergent fiber, and sugar intakes. As a result of the increased DMI, cows tended to produce 1.9 kg/d more milk and produced 3.1 and 3.2 kg/d more 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk, respectively, on the LF diet. As a result, cows tended to produce more milk fat (0.13 kg/d) and produced more milk protein (0.09 kg/d) on the LF diet. No difference between treatments was observed in the efficiency of milk production. Overall, adding a molasses

  11. The recovery of bone marrow derived GM-CFU in baboons unilaterally exposed to a total body LD50/30d mixed neutron-gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Orfeuvre, H.; Janodet, D.; Mestries, J.C.; Fatome, M.

    1990-01-01

    The unilateral exposure of baboons to a total body LD 50/30d mixed neutron/gamma irradiation was characterized to be non uniform in dose distribution. The pattern of recovery of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors in bone marrow samples collected from entrance and exit sides respectively is consistent with this observed heterogeneity [fr

  12. Co-Mn-Al Mixed Oxides on Anodized Aluminum Supports and Their Use as Catalysts in the Total Oxidation of Ethanol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Jirátová, Květa; Ludvíková, Jana; Raabová, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 464, AUG 15 (2013), s. 181-190 ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/10/1762 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : layered double hydroxides * hydrothermal reaction * mixed oxides * supported catalysts * ethanol total oxidation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.674, year: 2013

  13. Supported Layered Double Hydroxide-Related Mixed Oxides and Their Application in the Total Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Jirátová, Květa

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2011), s. 305-316 ISSN 0169-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/10/1762; GA ČR GA106/09/1664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : layered double hydroxides * hydrothermal reaction * mixed oxides Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.474, year: 2011

  14. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

    OpenAIRE

    W. Hao; H. L. Wang; T. T. Ning; F. Y. Yang; C. C. Xu

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted...

  15. Methane production, nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, N balance, and milk production of cows fed timothy silage- or alfalfa silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Massé, D I; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changing forage source in dairy cow diets from timothy silage (TS) to alfalfa silage (AS) on enteric CH₄ emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40, dry matter basis), with the forage portion consisting of either TS (0% AS; 0% AS and 54.4% TS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% AS; 27.2% AS and 27.2% TS in the TMR), or AS (100% AS; 54.4% AS and 0% TS in the TMR). Compared with TS, AS contained less (36.9 vs. 52.1%) neutral detergent fiber but more (20.5 vs. 13.6%) crude protein (CP). In sacco 24-h ruminal degradability of organic matter (OM) was higher for AS than for TS (73.5 vs. 66.9%). Replacement of TS with AS in the diet entailed increasing proportions of corn grain and bypass protein supplement at the expense of soybean meal. As the dietary proportion of AS increased, CP and starch concentrations increased, whereas fiber content declined in the TMR. Dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing AS proportions in the diet. Apparent total-tract digestibility of OM and gross energy remained unaffected, whereas CP digestibility increased linearly and that of fiber decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of AS in the diet. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was not affected, whereas ruminal concentration of ammonia (NH₃) and molar proportion of branched-chain VFA increased as the proportion of AS in the diet increased. Daily CH₄ emissions tended to increase (476, 483, and 491 g/d for cows fed 0% AS, 50% AS, and 100% AS, respectively) linearly as cows were fed increasing proportions of AS. Methane production adjusted for dry matter intake (average=19.8 g/kg) or gross energy intake (average=5.83%) was not affected by increasing AS inclusion

  16. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar ou silagem de milho Ingestive behavior in dairy cows fed sugar cane or corn silage based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro de Souza Mendonça

    2004-06-01

    . The animals were observed every 10 minutes, during 24 hours, to determine the time expended eating, ruminating and resting. There was no difference for the mean time expended eating and ruminating among the experimental diets. However, in the corn silage based diets, the animals expended less time idle, compared to those fed sugar cane based diets. Feeding efficiency, expressed in gNDF/h, showed no difference among the experimental diets. Rumination efficiency, expressed in gDM/h, was similar for the different diets. Rumination efficiency, expressed in gNDF/h (RUE NDF was higher for the corn silage based diet. There was no difference in RUE NDF among the sugar cane based diets. Cows fed sugar cane based diets showed higher time expended in idle and smaller DM intake, when compared those fed corn silage based diets.

  17. Effects of mixed neutron-γ total-body irradiation on physical activity performance of rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    Behavioral incapacitation for a physical activity task and its relationship to emesis and survival time following exposure to ionizing radiation were evaluated in 39 male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Subjects were trained to perform a shock avoidance activity task for 6 hr on a 10-min work/5-min rest schedule in a nonmotorized physical activity wheel. Following stabilization of performance, each subject received a single, pulsed dose of mixed neutron-γ, whole-body radiation (n/γ = 3.0) ranging between 1274 and 4862 rad. Performance testing was started 45 sec after exposure. A dose-response function for early transient incapacitation (ETI) during the first 2 hr after irradiation was fitted, and the median effective dose (ED 50 ) was calculated to be 1982 rad. Analysis done on the relationship of dose to ETI, emesis, and survival time found (a) a significant relationship between the radiation dose and the number and duration of ETIs; (b) no correlation between emesis and dose, survival time, or ETI; (c) no relation between survival time and ETI at any dose; and (d) no significant difference in survival time for dose groups between 1766 +/- 9 (SEM) and 2308 +/- 23 rad

  18. Nonlinear mixed effect models for predicting relationships between total height and diameter of oriental beech trees in Kestel, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Ercanli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelos estadísticos no lineales de efectos mixtos se utilizaron para predecir las relaciones entre la altura total y el diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP en rodales de árboles de haya oriental (Fagus orientalis Lipsky en Kestel, Bursa, al noroeste de Turquía. Un total de 124 parcelas de muestreo se seleccionaron para representar la calidad de sitio, edad y densidad de rodal. Nueve modelos no lineales generalizados de altura-diámetro se ajustaron y evaluaron con base en el criterio de información de Akaike, el criterio de información bayesiana de Schwarz, la raíz del cuadrado medio del error (RMSE por sus siglas en inglés, el sesgo absoluto y el coeficiente de determinación ajustado (R2adj. El modelo no lineal de Schnute se seleccionó como el mejor modelo predictivo. El modelo de altura-diámetro basado en el enfoque del modelo no lineal de efectos mixtos representó 90.6 % de la varianza total en las relaciones de altura-diámetro y los valores de RMSE de 1.48 m. Varios escenarios que difieren en el diseño de muestreo y el tamaño de los árboles submuestra, seleccionados del conjunto de datos de validación, revelaron que cuatro árboles submuestra seleccionados al azar produjeron los mejores resultados predictivos (reducción de 43.3 % de la suma de errores cuadrados, 98.4 % del sesgo absoluto y 36.9 % de la RMSE en relación con las predicciones de los efectos fijos.

  19. Effects of forage ensiling and ration fermentation on total mixed ration pH, ruminal fermentation and performance of growing Holstein-Zebu cross steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenongyai, Watcharawit; Pattarajinda, Virote; Stelzleni, Alexander M; Sethakul, Jutarat; Duangjinda, Monchai

    2017-09-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of forage ensiling and ration fermentation on total mixed ration pH, ruminal fermentation and animal performance. Thirty Holstein-Zebu cross steers were allotted to feeding treatments for 188 days in a randomized complete block design including: fresh grass-total mixed ration (GTMR; pH 4.7), grass silage-TMR (STMR; pH 4.0) and fermented-TMR (FTMR; pH 3.5). Average daily gain for STMR was greatest during the first 3 months period; however, that for FTMR tended to be greater than GTMR during the second 3 months period (P ruminal NH 3 -N content than STMR. Total volatile fatty acids post-feeding was greatest for GTMR (P Ruminal proportions of acetic and butyric acids were greater for FTMR than GTMR (P ruminal pH. STMR and FTMRs can be used to maintain performance of growing crossbred Holstein steers. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Simulation of Iranian total mixed diets and their analysis for essential and toxic trace elements using nuclear and complementary analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.G.; Ahmadiniar, A.; Aminpour, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-ES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) have been used to determine actual daily dietary intakes of minerals and trace elements in the Iranian population. Trace elemental analysis of daily diets of the Iranian population differentiated with respect to food habits, geographical variability, literacy and income is examined. Three study groups in five regions were defined. Thirty total daily diet samples were prepared based on the method of dietary records. Also a few samples representing the intakes of two other study groups, males and females, were prepared by the duplicate diet method. Therefore, not only representative dietary patterns of almost all adult people in Iran are covered in a pilot study, but also the validity of the sampling methodology for total mixed diet simulation is checked. (author)

  1. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  2. Effects of Physically Effective Neutral Detergent Fiber Content on Intake, Digestibility, and Chewing Activity in Fattening Heifer Fed Total Mixed Ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Rae Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF content in total mixed ration (TMR on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in fattening Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae heifers. The experiment was designed as a replicated 3×3 Latin square using 12 heifers. Fattening heifers were offered one of three diets [high (T1, medium (T2, and low (T3 peNDF] obtained by different mixing times (3, 10, and 25 min for the same TMR feed. The peNDF content of TMR was determined by multiplying the proportion of dry matter retained by a 1.18 mm-screen in a Penn State Particle Separator by the dietary NDF content. The peNDF1.18 content was 30.36%, 29.20%, and 27.50% for the T1, T2, and T3 diets, respectively (p<0.05. Dry matter intake was not affected by peNDF content in TMR. Total weight gain in T1 group was significantly higher (p<0.05 than in T2 and T3 groups. However, weight gain did not differ between T2 and T3 groups. The feed conversion ratio decreased with an increase in the peNDF content (T1: 12.18, T2: 14.17, and T3: 14.01 g/g. An increase in the peNDF content of TMR was associated with a linear increase in the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber (p<0.05. Also, an increase in peNDF content of the TMR resulted in a linear increase in the number of chews in eating and ruminating (p<0.05, and consequently in the number of total chews (p<0.05. These results indicate that peNDF content affects digestibility and chewing activity. Consequently, the peNDF content of TMR should be considered for improving feed efficiency, digestibility, body weight gain, and performance in fattening heifers.

  3. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (Pproducts (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (Pmeat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  4. Effect of supplemental nutrient source on heifer growth and reproductive performance, and on utilization of corn silage-based diets by beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, C M; Vanzant, E S; Anderson, L H; Burris, W R; Fieser, B G; Bapst, R F

    2003-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine effects of oilseeds or soybean hulls on growth and reproductive performance of heifers and utilization of corn silage diets by growing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 96 beef heifers (249 kg of BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were as follows: 1) corn and soybean meal (CON) at 56% of the DMI; 2) whole linted cottonseed at 15% of the DMI (COT); 3) whole raw soybeans at 15% of the DMI (SB); or 4) pelleted soyhulls at 30% of the DMI (SH). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (13.8% CP) and fed to achieve target weights equal to 65% of expected mature BW at the time of AI. Estrus was synchronized and heifers were inseminated by AI in response to detected estrus. Because the energy value for SH was underestimated, cumulative ADG for SH (1.03 kg/d) was greater (P 0.10) the proportion of pubertal heifers at the beginning of the breeding season: CON (60%), COT (53%), SB (69%), SH (71%), or first-service conception rates: CON (37%); COT (38%); SB (57%); SH (42%). In Exp. 2, crossbred steers (387 kg) were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of supplemental nutrient source on utilization of corn silage diets. Treatments included diets used in Exp. 1, plus a negative control (soybean meal at 10% of the DMI; SIL) and whole raw soybeans at 25% of the DMI (SB25). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (13.8% CP) except SB25 (17% CP), and were fed twice daily at 1.8 x NEm. Oilseed inclusion decreased (P tract NDF digestibilities. The CON and SH diets had the greatest (P tract OM digestibilities. Microbial efficiencies were greatest (P reproductive performance of heifers. Although oilseed additions increased total fatty acid flow to the duodenum, a high degree of biohydrogenation occurred, greatly increasing C18:0, with only marginal increases in unsaturated fatty acid flow. Depending on diet and feeding conditions, inclusion of whole oilseeds may not be an effective means of

  5. Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage- or corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Klop, G; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted with 32 multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four dietary treatments were used, all having a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). The roughage consisted of either 100% GS, 67% GS and 33% CS, 33% GS and 67% CS, or 100% CS (all DM basis). Feed intake was restricted (95% of ad libitum DM intake) to avoid confounding effects of DM intake on CH4 production. Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Increasing CS proportion linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber and crude protein intake and linearly increased starch intake. Milk production and milk fat content (on average 23.4 kg/d and 4.68%, respectively) were not affected by increasing CS inclusion, whereas milk protein content increased quadratically. Rumen variables were unaffected by increasing CS inclusion, except the molar proportion of butyrate, which increased linearly. Methane production (expressed as grams per day, grams per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, and as a percent of gross energy intake) decreased quadratically with increasing CS inclusion, and decreased linearly when expressed as grams of CH4 per kilogram of DM intake. In comparison with 100% GS, CH4 production was 11 and 8% reduced for the 100% CS diet when expressed per unit of DM intake and per unit fat- and protein-corrected milk, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. The concentration of trans C18:1 FA, C18:1 cis-12, and total CLA increased quadratically, and

  6. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Kim, Ji-Yung; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR) on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications). Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1%) moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05). Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05). No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  7. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Methods Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications. Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1% moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. Results No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05. Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05. No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Conclusion It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  8. Performance, behaviour and meat quality of beef heifers fed concentrate and straw offered as total mixed ration or free-choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iraira, S.P.; Madruga, A.; Pérez-Juan, M.; Ruíz-de-la-Torre, J.; Rodríguez-Prado, M.; Calsamiglia, S.; Manteca, X.; Ferret, A.

    2015-07-01

    Eighteen Simmental heifers were fed concentrate and barley straw offered as a total mixed ration (TMR) or separately as a free choice (FCH) to compare performance, behaviour, and meat quality. The heifers were assigned to treatments in a randomized complete block design. Animals were allotted to roofed pens with 3 animals per pen, and 3 pens per treatment. Intake of concentrate, average daily gain, and gain to feed ratio were not different between diets, being on average 7.6 kg/day, 1.38 kg/day and 0.18 kg/kg, respectively. Straw intake was greater in TMR than in FCH treatment (0.7 vs 0.3 kg/day, respectively; p<0.001). Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fibre intake and water consumption did not differ between treatments. Time spent eating was longer in FCH than in TMR (p=0.001), whereas time spent ruminating and total chewing time were longer (p<0.01) in TMR than in FCH. The number of displacements resulting from competition for feed in the main feeder in TMR treatment tended to be greater than in FCH treatment. There were no differences in the carcass characteristics and quality of meat of animals assigned to the different feeding methods, but the percentage of 18:2 n-6 was higher in FCH treatment. In summary, these results suggest that the use of TMR as a feeding method in beef cattle fed high concentrate diets did not affect performance and increased time spent ruminating with a potential decrease of ruminal acidosis incidence. (Author)

  9. Effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber content on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in Korean native goats ( fed with total mixed ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Young Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was to determine proper physical traits in the diet for goats by investigating the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF content on dry matter intake (DMI, digestibility, and chewing activity in black goats fed with total mixed ration (TMR. Methods Six growing wethers of Korean native black goats (Capra hircus coreanae aged 8 months and weighing between 26.9 kg and 27.1 kg (27.03±5.05 kg were used in this experiment. Three diets of varying peNDF content were obtained by original TMR (T1, 12,000 rpm grinding (T2, and 15,500 rpm grinding (T3 of the same TMR diet. The peNDF1.18 content of the experimental diets was 23.85%, 21.71%, and 16.22% for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Results Average daily gain (ADG was higher in T2 group compared to those of the control and T3 groups, but ADG and DMI were not affected by the dietary particle size and peNDF content. Also, there was no difference between apparent nutrient digestibility of dry matter, crude fiber, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. Although there was no significant difference, rumination and total chewing time were associated with decreased peNDF content. Conclusion The feeding of peNDF-based TMR showed no impact on apparent nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Further studies are required with a wider range of dietary peNDF level and particle size to better identify the effect of dietary peNDF and particle size on chewing activity and performance in goats.

  10. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control, molasses (M, propionic acid (P, and molasses+propionic acid (PM, in laboratory silos (250 mL and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN, and high lactic acid (LA content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p105 cfu/g FM, however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM (p<0.05 and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage.

  11. Effect of ensiling process of total mixed ration on fermentation profile, nutrient loss and in situ ruminal degradation characteristics of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    This experiment aimed to determine the changes in chemical composition, fermentation profile, in situ disappearance characteristics, and nutrient losses of ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) containing steam-flaked corn or brown rice (BR) during storage. TMRs for dairy cows, containing either steam-flaked corn or BR at 31.9% with 15.2% rye silage, 40.5% alfalfa silage, 5.0% beet pulp and 7.0% soybean meal, were prepared (dry matter (DM) basis). Each TMR was placed in a plastic drum silo, stored at 23°C in an air-conditioned room and sampled 0, 7, 14, 30, 90 and 210 days after preparation. In both grain sources, the fermentation products increased, while DM and starch storage losses increased and starch content greatly decreased during storage. The rapidly degradable fraction and effective ruminal degradability of DM, crude protein and starch increased during storage. These changes of dietary characteristics were large during 30 days of storage, but small after 90 days of storage. Replacing corn with BR led to increased fermentation products, starch loss and effective ruminal degradability of the ensiled TMR. These results indicate that the ensiling process of TMR changes the dietary characteristics and replacing corn with BR in TMR had a large impact on these dietary characteristics. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Effect of total mixed ration composition and daily grazing pattern on milk production, composition and fatty acids profile of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; González, Amelia; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M; Argamentería, Alejandro; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña; Vicente, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of using high quality pastures in conjunction with total mixed ration (TMR) during the grazing season have been examined. An experiment with sixteen Holstein cows blocked and randomly assigned to four treatments in a factorial arrangement was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of grazing time of day (day or night) and type of silage (maize or Italian ryegrass) included in the TMR of dairy cows grazing 12 h daily on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile. The silage type had no effect on the dry matter intake, milk yield and fat and protein proportions. However, cows grazing during the night ate more grass than cows grazing during the day (8·53 vs. 5·65 kg DM/d; Pdairy cows grazing at night-time than grazing at day-time, especially 18:2n-6 (2·37 vs. 2·12 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05) and 18:2cis9trans11 (2·08 vs. 1·74 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05).

  13. Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    Effects of physical changes in consistency of ruminal contents on intraruminal equilibration and net portal fluxes of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in dairy cows were studied. Four Danish Holstein cows (121 ± 17 d in milk, 591 ± 24 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula...... and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels were used. The experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial design of treatments. Treatments differed in forage (grass hay) particle size (FPS; 3.0 and 30 mm) and feed dry matter (DM) content of the total mixed...... ration (44.3 and 53.8%). The feed DM did not affect chewing time, ruminal variables, or net portal flux of VFA. However, decreasing the FPS decreased the overall chewing and rumination times by 151 ± 55 and 135 ± 29 min/d, respectively. No effect of the reduced chewing time was observed on ruminal p...

  14. Effects of Varying Levels of Fungal ( sp. Treated Wheat Straw as an Ingredient of Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shahzad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1, 33 (TMR2, 67 (TMR3, and 100% (TMR4 fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6 according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves.

  15. Effect of high and low roughage total mixed ration diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles in crossbred cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Sinha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A comparative study was conducted on crossbred cattle and buffaloes to investigate the effect of feeding high and low roughage total mixed ration (TMR diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles. Materials and Methods: Three rumen-fistulated crossbred cattle and buffalo were randomly assigned as per 3x3 switch over design for 21-days. Three TMR diets consisting of concentrate mixture, wheat straw and green maize fodder in the ratios of (T1 60:20:20, (T2 40:30:30, and (T3 20:40:40, respectively, were fed to the animals ad libitum. Rumen liquor samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post feeding for the estimation of rumen biochemical parameters on 2 consecutive days in each trial. Results: The lactic acid concentration and pH value were comparable in both species and treatments. Feed intake (99.77±2.51 g/kg body weight, ruminal ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen were significantly (p0.05 among treatments and significantly (p<0.05 greater in crossbred cattle than buffaloes. Molar proportions of individual VFAs propionate (C3, propionate:butyrate (C3:C4, and (acetate+butyrate:propionate ([C2+C4]:C3 ratio in both crossbred cattle and buffalo were not affected by high or low roughage diet, but percentage of acetate and butyrate varied significantly (p<0.05 among treatment groups. Activities of microbial enzymes were comparable among species and different treatment groups. A total number of rumen protozoa were significantly (p<0.05 higher in crossbred cattle than buffaloes along with significantly (p<0.05 higher population in animal fed with high concentrate diet (T1. Conclusion: Rumen microbial population and fermentation depend on constituents of the treatment diet. However, microbial enzyme activity remains similar among species and different treatments. High concentrate diet increases number of rumen protozoa, and the number is higher in crossbred cattle than buffaloes.

  16. Effect of lime treatment of olive meal on in vitro utilization of total mixed ration containing olive meal as partial maize replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Ashraf

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study pertains to lime treatment of olive meal to improve its digestibility. The objective of the present study was to assess the in vitro dry matter degradability of total mixed ration containing lime treated olive meal at varied levels of maize replacement to know the optimum level of lime and treated olive meal as maize replacement in small ruminant diets. Materials and methods: Study was carried out in two phases. In phase I, A complete diet was formulated and treated with lime at variable concentrations (0-8% at 25% of maize replacement and subjected to in vitro studies as per Tilley and Terry. On the basis of the results of this phase, a concentration of lime for olive treatment was selected and tested at variable levels of maize replacement (0-50% by treated olive cake in phase II. Data was analyzed as per the procedures suggested by Snedecor and Cochran. Results: The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of composite diet increased from 43.95% at 0% lime treatment to 48.68% on treating with 8% lime with significant (P<0.05 increase at 6% treatment level. Lime treatment beyond 6% had no further significant effect on improving the digestibility. Graded levels of maize replacement by olive meal treated with 6% lime (lime percentage selected from phase I showed that the in vitro digestibility of mixed ration was not compromised up to 40% replacement level of maize by treated olive meal. Improved digestibility with lime treatment may be due to weakening of internal Hydrogen bonding, thereby disrupting the fiber structure in olive meal. Further lime may be saponifying the high level of fat present in olive meal, which may otherwise negatively impact the digestibility values. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the treatment with up to 6% of lime can effectively increase the digestibility of olive meal. Treated olive meal can replace up to 40% of maize from daily ration without affecting the digestibility of composite ration

  17. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR. The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML, 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML, and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML, and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM basis, yeast populations significantly increased from 107 to 1010 cfu/g during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to 109 cfu/g DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR.

  18. Amino acid profiles of rumen undegradable protein: a comparison between forages including cereal straws and alfalfa and their respective total mixed rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Jiang, L S; Liu, J X

    2018-06-01

    Optimizing the amino acid (AA) profile of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) can positively affect the amount of milk protein. This study was conducted to improve knowledge regarding the AA profile of rumen undegradable protein from corn stover, rice straw and alfalfa hay as well as the total mixed ratio diets (TMR) based on one of them as forage source [forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 (30% of corn stover (CS), 30% of rice straw (RS), 23% of alfalfa hay (AH) and dry matter basis)]. The other ingredients in the three TMR diets were similar. The RUP of all the forages and diets was estimated by incubation for 16 hr in the rumen of three ruminally cannulated lactating cows. All residues were corrected for microbial colonization, which was necessary in determining the AA composition of RUP from feed samples using in situ method. Compared with their original AA composition, the AA pattern of forages and forage-based diets changed drastically after rumen exposure. In addition, the extent of ruminal degradation of analysed AA was not constant among the forages. The greatest individual AA degradability of alfalfa hay and corn stover was Pro, but was His of rice straw. A remarkable difference was observed between microbial attachment corrected and uncorrected AA profiles of RUP, except for alfalfa hay and His in the three forages and TMR diets. The ruminal AA degradability of cereal straws was altered compared with alfalfa hay but not for the TMR diets. In summary, the AA composition of forages and TMR-based diets changed significantly after ruminal exposure, indicating that the original AA profiles of the feed cannot represent its AA composition of RUP. The AA profile of RUP and ruminal AA degradability for corn stover and rice straw contributed to missing information in the field. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W; Wang, H L; Ning, T T; Yang, F Y; Xu, C C

    2015-06-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML), 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML), and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML), and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM) basis, yeast populations significantly increased from 10(7) to 10(10) cfu/g during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to 10(9) cfu/g DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR.

  20. Effect of weaning age on feed intake and ruminal fermentation patterns of calves fed a dry total mixed ration with ad libitum access to grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ackeren, Caroline; Steingass, Herbert; Hartung, Karin; Funk, Rainer; Drochner, Winfried

    2010-08-01

    To study the effect of weaning age on average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI) and ruminal fermentation, 10 rumen-cannulated male Holstein calves were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: (i) early weaned at 8 weeks of age (235 l milk); (ii) conventionally weaned at 12 weeks of age (347 l milk). Twice daily grass hay (9.0 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) and a dry total mixed ration (TMR) (11.6 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) containing 15% alfalfa hay and 85% concentrates were offered separately. Water was available ad libitum. Ruminal fluid was collected via cannulas at weeks 9, 11, 13 and 15, twice weekly just prior to as well as 1, 3, 5 and 7 h after morning feeding. Calves of both treatments achieved adequate ADG (947 vs. 959 g; p > 0.05). Just-weaned calves rapidly increased DMI (1.1-2.5 kg TMR and 2.4-3.6 kg TMR for early- and conventionally-weaned calves, respectively). From weeks 10-12 early-weaned calves consumed significantly more dry feed than conventionally-weaned calves (week 10: 2.5 vs. 1.6 kg/d; week 12: 3.4 vs. 2.4 kg/d). Early weaning stimulates DMI supporting ruminal fermentation intensity, indicated by lower ruminal pH. After weaning, only early-weaned calves achieved critical average ruminal pH (week 9: 5.7 vs. 6.0, p = 0.017; week 11: 5.9 vs. 6.2, p = 0.007). Experimental treatment did not affect the concentration of ruminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). For all calves, the effects of the concentrate-rich TMR were shown by a high SCFA level (daily average: 137-152 mmol x l(-1)) and an acetate to propionate to butyrate ratio between 51:36:9 and 54:33:10.

  1. Quantifying Fire's Impacts on Total and Pyrogenic Carbon Stocks in Mixed-Conifer Forests: Results from Pre- and Post-Fire Measurements in Active Wildfire Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesel, J. R.; Reiner, A. L.; Ewell, C. M.; Sanderman, J.; Maestrini, B.; Adkins, J.

    2016-12-01

    Widespread US fire suppression policy has contributed to an accumulation of vegetation in many western forests relative to historic conditions, and these changes can exacerbate wildfire severity and carbon (C) emissions. Serious concern exists about positive feedbacks between wildfire emissions and global climate; however, fires not only release C from terrestrial to atmospheric pools, they also create "black" or pyrogenic C (PyC) which contributes to longer-term C stability. Our objective was to quantify wildfire impacts on aboveground and belowground total C and PyC stocks in California mixed-conifer forests. We worked with incident management teams to access five active wildfires to establish and measure plots within days before and after fire. We measured pre- and post-fire aboveground forest structure and woody fuels to calculate aboveground biomass, biomass C, and PyC, and we collected pre- and post-fire forest floor and 0-5 cm mineral soil samples to measure belowground C and PyC stocks. Our preliminary results show that fire had minimal impact on the number of trees per hectare, whereas C losses from the tree layer occurred via consumption of foliage, and PyC gain occurred in tree bark. Fire released 54% to 100% of surface fuel C. In the forest floor layer, we observed 33 to 100% C loss, whereas changes in PyC stocks ranged from 100% loss to 186% gain relative to pre-fire samples. In general, fire had minimal to no impact on 0-5 cm mineral soil C. We will present relationships between total C, PyC and post-fire C and N dynamics in one of the five wildfire sites. Our data are unique because they represent nearly immediate pre- and post-fire measurements in major wildfires in a widespread western U.S. forest type. This research advances understanding of the role of fire on forest C fluxes and C sequestration potential as PyC.

  2. Supplementation of increasing amounts of linseed oil to dairy cows fed total mixed rations: effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Romero-Pérez, G A; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Eugene, M; Petit, H V; Côrtes, C

    2012-08-01

    The effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, forage (i.e., timothy hay) in sacco ruminal degradation, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, milk production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows was investigated. Four ruminally cannulated, primiparous lactating cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (28-d periods). They were fed a total mixed ration (50:50 forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio [dry matter (DM) basis] without supplementation (control, CTL), or supplemented (wt/wt; DM basis) with LO at 2, 3, or 4%. Supplementation with LO had no effect on DM intake (19 kg/d) and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy). Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile FA concentrations were not changed by LO supplementation to diets. Extent of changes in volatile FA pattern and effective ruminal degradability of DM of timothy hay were minor. Neither the total numbers nor the genera distribution of protozoa was changed by the addition of increasing amounts of LO to the diet. Milk yield increased linearly (26.1, 27.3, 27.4, and 28.4 kg/d for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO added to the diet increased. Milk fat content was not affected by LO supplementation, whereas milk protein content decreased linearly with increasing amounts of LO in the diet. Milk fat proportions of several intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated FA (i.e., trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11,cis-15 18:2, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 18:3) increased linearly with LO addition to the diet. The proportion of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 decreased linearly (2.06, 1.99, 1.91, and 1.83% for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO in the diet increased. Milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased as the level of LO in the diet increased up to 3% but no further increase was observed when 4% of LO

  3. The effects of forage proportion and rapidly degradable dry matter from concentrate on ruminal digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with fixed neutral detergent fiber and starch contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechartier, C; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio and the rate of ruminal degradation of carbohydrates from the concentrate on digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets. Six cows with ruminal cannulas were assigned to 6 treatments in a 6x6 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 3x2 factorial design. Three proportions of neutral detergent fiber from forage [FNDF; 7.6, 13.2, and 18.9% of dry matter (DM)] were obtained by modifying F:C (20:80, 35:65, and 50:50). These F:C were combined with concentrates with either high or low content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates. The dietary content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates from the concentrate was estimated from the DM disappearance of concentrate after 4h of in sacco incubation (CRDM). Thus, 2 proportions of CRDM were tested (20 and 30% of DM). Wheat and corn grain were used as rapidly and slowly degradable starch sources, respectively. Soybean hulls and citrus pulp were used as slowly and rapidly degradable fiber sources, respectively. Concentrate composition was adjusted to maintain dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents at 35.9 and 28.9% of DM, respectively. There was no effect of the interaction between F:C and CRDM on DM intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and fibrolytic activity. When F:C decreased, DMI increased, the mean ruminal pH linearly decreased, and the pH range linearly increased from 0.95 to 1.27 pH unit. At the same time, the acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased linearly. Decreasing F:C linearly decreased the average time spent chewing per kilogram of DMI from 35.2 to 19.5min/kg of DMI and decreased ruminal liquid outflow from 11.6 to 9.2L/kg of DMI, suggesting a decrease in the salivary flow. Increasing CRDM decreased DMI and increased the time during which pH was below 6.0 (3.1 vs. 4.8h), the pH range (0.90 vs. 1.33), and the initial rate of pH drop. It also increased the volatile fatty acid range (35 vs. 59mM), thus

  4. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  5. Long term carbon dioxide exchange above a mixed forest in the Belgian Ardennes: evaluation of different approaches to deduce total ecosystem respiration from Eddy covariance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jérôme, Elisabeth; Aubinet, Marc; Heinesch, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    The general aim of this research is to analyze inter annual variability of carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes exchanged by a mixed forest located at the Vielsalm experimental site in Belgium. At this site, CO2 flux measurements started in 1996 and are still going on. Thirteen complete years of measurements are thus available. Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) inter annual variability may be driven by gross primary productivity (GPP) or Total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), which should thus be both quantified. Using flux partitioning methods, TER is deduced from NEE measurements. GPP is then obtained by subtracting TER from NEE. Initially, a robust estimation of TER is required. This work seeks to compare two independent approaches to assess TER in order to quantify the implications on inter-annual variability. The comparison was performed on twelve complete years. TER estimates can be deduced by extrapolating to the whole day NEE measurements taken during selected night or day periods. In both case, the extrapolation is performed by using a respiration response to temperature. The first approach, referred as the night-time approach, consisted in calculating TER using a temperature response function derived from night-time data sets (Reichstein et al., 2005). The second approach, referred as the daytime approach, consisted in assessing TER from the intercept of the NEE/Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) response (Wohlfahrt et al., 2005). For each approach, different modalities were compared: the use of long term (annual) or short term (15 days) data sets for the night-time approach and the use of different types of regression for the daytime approach. In addition, the impact of the temperature choice was studied for each of the approaches. For the night-time approach, main results showed that air temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration derived from annual data did not reflect the short-term air temperature sensitivity. Vielsalm is a summer active ecosystem

  6. Infrared optical constants of aqueous sulfate-nitrate-ammonium multi-component tropospheric aerosols from attenuated total reflectance measurements: Part II. An examination of mixing rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Gregory J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Martin, Scot T.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the performance of several mixing rules that are commonly used in modeling optical constants of aerosol mixtures either in remote sensing or radiation transfer/climate studies employing the new refractive index data reported in Part I. We demonstrate that the optical constants of the considered mixtures are not accurately modeled using pure solute optical constants (e.g., ammonium sulfate optical constants and the optical constants of pure water) due to the complex ion-ion and ion-water interactions. On the other hand, we do find that ternary and quaternary mixtures can be well modeled by applying the mixing rules to lower order multi-component optical constants data, e.g., binary data to determine ternary optical constants, or binary and ternary data to determine quaternary optical constants. By using lower order optical constants data sets, much of the ion-ion and ion-water effects are captured. Both mass-fraction and volume-fraction weighting of the 'component' optical constants yield satisfactory results, performing as well or better than the more complicated mixing rules. These findings will be of practical use in remote sensing and radiation transfer/climate studies as well as help guide the decision on what optical constants measurements will be required

  7. Accurate, safe, and rapid method of intraoperative tumor identification for totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy: injection of mixed fluid of sodium hyaluronate and patent blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Ehara, Kazuhisa; Ueno, Masaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Kaida, Sachiko; Udagawa, Harushi

    2014-04-01

    In totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, determining the resection line with safe proximal margins is often difficult, particularly for tumors located in a relatively upper area. This is because, in contrast to open surgery, identifying lesions by palpating or opening the stomach is essentially impossible. This study introduces a useful method of tumor identification that is accurate, safe, and rapid. On the operation day, after inducing general anesthesia, a mixture of sodium hyaluronate and patent blue is injected into the submucosal layer of the proximal margin. When resecting stomach, all marker spots should be on the resected side. In all cases, the proximal margin is examined histologically by using frozen sections during the operation. From October 2009 to September 2011, a prospective study that evaluated this method was performed. A total of 34 patients who underwent totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy were enrolled in this study. Approximately 5 min was required to complete the procedure. Proximal margins were negative in all cases, and the mean ± standard deviation length of the proximal margin was 23.5 ± 12.8 mm. No side effects, such as allergy, were encountered. As a method of tumor identification for totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, this procedure appears accurate, safe, and rapid.

  8. Estimating Surface NO2 and SO2 Mixing Ratios from Fast-Response Total Column Observations and Potential Application to Geostationary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total-column nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data collected by a ground-based sun-tracking spectrometer system 21 (Pandora) and an photolytic-converter-based in-situ instrument collocated at NASA’s Langley Research Center in 22 Hampton, Virginia were analyzed to study the relationship bet...

  9. The effects of and interactions between the maturity of grass silage and concentrate starch source when offered as total mixed rations on the performance of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahir, M.N.; Lund, Peter; Hetta, M.

    2013-01-01

    identical proportions of forage (51%) and concentrate (49%). Total tract digestibility was estimated by determining indigestible NDF (iNDF) concentrations in feeds and faeces and using iNDF as an internal marker. The feeds’ ruminal degradation parameters were determined using both in situ (nylon bag...

  10. Microbial release of ferulic and p-coumaric acids from forages and their digestibility in lactating cows fed total mixed rations with different forage combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bin-Bin; Jin, Xin; Yang, Hong-Jian; Li, Sheng-Li; Jiang, Lin-Shu

    2016-01-30

    Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (PCA) are widely distributed in graminaceous plant cell walls. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of ester-linked FA (FAest) and PCA (PCAest) in lactating dairy cows. Regarding corn stover, ensiled corn stover, whole corn silage, Chinese wild ryegrass and alfalfa hay with different phenolic acid profiles, the in vitro rumen digestibility of forage FAest and PCAest was negatively correlated with the ether-linked FA content and original PCA/FA ratio in the forages. The concentration of both phenolic acids in culture fluids was low after a 72 h incubation, and the mixed rumen microorganisms metabolized nearly all phenolic acids released into the culture fluids. FAest digestibility in the whole digestive tract was negatively correlated with dietary PCA/FA ratio, but a converse result occurred with dietary PCAest digestibility. The digestibility in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract was greater for FAest than for PCAest. Forage PCAest in comparison with FAest is not easily digested in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract, and they were negatively affected by forage FAeth content and lignification extent indicated by the original dietary PCA/FA ratio. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahima; Kumar, Vinod; Tomar, S. K.; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05) effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP), TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g) was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05) as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein. PMID:27047133

  12. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05 effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP, TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05 as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.

  13. Effect of total solid content and pretreatment on the production of lactic acid from mixed culture dark fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2018-04-28

    Food waste landfilling causes environmental degradation, and this work assesses a sustainable food valorization technique. In this study, food waste is converted into lactic acid in a batch assembly by dark fermentation without pH control and without the addition of external inoculum at 37 °C. The effect of total solid (TS), enzymatic and aeration pretreatment was investigated on liquid products concentration and product yield. The maximum possible TS content was 34% of enzymatic pretreated waste, and showed the highest lactic acid concentration of 52 g/L, with a lactic acid selectivity of 0.6 g lactic /g totalacids . The results indicated that aeration pretreatment does not significantly improve product concentration or yield. Non-pretreated waste in a 29% TS system showed a lactic acid concentration of 31 g/L. The results showed that enzymatic pretreated waste at TS of 34% results in the highest production of lactic acid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of graded levels of liquid brewer's yeast on chemical composition and fermentation quality in cassava pulp and rice straw-based total mixed ration silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphayae, Sukanya; Kumagai, Hajime; Bureenok, Smerjai; Narmseelee, Ramphrai; Butcha, Patima

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) addition on chemical composition and fermentation quality of mixture of LBY and cassava pulp (CVP) with rice straw (RS) in different ratios during preservation periods. Four mixtures of LBY, CVP and RS were made, that is mixture ratio of LBY : CVP : RS of 0% LBY, 20% LBY, 35% LBY and 50% LBY were 0:70:30, 20:50:30, 35:35:30 and 50:20:30 as fresh matter, respectively. The bags were opened at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 after storage. The contents of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber ranged 36.4-40.0, 88.9-90.8, 4.0-12.0, 1.1-1.3, 58.8-61.6 and 37.6-40.0, respectively, and the contents of CP and EE increased and the other components decreased in proportion to LBY inclusion (P < 0.01). 50% LBY had the highest (P < 0.05) pH (4.81) and ammonia nitrogen per total nitrogen (NH 3 -N/TN) (7.40%) and the lowest V-score (90.3). Propionic and butyric acid contents were 0.01% or lower in each mixture and storage period. There were rapid pH decrease and NH 3 -N/TN increase during the first week of the storage period. The increases of NH 3 -N/TN and acetic acid content and decreases of pH, lactic acid content and V-score during the preservation were more drastic as LBY inclusion increased. Although higher proportion of LBY produced higher CP and lower fiber contents in the mixture, attention should be paid for the reduction of fermentation quality during longer storage periods. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Effects of adding food by-products mainly including noodle waste to total mixed ration silage on fermentation quality, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and ruminal fermentation in wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kyohei; Yani, Srita; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2012-11-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the applicability of two types of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products. Four food by-products (i.e., potato waste, soy sauce cake, soybean curd residue and noodle waste) were obtained and mixed with commercial concentrate (CC) as TMR silage. The two types of TMR silage, T1 and T2, each contained CC, in addition to all by-products for T1 (TRE1), and soy sauce cake and noodle waste for T2 (TRE2) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The silage was well-fermented with low pH values and high lactic acid concentration. As the experimental treatments, T1, T2 and CC (CTL) were fed with a basal diet. The result showed that the digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) were higher for T1 than for CC (P < 0.05), while crude protein digestibility was not significantly different among T1, T2 and CC. The retained nitrogen was not affected by inclusion of food by-products. Ruminal pH in TRE1 and TRE2 immediately decreased compared to that in CTL. The study suggested that the two types of TMR silage, including food by-products, might be used as a substitute for commercial concentrate. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  17. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  19. Effects of Synchronization of Carbohydrate and Protein Supply in Total Mixed Ration with Korean Rice Wine Residue on Ruminal Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Holstein Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu Piao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Three Holstein steers in the growing phase, each with a ruminal cannula, were used to test the hypothesis that the synchronization of the hourly rate of carbohydrate and nitrogen (N released in the rumen would increase the amount of retained nitrogen for growth and thus improve the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS. In Experiment 1, in situ degradability coefficients of carbohydrate and N in feeds including Korean rice wine residue (RWR were determined. In Experiment 2, three total mixed ration (TMR diets having different rates of carbohydrate and N release in the rumen were formulated using the in situ degradability of the feeds. All diets were made to contain similar contents of crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF but varied in their hourly pattern of nutrient release. The synchrony index of the three TMRs was 0.51 (LS, 0.77 (MS and 0.95 (HS, respectively. The diets were fed at a restricted level (2% of the animal’s body weight in a 3×3 Latin-square design. Synchronizing the hourly supply of energy and N in the rumen did not significantly alter the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, NDF or acid detergent fiber (ADF (p>0.05. The ruminal NH3-N content of the LS group at three hours after feeding was significantly higher (p0.05. In addition, the purine derivative (PD excretion in urine and microbial-N production (MN among the three groups were not significantly different (p>0.05. In conclusion, synchronizing dietary energy and N supply to the rumen did not have a major effect on nutrient digestion or microbial protein synthesis (MPS in Holstein steers.

  20. Estabilidade aeróbia da ração total e de silagens de capim-marandu tratadas com aditivos químicos e bacterianos Aerobic stability of total mixed ration and marandugrass silage using microbial or chemical additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fernandes Bernardes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de determinar o efeito da inclusão de aditivo químico e da inoculação de bactérias homo e heterofermentativas sobre a estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de capim-marandu e da ração total. Foram conduzidos três experimentos para avaliação do benzoato de sódio e de dois inoculantes, um contendo Lactobacillus plantarum + Propionibacterium e o segundo Lactobacillus buchneri. Após 60 dias de fermentação, os silos foram abertos e as silagens e a ração total (RT contendo silagens de capim-marandu foram colocadas em caixas de isopor e transferidas para câmara climática, a 25 ± 1ºC, para determinação das variações de temperatura na ração total e na silagem, das recuperações de MS e das alterações no pH da silagem. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. Houve perdas de MS e elevação dos teores de pH quando as silagens foram colocadas em condições de aerobiose. A temperatura das silagens e da RT teve discreto aumento durante os seis dias de aeração. O uso de bactérias ou de benzoato de sódio não influenciou a estabilidade aeróbia das silagens.This research evaluated the inclusion of chemical additive and the inoculation with homo and heterofermentative bacteria on the aerobic stability of the Marandu grass silages and on the total mixed ration (TMR. It was conducted three experiments to evaluate sodium benzoate and two inoculants: 1. Lactobacillus plantarum + Propionibacterium and; 2. Lactobacillus buchneri. The silos were opened after 60 days of fermentation; the silages and the TMR containing the silages were placed in a polystyrene box, and transferred to a climatic chamber kept at 25 ± 1ºC to determine the temperature changes, dry matter recovery, and pH values. The data were analyzed according to a complete randomized design, in a split plot arrangement. The silages showed DM losses and increasing pH during the

  1. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  2. Padrões da distribuição nictemeral do comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras, ao início e ao final da lactação, alimentadas com dieta à base de silagem de milho Ingestive behavior nycterohemeral patterns of dairy cows, at the beginning and at the end of lactation, fed a corn silage based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Fischer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos dos estádios de lactação inicial e final sobre o comportamento e a distribuição nictemeral do comportamento ingestivo foram avaliados com oito vacas leiteiras, consumindo uma dieta à base de silagem de milho. A análise espectral das séries de tempos horários de mastigação (ingestão ou ruminação foi realizada usando os dados modificados pela transformação finita de Fourier. Foi realizada análise de variância destes dados e a análise dos periodogramas e diagramas de fase. A duração média das refeições e o consumo de matéria seca foram superiores, enquanto o tempo unitário de ruminação foi inferior no período inicial em relação ao final da lactação. A distribuição dos tempos de ingestão e de ruminação nos estádios inicial e final de lactação seguiu, respectivamente, periodicidades de 24, 12, 8 e 4 horas e de 24, 12 e 8 horas. Foi constatado efeito significativo do estádio de lactação para o tempo gasto ingerindo e ruminando no componente de ritmo 4. O estádio da lactação influenciou alguns parâmetros do comportamento ingestivo e sua ritmicidade.The effects of the stage of lactation upon the ingestive behavior nycterohemeral patterns were evaluated with eight dairy cows eating a corn silage based diet. Spectral analysis was performed through application of the finite Fourier transformation upon hourly duration of eating or ruminating time series. Variance analysis and inspection of phase diagrams and periodograms were done upon modified data. The mean meal duration and dry matter intake were larger while the unitary ruminating time was inferior at the beginning than at the end of the lactation. Nycterohemeral patterns of time spent eating or ruminating at the beginning and at the end of lactation followed mainly periodicities of, respectively, 24, 12, 8 and 4 hours and 24, 12 and 8 hours. A significant effect of stage of lactation was observed at the rhythm component 4 for both time spent

  3. Sneutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Y.

    1997-10-01

    In supersymmetric models with nonvanishing Majorana neutrino masses, the sneutrino and antisneutrino mix. The conditions under which this mixing is experimentally observable are studied, and mass-splitting of the sneutrino mass eigenstates and sneutrino oscillation phenomena are analyzed

  4. Desempenho de cordeiros Santa Inês alimentados com dietas completas contendo feno de maniçoba Performance of Santa Inês lambs fed total mixed rations containing different ratios of concentrate to ceara rubbertree hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacilene Maria da Cunha Castro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de cordeiros alimentados com dieta completa formulada com diferentes proporções de feno de maniçoba. Foram utilizados 32 animais Santa Inês machos, não-castrados (idade inicial de 70 dias e peso vivo de 16,02±2,37 kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. As dietas foram constituídas de concentrado e feno de maniçoba (FM nas proporções de 20, 40, 60 e 80%. As proporções de feno na dieta não influenciaram os consumos de MS, PB e CT, cujas médias diárias foram 1,214; 0,201 e 0,816 kg, respectivamente. Os níveis de feno tiveram efeito linear positivo sobre o consumo de FDN e efeito linear negativo sobre o consumo de EM e CNF. O ganho de peso diário foi afetado pelos níveis de feno na dieta, apresentando médias de 290,84; 293,62; 253,35 e 208,48 g, respectivamente, para as dietas com 20, 40, 60 e 80% de feno de maniçoba. As dietas influenciaram a conversão (Y = 3,332+0,028x e a eficiência alimentar (Y = 0,280,0013x. Pela análise econômica, observaram-se relações custo:benefício de 1,49; 1,57; 1,69 e 1,84 para os níveis de 20, 40, 60 e 80% de feno de maniçoba na dieta. O custo operacional efetivo por quilograma de carcaça produzida foi de R$ 3,68; R$ 3,49; R$ 3,23 e R$ 2,98, respectivamente, para as dietas com 20, 40, 60 e 80% de feno. A inclusão de 80% de feno de maniçoba em dietas completas possibilitou a obtenção de desempenho satisfatório dos cordeiros e melhor retorno financeiro.The objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of different dietary ratios of concentrate (C to ceara rubbertree hay (CRH; Manihot Glaziovii Muell. Arg. on performance of lambs. Thirty two intact Santa Inês lambs averaging 70 days of age and 16.02±2.371 kg of body weight were fed one of the following four treatments as total mixed rations: 80C:20CRH (diet A, 60C:40CRH (diet B, 40C:60CRH (diet C, or 20C:80CRH (diet D in a completely

  5. Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandzia, Claudia; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    In this guidebook most of the known and used in practice methods for achieving mixing air distribution are discussed. Mixing ventilation has been applied to many different spaces providing fresh air and thermal comfort to the occupants. Today, a design engineer can choose from large selection...

  6. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  7. Mixed parentage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang Appel, Helene; Singla, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increase in cross border intimate relationships and children of mixed parentage, there is little mention or scholarship about them in the area of childhood and migrancy in the Nordic countries. The international literature implies historical pathologisation, contestation and current...... of identity formation in the . They position themselves as having an “in-between” identity or “ just Danes” in their every day lives among friends, family, and during leisure activities. Thus a new paradigm is evolving away- from the pathologisation of mixed children, simplified one-sided categories...

  8. Interventions of the nursing diagnosis „Acute Pain“ – Evaluation of patients' experiences after total hip arthroplasty compared with the nursing record by using Q-DIO-Pain: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, David C; Gralher, Dieter; Müller-Staub, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pain affects patients' rehabilitation after hip replacement surgery. Aim: The study aim was to compare patients' responses, on their received pain relieving nursing interventions after hip replacement surgery, with the documented interventions in their nursing records. Method: A mixed methods design was applied. In order to evaluate quantitative data the instrument „Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes“ (Q-DIO) was further developed to measure pain interventions in nursing records (Q-DIO-Pain). Patients (n = 37) answered a survey on the third postoperative day. The patients' survey findings were then compared with the Q-DIO-Pain results and cross-validated by qualitative interviews. Results: The most reported pain level was „no pain“ (NRS 0 – 10 Points). However, 17 – 50 % of patients reported pain levels of three or higher and 11 – 22 % of five or higher in situations of motion / ambulation. A significant match between patients' findings and Q-DIO-Pain results was found for the intervention „helping to adapt medications“ (n = 32, ICC = 0.111, p = 0.042, CI 95 % 2-sided). Otherwise no significant matches were found. Interviews with patients and nurses confirmed that far more pain-relieving interventions affecting „Acute Pain“ were carried out, than were documented. Conclusions: Based on the results, pain assessments and effective pain-relieving interventions, especially before or after motion / ambulation should be improved and documented. It is recommended to implement a nursing standard for pain control.

  9. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  10. Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    negative (right panel c) and the kinetic energy dissipation is larger than that expected from meterological forcing alone (right panel a). This is...10.1002/grl.50919. Shcherbina, A. et al., 2014, The LatMix Summer Campaign: Submesoscale Stirring in the Upper Ocean., Bull. American Meterological

  11. Parity mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    The field of parity mixing in light nuclei bears upon one of the exciting and active problems of physics--the nature of the fundamental weak interaction. It is also a subject where polarization techniques play a very important role. Weak interaction theory is first reviewed to motivate the parity mixing experiments. Two very attractive systems are discussed where the nuclear physics is so beautifully simple that the experimental observation of tiny effects directly measures parity violating (PV) nuclear matrix elements which are quite sensitive to the form of the basic weak interaction. Since the measurement of very small analyzing powers and polarizations may be of general interest to this conference, some discussion is devoted to experimental techniques

  12. Substituição do milho por palma forrageira em dietas completas para vacas em lactação Replacement of corn by forage cactus in the total mixed rations for crossbreed lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Barros Araújo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este experimento, avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho por palma forrageira sobre o desempenho de vacas mestiças em lactação e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes. Foram utilizadas oito vacas mestiças (5/8 HZ, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 x 4 em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (duas cultivares de palma forrageira, com ou sem milho. Não houve interação entre palma e milho e o efeito dos dois alimentos foi analisado de forma isolada. Os consumos de matéria seca, de fibra em detergente ácido, dematéria orgânica, de proteína bruta, de extrato etéreo e de carboidratos totais não foram influenciados pelas cultivares de palma utilizadas. Animais que receberam palma gigante nas dietas apresentaram maior consumo de fibra em detergente neutro. As dietas com milho proporcionaram maior consumo de matéria seca (kg/dia e % de PV. O consumo de NDT, os coeficientes de digestibilidade de todos os nutrientes, a produção de leite corrigida, o teor de gordura e a eficiência alimentar não foram influenciados pelas cultivares de palma forrageira ou pela inclusão milho.The experiment was conduced to evaluate the effects of corn replacement for forage cactus on the performance of crossbreed lactating cows and nutrient digestibility. Eight cows were assigned a two latin square design in a factorial 2 x 2 arrangement (two forage cactus cultivars, with or without corn.There was not interaction between forage cactus and corn and the effect of both were analyzed in an isolated way. The intake of dry matter, organic matter, acid detergent fiber, crude protein, ether extract and total carbohydrates were not affected by the forage cactus. Animals that received giant cultivar presented larger neutral detergent fiber intake. The diets with corn presented larger dry matter intake (kg/day and % of LW. The intake of TDN, the coefficients of digestibility of all nutrients, the fat corrected milk production, fat content and kg of milk

  13. Mixed dimers, ch. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deursen, A.P.J. van; Reuss, J.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt has been made to detect mixed dimers in nozzle beams of mixtures; NeAr and HeNe dimers were observed with sufficient intensity to determine the total collision cross section. A similar attempt for H 2 Ar was partially hampered by the circumstance that the corresponding HAr + ion must be detected on the wing of the thousand times larger Ar + peak. The search for H 2 He, H 2 Ne and HeAr dimers was not successful, due to masking ion peaks, H 5 + for HHe + , 21 Ne + for H 20 Ne + , and CO 2 + for HeAr + . (Auth.)

  14. Mixed messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christopher B.; Hall, Kevin; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 5 years ago, the Blueprint for Pharmacy developed a plan for transitioning pharmacy practice toward more patient-centred care. Much of the strategy for change involves communicating the new vision. Objective: To evaluate the communication of the Vision for Pharmacy by the organizations and corporations that signed the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s Commitment to Act. Methods: The list of 88 signatories of the Commitment to Act was obtained from the Blueprint for Pharmacy document. The website of each of these signatories was searched for all references to the Blueprint for Pharmacy or Vision for Pharmacy. Each of the identified references was then analyzed using summative content analysis. Results: A total of 934 references were identified from the webpages of the 88 signatories. Of these references, 549 were merely links to the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s website, 350 of the references provided some detailed information about the Blueprint for Pharmacy and only 35 references provided any specific plans to transition pharmacy practice. Conclusion: Widespread proliferation of the Vision for Pharmacy has not been achieved. One possible explanation for this is that communication of the vision by the signatories has been incomplete. To ensure the success of future communications, change leaders must develop strategies that consider how individual pharmacists and pharmacies understand the message. PMID:24660012

  15. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  16. Fluid mixing III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnby, N.

    1988-01-01

    Covering all aspects of mixing, this work presents research and developments in industrial applications, flow patterns and mixture analysis, mixing of solids into liquids, and mixing of gases into liquids

  17. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  18. Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-07

    In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)

  19. Continuous mixing of solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raouf, M.S.

    1963-01-01

    The most important literature on theoretical aspects of mixing solids was reviewed.

    Only when the mixed materials showed no segregation it was possible to analyse the mixing process quantitatively. In this case the mixture could be described by the 'χ' Square test. Longitudinal mixing could be

  20. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material...... and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields...

  1. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: A technology assessment for mercury-containing mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, J.J.; Brown, C.H.

    1993-03-01

    The treatment of mixed wastes must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for chemically hazardous species and also must provide adequate control of the radioactive species. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) to develop mixed-waste treatment technology in support of the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. Many DOE mixed-waste streams contain mercury. This report is an assessment of current state-of-the-art technologies for mercury separations from solids, liquids, and gases. A total of 19 technologies were assessed. This project is funded through the Chemical-Physical Technology Support Group of the MWIP

  2. Effects of Candida utilis Supplemental Level in High Concentrate Total Mixed Ration on in Vitro Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics and Fiber Degradation%高精料全混合日粮中产朊假丝酵母添加水平对体外瘤胃发酵特性和纤维降解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞德公; 杨红建; 曹斌斌; 武甜甜

    2014-01-01

    本试验将体外瘤胃发酵试验与动态产气实时记录技术相结合,分析了高精料全混合日粮中产朊假丝酵母( Candida utilis,CU)添加水平对体外瘤胃发酵特性和纤维降解的影响。试验用瘤胃液采自5头泌乳期荷斯坦奶牛。试验分为6组,各组CU添加水平分别为0(对照组)、0.53×106、1.07×106、1.60×106、2.13×106、2.67×106 CFU/mL。测定72 h累计产气量、产气动力学参数和瘤胃发酵特性指标。结果表明,随CU添加水平的升高,底物的营养物质(干物质、中性洗涤纤维、酸性洗涤纤维)体外消失率、各时间点产气量、72 h累积产气量、产气动力学参数(理论最大产气量和达到1/2理论最大产气量的时间)、微生物蛋白质与总挥发性脂肪酸浓度以及丙酸、戊酸与支链脂肪酸含量均显著或极显著升高(P<0.050或P<0.001),而乙酸、丁酸含量以及甲烷生成量则极显著降低( P<0.001)。因此,添加CU可提高瘤胃微生物纤维降解与发酵效率。此全混合日粮条件下,CU最适添加水平为2.67×106 CFU/mL。%In vitro ruminal fermentation test and real-time gas production recording technique were combined to determine effects of Candida utilis ( CU) supplemental level in high concentrate total mixed ration on in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and fiber degradation. Ruminal fluid was collected from five lactating Hol-stein cows. The CU was supplemented at levels of 0 (control group), 0. 53í106, 1. 07í106, 1. 60 í106, 2. 13í106 and 2. 67 í106 CFU/mL, respectively. The indices of 72 h accumulative gas production, kinetic parameters of gas production and ruminal fermentation characteristics were determined. The results showed as follows: with the increase of CU supplemental level, in vitro disappearance rates of nutrients ( dry matter, neu-tral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber) in the substrate, gas production at different time points, 72 h accu-mulative gas

  3. Total dose meter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.

    1986-09-01

    This report describes an alarming ''pocket'' monitor/dosimeter, based on a tissue-equivalent proportional counter, that measure both neutron and gamma dose and determines dose equivalent for the mixed radiation field. This report details the operation of the device and provides information on: the necessity for a device to measure dose equivalent in mixed radiation fields; the mathematical theory required to determine dose equivalent from tissue equivalent proportional; the detailed electronic circuits required; the algorithms required in the microprocessor used to calculate dose equivalent; the features of the instrument; program accomplishments and future plans

  4. Mixing ratio sensor for alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-24

    In order to improve the combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, a mixing ratio sensor has so far been proposed to detect the above mixing ratio by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, because of the arrangement of its transparent substance in the fuel passage with the sealing material in between, this sensor invited the leakage of the fluid due to deterioration of the sealing material, etc. and its cost became high because of too many parts to be assembled. In view of the above, in order to reduce the number of parts, to lower the cost of parts and the assembling cost and to secure no fluid leakage from the fuel passage, this invention formed the above fuel passage and the above transparent substance both concerning the above mixing ratio sensor in an integrated manner using light transmitting resin. (3 figs)

  5. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  6. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  7. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  8. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  9. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  10. Pocket total dose meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1984-10-01

    Laboratory measurements have demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously measure absorbed dose and dose equivalent using a single tissue equivalent proportional counter. Small, pocket sized instruments are being developed to determine dose equivalent as the worker is exposed to mixed field radiation. This paper describes the electronic circuitry and computer algorithms used to determine dose equivalent in these devices

  11. Total pollution effect of urban surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongbing; Luo, Lin; Huang, Gu; Liu, Ping; Li, Jingxian; Hu, Sheng; Wang, Fuxiang; Xu, Rui; Huang, Xiaoxue

    2009-01-01

    For pollution research with regard to urban surface runoff, most sampling strategies to date have focused on differences in land usage. With single land-use sampling, total surface runoff pollution effect cannot be evaluated unless every land usage spot is monitored. Through a new sampling strategy known as mixed stormwater sampling for a street community at discharge outlet adjacent to river, this study assessed the total urban surface runoff pollution effect caused by a variety of land uses and the pollutants washed off from the rain pipe system in the Futian River watershed in Shenzhen City of China. The water quality monitoring indices were COD (chemical oxygen demand), TSS (total suspend solid), TP (total phosphorus), TN (total nitrogen) and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand). The sums of total pollution loads discharged into the river for the four indices of COD, TSS, TN, and TP over all seven rainfall events were very different. The mathematical model for simulating total pollution loads was established from discharge outlet mixed stormwater sampling of total pollution loads on the basis of four parameters: rainfall intensity, total land area, impervious land area, and pervious land area. In order to treat surface runoff pollution, the values of MFF30 (mass first flush ratio) and FF30 (first 30% of runoff volume) can be considered as split-flow control criteria to obtain more effective and economical design of structural BMPs (best management practices) facilities.

  12. Arctic Mixed Layer Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morison, James

    2003-01-01

    .... Over the years we have sought to understand the heat and mass balance of the mixed layer, marginal ice zone processes, the Arctic internal wave and mixing environment, summer and winter leads, and convection...

  13. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...

  14. THE MARKETING MIX OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the marketing mix and the necessity of the marketing mix optimization. In the marketing mix a particularly important issue is to choose the best combination of its variables, this lead to the achievement objectives, in time. Choosing the right marketing mix is possible only by reporting information to some clear benchmarks, these criteria a related to the objective of the company at the time of analyze. The study shows that the companies must give a great importance to opti...

  15. Mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  16. Mixing vane grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Galbraith, K.P.

    1978-01-01

    An improved mixing vane grid spacer having enhanced flow mixing capability by virtue of mixing vanes being positioned at welded intersecting joints of the spacer wherein each mixing vane has an opening or window formed therein substantially directly over the welded joint to provide improved flow mixing capability is described. Some of the vanes are slotted, depending on their particular location in the spacers. The intersecting joints are welded by initially providing consumable tabs at and within each window, which are consumed during the welding of the spacer joints

  17. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  18. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  19. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  20. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  1. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  2. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  3. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  4. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  5. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  6. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  7. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  8. MIXED AND MIXING SYSTEMS WORLDWIDE: A PREFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Patrick Donlan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal (South Africa sees thepublication of a selection of articles derived from the Third International Congress ofthe World Society of Mixed Jurisdiction Jurists (WSMJJ. That Congress was held atthe Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel in the summer of 2011. It reflected athriving Society consolidating its core scholarship on classical mixed jurisdictions(Israel, Louisiana, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Quebec, Scotland, and South Africawhile reaching to new horizons (including Cyprus, Hong Kong and Macau, Malta,Nepal, etc. This publication reflects in microcosm the complexity of contemporaryscholarship on mixed and plural legal systems. This complexity is, of course, wellunderstoodby South African jurists whose system is derived both from the dominantEuropean traditions as well as from African customary systems, including both thosethat make up part of the official law of the state as well as those non-state norms thatcontinue to be important in the daily lives of many South Africans.

  9. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  10. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  11. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  12. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  13. MARKETING MIX THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-01-01

    Aim of article is to analyze marketing mix theoretical aspects. The article discusses that marketing mix is one of the main objectives of the marketing mix elements for setting objectives and marketing budget measures. The importance of each element depends not only on the company and its activities, but also on the competition and time. All marketing elements are interrelated and should be seen in the whole of their actions. Some items may have greater importance than others; it depends main...

  14. Protocol Fuel Mix reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The protocol in this document describes a method for an Electricity Distribution Company (EDC) to account for the fuel mix of electricity that it delivers to its customers, based on the best available information. Own production, purchase and sale of electricity, and certificates trading are taken into account. In chapter 2 the actual protocol is outlined. In the appendixes additional (supporting) information is given: (A) Dutch Standard Fuel Mix, 2000; (B) Calculation of the Dutch Standard fuel mix; (C) Procedures to estimate and benchmark the fuel mix; (D) Quality management; (E) External verification; (F) Recommendation for further development of the protocol; (G) Reporting examples

  15. Mixed waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Currently, limited storage and treatment capacity exists for commercial mixed waste streams. No commercial mixed waste disposal is available, and it has been estimated that if and when commercial mixed waste disposal becomes available, the costs will be high. If high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and management options. Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition) no migration petition) and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly. Another option for mixed waste management that is being explored is the feasibility of Department of Energy (DOE) accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment, storage, and disposal. A study has been completed that analyzes DOE treatment capacity in comparison with commercial mixed waste streams. (author)

  16. Mixed Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Steenhoven, J.

    1993-08-01

    The DOE has developed a National Mixed Waste Strategic Plan which calls for the construction of 2 to 9 mixed waste treatment centers in the Complex in the near future. LLNL is working to establish an integrated mixed waste technology development and demonstration system facility, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), to support the DOE National Mixed Waste Strategic Plan. The MWMF will develop, demonstrate, test, and evaluate incinerator-alternatives which will comply with regulations governing the treatment and disposal of organic mixed wastes. LLNL will provide the DOE with engineering data for design and operation of new technologies which can be implemented in their mixed waste treatment centers. MWMF will operate under real production plant conditions and process samples of real LLNL mixed waste. In addition to the destruction of organic mixed wastes, the development and demonstration will include waste feed preparation, material transport systems, aqueous treatment, off-gas treatment, and final forms, thus making it an integrated ''cradle to grave'' demonstration. Technologies from offsite as well as LLNL's will be tested and evaluated when they are ready for a pilot scale demonstration, according to the needs of the DOE

  17. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  18. Mixing of solids in different mixing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INGRID BAUMAN, DUŠKA ´CURI ´C and MATIJA BOBAN ... whose main cause is the difference in particle size, density shape and resilience. ..... Gyebis J, Katai F 1990 Determination and randomness in mixing of particulate solids, Chem.

  19. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  20. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  1. Characterization of an anti-listerial enterocin from wheat silage based Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Emel Banu Buyukunal; Isevi, Taner; Bal, Mehmet Ali

    2012-10-01

    Two Enterococcus faecium and one E. faecalis strains isolated and identified from wheat silage were characterized based on plasmid content, hemolytic activity, antibiotic resistance patterns, bacteriocin production potential, and presence of enterocin structural genes (entA, entB, entP, entL50B). Among the isolates, only the E. faecium U7 strain exhibited bacteriocin activity against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE). A combination of three structural genes (entA, entB, and entP) was detected in E. faecium U7. A relationship between the presence of enterocin structural genes, and bacteriocin activity was detected in E. faecium U7; therefore partially purified enterocin (PPE) was further investigated from the isolate. Several bands of different molecular weights were expressed from PPE extracts following tricine SDS-PAGE analysis. However, the only band showing bacteriocin activity was in an approximate 4-kDa region. PPE treatment with proteinase K, lysozyme, and α -amylase caused complete loss of bacteriocin activity. PPE heat treatment at various temperatures resulted in a notable reduction in bacteriocin expression. Enterocin U7 was relatively heat stable, and presumably exhibits a glucoprotein nature with distinct inhibitory properties. Specific bacterial inhibitory activity of enterocin U7, and the producer strain absence of β -hemolysis and vancomycin susceptibility features deserves further investigation to evaluate its potential application in silage inoculation and food preservation. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Music Mixing Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Büchert, Morten; Andersen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-touch based interface for mixing music. The goal of the interface is to provide users with a more intuitive control of the music mix by implementing the so-called stage metaphor control scheme, which is especially suitable for multi-touch surfaces. Specifically, we...

  3. Warm Mix Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-17

    State of Alaska State of Alaska - Warm Mix Project Warm Mix Project: Location - Petersburg, Alaska which is Petersburg, Alaska which is located in the heart of Southeast Alaska located in the heart of Southeast Alaska's Inside Passage at the tip of M...

  4. The Mixed language Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin.......A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin....

  5. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  6. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  7. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...

  8. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  9. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  10. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  11. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  12. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  13. Medicaid prospective payment: Case-mix increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Samuel L.; Kronenfeld, Jennie J.

    1990-01-01

    South Carolina Medicaid implemented prospective payment by diagnosis-related group (DRG) for inpatient care. The rate of complications among newborns and deliveries doubled immediately. The case-mix index for newborns increased 66.6 percent, which increased the total Medicaid hospital expenditure 5.5 percent. Outlier payments increased total expenditure further. DRG distribution change among newborns has a large impact on spending because newborn complication DRGs have high weights. States adopting a DRG-based payment system for Medicaid should anticipate a greater increase in case mix than Medicare experienced. PMID:10113463

  14. Passive Mixing inside Microdroplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengmin Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Droplet-based micromixers are essential units in many microfluidic devices for widespread applications, such as diagnostics and synthesis. The mixers can be either passive or active. When compared to active methods, the passive mixer is widely used because it does not require extra energy input apart from the pump drive. In recent years, several passive droplet-based mixers were developed, where mixing was characterized by both experiments and simulation. A unified physical understanding of both experimental processes and simulation models is beneficial for effectively developing new and efficient mixing techniques. This review covers the state-of-the-art passive droplet-based micromixers in microfluidics, which mainly focuses on three aspects: (1 Mixing parameters and analysis method; (2 Typical mixing element designs and the mixing characters in experiments; and, (3 Comprehensive introduction of numerical models used in microfluidic flow and diffusion.

  15. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D

    2008-01-01

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and

  16. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D

    2008-11-13

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and

  17. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  18. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca ȘERBAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated that the crucial level is determined by the learning and growth perspective. It has been developed from a human perspective, which focused on staff satisfaction, innovation perspective with focus on future developments. Integrating the Total Performance Scorecard in an overall framework assures the company’s success, by keeping track of the individual goals, the company’s objectives and strategic directions. Like this, individual identity can be linked to corporate brand, individual aspirations to business goals and individual learning objectives to needed organizational capabilities.

  19. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  20. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  1. MFTF TOTAL benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, J.H.

    1979-06-01

    A benchmark of the TOTAL data base management system as applied to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) data base was implemented and run in February and March of 1979. The benchmark was run on an Interdata 8/32 and involved the following tasks: (1) data base design, (2) data base generation, (3) data base load, and (4) develop and implement programs to simulate MFTF usage of the data base

  2. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  3. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  4. Cluster Correlation in Mixed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, A.; Bonometto, S. A.; Murante, G.; Yepes, G.

    2000-10-01

    We evaluate the dependence of the cluster correlation length, rc, on the mean intercluster separation, Dc, for three models with critical matter density, vanishing vacuum energy (Λ=0), and COBE normalization: a tilted cold dark matter (tCDM) model (n=0.8) and two blue mixed models with two light massive neutrinos, yielding Ωh=0.26 and 0.14 (MDM1 and MDM2, respectively). All models approach the observational value of σ8 (and hence the observed cluster abundance) and are consistent with the observed abundance of damped Lyα systems. Mixed models have a motivation in recent results of neutrino physics; they also agree with the observed value of the ratio σ8/σ25, yielding the spectral slope parameter Γ, and nicely fit Las Campanas Redshift Survey (LCRS) reconstructed spectra. We use parallel AP3M simulations, performed in a wide box (of side 360 h-1 Mpc) and with high mass and distance resolution, enabling us to build artificial samples of clusters, whose total number and mass range allow us to cover the same Dc interval inspected through Automatic Plate Measuring Facility (APM) and Abell cluster clustering data. We find that the tCDM model performs substantially better than n=1 critical density CDM models. Our main finding, however, is that mixed models provide a surprisingly good fit to cluster clustering data.

  5. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  6. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Dimenna, R; Tamburello, D

    2011-02-14

    The process of recovering and processing High Level Waste (HLW) the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four mixers (pumps) located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are typically set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The focus of the present work is to establish mixing criteria applicable to miscible fluids, with an ultimate goal of addressing waste processing in HLW tanks at SRS and quantifying the mixing time required to suspend sludge particles with the submersible jet pump. A single-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was taken for the analysis of jet flow patterns with an emphasis on the velocity decay and the turbulent flow evolution for the farfield region from the pump. Literature results for a turbulent jet flow are reviewed, since the decay of the axial jet velocity and the evolution of the jet flow patterns are important phenomena affecting sludge suspension and mixing operations. The work described in this report suggests a basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, with benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations. Although the indicators are somewhat generic in nature, they are applied to Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in

  7. THE MARKETING MIX OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available ing mix a particularly important issue is to choose the best combination of its variables, this lead to the achievement objectives, in time. Choosing the right marketing mix is possible only by reporting information to some clear benchmarks, these criteria a related to the objective of the company at the time of analyze. The study shows that the companies must give a great importance to optimize the marketing mix, because of how its combines and integrates company policies relating to the product, price, distribution and promotion, depends the success or the failure on its market. The practice has shown that if an element of the marketing mix is wrong implemented, marketing strategies and programs do not achieve their objectives, and the company can not generate the expected profit. To optimize the marketing mix, companies should consider the following issues: the resources (materials, financial and human, which will be properly allocated to all the elements of the marketing mix, the specific marketing tools and the relationship of interdependence of all the methods and tools used to optimize the marketing mix.

  8. The mixing of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottino, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    What do the eruption of Krakatau, the manufacture of puff pastry and the brightness of stars have in common? Each involves some aspect of mixing. Mixing also plays a critical role in modern technology. Chemical engineers rely on mixing to ensure that substances react properly, to produce polymer blends that exhibit unique properties and to disperse drag-reducing agents in pipelines. Yet in spite of its of its ubiquity in nature and industry, mixing is only imperfectly under-stood. Indeed, investigators cannot even settle on a common terminology: mixing is often referred to as stirring by oceanographers and geophysicists, as blending by polymer engineers and as agitation by process engineers. Regardless of what the process is called, there is little doubt that it is exceedingly complex and is found in a great variety of systems. In constructing a theory of fluid mixing, for example, one has to take into account fluids that can be miscible or partially miscible and reactive or inert, and flows that are slow and orderly or very fast and turbulent. It is therefore not surprising that no single theory can explain all aspect of mixing in fluids and that straightforward computations usually fail to capture all the important details. Still, both physical experiments and computer simulations can provide insight into the mixing process. Over the past several years the authors and his colleague have taken both approaches in an effort to increase understanding of various aspect of the process-particularly of mixing involving slow flows and viscous fluids such as oils

  9. 全混合日粮饲喂泌乳奶牛群摄入养分偏离的原因分析及对生产性能的影响%Deviation of Nutrient Intake of Lactating Cow Herds Fed Total Mixed Ration:Reason Analysis and Effects on Production Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继伟; 林雪彦; 王云; 胡志勇; 刘桂梅; 吴志强; 王中华

    2016-01-01

    本试验旨在研究全混合日粮( TMR)饲喂泌乳奶牛群摄入养分偏离的原因分析及对生产性能的影响。选取30个高产牛群,每个牛群采样5 d。采取牛群TMR及剩料样品,进行养分分析和颗粒分级评定,计算各指标的变异系数。记录产奶量,取奶样测乳成分。多元线性回归分析养分、颗粒的变异系数与牛群生产性能的关系。结果表明:30个牛群饲喂的TMR产奶净能(NEL)和粗蛋白质(CP)、中性洗涤纤维(NDF)、酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)、微生物蛋白质(MCP)、瘤胃非降解蛋白质( RUP)、瘤胃能氮平衡( RENB)、小肠可消化粗蛋白质( DCPSI)、钙( Ca)含量分别为6.56 MJ/kg 和16.22%、35.71%、21.38%、77.84 g/kg、92.15 g/kg、14.77 g/kg、104.04 g/kg、1.43%,其中高于配方目标的指标有NDF(1.94%)、Ca(0.57%)、RUP(5.03 g/kg)、RENB (6.95 g/kg ),低于配方目标的指标有 CP (-0.36%)、ADF (-1.54%)、NEL (-0.12 MJ/kg)、MCP(-7.71 g/kg)、DCPSI(-2.12 g/kg)(正值表示提高,负值表示降低)。观测期内,RUP[(16.26±7.10)%]、MCP[(22.78±13.38)%]、RENB[(64.29±34.29)%]3种养分的变异系数大于10%,其他养分的变异系数均小于10%。长、中、短、细4类颗粒含量的变异系数分别为(15.78±9.25)%、(9.12±7.86)%、(6.00±4.00)%、(11.15±9.62)%。回归分析表明, TMR养分和颗粒度变异影响产奶量和乳成分,NEL 变异系数每升高1个百分点,产奶量下降3.662 kg/d;长颗粒变异系数每升高1个百分点,产奶量下降0.124 kg/d,乳脂率升高0.012%。结果提示,TMR饲喂泌乳奶牛摄入养分因投料不准确、加工质量不稳定、搅拌不均匀、挑食等与配方养分产生差异。 TMR加工质量稳定性影响到产奶量和乳成分,其中NEL、DCPSI、RENB的变异影响产奶量,长颗粒变异影响产奶量和乳脂率。%This experiment analyzed the reason for deviation of nutrient intake of lactating cow herds fed total mixed ration ( TMR) and the effects on

  10. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position.

  11. Total quality is people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by changing market conditions and increased global competition, in 1983 the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division (CNFD) of Westinghouse Electric embarked on an ambitious plan to make total quality the centerpiece of its long-term business strategy. Five years later, the division's efforts in making continuous quality improvement a way of life among its more than 2,000 employees gained national recognition when it was named a charter recipient of the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. What CNFD achieved during the 1980s was a cultural transformation, characterized by an empowered work force committed to a common vision. The company's quality program development strategy is described

  12. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  13. Total_Aktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    digitale medier er registreringen og muligheden for at opbevare og håndtere digital data uden begrænsninger. Oplevelse, registrering og bevaring knyttes sammen i en ny museal virkelighed, hvor samlingens særlige dokumentariske karakter og fokus, som er unikt for Museet for Samtidskunst, er i centrum...... at mikse deres personlige drinks. TOTAL_AKTION viser Hørbar#3, som er en videreudvikling af den første version. METASYN af Carl Emil Carlsen: Metadata er centralt for Carl Emil Carlsens projekt, der betragter museets samling som et ”univers” af værker (analoge og digitale), beskrivelser og relationer. I...

  14. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  15. Total Factbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2003. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  16. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  17. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  18. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise...... surgeon seems to positively influence the rate of surgical complications and implant survival. The painful TKA knee should be thoroughly evaluated, but not revised except if a relevant indication can be established. The most frequent indications for revision are: aseptic loosening, instability, infection...

  19. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization

  20. Idealized mixing impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The dispersion of tetraphenylborate in continuous stirred tank reactors plays a significant role in the utility achieved from the tetraphenylborate. Investigating idealized mixing of the materials can illuminate how this dispersion occurs

  1. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are important for the marketer. Information for making educated decisions involving the four Ps comes from the marketing research involving primarily the four Cs - consumer, competitor, company and climate. A critical decision and one of the greatest challenges for the sport business is how to strategically combine the four Ps to best satisfy the consumer, meet company objectives, enhance market position, and enhance competitive advantages.

  2. TOTAL user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  3. MARKETING MIX IN SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Srećko Novaković; Slobodan Živkucin

    2011-01-01

    Marketing mix'' along the term of life cycle has robbed the trademark for the conception of marketing and the market direction of company, corporations and institutions. Essence marketing-mixa is in the simultaneous determining of the target market group of consumer (the buyer) or stays the public and specially prepared and the coordinated impact of elements mixa, and this is the product, price, distributions and graduation ceremonies. Given that is mix combinations of verified variables, com...

  4. Mixed Reality Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dieter Müller

    2009-01-01

    Currently one of the most challenging aspects of human computer interaction design is the integration of physical and digital worlds in a single environment. This fusion involves the development of "Mixed Reality Systems”, including various technologies from the domains of augmented and virtual reality. In this paper I will present related concepts and discuss lessons learned from our own research and prototype development. Our recent work involves the use of mixed reality (as opposed to ‘pur...

  5. Features of neutrino mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, S. H.; Kuo, T. K.

    2018-03-01

    The elements (squared) of the neutrino mixing matrix are found to satisfy, as functions of the induced mass, a set of differential equations. They show clearly the dominance of pole terms when the neutrino masses "cross." Using the known vacuum mixing parameters as initial conditions, it is found that these equations have very good approximate solutions, for all values of the induced mass. The results are applicable to long baseline experiments.

  6. Advantages of Concrete Mixing with Tyre Rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Mazyad Al-Fadhli *

    2017-01-01

    Strong waste administration is one of the major natural concerns everywhere throughout the world. Tire-rubber particles made out of tire chips, piece elastic, and a mix of tire chips and scrap elastic, where utilized to supplant mineral totals in cement. These particles were utilized to supplant 10% , 15% , 20%, and 25% of the aggregate mineral totals volume in cement.Using rubber aggregates in such applications can help to prevent pollution and overcome the problem of storing used tyres. Adv...

  7. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  8. Total and EDF invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, St.

    2008-01-01

    So as to prepare the future of their industrial sector,the Total company plans to invest (14 billion Euros in 2008) to increase its production capacities and strengthen in of other activities as the liquefied natural gas and the renewable energies; EDF plans to inject 35 billion Euros over three years to multiply the new projects of power plants (wind turbines, coal in Germany, gas in Great Britain and nuclear power in Flamanville). EDF wants to exploit its knowledge of leader to run more than ten E.P.R.(European pressurized water reactor) in the world before 2020, projects are in examination with China, Great Britain, South Africa and United States. (N.C.)

  9. Total quality at source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiandone, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Total Quality at Source philosophy is based on optimizing the effectiveness of people in achieving ZERO-DEFECT results. In this paper a philosophy of what, I have come to perceive, it takes to get people to perform to the very best of their abilities and thereby achieve the best results they can, is presented. In the examples I shall describe I have played an instrumental role since it has become my belief that any job can always be done better provided that the people doing it can themselves become convinced that they can do better. Clearly there are many ideas on how to do this. The philosophy that I am presenting in this paper is based on my own experience, where I have both participated and observed it being applied; its effectiveness may be judged by the results. (author)

  10. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  12. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  13. Hydraulic jett mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Efficient mixing of reactants into a waste stream has always been a problem in that there has been no mixer capable of combining all the elements of enhanced mixing into a single piece of equipment. Through the development of a mixing system for the mining industry to treat acid mine water containing heavy metals, a versatile new hydraulic jetting static mixer has been developed that has no moving parts and a clean bore with no internal components. This paper reports that the main goal of the development of the hydraulic jett mixer was to reduce the size of the tankage required for an acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment plant through development of a static mixing device that could coincidentally aerate the treatment flow. This process equipment being developed would simultaneously adjust the pH and oxidize the metals allowing formation of the hydroxide sludges required for sedimentation and removal of the metals from the treatment stream. In effect, the device eliminates two reaction tanks, the neutralization/mixing tank and the aeration tank

  14. The use of adaptive equipment following total knee replacement

    OpenAIRE

    McNaught, Jamie; Paul, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study evaluates the need for adaptive equipment following total knee replacement. There are no recent studies to guide occupational therapists in the optimum time adaptive equipment is required following total knee replacement.\\ud \\ud Method: A non-experimental, concurrent mixed methods approach was used. The study population was patients attending for total knee replacement at a large general hospital. Outcome measures were the Oxford Knee Score, the United Kingdom Functio...

  15. Textbook Forum. Thermodynamics of "Mixing" of Ideal Gases: A Persistent Pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Edwin F.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the misconceptions commonly held suggesting that mixing ideal gases causes an increase in entropy. Argues that the combining processes and resulting total pressure have absolutely nothing to do with the mixing itself. (TW)

  16. Charm mixing at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Di Canto, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    We report a measurement of the time-dependent ratio of $D^0\\to K^+\\pi^-$ to $D^0\\to K^-\\pi^+$ decay rates in $D^{*+}$-tagged events using 1.0\\,fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity recorded by the LHCb experiment. We measure the mixing parameters $x'^2=(-0.9\\pm1.3)\\times10^{-4}$, $y'=(7.2\\pm2.4)\\times10^{-3}$ and the ratio of doubly-Cabibbo-suppressed to Cabibbo-favored decay rates $R_D=(3.52\\pm0.15)\\times10^{-3}$. The result excludes the no-mixing hypothesis with a probability corresponding to 9.1 standard deviations and represents the first observation of charm mixing from a single measurement

  17. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base

  18. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  19. Bimaximal fermion mixing from the quark and leptonic mixing matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, we show how the mixing angles of the standard parameterization add when multiplying the quark and leptonic mixing matrices, i.e., we derive explicit sum rules for the quark and leptonic mixing angles. In this connection, we also discuss other recently proposed sum rules for the mixing angles assuming bimaximal fermion mixing. In addition, we find that the present experimental and phenomenological data of the mixing angles naturally fulfill our sum rules, and thus, give rise to bilarge or bimaximal fermion mixing

  20. Mixed language programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burow, Burkhard D.

    1996-01-01

    Computing in the next millennium will be using software from this millennium. Programming languages evolve and new ones continue to be created. The use of legacy code demonstrates why some present and future applications may span programming languages. Even a completely new application may mix programming languages, if it allows its components to be more conveniently expressed. Given the need, mixed language programming should be easy and robust. By resolving a variety of difficulties, the well established cfortran.h package provides, the desired convenient interface across the C and Fortran programming languages, as demonstrated using CERN's Book. (author)

  1. Turbulence and Interfacial Mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glimm, James; Li, Xiaolin

    2005-03-15

    The authors study mix from analytical and numerical points of view. These investigations are linked. The analytical studies (in addition to laboratory experiments) provide bench marks for the direct simulation of mix. However, direct simulation is too detailed to be useful and to expensive to be practical. They also consider averaged equations. Here the major issue is the validation of the closure assumptions. They appeal to the direct simulation methods for this step. They have collaborated with several NNSA teams; moreover, Stony Brook alumni (former students, faculty and research collaborators) presently hold staff positions in NNSA laboratories.

  2. Mixed Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Müller

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently one of the most challenging aspects of human computer interaction design is the integration of physical and digital worlds in a single environment. This fusion involves the development of "Mixed Reality Systems”, including various technologies from the domains of augmented and virtual reality. In this paper I will present related concepts and discuss lessons learned from our own research and prototype development. Our recent work involves the use of mixed reality (as opposed to ‘pure’ virtual reality techniques to support seamless collaborative work between remote and hands-on laboratories.

  3. Finite field dependent mixed BRST transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Joglekar and Mandal have generalized the usual Bechhi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) transformation by allowing infinitesimal BRST parameter finite and field dependent. Such a generalized BRST transformation (so-called FFBRST transformation) is also the symmetry of the effective action but not of the generating functional of the theory. We generalize the mixed BRST (sum of totally anti-commuting BRST and anti-BRST) symmetry transformation in same manner. We show that such a generalized mixed BRST transformation is the symmetry of the effective action as well as of the generating functional. We show our result by considering several explicit examples. (author)

  4. Optimizing the strategic patient mix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanberkel, P.T.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.

    In this paper we address the decision of choosing a patient mix for a hospital that leads to the most beneficial treatment case mix. We illustrate how capacity, case mix and patient mix decisions are interrelated and how understanding this complex relationship is crucial for achieving the maximum

  5. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  6. Sylgard® Mixing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Mollie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Welch, Cynthia F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goodwin, Lynne Alese [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, Jennie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-08-22

    Sylgard® 184 and Sylgard® 186 silicone elastomers form Dow Corning® are used as potting agents across the Nuclear Weapons Complex. A standardized mixing procedure is required for filled versions of these products. The present study is a follow-up to a mixing study performed by MST-7 which established the best mixing procedure to use when adding filler to either 184 or 186 base resins. The most effective and consistent method of mixing resin and curing agent for three modified silicone elastomer recipes is outlined in this report. For each recipe, sample size, mixing type, and mixing time was varied over 10 separate runs. The results show that the THINKY™ Mixer gives reliable mixing over varying batch sizes and mixing times. Hand Mixing can give improved mixing, as indicated by reduced initial viscosity; however, this method is not consistent.

  7. Glueball-meson mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vento, Vicente [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Calculations in unquenched QCD for the scalar glueball spectrum have confirmed previous results of Gluodynamics finding a glueball at ∝1750 MeV. I analyze the implications of this discovery from the point of view of glueball-meson mixing in light of the experimental scalar spectrum. (orig.)

  8. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  9. Mixing Over Rough Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    www.apl.washington.edu/ people /profile.php?last_name=Gregg&first_name=Mike LONG-TERM GOALS To understand quantify diapycnal mixing in the ocean...ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Office of Naval Research ONR 875 North Randolph Street Arlington, VA 22203-1995 11

  10. Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraon, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is

  11. Against Mixed Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Milburn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2015v19n2p183 We can call any reductive account of knowledge that appeals to both safety and ability conditions a mixed account of knowledge. Examples of mixed accounts of knowledge include Pritchard’s (2012 Anti-Luck Virtue Epistemology, Kelp’s (2013 Safe-Apt account of knowledge, and Turri’s (2011 Ample belief account of knowledge. Mixed accounts of knowledge are motivated by well-known counterexamples to pure safety and pure ability accounts of knowledge. It is thought that by combining both safety and ability conditions we can give an extensionally adequate reductive account of knowledge. In this paper I argue that the putative counterexamples to pure safety and pure ability accounts of knowledge fail to motivate mixed accounts of knowledge. In particular, I argue that if the putative counterexamples are problematic for safety accounts they are problematic for ability accounts and vice-versa. The reason for this, I argue, is that the safety condition and ability condition should be understood as alternative expressions of the same intuition — that knowledge must come from a reliable source.

  12. Unitarity constraints on trimaximal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    When the neutrino mass eigenstate ν 2 is trimaximally mixed, the mixing matrix is called trimaximal. The middle column of the trimaximal mixing matrix is identical to tribimaximal mixing and the other two columns are subject to unitarity constraints. This corresponds to a mixing matrix with four independent parameters in the most general case. Apart from the two Majorana phases, the mixing matrix has only one free parameter in the CP conserving limit. Trimaximality results in interesting interplay between mixing angles and CP violation. A notion of maximal CP violation naturally emerges here: CP violation is maximal for maximal 2-3 mixing. Similarly, there is a natural constraint on the deviation from maximal 2-3 mixing which takes its maximal value in the CP conserving limit.

  13. Renormalization of fermion mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiopu, R.

    2007-01-01

    Precision measurements of phenomena related to fermion mixing require the inclusion of higher order corrections in the calculation of corresponding theoretical predictions. For this, a complete renormalization scheme for models that allow for fermion mixing is highly required. The correct treatment of unstable particles makes this task difficult and yet, no satisfactory and general solution can be found in the literature. In the present work, we study the renormalization of the fermion Lagrange density with Dirac and Majorana particles in models that involve mixing. The first part of the thesis provides a general renormalization prescription for the Lagrangian, while the second one is an application to specific models. In a general framework, using the on-shell renormalization scheme, we identify the physical mass and the decay width of a fermion from its full propagator. The so-called wave function renormalization constants are determined such that the subtracted propagator is diagonal on-shell. As a consequence of absorptive parts in the self-energy, the constants that are supposed to renormalize the incoming fermion and the outgoing antifermion are different from the ones that should renormalize the outgoing fermion and the incoming antifermion and not related by hermiticity, as desired. Instead of defining field renormalization constants identical to the wave function renormalization ones, we differentiate the two by a set of finite constants. Using the additional freedom offered by this finite difference, we investigate the possibility of defining field renormalization constants related by hermiticity. We show that for Dirac fermions, unless the model has very special features, the hermiticity condition leads to ill-defined matrix elements due to self-energy corrections of external legs. In the case of Majorana fermions, the constraints for the model are less restrictive. Here one might have a better chance to define field renormalization constants related by

  14. Renormalization of fermion mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiopu, R.

    2007-05-11

    Precision measurements of phenomena related to fermion mixing require the inclusion of higher order corrections in the calculation of corresponding theoretical predictions. For this, a complete renormalization scheme for models that allow for fermion mixing is highly required. The correct treatment of unstable particles makes this task difficult and yet, no satisfactory and general solution can be found in the literature. In the present work, we study the renormalization of the fermion Lagrange density with Dirac and Majorana particles in models that involve mixing. The first part of the thesis provides a general renormalization prescription for the Lagrangian, while the second one is an application to specific models. In a general framework, using the on-shell renormalization scheme, we identify the physical mass and the decay width of a fermion from its full propagator. The so-called wave function renormalization constants are determined such that the subtracted propagator is diagonal on-shell. As a consequence of absorptive parts in the self-energy, the constants that are supposed to renormalize the incoming fermion and the outgoing antifermion are different from the ones that should renormalize the outgoing fermion and the incoming antifermion and not related by hermiticity, as desired. Instead of defining field renormalization constants identical to the wave function renormalization ones, we differentiate the two by a set of finite constants. Using the additional freedom offered by this finite difference, we investigate the possibility of defining field renormalization constants related by hermiticity. We show that for Dirac fermions, unless the model has very special features, the hermiticity condition leads to ill-defined matrix elements due to self-energy corrections of external legs. In the case of Majorana fermions, the constraints for the model are less restrictive. Here one might have a better chance to define field renormalization constants related by

  15. Experiments in mixed reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krum, David M.; Sadek, Ramy; Kohli, Luv; Olson, Logan; Bolas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Institute for Creative Technologies and the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, the Mixed Reality lab develops technologies and techniques for presenting realistic immersive training experiences. Such experiences typically place users within a complex ecology of social actors, physical objects, and collections of intents, motivations, relationships, and other psychological constructs. Currently, it remains infeasible to completely synthesize the interactivity and sensory signatures of such ecologies. For this reason, the lab advocates mixed reality methods for training and conducts experiments exploring such methods. Currently, the lab focuses on understanding and exploiting the elasticity of human perception with respect to representational differences between real and virtual environments. This paper presents an overview of three projects: techniques for redirected walking, displays for the representation of virtual humans, and audio processing to increase stress.

  16. Marketing-Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Huppertz, Matthias; Schneider, Andreas Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Der Marketing-Mix mit seinen 4Ps zur operativen Marketingplanung ist innerhalb des Marketing-Managements die nächste Stufe nach der Marktanalyse in dem die strategische Marketingplanung erarbeitet wurde. Die strategische Marketingplanung befasst sich mit der Analyse des Zielmarktes und der grundsätzlichen Zielrichtung des Unternehmens. Auf Basis der gewonnenen Erkenntnisse wird in der Phase der operativen Marketingplanung versucht, die Unternehmensaktivitäten am Zielmarkt des Unternehmens aus...

  17. New flash mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackmann, I.

    1980-01-01

    It was found that even for stars evolved away from the red giant branch, a new mixing of nucleo-synthesis products from the hydrogen-burning shells into surface layers was possible, from the penetration of the contaminated intershell region with the H- and He-ionization convection zones. This is due to the helium shell flash driving an immense expansion of an inner carbon pocket, namely, by a factor of 12,000 in radius, a drop in density of about 10 12 , and a cooling of inner pockets normally near 10 8 K to 23,000 K. The surface would be enriched in carbon ( 12 C), helium ( 4 He), and s-process elements, but not significantly in nitrogen ( 14 N), oxygen ( 16 O), or the isotope 13 C. This new type of mixing might provide the missing clue for FG Sagittae. Such a mixing had been suggested by the observations of FG Sagittae, but had been unexplainable by theory up to now

  18. Stability of mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher; Krothapalli, A

    1993-01-01

    The research program for the first year of this project (see the original research proposal) consists of developing an explicit marching scheme for solving the parabolized stability equations (PSE). Performing mathematical analysis of the computational algorithm including numerical stability analysis and the determination of the proper boundary conditions needed at the boundary of the computation domain are implicit in the task. Before one can solve the parabolized stability equations for high-speed mixing layers, the mean flow must first be found. In the past, instability analysis of high-speed mixing layer has mostly been performed on mean flow profiles calculated by the boundary layer equations. In carrying out this project, it is believed that the boundary layer equations might not give an accurate enough nonparallel, nonlinear mean flow needed for parabolized stability analysis. A more accurate mean flow can, however, be found by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. The advantage of the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations is that its accuracy is consistent with the PSE method. Furthermore, the method of solution is similar. Hence, the major part of the effort of the work of this year has been devoted to the development of an explicit numerical marching scheme for the solution of the Parabolized Navier-Stokes equation as applied to the high-seed mixing layer problem.

  19. MARKETING MIX IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marketing mix'' along the term of life cycle has robbed the trademark for the conception of marketing and the market direction of company, corporations and institutions. Essence marketing-mixa is in the simultaneous determining of the target market group of consumer (the buyer or stays the public and specially prepared and the coordinated impact of elements mixa, and this is the product, price, distributions and graduation ceremonies. Given that is mix combinations of verified variables, companies he use in order to would achieve are wished the scope sales on the target market. In the wider context significant influence of environment on the chosen structure marketing-mixa have not only technological, economic and competitive services already and socially-owned, legislative, legal and political services. From those reasons chant the marketing -mixa occasionally replaces expression are coordinated term acts on the market. Elements marketing-mix-and at sport marketings same are as well as at marketings every other activity. They contain the sportively product and the service, appreciate the sport product and services, distribution of sport product and services and the promotion of sport product and services.

  20. Mixing of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Weinekötter, Ralf

    2000-01-01

    This book is a welcome edition to the Particle Technology Series, formerly Powder Technology Series. It is the second book in the series which describes powder mixing and we make no excuses for that. The topic of powder mixing is fundamental to powder technology and is one which always aroses interest. That will not change. As powder products become more complex they will pose new mixing problems. The solutions lie in the intelligent use of equipment, an understanding of powder properties and a good knowledge of basic statistics. The authors of this book have presented those three ingredients with great clarity. The book is based on long experience and deep thought, I have enjoyed reading it and am pleased to recommend it. Delft University of Technology, NL-Delft, July 1999 Brian Scarlett, Series Editor IX VII Foreword to the English Edition In response to many enquiries from industrial organisations and institutes involved with the technology of processing bulk materials, we are pleased to present the Englis...

  1. Mixing, entropy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices. (comment)

  2. Company Marketing Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Vyroubalová, Klára

    2015-01-01

    Tématem této bakalářské práce je ,,Marketingový mix společnosti SKITECH, s. r. o.“ Práce se zabývá vypracováním marketingového mixu a navrţením lyţařských produktů skiareálu. Předpokladem pro vytvoření marketingového mixu je provedení SWOT analýzy a analýzy konkurence. Na základě těchto výsledků budou stanoveny vize a cíle skiareálu a návrhy jednotlivých produktů. V závěrečné části je aplikován marketingový mix na konkrétní produkt. This thesis deals with the marketing mix of the SKITECH c...

  3. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  4. MARKETING MIX AND BRANDING: COMPETITIVE HYPERMARKET STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Chu Chen; Robert D. Green

    2009-01-01

    Super-centers and hypermarkets are increasing in the retail markets. To determine customer-based brand equity (CBBE), a proportionate market share and a gender-balance hypermarket shopper sample was collected. Using t-Tests for gender to the marketing mix and CBBE, female shoppers consistently have higher mean scores. However, only distribution intensity, brand association and total brand equity were significantly higher than males. But men feel that their hypermarkets were higher priced than...

  5. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  6. Warm mix asphalt : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The performance of pavements constructed using warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology were : compared to the performance of conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements placed on the : same project. Measurements of friction resistance, rutting/wear, ride ...

  7. Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    Final Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/01/2009 – 12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Lateral Mixing Experiment (LATMIX) focused on mixing and...anomalies. LATMIX2 targeted the wintertime Gulf Stream, where deep mixed layers, strong lateral density gradients (Gulf Stream north wall) and the

  8. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  9. Mixing properties of quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.

    1988-01-01

    We generalize the classical notion of topological mixing for automorphisms of C * -algebras in two ways. We show that for Galilean invariant Fermi systems the weaker form of mixing is satisfied. With some additional requirement on the range of the interaction we can also demonstrate the stronger mixing property. (Author)

  10. Quantitative genetic analysis of total glucosinolate, oil and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative genetic analysis of total glucosinolate, oil and protein contents in Ethiopian mustard ( Brassica carinata A. Braun) ... Seeds were analyzed using HPLC (glucosinolates), NMR (oil) and NIRS (protein). Analyses of variance, Hayman's method of diallel analysis and a mixed linear model of genetic analysis were ...

  11. B Lifetimes and Mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Harold G.

    2009-01-01

    The Tevatron experiments, CDF and D0, have produced a wealth of new B-physics results since the start of Run II in 2001. We've observed new B-hadrons, seen new effects, and increased many-fold the precision with which we know the properties of b-quark systems. In these proceedings, we will discuss two of the most fruitful areas in the Tevatron B-physics program: lifetimes and mixing. We'll examine the experimental issues driving these analyses, present a summary of the latest results, and discuss prospects for the future.

  12. Transition mixing among baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiman, D.

    1976-01-01

    A degenerate perturbation theory model for mass splitting within the 70,1 - baryon multiplet is proposed. It is found that dominance of the lowest-lying two-body 56x35 intermediate states produces mixing angles in fair approximation to those previously deduced from SU(6)sub(W) analysis of decay data. The prediction of the couplings of all hitherto undetected members of the multiplet and of mass were made. The results call into question the nature of Λ (1405). (author)

  13. Mixed Interaction Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas; Eriksson, E.; Hansen, T.R.

    In this paper, we describe a new interaction technique for mobile devices named Mixed Interaction Space that uses the camera of the mobile device to track the position, size and rotation of a fixed-point. In this demonstration we will present a system that uses a hand-drawn circle, colored object...... or a person’s face as a fixed-point to determine the location of the device. We use these features as a 4 dimensional input vector to a set of different applications....

  14. MixedNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokela, Tero; Lucero, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Affinity Diagramming is a technique to organize and make sense of qualitative data. It is commonly used in Contextual Design and HCI research. However, preparing notes for and building an Affinity Diagram remains a laborious process, with a wide variety of different approaches and practices....... In this paper, we present MixedNotes, a novel technique to prepare physical paper notes for Affinity Diagramming, and a software tool to support this technique. The technique has been tested with large real-life Affinity Diagrams with overall positive results....

  15. Coloring mixed hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly I

    2002-01-01

    The theory of graph coloring has existed for more than 150 years. Historically, graph coloring involved finding the minimum number of colors to be assigned to the vertices so that adjacent vertices would have different colors. From this modest beginning, the theory has become central in discrete mathematics with many contemporary generalizations and applications. Generalization of graph coloring-type problems to mixed hypergraphs brings many new dimensions to the theory of colorings. A main feature of this book is that in the case of hypergraphs, there exist problems on both the minimum and th

  16. System equivalent model mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Steven W. B.; van der Seijs, Maarten V.; de Klerk, Dennis

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces SEMM: a method based on Frequency Based Substructuring (FBS) techniques that enables the construction of hybrid dynamic models. With System Equivalent Model Mixing (SEMM) frequency based models, either of numerical or experimental nature, can be mixed to form a hybrid model. This model follows the dynamic behaviour of a predefined weighted master model. A large variety of applications can be thought of, such as the DoF-space expansion of relatively small experimental models using numerical models, or the blending of different models in the frequency spectrum. SEMM is outlined, both mathematically and conceptually, based on a notation commonly used in FBS. A critical physical interpretation of the theory is provided next, along with a comparison to similar techniques; namely DoF expansion techniques. SEMM's concept is further illustrated by means of a numerical example. It will become apparent that the basic method of SEMM has some shortcomings which warrant a few extensions to the method. One of the main applications is tested in a practical case, performed on a validated benchmark structure; it will emphasize the practicality of the method.

  17. Wave mixing spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.W.

    1980-08-01

    Several new aspects of nonlinear or wave mixing spectroscopy were investigated utilizing the polarization properties of the nonlinear output field and the dependence of this field upon the occurrence of multiple resonances in the nonlinear susceptibility. First, it is shown theoretically that polarization-sensitive detection may be used to either eliminate or controllably reduce the nonresonant background in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, allowing weaker Raman resonances to be studied. The features of multi-resonant four-wave mixing are examined in the case of an inhomogeneously broadened medium. It is found that the linewidth of the nonlinear output narrows considerably (approaching the homogeneous width) when the quantum mechanical expressions for the doubly- and triply-resonant susceptibilities are averaged over a Doppler or strain broadened profile. Experimental studies of nonlinear processes in Pr +3 :LaF 3 verify this linewidth narrowing, but indicate that this strain broadened system cannot be treated with a single broadening parameter as in the case of Doppler broadening in a gas. Several susceptibilities are measured from which are deduced dipole matrix elements and Raman polarizabilities related to the 3 H 4 , 3 H 6 , and 3 P 0 levels of the praseodymium ions

  18. Mixed RIA standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talan, P.; Mucha, J.; Krizan, J.

    1986-01-01

    For the radioimmunoassay of digoxin, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and α 1 -fetoprotein a mixed standard was prepared of these substances in a gamma globulin solution at a concentration of 0.8 to 1.4 wt.% in an aqueous buffer at pH within the range of 6 - 9. The standard contains digoxin at a concentration of 10 -4 to 10 nmol/l, 17β-estradiol at 10 -4 to 2 nmol/l, progesteron at 10 -4 to 100 nmol/l, testosterone at 1o -4 to 21 nmol/l, and α 1 -fetoprotein at 10 -4 to 10 nmol/l with at least two of these substances having concentrations higher than 10 -3 nmol/l. Examples are given of the preparation of the mixed standard with different concentrations of the components. The use of the standard has the following advantages: it is labor saving, reduces the risk of failure in the manufacture of RIA kits, eliminates mistakes in the selection of kits for the determination of different substances and allows a more economical use of material. (E.S.)

  19. Isospin mixing in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, E.J.; Clegg, T.B.; Fauber, R.E.; Karwowski, H.J.; Mooney, T.M.; Thompson, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    This program has provided accurate measurements of isospin mixing (ΔT = 1,2) in proton elastic scattering on even-even target nuclei up to A = 40. In order to improve experimental results and to test the hypothesis that isospin mixing is dominated by mixing in the target ground state (as opposed to mixing in the compound system) the authors have undertaken to (1) extend the proton scattering results to additional T = 3/2 states in certain compound systems and (2) examine processes which can proceed by only isotensor mixing (ΔT = 2) in order to isolate the effects of that contribution

  20. NUCLEAR MIXING METERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Keegan J.; Iliadis, Christian; Downen, Lori; Champagne, Art [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); José, Jordi [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, EUETIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, E-08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-11-10

    Classical novae are caused by mass transfer episodes from a main-sequence star onto a white dwarf via Roche lobe overflow. This material possesses angular momentum and forms an accretion disk around the white dwarf. Ultimately, a fraction of this material spirals in and piles up on the white dwarf surface under electron-degenerate conditions. The subsequently occurring thermonuclear runaway reaches hundreds of megakelvin and explosively ejects matter into the interstellar medium. The exact peak temperature strongly depends on the underlying white dwarf mass, the accreted mass and metallicity, and the initial white dwarf luminosity. Observations of elemental abundance enrichments in these classical nova events imply that the ejected matter consists not only of processed solar material from the main-sequence partner but also of material from the outer layers of the underlying white dwarf. This indicates that white dwarf and accreted matter mix prior to the thermonuclear runaway. The processes by which this mixing occurs require further investigation to be understood. In this work, we analyze elemental abundances ejected from hydrodynamic nova models in search of elemental abundance ratios that are useful indicators of the total amount of mixing. We identify the abundance ratios ΣCNO/H, Ne/H, Mg/H, Al/H, and Si/H as useful mixing meters in ONe novae. The impact of thermonuclear reaction rate uncertainties on the mixing meters is investigated using Monte Carlo post-processing network calculations with temperature-density evolutions of all mass zones computed by the hydrodynamic models. We find that the current uncertainties in the {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S rate influence the Si/H abundance ratio, but overall the mixing meters found here are robust against nuclear physics uncertainties. A comparison of our results with observations of ONe novae provides strong constraints for classical nova models.

  1. Mixing of high density solution in vertical upward flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Hosogi, Nobuyoshi; Komada, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Yoshiki

    1999-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies have been performed in order to provide fundamental data and a numerical calculation model on the mixing of boric acid solution, injected from the standby liquid control system (SLCS), under a low natural circulation flow during an ATWS in a BWR. First, fundamental experiments on the mixing of high-density solution in vertically-upward water flow have been performed by using a small apparatus. Mixing patterns observed in the experiments have been classified to two groups, i.e. complete mixing (entrainment) and incomplete mixing (entrainment). In the complete mixing, the injected high-density solution is mixed (entrained) completely into the vertically-upward water flow. From the experiments, the minimum water flow rates in which the complete mixing (entrainment) is achieved have been obtained for various solution densities and solution injection rates. Secondly, two-dimensional numerical calculations have been performed. A continuity equation for total fluid, momentum equations in two directions and a continuity equation for solute are solved by using the finite difference method for discretization method and by following the MAC method for solution procedure. The calculations have predicted nearly the minimum water flow rate in which the complete mixing is achieved, while the calculations have been performed only for one combination of the solution density and solution injection rate until now. (author)

  2. Frontogenesis and turbulent mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Chen, F.; Shang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    A hydrological investigation was conducted in the shelf of eastern Hainan island during July 2012. With the in-situ measurements from four cross-shelf sections and satellite data, the submesoscale process of the fronts are discussed in this paper, the seasonal variation characteristics of thermal front, the three-dimensional structure, dynamic characteristics of frontal and mixed characteristics in the shelf sea of eastern Hainan island. It's obviously that the thermal front has a seasonal variation: the front is strongest in winter, and decreased gradually in spring and summer. However, it fade and disappear in fall. The core region of the front also changes with the seasons, it moved southward gradually from mainly distributed in the upwelling zone and the front center is not obvious in summer. it is a typical upwelling front in summer, the near shore is compensated with the underlying low-temperature and high-sale water , while the offshore is the high-temperature and low-salinity shelf water. The thermal front distribution is located in the 100m isobaths. The frontal intensity is reduced with increasing depth, and position goes to offshore. Subsurface temperature front is significantly higher in the surface of the sea, which may cause by the heating of nearshore sea surface water and lead to the weakening horizontal temperature gradient. Dynamic characteristics of the front has a great difference in both sides. The O(1) Rossby number is positive on the dense side and negative on the light side. The maximum of along-frontal velocity is 0.45m/s and the stretching is strengthened by strong horizontal shear, also is the potential vorticity, which can trace the cross front Ekman transport. We obtained the vertical velocity with by quasi-geostrophic omega equation and grasped the ageostrophic secondary circulation. The magnitude of frontal vertical velocity is O(10-5) and causes downwelling on the dense side and upwelling on the light side, which constitute the

  3. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  4. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  5. Mixed Partnering and Parenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    relationship is formed across two socially significant groups: ethnic, religious, region/caste, thus the present study has broad relevance. This proposal delineates the demographic details, intervention process of two ethnically mixed- marriage cases. Cases’ analyses are combined with relevant results from...... an empirical study (Singla, 2015) about intermarried couples to present lessons for counselling and psychotherapy good practices. The couples in the two cases and ten in-depth interviews based empirical study are formed across ethnic/religious borders - one partner is native Danish and the other originates...... from South Asia (India, Pakistan). Cultural historical psychology forms the background of the theoretical framework of the study, while a combination of intersectionality (Moodley, 2011), everyday life perspective and transnationalism forms the foreground. The lessons learnt for counselling...

  6. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  7. Marketing mix and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness cannot simply be viewed as a country's ability to export or generate trade surpluses, since these can be brought about at least temporarily by means of artificially lowering the exchange rate and/or compressing domestic expenditures, as has been done in recent years by many DC that have tried to adjust to diminished resource availability. Authors standpoint is that international competitiveness requires creating comparative advantage where it does not exist, and requires action on several levels including an emerging consensus on the importance of macroeconomic policy, role and accountability of the government as well as the imperative of developing and internalizing technology body of knowledge for achieving competitiveness. Particular attention is given to the role and impact of marketing instruments marketing mix.

  8. Neutrino masses and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogli, G.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the solar neutrino problem in terms of both Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) and vacuum neutrino oscillations, with the inclusion of the data collected by the SuperKamiokande experiment during 306.3 days of operation. In particular, the observed energy spectrum of the recoil electrons from 8 B neutrino scattering is discussed in detail and used to constrain the mass-mixing parameter space. Going to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly, the paper performs both a two- and three-flavor analysis of the most recent SuperKamiokande atmospheric neutrino data. The variations of the zenith distributions of ν events in the presence of flavor oscillations are investigated. It is seen that fits to the SK data, with and without the addition of the CHOOZ constrains, strongly limit the parameter space. Detailed bounds in triangle graphs are reported

  9. Mixed Map Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Löffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.

  10. MixFit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, Toomas; Leitsalu, Liis; Fischer, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data....... Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition-multidimensional best fitting by Mix......Fit. The method is demonstrated by studying Estonian and Finnish populations in geographical context. We show the main differences in the genetic composition of these otherwise close European populations and how they have influenced each other. The components of our analytical pipeline are freely available...

  11. Mixing quality characterization in separations process tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study has been performed on distribution of a dilute immiscible organic liquid dispersed in an aqueous phase contained baffled, paddle-agitated vessel, fitted with cooling coils. Acceptable total liquid levels in the vessel and minimum impeller speed were established for plant scale operation. Axial and radial distributions of the dispersed organic phase as functions of total liquid height, impeller speed, and the number of impellers were examined and some recurring trends were identified. Four stages of dispersion of organic phase in predominantly aqueous phase were identified with increasing rotational speed of impeller(s). The stages were: (1) non-dispersion stage in which the organic layer was undisturbed, (2) the organic layer was decreasing with impeller speed until complete but nonuniform dispersion was attained, (3) the non-uniformity of the completely dispersed mixture decreased with increasing rotational speed of impeller(s), and (4) a grossly uniform dispersion in which the local volume fraction of dispersed phase (organic) in mixture was the same throughout the vessel. Scale-up relations were developed for reproducing a defined mixing quality on two geometrically similar scales of operation, for the attainable condition of complete but non-uniform dispersion. The mixing quality was observed to decrease with increasing liquid depth over acceptable range, but variations in the overall concentration of organic liquid appeared to have only slight effect on the mixing quality

  12. The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyabut Burikham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma (QGP and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble, respectively. In the nuclei and heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condense and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

  13. Total hip arthroplasty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma Becic; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Overgaard, Søren

    2005-01-01

    The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs.......The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs....

  14. Congruences of totally geodesic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plebanski, J.F.; Rozga, K.

    1989-01-01

    A general theory of congruences of totally geodesic surfaces is presented. In particular their classification, based on the properties of induced affine connections, is provided. In the four-dimensional case canonical forms of the metric tensor admitting congruences of two-dimensional totally geodesic surfaces of rank one are given. Finally, congruences of two-dimensional extremal surfaces are studied. (author)

  15. Mixed twistor D-modules

    CERN Document Server

    Mochizuki, Takuro

    2015-01-01

    We introduce mixed twistor D-modules and establish their fundamental functorial properties. We also prove that they can be described as the gluing of admissible variations of mixed twistor structures. In a sense, mixed twistor D-modules can be regarded as a twistor version of M. Saito's mixed Hodge modules. Alternatively, they can be viewed as a mixed version of the pure twistor D-modules studied by C. Sabbah and the author. The theory of mixed twistor D-modules is one of the ultimate goals in the study suggested by Simpson's Meta Theorem, and it would form a foundation for the Hodge theory of holonomic D-modules which are not necessarily regular singular.  .

  16. Authoring Immersive Mixed Reality Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misker, Jan M. V.; van der Ster, Jelle

    Creating a mixed reality experience is a complicated endeavour. From our practice as a media lab in the artistic domain we found that engineering is “only” a first step in creating a mixed reality experience. Designing the appearance and directing the user experience are equally important for creating an engaging, immersive experience. We found that mixed reality artworks provide a very good test bed for studying these topics. This chapter details three steps required for authoring mixed reality experiences: engineering, designing and directing. We will describe a platform (VGE) for creating mixed reality environments that incorporates these steps. A case study (EI4) is presented in which this platform was used to not only engineer the system, but in which an artist was given the freedom to explore the artistic merits of mixed reality as an artistic medium, which involved areas such as the look and feel, multimodal experience and interaction, immersion as a subjective emotion and game play scenarios.

  17. Determining Σ-Λ mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Najjar, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics

    2014-12-15

    SU2 isospin breaking effects in baryon octet (and decuplet) masses are due to a combination of up and down quark mass differences and electromagnetic effects. These mass differences are small. Between the Sigma and Lambda the mass splitting is much larger, but this is mostly due to their different wavefunctions. However there is now also mixing between these states. We determine the QCD mixing matrix and hence find the mixing angle and mass splitting.

  18. Mixed methods for telehealth research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffery, Liam J; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Wade, Victoria

    2017-10-01

    Mixed methods research is important to health services research because the integrated qualitative and quantitative investigation can give a more comprehensive understanding of complex interventions such as telehealth than can a single-method study. Further, mixed methods research is applicable to translational research and program evaluation. Study designs relevant to telehealth research are described and supported by examples. Quality assessment tools, frameworks to assist in the reporting and review of mixed methods research, and related methodologies are also discussed.

  19. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  20. Mixing ventilation guide on mixing air distribution design

    CERN Document Server

    Kandzia, Claudia; Kosonen, Risto; Krikor Melikov, Arsen; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2013-01-01

    In this guidebook most of the known and used in practice methods for achieving mixing air distribution are discussed. Mixing ventilation has been applied to many different spaces providing fresh air and thermal comfort to the occupants. Today, a design engineer can choose from large selection of air diffusers and exhaust openings.

  1. Mixing Ventilation. Guide on mixing air distribution design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandzia, Claudia; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    In this guidebook most of the known and used in practice methods for achieving mixing air distribution are discussed. Mixing ventilation has been applied to many different spaces providing fresh air and thermal comfort to the occupants. Today, a design engineer can choose from large selection...

  2. Company Communication Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Švecová, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Predmetom bakalárskej práce “Komunikačný mix podniku” je analýza súčasného stavu komunikačného mixu vybraného podniku a návrh nového. Práca je rozdelená na teoretickú a praktickú časť. Teoretická časť pojednáva o význame marketingovej komunikácie, popisuje a porovnáva jednotlivé nástroje komunikačného mixu. Úvod praktickej časti popisuje vybranú spoločnosť. Hlavná časť analyzuje a hodnotí súčasné nástroje propagácie. Následuje realizovaný výskum zameraný na spokojnosť zákazníkov. Záverečná ča...

  3. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  4. Advanced exergoeconomic analysis of the multistage mixed refrigerant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Ansarinasab, Hojat

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced exergoeconomic analysis is performed for mixed refrigerant systems. • Cost of investment is divided into avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous. • Results show that interactions between the components is not considerable. - Abstract: Advanced exergoeconomic analysis is applied on three multi stage mixed refrigerant liquefaction processes. They are propane precooled mixed refrigerant, dual mixed refrigerant and mixed fluid cascade. Cost of investment and exergy destruction for the components with high inefficiencies are divided into avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous parts. According to the avoidable exergy destruction cost in propane precooled mixed refrigerant process, C-2 compressor with 455.5 ($/h), in dual mixed refrigerant process, C-1 compressor with 510.8 ($/h) and in mixed fluid cascade process, C-2/1 compressor with 338.8 ($/h) should be considered first. A comparison between the conventional and advanced exergoeconomic analysis is done by three important parameters: Exergy efficiency, exergoeconomic factor and total costs. Results show that interactions between the process components are not considerable because cost of investment and exergy destruction in most of them are endogenous. Exergy destruction cost of the compressors is avoidable while heat exchangers and air coolers destruction cost are unavoidable. Investment cost of heat exchangers and air coolers are avoidable while compressor’s are unavoidable

  5. Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) database integrates premarket and postmarket data about medical devices. It includes information pulled from CDRH databases...

  6. Nutritional management after total laryngectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    28 September 2010 with a known diagnosis of cancer of the larynx. The patient, who underwent a total laryngectomy on 13 October, had a tracheostomy inserted .... status, leading to improved quality of life and better response to treatment.4.

  7. Transmandibular approach to total maxillectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Total Maxillectomy through transfacial approach has been practiced in the treatment of Cancer for more than a decade. Its role in T3 - T4 tumors extending posteriorly through gthe bony wall is questionable, since an oncological radical procedure is often not possible. Recurrences in the infratemporal fossa are common. Despite the addition of radiotherapy five year survivals have not significantly improved. Transmandibular approach to Total Maxillectomy overcomes this shortcoming by including ...

  8. Leadership and Total Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    leadership and management skills yields increased productivity. This paper will focus on the skills required of senior level leaders (leaders at the...publication until it has been cleared by the appropriate mii..-, service or government agency. Leadership and Total Quality Management An Individual Study...llty Codes fAvti1 and/or DltISpecial Abstract AUTHOR: Harry D. Gatanas, LTC, USA TITLE: Leadership and Total Quality Management FORMAT- Individual

  9. Neutrino mixing in SO(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.; Hama, S.; Nandi, S.; Tanaka, K.

    1980-01-01

    Neutrino mixing angles were computed in terms of upquark mass ratios in a grand unified field theory based on the gauge group SO(10) supplemented by a discrete symmetry. Only large ν/sub μ/ - ν/sub tau/ mixing were found

  10. Mixed-Media File Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of implementing mixed-media storage systems. In this work a mixed-media file system is defined to be a system that stores both conventional (best-effort) file data and real-time continuous-media data. Continuous-media data is usually bulky, and servers storing and

  11. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country's most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country's largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation's mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE's earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies

  12. Mixing in a Microfluid Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Deryabin, Mikhail

    Mixing of fluids in microchannels cannot rely on turbulence since the flow takes place at extremly low Reynolds numbers. Various active and passive devices have been developed to induce mixing in microfluid flow devices. We describe here a model of an active mixer where a transverse periodic flow...

  13. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  14. Thermochemistry of mixed explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janney, J.L.; Rogers, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In order to predict thermal hazards of high-energy materials, accurate kinetics constants must be determined. Predictions of thermal hazards for mixtures of high-energy materials require measurements on the mixtures, because interactions among components are common. A differential-scanning calorimeter (DSC) can be used to observe rate processes directly, and isothermal methods enable detection of mechanism changes. Rate-controlling processes will change as components of a mixture are depleted, and the correct depletion function must be identified for each specific stage of a complex process. A method for kinetics measurements on mixed explosives can be demonstrated with Composition B is an approximately 60/40 mixture of RDX and TNT, and is an important military explosive. Kinetics results indicate that the mator process is the decomposition of RDX in solution in TNT with a perturbation caused by interaction between the two components. It is concluded that a combination of chemical kinetics and experimental self-heating procedures provides a good approach to the production of predictive models for thermal hazards of high-energy materials. Systems involving more than one energy-contributing component can be studied. Invalid and dangerous predictive models can be detected by a failure of agreement between prediction and experiment at a specific size, shape, and density. Rates of thermal decomposition for Composition B appear to be modeled adequately for critical-temperature predictions with the following kinetics constants: E = 180.2 kJ mole -1 and Z = 4.62 X 10 16 s -1

  15. Mixed alcohols production from syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.R.; Conway, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for selectively producing mixed alcohols from synthesis gas comprising contacting a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide with a catalytic amount of a catalyst containing components of (1) a catalytically active metal of molybdenum or tungsten, in free or combined form; (2) a cocatalytic metal or cobalt or nickel in free or combined form; and (3) a Fischer-Tropsch promoter of an alkali or alkaline earth series metal, in free or combined form; the components combined by dry mixing, mixing as a wet paste, wet impregnation, and then sulfided, the catalyst excluding rhodium, ruthenium and copper, at a pressure of at least about 500 psig and under conditions sufficient to form the mixed alcohols in at least 20 percent CO/sub 2/ free carbon selectivity, the mixed alcohols containing a C/sub 1/ to C/sub 2-5/ alcohol weight ratio of less than about 1:1

  16. Probabilistic broadcasting of mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lvjun; Li Lvzhou; Wu Lihua; Zou Xiangfu; Qiu Daowen

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the non-broadcasting theorem proved by Barnum et al is a fundamental principle of quantum communication. As we are aware, optimal broadcasting (OB) is the only method to broadcast noncommuting mixed states approximately. In this paper, motivated by the probabilistic cloning of quantum states proposed by Duan and Guo, we propose a new way for broadcasting noncommuting mixed states-probabilistic broadcasting (PB), and we present a sufficient condition for PB of mixed states. To a certain extent, we generalize the probabilistic cloning theorem from pure states to mixed states, and in particular, we generalize the non-broadcasting theorem, since the case that commuting mixed states can be exactly broadcast can be thought of as a special instance of PB where the success ratio is 1. Moreover, we discuss probabilistic local broadcasting (PLB) of separable bipartite states

  17. Multi-Wave Mixing Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yanpeng

    2009-01-01

    "Multi-Wave Mixing Processes - From Ultrafast Polarization Beats to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency" discusses the interactions of efficient multi-wave mixing (MWM) processes enhanced by atomic coherence in multilevel atomic systems. It covers topics in five major areas: attosecond and femtosecond polarization beats of four-wave mixing (FWM) processes; heterodyne detection of FWM, six-wave mixing (SWM) and eight-wave mixing (EWM) processes; Raman and Rayleigh enhanced polarization beats; coexistence and interactions of MWM processes via electromagnetically induced transparency(EIT); multi-dressing MWM processes. The book is intended for researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Nonlinear Optics. Dr. Yanpeng Zhang is a professor at the Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University. Dr. Min Xiao is a professor of Physics at University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, U.S.A.

  18. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  19. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation

  20. Total 2004 annual report; TOTAL 2004 rapport annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  1. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    coastal diffusion using image analysis. Applied Scientific Research 59,.191-204. 1998. [5] J.M. Redondo. Turbulent mixing in the Atmosphere and Ocean. Fluid Physics. 584-597. World Scientific. New York. 1994

  2. Calidad total en el ICESI

    OpenAIRE

    González Zamora, José Hipólito

    2010-01-01

    En primer lugar deseo dar la bienvenida esta reunión al ingeniero Francisco Gensini, director ejecutivo de INCOLDA, quien ha sido fuente constante de inspiración para el trabajo relacionado con Control Total de Calidad (C.T.C.) que se ha venido desarrollando en el ICESI. El ingeniero Gensini ha logrado aglutinar alrededor de INCOLDA al grupo de seis empresas de la región, líderes en el estudio y aplicación de los principios del Control Total de Calidad , es decir Rica Rondo S.A., Banco de Oc...

  3. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  4. Compressibility effects on turbulent mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panickacheril John, John; Donzis, Diego

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the effect of compressibility on passive scalar mixing in isotropic turbulence with a focus on the fundamental mechanisms that are responsible for such effects using a large Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database. The database includes simulations with Taylor Reynolds number (Rλ) up to 100, turbulent Mach number (Mt) between 0.1 and 0.6 and Schmidt number (Sc) from 0.5 to 1.0. We present several measures of mixing efficiency on different canonical flows to robustly identify compressibility effects. We found that, like shear layers, mixing is reduced as Mach number increases. However, data also reveal a non-monotonic trend with Mt. To assess directly the effect of dilatational motions we also present results with both dilatational and soleniodal forcing. Analysis suggests that a small fraction of dilatational forcing decreases mixing time at higher Mt. Scalar spectra collapse when normalized by Batchelor variables which suggests that a compressive mechanism similar to Batchelor mixing in incompressible flows might be responsible for better mixing at high Mt and with dilatational forcing compared to pure solenoidal mixing. We also present results on scalar budgets, in particular on production and dissipation. Support from NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Chlorophyll modulation of mixed layer thermodynamics in a mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    in a mixed-layer isopycnal General Circulation Model – An ... three dimensional ocean circulation theory combined with solar radiation transfer process. 1. .... temperature decrease compared with simulation without chlorophyll (bottom panel).

  6. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-05-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

  7. Refractometric total protein concentrations in icteric serum from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aradhana; Stockham, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether high serum bilirubin concentrations interfere with the measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry and to assess potential biases among refractometer measurements. Evaluation study. Sera from 2 healthy Greyhounds. Bilirubin was dissolved in 0.1M NaOH, and the resulting solution was mixed with sera from 2 dogs from which food had been withheld to achieve various bilirubin concentrations up to 40 mg/dL. Refractometric total protein concentrations were estimated with 3 clinical refractometers. A biochemical analyzer was used to measure biuret assay-based total protein and bilirubin concentrations with spectrophotometric assays. No interference with refractometric measurement of total protein concentrations was detected with bilirubin concentrations up to 41.5 mg/dL. Biases in refractometric total protein concentrations were detected and were related to the conversion of refractive index values to total protein concentrations. Hyperbilirubinemia did not interfere with the refractometric estimation of serum total protein concentration. The agreement among total protein concentrations estimated by 3 refractometers was dependent on the method of conversion of refractive index to total protein concentration and was independent of hyperbilirubinemia.

  8. Total Synthesis of Adunctin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethe, Dattatraya H; Dherange, Balu D

    2018-03-16

    Total synthesis of (±)-adunctin B, a natural product isolated from Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), has been achieved using two different strategies, in seven and three steps. The efficient approach features highly atom economical and diastereoselective Friedel-Crafts acylation, alkylation reaction and palladium catalyzed Wacker type oxidative cyclization.

  9. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  10. What is Total Quality Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, William A.

    1996-01-01

    Provides a general overview of Total Quality Management (TQM) and explains why there is pressure for change in higher education institutions. Defines TQM and the various themes, tools, and beliefs that make it different from other management approaches. Presents 14 principles and how they might be applied to student affairs. (RJM)

  11. A totally diverting loop colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, N. D.; Gartell, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    A technique is described where the distal limb of a loop colostomy is tied with nylon or polydioxanone. This ensures total faecal diversion and dispenses with the supporting rod, enabling early application of stoma appliances. The technique does not interfere with the traditional transverse closure of a loop colostomy. PMID:8379632

  12. A generalization of total graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Afkhami

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... product of any lower triangular matrix with the transpose of any element of U belongs to U. The ... total graph of R, which is denoted by T( (R)), is a simple graph with all elements of R as vertices, and ...... [9] Badawi A, On dot-product graph of a commutative ring, Communications in Algebra 43 (2015). 43–50.

  13. Total synthesis of nepetoidin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    The total synthesis of nepetoidin B (the 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl ester of 3-(3,4-dihydroxy¬phenyl)-2-propenoic acid) has been achieved in two steps from commercially available 1,5-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadien-3-one. Tetramethylated nepetoidin B was prepared directly by Baeyer-Villig...

  14. The "Total Immersion" Meeting Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Coleman

    1980-01-01

    The designing of intelligently planned meeting facilities can aid management communication and learning. The author examines the psychology of meeting attendance; architectural considerations (lighting, windows, color, etc.); design elements and learning modes (furniture, walls, audiovisuals, materials); and the idea of "total immersion meeting…

  15. First total synthesis of Boehmenan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The first total synthesis of dilignan Boehmenan has been achieved. A biomimetic oxidative coupling of the ferulic acid methyl ester in the presence of silver oxide is the crucial step in the synthesis sequence, generating the dihydrobenzofuran skeleton. Hydroxyl group was protected with DHP and reducted with LiAlH4 to ...

  16. [Marketing mix in health service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The marketing mix is the combination of the marketing variables that a firm employs with the purpose to achieve the expected volume of business within its market. In the sale of goods, four variables compose the marketing mix (4 Ps): Product, Price, Point of sale and Promotion. In the case of providing services, three further elements play a role: Personnel, Physical Evidence and Processes (7 Ps). The marketing mix must be addressed to the consumers as well as to the employees of the providing firm. Furthermore, it must be interpreted as employees ability to satisfy customers (interactive marketing).

  17. Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models

    CERN Document Server

    McCulloch, Charles E; Neuhaus, John M

    2011-01-01

    An accessible and self-contained introduction to statistical models-now in a modernized new editionGeneralized, Linear, and Mixed Models, Second Edition provides an up-to-date treatment of the essential techniques for developing and applying a wide variety of statistical models. The book presents thorough and unified coverage of the theory behind generalized, linear, and mixed models and highlights their similarities and differences in various construction, application, and computational aspects.A clear introduction to the basic ideas of fixed effects models, random effects models, and mixed m

  18. MODIFIED TECHNIQUE OF TOTAL LARYNGECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Spirić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical technique of total laryngectomy is well presented in many surgical textbooks. Essentially, it has remained the same since Gluck an Soerensen in 1922 described all its details. Generally, it stresses the U shape skin incision with releasing laryngeal structures and removing larynx from up to down. Further, pharyngeal reconstruction is performed with different kinds of sutures in two or more layers and is finished with skin suture and suction drainage. One of worst complications following this surgery is pharyngocutaneous fistula (PF. Modifications proposed in this this article suggests vertical skin incision with larynx removal from below upwards. In pharyngeal reconstruction we used the running locked suture in submucosal plan with „tobacco sac“ at the end on the tongue base instead of traditional T shaped suture. Suction drains were not used.The aim of study was to present the modified surgical technique of total laryingectomy and its impact on hospital stay duration and pharyngocutanous fistula formation. In this randomized study we analyzed 49 patients operated with modified surgical technique compared to 49 patient operated with traditional surgical technique of total laryngectomy. The modified technique of total laryngectomy was presented. Using modified technique we managed to decrease the PF percentage from previous 20,41% to acceptable 8,16% (p=0,0334. Also, the average hospital stay was shortened from 14,96 to 10,63 days (t =-2.9850; p=0.0358.The modified technique of total laryngectomy is safe, short and efficient surgical intervention which decreases the number of pharyngocutaneos fistulas and shortens the hospital stay.

  19. Macroencapsulated and elemental lead mixed waste sites report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, A.; Jacobson, R.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compile a list of the Macroencapsulated (MACRO) and Elemental Lead (EL) Mixed Wastes sites that will be treated and require disposal at the Nevada Test Site within the next five to ten years. The five sites selected were: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Rocky Flats Environmental Technology (RF), Golden, Colorado; and Savannah River (SRS), Charleston, South Carolina. A summary of total lead mixed waste forms at the five selected DOE sites is described in Table E-1. This table provides a summary of total waste and grand total of the current inventory and five-year projected generation of lead mixed waste for each site. This report provides conclusions and recommendations for further investigations. The major conclusions are: (1) the quantity of lead mixed current inventory waste is 500.1 m 3 located at the INEL, and (2) the five sites contain several other waste types contaminated with mercury, organics, heavy metal solids, and mixed sludges

  20. Cephalometric standards for Slovenians in the mixed dentition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevensek, Martina; Farcnik, Franc; Vidmar, Gaj

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop standard cephalometric values for Slovenians in the period of the mixed dentition. Eighty-eight children were included in the study (46 girls and 42 boys, mean age 9.31 +/- 1.52 years). The selection criteria were: in the mixed dentition, a score of the modified Eismann method for an objective assessment of malocclusion of less than 15 points, the absence of aplasia and supernumerary teeth, no congential anomalies and no previous orthodontic treatment. Twenty-five cephalometric measurements were performed twice to analyse the size and shape of the craniofacial complex. The reliability of the measurements was assessed by correlation coefficients, regression, and analysis of inter-subject differences; satisfactory results were obtained. The differences between boys and girls and between those in the early and late mixed dentition period were tested with a two-way analysis of variance. The most pronounced changes between the early and late mixed dentition were observed in the vertical skeletal relationships: a decrease in mandibular inclination, interbasal angle and gonial angle, and an increase in anterior and posterior face height. Sagittal skeletal relationships remained constant from the early to the late mixed dentition. No significant differences were found between the observed developmental stages. Significant differences between genders were found only for anterior and posterior face height, with boys showing larger values (P mixed dentition, the mean measurement values of the total sample can be used as cephalometric standards for Slovenians in the mixed dentition period.

  1. Minimal modification to tribimaximal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaogang; Zee, A.

    2011-01-01

    We explore some ways of minimally modifying the neutrino mixing matrix from tribimaximal, characterized by introducing at most one mixing angle and a CP violating phase thus extending our earlier work. One minimal modification, motivated to some extent by group theoretic considerations, is a simple case with the elements V α2 of the second column in the mixing matrix equal to 1/√(3). Modifications by keeping one of the columns or one of the rows unchanged from tribimaximal mixing all belong to the class of minimal modification. Some of the cases have interesting experimentally testable consequences. In particular, the T2K and MINOS collaborations have recently reported indications of a nonzero θ 13 . For the cases we consider, the new data sharply constrain the CP violating phase angle δ, with δ close to 0 (in some cases) and π disfavored.

  2. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos; Sun, Zhonghao

    2017-01-01

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration

  3. Mixed methods research for TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, James; Farr, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Defining and discussing the relevance of theoretical and practical issues involved in mixed methods research. Covering the basics of research methodology, this textbook shows you how to choose and combine quantitative and qualitative research methods to b

  4. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Mohammed; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2010-01-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  5. Comparative Advantage of Maize- and Grass-Silage Based Feedstock for Biogas Production with Respect to Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Meyer-Aurich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the comparative advantage of using silage maize or grass as feedstock for anaerobic digestion to biogas from a greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation point of view, taking into account site-specific yield potentials, management options, and land-use change effects. GHG emissions due to the production of biogas were calculated using a life-cycle assessment approach for three different site conditions with specific yield potentials and adjusted management options. While for the use of silage maize, GHG emissions per energy unit were the same for different yield potentials, and the emissions varied substantially for different grassland systems. Without land-use change effects, silage maize-based biogas had lower GHG emissions per energy unit compared to grass-based biogas. Taking land-use change into account, results in a comparative advantage of biogas production from grass-based feedstock produced on arable land compared to silage maize-based feedstock. However, under current frame conditions, it is quite unrealistic that grass production systems would be established on arable land at larger scale.

  6. Subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Ottesen, Bent; Alling Møller, Lars Mikael

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare long-term results of subtotal vs total abdominal hysterectomy for benign uterine diseases 14 years after hysterectomy, with urinary incontinence as the primary outcome measure. STUDY DESIGN: This was a long-term follow-up of a multicenter......, randomized clinical trial without blinding. Eleven gynecological departments in Denmark contributed participants to the trial. Women referred for benign uterine diseases who did not have contraindications to subtotal abdominal hysterectomy were randomized to subtotal (n = 161) vs total (n = 158) abdominal...... from discharge summaries from all public hospitals in Denmark. The results were analyzed as intention to treat and per protocol. Possible bias caused by missing data was handled by multiple imputation. The primary outcome was urinary incontinence; the secondary outcomes were pelvic organ prolapse...

  7. Can small zooplankton mix lakes?

    OpenAIRE

    Simoncelli, S.; Thackeray, S.J.; Wain, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    The idea that living organisms may contribute to turbulence and mixing in lakes and oceans (biomixing) dates to the 1960s, but has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Recent modeling and experimental studies suggest that marine organisms can enhance turbulence as much as winds and tides in oceans, with an impact on mixing. However, other studies show opposite and contradictory results, precluding definitive conclusions regarding the potential importance of biomixing. For lakes, on...

  8. Mix-and-match holography

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan; Dun, Xiong; Sun, Qilin; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    target images into pairs of front and rear phase-distorting surfaces. Different target holograms can be decoded by mixing and matching different front and rear surfaces under specific geometric alignments. Our approach, which we call mixWe derive a detailed image formation model for the setting of holographic projection displays, as well as a multiplexing method based on a combination of phase retrieval methods and complex matrix factorization. We demonstrate several application scenarios in both simulation and physical prototypes.

  9. Promocja a marketing-mix

    OpenAIRE

    Cyrson, Edward F.

    1994-01-01

    Many companies have often forgotten that promotion is an element of marketing-mix. Therelore their promotional campain has not always been as effective as it could be. In designing and developing marketing communication one should consider all elements of marketing-mix as well as all promotional tools. They together create a promotional system in which all the elements are Mutually reinforcing and give the system the most efficient and effective power. The major thrust of promo...

  10. AECL's mixed waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peori, R.; Hulley, V.

    2006-01-01

    Every nuclear facility has it, they wish that they didn't but they have generated and do possess m ixed waste , and until now there has been no permanent disposition option; it has been for the most been simply maintained in interim storage. The nuclear industry has been responsibly developing permanent solutions for solid radioactive waste for over fifty years and for non-radioactive, chemically hazardous waste, for the last twenty years. Mixed waste (radioactive and chemically hazardous waste) however, because of its special, duo-hazard nature, has been a continuing challenge. The Hazardous Waste and Segregation Program (HW and SP) at AECL's CRL has, over the past ten years, been developing solutions to deal with their own in-house mixed waste and, as a result, have developed solutions that they would like to share with other generators within the nuclear industry. The main aim of this paper is to document and describe the early development of the solutions for both aqueous and organic liquid wastes and to advertise to other generators of this waste type how these solutions can be implemented to solve their mixed waste problems. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and in particular, CRL has been satisfactorily disposing of mixed waste for the last seven years. CRL has developed a program that not only disposes of mixed waste, but offers a full service mixed waste management program to customers within Canada (that could eventually include U.S. sites as well) that has developed the experience and expertise to evaluate and optimize current practices, dispose of legacy inventories, and set up an efficient segregation system to reduce and effectively manage, both the volumes and expense of, the ongoing generation of mixed waste for all generators of mixed waste. (author)

  11. Institutional total energy case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulfinghoff, D.

    1979-07-01

    Profiles of three total energy systems in institutional settings are provided in this report. The plants are those of Franciscan Hospital, a 384-bed facility in Rock Island, Illinois; Franklin Foundation Hospital, a 100-bed hospital in Franklin, Louisiana; and the North American Air Defense Command Cheyenne Mountain Complex, a military installation near Colorado Springs, Colorado. The case studies include descriptions of plant components and configurations, operation and maintenance procedures, reliability, relationships to public utilities, staffing, economic efficiency, and factors contributing to success.

  12. Total synthesis of (-)- and (+)-tedanalactam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    : The Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol.74(16); 6378-6381 1 Total Synthesis of (-) and (+)-Tedanalactam Mahesh S. Majik, † Peruninakulath S. Parameswaran, ‡ and Santosh G. Tilve* ,† Department of Chemistry, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403..., displaying a wide range of biological activities. 1 Piperidones are key synthetic intermediates 2 for the synthesis of piperidine ring due to the presence of keto function which allows the introduction of other groups. Piperidones are also known...

  13. Intrathoracic Hernia after Total Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Tashiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic hernias after total gastrectomy are rare. We report the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction for residual gastric cancer. He had alcoholic liver cirrhosis and received radical laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer 3 years ago. Early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach was found by routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We initially performed endoscopic submucosal dissection, but the vertical margin was positive in a pathological result. We performed total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction by laparotomy. For adhesion of the esophageal hiatus, the left chest was connected with the abdominal cavity. A pleural defect was not repaired. Two days after the operation, the patient was suspected of having intrathoracic hernia by chest X-rays. Computed tomography showed that the transverse colon and Roux limb were incarcerated in the left thoracic cavity. He was diagnosed with intrathoracic hernia, and emergency reduction and repair were performed. Operative findings showed that the Roux limb and transverse colon were incarcerated in the thoracic cavity. After reduction, the orifice of the hernia was closed by suturing the crus of the diaphragm with the ligament of the jejunum and omentum. After the second operation, he experienced anastomotic leakage and left pyothorax. Anastomotic leakage was improved with conservative therapy and he was discharged 76 days after the second operation.

  14. NIF total neutron yield diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Gary W.; Ruiz, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen is one in which we calibrate the entire counting system and which we call the ''F factor'' method. In this method, In and/or Cu samples are exposed to known sources of DD and DT neutrons. The activated samples are then counted with an appropriate system: a high purity Ge detector for In and a NaI coincidence system for Cu. We can then calculate a calibration factor, which relates measured activity to total neutron yield. The advantage of this approach is that specific knowledge of such quantities as cross sections and detector efficiencies is not needed. Unless the actual scattering environment of the NIF can be mocked up in the calibration experiment, the F factor will have to be modified using the results of a numerical simulation of the NIF scattering environment. In this article, the calibration factor methodology will be discussed and experimental results for the calibration factors will be presented. Total NIF neutron yields of 10 9 --10 19 can be measured with this method assuming a 50 cm stand-off distance can be employed for the lower yields

  15. Overview of mixed waste issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Bowerman, B.S.; Kempf, C.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.

    1986-01-01

    Based on BNL's study it was concluded that there are LLWs which contain chemically hazardous components. Scintillation liquids may be considered an EPA listed hazardous waste and are, therefore, potential mixed wastes. Since November, 1985 no operating LLW disposal site will accept these wastes for disposal. Unless such wastes contain de minimis quantities of radionuclides, they cannot be disposed of at an EPA an EPA permitted site. Currently generators of LSC wastes can ship de minimis wastes to be burned at commercial facilities. Oil wastes will also eventually be an EPA listed waste and thus will have to be considered a potential radioactive mixed wasted unless NRC establishes de minimis levels of radionuclides below which oils can be managed as hazardous wastes. Regarding wastes containing lead metal there is some question as to the extent of the hazard posed by lead disposed in a LLW burial trench. Chromium-containing wastes would have to be tested to determine whether they are potential mixed wastes. There may be other wastes that are mixed wastes; the responsibility for determining this rests with the waste generator. It is believed that there are management options for handling potential mixed wastes but there is no regulatory guidance. BNL has identified and evaluated a variety of treatment options for the management of potential radioactive mixed wastes. The findings of that study showed that application of a management option with the purpose of addressing EPA concern can, at the same time, address stabilization and volume reduction concerns of NRC

  16. Simulated mixed absorbers and effective atomic numbers for γ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The total -ray interaction crosss-sections on mixed absorbers were determined at 662 keV with a view to study the effective atomic numbers for -ray absorption under narrow beam good geometry set-up. The measurements were taken for the combination of metallic absorbers like aluminium, copper, lead and mercury ...

  17. New Hampshire binder and mix review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This review was initiated to compare relative rut testing and simple performance tests (now known as Asphalt Mix : Performance Tests) for the New Hampshire inch mix with 15% Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP). The tested mixes were : made from ...

  18. Performance life of HMA mixes : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A number of hot mix asphalt (HMA) types, such as permeable friction course (PFC), stone mastic asphalts : (SMA), performance design mixes and conventional dense graded mixes are currently used to construct or overlay : roads. One of the important inp...

  19. Mixed-mode modelling mixing methodologies for organisational intervention

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Steve; Lehaney, Brian

    2001-01-01

    The 1980s and 1990s have seen a growing interest in research and practice in the use of methodologies within problem contexts characterised by a primary focus on technology, human issues, or power. During the last five to ten years, this has given rise to challenges regarding the ability of a single methodology to address all such contexts, and the consequent development of approaches which aim to mix methodologies within a single problem situation. This has been particularly so where the situation has called for a mix of technological (the so-called 'hard') and human­ centred (so-called 'soft') methods. The approach developed has been termed mixed-mode modelling. The area of mixed-mode modelling is relatively new, with the phrase being coined approximately four years ago by Brian Lehaney in a keynote paper published at the 1996 Annual Conference of the UK Operational Research Society. Mixed-mode modelling, as suggested above, is a new way of considering problem situations faced by organisations. Traditional...

  20. Total eclipses of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Zirker, Jack B

    2014-01-01

    Eclipses have captured attention and sparked curiosity about the cosmos since the first appearance of humankind. Having been blamed for everything from natural disasters to the fall of kings, they are now invaluable tools for understanding many celestial as well as terrestrial phenomena. This clear, easy-to-understand guide explains what causes total eclipses and how they can be used in experiments to examine everything from the dust between the planets to general relativity. A new chapter has been added on the eclipse of July 11, 1991 (the great Hawaiian eclipse). Originally published in 19

  1. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I.; Fenstad, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA, have been sparsely described. The Nordic Arthroplasty....... Patients and methods - From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk...

  2. Total knee arthroplasty in ochronosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav G. Patel, MBBS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkaptonuria is disorder of tyrosine metabolism due to deficiency of homogentisic oxidase characterized by excretion of homogentisic acid in urine, deposition of oxidized homogensitate pigments in connective tissues and articular cartilages (ochronosis. The result is dark pigmentation and weakening of the tissues resulting in chronic inflammation and osteoarthritis. Management of alkaptonuric ochronic osteoarthritis is usually symptomatic and replacements have comparable outcomes to osteoarthritis in patients without ochronosis. I report a case of a patient with ochronosis of knee treated with total knee replacement and report operative pearls for surgery in this rare disorder.

  3. Total filmless digital radiology service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, S.K.; Goeringer, F.; Benson, H.; Horii, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    The completion of a comprehensive picture archiving and communication system (PACS) at Georgetown University Hospital has allowed us to identify a number of technical, administrative, personnel, and operational issues that will affect a total digital radiology service. With a hospital-wide digital imaging network system, computer simulation of communications and storage options, and economic modeling, we have developed a feasibility study and implementation strategy for the smooth transition to a nearly filmless radiology service over the next several years. This paper describes the technical and operational requirements for various database operations, workstations (used in diagnosis, review, and education), and communications. Site and installation planning, personnel training, and transition operations are discussed

  4. A longitudinal study of quality of life and functional status in total hip and total knee replacement patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandzuk, Lynda L; McMillan, Diana E; Bohm, Eric R

    2015-05-01

    Primary total hip and primary total knee surgeries are commonly performed to improve patients' quality of life and functional status. This longitudinal retrospective study (N = 851) examined self-reported quality of life and functional status over the preoperative and postoperative periods: 12 months prior to surgery, one month prior to surgery and 12 months following surgery. A linear mixed effects model was used to analyze the changes in quality of life and functional status over the sampling period. Patients in the convenience sample reported improvements in quality of life and functional status utilizing the SF-12 and Oxford Hip and Oxford Knee, although differences were noted by procedure and gender. Total hip patients tended to demonstrate greater improvement than total knee patients and males reported higher levels of physical and mental quality of life as well as functional status when compared to females. Of particular note was that mental health scores were consistently lower in both total hip and total knee replacement patients across the perioperative period and up to one year postoperative. This study identifies an opportunity for health care providers to proactively address the mental health of total hip and total knee replacement patients throughout their joint replacement trajectory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Qualidade total: Um novo paradigma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana da Rosa Tolfo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, o movimento para a implantação da Gestão da Qualidade Total vem crescendo ao redor do mundo. Em razão disso, há uma diversidade de ações realizadas com o nome de "Qualidade Total'. Uma revisão da teoria é complexa, porque existem muitos autores que tratam da questão. Eles escolhem diferentes perspectivas de análises (teóricas e empíricas e há dificuldades em se identificar um corpo conceitual. Há uma ampla difusão de modelos, ferramentas, técnicas, mercado e consultores. Essa popularidade, muitas vezes, faz com que determinadas organizações adotem essa forma de gestão do trabalho sem o conhecimento necessário das implicações que um modelo dessa ordem representa; especialmente no caso brasileiro, suscetível a proposições importadas. O presente artigo propõe um exame daquilo que os fundadores têm articulado sobre TQM, as principais críticas nesta direção e a avaliação de como vem sendo aplicadono nosso país.

  6. Testing EDM of Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirbus Ján

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.

  7. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  8. On calculation of collisional angular-momentum mixing of Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreg, J.; Strauss, M.; Hazak, G.

    1983-09-01

    Exact solutions of the coupled differential equations for collisional mixing probabilities are presented for a sodium-helium system. The results show that complete mixing is not reached in this model. The main contribution to the collisional mixing cross-section of the sodium ''nd'' state comes from impact parameters b within the range n 2 2 . The total cross-sections obtained are in agreement with the experiment. (author)

  9. ROMI 3.1 Least-cost lumber grade mix solver using open source statistical software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca A. Buck; Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The least-cost lumber grade mix solution has been a topic of interest to both industry and academia for many years due to its potential to help wood processing operations reduce costs. A least-cost lumber grade mix solver is a rough mill decision support system that describes the lumber grade or grade mix needed to minimize raw material or total production cost (raw...

  10. Managing a mixed waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    IT Corporation operates an analytical laboratory in St. Louis capable of analyzing environmental samples that are contaminated with both chemical and radioactive materials. Wastes generated during these analyses are hazardous in nature; some are listed wastes others exhibit characteristic hazards. When the original samples contain significant quantities of radioactive material, the waste must be treated as a mixed waste. A plan was written to document the waste management program describing the management of hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes. This presentation summarizes the methods employed by the St. Louis facility to reduce personnel exposures to the hazardous materials, minimize the volume of mixed waste and treat the materials prior to disposal. The procedures that are used and the effectiveness of each procedure will also be discussed. Some of the lessons that have been learned while dealing with mixed wastes will be presented as well as the solutions that were applied. This program has been effective in reducing the volume of mixed waste that is generated. The management program also serves as a method to manage the costs of the waste disposal program by effectively segregating the different wastes that are generated

  11. Mixed waste, preparing for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has recently approved an extension to the enforcement policy for the storage of restricted mixed waste. Under this policy, EPA assigns a reduced enforcement priority to violations of the 40CFR268.50 prohibition on storage of restricted waste. Eligibility for the lower enforcement priority afforded by the policy is subject to specified conditions. The recent extension is for a two year period, and agency personnel have advised that it may be difficult to extend the enforcement policy again. This paper reviews anticipated changes in mixed waste treatment and disposal capabilities. Types of mixed waste that may be generated, or in storage, at commercial nuclear power plants are identified. This information is evaluated to determine if the two year extension in the storage enforcement policy will be adequate for the nuclear power industry to treat or dispose of the mixed waste inventories that are identified, and if not, where potential problem areas may reside. Recommendations are then made on mixed waste management strategies

  12. Total employment effect of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stridsberg, S.

    1998-08-01

    The study examined the total employment effect of both direct production of biofuel and energy conversion to heat and electricity, as well as the indirect employment effect arising from investments and other activities in conjunction with the production organization. A secondary effect depending on the increased capital flow is also included in the final result. The scenarios are based on two periods, 1993-2005 and 2005-2020. In the present study, the different fuels and the different applications have been analyzed individually with regard to direct and indirect employment within each separate sector. The greatest employment effect in the production chain is shown for logging residues with 290 full-time jobs/TWh, whereas other biofuels range between 80 and 280 full-time jobs/TWh. In the processing chain, the corresponding range is 200-300 full-time jobs per each additional TWh. Additionally and finally, there are secondary effects that give a total of 650 full-time jobs/TWh. Together with the predicted increase, this suggests that unprocessed fuel will provide an additional 16 000 annual full-time jobs, and that fuel processing will contribute with a further 5 000 full-time jobs. The energy production from the fuels will provide an additional 13 000 full-time jobs. The total figure of 34 000 annual full-time jobs must then be reduced by about 4000 on account of lost jobs, mainly in the oil sector and to some extent in imports of biofuel. In addition, the anticipated increase in capital turnover that occurs within the biofuel sector, will increase full-time jobs up to year 2020. Finally, a discussion is given of the accomplishment of the programmes anticipated by the scenario, where it is noted that processing of biofuel to wafers, pellets or powder places major demands on access to raw material of good quality and that agrarian fuels must be given priority if they are to enter the system sufficiently fast. Straw is already a resource but is still not accepted by

  13. Development of meteorological parameters and total ozone during the total solar eclipse of August 11, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Winkler

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available During the total eclipse of August 11, 1999 frequent showers occurred due to a unstable stratification of the air mass. At different observation sites, meteorological effects from the eclipse (99.4% coverage at Hohenpeißenberg and from showers were superimposed making it partly difficult to unambiguously interpret the observations. The weather radar at Hohenpeißenberg observatory provided a general overview of the distribution of clouds and precipitation in this area (200 km diameter. From the Garching site in the zone of totality (100% temperature and wind data taken on a 50 m mast were evaluated. By selecting periods with relatively low cloud cover it was possible to approximately follow the development of the vertical temperature and wind profiles during the eclipse. The minimum temperature at Hohenpeißenberg (about 450 m above the altitude of Garching during the eclipse was comparable to that during the previous night, the corresponding value measured at Garching remained about 2 K above the minimum observed during clear sky conditions in the previous night. Showers before, during or after the eclipse may have induced vertical exchange of air parcels. Temperatures during a shower change towards the same direction at all altitudes, thus no inversion forms. Additionally, air parcels with relatively lower concentrations of trace constituents were transported down from aloft for time periods of 10–15 minutes. These mixing processes significantly determined the temporal variations of various trace substances measured during the eclipse. Total ozone measurements at Hohenpeißenberg were performed with both DOBSON and BREWER spectrophotometers and at another site within the zone of totality by using a portable Microtops II filter instrument. Different results were obtained for both sites. These differences can be to a large extend, but not exclusively, attributed to eclipse induced shifts (limb darkening and straylight effects in the atmosphere

  14. Conversion total hip arthroplasty: Primary or revision total hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Baghoolizadeh, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an increasingly common procedure among elderly individuals. Although conversion THA is currently bundled in a diagnosis related group (DRG) with primary THA, there is a lack of literature supporting this classification and it has yet to be identified whether conversion THA better resembles primary or revision THA. This editorial analyzed the intraoperative and postoperative factors and functional outcomes following conversion THA, primary THA, and revision THA to understand whether the characteristics of conversion THA resemble one procedure or the other, or are possibly somewhere in between. The analysis revealed that conversion THA requires more resources both intraoperatively and postoperatively than primary THA. Furthermore, patients undergoing conversion THA present with poorer functional outcomes in the long run. Patients undergoing conversion THA better resemble revision THA patients than primary THA patients. As such, patients undergoing conversion THA should not be likened to patients undergoing primary THA when determining risk stratification and reimbursement rates. Conversion THA procedures should be planned accordingly with proper anticipation of the greater needs both in the operating room, and for in-patient and follow-up care. We suggest that conversion THA be reclassified in the same DRG with revision THA as opposed to primary THA as a step towards better allocation of healthcare resources for conversion hip arthroplasties. PMID:26601055

  15. Thermodynamic and economic optimization of LNG mixed refrigerant processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mengyu; Khalilpour, Rajab; Abbas, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study performance and cost optimization of C3MR and DMR processes. • A new economic objective function is proposed to reduce both compression work and equipment size. • The comparison of C3MR and DMR processes is based on process configuration, performance, and cost. - Abstract: Natural gas liquefaction processes are energy and cost intensive. This paper performs thermodynamic and economic optimization of the mid-scale mixed refrigerant cycles including propane precooled mixed refrigerant (C3MR) and dual mixed refrigerant (DMR) processes. Four different objective functions in this study are selected: total shaft work consumption, total cost investment (TCI), total annualized cost (TAC), and total capital cost of compressors and main cryogenic exchangers (MCHEs). Total cost investment (TCI) is a function of two key variables: shaft work (W) and overall heat transfer coefficient and area (UA) of MCHEs. It is proposed for reducing energy consumption and simultaneously minimizing total capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operating expenditure (OPEX). Total shaft work objective function can result in a 44.5% reduction of shaft work for C3MR and a 48.6% reduction for DMR compared to their baseline values, but infinitely high UA of MCHEs. Optimal results show that total capital cost of compressors and MCHEs is more suitable than other objective functions for the objective of reducing both shaft work and UA. It reduces 14.5% of specific power for C3MR and 26.7% for DMR when achieving the relatively lower UA values than their baseline values. In addition, TCI and TAC can also reduce a certain amount of total shaft work at a finite increased UA

  16. Instability after total hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Brown, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    Instability following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an unfortunately frequent and serious problem that requires thorough evaluation and preoperative planning before surgical intervention. Prevention through optimal index surgery is of great importance, as the management of an unstable THA is challenging even for an experienced joints surgeon. However, even after well-planned surgery, a significant incidence of recurrent instability still exists. Non-operative management is often successful if the components are well-fixed and correctly positioned in the absence of neurocognitive disorders. If conservative management fails, surgical options include revision of malpositioned components; exchange of modular components such as the femoral head and acetabular liner; bipolar arthroplasty; tripolar arthroplasty; use of a larger femoral head; use of a constrained liner; soft tissue reinforcement and advancement of the greater trochanter. PMID:22919568

  17. A total safety management model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obadia, I.J.; Vidal, M.C.R.; Melo, P.F.F.F.

    2002-01-01

    In nuclear organizations, quality and safety are inextricably linked. Therefore, the search for excellence means reaching excellence in nuclear safety. The International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, developed, after the Chernobyl accident, the organizational approach for improving nuclear safety based on the safety culture, which requires a framework necessary to provide modifications in personnel attitudes and behaviors in situations related to safety. This work presents a Total Safety Management Model, based on the Model of Excellence of the Brazilian Quality Award and on the safety culture approach, which represents an alternative to this framework. The Model is currently under validation at the Nuclear Engineering Institute, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the results of its initial safety culture self assessment are also presented and discussed. (author)

  18. Demand: a total nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessel, Stephane; Jacquard, Albert

    2012-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book, in which the authors make a plea for a total nuclear disarmament. They think that humanity cannot be found in competition, but in emulation, and examine how we can get rid of the nuclear bomb. They discuss the background of nuclear energy, state that nuclear weapons have always been useless and extremely dangerous, consider arms race as crazy and as a crime against humanity, recall that nuclear weapons already made numerous victims (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, nuclear tests), that they are a sword of Damocles over 7 billions human beings, that nuclear winter would be an apocalypse, that the Non Proliferation Treaty is a decoy. They discuss the political role of nuclear weapons, and outline that the only solution is their abolition. They discuss what has already been done and what is still to be done, and formulate a strategy for the future

  19. Total synthesis of mycalamide A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jeong-Hun; Waizumi, Nobuaki; Zhong, H Marlon; Rawal, Viresh H

    2005-05-25

    This communication describes a concise and efficient total synthesis of mycalamide A by the convergent coupling of pederic acid unit with the mycalamine unit. The left-half, (+)-7-benzoylpederic acid, was synthesized from (2R,3R)-3-methylpent-4-en-2-ol in seven steps and 34.6% overall yield through a route that features a one-step Pd(II)-catalyzed tandem Wacker/Heck cyclization reaction to prepare the tetrahydropyran ring system. The right-half, the mycalamine unit, was synthesized in 21 steps and 10.5% overall yield from diethyl d-tartrate. Effective, stereoselective methods were developed for the assembly of the two parts to yield either mycalamide A or C(10)-epi-mycalamide A.

  20. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  1. Total quality management program planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, P.T.; Spence, K.

    1994-05-01

    As government funding grows scarce, competition between the national laboratories is increasing dramatically. In this era of tougher competition, there is no for resistance to change. There must instead be a uniform commitment to improving the overall quality of our products (research and technology) and an increased focus on our customers` needs. There has been an ongoing effort to bring the principles of total quality management (TQM) to all Energy Systems employees to help them better prepare for future changes while responding to the pressures on federal budgets. The need exists for instituting a vigorous program of education and training to an understanding of the techniques needed to improve and initiate a change in organizational culture. The TQM facilitator is responsible for educating the work force on the benefits of self-managed work teams, designing a program of instruction for implementation, and thus getting TQM off the ground at the worker and first-line supervisory levels so that the benefits can flow back up. This program plan presents a conceptual model for TQM in the form of a hot air balloon. In this model, there are numerous factors which can individually and collectively impede the progress of TQM within the division and the Laboratory. When these factors are addressed and corrected, the benefits of TQM become more visible. As this occurs, it is hoped that workers and management alike will grasp the ``total quality`` concept as an acceptable agent for change and continual improvement. TQM can then rise to the occasion and take its rightful place as an integral and valid step in the Laboratory`s formula for survival.

  2. Instability following total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

    2011-10-01

    Background Knee prosthesis instability (KPI) is a frequent cause of failure of total knee arthroplasty. Moreover, the degree of constraint required to achieve immediate and long-term stability in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is frequently debated. Questions This review aims to define the problem, analyze risk factors, and review strategies for prevention and treatment of KPI. Methods A PubMed (MEDLINE) search of the years 2000 to 2010 was performed using two key words: TKA and instability. One hundred and sixty-five initial articles were identified. The most important (17) articles as judged by the author were selected for this review. The main criteria for selection were that the articles addressed and provided solutions to the diagnosis and treatment of KPI. Results Patient-related risk factors predisposing to post-operative instability include deformity requiring a large surgical correction and aggressive ligament release, general or regional neuromuscular pathology, and hip or foot deformities. KPI can be prevented in most cases with appropriate selection of implants and good surgical technique. When ligament instability is anticipated post-operatively, the need for implants with a greater degree of constraint should be anticipated. In patients without significant varus or valgus malalignment and without significant flexion contracture, the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) can be retained. However, the PCL should be sacrificed when deformity exists particularly in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy, previous high tibial osteotomy or distal femoral osteotomy, and posttraumatic osteoarthritis with disruption of the PCL. In most cases, KPI requires revision surgery. Successful outcomes can only be obtained if the cause of KPI is identified and addressed. Conclusions Instability following TKA is a common cause of the need for revision. Typically, knees with deformity, rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy or high tibial osteotomy, and

  3. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain I.

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor contaminants by diluting or removing them. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, every zone will have different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining occupant exposure to given contaminant sources, but the zone-specific distribution of exhaust and supply air and the mixing of ventilation air can play significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage, air distribution system, and contaminant source and occupant locations. Most U.S. and Canadian homes have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus, the indoor air in different zones tends to be well mixed for significant fractions of the year. This article reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact of air mixing on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. We summarize existing literature and extend past analyses to determine the parameters than affect air mixing as well as the impacts of mixing on occupant exposure, and to draw conclusions that are relevant for standards development and for practitioners designing and installing home ventilation systems. The primary conclusion is that mixing will not substantially affect the mean indoor air quality across a broad population of occupants, homes, and ventilation systems, but it can reduce the number of occupants who are exposed to extreme pollutant levels. If the policy objective is to minimize the number of people exposed above a given pollutant threshold, some amount of mixing will be of net benefit even though it does not benefit average exposure. If the policy is to minimize exposure on average, then mixing air in homes is detrimental and should not be encouraged. We also conclude that most homes in the US have adequate mixing

  4. Nuclear level mixing resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussement, R.; Put, P.; Scheveneels, G.; Hardeman, F.

    1985-01-01

    The existent methods for measuring quadrupole interactions are not suited to nuclei with lifetimes in the micro-seconds to minutes region. AD/NQR, a possible candidate in this lifetime gap, has not yet succeeded in overcoming its predicted difficulties. A new resonant method, recently developed and based on the principles of level mixing (cfr atomic spectroscopy) covers this less accessible lifetime range. Many other kinds of resonances can be described according to the level mixing formalism. The particular example of NMR as a level mixing resonance (LMR) is discussed. The underlying theory of LMR and its important consequences, leading to some interesting features of the method, is briefly formulated. Two successfully performed measurements demonstrate the feasibility and the predicted characteristics of this new promising method. (orig.)

  5. Colour mixing based on daylight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large region of the colour space can be covered by mixing three primary colours derived from lossless spectral decomposition of daylight. These primaries are specified by hue, saturation and luminosity. Duality of additive and subtractive mixing is formulated quantitatively. Experimental demonstrations of calculated results are suggested. This paper is intended for undergraduate optics courses, and advanced interdisciplinary seminars on arts and physics

  6. Regulatory aspects of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.R.; Orlando, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Mixed waste is waste that satisfies the definition of low-level radioactive waste in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) and contains hazardous waste that is either: (1) listed as a hazardous waste in 40 CFR 261, Subpart D; or (2) causes the waste to exhibit any of the characteristics identified in 40 CFR 261, Subpart C. Low-level radioactive waste is defined in the LLRWPAA as radioactive material that is not high level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or byproduct material, as defined in Section 11e(2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, and is classified as low-level waste by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses dual regulatory (NRC and Environmental Protection Agency) responsibility, overview of joint NRC/EPA guidance, workshops, national mixed waste survey, and principal mixed waste uncertainties

  7. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided

  8. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  9. Mixed and mixed-hybrid elements for the diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulomb, F.; Fedon-Magnaud, C.

    1987-04-01

    To solve the diffusion equation, one often uses a Lagrangian finite element method. We want to introduce the mixed elements which allow a simultaneous approximation of the same order for the flux and its gradient. Though the linear systems are not positive definite, it is possible to make them so by eliminating some of the unknowns

  10. Analysis of stratified flow mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, S.L.; Lyczkowski, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Creare 1/5-scale Phase II experiments which model fluid and thermal mixing of relatively cold high pressure injection (HPI) water into a cold leg of a full-scale pressurized water reactor (PWR) having loop flow are analyzed and found that they cannot achieve complete similarity with respect to characteristic Reynolds and Froude numbers and developing hydrodynamic entry length. Several analyses show that these experiments fall into two distinct regimes of mixing: momentum controlled and gravity controlled (stratification). 18 refs., 9 figs

  11. Mix-and-match holography

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan

    2017-11-22

    Computational caustics and light steering displays offer a wide range of interesting applications, ranging from art works and architectural installations to energy efficient HDR projection. In this work we expand on this concept by encoding several target images into pairs of front and rear phase-distorting surfaces. Different target holograms can be decoded by mixing and matching different front and rear surfaces under specific geometric alignments. Our approach, which we call mix-and-match holography, is made possible by moving from a refractive caustic image formation process to a diffractive, holographic one. This provides the extra bandwidth that is required to multiplex several images into pairing surfaces.

  12. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  13. Mixing subattolitre volumes in a quantitative and highly parallel manner with soft matter nanofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sune M.; Bolinger, Pierre-Yves; Hatzakis, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    Handling and mixing ultrasmall volumes of reactants in parallel can increase the throughput and complexity of screening assays while simultaneously reducing reagent consumption. Microfabricated silicon and plastic can provide reliable fluidic devices, but cannot typically handle total volumes sma...

  14. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O'Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR)

  15. Configuration mixing for spin-isospin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Munetake

    2005-01-01

    Development of theories of configuration mixing is reviewed, concentrating on their application to spin-isospin modes, especially to the Gamow-Teller transitions. This talk is divided into three historical stages, the first order configuration mixing as the first stage, the second order configuration mixing as the second stage, and the delta-isobar-hole mixing as the third stage

  16. Mixed waste paper as a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersletter, J.D.; Lyons, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    A successful recycling program requires several components: education and promotion, convenient collection service, and most importantly, a market for collected materials. In Washington state, domestic markets currently have, or are building, the capacity to use most of the glass, newsprint, aluminum, tin cans, and corrugated materials that are collected. Unfortunately, markets for mixed waste paper (MWP), a major component of the state's solid waste stream, have been slow to develop and are unable to absorb the tremendous volumes of material generated. The American Paper Stock Institute classifies MWP as low grade paper such as magazines, books, scrap paper, non-corrugated cardboard (boxboard/chipboard), and construction paper. When viewed as part of a curbside collection program MWP consists primarily of catalogs, binder paper, magazines, brochures, junk mail, cereal boxes, and other household packaging items. A comprehensive analysis of Washington State's solid waste stream showed that during 1988, Washington citizens generated approximately 460,000 tons of mixed waste paper. No small amount, this is equivalent to more than 10% of the total solid waste generated in the state, and is expected to increase. Current projections of MWP generation rates indicated that Washington citizens could discard as much as 960,000 tons of MWP by the year 2010 making it one of the single largest components of the state's solid waste stream. This paper reports on the use of MWP as fuel source

  17. MEMS Logic Using Mixed-Frequency Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2017-06-22

    We present multi-function microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) logic device that can perform the fundamental logic gate AND, OR, universal logic gates NAND, NOR, and a tristate logic gate using mixed-frequency excitation. The concept is based on exciting combination resonances due to the mixing of two or more input signals. The device vibrates at two steady states: a high state when the combination resonance is activated and a low state when no resonance is activated. These vibration states are assigned to logical value 1 or 0 to realize the logic gates. Using ac signals to drive the resonator and to execute the logic inputs unifies the input and output wave forms of the logic device, thereby opening the possibility for cascading among logic devices. We found that the energy consumption per cycle of the proposed logic resonator is higher than those of existing technologies. Hence, integration of such logic devices to build complex computational system needs to take into consideration lowering the total energy consumption. [2017-0041

  18. Benefits of tree mixes in carbon plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulvey, Kristin B.; Hobbs, Richard J.; Standish, Rachel J.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Lach, Lori; Perring, Michael P.

    2013-10-01

    Increasingly governments and the private sector are using planted forests to offset carbon emissions. Few studies, however, examine how tree diversity -- defined here as species richness and/or stand composition -- affects carbon storage in these plantings. Using aboveground tree biomass as a proxy for carbon storage, we used meta-analysis to compare carbon storage in tree mixtures with monoculture plantings. Tree mixes stored at least as much carbon as monocultures consisting of the mixture's most productive species and at times outperformed monoculture plantings. In mixed-species stands, individual species, and in particular nitrogen-fixing trees, increased stand biomass. Further motivations for incorporating tree richness into planted forests include the contribution of diversity to total forest carbon-pool development, carbon-pool stability and the provision of extra ecosystem services. Our findings suggest a two-pronged strategy for designing carbon plantings including: (1) increased tree species richness; and (2) the addition of species that contribute to carbon storage and other target functions.

  19. PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.

    2010-12-01

    acceleration. Their scaling, spectral and invariant properties differ substantially from those of classical Kolmogorov turbulence. At atomistic and meso-scales, the non-equilibrium dynamics depart dramatically from a standard scenario given by the Gibbs statistic ensemble average and quasi-static Boltzmann equation. The singular aspect and the similarity of the non-equilibrium dynamics at macroscopic scales are interplayed with the fundamental properties of the Euler and compressible Navier-Stokes equations and with the problem sensitivity to the boundary conditions at discontinuities. The state-of-the-art numerical simulations of multi-phase flows suggest new methods for predictive modeling of the multi-scale non-equilibrium dynamics in fluids and plasmas, up to peta-scale level, for error estimate and uncertainty quantification, as well as for novel data assimilation techniques. The Second International Conference and Advanced School 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, was held on 27 July-7 August 2009 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. This was a highly informative and exciting meeting, and it strengthened and reaffirmed the success of TMB-2007. TMB-2009 brought together over 180 participants from five continents, ranging from students to members of National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and including researchers at experienced and early stages of their carriers from leading scientific institutions in academia, national laboratories, corporations and industry, from developed and developing countries. The success of TMB-2009 came from the successful work of all the participants, who were responsible professionals caring for the quality of their research and sharing their scientific vision. The level of presentations was high; about 170 presentations included over 60 invited lectures and 15 tutorials (4500 minutes of talks in total), about 40 posters and two Round Tables. TMB-2009 covered 17 different topics

  20. Plate Tearing Under Mixed Mode Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Grau; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Felter, Christian Lotz

    2016-01-01

    the mesh cannot accurately capture the localization process that precedes ductile failure. To fertilize accurate predictions of such sheet tearing, the energy dissipated during localization must, therefore, be accounted for in the cohesive traction-separation law. The fact is that the local thinning...... that takes place in front of an advancing crack can significantly enhance the crack growth resistanceas the energy going into thinning the sheet typically dominates the total fracture energy.This has been investigated in great details for the case of pure Mode I tearing and both the energy dissipation, peak...... stress, and shape of the cohesive traction-separation law have been laid out. In a similar fashion, the present study resolves the sequence of failure details related to steady-state sheet tearing under mixed mode loading by employing the micro-mechanics based Gurson model. But, the fracture process...

  1. Giant exchange interaction in mixed lanthanides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieru, Veacheslav; Iwahara, Naoya; Ungur, Liviu; Chibotaru, Liviu F.

    2016-01-01

    Combining strong magnetic anisotropy with strong exchange interaction is a long standing goal in the design of quantum magnets. The lanthanide complexes, while exhibiting a very strong ionic anisotropy, usually display a weak exchange coupling, amounting to only a few wavenumbers. Recently, an isostructural series of mixed (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) have been reported, in which the exchange splitting is estimated to reach hundreds wavenumbers. The microscopic mechanism governing the unusual exchange interaction in these compounds is revealed here by combining detailed modeling with density-functional theory and ab initio calculations. We find it to be basically kinetic and highly complex, involving non-negligible contributions up to seventh power of total angular momentum of each lanthanide site. The performed analysis also elucidates the origin of magnetization blocking in these compounds. Contrary to general expectations the latter is not always favored by strong exchange interaction. PMID:27087470

  2. Colour Mixing Based on Daylight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

  3. Para-mixed linear spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasmareanu Mircea

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the paracomplex version of the notion of mixed linear spaces introduced by M. Jurchescu in [4] by replacing the complex unit i with the paracomplex unit j, j2 = 1. The linear algebra of these spaces is studied with a special view towards their morphisms.

  4. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID's success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories' Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque's and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ''dry'' soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater

  5. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately

  6. Kriging with mixed effects models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Pollice

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effectiveness of the use of mixed effects models for estimation and prediction purposes in spatial statistics for continuous data is reviewed in the classical and Bayesian frameworks. A case study on agricultural data is also provided.

  7. Ethanol from mixed waste paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstetter, J.D.; Lyons, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    The technology, markets, and economics for converting mixed waste paper to ethanol in Washington were assessed. The status of enzymatic and acid hydrolysis projects were reviewed. The market for ethanol blended fuels in Washington shows room for expansion. The economics for a hypothetical plant using enzymatic hydrolysis were shown to be profitable

  8. Mixed normal inference on multicointegration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Asymptotic likelihood analysis of cointegration in I(2) models, see Johansen (1997, 2006), Boswijk (2000) and Paruolo (2000), has shown that inference on most parameters is mixed normal, implying hypothesis test statistics with an asymptotic 2 null distribution. The asymptotic distribution of the

  9. Energy mix and employment effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodopia, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    ''Energy Mix and Employment Effects'' is a subject not to be reduced to the so-called ''job argument''. It also involves the question whether it will be possible to achieve consensus again about the composition of a balanced sustainable energy mix. This term must not be interpreted in a static sense; after all, the framework conditions of energy policy are changing. However, this must not render energy policy unsteady. This requirement should be imposed on economic policy in general, i.e. political interventions, it they are really unavoidable, must be predictable on a long term. This contribution also examines the meaning of the term ''energy mix.'' Aspects of the debate about the climate, especially potential factors influencing the climate, are discussed against the backdrop of scientific validity. Other key points covered are the description and analysis of the energy policy framework. One major aspect under study are all kinds of ''subsidies'' of energy resources and the consequences to the whole economy arising from these financial support mechanisms. The findings are projected onto the employment effects. Finally, the question is raised how to design an energy mix sustainable for the future, and how to achieve it politically and in society. (orig.)

  10. Mixing in T-junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jacobus B.W.; van der Wal, S.

    1996-01-01

    The transport processes that are involved in the mixing of two gases in a T-junction mixer are investigated. The turbulent flow field is calculated for the T-junction with the k- turbulence model by FLOW3D. In the mathematical model the transport of species is described with a mixture fraction

  11. Mixing Tamiflu with Sweet Liquids

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    If your doctor prescribes Tamiflu® capsules for your child and your child cannot swallow them, this podcast describes how to mix the contents of the capsules with a sweet thick liquid so they can be given that way.

  12. Mixed Hitting-Time Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbring, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    We study mixed hitting-time models, which specify durations as the first time a Levy process (a continuous-time process with stationary and independent increments) crosses a heterogeneous threshold. Such models of substantial interest because they can be reduced from optimal-stopping models with

  13. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  14. Pressure supression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-10-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model developed in this work produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing is verified by comparing the model-predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  15. Pressure suppression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing model is verified by comparing the model predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  16. Geoelectrical signatures of reactive mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, U.; Bandopadhyay, A.; Jougnot, D.; Le Borgne, T.; Meheust, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing the effects of fluid mixing on geochemical reactions in the subsurface is of paramount importance owing to their pivotal role in processes such as contaminant migration or aquifer remediation, to name a few [1]. Large velocity gradients in the porous media are expected to lead to enhanced diffusive mixing accompanied by augmented reaction rates [2]. Despite its importance, accurate monitoring of such processes still remains an open challenge, mainly due to the opacity of the medium and to the lack of access to it. However, in recent years, geophysical methods based on electrical conductivity and polarization have come up as a promising tool for mapping and monitoring such reactions in the subsurface. In this regard, one of the main challenges is to properly characterize the multiple sources of electrical signals and in particular isolate the influence of reactive mixing on the electrical conductivity from those of other sources [3]. In this work, we explore the coupling between fluid mixing, reaction and charge migration in porous media to evaluate the potential of obtaining a spatially-resolved measurement of local reaction rates in the subsurface from electrical measurements. To this end, we employ a lamellar description of the mixing interface [4] with novel semi-analytical upscaling techniques to quantify changes in electrical conductivity induced by chemical reactions across mixing fronts. The changes in electrical conductivity are strongly dependent on the concentration of ionic species as well as on the polarization of the pore (water) solution around the grains, which in turn are controlled by local reaction rates and, consequently, by the local velocity gradients. Hence, our results essentially suggest that local variations in the electrical conductivity may be quantitatively related to the mixing and reaction dynamics, and thus be used as a measurement tool to characterize these dynamics. References 1. M. Dentz, T. Le Borgne, A. Englert

  17. A review of mixed malaria species infections in anopheline mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Nicholas PJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with malaria mixed species infections are common and under reported. In PCR studies conducted in Asia mixed infection rates often exceed 20%. In South-East Asia, approximately one third of patients treated for falciparum malaria experience a subsequent Plasmodium vivax infection with a time interval suggesting relapse. It is uncertain whether the two infections are acquired simultaneously or separately. To determine whether mixed species infections in humans are derived from mainly from simultaneous or separate mosquito inoculations the literature on malaria species infection in wild captured anopheline mosquitoes was reviewed. Methods The biomedical literature was searched for studies of malaria infection and species identification in trapped wild mosquitoes and artificially infected mosquitoes. The study location and year, collection methods, mosquito species, number of specimens, parasite stage examined (oocysts or sporozoites, and the methods of parasite detection and speciation were tabulated. The entomological results in South East Asia were compared with mixed infection rates documented in patients in clinical studies. Results In total 63 studies were identified. Individual anopheline mosquitoes were examined for different malaria species in 28 of these. There were 14 studies from Africa; four with species evaluations in individual captured mosquitoes (SEICM. One study, from Ghana, identified a single mixed infection. No mixed infections were identified in Central and South America (seven studies, two SEICM. 42 studies were conducted in Asia and Oceania (11 from Thailand; 27 SEICM. The proportion of anophelines infected with Plasmodium falciparum parasites only was 0.51% (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.57%, for P. vivax only was 0.26% (95% CI: 0.21 to 0.30%, and for mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax infections was 0.036% (95% CI: 0.016 to 0.056%. The proportion of mixed infections in mosquitoes was significantly higher

  18. Mixed noble gas effect on cut green peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, L. V.; Zhang, M.; Karangwa, E.; Chesereka, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing attempts at using gas which leads to hydrate formation as a preservative tool in fresh-cut fruits and vegetables have been reported. In this study, changes in some physical and biochemical properties of fresh-cut green peppers under compressed noble gas treatments were examined. Mixed argonkrypton and argon treatments were performed before cold storage at 5°C for 15 days. Mass loss and cell membrane permeability were found to be the lowest in mixed argon-krypton samples. Besides, a lower CO2 concentration and vitamin C loss were detected in gastreated samples compared to untreated samples (control). While the total phenol degradation was moderately reduced, the effect of the treatment on polyphenoloxidase activity was better at the beginning of the storage period. The minimum changes in quality observed in cut peppers resulted from both mixed and gas treatment alone.

  19. Evacuation of mixed populations from trains on bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, C.; Sørensen, J.G.; Dederichs, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of human evacuation dynamics and performance are important when designing complex buildings such as bridges and when applying performance-based codes in order to reduce the risk of exposing occupants to critical conditions in case of fire. The majority of previous studies deal....... The discussion of "equal access" is only followed slowly by the demand on "equal egress". However, the passengers on trains on bridges are rarely homogeneous mixture. At the same time equal egress is far from assured today. In this paper the evacuation of mixed populations from trains on bridges are considered....... The populations applied in the experiment are mixed according to a composition corresponding to the population of Denmark. The study has the following findings: the total evacuation times increase with a factor 1.5 when accounting for a mixed population comprehending a variety of age and impairments. The seating...

  20. Radioimmunological determination of total thyroxine in the serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premachandra, Bhartur

    1975-09-04

    A radioimmunological method to determine total thyroxine in a serum sample is described. The method is as follows: trichloracetic acid and sodium hydroxide are mixed with the sample; radioactive thyroxine is added to the mixture, which is left to reach equilibrium then placed in contact with a resin sponge consisting of a polyurethane foam with intercommunicating cells containing a strongly basic anion exchange resin; the mixture and the resin sponge are incubated, the initial radioactivity of the mixture and resin sponge combination is measured with an appropriate detection system, then the resin sponge is removed from the mixture, washed and its residual radioactivity measured.

  1. Radioimmunological determination of total thyroxine in the serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premachandra, Bhartur.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunological method to determine total thyroxine in a serum sample is described. The method is as follows: trichloracetic acid and sodium hydroxide are mixed with the sample; radioactive thyroxine is added to the mixture, which is left to reach equilibrium then placed in contact with a resin sponge consisting of a polyurethane foam with intercommunicating cells containing a strongly basic anion exchange resin; the mixture and the resin sponge are incubated, the initial radioactivity of the mixture and resin sponge combination is measured with an appropriate detection system, then the resin sponge is removed from the mixture, washed and its residual radioactivity measured [fr

  2. effects of mixed of mixed of mixed alkaline earth oxides in potash

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Si, P) are network formers, and that materials whose. Nigerian ... made by mixing sand (SiO2), potassium carbonates. (K2Co3) .... The edges of the glass were grounded using ..... surface energies of minerals; theoritical estimate for oxides ...

  3. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  4. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  5. Fluid mixing in reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deoras M Prabhudharwadkar; Kannan N Iyer

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Hydrogen release and distribution in nuclear power plant containment is an important safety issue. Selection of a proper turbulence model is important for accurate estimation of the mixing process. The selection of turbulence model is dictated by the best compromise between accuracy and computational efforts. For this, three different turbulence models, viz. Standard k-ε, RNG k-ε and Reynolds Stress Model, based on Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes equations (RANS) approach, were used. The computations were done using the CFD code FLUENT, which is based on the control volume methodology. The computational results were compared with the experimental results of HYMIS test facility, where helium was used to simulate hydrogen. The processes of helium plume rise, multiple plume merging, distribution and mixing were studied. Based on these computations, a simple analytical/empirical zone based model was formulated for the same problem, which predicted the helium concentration reasonably accurately and quickly. (authors)

  6. Mixed Capillary Venous Retroperitoneal Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Godar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of mixed capillary venous hemangioma of the retroperitoneum in a 61-year-old man. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a mass to be hypoechoic with increased flow in color Doppler imaging. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a centripetal filling-in of the mass, located anterior to the left psoas muscle at the level of sacroiliac joint. On the basis of imaging features, preoperative diagnosis of hemangioma was considered and the mass was excised by laparoscopic method. Immunohistochemical studies were strongly positive for CD31 and CD34, and negative for calretinin, EMA, WT1, HMB45, Ki67, synaptophysin, and lymphatic endothelial cell marker D2–40. Histologically, the neoplasm was diagnosed as mixed capillary venous hemangioma.

  7. Mixing processes in galaxy mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Previously published simulations of mergers between galaxies are used to examine the degree to which population gradients are weakened during the coalescence of two or more stellar systems. Although substantial mixing occurs during a merger, its effect on such gradients is quite moderate and can be overwhelmed by the effect of changes in structure. Experiment suggests that the centre-to-edge population difference in a merger remnant will be 20 per cent smaller than that in its progenitor galaxies if these are identical centrally concentrated systems. A sequence of three binary mergers is thus required to reduce such differences by a factor of 2. Because of changes in radial structure, population gradients are, in general, reduced more rapidly than is suggested by these numbers. Mixing is more efficient in mergers between less concentrated systems. In real merger remnants any weakening of gradients may often be masked by star-formation in residual interstellar gas. (author)

  8. HETEROGENEOUS REBURNING BY MIXED FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Yin Chen; Benson B. Gathitu

    2005-01-14

    Recent studies of heterogeneous reburning, i.e., reburning involving a coal-derived char, have elucidated its variables, kinetics and mechanisms that are valuable to the development of a highly efficient reburning process. Young lignite chars contain catalysts that not only reduce NO, but they also reduce HCN that is an important intermediate that recycles to NO in the burnout zone. Gaseous CO scavenges the surface oxides that are formed during NO reduction, regenerating the active sites on the char surface. Based on this mechanistic information, cost-effective mixed fuels containing these multiple features has been designed and tested in a simulated reburning apparatus. Remarkably high reduction of NO and HCN has been observed and it is anticipated that mixed fuel will remove 85% of NO in a three-stage reburning process.

  9. Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofer Afzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.

  10. Nanoscale Mixing of Soft Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C 30 H 62 ) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ( 1 H and 2 H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  11. Markov chains and mixing times

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, David A

    2017-01-01

    Markov Chains and Mixing Times is a magical book, managing to be both friendly and deep. It gently introduces probabilistic techniques so that an outsider can follow. At the same time, it is the first book covering the geometric theory of Markov chains and has much that will be new to experts. It is certainly THE book that I will use to teach from. I recommend it to all comers, an amazing achievement. -Persi Diaconis, Mary V. Sunseri Professor of Statistics and Mathematics, Stanford University Mixing times are an active research topic within many fields from statistical physics to the theory of algorithms, as well as having intrinsic interest within mathematical probability and exploiting discrete analogs of important geometry concepts. The first edition became an instant classic, being accessible to advanced undergraduates and yet bringing readers close to current research frontiers. This second edition adds chapters on monotone chains, the exclusion process and hitting time parameters. Having both exercises...

  12. Mixing Tamiflu with Sweet Liquids

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-11-16

    If your doctor prescribes Tamiflu® capsules for your child and your child cannot swallow them, this podcast describes how to mix the contents of the capsules with a sweet thick liquid so they can be given that way.  Created: 11/16/2009 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/16/2009.

  13. Consumer Behavior dan Marketing Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Pura A, Agus Hasan

    2005-01-01

    Marketing concept emerged since business philosophy shifted to a customer-centered, the job is to find the right products for your choosen target markets. The reason for customer orientation in which all functions work together to respond to, Serve, and satisfy customer. To satisfy consumer (end user) the marketing concept use integrated marketing, that is segmenting, Targeting, positioning, and marketing mix (4p/7p). And to.be success, marketer have to understand the behavior of consumers of...

  14. Fast mixed spectrum reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouts, H.J.C.; Fischer, G.J.; Cerbone, R.J.

    1979-04-01

    The Fast Mixed Spectrum Reactor is a highly promising concept for a fast reactor with improved features of proliferation resistance, and excellent utilization of uranium resources. In technology, it can be considered to be a branch of fast breeder development, though its operation and implications are different from those of FBR'S in important respects. Successful development programs are required in several areas to bring FMSR to reality, but the payoff from a successful program can be high

  15. A novel scale for measuring mixed states in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jonathan; Schwannauer, Matthias; Power, Mick; Goodwin, Guy M

    2009-01-01

    Conventional descriptions of bipolar disorder tend to treat the mixed state as something of an afterthought. There is no scale that specifically measures the phenomena of the mixed state. This study aimed to test a novel scale for mixed state in a clinical and community population of bipolar patients. The scale included clinically relevant symptoms of both mania and depression in a bivariate scale. Recovered respondents were asked to recall their last manic episode. The scale allowed endorsement of one or more of the manic and depressive symptoms. Internal consistency analyses were carried out using Cronbach alpha. Factor analysis was carried out using a standard Principal Components Analysis followed by Varimax Rotation. A confirmatory factor analytic method was used to validate the scale structure in a representative clinical sample. The reliability analysis gave a Cronbach alpha value of 0.950, with a range of corrected-item-total-scale correlations from 0.546 (weight change) to 0.830 (mood). The factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution for the manic and depressed items which accounted for 61.2% of the variance in the data. Factor 1 represented physical activity, verbal activity, thought processes and mood. Factor 2 represented eating habits, weight change, passage of time and pain sensitivity. This novel scale appears to capture the key features of mixed states. The two-factor solution fits well with previous models of bipolar disorder and concurs with the view that mixed states may be more than the sum of their parts.

  16. Material Barriers to Diffusive Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, George; Karrasch, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Transport barriers, as zero-flux surfaces, are ill-defined in purely advective mixing in which the flux of any passive scalar is zero through all material surfaces. For this reason, Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) have been argued to play the role of mixing barriers as most repelling, attracting or shearing material lines. These three kinematic concepts, however, can also be defined in different ways, both within rigorous mathematical treatments and within the realm of heuristic diagnostics. This has lead to a an ever-growing number of different LCS methods, each generally identifying different objects as transport barriers. In this talk, we examine which of these methods have actual relevance for diffusive transport barriers. The latter barriers are arguably the practically relevant inhibitors in the mixing of physically relevant tracers, such as temperature, salinity, vorticity or potential vorticity. We demonstrate the role of the most effective diffusion barriers in analytical examples and observational data. Supported in part by the DFG Priority Program on Turbulent Superstructures.

  17. Marketing Mix of the Company

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá zlepšením komunikačního mixu společnosti Nitara s.r.o. Teoretická část je zaměřena na vysvětlení základních pojmů, popsán marketing, analýza konkurence, marketingový mix a nástroje komunikačního mixu. V analytické části práce se seznamujeme se společností Nitara s.r.o. a její činností. Tato část práce obsahuje analýzu marketingového prostředí společnosti a marketingový mix společnosti. V poslední části se pokusím navrhnout pro společnost nový komunikační mix, kt...

  18. Lepton charges and lepton mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontecorvo, B.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of theoretical and experimental investigations of lepton charges and lepton mixing known to the author at the time of the Budapest Conference, July 1970. The review is more biased towards experiment than theory. The recent and relevant expermental limits on possible lepton charge non-conservation are summarized, which were obtained by measuring probabilities of various processes. The status of the lepton mixing theory in the case when the only neutral leptons are neutrinos is reviewed, the main points being the μ→eγ decay and neutrino oscillations. The ''solar neutrino puzzle'' is discussed. A model of the μ→eγ and μ→3e decays is given as an example of drastic effects of heavy lepton mixing, and the relation between processes like μ→eγ, etc., and neutrino oscillations is considered. Recent papers on lepton nonconservation effects are then classified in groups, the related literature being presented extensively, if not fully

  19. On the optimum energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yasumasa

    2011-01-01

    After the Fukushima accident occurred in March 2011, reform of Japan's basic energy plan and energy supply system was reported to be under discussion such as to reduce dependence on nuclear power. Planning of energy policy should be considered based on four evaluation indexes of 'economics'. 'environmental effects', 'stable supply of energy' and 'sustainability'. 'Stable supply of energy' should include stability of domestic energy supply infrastructure against natural disasters in addition to stable supply of overseas resources. 'Sustainability' meant long-term availability of resources. Since there did not exist an almighty energy source and energy supply system superior in terms of every above-mentioned evaluation index, it would be wise to use combining various energy sources and supply system in rational way. This combination lead to optimum energy mix, so-called 'Energy Best Mix'. The author evaluated characteristics of energy sources and energy supply system in terms of four indexes and showed best energy mix from short-, medium- and long-term perspectives. Since fossil fuel resources would deplete anyhow, it would be inevitable for human being to be dependent on non-fossil energy resources regardless of greenhouse effects. At present it would be difficult and no guarantee to establish society fully dependent on renewable energy, then it would be probable to need utilization of nuclear energy in the long term. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Assessing mixed waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Bloom, G.A.; Hart, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). As discussed earlier in this conference MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. During the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1,200,000 m 3 of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste at 50 sites in 22 states (see Table 1). The difference between MLLW and MTRU waste is in the concentration of elements that have a higher atomic weight than uranium. Nearly all of this waste will be located at 13 sites. More than 1400 individual mixed waste streams exist with different chemical and physical matrices containing a wide range of both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Their containment and packaging vary widely (e.g., drums, bins, boxes, and buried waste). This heterogeneity in both packaging and waste stream constituents makes characterization difficult, which results in costly sampling and analytical procedures and increased risk to workers

  1. An improved estimate of SU(4) symmetry mixing in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, R.; Parikh, J.C.; Bhatt, K.H.

    1974-01-01

    The spectral distribution method of French has been very successful in determining ground state energies and mixing intensities of various irreps of a group near the ground state. For the SU(4) group these methods have been extensively used. The method incorporated actually estimates an upper limit for the mixing and lower amounts of mixing cannot be ruled out. This is beacuse the total variance sigmasup(2) which is composed of sigmasup(2) external and sigmasup(2) internal is used for estimating the amount of mixing. Whereas sigmasup(2) int gives rise to spreading of various irreps, it is only sigmasup(2) ext which leads to symmetry mixing. Better methods of estimating the mixing shall be discussed. (author)

  2. Exposure to selected fragrance materials. A case study of fragrance-mix-positive eczema patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    . In all cases, the use of these cosmetics completely or partly explained present or past episodes of eczema. Between 1 to 6 constituents of the fragrance mix were found in 22 out of 23 products. The cosmetics of all the patients sensitive to hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and alpha......The aim of the present study was to assess exposure to constituents of the fragrance mix from cosmetic products used by fragrance-mix-positive eczema patients. 23 products, which had either given a positive patch and/or use test in a total of 11 fragrance-mix-positive patients, were analyzed....... It is concluded that exposure to constituents of the fragrance mix is common in fragrance-allergic patients with cosmetic eczema, and that the fragrance mix is a good reflection of actual exposure....

  3. Medicare home health: a description of total episodes of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, L G; Goldberg, H B; Cheh, V A; Williams, J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present descriptive information on the characteristics of 2,873 Medicare home health clients, to quantify systematically their patterns of service utilization and allowed charges during a total episode of care, and to clarify the bivariate associations between client characteristics and utilization. The model client was female, 75-84 years of age, living with a spouse, and frail based on a variety of indicators. The mean total episode was approximately 23 visits, with allowed charges of $1,238 (1986 dollars). Specific subgroups of clients, defined by their morbidities and frailties, used identifiable clusters of services. Implications for case-mix models and implications for capitation payments under health care reform are discussed.

  4. Effect of Mixing Process on Polypropylene Modified Bituminous Concrete Mix Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Zainab Habib; Ibrahim Kamaruddin; Madzalan Napiah; Isa Mohd Tan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a research conducted to investigate the effect of mixing process on polypropylene (PP) modified bitumen mixed with well graded aggregate to form modified bituminous concrete mix. Two mode of mixing, namely dry and wet with different concentration of polymer polypropylene was used with 80/100 pen bitumen, to evaluate the bituminous concrete mix properties. Three percentages of polymer varying from 1-3% by the weight of bitumen was used in this study. Three mixes namely cont...

  5. Automated x-ray spectrometer for mixed oxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, M.C.; Goheen, M.W.; Urie, M.W.; Wynhoff, N.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectrometer for the rapid, automated, close-coupled analysis of solid mixed plutonium--uranium oxide fuel pellets. Reasons are given for the system design, which is intended to give a relative precision (RSD) of +-0.3% in a total analysis time of three minutes. The principal problems in an EDX system are in maximizing the plutonium count rates

  6. A Mixed Integer Programming for Port Anzali Development Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdieh Allahviranloo

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a mixed integer programming model to find the optimum development plan for port Anzali. The model minimizes total system costs taking into account both port infrastructure costs and shipping costs. Due to the multipurpose function of the port, the model consists of 1020 decision variables and 2490 constraints. Results of the model determine the optimum number of berths that should be constructed in each period and for each type of cargo. In addition to, the results of se...

  7. Marketing mix - project of a textbook for business academies

    OpenAIRE

    Zatloukalová, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with project of a textbook for business academies. The theme of the chapter of the textbook is marketing mix. The project is made in such a way the students get total information on these problems. The extant of the theme is intended for students of higher classes. The project consists of theoretical part (textbook, exercise book) and practical part (teaching at business academy).

  8. Observation of nonadditive mixed-state phases with polarized neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, Jürgen; Sponar, Stephan; Filipp, Stefan; Lettner, Matthias; Badurek, Gerald; Hasegawa, Yuji

    2008-10-10

    In a neutron polarimetry experiment the mixed-state relative phases between spin eigenstates are determined from the maxima and minima of measured intensity oscillations. We consider evolutions leading to purely geometric, purely dynamical, and combined phases. It is experimentally demonstrated that the sum of the individually determined geometric and dynamical phases is not equal to the associated total phase which is obtained from a single measurement, unless the system is in a pure state.

  9. Sustained improvement of intractable rheumatoid arthritis after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, E.H.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was administered to 11 patients who had intractable rheumatoid arthritis that was unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, including aspirin, multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gold salts, and D-penicillamine. Total lymphoid irradiation was given as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs such as azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. After radiotherapy, 9 of the 11 patients showed a marked improvement in clinical disease activity as measured by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, joint swelling, and overall functional abilities. The mean improvement of disease activity in all patients ranged from 40-70 percent and has persisted throughout a 13-28 month followup period. This improvement permitted the mean daily steroid dose to be reduced by 54%. Complications included severe fatigue and other constitutional symptoms during radiotherapy, development of Felty's syndrome in 1 patient, and an exacerbation of rheumatoid lung disease in another. After therapy, all patients exhibited a profound T lymphocytopenia, and a reversal in their T suppressor/cytotoxic cell to helper cell ratio. The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and allogeneic leukocytes (mixed leukocyte reaction) were markedly reduced, as was in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. Alterations in T cell numbers and function persisted during the entire followup period, except that the mixed leukocyte reaction showed a tendency to return to normal values

  10. [Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings in total hip arthroplasty (THA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentürk, U; Perka, C

    2015-04-01

    The main reason for total hip arthroplasty (THA) revision is the wear-related aseptic loosening. Younger and active patients after total joint replacement create high demands, in particular, on the bearings. The progress, especially for alumina ceramic-on-ceramic bearings and mixed ceramics have solved many problems of the past and lead to good in vitro results. Modern ceramics (alumina or mixed ceramics containing alumina) are extremely hard, scratch-resistant, biocompatible, offer a low coefficient of friction, superior lubrication and have the lowest wear rates in comparison to all other bearings in THA. The disadvantage of ceramic is the risk of material failure, i.e., of ceramic fracture. The new generation of mixed ceramics (delta ceramic), has reduced the risk of head fractures to 0.03-0.05 %, but the risk for liner fractures remains unchanged at about 0.02 %. Assuming a non-impinging component implantation, ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have substantial advantages over all other bearings in THA. Due to the superior hardness, ceramic bearings produce less third body wear and are virtually impervious to damage from instruments during the implantation process. A specific complication for ceramic-on-ceramic bearings is "squeaking". The high rate of reported squeaking (0.45 to 10.7 %) highlights the importance of precise implant positioning and the stem and patient selection. With precise implant positioning this problem is rare with many implant designs and without clinical relevance. The improved tribology and the presumable resulting implant longevity make ceramic-on-ceramic the bearing of choice for young and active patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Neutrino mixing, flavor states and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, M.; Capolupo, A.; Capozziello, S.; Vitiello, G.

    2008-01-01

    We shortly summarize the quantum field theory formalism for the neutrino mixing and report on recent results showing that the vacuum condensate induced by neutrino mixing can be interpreted as a dark energy component of the Universe

  12. A review of warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology, recently developed in Europe, is gaining strong interest in the US. By : lowering the viscosity of asphalt binder and/or increasing the workability of mixture using minimal heat, WMA : technology allows the mixing, ...

  13. Understanding Mixed Emotions: Paradigms and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibig, Sylvia D.; Gross, James J.

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we examine the paradigms and measures available for experimentally studying mixed emotions in the laboratory. For eliciting mixed emotions, we describe a mixed emotions film library that allows for the repeated elicitation of a specific homogeneous mixed emotional state and appropriately matched pure positive, pure negative, and neutral emotional states. For assessing mixed emotions, we consider subjective and objective measures that fall into univariate, bivariate, and multivariate measurement categories. As paradigms and measures for objectively studying mixed emotions are still in their early stages, we conclude by outlining future directions that focus on the reliability, temporal dynamics, and response coherence of mixed emotions paradigms and measures. This research will build a strong foundation for future studies and significantly advance our understanding of mixed emotions. PMID:28804752

  14. Qualitative and mixed methods in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padgett, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    "This text has a large emphasis on mixed methods, examples relating to health research, new exercises pertaining to health research, and an introduction on qualitative and mixed methods in public health...

  15. Panel-basierte Mixed-Methods-Studien

    OpenAIRE

    Legewie, Nicolas; Tucci, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-Methods-Studien erfreuen sich wachsender Beliebtheit. Immer mehr Studien nutzen dabei auch Panel-basierte Mixed-Methods-Designs, in denen bestehende Längsschnittstudien durch qualitative Befragungsformen ergänzt werden. Innerhalb der reichhaltigen Veröffentlichungen zum Thema Mixed-Methods-Forschung finden sich bisher aber kaum Diskussionen solcher Mixed-Methods-Designs. Im vorliegenden Artikel diskutieren wir Design, Durchführung, sowie Potenzialeund Herausforderungen von Panel-basiert...

  16. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O`Brien, M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Rudin, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ferguson, J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McFee, J. [I.T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  17. Bounding CKM mixing with a fourth family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    CKM mixing between third-family quarks and a possible fourth family is constrained by global fits to the precision electroweak data. The dominant constraint is from nondecoupling oblique corrections rather than the vertex correction to Z→bb used in previous analyses. The possibility of large mixing suggested by some recent analyses of flavor-changing neutral-current processes is excluded, but 3-4 mixing of the same order as the Cabbibo mixing of the first two families is allowed.

  18. Marketing Mix sebagai Alat Pembeda dalam Persaingan

    OpenAIRE

    Pura A, Agus Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Marketers must not only formulate the broad strategies to achieve its marketing objectives but also plan marketing mix programs. Many good strategies fail when it comes to development of specific marketing - mix tactics. Decision must be made to transform marketing strategy to marketing mix and to provide competitive advantageous in the competitive market place and in the same time to provide what market needs. Key words : Integrated Marketing, Marketing Mix, Differentiation, Customer Valu...

  19. Marketingový mix Fitbox Kladno

    OpenAIRE

    Šíma, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Title: MARKETING MIX OF FIT BOX KLADNO Aims: The aim of this thesis is to collect information on the operation of the marketing mix from the customers and managers point of view. Based on these findings new proposal and recommendations were suggested in order to improve existing marketing mix. Methods: The analysis of marketing mix was performed by marketing research through questionnaire, interview and observation. Results: According to the results customers are least satisfied with changing...

  20. Moments, Mixed Methods, and Paradigm Dialogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K.

    2010-01-01

    I reread the 50-year-old history of the qualitative inquiry that calls for triangulation and mixed methods. I briefly visit the disputes within the mixed methods community asking how did we get to where we are today, the period of mixed-multiple-methods advocacy, and Teddlie and Tashakkori's third methodological moment. (Contains 10 notes.)

  1. Qualitative Approaches to Mixed Methods Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how methodological practices can shape and limit how mixed methods is practiced and makes visible the current methodological assumptions embedded in mixed methods practice that can shut down a range of social inquiry. The article argues that there is a "methodological orthodoxy" in how mixed methods is practiced…

  2. Pragmatism, Evidence, and Mixed Methods Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jori N.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods evaluation has a long-standing history of enhancing the credibility of evaluation findings. However, using mixed methods in a utilitarian way implicitly emphasizes convenience over engaging with its philosophical underpinnings (Denscombe, 2008). Because of this, some mixed methods evaluators and social science researchers have been…

  3. The crack growth mechanism in asphaltic mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.M.J.; Hopman, P.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The crack growth mechanism in asphalt concrete (Ac) mixes is studied. In cyclic tests on several asphaltic mixes crack growth is measured, both with crack foils and with cOD-gauges. It is found that crack growth in asphaltic mixes is described by three processes which are parallel in time: cohesive

  4. MARKETING MIX: AN ATTEMPT AT CRITICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kotliarov I.D.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper contains an analysis of main directions of evolution of marketing mix concept. Typical problems of each approach are demonstrated. Classical form of marketing mix (4Ps) is recommended as the basic form of marketing mix, which, however, may be adapted to specific characteristics of the firm and its industry

  5. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  6. 7 CFR 51.2112 - Mixed varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed varieties. 51.2112 Section 51.2112 Agriculture... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Mixed Varieties § 51.2112 Mixed varieties. Any lot of shelled...

  7. 1.5. The concrete mix properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, D.Kh.

    2011-01-01

    Different properties of concrete mix, including connectivity, mobility and water demand were considered in this work. The steps of water demand of concrete mix obtained from Portland cement, sand and gravel are presented in this work. The classification of concrete mixes is presented as well.

  8. Patch testing with constituents of Compositae mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    Background. The development of mixes containing Compositae plant extracts has improved the diagnosis of Compositae contact allergy, but none of them has fulfilled the criteria for an ideal European plant mix. Objective. To evaluate which constituents of two commercial Compositae mixes were most u...

  9. Unambiguous discrimination of mixed quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Feng Yuan; Ying Mingsheng

    2006-01-01

    The problem of unambiguous discrimination between mixed quantum states is addressed by isolating the part of each mixed state which has no contribution to discrimination and by employing the strategy of set discrimination of pure states. A necessary and sufficient condition of unambiguous mixed state discrimination is presented. An upper bound of the efficiency is also derived

  10. ERIC/EECE Report. Mixed Age Grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes eight recent ERIC documents and seven journal articles on mixed-age grouping. Includes discussions of teaching in the multiage classroom, Kentucky's Primary Program, developmentally appropriate practices in the primary grades, thematic instruction, attitudes toward mixed-age grouping, and questions and answers about mixed-age grouping.…

  11. Patch testing with the "sesquiterpene lactone mix"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducombs, G; Benezra, C; Talaga, P

    1990-01-01

    6278 patients were patch tested with a sesquiterpene lactone mix (SL-mix) in 10 European clinics. 4011 patients were tested only with 0.1% SL-mix, 63 (approximately 1.5%) of whom were positive, with 26 (41%) of these cases being considered clinically relevant. There were no cases of active...

  12. The fragrance mix and its constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1995-01-01

    Results from 14 years of patch testing with the fragrance mix and its constituents are reviewed. From 1979-1992, 8215 consecutive patients were patch tested with the fragrance mix and 449 (5.5%) had a positive reaction. An increase in the frequency of reactions to fragrance mix was seen from the ...

  13. Benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Suk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system are uncommon, but potentially life-threatening and are often difficult to diagnose. Among primary lacrimal sac tumors, benign mixed tumors are extremely rare. Histologically, benign mixed tumors have been classified as a type of benign epithelial tumor. Here we report a case of benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac.

  14. Mixed labelling in multitarget particle filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Y.; Sviestins, Egils; Driessen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The so-called mixed labelling problem inherent to a joint state multitarget particle filter implementation is treated. The mixed labelling problem would be prohibitive for track extraction from a joint state multitarget particle filter. It is shown, using the theory of Markov chains, that the mixed

  15. Hyperon-mixed neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Hyperon mixing in neutron star matter is investigated by the G-matrix-based effective interaction approach under the attention to use the YN and the YY potentials compatible with hypernuclear data and is shown to occur at densities relevant to neutron star cores, together with discussions to clarify the mechanism of hyperon contamination. It is remarked that developed Y-mixed phase causes a dramatic softening of the neutron star equation of state and leads to the serious problem that the resulting maximum mass M max for neutron star model contradicts the observed neutron star mass (M max obs = 1.44 M Θ ), suggesting the necessity of some extra repulsion'' in hypernuclear system. It is shown that the introduction of three-body repulsion similar to that in nuclear system can resolve the serious situation and under the consistency with observation (M max > M obs ) the threshold densities for Λ and Σ - are pushed to higher density side, from 2ρ 0 to ∼ 4ρ 0 (ρ 0 being the nuclear density). On the basis of a realistic Y-mixed neutron star model, occurrence of Y-superfluidity essential for ''hyperon cooling'' scenario is studied and both of Λ- and Σ - -superfluids are shown to be realized with their critical temperatures 10 8-9 K, meaning that the hyperon cooling'' is a promising candidate for a fast non-standard cooling demanded for some neutron stars with low surface temperature. A comment is given as to the consequence of less attractive ΛΛ interaction suggested by the ''NAGARA event'' ΛΛ 6 He. (author)

  16. Mixed embeddedness and rural entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferguson, Richard; Gaddefors, Johan; Korsgaard, Steffen

    Entrepreneurship is a key driver of development in rural areas. Some studies have shown that in-migrants and returnees are overrepresented among rural entrepreneurs, and that their entrepreneurship might be more important for local development than the efforts of local entrepreneurs, at least...... in terms of economic value creation. Other studies have shown that local embeddedness is a significant source of opportunities for rural entrepreneurs, yet at the same time, over-embeddedness can inhibit entrepreneurial activities. These contrasting studies suggest that some form of mixed embeddedness...

  17. Stochastic mechanics of mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaekel, M.T.; Pignon, D.

    1984-01-01

    Nelson's stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics is extended from the case of pure states to that of mixed states. It is shown that a pure probabilistic formalism, which applies the Newton-Nelson Law to the initial position and velocity distributions, does not reproduce the time evolution predicted by quantum mechanics. In order to recover the latter, a new notion must be introduced, that of pure quantum states, over which the mixture has to be decomposed, and which then satisfy the Newton-Nelson Law independently. (author)

  18. Mathematical study of mixing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagoutiere, F.; Despres, B.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the construction and the study of a class of models that describe the behavior of compressible and non-reactive Eulerian fluid mixtures. Mixture models can have two different applications. Either they are used to describe physical mixtures, in the case of a true zone of extensive mixing (but then this modelization is incomplete and must be considered only as a point of departure for the elaboration of models of mixtures actually relevant). Either they are used to solve the problem of the numerical mixture. This problem appears during the discretization of an interface which separates fluids having laws of different state: the zone of numerical mixing is the set of meshes which cover the interface. The attention is focused on numerical mixtures, for which the hypothesis of non-miscibility (physics) will bring two equations (the sixth and the eighth of the system). It is important to emphasize that even in the case of the only numerical mixture, the presence in one and same place (same mesh) of several fluids have to be taken into account. This will be formalized by the possibility for mass fractions to take all values between 0 and 1. This is not at odds with the equations that derive from the hypothesis of non-miscibility. One way of looking at things is to consider that there are two scales of observation: the physical scale at which one observes the separation of fluids, and the numerical scale, given by the fineness of the mesh, to which a mixture appears. In this work, mixtures are considered from the mathematical angle (both in the elaboration phase and during their study). In particular, Chapter 5 shows a result of model degeneration for a non-extended mixing zone (case of an interface): this justifies the use of models in the case of numerical mixing. All these models are based on the classical model of non-viscous compressible fluids recalled in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, the central point of the elaboration of the class of models is

  19. Flavor mixing and charm decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau Wang, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    The results of mixing matrix determination and their implications on heavy quark decays are given. The decays of charm mesons D 0 , D + , F + into two pseudoscalar mesons are discussed in the framework of SU(3) symmetry. The charm decays are also discussed in terms of quark diagrams. It is demonstrated that the differences observed in the lifetimes of D 0 and D + , and in the branching ratios B(D 0 → K - K + ) and B(D 0 → π - π + ) can be easily incorporated. 3 figures

  20. A comparison of new measurements of total monoterpene flux with improved measurements of speciated monoterpene flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many monoterpenes have been identified in forest emissions using gas chromatography (GC. Until now, it has been impossible to determine whether all monoterpenes are appropriately measured using GC techniques. We used a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS coupled with the eddy covariance (EC technique to measure mixing ratios and fluxes of total monoterpenes above a ponderosa pine plantation. We compared PTR-MS-EC results with simultaneous measurements of eight speciated monoterpenes, β-pinene, α-pinene, 3-carene, d-limonene, β-phellandrene, α-terpinene, camphene, and terpinolene, made with an automated, in situ gas chromatograph with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID, coupled to a relaxed eddy accumulation system (REA. Monoterpene mixing ratios and fluxes measured by PTR-MS averaged 30±2.3% and 31±9.2% larger than by GC-FID, with larger mixing ratio discrepancies between the two techniques at night than during the day. Two unidentified peaks that correlated with β-pinene were resolved in the chromatograms and completely accounted for the daytime difference and reduced the nighttime mixing ratio difference to 20±2.9%. Measurements of total monoterpenes by PTR-MS-EC indicated that GC-FID-REA measured the common, longer-lived monoterpenes well, but that additional terpenes were emitted from the ecosystem that represented an important contribution to the total mixing ratio above the forest at night.

  1. Tank 241-AZ-101 criticality assessment resulting from pump jet mixing: Sludge mixing simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.

    1997-04-01

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) is one of 28 double-shell tanks located in the AZ farm in the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area. The tank contains a significant quantity of fissile materials, including an estimated 9.782 kg of plutonium. Before beginning jet pump mixing for mitigative purposes, the operations must be evaluated to demonstrate that they will be subcritical under both normal and credible abnormal conditions. The main objective of this study was to address a concern about whether two 300-hp pumps with four rotating 18.3-m/s (60-ft/s) jets can concentrate plutonium in their pump housings during mixer pump operation and cause a criticality. The three-dimensional simulation was performed with the time-varying TEMPEST code to determine how much the pump jet mixing of Tank AZ-101 will concentrate plutonium in the pump housing. The AZ-101 model predicted that the total amount of plutonium within the pump housing peaks at 75 g at 10 simulation seconds and decreases to less than 10 g at four minutes. The plutonium concentration in the entire pump housing peaks at 0.60 g/L at 10 simulation seconds and is reduced to below 0.1 g/L after four minutes. Since the minimum critical concentration of plutonium is 2.6 g/L, and the minimum critical plutonium mass under idealized plutonium-water conditions is 520 g, these predicted maximums in the pump housing are much lower than the minimum plutonium conditions needed to reach a criticality level. The initial plutonium maximum of 1.88 g/L still results in safety factor of 4.3 in the pump housing during the pump jet mixing operation.

  2. Tank 241-AZ-101 criticality assessment resulting from pump jet mixing: Sludge mixing simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.

    1997-04-01

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) is one of 28 double-shell tanks located in the AZ farm in the Hanford Site's 200 East Area. The tank contains a significant quantity of fissile materials, including an estimated 9.782 kg of plutonium. Before beginning jet pump mixing for mitigative purposes, the operations must be evaluated to demonstrate that they will be subcritical under both normal and credible abnormal conditions. The main objective of this study was to address a concern about whether two 300-hp pumps with four rotating 18.3-m/s (60-ft/s) jets can concentrate plutonium in their pump housings during mixer pump operation and cause a criticality. The three-dimensional simulation was performed with the time-varying TEMPEST code to determine how much the pump jet mixing of Tank AZ-101 will concentrate plutonium in the pump housing. The AZ-101 model predicted that the total amount of plutonium within the pump housing peaks at 75 g at 10 simulation seconds and decreases to less than 10 g at four minutes. The plutonium concentration in the entire pump housing peaks at 0.60 g/L at 10 simulation seconds and is reduced to below 0.1 g/L after four minutes. Since the minimum critical concentration of plutonium is 2.6 g/L, and the minimum critical plutonium mass under idealized plutonium-water conditions is 520 g, these predicted maximums in the pump housing are much lower than the minimum plutonium conditions needed to reach a criticality level. The initial plutonium maximum of 1.88 g/L still results in safety factor of 4.3 in the pump housing during the pump jet mixing operation

  3. Quark mixing and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    These lectures present a pedagogical introduction to the topics quark mixing and CP violation. They explain how the mixing matrix comes about and reviews the values of constraints for its elements. The second chapter reviews the CP transformation properties of amplitudes and defines the quantities which are measured in the experiments. Then it reviews the theory of CP violation in the standard model. In addition to the phase and the angles introduced through the flavor matrix, numerical predictions also depend (a) on hadronic matrix elements of weak current operators and (b) the short distance expansion of effective Hamiltonians computed by methods of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). I also review these topics and present predictions for (ε'/ε) which are shown to be consistent with the experiments. Last but not least, the article is divided into sections which are as self-contained as possible. The article assumes a general knowledge of the electroweak theory. For guidance, the interested reader will find a table of contents at the end of the text. (author). 29 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  4. [Mixed states: evolution of classifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringuey, D; Cherikh, F; Giordana, B; Fakra, E; Dassa, D; Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Maurel, M; Azorin, J-M

    2013-12-01

    The nosological position of mixed states has followed the course of classifying methods in psychiatry, the steps of the invention of the clinic, progress in the organization of care, including the discoveries of psychopharmacology. The clinical observation of a mixture of symptoms emerging from usually opposite clinical conditions is classical. In the 70s, a syndromic specification fixed the main symptom combinations but that incongruous assortment failed to stabilize the nosological concept. Then stricter criteriology was proposed. To be too restrictive, a consensus operates a dimensional opening that attempts to meet the pragmatic requirements of nosology validating the usefulness of the class system. This alternation between rigor of categorization and return to a more flexible criteriological option reflects the search for the right balance between nosology and diagnosis. The definition of mixed states is best determined by their clinical and prognostic severity, related to the risk of suicide, their lower therapeutic response, the importance of their psychiatric comorbidities, anxiety, emotional lability, alcohol abuse. Trying to compensate for the lack of categorical definitions and better reflecting the clinical field problems, new definitions complement criteriology with dimensional aspects, particularly taking into account temperaments. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  5. Mixing in straight shear layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasso, P. S.; Mungal, M. G.

    1992-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements were performed in a liquid plane mixing layer to extract the probability density function (pdf) of the mixture fraction of a passive scalar across the layer. Three Reynolds number (Re) cases were studied, 10,000, 33,000 and 90,000, with Re based on velocity difference and visual thickness. The results show that a non-marching pdf (central hump invariant from edge to edge of the layer) exists for Re = 10,000 but that a marching type pdf characterizes the Re = 33,000 and Re = 90,000 cases. For all cases, a broad range of mixture fraction values is found at each location across the layer. Streamwise and spanwise ramps across the layer, and structure-to-structure variation were observed and are believed to be responsible for the above behavior of the composition field. Tripping the boundary layer on the high-speed side of the splitter plate for each of the above three cases resulted in increased three-dimensionality and a change in the composition field. Average and average mixed fluid compositions are reported for all cases.

  6. Radioactivity reveals how crisps mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2000-01-01

    Many of the ''fluids'' processed in the food industry have strange flow properties that cannot easily be predicted. This is an important question in industry, since engineers need to know how such systems flow through pipes in production plants or how different components mix together. To counter this lack of knowledge, the fluids are generally processed for longer than necessary, which often proves expensive and may affect the quality of the final product. The University of Birmingham Positron Imaging Centre has developed a powerful technique to study the behaviour of crisps, yoghurt and ice cream - together with many other granular materials and viscous fluids - in a variety of industrial processes. In one case, the group labelled a single crisp using a positron-emitting radioisotope and added it to a rotating drum full of crisps. By tracking the movement of the labelled crisp, they could determine how uniformly the crisps were exposed to the flavouring that was added in the mixing process. In this article the author describes the research at the university's Positron Imaging Centre. (UK)

  7. Radioactivity reveals how crisps mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, David

    2000-01-01

    Many of the ''fluids'' processed in the food industry have strange flow properties that cannot easily be predicted. This is an important question in industry, since engineers need to know how such systems flow through pipes in production plants or how different components mix together. To counter this lack of knowledge, the fluids are generally processed for longer than necessary, which often proves expensive and may affect the quality of the final product. The University of Birmingham Positron Imaging Centre has developed a powerful technique to study the behaviour of crisps, yoghurt and ice cream - together with many other granular materials and viscous fluids - in a variety of industrial processes. In one case, the group labelled a single crisp using a positron-emitting radioisotope and added it to a rotating drum full of crisps. By tracking the movement of the labelled crisp, they could determine how uniformly the crisps were exposed to the flavouring that was added in the mixing process. In this article the author describes the research at the university's Positron Imaging Centre. (UK)

  8. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization

  9. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-07-06

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.

  10. Vertical mixing by Langmuir circulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, James C.; Sullivan, Peter P.

    2001-01-01

    Wind and surface wave frequently induce Langmuir circulations (LC) in the upper ocean, and the LC contribute to mixing materials down from the surface. In this paper we analyze large-eddy simulation (LES) cases based on surface-wave-averaged, dynamical equations and show that the effect of the LC is a great increase in the vertical mixing efficiency for both material properties and momentum. We provide new confirmation that the previously proposed K-profile parameterization (KPP) model accurately characterizes the turbulent transport in a weakly convective, wind-driven boundary layer with stable interior stratification. We also propose a modest generalization of KPP for the regime of weakly convective Langmuir turbulence. This makes the KPP turbulent flux profiles match those in the LES case with LC present fairly well, especially so for material properties being transported downwards from the ocean surface. However, some open issues remain about how well the present LES and KPP formulations represent Langmuir turbulence, in part because wave-breaking effects are not yet included. (Author)

  11. Mixing audio concepts, practices and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Izhaki, Roey

    2013-01-01

    Your mix can make or break a record, and mixing is an essential catalyst for a record deal. Professional engineers with exceptional mixing skills can earn vast amounts of money and find that they are in demand by the biggest acts. To develop such skills, you need to master both the art and science of mixing. The new edition of this bestselling book offers all you need to know and put into practice in order to improve your mixes. Covering the entire process --from fundamental concepts to advanced techniques -- and offering a multitude of audio samples, tips and tricks, this boo

  12. Theoretical Models of Neutrino Mixing Recent Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido

    2009-01-01

    The data on neutrino mixing are at present compatible with Tri-Bimaximal (TB) mixing. If one takes this indication seriously then the models that lead to TB mixing in first approximation are particularly interesting and A4 models are prominent in this list. However, the agreement of TB mixing with the data could still be an accident. We discuss a recent model based on S4 where Bimaximal mixing is instead valid at leading order and the large corrections needed to reproduce the data arise from the diagonalization of charged leptons. The value of $\\theta_{13}$ could distinguish between the two alternatives.

  13. Mixing parametrizations for ocean climate modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Moshonkin, Sergey; Diansky, Nikolay; Zalesny, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The algorithm is presented of splitting the total evolutionary equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulence dissipation frequency (TDF), which is used to parameterize the viscosity and diffusion coefficients in ocean circulation models. The turbulence model equations are split into the stages of transport-diffusion and generation-dissipation. For the generation-dissipation stage, the following schemes are implemented: the explicit-implicit numerical scheme, analytical solution and the asymptotic behavior of the analytical solutions. The experiments were performed with different mixing parameterizations for the modelling of Arctic and the Atlantic climate decadal variability with the eddy-permitting circulation model INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) using vertical grid refinement in the zone of fully developed turbulence. The proposed model with the split equations for turbulence characteristics is similar to the contemporary differential turbulence models, concerning the physical formulations. At the same time, its algorithm has high enough computational efficiency. Parameterizations with using the split turbulence model make it possible to obtain more adequate structure of temperature and salinity at decadal timescales, compared to the simpler Pacanowski-Philander (PP) turbulence parameterization. Parameterizations with using analytical solution or numerical scheme at the generation-dissipation step of the turbulence model leads to better representation of ocean climate than the faster parameterization using the asymptotic behavior of the analytical solution. At the same time, the computational efficiency left almost unchanged relative to the simple PP parameterization. Usage of PP parametrization in the circulation model leads to realistic simulation of density and circulation with violation of T,S-relationships. This error is majorly avoided with using the proposed parameterizations containing the split turbulence model

  14. Expansion of lymph node metastasis in mixed-type submucosal invasive gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Koji; Hirano, Yukiko; Futami, Kitaro; Maekawa, Takafumi

    2017-07-18

    Mixed-type early gastric cancer (differentiated and undifferentiated components) incurs a higher risk of lymph node metastasis than pure-type early gastric cancer (only differentiated or only undifferentiated components). Therefore, we investigated the expansion of lymph node metastasis in mixed-type submucosal invasive gastric cancer in order to establish the most appropriate treatment for mixed-type cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 279 consecutive patients with submucosal invasive gastric cancer who underwent curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer between 1996 and 2015. We classified the patients into the mixed-type and pure-type groups according to histologic examination and evaluated the expansion of lymph node metastasis. The rate of lymph node metastasis was 23.7% (66/279) in the total patients, 36.4% (36/99) in the mixed-type group, and 16.6% (30/180) in the pure-type group. The significant independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis were tumor size ≥2.0 cm (P = 0.014), mixed-type gastric cancer (P mixed-type group. The rates of no. 7 lymph node metastasis in the total patients and mixed-type group were 2.9% (8/279) and 5.1% (5/99), respectively; the rates of no. 8a lymph node metastasis were 1.4% (4/279) and 4.0% (4/99), respectively. Mixed histological type is an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis. Lymph node metastasis in mixed-type gastric cancer involves expansion to the no. 7 and no. 8a lymph nodes. Therefore, lymphadenectomy for mixed-type submucosal invasive gastric cancer requires D1+ or D2 dissection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  15. Collaboration Patterns as a Function of Article Genre among Mixed Researchers: A Mixed Methods Bibliometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, John; Wachsmann, Melanie; Hoisington, Susan; Gonzalez, Vanessa; Valle, Rachel; Lambert, Jarod; Aleisa, Majed; Wilcox, Rachael; Benge, Cindy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Surprisingly, scant information exists regarding the collaboration patterns of mixed methods researchers. Thus, the purpose of this mixed methods bibliometric study was to examine (a) the distribution of the number of co-authors in articles published in the flagship mixed methods research journal (i.e., "Journal of Mixed Methods…

  16. PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert

    2008-10-01

    The goals of the International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' are to expose the generic problem of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing in Unsteady Flows to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the non-canonical turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together scientists from the areas which include, but are not limited to, high energy density physics, plasmas, fluid dynamics, turbulence, combustion, material science, geophysics, astrophysics, optics and telecommunications, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task. The Turbulent Mixing and Turbulence in Unsteady Flows, including multiphase flows, plays a key role in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from astrophysical to nano-scales, under either high or low energy density conditions. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, properties of materials under high strain rates, strong shocks, explosions, blast waves, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, oceanography, atmospheric flows, unsteady boundary layers, hypersonic and supersonic flows, are a few examples to list. A grip on unsteady turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser-micromachining and free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in aeronautics. Unsteady Turbulent Processes are anisotropic, non-local and multi-scale, and their fundamental scaling, spectral and invariant properties depart from the classical Kolmogorov scenario. The singular aspects and similarity of the

  17. Limits to fuel/coolant mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.; Moses, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor explosion process involves the mixing of fuel with coolant prior to the explosion. A number of analysts have identified limits to the amount of fuel/coolant mixing that could occur within the reactor vessel following a core melt accident. Past models are reviewed and a sim plified approach is suggested to estimate the upper limit on the amount of fuel/coolant mixing pos sible. The approach uses concepts first advanced by Fauske in a different way. The results indicat that water depth is an important parameter as well as the mixing length scale D /SUB mix/ , and for large values of D /SUB mix/ the fuel mass mixed is limited to <7% of the core mass

  18. Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global drought total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross Domestic...

  19. Chinese National Strategy of Total War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Good, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    ... concept of total warfare. This research seeks to determine if China is currently engaged in a total war with the United States across nontraditional forms of conflict including economic, political, information, financial...

  20. Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters

  1. Asymmetric total synthesis of cladosporin and isocladosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huaiji; Zhao, Changgui; Fang, Bowen; Jing, Peng; Yang, Juan; Xie, Xingang; She, Xuegong

    2012-07-06

    The first asymmetric total syntheses of cladosporin and isocladosporin were accomplished in 8 steps with 8% overall yield and 10 steps with 26% overall yield, respectively. The relative configuration of isocladosporin was determined via this total synthesis.

  2. Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross...

  3. TUW at the First Total Recall Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    TUW AT THE FIRST TOTAL RECALL TRACK MIHAI LUPU Abstract. For the first participation in the TREC Total Recall track, we set out to try some basic...significantly and consistently outperformed it. 1. Introduction As the organizers point out, the focus of the Total Recall Track is to evaluate methods to...TUW AT THE FIRST TOTAL RECALL TRACK 3 The only change we made was at a higher level. The Sofia ML library provides 5 more ML algorithms. The following

  4. Generic evolution of mixing in heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreuzy, J.; Carrera, J.; Dentz, M.; Le Borgne, T.

    2011-12-01

    Mixing in heterogeneous media results from the competition bewteen flow fluctuations and local scale diffusion. Flow fluctuations quickly create concentration contrasts and thus heterogeneity of the concentration field, which is slowly homogenized by local scale diffusion. Mixing first deviates from Gaussian mixing, which represents the potential mixing induced by spreading before approaching it. This deviation fundamentally expresses the evolution of the interaction between spreading and local scale diffusion. We characterize it by the ratio γ of the non-Gaussian to the Gaussian mixing states. We define the Gaussian mixing state as the integrated squared concentration of the Gaussian plume that has the same longitudinal dispersion as the real plume. The non-Gaussian mixing state is the difference between the overall mixing state defined as the integrated squared concentration and the Gaussian mixing state. The main advantage of this definition is to use the full knowledge previously acquired on dispersion for characterizing mixing even when the solute concentration field is highly non Gaussian. Using high precision numerical simulations, we show that γ quickly increases, peaks and slowly decreases. γ can be derived from two scales characterizing spreading and local mixing, at least for large flux-weighted solute injection conditions into classically log-normal Gaussian correlated permeability fields. The spreading scale is directly related to the longitudinal dispersion. The local mixing scale is the largest scale over which solute concentrations can be considered locally uniform. More generally, beyond the characteristics of its maximum, γ turns out to have a highly generic scaling form. Its fast increase and slow decrease depend neither on the heterogeneity level, nor on the ratio of diffusion to advection, nor on the injection conditions. They might even not depend on the particularities of the flow fields as the same generic features also prevail for

  5. What is the optimum social marketing mix to market energy conservation behaviour: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheau-Ting, Low; Mohammed, Abdul Hakim; Weng-Wai, Choong

    2013-12-15

    This study attempts to identify the optimum social marketing mix for marketing energy conservation behaviour to students in Malaysian universities. A total of 2000 students from 5 major Malaysian universities were invited to provide their preferred social marketing mix. A choice-based conjoint analysis identified a mix of five social marketing attributes to promote energy conservation behaviour; the mix is comprised of the attributes of Product, Price, Place, Promotion, and Post-purchase Maintenance. Each attribute of the mix is associated with a list of strategies. The Product and Post-purchase Maintenance attributes were identified by students as the highest priority attributes in the social marketing mix for energy conservation behaviour marketing, with shares of 27.12% and 27.02%, respectively. The least preferred attribute in the mix is Promotion, with a share of 11.59%. This study proposes an optimal social marketing mix to university management when making decisions about marketing energy conservation behaviour to students, who are the primary energy consumers in the campus. Additionally, this study will assist university management to efficiently allocate scarce resources in fulfilling its social responsibility and to overcome marketing shortcomings by selecting the right marketing mix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinants of total and available phosphorus in forested Alfisols and Ultisols of the Ozark Highlands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbir Singh; Keith W. Goyne; John M. Kabrick

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus is an important nutrient limiting forest growth in many parts of world, and soil P forms and concentrations may be associated with a host of soil and environmental attributes in a complex soil landscape. The objective of this study was to identify key environmental and soil properties influencing total and available soil P concentrations in a mixed oak (

  7. Comparative evolution of coagulation disorders in baboons and Pigs after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destombe, C.; Lefleche, P.; Veyret, J.; Grasseau, A.; Agay, D.; Mestries, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Acute total body irradiation in pigs, with a lethal dose of either gamma or mixed gamma-neutron radiation, induced similar plasmatic coagulation disorders as those observed in baboons. These data validated pathophysiological hypothesis which were developed during previous studies, but do not support the idea of a possible species specific radiosensitivity. (author)

  8. Assessing adrenal insufficiency of corticosteroid secretion using free versus total cortisol levels in critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, N.; Groeneveld, A.B.J.; Dijstelbloem, H.M.; de Jong, M.F.C.; Girbes, A.R.J.; Heijboer, A.C.; Beishuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the value of free versus total cortisol levels in assessing relative adrenal insufficiency during critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Methods: A prospective study in a mixed intensive care unit from 2004 to 2007. We consecutively included 49 septic and 63

  9. Assessing adrenal insufficiency of corticosteroid secretion using free versus total cortisol levels in critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Nienke; Johan Groeneveld, A. B.; Dijstelbloem, Hilde M.; de Jong, Margriet F. C.; Girbes, Armand R. J.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Beishuizen, Albertus

    2011-01-01

    To study the value of free versus total cortisol levels in assessing relative adrenal insufficiency during critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. A prospective study in a mixed intensive care unit from 2004 to 2007. We consecutively included 49 septic and 63 non-septic patients with

  10. Ammonia, total reduced sulfides, and greenhouse gases of pine chip and corn stover bedding packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedding materials may affect air quality in livestock facilities. The objective of this study was to compare headspace concentrations of ammonia (NH3), total reduced sulfides (TRS), carbon dioxide (CO2),methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) when pine wood chips and corn stover were mixed in various...

  11. Oil mixes omega 9, 6 and 3, enriched with seaweed, promoted reduction of thermal burned modulating NF-kB and Ki-67

    OpenAIRE

    Campelo, Ana Paula Bomfim Soares; Campelo, Márcio Wilker Soares; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo Fechine; Leitão, Renata Ferreira de Carvalho; Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão de

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the effects of the oil mixes (ω-9, ω-6 and ω-3) in rats subjected to thermal burn. It was also aimed to assess whether the sources of ω3 would interfere with the effect of such mixes on the thermal injury.METHODS:Thirty-six rats distributed into five groups: burned + water, burned + isolipid mix, burned + oil mix 1 (ALA), burned + oil mix 2 (ALA + EPA + DHA of fish) and burned + oil mix 3 (ALA + DHA from seaweed). The thermal injury was involving total ...

  12. Thermodynamic and Interfacial Properties of DTABr/CTABr Mixed Surfactant Systems in Ethanolamine/Water Mixtures: A Conductometry Study

    OpenAIRE

    Esan, Olaseni Segun; Osundiya, Medinat Olubunmi; Aboluwoye, Christopher Olumuyiwa; Olanrewaju, Owoyomi; Ige, Jide

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-micelle formation in the binary mixtures of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTABr) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) surfactants in water-ethanolamine mixed solvent systems has been studied by conductometric method in the temperature range of 298.1 to 313.1 K at 5 K intervals. It was observed that the presence of ethanolamine forced the formation of mixed micelle to lower total surfactant concentration than in water only. The synergistic interaction was quantitatively investi...

  13. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL's waste streams and their potential treatment strategies

  14. Mixed oxide fuel pellet and manufacturing method thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuda, Ryoichi; Ito, Ken-ichi; Masuda, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellets which comprises compression molding a mixed oxide powder containing UO 2 and PuO 2 followed by sintering, a sintering agent having a composition comprising about 40 to 80 wt% of SiO 2 and the balance of Al 2 O 3 is mixed to a mixed oxide at a ratio of about 40ppm to about 0.5 wt% based on the total amount of the mixed oxide and the sintering agent, to prepare a mixture. The mixture is molded into a compression product and then sintered at a weakly acidic atmosphere at a temperature of about 1500degC to 1800degC. With such procedures, the sintering agent forms an eutectic product of a single liquid phase, PuO 2 is dispersed over the entire region of the pellet by way of the liquid phase, formation of a solid solution phase is promoted to annihilate a free PuO 2 phase. Further, growth of crystal grains is promoted. Accordingly, since the MOX fuel pellets prepared according to the present invention have a uniform solid solution state, and no free PuO 2 phase remains, increase of FP gas emission due to local nuclear fission of Pu can be avoided. (T.M.)

  15. Hybrid electrokinetic method applied to mix contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, H.; Maria, E. [Dept. of Building Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Several industrials and municipal areas in North America are contaminated with heavy metals and petroleum products. This mix contamination presents a particularly difficult task for remediation when is exposed in clayey soil. The objective of this research was to find a method to cleanup mix contaminated clayey soils. Finally, a multifunctional hybrid electrokinetic method was investigated. Clayey soil was contaminated with lead and nickel (heavy metals) at the level of 1000 ppm and phenanthrene (PAH) of 600 ppm. Electrokinetic surfactant supply system was applied to mobilize, transport and removal of phenanthrene. A chelation agent (EDTA) was also electrokinetically supplied to mobilize heavy metals. The studies were performed on 8 lab scale electrokinetic cells. The mix contaminated clayey soil was subjected to DC total voltage gradient of 0.3 V/cm. Supplied liquids (surfactant and EDTA) were introduced in different periods of time (22 days, 42 days) in order to optimize the most excessive removal of contaminants. The ph, electrical parameters, volume supplied, and volume discharged was monitored continuously during each experiment. At the end of these tests soil and cathalyte were subjected to physico-chemical analysis. The paper discusses results of experiments including the optimal energy use, removal efficiency of phenanthrene, as well, transport and removal of heavy metals. The results of this study can be applied for in-situ hybrid electrokinetic technology to remediate clayey sites contaminated with petroleum product mixed with heavy metals (e.g. manufacture Gas Plant Sites). (orig.)

  16. Linear mixed models in sensometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra

    quality of decision making in Danish as well as international food companies and other companies using the same methods. The two open-source R packages lmerTest and SensMixed implement and support the methodological developments in the research papers as well as the ANOVA modelling part of the Consumer...... an open-source software tool ConsumerCheck was developed in this project and now is available for everyone. will represent a major step forward when concerns this important problem in modern consumer driven product development. Standard statistical software packages can be used for some of the purposes......Today’s companies and researchers gather large amounts of data of different kind. In consumer studies the objective is the collection of the data to better understand consumer acceptance of products. In such studies a number of persons (generally not trained) are selected in order to score products...

  17. Flavour mixings in flux compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Schweizer, Julian

    2017-01-01

    A multiplicity of quark-lepton families can naturally arise as zero-modes in flux compactifications. The flavour structure of quark and lepton mass matrices is then determined by the wave function profiles of the zero-modes. We consider a supersymmetric SO(10) x U(1) model in six dimensions compactified on the orbifold T 2 =Z 2 with Abelian magnetic flux. A bulk 16-plet charged under the U(1) provides the quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10-plets yield two Higgs doublets. Bulk anomaly cancellation requires the presence of additional 16- and 10-plets. The corresponding zero-modes form vectorlike split multiplets that are needed to obtain a successful flavour phenomenology. We analyze the pattern of flavour mixings for the two heaviest families of the Standard Model and discuss possible generalizations to three and more generations.

  18. Managing mixed wastes: technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, J.E.; Eyman, L.D.; Burton, D.W.; McBrayer, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The US Department of Energy manages wastes that are both chemically hazardous and radioactive. These mixed wastes are often unique and many have national security implications. Management practices have evolved over the more than forty years that the Department and its predecessor agencies have been managing these wastes, both in response to better understanding of the hazards involved and in response to external, regulatory influences. The Department has recently standarized its waste management practices and has initited an R and D program to address priority issues identified by its operating contractor organizations. The R and D program is guided by waste management strategy that emphasizes reduction of human exposure to hazardous wastes in the environment, reduction of the amount and toxicity of wastes generated, treatment of wastes that are generated to reduce volumes and toxicities, and identification of alternatives to land disposal of wastes that remain hazardous following maximum practicable treatment

  19. Vitrification development for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, R.; Whittington, K.; Peters, R.

    1995-02-01

    Vitrification is a promising approach to waste-form immobilization. It destroys hazardous organic compounds and produces a durable and highly stable glass. Vitrification tests were performed on three surrogate wastes during fiscal year 1994; 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin waste from Hanford, bottom ash from the Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator, and saltcrete from Rocky Flats. Preliminary glass development involved melting trials followed by visual homogeneity examination, short-duration leach tests on glass specimens, and long-term leach tests on selected glasses. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements were taken for the most durable glass formulations. Results for the saltcrete are presented in this paper and demonstrate the applicability of vitrification technology to this mixed waste

  20. Multifractal Modeling of Turbulent Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiee, Mehdi; Zayernouri, Mohsen; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2017-11-01

    Stochastic processes in random media are emerging as interesting tools for modeling anomalous transport phenomena. Applications include intermittent passive scalar transport with background noise in turbulent flows, which are observed in atmospheric boundary layers, turbulent mixing in reactive flows, and long-range dependent flow fields in disordered/fractal environments. In this work, we propose a nonlocal scalar transport equation involving the fractional Laplacian, where the corresponding fractional index is linked to the multifractal structure of the nonlinear passive scalar power spectrum. This work was supported by the AFOSR Young Investigator Program (YIP) award (FA9550-17-1-0150) and partially by MURI/ARO (W911NF-15-1-0562).