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Sample records for silacrown end-grafted carbosilane

  1. The structure of carbosilane dendrimers of higher generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogachev, A.V.; Kuklin, A.I.; Chernyj, A.Yu.; Ozerin, A.N.; Muzafarov, A.M.; Tatarinova, E.A.; Gordelij, V.I.

    2008-01-01

    Using small-angle neutron scattering method, we investigate the structure of carbosilane dendrimers of the ninth generation with a four-function core and butyl terminal groups. It is shown that the dendrimers in question are monodispersive objects having anisometric form. The values of the partial volume and the mean scattering length density are determined with the contrast variation method. The studied dendrimers exhibit the same size and distribution of the scattering length density. It is found that about 20% of the interior dendrimer volume is permeable to a solvent. Performing a Monte Carlo simulation, we reconstruct the spatial distribution of scattering length density over the dendrimers and reveal changing of the excluded volume for different contrasts. The spatial structure features of carbosilane dendrimers of higher generations are discussed

  2. Thermodynamic properties of a liquid crystal carbosilane dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samosudova, Ya. S.; Markin, A. V.; Smirnova, N. N.; Ogurtsov, T. G.; Boiko, N. I.; Shibaev, V. P.

    2016-11-01

    The temperature dependence of the heat capacity of a first-generation liquid crystal carbosilane dendrimer with methoxyphenyl benzoate end groups is studied for the first time in the region of 6-370 K by means of precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Physical transformations are observed in this interval of temperatures, and their standard thermodynamic characteristics are determined and discussed. Standard thermodynamic functions C p ° ( T), H°( T) - H°(0), S°( T) - S°(0), and G°( T) - H°(0) are calculated from the obtained experimental data for the region of T → 0 to 370 K. The standard entropy of formation of the dendrimer in the partially crystalline state at T = 298.15 K is calculated, and the standard entropy of the hypothetic reaction of its synthesis at this temperature is estimated. The thermodynamic properties of the studied dendrimer are compared to those of second- and fourth-generation liquid crystal carbosilane dendrimers with the same end groups studied earlier.

  3. Liquid Crystalline Dendrimers. 1. Synthesis of Five Generations of Carbosilane Liquid Crystalline Dendrimers with Terminal Cyanobiphenyl Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shibaev, V

    1998-01-01

    Using the controlled layer by layer experimental technique via reiterative sequence of chemical reactions carbosilane LC dendrimers with terminal cyanobiphenyl mesogenic groups of generations 1 - 5 were synthesized...

  4. Quantitative Interpretation of MALDI-TOF Mass Spectra of Imperfect Carbosilane Dendrimers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupková, Alena; Čermák, Jan; Walterová, Zuzana; Horský, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 79, 4 (2007) , s. 1639-1645 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbosilane dendrimer s * MALDI-TOF * statistics of defects Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 5.287, year: 2007

  5. Synthesis of polyaryl rigid-core carbosilane dendrimers for supported organic synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wander, M.; Hausoul, P.J.C.; Sliedregt, L.A.J.M.; van Steen, B.J.; van Koten, G.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Carbosilane dendrimers can be used as soluble supports for organic synthesis, since their structure allows separation of excess reagents from the supported products, eventually yielding products of high purity and in high yield, as in solid-phase organic synthesis (SPOS). In previous studies often

  6. Binding of poly(amidoamine), carbosilane, phosphorus and hybrid dendrimers to thrombin-Constants and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Pedziwiatr-Werbicka, Elzbieta; Vcherashniaya, Aliaksandra; Janaszewska, Anna; Marcinkowska, Monika; Goska, Piotr; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara; Ionov, Maksim; Abashkin, Viktar; Ihnatsyeu-Kachan, Aliaksei; de la Mata, F Javier; Ortega, Paula; Gomez-Ramirez, Rafael; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Bryszewska, Maria

    2017-07-01

    Thrombin is an essential part of the blood coagulation system; it is a serine protease that converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble strands of fibrin, and catalyzes many other coagulation-related reactions. Absorption at its surface of small nanoparticles can completely change the biological properties of thrombin. We have analyzed the influence on thrombin of 3 different kinds of small nanoparticles: dendrimers (phosphorus-based, carbosilane based and polyamidoamine) and 2 hybrid systems containing carbosilane, viologen and phosphorus dendritic scaffolds in one single molecule, bearing different flexibility, size and surface charge. There was significant alteration in the rigidity of the rigid dendrimers in contrast to flexible dendrimers. These differences in their action are important in understanding interactions taking place at a bio-nanointerface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermodynamic Properties of a First-Generation Carbosilane Dendrimer with Terminal Phenylethyl Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sologubov, S. S.; Markin, A. V.; Smirnova, N. N.; Novozhilova, N. A.; Tatarinova, E. A.; Muzafarov, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    The heat capacity of a first-generation carbosilane dendrimer with terminal phenylethyl groups as a function of temperature in the range from 6 to 520 K is studied for the first time via precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Physical transformations, such as low-temperature structural anomaly and glass transition are detected in the above-mentioned range of temperatures, and their standard thermodynamic characteristics are determined and analyzed. The standard thermodynamic functions of the studied dendrimer in the range of T → 0 to 520 K are calculated from the experimental data, as is the standard entropy in the devitrified state at T = 298.15 K. The standard thermodynamic characteristics of the carbosilane dendrimers studied in this work and earlier are compared.

  8. de Vries liquid crystals based on a chiral 5-phenylpyrimidine benzoate core with a tri- and tetra-carbosilane backbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenilayam, S. P.; Rodriguez-Lojo, D.; Agra-Kooijman, D. M.; Vij, J. K.; Panov, V. P.; Panov, A.; Fisch, M. R.; Kumar, Satyendra; Stevenson, P. J.

    2018-02-01

    New chiral de Vries smectic liquid-crystalline compounds are designed, synthesized, and investigated for perspective applications in defect-free bistable surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid-crystal displays. In these compounds, a 5-phenyl-pyrimidine benzoate core is terminated on one side by a tri- or tetra-carbosilane group linked through an alkoxy group and an alkyl spacer and on the opposite side terminated by a chiral 2-octanol group. The stereogenic center contains either a methyl or perfluoromethyl functional group. These compounds exhibit Iso-Sm A*-Sm C*-Sm X -Cr phases under cooling from the isotropic state. Measurements of the temperature-dependent smectic layer spacing by x-ray diffraction experiments combined with the measured apparent optical tilt angle and the birefringence reveal that Sm A* phase in these compounds is of the de Vries type. In addition, the chiral compound with a tetra-carbosilane backbone, DR277, exhibits good de Vries properties with the Sm C* phase exhibited over a wide temperature range. By varying the carbosilane end group, the de Vries properties are enhanced, that is, the layer shrinkage of ˜1.9 % for the tri-carbosilane DR276 is reduced to ˜0.9 % for tetra-carbosilane DR277 at 10°C below Sm A* to Sm C* transition temperature, TAC. For DR277, the reduction factor R ≈0.22 for T =(TAC-10 )°C is reasonably low and the apparent optical tilt angle θapp=35.1°, hence this compound is a "good de Vries smectic" LC. Therefore, synthesis of the chiral mesogen with an even higher number of carbosilane groups may lead to a further reduction or even zero-layer shrinkage exhibited at TAC with Sm C* phase extending over a wide temperature range close to the room temperature for perspective suitability in device applications. Our results for 5-phenyl-pyrimidine benzoate core-based compounds support a recently drawn conclusion by Schubert et al. [J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 8483 (2016), 10.1039/C6TC03120J] from a different compound, namely

  9. Shearing and compression behavior of end-grafted polyelectrolyte brushes with mono- and trivalent counterions: a molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Qianqian; Zuo, Chuncheng; Li, Lujuan; He, Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    We investigate polyelectrolytes end-grafted on two apposing walls using molecular dynamics simulation techniques. Monovalent and trivalent counterions are explicitly treated. Under normal compression, the osmotic pressure is examined in detail by decomposing it into various virial terms. It has been found that at small wall separations the increase in the osmotic pressure can be ascribed to the increase in the short-range virial term. At large wall separations, a negative osmotic pressure is observed in trivalent systems. Moreover, we study the effect of lateral shear on the density profiles of monomers and counterions, the net charge distribution, the local pressure tensor, the degree of interpenetration and the friction coefficient. At large shear ratios, the electrostatic interactions are weakened at the interface between two brushes. It is worth noting that although the magnitudes of the normal and shear stress components for the trivalent case are significantly lesser than those for the monovalent case, the friction coefficient is larger in the trivalent systems

  10. Photoluminescence of PMMA doped with fluorescein and carbosilane dendrimer and lasing in PBG resonance cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunfang; Jin Feng; Dong Xianzi; Chen Weiqiang; Duan Xuanming

    2007-01-01

    Carbosilane dendrimers with terminal allyl groups were synthesized and used to encapsulate the allyl derivative of fluorescein (allyl-FL) doped in PMMA. The optical property of this system was investigated and the results showed that the concentration of allyl-FL in PMMA could be increased to 4.5 wt% without decrease of the luminescence efficiency by adding the dendrimer into the system. The allyl-FL/dendrimer/PMMA film was embedded into a resonance cavity composed of two pieces of photonic band gap (PBG) materials to form a new-type solid-state laser. A laser emission at 589 nm was obtained when excited with a third harmonic generation (THG) of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (355 nm) and its full-width at half-maximum of the spectrum was 1.7 nm

  11. Sulfonate-terminated carbosilane dendron-coated nanotubes: a greener point of view in protein sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Estefanía; Gutiérrez Ulloa, Carlos E; de la Mata, Francisco Javier; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción

    2017-09-01

    Reduction or removal of solvents and reagents in protein sample preparation is a requirement. Dendrimers can strongly interact with proteins and have great potential as a greener alternative to conventional methods used in protein sample preparation. This work proposes the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) functionalized with carbosilane dendrons with sulfonate groups for protein sample preparation and shows the successful application of the proposed methodology to extract proteins from a complex matrix. SEM images of nanotubes and mixtures of nanotubes and proteins were taken. Moreover, intrinsic fluorescence intensity of proteins was monitored to observe the most significant interactions at increasing dendron generations under neutral and basic pHs. Different conditions for the disruption of interactions between proteins and nanotubes after protein extraction and different concentrations of the disrupting reagent and the nanotube were also tried. Compatibility of extraction and disrupting conditions with the enzymatic digestion of proteins for obtaining bioactive peptides was also studied. Finally, sulfonate-terminated carbosilane dendron-coated SWCNTs enabled the extraction of proteins from a complex sample without using non-environmentally friendly solvents that were required so far. Graphical Abstract Green protein extraction from a complex sample employing carbosilane dendron coated nanotubes.

  12. Interaction of cationic carbosilane dendrimers and their complexes with siRNA with erythrocytes and red blood cell ghosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Dominika; Kolanowska, Katarzyna; Gajek, Arkadiusz; Gomez-Ramirez, Rafael; de la Mata, Javier; Pedziwiatr-Werbicka, Elżbieta; Klajnert, Barbara; Waczulikova, Iveta; Bryszewska, Maria

    2014-03-01

    We have investigated the interactions between cationic NN16 and BDBR0011 carbosilane dendrimers with red blood cells or their cell membranes. The carbosilane dendrimers used possess 16 cationic functional groups. Both the dendrimers are made of water-stable carbon-silicon bonds, but NN16 possesses some oxygen-silicon bonds that are unstable in water. The nucleic acid used in the experiments was targeted against GAG-1 gene from the human immunodeficiency virus, HIV-1. By binding to the outer leaflet of the membrane, carbosilane dendrimers decreased the fluidity of the hydrophilic part of the membrane but increased the fluidity of the hydrophobic interior. They induced hemolysis, but did not change the morphology of the cells. Increasing concentrations of dendrimers induced erythrocyte aggregation. Binding of short interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) to a dendrimer molecule decreased the availability of cationic groups and diminished their cytotoxicity. siRNA-dendrimer complexes changed neither the fluidity of biological membranes nor caused cell hemolysis. Addition of dendriplexes to red blood cell suspension induced echinocyte formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synergistic activity profile of carbosilane dendrimer G2-STE16 in combination with other dendrimers and antiretrovirals as topical anti-HIV-1 microbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Crespo, Daniel; Lorente, Raquel; Leal, Manuel; Gómez, Rafael; De la Mata, Francisco J; Jiménez, José Luis; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2014-04-01

    Polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers represent opportunities to develop new anti-HIV microbicides. Dendrimers and antiretrovirals (ARVs) acting at different stages of HIV replication have been proposed as compounds to decrease new HIV infections. Thus, we determined the potential use of our G2-STE16 carbosilane dendrimer in combination with other carbosilane dendrimers and ARVs for the use as topical microbicide against HIV-1. We showed that these combinations obtained 100% inhibition and displayed a synergistic profile against different HIV-1 isolates in our model of TZM.bl cells. Our results also showed their potent activity in the presence of an acidic vaginal or seminal fluid environment and did not activate an inflammatory response. This study is the first step toward exploring the use of different anionic carbosilane dendrimers in combination and toward making a safe microbicide. Therefore, our results support further studies on dendrimer/dendrimer or dendrimer/ARV combinations as topical anti-HIV-1 microbicide. This paper describes the first steps toward the use of anionic carbosilane dendrimers in combination with antivirals to address HIV-1, paving the way to further studies on dendrimer/dendrimer or dendrimer/ARV combinations as topical anti-HIV-1 microbicides. © 2014.

  14. Electroclinic effect in a chiral carbosilane-terminated 5-phenylpyrimidine liquid crystal with 'de Vries-like' properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christopher P J; Müller, Carsten; Wand, Michael D; Giesselmann, Frank; Lemieux, Robert P

    2015-08-14

    The chiral carbosilane-terminated liquid crystal 2-[(2S,3S)-2,3-difluorohexyloxy]-5-[4-(12,12,14,14,16,16-hexamethyl-12,14,16-trisilaheptadecyloxy)phenyl]pyrimidine () undergoes a smectic A*-smectic C* phase transition with a maximum layer contraction of only 0.2%. It exhibits an electroclinic effect (ECE) comparable to that reported for the 'de Vries-like' liquid crystal and shows no appreciable optical stripe defects due to horizontal chevron formation.

  15. Enhanced activity of carbosilane dendrimers against HIV when combined with reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs: searching for more potent microbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacas-Córdoba E

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Enrique Vacas-Córdoba,1–3 Marta Galán,3,4 Francisco J de la Mata,3,4 Rafael Gómez,3,4 Marjorie Pion,1–3 M Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández1–3 1Laboratorio InmunoBiología Molecular, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; 2Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; 3Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, (CIBER-BBN, Madrid, Spain; 4Dendrimers for Biomedical Applications Group (BioInDen, University of Alcalá, Madrid, Spain Abstract: Self-administered topical microbicides or oral preexposure prophylaxis could be very helpful tools for all risk groups to decrease the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection rates. Up until now, antiretrovirals (ARVs have been the most advanced microbicide candidates. Nevertheless, the majority of clinical trials has failed in HIV-1 patients. Nanotechnology offers suitable approaches to develop novel antiviral agents. Thereby, new nanosystems, such as carbosilane dendrimers, have been shown to be safe and effective compounds against HIV with great potential as topical microbicides. In addition, because most of the attempts to develop effective topical microbicides were unsuccessful, combinatorial strategies could be a valid approach when designing new microbicides. We evaluated various combinations of anionic carbosilane dendrimers with sulfated (G3-S16 and naphthyl sulfonated (G2-NF16 ended groups with different ARVs against HIV-1 infection. The G3-S16 and G2-NF16 dendrimers showed a synergistic or additive activity profile with zidovudine, efavirenz, and tenofovir in the majority of the combinations tested against the X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 in cell lines, as well as in human primary cells. Therefore, the combination of ARVs and polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers enhances the antiviral potency of the individual compounds, and our findings support further clinical research on combinational approaches as

  16. Proof of concept of a "greener" protein purification/enrichment method based on carboxylate-terminated carbosilane dendrimer-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Estefanía; Maly, Marek; de la Mata, Francisco Javier; Gómez, Rafael; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción

    2016-11-01

    Protein sample preparation is a critical and an unsustainable step since it involves the use of tedious methods that usually require high amount of solvents. The development of new materials offers additional opportunities in protein sample preparation. This work explores, for the first time, the potential application of carboxylate-terminated carbosilane dendrimers to the purification/enrichment of proteins. Studies on dendrimer binding to proteins, based on protein fluorescence intensity and emission wavelengths measurements, demonstrated the interaction between carboxylate-terminated carbosilane dendrimers and proteins at all tested pH levels. Interactions were greatly affected by the protein itself, pH, and dendrimer concentration and generation. Especially interesting was the interaction at acidic pH since it resulted in a significant protein precipitation. Dendrimer-protein interactions were modeled observing stable complexes for all proteins. Carboxylate-terminated carbosilane dendrimers at acidic pH were successfully used in the purification/enrichment of proteins extracted from a complex sample. Graphical Abstract Images showing the growing turbidity of solutions containing a mixture of proteins (lysozyme, myoglobin, and BSA) at different protein:dendrimer ratios (1:0, 1:1, 1:8, and 1:20) at acidic pH and SDS-PAGE profiles of the corresponsing supernatants. Comparison of SDS-PAGE profiles for the pellets obtained during the purification of proteins present in a complex sample using a conventional "no-clean" method based on acetone precipitation and the proposed "greener" method using carboxylate-terminated carbosilane dendrimer at a 1:20 protein:dendrimer ratio.

  17. Characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy of a carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina, E-mail: cpopescu@icmpp.ro [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania); Gomez, Rafael; Mata, Fco Javier de la; Rasines, Beatriz [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica (Spain); Simionescu, Bogdan C. [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania)

    2013-06-15

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 2D correlation spectroscopy were used to study the microstructural changes occurring on heating of a new carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups. Temperature-dependent spectral variations in the 3,010-2,710, 1,530-1,170, and 1,170-625 cm{sup -1} regions were monitored during the heating process. The dependence, on temperature, of integral absorptions and position of spectral bands was established and the spectral modifications associated with molecular conformation rearrangements, allowing molecular shape changes, were found. Before 180 Degree-Sign C, the studied carbosilane dendrimer proved to be stable, while at higher temperatures it oxidizes and Si-O groups appear. 2D IR correlation spectroscopy gives new information about the effect of temperature on the structure and dynamics of the system. Synchronous and asynchronous spectra indicate that, at low temperature, conformational changes of CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}-N{sup +} groups take place first. With increasing temperature, the intensity variation of the CH{sub 2}, C-N, Si-C and C-C groups from the dendritic core is faster than that of the terminal units. This indicates that, with increasing temperature, the segments of the dendritic core obtain enough energy to change their conformation more easily as compared to the terminal units, due to their internal flexibility.

  18. Characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy of a carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Gómez, Rafael; Mata, Fco Javier de la; Rasines, Beatriz; Simionescu, Bogdan C.

    2013-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 2D correlation spectroscopy were used to study the microstructural changes occurring on heating of a new carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups. Temperature-dependent spectral variations in the 3,010–2,710, 1,530–1,170, and 1,170–625 cm −1 regions were monitored during the heating process. The dependence, on temperature, of integral absorptions and position of spectral bands was established and the spectral modifications associated with molecular conformation rearrangements, allowing molecular shape changes, were found. Before 180 °C, the studied carbosilane dendrimer proved to be stable, while at higher temperatures it oxidizes and Si–O groups appear. 2D IR correlation spectroscopy gives new information about the effect of temperature on the structure and dynamics of the system. Synchronous and asynchronous spectra indicate that, at low temperature, conformational changes of CH 3 and CH 3 –N + groups take place first. With increasing temperature, the intensity variation of the CH 2 , C–N, Si–C and C–C groups from the dendritic core is faster than that of the terminal units. This indicates that, with increasing temperature, the segments of the dendritic core obtain enough energy to change their conformation more easily as compared to the terminal units, due to their internal flexibility.

  19. Silicon carbide modified carbon materials. Formation of nanocrystalline SiC from thermochemical processes in the system coal tar pitch/poly(carbosilane)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czosnek, C.; Janik, J.F.; Olejniczak, Z. [Stanislaw Staszic University of Mining & Meterology, AGH, Krakow (Poland)

    2002-12-01

    Poly(carbosilane) or PCS, (-CH{sub 2}-SiH(CH{sub 3})-){sub n}, is used as a Si-bearing precursor in combination with a coal tar pitch to study thermally induced transformations toward SiC-modified carbon composites. Following mixing of the components in the molten pitch at 160{sup o}C, the mixture is heated under argon atmosphere at 500{sup o}C yielding a solid carbonizate that is further subjected to separate pyrolysis experiments at 1300{sup o}C or 1650{sup o}C. At temperatures up to 500{sup o}C, the PCS reacts with suitable pitch components as well as undergoing decomposition reactions. At higher temperatures, clusters of prevailingly nanocrystalline beta-SiC are confirmed after the 1650{sup o}C pyrolysis step with indications that the formation of the compound starts at 1300{sup o}C. Si-29 MAS NMR, XRD, FT-IR, XPS, and elemental analysis are used to characterize each pyrolysis step, especially, from the viewpoint of transformation of silicon species to silicon carbide in the carbon matrix evolved from the pitch.

  20. Accessing the dynamics of end-grafted flexible polymer chains by atomic force-electrochemical microscopy. Theoretical modeling of the approach curves by the elastic bounded diffusion model and Monte Carlo simulations. Evidence for compression-induced lateral chain escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbou, Jeremy; Anne, Agnès; Demaille, Christophe

    2006-11-16

    The dynamics of a molecular layer of linear poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains of molecular weight 3400, bearing at one end a ferrocene (Fc) label and thiol end-grafted at a low surface coverage onto a gold substrate, is probed using combined atomic force-electrochemical microscopy (AFM-SECM), at the scale of approximately 100 molecules. Force and current approach curves are simultaneously recorded as a force-sensing microelectrode (tip) is inserted within the approximately 10 nm thick, redox labeled, PEG chain layer. Whereas the force approach curve gives access to the structure of the compressed PEG layer, the tip-current, resulting from tip-to-substrate redox cycling of the Fc head of the chain, is controlled by chain dynamics. The elastic bounded diffusion model, which considers the motion of the Fc head as diffusion in a conformational field, complemented by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, from which the chain conformation can be derived for any degree of confinement, allows the theoretical tip-current approach curve to be calculated. The experimental current approach curve can then be very satisfyingly reproduced by theory, down to a tip-substrate separation of approximately 2 nm, using only one adjustable parameter characterizing the chain dynamics: the effective diffusion coefficient of the chain head. At closer tip-substrate separations, an unpredicted peak is observed in the experimental current approach curve, which is shown to find its origin in a compression-induced escape of the chain from within the narrowing tip-substrate gap. MC simulations provide quantitative support for lateral chain elongation as the escape mechanism.

  1. Periphery-palladated carbosilane dendrimers : Synthesis and reactivity of model organopalladium(II) and (IV) complexes : Crystal structure of [PdMe(C6H4(OCH2Ph)-4)(bpy)] (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Hovestad, N.J.; Hoare, J.L.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Canty, A.J.; Smeets, W.J.J.; Spek, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    A carbosilane dendrimer with 12 peripheral iodoarene groups, [Si{(CH2)3Si((CH2)3SiMe2(C6H4CH2OC6H4I-4))3}4] (G1-ArI, 9), and the corresponding G0 model compound [Si{(CH2)3SiMe2(C6H4CH2OC6H4I-4)}4] (G0-ArI, 8) have been prepared from [Si{(CH2)3Si((CH2)3SiMe2(C6H4CH2Br))3}4] (G1-Br, 7) and the

  2. Dentritic Carbosilanes Containing Silicon-Bonded 1-[C6H2(CH2NMe2)2-3,5-Li-4] or 1-[C6H3(CH2NMe2)-4-Li-3] Mono-and Bis(amino)aryllithium End Groups: Structure of {[CH2SiMe2C6H3(CH2NMe2)-4-Li-3]2}2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Kleij, A.W.; Kleijn, H.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Smeets, W.J.J.; Spek, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    A useful synthetic procedure for the incorporation of the potentially multidentate monoanionic 1-[C6H2(CH2NMe2)2-3,5]- (=NCN) and 1-[C6H3(CH2NMe2)-4]- (=CN) ligands via the para-position on the periphery of carbosilane (CS) dendrimers has been developed. Lithiation of suitable brominated precursors

  3. Carbosilane Metallodendrimers with Titanocene Dichloride end Groups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strašák, Tomáš; Čermák, Jan; Sýkora, Jan; Horský, Jiří; Walterová, Zuzana; Jaroschik, F.; Harakat, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 19 (2012), s. 6779-6786 ISSN 0276-7333 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06070 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : dendrimers * titanocene * hydrosilylation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.145, year: 2012

  4. The transition of a Gaussian chain end-grafted at a penetrable surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skvortsov, A.M.; Klusken, L.I.; Male, van J.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    A Gaussian chain at a liquid–liquid interface is considered. The solvents are represented by an external potential field u that has a constant value in one half-space and is zero elsewhere. One end of the chain is fixed at the boundary where the external potential field changes its value. For this

  5. Organoclays with Carbosilane Dendrimers Containing Ammonium or Phosphonium Groups.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Monika; Šabata, Stanislav; Matoušek, J.; Kormunda, M.; Holubová, J.; Bálková, R.; Petričkovič, Roman; Koštejn, M.; Kupčík, Jaroslav; Fajgar, Radek; Strašák, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2018), s. 1187-1196 ISSN 1144-0546 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : organic -inorganic nanocomposites * layered silicates * thermal-stability Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 3.269, year: 2016

  6. Phase transitions in single macromolecules: Loop-stretch transition versus loop adsorption transition in end-grafted polymer chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangshuang; Qi, Shuanhu; Klushin, Leonid I.; Skvortsov, Alexander M.; Yan, Dadong; Schmid, Friederike

    2018-01-01

    We use Brownian dynamics simulations and analytical theory to compare two prominent types of single molecule transitions. One is the adsorption transition of a loop (a chain with two ends bound to an attractive substrate) driven by an attraction parameter ɛ and the other is the loop-stretch transition in a chain with one end attached to a repulsive substrate, driven by an external end-force F applied to the free end. Specifically, we compare the behavior of the respective order parameters of the transitions, i.e., the mean number of surface contacts in the case of the adsorption transition and the mean position of the chain end in the case of the loop-stretch transition. Close to the transition points, both the static behavior and the dynamic behavior of chains with different length N are very well described by a scaling ansatz with the scaling parameters (ɛ - ɛ*)Nϕ (adsorption transition) and (F - F*)Nν (loop-stretch transition), respectively, where ϕ is the crossover exponent of the adsorption transition and ν is the Flory exponent. We show that both the loop-stretch and the loop adsorption transitions provide an exceptional opportunity to construct explicit analytical expressions for the crossover functions which perfectly describe all simulation results on static properties in the finite-size scaling regime. Explicit crossover functions are based on the ansatz for the analytical form of the order parameter distributions at the respective transition points. In contrast to the close similarity in equilibrium static behavior, the dynamic relaxation at the two transitions shows qualitative differences, especially in the strongly ordered regimes. This is attributed to the fact that the surface contact dynamics in a strongly adsorbed chain is governed by local processes, whereas the end height relaxation of a strongly stretched chain involves the full spectrum of Rouse modes.

  7. Solvent Resistant Elastomers and High TG Materials from the Same Carbosilane Backbone: Broadening the Materials Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagener, K

    2003-01-01

    .... We have directed our efforts towards solvent resistant materials that improve upon butyl rubber. Polycarobcsilanes combine the behavioral characteristics of hydrocarbon polymers and siloxane elastomers...

  8. Phosphonium Carbosilane Dendrimers for Biomedical Applications – Synthesis, Characterization and Cytotoxicity Evaluation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strašák, Tomáš; Malý, J.; Wróbel, D.; Malý, M.; Herma, R.; Čermák, Jan; Müllerová, Monika; Červenková Šťastná, Lucie; Cuřínová, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 30 (2017), s. 18724-18744 ISSN 2046-2069 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : modified ppi pendrimers * molecular-dynamics * gene delivery Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Carbosilane Dendrimer−Sodium Montmorillonite Clay Nanocomposites. Experimental and Theoretical Studies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strašák, Tomáš; Malý, M.; Müllerová, M.; Čermák, Jan; Kormunda, M.; Čapková, P.; Matoušek, J.; Červenková Šťastná, Lucie; Rejnek, J.; Holubová, J.; Jandová, Věra; Čépe, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 49 (2016), s. 43356-43366 ISSN 2046-2069 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : silicates * ionic liquids * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  10. Efficacy of HIV antiviral polyanionic carbosilane dendrimer G2-S16 in the presence of semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceña-Diez R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Ceña-Diez,1–4,* Pilar García-Broncano,1–5,* Francisco Javier de la Mata,4,6 Rafael Gómez,4,6 Mª Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández1–4 1Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañon, 2Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañon, 3Spanish HIV HGM Biobank, 4Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN, 5Laboratory of Viral Infection and Immunity, National Center of Microbiology, Health Institute of Carlos III, Majadahonda, 6Department of Organic Chemistry and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The development of a safe and effective microbicide to prevent the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 is urgently needed. Unfortunately, the majority of microbicides, such as poly(L-lysine-dendrimers, anionic polymers, or antiretrovirals, have proved inactive or even increased the risk of HIV infection in clinical trials, most probably due to the fact that these compounds failed to prevent semen-exposed HIV infection. We showed that G2-S16 dendrimer exerts anti-HIV-1 activity at an early stage of viral replication, blocking the gp120/CD4/CCR5 interaction and providing a barrier to infection for long periods, confirming its multifactorial and nonspecific ability. Previously, we demonstrated that topical administration of G2-S16 prevents HIV transmission in humanized BLT mice without irritation or vaginal lesions. Here, we demonstrated that G2-S16 is active against mock- and semen-exposed HIV-1 and could be a promising microbicide against HIV infection. Keywords: G2-S16, dendrimer, HIV-1, SEVI, microbicide, antiretrovirals

  11. Titanocene Dichloride Complexes Bonded to Carbosilane Dendrimers Via a Spacer of Variable Length – Molecular Dynamics Calculations and Catalysis of Allylic Coupling Reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strašák, Tomáš; Jaroschik, F.; Malý, M.; Čermák, Jan; Sýkora, Jan; Fajgar, Radek; Karban, Jindřich; Harakat, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 409, SI (2014), s. 137-146 ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06070 Grant - others:UJEP(CZ) GA13-06989S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : metallodendrimers * titanocene dichloride * allylic homocoupling * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.046, year: 2014

  12. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Titanium-catalysed dehydrocoupling of chiral carbosilanes.................................. . .... Copper(II) nickel(II), cobalt(II) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes of substituted .... Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrogen peroxide by poly(NiII-teta) complex.

  13. Structural Defects in Polyallylcarbosilane Dendrimers and Their PolyolDerivatives Characterized by NMR and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupková, Alena; Čermák, Jan; Walterová, Zuzana; Horský, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 10 (2010), s. 4511-4519 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbosilane dendrimer s * maldi-tof ms * structural defects Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.838, year: 2010

  14. Which Dendrimer to Attain the Desired Properties? Focus on Phosphorhydrazone Dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Anne-Marie; Majoral, Jean-Pierre

    2018-03-09

    Among the six Critical Nanoscale Design Parameters (CNDPs) proposed by Prof. Donald A. Tomalia, this review illustrates the influence of the sixth one, which concerns the elemental composition, on the properties of dendrimers. After a large introduction that summarizes different types of dendrimers that have been compared with PolyAMidoAMine (PAMAM) dendrimers, this review will focus on the properties of positively and negatively charged phosphorhydrazone (PPH) dendrimers, especially in the field of biology, compared with other types of dendrimers, in particular PAMAM dendrimers, as well as polypropyleneimine (PPI), carbosilane, and p-Lysine dendrimers.

  15. Which Dendrimer to Attain the Desired Properties? Focus on Phosphorhydrazone Dendrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Caminade

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the six Critical Nanoscale Design Parameters (CNDPs proposed by Prof. Donald A. Tomalia, this review illustrates the influence of the sixth one, which concerns the elemental composition, on the properties of dendrimers. After a large introduction that summarizes different types of dendrimers that have been compared with PolyAMidoAMine (PAMAM dendrimers, this review will focus on the properties of positively and negatively charged phosphorhydrazone (PPH dendrimers, especially in the field of biology, compared with other types of dendrimers, in particular PAMAM dendrimers, as well as polypropyleneimine (PPI, carbosilane, and p-Lysine dendrimers.

  16. Poly(acrylamide) films at the solvent-induced glass transition: Adhesion, tribology, and the influence of crosslinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, A.; Ramakrishna, S.N.; Kooij, Ernst S.; Espinos-Marzal, R.M.; Spencer, N.D.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive and nanotribological properties of end-grafted poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) films with various degrees of crosslinking, and in the presence of solvents over a broad spectrum of quality, were investigated by means of colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy. The solvent consisted of a mixture of

  17. Equivalence of chain conformations in the surface region of a polymer melt and a single Gaussian chain nder critical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skvortsov, A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Fleer, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the melt polymer conformations are nearly ideal according to Flory's ideality hypothesis. Silberberg generalized this statement for chains in the interfacial region. We check the Silberberg argument by analyzing the conformations of a probe chain end-grafted at a solid surface in a sea of

  18. Grafted polymers with annealed excluded volume : a model for surfactant association in brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Currie, E.P.K.; Fleer, G.J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Borisov, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    We present an analytical self-consistent-field (SCF) theory for a neutral polymer brush (a layer of long polymer chains end-grafted to a surface) with annealed excluded volume interactions between the monomer units. This model mimics the reversible adsorption of solute molecules or aggregates, such

  19. A comparative study of the structure and luminescence of mono- and dinuclear crown-ether lanthanide complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Keyla M.N. de [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, S/N – Dois Irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Batista, Hélcio J., E-mail: helciojb@gmail.com [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, S/N – Dois Irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Belian, Mônica F. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, S/N – Dois Irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Silva, Wagner E. [Unidade Acadêmica do Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, 54510-000 Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Pernambuco (Brazil); Silva, Juliana A.B. da [Centro Acadêmico do Agreste, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 55002-970 Caruaru, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Using as precursor the mononuclear lanthanide (Ln) macrocyclic complex, based on the 15-crown-5 ether (C) ligand and coordinated water (W) molecules, [LnCW{sub 4}]{sup 3+}, four novel analogous complexes for each of the three Ln(III) ions (Ln=Eu, Tb and Gd) were synthesized through systematic substitution of water molecules by the antenna-type ligands: 2,2′-dipyridyl (D), 1,10-phenanthroline (P) and 2,2′;6',2′′-terpyridine (T). The corresponding formulae of the complexes, obtained in a trichloride salt form, were the following: [LnCW{sub 4}]{sup 3+}, [LnCP{sub 2}]{sup 3+}, [LnCDW]{sup 3+}, [LnCDP]{sup 3+}, and [LnCT]{sup 3+}. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, UV and infrared spectroscopy and investigated through luminescence spectroscopy. For the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complex series, the most luminescent ones were [EuCDP]{sup 3+} and [TbCT]{sup 3+}, respectively. Motivated by this fact, two dinuclear analogous Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes, based on the two-site coordinating macrocyclic ligand lariat-silacrown ether (S), as well as analogous Gd(III) complexes, were obtained as hexachloride salts with the following formulae: [Eu{sub 2}SD{sub 2}P{sub 2}]{sup 6+}, [Gd{sub 2}SD{sub 2}P{sub 2}]{sup 6+}, [Tb{sub 2}ST{sub 2}]{sup 6+} and [Gd{sub 2}ST{sub 2}]{sup 6+}. Also, [Eu{sub 2}SW{sub 8}]{sup 6+}, [Tb{sub 2}SW{sub 8}]{sup 6+} and [Gd{sub 2}SW{sub 8}]{sup 6+} complexes were prepared and used as reference non-antenna type dinuclear compounds. Comparing the luminescence between the antenna mononuclear complexes with the analogous dinuclear ones, for Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions, almost no change was observed. On the other hand, in the particular case of Eu(III), comparing the mono- and dinuclear non-antenna reference complexes [EuCW{sub 4}]{sup 3+} and [Eu{sub 2}SW{sub 8}]{sup 6+}, a surprisingly much higher luminescence intensity was observed for the dinuclear complex (~ one order of magnitude). The proposed cause for this behavior is the

  20. Deposition of a-SiC:H using organosilanes in an argon/hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, L.

    1993-01-01

    Selected organosilanes were examined as precursors for the deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon carbide in an argon/hydrogen plasma. Effect of process variables on the quality of the films was established by means of FTIR, Auger spectroscopy, XPS, XRD, chemical analysis, and weight losses upon pyrolysis. For a given power level there is a limiting feeding rate of the precursor under which operation of the system is dominated by thermodynamics and leads to high quality silicon carbide films that are nearly stoichiometric and low in hydrogen. Beyond that limit, carbosilane polymer formation and excessive hydrogen incorporation takes place. The hydrogen content of the plasma affects the deposition rate and the hydrogen content of the film. In the thermodynamically dominated regime the nature of the precursor has no effect on the quality of the film, it affects only the relative utilization efficiency

  1. Nanopatterned polymer brushes: conformation, fabrication and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Ista, Linnea K.; Gu, Renpeng; Zauscher, Stefan; López, Gabriel P.

    2015-12-01

    Surfaces with end-grafted, nanopatterned polymer brushes that exhibit well-defined feature dimensions and controlled chemical and physical properties provide versatile platforms not only for investigation of nanoscale phenomena at biointerfaces, but also for the development of advanced devices relevant to biotechnology and electronics applications. In this review, we first give a brief introduction of scaling behavior of nanopatterned polymer brushes and then summarize recent progress in fabrication and application of nanopatterned polymer brushes. Specifically, we highlight applications of nanopatterned stimuli-responsive polymer brushes in the areas of biomedicine and biotechnology.

  2. Bistable collective behavior of polymers tethered in a nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanovic, Dino; Bailey, Joe; Harker, Anthony H.; Fassati, Ariberto; Hoogenboom, Bart W.; Ford, Ian J.

    2012-06-01

    Polymer-coated pores play a crucial role in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport and in a number of biomimetic and nanotechnological applications. Here we present Monte Carlo and Density Functional Theory approaches to identify different collective phases of end-grafted polymers in a nanopore and to study their relative stability as a function of intermolecular interactions. Over a range of system parameters that is relevant for nuclear pore complexes, we observe two distinct phases: one with the bulk of the polymers condensed at the wall of the pore, and the other with the polymers condensed along its central axis. The relative stability of these two phases depends on the interpolymer interactions. The existence the two phases suggests a mechanism in which marginal changes in these interactions, possibly induced by nuclear transport receptors, cause the pore to transform between open and closed configurations, which will influence transport through the pore.

  3. A physical model describing the interaction of nuclear transport receptors with FG nucleoporin domain assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Raphael; Osmanović, Dino; Ehret, Severin; Araya Callis, Carolina; Frey, Steffen; Stewart, Murray; You, Changjiang; Görlich, Dirk; Hoogenboom, Bart W; Richter, Ralf P

    2016-04-08

    The permeability barrier of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) controls bulk nucleocytoplasmic exchange. It consists of nucleoporin domains rich in phenylalanine-glycine motifs (FG domains). As a bottom-up nanoscale model for the permeability barrier, we have used planar films produced with three different end-grafted FG domains, and quantitatively analyzed the binding of two different nuclear transport receptors (NTRs), NTF2 and Importin β, together with the concomitant film thickness changes. NTR binding caused only moderate changes in film thickness; the binding isotherms showed negative cooperativity and could all be mapped onto a single master curve. This universal NTR binding behavior - a key element for the transport selectivity of the NPC - was quantitatively reproduced by a physical model that treats FG domains as regular, flexible polymers, and NTRs as spherical colloids with a homogeneous surface, ignoring the detailed arrangement of interaction sites along FG domains and on the NTR surface.

  4. Final report for grant: DE-FG02-93ER45481 [Polymers at engineered interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Studies have been made of polymer interfaces, self-assembly of micelles at surfaces, phase separation in blends, diffusion and dewetting at and near interfaces, and nanomechanical properties of thin films. The main projects are summarized under the following topics: dislocations in lamellar diblock structures, effects of surface tension; compliance measurements and profiles of end-grafted polystyrene in solution observed by atomic force microscopy and neutron reflectivity; self-assembly of diblock polymer micelles from solution; dewetting dynamics; polymers on patterned surfaces; Flory-Huggins interaction parameter for polystyrene/poly-2-vinylpyridine (PS/P 4 VP) blends; phase separation-induced patterns in dPS/PVME and dPEP/PEP blends; and high-resolution lateral imaging studies of phase separation and dewetting by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM)

  5. Differences between tethered polyelectrolyte chains adsorbed onto bare mica and hydrophobically modified mica, comparison with theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balastre, Marc; Tamashiro, Mario N.; Hernandez, Ernesto; Pincus, Philip; Tirrell, Matthew

    2001-03-01

    End-grafted polymers generated from the adsorption of asymmetric diblock copolymers on solid surface play an important role in many areas of science and technology. While the small insoluble block acts as an anchor, the charged soluble block confers useful properties to the surface. This study looks at tethered layers of poly(styrene sulfonate)/poly(t-butyl styrene) (PtBS-PSS) adsorbed on both mica (hydrophilic) and octadecyltriethoxysilane (OTE) modified mica (hydrophobic). Normal compressing forces at two different constant grafting densities (bare and modified mica) were measured with the surface force apparatus and compared with theoretical prediction. The effect of salt concentration (Cs) upon the thickness of the self-assembled layers (Lo) was measured in each case. For adsorption of diblock copolymers onto OTE the resulting scaling relationship is much closer to the brush theory, Lo Cs-1/3. This result suggests that the adsorbed amount on mica is not high enough to form a brush.

  6. Microsecond MD Simulations of Nano-patterned Polymer Brushes on Self-Assembled Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, Creighton; Qiu, Liming; Cheng, Kwan; Park, Soyeun

    2010-03-01

    Nano-patterned polymer brushes end-grafted onto self-assembled monolayers have gained increasing research interests due to their unique thermodynamic properties and their chemical and biomedical applications in colloids, biosensing and tissue engineering. So far, the interactions between the polymer brushes with the surrounding environments such as the floor and solvent at the nanometer length scale and microsecond time scale are still difficult to obtained experimentally and computationally. Using a Coarse-Grained MD approach, polymer brushes of different monomeric lengths, grafting density and hydrophobicity of the monomers grafted on self-assembled monolayers and in explicit solvent were studied. Molecular level information, such as lateral diffusion, transverse height and volume contour of the brushes, were calculated from our microsecond-MD simulations. Our results demonstrated the significance of the hydration of the polymer in controlling the conformational arrangement of the polymer brushes.

  7. Molecular Design of Branched and Binary Molecules at Ordered Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genson, Kirsten Larson [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This study examined five different branched molecular architectures to discern the effect of design on the ability of molecules to form ordered structures at interfaces. Photochromic monodendrons formed kinked packing structures at the air-water interface due to the cross-sectional area mismatch created by varying number of alkyl tails and the hydrophilic polar head group. The lower generations formed orthorhombic unit cell with long range ordering despite the alkyl tails tilted to a large degree. Favorable interactions between liquid crystalline terminal groups and the underlying substrate were observed to compel a flexible carbosilane dendrimer core to form a compressed elliptical conformation which packed stagger within lamellae domains with limited short range ordering. A twelve arm binary star polymer was observed to form two dimensional micelles at the air-water interface attributed to the higher polystyrene block composition. Linear rod-coil molecules formed a multitude of packing structures at the air-water interface due to the varying composition. Tree-like rod-coil molecules demonstrated the ability to form one-dimensional structures at the air-water interface and at the air-solvent interface caused by the preferential ordering of the rigid rod cores. The role of molecular architecture and composition was examined and the influence chemically competing fragments was shown to exert on the packing structure. The amphiphilic balance of the different molecular series exhibited control on the ordering behavior at the air-water interface and within bulk structures. The shell nature and tail type was determined to dictate the preferential ordering structure and molecular reorganization at interfaces with the core nature effect secondary.

  8. Equivalence of chain conformations in the surface region of a polymer melt and a single Gaussian chain under critical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, A M; Leermakers, F A M; Fleer, G J

    2013-08-07

    In the melt polymer conformations are nearly ideal according to Flory's ideality hypothesis. Silberberg generalized this statement for chains in the interfacial region. We check the Silberberg argument by analyzing the conformations of a probe chain end-grafted at a solid surface in a sea of floating free chains of concentration φ by the self-consistent field (SCF) method. Apart from the grafting, probe chain and floating chains are identical. Most of the results were obtained for a standard SCF model with freely jointed chains on a six-choice lattice, where immediate step reversals are allowed. A few data were generated for a five-choice lattice, where such step reversals are forbidden. These coarse-grained models describe the equilibrium properties of flexible atactic polymer chains at the scale of the segment length. The concentration was varied over the whole range from φ = 0 (single grafted chain) to φ = 1 (probe chain in the melt). The number of contacts with the surface, average height of the free end and its dispersion, average loop and train length, tail size distribution, end-point and overall segment distributions were calculated for a grafted probe chain as a function of φ, for several chain lengths and substrate∕polymer interactions, which were varied from strong repulsion to strong adsorption. The computations show that the conformations of the probe chain in the melt do not depend on substrate∕polymer interactions and are very similar to the conformations of a single end-grafted chain under critical conditions, and can thus be described analytically. When the substrate∕polymer interaction is fixed at the value corresponding to critical conditions, all equilibrium properties of a probe chain are independent of φ, over the whole range from a dilute solution to the melt. We believe that the conformations of all flexible chains in the surface region of the melt are close to those of an appropriate single chain in critical conditions, provided

  9. Dendrimers: relationship between structure and biocompatibility in vitro, and preliminary studies on the biodistribution of 125I-labelled polyamidoamine dendrimers in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, N; Wiwattanapatapee, R; Klopsch, R; Lorenz, K; Frey, H; Weener, J W; Meijer, E W; Paulus, W; Duncan, R

    2000-03-01

    Dendrimers are highly branched macromolecules of low polydispersity that provide many exciting opportunities for design of novel drug-carriers, gene delivery systems and imaging agents. They hold promise in tissue targeting applications, controlled drug release and moreover, their interesting nanoscopic architecture might allow easier passage across biological barriers by transcytosis. However, from the vast array of structures currently emerging from synthetic chemistry it is essential to design molecules that have real potential for in vivo biological use. Here, polyamidoamine (PAMAM, Starburst), poly(propyleneimine) with either diaminobutane or diaminoethane as core, and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) grafted carbosilane (CSi-PEO) dendrimers were used to study systematically the effect of dendrimer generation and surface functionality on biological properties in vitro. Generally, dendrimers bearing -NH(2) termini displayed concentration- and in the case of PAMAM dendrimers generation-dependent haemolysis, and changes in red cell morphology were observed after 1 h even at low concentrations (10 microg/ml). At concentrations below 1 mg/ml CSi-PEO dendrimers and those dendrimers with carboxylate (COONa) terminal groups were neither haemolytic nor cytotoxic towards a panel of cell lines in vitro. In general, cationic dendrimers were cytotoxic (72 h incubation), displaying IC(50) values=50-300 microg/ml dependent on dendrimer-type, cell-type and generation. Preliminary studies with polyether dendrimers prepared by the convergent route showed that dendrimers with carboxylate and malonate surfaces were not haemolytic at 1 h, but after 24 h, unlike anionic PAMAM dendrimers they were lytic. Cationic 125I-labelled PAMAM dendrimers (gen 3 and 4) administered intravenously (i.v.) to Wistar rats ( approximately 10 microg/ml) were cleared rapidly from the circulation (<2% recovered dose in blood at 1 h). Anionic PAMAM dendrimers (gen 2.5, 3.5 and 5.5) showed longer circulation

  10. Dendrimer-magnetic nanoparticles as multiple stimuli responsive and enzymatic drug delivery vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Sudeshna; Noronha, Glen; Dietrich, Sascha; Lang, Heinrich; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2015-01-01

    Two different chain lengths of (poly)ethylene glycol-PAMAM dendrimers namely, L6-PEG-PAMAM and S6-PEG-PAMAM with six end-grafted ethylene glycol ether-tentacles of type CH 2 CH 2 C(O)O(CH 2 CH 2 O) 9 CH 3 and CH 2 CH 2 C(O)O(CH 2 CH 2 O) 2 C 2 H 5 , respectively, were synthesized. These dendrimers have multiple σ-donor capabilities and therefore, were used for stabilizing the magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles. Both the dendrimer-magnetic nanoparticles (L6-PEG-PAMAM-MNPs and S6-PEG-PAMAM-MNPs) were characterized by different spectroscopic and microstructural techniques. The nanoparticles were mesoporous and superparamagnetic and therefore, explored for their possible use in delivery of cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). In the developed drug delivery system, achieving high drug-loading efficiency with controllable release were the main challenges. The change in zeta potential and quenching of fluorescence intensity suggests chemical interaction between DOX and the nanoparticles. The loading efficiency was calculated to be over 95% with a sustained pH and temperature sensitive release. Further, enzyme cathepsin B has also been used to degrade the dendritic shell to trigger sustained drug release in the vicinity of tumor cells

  11. Dendrimer-magnetic nanoparticles as multiple stimuli responsive and enzymatic drug delivery vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Sudeshna; Noronha, Glen [Metallurgical and Materials Science Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Dietrich, Sascha; Lang, Heinrich [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Institute of Chemistry, Straße der Nationen 62, d-09111 Chemnitz (Germany); Bahadur, Dhirendra, E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in [Metallurgical and Materials Science Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Two different chain lengths of (poly)ethylene glycol-PAMAM dendrimers namely, L6-PEG-PAMAM and S6-PEG-PAMAM with six end-grafted ethylene glycol ether-tentacles of type CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}C(O)O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 9}CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}C(O)O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 2}C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, respectively, were synthesized. These dendrimers have multiple σ-donor capabilities and therefore, were used for stabilizing the magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles. Both the dendrimer-magnetic nanoparticles (L6-PEG-PAMAM-MNPs and S6-PEG-PAMAM-MNPs) were characterized by different spectroscopic and microstructural techniques. The nanoparticles were mesoporous and superparamagnetic and therefore, explored for their possible use in delivery of cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). In the developed drug delivery system, achieving high drug-loading efficiency with controllable release were the main challenges. The change in zeta potential and quenching of fluorescence intensity suggests chemical interaction between DOX and the nanoparticles. The loading efficiency was calculated to be over 95% with a sustained pH and temperature sensitive release. Further, enzyme cathepsin B has also been used to degrade the dendritic shell to trigger sustained drug release in the vicinity of tumor cells.

  12. Structural and phase transitions of one and two polymer mushrooms in poor solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Delian; Wang, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Using the recently proposed fast lattice Monte Carlo (FLMC) simulations and the corresponding lattice self-consistent field (LSCF) calculations based on the same model system, where multiple occupancy of lattice sites is allowed [Q. Wang, Soft Matter 5, 4564 (2009); Q. Wang, Soft Matter 5, 6206 (2010)], we studied the coil-globule transition (CGT) of one-mushroom systems and the fused-separated transition (FST) of two-mushroom systems, where a polymer mushroom is formed by a group of n homopolymer chains each of N segments end-grafted at the same point onto a flat substrate and immersed in a poor solvent. With our soft potential that allows complete particle overlapping, LSCF theory neglecting the system fluctuations/correlations becomes exact in the limit of n → ∞, and FLMC results approach LSCF predictions with increasing n. Using LSCF calculations, we systematically constructed the phase diagrams of one- and two-mushroom systems. A second-order symmetric-asymmetric transition (SAT) was found in the globule state of one-mushroom systems, where the rotational symmetry around the substrate normal passing through the grafting point is broken in each individual configuration but preserved by the degeneracy of different orientations of these asymmetric configurations. Three different states were also found in two-mushroom systems: separated coils, separated globules, and fused globule. We further studied the coupling between FST in two-mushroom systems and CGT and SAT of each mushroom. Finally, direct comparisons between our simulation and theoretical results, without any parameter-fitting, unambiguously and quantitatively revealed the fluctuation/correlation effects on these phase transitions.

  13. Concentration and saturation effects of tethered polymer chains on adsorbing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descas, Radu; Sommer, Jens-Uwe; Blumen, Alexander

    2006-12-01

    We consider end-grafted chains at an adsorbing surface under good solvent conditions using Monte Carlo simulations and scaling arguments. Grafting of chains allows us to fix the surface concentration and to study a wide range of surface concentrations from the undersaturated state of the surface up to the brushlike regime. The average extension of single chains in the direction parallel and perpendicular to the surface is analyzed using scaling arguments for the two-dimensional semidilute surface state according to Bouchaud and Daoud [J. Phys. (Paris) 48, 1991 (1987)]. We find good agreement with the scaling predictions for the scaling in the direction parallel to the surface and for surface concentrations much below the saturation concentration (dense packing of adsorption blobs). Increasing the grafting density we study the saturation effects and the oversaturation of the adsorption layer. In order to account for the effect of excluded volume on the adsorption free energy we introduce a new scaling variable related with the saturation concentration of the adsorption layer (saturation scaling). We show that the decrease of the single chain order parameter (the fraction of adsorbed monomers on the surface) with increasing concentration, being constant in the ideal semidilute surface state, is properly described by saturation scaling only. Furthermore, the simulation results for the chains' extension from higher surface concentrations up to the oversaturated state support the new scaling approach. The oversaturated state can be understood using a geometrical model which assumes a brushlike layer on top of a saturated adsorption layer. We provide evidence that adsorbed polymer layers are very sensitive to saturation effects, which start to influence the semidilute surface scaling even much below the saturation threshold.

  14. Gold nanorod linking to control plasmonic properties in solution and polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Robert C; Lee, Hyun-Su; Hore, Michael J A; Caporizzo, Matthew; Eckmann, David M; Composto, Russell J

    2014-02-25

    A novel, solution-based method is presented to prepare bifunctional gold nanorods (B-NRs), assemble B-NRs end-to-end in various solvents, and disperse linked B-NRs in a polymer matrix. The B-NRs have poly(ethylene glycol) grafted along its long axis and cysteine adsorbed to its ends. By controlling cysteine coverage, bifunctional ligands or polymer can be end-grafted to the AuNRs. Here, two dithiol ligands (C6DT and C9DT) are used to link the B-NRs in organic solvents. With increasing incubation time, the nanorod chain length increases linearly as the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance shifts toward lower adsorption wavelengths (i.e., red shift). Analogous to step-growth polymerization, the polydispersity in chain length also increases. Upon adding poly(ethylene glycol) or poly(methyl methacrylate) to chloroform solution with linked B-NR, the nanorod chains are shown to retain end-to-end linking upon spin-casting into PEO or PMMA films. Using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), the mechanism of nanorod linking is investigated on planar gold surfaces. At submonolayer coverage of cysteine, C6DT molecules can insert between cysteines and reach an areal density of 3.4 molecules per nm(2). To mimic the linking of Au NRs, this planar surface is exposed to cysteine-coated Au nanoparticles, which graft at 7 NPs per μm(2). This solution-based method to prepare, assemble, and disperse Au nanorods is applicable to other nanorod systems (e.g., CdSe) and presents a new strategy to assemble anisotropic particles in organic solvents and polymer coatings.

  15. Self-organization of grafted polyelectrolyte layers via the coupling of chemical equilibrium and physical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliazucchi, Mario; de la Cruz, Mónica Olvera; Szleifer, Igal

    2010-03-23

    The competition between chemical equilibrium, for example protonation, and physical interactions determines the molecular organization and functionality of biological and synthetic systems. Charge regulation by displacement of acid-base equilibrium induced by changes in the local environment provides a feedback mechanism that controls the balance between electrostatic, van der Waals, steric interactions and molecular organization. Which strategies do responsive systems follow to globally optimize chemical equilibrium and physical interactions? We address this question by theoretically studying model layers of end-grafted polyacids. These layers spontaneously form self-assembled aggregates, presenting domains of controlled local pH and whose morphologies can be manipulated by the composition of the solution in contact with the film. Charge regulation stabilizes micellar domains over a wide range of pH by reducing the local charge in the aggregate at the cost of chemical free energy and gaining in hydrophobic interactions. This balance determines the boundaries between different aggregate morphologies. We show that a qualitatively new form of organization arises from the coupling between physical interactions and protonation equilibrium. This optimization strategy presents itself with polyelectrolytes coexisting in two different and well-defined protonation states. Our results underline the need of considering the coupling between chemical equilibrium and physical interactions due to their highly nonadditive behavior. The predictions provide guidelines for the creation of responsive polymer layers presenting self-organized patterns with functional properties and they give insights for the understanding of competing interactions in highly inhomogeneous and constrained environments such as those relevant in nanotechnology and those responsible for biological cells function.

  16. Adsorption of human serum albumin: Dependence on molecular architecture of the oppositely charged surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.; Granick, Steve

    1999-05-01

    We contrast the adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) onto two solid substrates previously primed with the same polyelectrolyte of net opposite charge to form one of two alternative structures: randomly adsorbed polymer and the "brush" configuration. These structures were formed either by the adsorption of quaternized poly-4-vinylpyridine (QPVP) or by end-grafting QPVP chains of the same chemical makeup and the same molecular weight to surfaces onto which QPVP segments did not adsorb. The adsorption of HSA was quantified by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR). The two substrates showed striking differences with regard to HSA adsorption. First, the brush substrate induced lesser perturbations in the secondary structure of the adsorbed HSA, reflecting easier conformational adjustment for longer free segments of polyelectrolyte upon binding with the protein. Second, the penetration of HSA into the brush substrate was kinetically retarded relative to the randomly adsorbed polymer, probably due to both pore size restriction and electrostatic sticking between charged groups of HSA and QPVP molecules. Third, release of HSA from the adsorbed layer, as the ionic strength was increased from a low level up to the high level of 1 M NaCl, was largely inhibited for the brush substrate, but occurred easily and rapidly for the substrate with statistically adsorbed QPVP chains. Finally, even after addition of a strong polymeric adsorption competitor (sodium polystyrene sulfonate), HSA remained trapped within a brush substrate though it desorbed slowly from the preadsorbed QPVP layer. This method to produce irreversible trapping of the protein within a brush substrate without major conformational change may find application in biosensor design.

  17. Non-monotonic swelling of surface grafted hydrogels induced by pH and/or salt concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Gabriel S.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Szleifer, I.

    2014-09-01

    We use a molecular theory to study the thermodynamics of a weak-polyacid hydrogel film that is chemically grafted to a solid surface. We investigate the response of the material to changes in the pH and salt concentration of the buffer solution. Our results show that the pH-triggered swelling of the hydrogel film has a non-monotonic dependence on the acidity of the bath solution. At most salt concentrations, the thickness of the hydrogel film presents a maximum when the pH of the solution is increased from acidic values. The quantitative details of such swelling behavior, which is not observed when the film is physically deposited on the surface, depend on the molecular architecture of the polymer network. This swelling-deswelling transition is the consequence of the complex interplay between the chemical free energy (acid-base equilibrium), the electrostatic repulsions between charged monomers, which are both modulated by the absorption of ions, and the ability of the polymer network to regulate charge and control its volume (molecular organization). In the absence of such competition, for example, for high salt concentrations, the film swells monotonically with increasing pH. A deswelling-swelling transition is similarly predicted as a function of the salt concentration at intermediate pH values. This reentrant behavior, which is due to the coupling between charge regulation and the two opposing effects triggered by salt concentration (screening electrostatic interactions and charging/discharging the acid groups), is similar to that found in end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers. Understanding how to control the response of the material to different stimuli, in terms of its molecular structure and local chemical composition, can help the targeted design of applications with extended functionality. We describe the response of the material to an applied pressure and an electric potential. We present profiles that outline the local chemical composition of the