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Sample records for significantly stronger association

  1. Association Between Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptoms Is Stronger Among Black than White Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-01

    Although poor self-esteem is a core component of depression, we still do not know if racial and ethnic groups differ in the magnitude of this link. This study compared Black and White older adults on the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms. With a cross-sectional design, this study enrolled 1493 older individuals (age 66 or more) from the 2001 Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, a nationally representative study in the United States. Participants were either Blacks (n = 734) or Whites (n = 759). Depressive symptoms and self-esteem were measured using brief measures of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Demographics, socioeconomics, and self-rated health (SRH) were covariates and self-identified race was the moderator. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Low self-esteem was associated with more depressive symptoms (B = 0.17, 95 % CI 0.15-0.28), above and beyond all covariates. We found a significant and positive interaction between race (Black) and poor self-esteem on depressive symptoms (B = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.17-0.36), suggesting a stronger association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms among Blacks compared to Whites. Although low self-esteem is associated with higher depressive symptoms in both Whites and Blacks (p self-esteem and high depressive symptoms are more closely associated among Blacks than Whites. It is not clear whether depression leaves a larger scar on self-esteem for Blacks, or Blacks are more vulnerable to the effect of low self-esteem on depression.

  2. Elite level rhythmic gymnasts have significantly more and stronger pain than peers of similar age: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Manuel; Jeremian, Lusine; Graf, Alexandra; Kandelhart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) unites aesthetic, ballet-like motion, and all aspects of gymnastics. To reach elite level, girls begin at early age the intensive training. To date it is unclear if such demanding training influences the incidence and intensity of painful overuse injuries. The purpose of this study is to analyze anatomical painful regions and pain intensity in elite level rhythmic gymnasts (elRG) and compare results with an age-matched control group (CG). This prospective field study was carried out at the European Championship in RG 2013 (218 participating athletes, Vienna, Austria). Volunteering athletes were interviewed according to a preformed questionnaire. As CG secondary school pupils without any competitive sports experience were analyzed accordingly. Overall, 243 young females (144 elRG/66 % of all participants and 99 CG) were observed. ElRGs were significantly (s.) smaller, lighter, and had s. stronger pain (p < 0.001). A total of 72 % of athletes reported to have at least one painful body region compared with 52 % of CG (p < 0.001). ElRG had nearly three times more serious injuries than the CG. In all 23 % off all elRG reported to have had no access to professional medical care. ElRGs were s. more frequently (25 vs 9 %) affected at the lumbar spine and the ankle joint (17.4 vs 7 %). To our knowledge, this trial analyzes the largest cohort of elRG to date. Hence, it is clearly alluded that intensive training in RG is a significant factor causing more and stronger pain than in a CG.

  3. Sexual harassment and emotional and behavioural symptoms in adolescence: stronger associations among boys than girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-08-01

    To study the associations between subjection to sexual harassment and emotional (depression) and behavioural (delinquency) symptoms among 14-to-18-year-old adolescents, and gender differences within these associations. 90,953 boys and 91,746 girls aged 14-18 participated in the School Health Promotion Study (SHPS), a school-based survey designed to examine the health, health behaviours, and school experiences of teenagers. Experiences of sexual harassment were elicited with five questions addressing five separate forms of harassment. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory and delinquency with a modified version of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD) instrument. Data were analysed using cross-tabulations with Chi-square statistics and logistic regression. All sexual harassment experiences studied were associated with both depression (adjusted odds ratios varied from 2.2 to 2.7 in girls and from 2.0 to 5.1 in boys) and delinquency (adjusted odds ratios 3.1-5.0 in girls and 1.7-6.9 in boys). Sexual name-calling had a stronger association with depression and with delinquency in girls (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.4 and 4.2), than in boys (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.0 and 1.7), but otherwise stronger associations with emotional and behavioural symptoms were seen in boys. Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with both emotional and behavioural symptoms in both girls and boys. The associations are mostly stronger for boys. Boys subjected to sexual harassment may feel particularly threatened regarding their masculinity, and there may be less support available for boys traumatised due to sexual harassment.

  4. Harmful drinking after job loss: a stronger association during the post-2008 economic crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Otten, Ferdy; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated, among the Dutch working population, whether job loss during the post-2008 economic crisis is associated with harmful drinking and whether this association is stronger than before the crisis. Repeated cross-sectional data from the Dutch Health Interview Survey 2004-2013 were used to define episodic drinking (≥6 glasses on 1 day ≥1/week) and chronic drinking (≥14 glasses/week for women and ≥21 for men). These data were linked to longitudinal data from tax registries, to measure the experience and duration of job loss during a 5-year working history. Before the crisis, job loss experience and duration were not associated with harmful drinking. During the crisis, job loss for more than 6 months was associated with episodic drinking [OR 1.40 (95% CI 1.01; 1.94)], while current job loss was associated with chronic drinking [OR 1.43 (95% CI 1.03; 1.98)]. These associations were most clear in men and different between the pre-crisis and crisis period (p interaction = 0.023 and 0.035, respectively). The results suggest that economic crises strengthen the potential impact of job loss on harmful drinking, predominately among men.

  5. Brain Potentials Highlight Stronger Implicit Food Memory for Taste than Health and Context Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R; Jolij, Jacob; Ter Horst, Gert J; Lorist, Monicque M

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the actual perception of a food's sensory properties, and therefore highly rely on previous experiences of similar consumptions stored in memory. In this study we assessed the differential strength of food associations implicitly stored in memory, using an associative priming paradigm. Participants (N = 30) were exposed to a forced-choice picture-categorization task, in which the food or non-food target images were primed with either non-sensory or sensory related words. We observed a smaller N400 amplitude at the parietal electrodes when categorizing food as compared to non-food images. While this effect was enhanced by the presentation of a food-related word prime during food trials, the primes had no effect in the non-food trials. More specifically, we found that sensory associations are stronger implicitly represented in memory as compared to non-sensory associations. Thus, this study highlights the neuronal mechanisms underlying previous observations that sensory associations are important features of food memory, and therefore a primary motive in food choice.

  6. Stronger Association Between Valence- and Arousal Ratings of Affective Pictures with Older Age: Evidence for Variation Across Emotion Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Lyby, Marlene Skovgaard

    A sample of older and younger adults rated affective pictures according to valence, arousal and emotion category (happiness, sadness and disgust). Results indicate that older age is associated with a stronger linear association between ratings of arousal and valence. Further, the strength...... of the association vary according to emotion category....

  7. Stronger synergies

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    CERN was founded 58 years ago under the auspices of UNESCO. Since then, both organisations have grown to become world leaders in their respective fields. The links between the two have always existed but today they are even stronger, with new projects under way to develop a more efficient way of exchanging information and devise a common strategy on topics of mutual interest.   CERN and UNESCO are a perfect example of natural partners: their common field is science and education is one of the pillars on which both are built. Historically, they share a common heritage. Both UNESCO and CERN were born of the desire to use scientific cooperation to rebuild peace and security in the aftermath of the Second World War. "Recently, building on our common roots and in close collaboration with UNESCO, we have been developing more structured links to ensure the continuity of the actions taken over the years," says Maurizio Bona, who is in charge of CERN relations with international orga...

  8. Steroid requirements and immune associations with vitamin D are stronger in children than adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goleva, Elena; Searing, Daniel A; Jackson, Leisa P; Richers, Brittany N; Leung, Donald Y M

    2012-05-01

    The effects of serum vitamin D status on atopy, steroid requirement, and functional responsiveness to corticosteroids in children versus adults with asthma have not been studied systematically. We sought to explore the age-specific effects of vitamin D in asthmatic patients. Serum vitamin D levels were examined in a prospective study of adults and children (102 healthy control subjects and 103 asthmatic patients). PBMCs were cultured for 3 hours with or without 100 nmol/L dexamethasone, and the expression of corticosteroid-regulated genes was detected by using real-time PCR. Serum IgE levels were measured, and information about asthmatic patients' steroid requirements was collected. Deficient serum vitamin D levels (<20 ng/mL) were found in 47.6% of asthmatic patients and 56.8% of healthy control subjects, with means ± SDs of 20.7 ± 9.8 and 19.2 ± 7.7 ng/mL, respectively. In multivariate regression models a significant positive correlation between serum vitamin D levels and the expression of vitamin D-regulated targets, cytochrome P450, family 24, subfamily a (cyp24a) expression by PBMCs (P = .0084, pediatric asthma group only) and serum LL-37 levels (P = .0006 in the pediatric group but P = .0067 in the adult asthma group), was found. An inverse association between vitamin D and serum IgE levels was observed in the pediatric (P = .006) asthma group. Serum vitamin D level (P = .05), as well as PBMC cyp24a expression (P = .0312), demonstrated a significant inverse relationship with daily inhaled corticosteroid dose in the pediatric asthma group only. Cyp24a expression in PBMCs correlated positively with in vitro suppression of TNF-α by dexamethasone (P = .05) and IL-13 (P = .0094) in PBMCs in the pediatric asthma group only. This study demonstrated significant associations between serum vitamin D status and steroid requirement and in vitro responsiveness to corticosteroids in the pediatric but not the adult asthma group. Vitamin D was also related to IgE levels

  9. Does academic performance or personal growth share a stronger association with learning environment perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Sean; Wright, Scott M.; Shochet, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to characterize the relative strength of associations of learning environment perception with academic performance and with personal growth. Methods In 2012-2014 second and third year students at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine completed a learning environment survey and personal growth scale. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was employed to determine if the proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was significantly larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance (course/clerkship grades). Results The proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance in year 2 [R2Δ of 0.09, F(1,175) = 14.99,  p environment scores shared a small amount of variance with academic performance in years 2 and 3.  The amount of variance between learning environment scores and personal growth was small in year 2 and large in year 3. Conclusions Since supportive learning environments are essential for medical education, future work must determine if enhancing personal growth prior to and during the clerkship year will increase learning environment perception. PMID:27570912

  10. Income inequality is associated with stronger social comparison effects: The effect of relative income on life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has shown that having rich neighbors is associated with reduced levels of subjective well-being, an effect that is likely due to social comparison. The current study examined the role of income inequality as a moderator of this relative income effect. Multilevel analyses were conducted on a sample of more than 1.7 million people from 2,425 counties in the United States. Results showed that higher income inequality was associated with stronger relative income effects. In other words, people were more strongly influenced by the income of their neighbors when income inequality was high. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Income Inequality Is Associated with Stronger Social Comparison Effects: The Effect of Relative Income on Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that having rich neighbors is associated with reduced levels of subjective well-being, an effect that is likely due to social comparison. The current study examined the role of income inequality as a moderator of this relative income effect. Multilevel analyses were conducted on a sample of over 1.7 million people from 2,425 counties in the United States. Results showed that higher income inequality was associated with stronger relative income effects. In other words, people were more strongly influenced by the income of their neighbors when income inequality was high. PMID:26191957

  12. Significant variables associated with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, F.A.; Qayyum, K.; Ahmad, N.; Makhdoomi, A.; Safdar, A.; Asif, A.; Chaudhry, H.R.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of the epileptics and the risk factors contributing to the development of epilepsy. Results: Majority of the subjects were single (77.84%), 1st born among their siblings (25.95%), belonged to low social class (50.63%), and unemployed(25.31%). The major risk factors were family history of illness (23.52%) and positive medical problem around birth (12.66%). The presence of family history of illness, positive medical problem around birth and advanced maternal age at birth were associated with early onset of epilepsy. Vulnerability for the epilepsy also increases among hospital deliveries. Conclusion: Although the present study has identified various risk factors, yet the results need to be further confirmed through case-control studies. (author)

  13. The survival-reproduction association becomes stronger when conditions are good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandre; Bolton, Mark; Jiguet, Frédéric; Bried, Joël

    2015-11-07

    Positive covariations between survival and reproductive performance (S-R covariation) are generally interpreted in the context of fixed or dynamic demographic heterogeneity (i.e. persistent differences between individuals, or dynamic variation in resource acquisition), but the processes underlying covariations are still unknown. We used multi-event modelling to investigate how environmental and individual features influence S-R covariation patterns in a long-lived seabird, the Monteiro's storm petrel (Oceanodroma monteiroi). Our analysis reveals that a strong positive association between individual breeding success and subsequent survival occurs only when conditions are favourable to reproduction (in favourable years, in high-quality nests and in nest-faithful breeders). This finding reflects differences in the main causes of breeding failure and mortality under favourable and unfavourable conditions, which in turn lead to distinct patterns of S-R covariation. We suggest, in particular, that resource-related sources of demographic heterogeneity do not generate a strong S-R covariation, in contrast with hidden and unpredictable sources of variation. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Collective Nostalgia Is Associated With Stronger Outgroup-Directed Anger and Participation in Ingroup-Favoring Collective Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Yee Cheung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Collective nostalgia refers to longing for the way society used to be. We tested whether collective nostalgia is associated with ingroup-favoring collective action and whether this association is mediated by outgroup-directed anger and outgroup-directed contempt. We conducted an online study of Hong Kong residents (N = 111 during a large-scale democratic social movement, the Umbrella Movement, that took place in Hong Kong in 2014 in response to proposed electoral reforms by the Chinese government in Mainland China. Reported collective nostalgia for Hong Kong’s past was high in our sample and collective nostalgia predicted stronger involvement in ingroup-favoring collective action, and it did so indirectly via higher intensity of outgroup-directed anger (but not through outgroup-directed contempt. We argue that collective nostalgia has implications for strengthening ingroup-serving collective action, and we highlight the importance of arousal of group-based emotions in this process.

  15. 24-hour aortic blood pressure variability showed a stronger association with carotid damage than 24-hour brachial blood pressure variability: The SAFAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shikai; Chi, Chen; Protogerou, Athanase D; Safar, Michel E; Blacher, Jacques; Argyris, Antonis A; Nasothimiou, Efthimia G; Sfikakis, Petros P; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Xu, Henry; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yawei

    2018-03-01

    We aim to compare 24-hour aortic blood pressure variability (BPV) with brachial BPV in relation to carotid damage as estimated by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and cross-sectional area (CCSA). Four hundred and forty five individuals received brachial and aortic 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring with a validated device (Mobil-O-Graph). Systolic BPV was estimated by average real variability (ARV) and time-weighted standard deviation (wSD). In multiple logistic regression analysis, CIMT > 900 μm was significantly and independently associated with aortic ARV (OR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.04-1.84), aortic wSD (OR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.19-2.29) and brachial ARV (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.07-2.18), but not with brachial wSD. CCSA > 90th percentile was significantly and independently associated with aortic ARV (OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.07-2.10) and wSD (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.12-2.56), but not with brachial BPVs. In receiver operator characteristics curve analysis, aortic wSD identified CCSA > 90th percentile better than brachial wSD (AUC: 0.73 vs 0.68, P < .01). In conclusion, aortic 24-hour systolic BPV showed a slightly stronger association with carotid damage than brachial BPV. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Blame it on patriarchy: more sexist attitudes are associated with stronger consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself and one's partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stewart, Natasha; Nader, Ingo W; Stieger, Stefan; Shannon, Samantha; Voracek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we examined associations between oppressive, sexist beliefs and consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself and also endorsement of cosmetic surgery for one's romantic partner. A total of 554 German-speaking volunteers from the community, mainly in Austria, completed measures of consideration of cosmetic surgery and three measures of sexist attitudes, while a subset of participants in romantic relationships completed a measure of endorsement of cosmetic surgery for their partners along with the measures of sexism. Preliminary analyses showed that women and single respondents were more likely to consider having cosmetic surgery than men and committed respondents, respectively. Further analyses showed that consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself was significantly associated with sexist attitudes, particularly hostile attitudes to women. In addition, among participants in a relationship, sexist attitudes were associated with endorsement of cosmetic surgery for one's partner. These results indicate that attitudes to cosmetic surgery for oneself and one's partner are shaped by gender-ideological belief systems in patriarchal societies. Possible implications for understanding the motivations for having cosmetic surgery, among both single respondents and couples, are discussed.

  17. More concerns and stronger beliefs about the necessity of medication in patients with acromegaly are associated with negative illness perceptions and impairment in quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andela, Cornelie D; Biermasz, Nienke R; Kaptein, Adrian A; Pereira, Alberto M; Tiemensma, Jitske

    2015-10-01

    Patients with acromegaly can be treated with surgery, radiotherapy and/or medical treatment. In general, patients' beliefs about medication are associated with illness perceptions, a contributory factor of Quality of Life (QoL). At present, there are no quantitative studies on medication beliefs in patients with acromegaly. Here, we aimed to examine possible associations between medication beliefs, illness perceptions, and QoL. Furthermore we aimed to explore whether illness perceptions of patients with remission of acromegaly receiving medical treatment differ from patients without medical treatment. Cross-sectional evaluation of 73 patients with remission of acromegaly (n = 28 patients with medication, n = 45 without medication). The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R), EuroQoL-5D, and AcroQoL were used for the assessment. Stronger beliefs about the necessity of medical treatment and stronger concerns about the adverse effects were associated with attributing more symptoms to acromegaly, perceiving more negative consequences, and having a stronger belief in a cyclical timeline (BMQ, all P Negative medication beliefs were related to more negative illness perceptions and worse disease-specific QoL. Patients receiving medical treatment for acromegaly tend to perceive a more chronic timeline of their disease, compared to patients with remission without medical treatment. These psychological factors need to be taken into account when treating patients and developing a psychosocial education program aiming to improve QoL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Immune indexes of larks from desert and temperate regions show weak associations with life history but stronger links to environmental variation in microbial abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Nicholas P C; Hegemann, Arne; Matson, Kevin D; Hine, Kathryn; Jaquier, Sophie; Shobrak, Mohammed; Williams, Joseph B; Tinbergen, Joost M; Tieleman, B Irene

    2012-01-01

    Immune defense may vary as a result of trade-offs with other life-history traits or in parallel with variation in antigen levels in the environment. We studied lark species (Alaudidae) in the Arabian Desert and temperate Netherlands to test opposing predictions from these two hypotheses. Based on their slower pace of life, the trade-off hypothesis predicts relatively stronger immune defenses in desert larks compared with temperate larks. However, as predicted by the antigen exposure hypothesis, reduced microbial abundances in deserts should result in desert-living larks having relatively weaker immune defenses. We quantified host-independent and host-dependent microbial abundances of culturable microbes in ambient air and from the surfaces of birds. We measured components of immunity by quantifying concentrations of the acute-phase protein haptoglobin, natural antibody-mediated agglutination titers, complement-mediated lysis titers, and the microbicidal ability of whole blood. Desert-living larks were exposed to significantly lower concentrations of airborne microbes than temperate larks, and densities of some bird-associated microbes were also lower in desert species. Haptoglobin concentrations and lysis titers were also significantly lower in desert-living larks, but other immune indexes did not differ. Thus, contrary to the trade-off hypothesis, we found little evidence that a slow pace of life predicted increased immunological investment. In contrast, and in support of the antigen exposure hypothesis, associations between microbial exposure and some immune indexes were apparent. Measures of antigen exposure, including assessment of host-independent and host-dependent microbial assemblages, can provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying immunological variation.

  19. CDC'S Testing Makes Us Stronger (TMUS) Campaign: Was Campaign Exposure Associated With HIV Testing Behavior Among Black Gay and Bisexual Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habarta, Nancy; Boudewyns, Vanessa; Badal, Hannah; Johnston, Jennie; Uhrig, Jennifer; Green, Donata; Ruddle, Paul; Rosenthal, Jacqueline; Stryker, Jo Ellen

    2017-06-01

    This study assessed exposure among Black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (BMSM) to a communication campaign, Testing Makes Us Stronger (TMUS), and its association with HIV testing to determine campaign effectiveness. Data from an online survey (N = 3,105) were analyzed using propensity score weight-adjusted logistic regression to examine the effect of exposure on HIV testing. Among BMSM aged 18-44 (n = 702), 43.2% reported TMUS exposure. The majority of those exposed were aged 25-34 (54%), HIV-negative (65%), and had some college education (87%). TMUS exposure was associated with reported increased HIV testing behaviors at 6- and 12-month frequencies. Communication campaigns with clear implementation strategies, focused objectives, and online and event presence can be associated with longer-term outcomes such as HIV testing.

  20. Retinal vascular calibres are significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Bertelsen, G.; Sjølie, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    . Association between retinal vessel calibre and the cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Retinal arteriolar calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, HbA1c and smoking in women and men, and with HDL cholesterol in men......Purpose: To describe the association between retinal vascular calibres and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study including 6353 participants of the TromsO Eye Study in Norway aged 38-87years. Retinal arteriolar calibre (central retinal artery equivalent...... cardiovascular risk factors were independently associated with retinal vascular calibre, with stronger effect of HDL cholesterol and BMI in men than in women. Blood pressure and smoking contributed most to the explained variance....

  1. Stronger default mode network connectivity is associated with poorer clinical insight in youth at ultra high-risk for psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah V; Mittal, Vijay A; Bernard, Jessica A; Ahmadi, Aral; King, Tricia Z; Turner, Jessica A

    2018-03-01

    Impaired clinical insight (CI) is a common symptom of psychotic disorders and a promising treatment target. However, to date, our understanding of how variability in CI is tied to underlying brain dysfunction in the clinical high-risk period is limited. Developing a stronger conception of this link will be a vital first step for efforts to determine if CI can serve as a useful prognostic indicator. The current study investigated whether variability in CI is related to major brain networks in adolescents and young adults at ultra high-risk (UHR) of developing psychosis. Thirty-five UHR youth were administered structured clinical interviews as well as an assessment for CI and underwent resting-state magnetic resonance imaging scans. Functional connectivity was calculated in the default mode network (DMN) and fronto-parietal network (FPN), two major networks that are dysfunctional in psychosis and are hypothesized to affect insight. Greater DMN connectivity between the posterior cingulate/precuneus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (DMN) was related to poorer CI (R 2 =0.399). There were no significant relationships between insight and the FPN. This is the first study to relate a major brain network to clinical insight before the onset of psychosis. Findings are consistent with evidence if a hyperconnected DMN in schizophrenia and UHR, and similar to a previous study of insight and connectivity in schizophrenia. Results suggest that a strongly connected DMN may be related to poor self-awareness of subthreshold psychotic symptoms in UHR adolescents and young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel loci and pathways significantly associated with longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Nie, Chao; Min, Junxia

    2016-01-01

    Only two genome-wide significant loci associated with longevity have been identified so far, probably because of insufficient sample sizes of centenarians, whose genomes may harbor genetic variants associated with health and longevity. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Han ...

  3. Functional assessment of chronic illness therapy—the fatigue scale exhibits stronger associations with clinical parameters in chronic dialysis patients compared to other fatigue-assessing instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ter Chao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD have a high symptom burden, among which fatigue is highly prevalent. Many fatigue-assessing instruments exist, but comparisons among instruments in this patient population have yet to be investigated. Methods. ESRD patients under chronic hemodialysis were prospectively enrolled and seven types of fatigue instruments were administered: Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Fatigue (FACIT-F, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, Lee Fatigue Scale (LFS, Fatigue Questionnaire (FQ, Fatigue Symptom Inventory (FSI, and Short-Form 36-Vitality (SF36-V. Using these instruments, we investigated the correlation between fatigue severity and clinical/biochemical parameters, including demographic/comorbidity profile, dialysis-related complications, and frailty severity. We used regression analysis with serum albumin and frailty severity as the dependent variables to investigate the independent correlations. Results. A total of 46 ESRD patients were enrolled (average age of 67 ± 11.6 years, and 50% of them had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results from the seven tested instruments showed high correlation with each other. We found that the fatigue severity by FACIT-F was significantly associated with age (p = 0.03, serum albumin (p = 0.003 and creatinine (p = 0.02 levels, while SF36-V scores were also significantly associated with age (p = 0.02 and serum creatinine levels (p = 0.04. However, the fatigue severity measured by the FSS, FSI, FQ, BFI, and LFS did not exhibit these associations. Moreover, regression analysis showed that only FACIT-F scores were independently associated with serum albumin levels and frailty severity in ESRD patients. Conclusion. Among the seven fatigue-assessing instruments, only the FACIT-F yielded results that demonstrated significant and independent associations with important outcome-related features in ESRD patients.

  4. Stronger Fire-Resistant Epoxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlen, George M.; Parker, John A.; Kumar, Devendra

    1988-01-01

    New curing agent improves mechanical properties and works at lower temperature. Use of aminophenoxycyclotriphosphazene curing agents yields stronger, more heat- and fire-resistant epoxy resins. Used with solvent if necessary for coating fabrics or casting films.

  5. Identification of sequence motifs significantly associated with antisense activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peek Andrew S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting the suppression activity of antisense oligonucleotide sequences is the main goal of the rational design of nucleic acids. To create an effective predictive model, it is important to know what properties of an oligonucleotide sequence associate significantly with antisense activity. Also, for the model to be efficient we must know what properties do not associate significantly and can be omitted from the model. This paper will discuss the results of a randomization procedure to find motifs that associate significantly with either high or low antisense suppression activity, analysis of their properties, as well as the results of support vector machine modelling using these significant motifs as features. Results We discovered 155 motifs that associate significantly with high antisense suppression activity and 202 motifs that associate significantly with low suppression activity. The motifs range in length from 2 to 5 bases, contain several motifs that have been previously discovered as associating highly with antisense activity, and have thermodynamic properties consistent with previous work associating thermodynamic properties of sequences with their antisense activity. Statistical analysis revealed no correlation between a motif's position within an antisense sequence and that sequences antisense activity. Also, many significant motifs existed as subwords of other significant motifs. Support vector regression experiments indicated that the feature set of significant motifs increased correlation compared to all possible motifs as well as several subsets of the significant motifs. Conclusion The thermodynamic properties of the significantly associated motifs support existing data correlating the thermodynamic properties of the antisense oligonucleotide with antisense efficiency, reinforcing our hypothesis that antisense suppression is strongly associated with probe/target thermodynamics, as there are no enzymatic

  6. Chemical reaction due to stronger Ramachandran interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The origin of a chemical reaction between two reactant atoms is associated with the activation energy, on the assumption that, high-energy collisions between these atoms, are the ones that overcome the activation energy. Here, we show that a stronger attractive van der Waals (vdW) and electron-ion Coulomb interactions ...

  7. Site properties have a stronger influence than fire severity on ectomycorrhizal fungi and associated N-cycling bacteria in regenerating post-beetle-killed lodgepole pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Nabla M; Robertson, Susan J; Green, D Scott; Scholefield, Scott R; Arocena, Joselito M; Tackaberry, Linda E; Massicotte, Hugues B; Egger, Keith N

    2015-09-01

    Following a pine beetle epidemic in British Columbia, Canada, we investigated the effect of fire severity on rhizosphere soil chemistry and ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) and associated denitrifying and nitrogen (N)-fixing bacteria in the root systems of regenerating lodgepole pine seedlings at two site types (wet and dry) and three fire severities (low, moderate, and high). The site type was found to have a much larger impact on all measurements than fire severity. Wet and dry sites differed significantly for almost all soil properties measured, with higher values identified from wet types, except for pH and percent sand that were greater on dry sites. Fire severity caused few changes in soil chemical status. Generally, bacterial communities differed little, whereas ECM morphotype analysis revealed ectomycorrhizal diversity was lower on dry sites, with a corresponding division in community structure between wet and dry sites. Molecular profiling of the fungal ITS region confirmed these results, with a clear difference in community structure seen between wet and dry sites. The ability of ECM fungi to colonize seedlings growing in both wet and dry soils may positively contribute to subsequent regeneration. We conclude that despite consecutive landscape disturbances (mountain pine beetle infestation followed by wildfire), the "signature" of moisture on chemistry and ECM community structure remained pronounced.

  8. Significant Association of Streptococcus bovis with Malignant Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Shanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive bacterium causing serious human infections, including endocarditis and bacteremia, and is usually associated with underlying disease. The aims of the current study were to compare prevalence of the bacterium associated with malignant and nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases and to determine the susceptibility of the isolated strains to different antimicrobial agents. The result showed that the prevalence of S. bovis in stool specimens from patients with malignant or with nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases was statistically significant. This result may support the idea that there is correlation between S. bovis and the malignant gastrointestinal diseases.

  9. Preterm birth and small for gestational age in relation to alcohol consumption during pregnancy: stronger associations among vulnerable women? results from two large Western-European studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfinder, M.; Kunst, A.E.; Feldmann, R.; van Eijsden, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent data on the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and a range of pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth (PTB) and small for gestational age (SGA) raise new questions. This study aimed to assess whether the association between low-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure

  10. Preterm birth and small for gestational age in relation to alcohol consumption during pregnancy: stronger associations among vulnerable women? Results from two large Western-European studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfinder, Manuela; Kunst, Anton E.; Feldmann, Reinhold; van Eijsden, Manon; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Inconsistent data on the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and a range of pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth (PTB) and small for gestational age (SGA) raise new questions. This study aimed to assess whether the association between low-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and PTB and

  11. Prospects for stronger calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ells, C.E.; Coleman, C.E.; Hosbons, R.R.; Ibrahim, E.F.; Doubt, G.L.

    1990-12-01

    The CANDU calandria tubes, made of seam welded and annealed Zircaloy-2, have given exemplary service in-reactor. Although not designed as a system pressure containment, calandria tubes may remain intact even in the face of pressure tube rupture. One such incident at Pickering Unit 2 demonstrated the economic advantage of such an outcome, and a case can be made for increasing the probability that other calandria tubes would perform in a similar fashion. Various methods of obtaining stronger calandria tubes are available, and reviewed here. When the tubes are internally pressurized, the weld is the weak section of the tube. Increasing the oxygen concentration in the starting sheet, and thickening the weld, are promising routes to a stronger tube

  12. The significance of FM associations for women with FM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuso, Päivi; Söderberg, Siv; Olsson, Malin; Skär, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Living with fibromyalgia (FM) means living with a long-term pain syndrome that is invisible to others. Support and understanding from others seem to be important to managing the affected daily life. The aim of this study was to describe the significance of FM associations for women with FM. Data collection was carried out through focus group discussions with seventeen women with FM. Data were analyzed through thematic content analysis. The findings show that women experienced associations for people with FM as important as they gave access to contacts with others with similar experiences. Their need of togetherness was fulfilled at the association and they described being strengthened by the support received. Because of the lack of information and knowledge about FM, the association was described as an important venue for getting and mediating information about the illness. At the association the women seem to be empowered, which increases their ability to manage their daily lives despite the limitations imposed by FM. Healthcare personnel could not satisfy the women's needs and to manage to support women with FM. There is a need for communication based on a shared understanding between the women and healthcare personnel. This study highlighted the need for communication based on a shared understanding between people with chronic illness and healthcare personnel to support and strengthen women with FM in their daily lives. The FM associations meet the needs for togetherness, confirmation, and information that the women with FM in this study described and healthcare personnel could not satisfy. Healthcare personnel can learn from FM associations how to empower women with FM in their everyday lives.

  13. Periodontitis is associated with significant hepatic fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazawi, William; Bernabe, Eduardo; Tai, David; Janicki, Tomasz; Kemos, Polychronis; Samsuddin, Salma; Syn, Wing-Kin; Gillam, David; Turner, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a bidirectional association with metabolic syndrome. It affects up to 30% of the general population, 70% of individuals with diabetes and 90% with obesity. The main histological hallmark of progressive NAFLD is fibrosis. There is a bidirectional epidemiological link between periodontitis and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD, periodontitis and diabetes share common risk factors, are characterised by inflammation and associated with changes in commensal bacteria. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that periodontitis is associated with NAFLD and with significant fibrosis in two study groups. We analyzed data from a population-based survey and a patient-based study. NHANES III participants with abdominal ultrasound and sociodemographic, clinical, and oral examination data were extracted and appropriate weighting applied. In a separate patient-based study, consenting patients with biopsy-proved NAFLD (or with liver indices too mild to justify biopsy) underwent dental examination. Basic Periodontal Examination score was recorded. In NHANES, periodontitis was significantly associated with steatosis in 8172 adults even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. However, associations were fully explained after accounting for features of metabolic syndrome. In the patient-based study, periodontitis was significantly more common in patients with biopsy-proven NASH and any fibrosis (F0-F4) than without NASH (p = 0.009). Periodontitis was more common in patients with NASH and significant fibrosis (F2-4) than mild or no fibrosis (F0-1, p = 0.04). Complementary evidence from an epidemiological survey and a clinical study show that NAFLD is associated with periodontitis and that the association is stronger with significant liver fibrosis.

  14. Periodontitis is associated with significant hepatic fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alazawi

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has a bidirectional association with metabolic syndrome. It affects up to 30% of the general population, 70% of individuals with diabetes and 90% with obesity. The main histological hallmark of progressive NAFLD is fibrosis. There is a bidirectional epidemiological link between periodontitis and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD, periodontitis and diabetes share common risk factors, are characterised by inflammation and associated with changes in commensal bacteria. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that periodontitis is associated with NAFLD and with significant fibrosis in two study groups.We analyzed data from a population-based survey and a patient-based study. NHANES III participants with abdominal ultrasound and sociodemographic, clinical, and oral examination data were extracted and appropriate weighting applied. In a separate patient-based study, consenting patients with biopsy-proved NAFLD (or with liver indices too mild to justify biopsy underwent dental examination. Basic Periodontal Examination score was recorded.In NHANES, periodontitis was significantly associated with steatosis in 8172 adults even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. However, associations were fully explained after accounting for features of metabolic syndrome. In the patient-based study, periodontitis was significantly more common in patients with biopsy-proven NASH and any fibrosis (F0-F4 than without NASH (p = 0.009. Periodontitis was more common in patients with NASH and significant fibrosis (F2-4 than mild or no fibrosis (F0-1, p = 0.04.Complementary evidence from an epidemiological survey and a clinical study show that NAFLD is associated with periodontitis and that the association is stronger with significant liver fibrosis.

  15. Ventilator-associated pneumonia: clinical significance and implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grap, M J; Munro, C L

    1997-01-01

    Pneumonia is the second most common nosocomial infection in the United States and the leading cause of death from nosocomial infections. Intubation and mechanical ventilation greatly increase the risk of bacterial pneumonia. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) occurs in a patient treated with mechanical ventilation, and it is neither present nor developing at the time of intubation; it is a serious problem--with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Aspiration of bacteria from the oropharynx, leakage of contaminated secretions around the endotracheal tube, patient position, and cross-contamination from respiratory equipment and health care providers are important factors in the development of VAP. Nurses caring for patients treated with mechanical ventilation must recognize risk factors and include strategies for reducing these factors as part of their nursing care. This article summarizes the literature related to VAP: its incidence, associated factors, diagnosis, and current therapies, with an emphasis on nursing implications in the care of these patients.

  16. The increase in medial prefrontal glutamate/glutamine concentration during memory encoding is associated with better memory performance and stronger functional connectivity in the human medial prefrontal-thalamus-hippocampus network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Jan-Willem; Hong, Donghyun; Rohani Rankouhi, Seyedmorteza; Wiltfang, Jens; Fernández, Guillén; Norris, David G; Tendolkar, Indira

    2018-06-01

    The classical model of the declarative memory system describes the hippocampus and its interactions with representational brain areas in posterior neocortex as being essential for the formation of long-term episodic memories. However, new evidence suggests an extension of this classical model by assigning the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) a specific, yet not fully defined role in episodic memory. In this study, we utilized 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis to lend further support for the idea of a mnemonic role of the mPFC in humans. By using MRS, we measured mPFC γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate/glutamine (GLx) concentrations before and after volunteers memorized face-name association. We demonstrate that mPFC GLx but not GABA levels increased during the memory task, which appeared to be related to memory performance. Regarding functional connectivity, we used the subsequent memory paradigm and found that the GLx increase was associated with stronger mPFC connectivity to thalamus and hippocampus for associations subsequently recognized with high confidence as opposed to subsequently recognized with low confidence/forgotten. Taken together, we provide new evidence for an mPFC involvement in episodic memory by showing a memory-related increase in mPFC excitatory neurotransmitter levels that was associated with better memory and stronger memory-related functional connectivity in a medial prefrontal-thalamus-hippocampus network. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Is Associated with Significant Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research has confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress (OxS in allergic contact dermatitis whilst other inflammation-related biomarkers have been less studied. Objective. To evaluate systemic levels of selected inflammatory markers, OxS indices and adipokines as well as their associations in allergic contact dermatitis. Methods. In 40 patients, interleukin- (IL- 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, and IL-10 levels were measured in sera with the Evidence Investigator Cytokine & Growth factors High-Sensitivity Array, total peroxide concentration (TPX and total antioxidant capacity (TAC by means of spectrophotometry, and the plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin by the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results. TNF-α level (P < 0.01 and TPX (P < 0.0001 were increased whilst IL-10 (P < 0.05 and TAC (P < 0.0001 were decreased in the patients as compared to controls. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis identified both, TPX and TAC (inversely, as possible independent markers for evaluating allergic contact dermatitis. Adiponectin level in patients was increased (P < 0.0001, but neither adiponectin nor leptin correlated significantly with the biomarkers of inflammation or OxS. Conclusion. OxS parameters, especially TPX and OSI, reflect the degree of systemic inflammation associated with allergic contact dermatitis in the best way. The relation between OxS and adiponectin level warrants further studies.

  18. In roots of Arabidopsis thaliana, the damage-associated molecular pattern AtPep1 is a stronger elicitor of immune signalling than flg22 or the chitin heptamer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Poncini

    Full Text Available Plants interpret their immediate environment through perception of small molecules. Microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs such as flagellin and chitin are likely to be more abundant in the rhizosphere than plant-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs. We investigated how the Arabidopsis thaliana root interprets MAMPs and DAMPs as danger signals. We monitored root development during exposure to increasing concentrations of the MAMPs flg22 and the chitin heptamer as well as of the DAMP AtPep1. The tissue-specific expression of defence-related genes in roots was analysed using a toolkit of promoter::YFPN lines reporting jasmonic acid (JA-, salicylic acid (SA-, ethylene (ET- and reactive oxygen species (ROS- dependent signalling. Finally, marker responses were analysed during invasion by the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. The DAMP AtPep1 triggered a stronger activation of the defence markers compared to flg22 and the chitin heptamer. In contrast to the tested MAMPs, AtPep1 induced SA- and JA-signalling markers in the root and caused a severe inhibition of root growth. Fungal attack resulted in a strong activation of defence genes in tissues close to the invading fungal hyphae. The results collectively suggest that AtPep1 presents a stronger danger signal to the Arabidopsis root than the MAMPs flg22 and chitin heptamer.

  19. Strategy and your stronger hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Geoffrey A

    2005-12-01

    There are two kinds of businesses in the world, says the author. Knowing what they are--and which one your company is--will guide you to the right strategic moves. One kind includes businesses that compete on a complex-systems model. These companies have large enterprises as their primary customers. They seek to grow a customer base in the thousands, with no more than a handful of transactions per customer per year (indeed, in some years there may be none), and the average price per transaction ranges from six to seven figures. In this model, 1,000 enterprises each paying dollar 1 million per year would generate dollar 1 billion in annual revenue. The other kind of business competes on a volume-operations model. Here, vendors seek to acquire millions of customers, with tens or even hundreds of transactions per customer per year, at an average price of relatively few dollars per transaction. Under this model, it would take 10 million customers each spending dollar 8 per month to generate nearly dollar 1 billion in revenue. An examination of both models shows that they could not be further apart in their approach to every step along the classic value chain. The problem, though, is that companies in one camp often attempt to create new value by venturing into the other. In doing so, they fail to realize how their managerial habits have been shaped by the model they've grown up with. By analogy, they have a "handedness"--the equivalent of a person's right- or left-hand dominance--that makes them as adroit in one mode as they are awkward in the other. Unless you are in an industry whose structure forces you to attempt ambidexterity (in which case, special efforts are required to manage the inevitable dropped balls), you'll be far more successful making moves that favor your stronger hand.

  20. Interaction between FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Based on the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality...... at advanced ages. Such significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p =0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p =0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers...... of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably...

  1. Genome-wide significant risk associations for mucinous ovarian carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Lawrenson, Kate; Tyrer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    at 2q13 in colorectal tumors (P = 0.03, FDR = 0.09). Chromosome conformation capture analysis identified interactions between the HOXD9 promoter and risk-associated SNPs at 2q31.1. Overexpressing HOXD9 in MOC cells augmented the neoplastic phenotype. These findings provide the first evidence for MOC...... susceptibility variants and insights into the underlying biology of the disease....

  2. Significance of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus Association With Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pasquereau-Kotula

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus Sgg (formerly known as S. bovis type I is the main causative agent of septicemia and infective endocarditis (IE in elderly and immunocompromised persons. It belongs to the few opportunistic bacteria, which have been strongly associated to colorectal cancer (CRC. A literature survey covering a period of 40 years (1970–2010 revealed that 65% of patients diagnosed with an invasive Sgg infection had a concomitant colorectal neoplasia. Sgg is associated mainly with early adenomas and may thus constitute an early marker for CRC screening. Sgg has been described as a normal inhabitant of the rumen of herbivores and in the digestive tract of birds. It is more rarely detected in human intestinal tract (2.5–15%. Recent molecular analyses indicate possible zoonotic transmission of Sgg. Thanks to the development of a genetic toolbox and to comparative genomics, a number of factors that are important for Sgg pathogenicity have been identified. This review will highlight the role of Sgg pili in host colonization and how their phase-variable expression contributes to mitigate the host immune responses and finally their use as serological diagnostic tool. We will then present experimental data addressing the core question whether Sgg is a cause or consequence of CRC. We will discuss a few recent studies examining the etiological versus non-etiological participation of Sgg in colorectal cancer with the underlying mechanisms.

  3. Are melanized feather barbs stronger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michael; Johnson, Amy S

    2004-01-01

    Melanin has been associated with increased resistance to abrasion, decreased wear and lowered barb breakage in feathers. But, this association was inferred without considering barb position along the rachis as a potentially confounding variable. We examined the cross-sectional area, breaking force, breaking stress, breaking strain and toughness of melanized and unmelanized barbs along the entire rachis of a primary feather from an osprey (Pandion haliaetus). Although breaking force was higher for melanized barbs, breaking stress (force divided by cross-sectional area) was greater for unmelanized barbs. But when position was considered, all mechanical differences between melanized and unmelanized barbs disappeared. Barb breaking stress, breaking strain and toughness decreased, and breaking stiffness increased, distally along the rachis. These proximal-distal material property changes are small and seem unlikely to affect flight performance of barbs. Our observations of barb bending, breaking and morphology, however, lead us to propose a design principle for barbs. We propose that, by being thicker-walled dorso-ventrally, the barb's flexural stiffness is increased during flight; but, by allowing for twisting when loaded with dangerously high forces, barbs firstly avoid failure by bending and secondly avoid complete failure by buckling rather than rupturing.

  4. Female Psychology in August Strindberg's the Stronger

    OpenAIRE

    Sutandio, Anton; Apriliani, Erica

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to offer interpretations of August Strindberg's The Stronger through the lens of female psychology. The Stronger is unique as it seemed very simple yet so intense and powerful with layers of interpretations. Written during 1888-1889, The Stronger, which only had two characters and only one speaking character, had become one of Strindberg's shortest yet important plays during his career. The female psychology approach used in the analysis would cover the discussion of gende...

  5. E2A-positive gastric MALT lymphoma has weaker plasmacytoid infiltrates and stronger expression of the memory B-cell-associated miR-223: possible correlation with stage and treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting-Yun; Chen, Shee-Uan; Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Lin, Chung-Wu

    2010-11-01

    Extranodal marginal-zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue of the stomach (gastric MALT lymphoma) is derived from memory B cells of the marginal zone. Normal memory B cells do not express markers of germinal-center B cells, such as E2A (immunoglobulin enhancer-binding factor E12/E47), B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 6 (BCL6), or activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). E2A is a transcription factor that induces somatic hypermutations and blocks plasma cell differentiation. In 50 stage-I(E)/II(E1) gastric MALT lymphomas, we confirmed that all cases were BCL6(-)/AID(-), but a subset (50%, 25/50) was E2A(+). As E2A(-) and E2A(+) gastric MALT lymphomas had similar numbers of somatic hypermutations without intraclonal variations, which implied an origin from memory B cells, the expression of E2A was best regarded as a marker of aberrant follicular differentiation. Although the status of somatic hypermutation was not affected by E2A, E2A(+) gastric MALT lymphoma showed less plasmacytoid infiltrates and higher expressions of miRNA-223, a microRNA associated with memory B cells. Clinically, E2A(+) gastric MALT lymphomas were more likely to spread to perigastric lymph nodes and were less responsive to Helicobacter eradication therapy than were E2A(-) gastric MALT lymphomas. Taken together, aberrant E2A expression is a diagnostic feature of a subtype of gastric MALT lymphoma with weaker plasmacytoid infiltrates and stronger miR-223 expression. A prospective study would be necessary to verify the association between E2A expression and a poor response to Helicobacter eradication therapy.

  6. How significant is the ‘significant other’? Associations between significant others’ health behaviors and attitudes and young adults’ health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Jerica M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having a significant other has been shown to be protective against physical and psychological health conditions for adults. Less is known about the period of emerging young adulthood and associations between significant others’ weight and weight-related health behaviors (e.g. healthy dietary intake, the frequency of physical activity, weight status. This study examined the association between significant others’ health attitudes and behaviors regarding eating and physical activity and young adults’ weight status, dietary intake, and physical activity. Methods This study uses data from Project EAT-III, a population-based cohort study with emerging young adults from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (n = 1212. Logistic regression models examining cross-sectional associations, adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors five years earlier, were used to estimate predicted probabilities and calculate prevalence differences. Results Young adult women whose significant others had health promoting attitudes/behaviors were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese and were more likely to eat ≥ 5 fruits/vegetables per day and engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity, compared to women whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Young adult men whose significant other had health promoting behaviors/attitudes were more likely to engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity compared to men whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Conclusions Findings suggest the protective nature of the significant other with regard to weight-related health behaviors of young adults, particularly for young adult women. Obesity prevention efforts should consider the importance of including the significant other in intervention efforts with young adult women and potentially men.

  7. What doesn’t kill them makes them stronger: an association between elongation factor 1-α overdominance in the sea star Pisaster ochraceus and “sea star wasting disease”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Wares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a massive mortality event has killed millions of sea stars, of many different species, along the Pacific coast of North America. This disease event, known as ‘sea star wasting disease’ (SSWD, is linked to viral infection. In one affected sea star (Pisaster ochraceus, previous work had identified that the elongation factor 1-α locus (EF1A harbored an intronic insertion allele that is lethal when homozygous yet appears to be maintained at moderate frequency in populations through increased fitness for heterozygotes. The environmental conditions supporting this increased fitness are unknown, but overdominance is often associated with disease. Here, we evaluate populations of P. ochraceus to identify the relationship between SSWD and EF1A genotype. Our data suggest that there may be significantly decreased occurrence of SSWD in individuals that are heterozygous at this locus. These results suggest further studies are warranted to understand the functional relationship between diversity at EF1A and survival in P. ochraceus.

  8. LHC Season 2: A stronger machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Dominguez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    1) New magnets / De nouveaux aimants 2) Stronger connections / Des jonctions électriques renforcées 3) Safer magnets / Des aimants plus sûrs 4) Higher energy beams / Des faisceaux d’énergie plus élevée 5) Narrower beams / Des faisceaux plus serrés 6) Smaller but closer proton packets / Des groupes de protons plus petits mais plus rapprochés 7) Higher voltage / Une tension plus haute 8) Superior cryogenics / Un système cryogénique amélioré 9) Radiation-resistant electronics / Une électronique qui résiste aux radiations 10) More secure vacuum / Un vide plus sûr

  9. Stronger vection in junior high school children than in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Nobu; Imura, Tomoko; Tamura, Rio; Seno, Takeharu

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that even elementary school-aged children (7 and 11 years old) experience visually induced perception of illusory self-motion (vection) (Lepecq et al., 1995, Perception, 24, 435-449) and that children of a similar age (mean age = 9.2 years) experience more rapid and stronger vection than do adults (Shirai et al., 2012, Perception, 41, 1399-1402). These findings imply that although elementary school-aged children experience vection, this ability is subject to further development. To examine the subsequent development of vection, we compared junior high school students' (N = 11, mean age = 14.4 years) and adults' (N = 10, mean age = 22.2 years) experiences of vection. Junior high school students reported significantly stronger vection than did adults, suggesting that the perceptual experience of junior high school students differs from that of adults with regard to vection and that this ability undergoes gradual changes over a relatively long period of development.

  10. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late......-follicular-phase LH concentration also showed a significant positive association with progesterone concentration (P = 0.018). Administration of rLH during ovarian stimulation did not affect progesterone concentration. The present study does not support an association between progesterone concentration on the day...

  11. Gas Marbles: Much Stronger than Liquid Marbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timounay, Yousra; Pitois, Olivier; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-06-01

    Enwrapping liquid droplets with hydrophobic particles allows the manufacture of so-called "liquid marbles" [Aussillous and Quéré Nature (London) 411, 924 (2001); , 10.1038/35082026Mahadevan Nature (London)411, 895 (2001), 10.1038/35082164]. The recent intensive research devoted to liquid marbles is justified by their very unusual physical and chemical properties and by their potential for various applications, from microreactors to water storage, including water pollution sensors [Bormashenko Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 16, 266 (2011), 10.1016/j.cocis.2010.12.002]. Here we demonstrate that this concept can be successfully applied for encapsulating and protecting small gas pockets within an air environment. Similarly to their liquid counterparts, those new soft-matter objects, that we call "gas marbles," can sustain external forces. We show that gas marbles are surprisingly tenfold stronger than liquid marbles and, more importantly, they can sustain both positive and negative pressure differences. This magnified strength is shown to originate from the strong cohesive nature of the shell. Those interesting properties could be exploited for imprisoning valuable or polluted gases or for designing new aerated materials.

  12. Determining the significance of associations between two series of discrete events : bootstrap methods /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niehof, Jonathan T.; Morley, Steven K.

    2012-01-01

    We review and develop techniques to determine associations between series of discrete events. The bootstrap, a nonparametric statistical method, allows the determination of the significance of associations with minimal assumptions about the underlying processes. We find the key requirement for this method: one of the series must be widely spaced in time to guarantee the theoretical applicability of the bootstrap. If this condition is met, the calculated significance passes a reasonableness test. We conclude with some potential future extensions and caveats on the applicability of these methods. The techniques presented have been implemented in a Python-based software toolkit.

  13. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late...

  14. Significant association of inflammation grade with the number of Langerhans cells in odontogenic keratocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Han Chang

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: A significant association of inflammation grade with the number of LCs in OKCs is found. The paucity of finding LCs in the lining epithelia of OKCs without inflammation indicates the loss of immunosurveillance ability against the OKC lining epithelial cells; this can explain why OKCs have aggressive clinical behavior, a great growth potential, and a high recurrence rate.

  15. NCK2 Is Significantly Associated with Opiates Addiction in African-Origin Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifa Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance dependence is a complex environmental and genetic disorder with significant social and medical concerns. Understanding the etiology of substance dependence is imperative to the development of effective treatment and prevention strategies. To this end, substantial effort has been made to identify genes underlying substance dependence, and in recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWASs have led to discoveries of numerous genetic variants for complex diseases including substance dependence. Most of the GWAS discoveries were only based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and a single dichotomized outcome. By employing both SNP- and gene-based methods of analysis, we identified a strong (odds ratio = 13.87 and significant (P value = 1.33E−11 association of an SNP in the NCK2 gene on chromosome 2 with opiates addiction in African-origin men. Codependence analysis also identified a genome-wide significant association between NCK2 and comorbidity of substance dependence (P value = 3.65E−08 in African-origin men. Furthermore, we observed that the association between the NCK2 gene (P value = 3.12E−10 and opiates addiction reached the gene-based genome-wide significant level. In summary, our findings provided the first evidence for the involvement of NCK2 in the susceptibility to opiates addiction and further revealed the racial and gender specificities of its impact.

  16. ER, p53 and MIB-1 are significantly associated with malignant phyllodes tumor

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    Nurhayati H Munawer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phyllodes tumors (PT are rare. We evaluated the expression status of ER, Bcl2, p53, and MIB-1 protein in these tumors. Methods: One hundred and ninety-three tumors were examined using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray. Results: ERβ (p <0.001, and p53 (p=0.006 in the stromal component were associated with tumor size. p53 expression was significantly associated with both epithelial and stro­mal components of malignant PTs (p<0.05. In PT, the decreased expressions of p53 and MIB-1 were significantly different with positive Bcl2 protein expression in epi­thelial component (p=0.000. Besides, MIB-1 was also found to be associated with ERα and ERβ in stromal component (p=0.000. Conclusion: The expression of p53 with tumor size and histological grade in PTs may increase risk for malignancy.

  17. Sense of coherence is significantly associated with both metabolic syndrome and lifestyle in Japanese computer software office workers

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    Yusaku Morita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sense of coherence (SOC is an individual characteristic related to a positive life orientation, leading to effective coping. Little is known about the relationship between SOC and metabolic syndrome (MetS. This cross-sectional study aimed at testing the hypothesis that workers with a strong SOC have fewer atherosclerotic risk factors, including MetS, and healthier lifestyle behaviors. Material and Methods: One hundred and sixty-seven computer software workers aged 20–64 years underwent a periodical health examination including assessment of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipid levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS levels and lifestyle behaviors (walking duration, smoking status, nutrition, alcohol consumption, and sleep duration. During this period, the participants also completed a 29-item questionnaire of SOC and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire to assess job stressors such as job strain and workplace social support. Results: Our results showed that the participants with a stronger SOC were likely to walk for at least 1 h a day, to eat slowly or at a moderate speed, and to sleep for at least 6 h. Compared with the participants with the weakest SOC, those with the strongest SOC had a significantly lower odds ratio (OR for being overweight (OR = 0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.11–0.81, and having higher FBS levels (OR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02–0.54, dyslipidemia (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09–0.84, and MetS (OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.02–0.63, even after adjusting for age, gender and job stressors. Conclusions: High SOC is associated with a healthy lifestyle and fewer atherosclerotic risk factors, including MetS.

  18. States agree on stronger physical protection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Delegates from 89 countries agreed on 8 July to fundamental changes that will substantially strengthen the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM). IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed the agreement in saying 'This new and stronger treaty is an important step towards greater nuclear security by combating, preventing, and ultimately punishing those who would engage in nuclear theft, sabotage or even terrorism. It demonstrates that there is indeed a global commitment to remedy weaknesses in our nuclear security regime.' The amended CPPNM makes it legally binding for States Parties to protect nuclear facilities and material in peaceful domestic use, storage as well as transport. It will also provide for expanded cooperation between and among States regarding rapid measures to locate and recover stolen or smuggled nuclear material, mitigate any radiological consequences of sabotage, and prevent and combat related offences. The original CPPNM applied only to nuclear material in international transport. Conference President Dr. Alec Baer said 'All 89 delegations demonstrated real unity of purpose. They put aside some very genuine national concerns in favour of the global interest and the result is a much improved convention that is better suited to addressing the nuclear security challenges we currently face.' The new rules will come into effect once they have been ratified by two-thirds of the 112 States Parties of the Convention, expected to take several years. 'But concrete actions are already taking place around the world. For more than 3 years, the IAEA has been implementing a systematic Nuclear Security plan, including physical protection activities designed to prevent, detect and respond to malicious acts,' said Anita Nillson, Director of the IAEA's Office of Nuclear Security. The Agency's Nuclear Security Fund, set up after the events of 9/11, has delivered $19.5 million in practical assistance to 121 countries

  19. Significance of genetic variants in DLC1 and their association with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIE, CHENG-RONG; SUN, HONG-GUANG; SUN, YU; ZHAO, WEN-XIU; ZHANG, SHENG; WANG, XIAO-MIN; YIN, ZHEN-YU

    2015-01-01

    DLC1 has been shown to be downregulated or absent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is associated with tumorigenesis and development. However, only a small number of studies have focused on genetic variations of DLC1. The present study performed exon sequencing for the DLC1 gene in HCC tissue samples from 105 patients to identify functional genetic variation of DLC1 and its association with HCC susceptibility, clinicopathological features and prognosis. A novel missense mutation and four non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs3816748, rs11203495, rs3816747 and rs532841) were identified. A significant correlation of rs3816747 polymorphisms with HCC susceptibility was identified. Compared to individuals with the GG genotype of rs3816747, those with the GA (odds ratio (OR)=0.486; P=0.037) or GA+AA genotype (OR=0.51; P=0.039) were associated with a significantly decreased HCC risk. Furthermore, patients with the GC+CC genotype of rs3816748, the TC+CC genotype of rs11203495 or the GA+AA genotype of rs3816747 had small-sized tumors compared with those carrying the wild-type genotype. No significant association of DLC1 SNPs with the patients' prognosis was found. These results indicated that genetic variations in the DLC1 gene may confer a risk for HCC. PMID:26095787

  20. Clinical analysis and prognostic significance of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Claudia; Minard-Colin, Veronique; Saada, Veronique; Lamant, Laurence; Delsol, Georges; Patte, Catherine; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Brugières, Laurence

    2014-04-01

    Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) has been rarely described in children treated for an anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL). We evaluated the incidence, the clinical and histological characteristics and the prognosis of HLH associated-ALCL. The medical, biological, cytological and histological data of patients treated for ALK-positive ALCL in the paediatric department of a single institution between 1975 and 2008 were analysed and assessed for HLH according to diagnosis criteria of the Histiocyte Society. Data concerning a series of 50 consecutive children with ALCL were reviewed. HLH-associated ALCL was observed in 12% of the patients. Lung involvement was significantly more frequent in HLH-associated ALCL patients than in the group without HLH (P = 0·004), as well as central nervous system (CNS) and bone marrow involvement (P = 0·001 and P = 0·007 respectively). The histological subtype in children with HLH-associated ALCL did not differ from that of the group without HLH. There was no significant difference between the two groups in 5-year EFS and OS (P = 0·91 and P > 0·99 respectively). In conclusion, HLH is not rare in paediatric ALCL. Despite a high incidence of visceral, CNS and bone marrow involvement, HLH does not seem to exert a significant impact on outcome in children treated for ALCL. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Tumor-Associated Macrophages Provide Significant Prognostic Information in Urothelial Bladder Cancer.

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    Minna M Boström

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an important feature of carcinogenesis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs can be associated with either poor or improved prognosis, depending on their properties and polarization. Current knowledge of the prognostic significance of TAMs in bladder cancer is limited and was investigated in this study. We analyzed 184 urothelial bladder cancer patients undergoing transurethral resection of a bladder tumor or radical cystectomy. CD68 (pan-macrophage marker, MAC387 (polarized towards type 1 macrophages, and CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 (type 2 macrophages and lymphatic/blood vessels were detected immunohistochemically. The median follow-up time was 6.0 years. High macrophage counts associated with a higher pT category and grade. Among patients undergoing transurethral resection, all studied markers apart from CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 were associated with increased risk of progression and poorer disease-specific and overall survival in univariate analyses. High levels of two macrophage markers (CD68/MAC387+/+ or CD68/CLEVER-1+/+ groups had an independent prognostic role after transurethral resection in multivariate analyses. In the cystectomy cohort, MAC387, alone and in combination with CD68, was associated with poorer survival in univariate analyses, but none of the markers were independent predictors of outcome in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that macrophage phenotypes provide significant independent prognostic information, particularly in bladder cancers undergoing transurethral resection.

  2. Significant association of SREBP-2 genetic polymorphisms with avascular necrosis in the Korean population

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    Park Eui

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that steroid usage and alcohol abuse are major etiological factors in the development of avascular necrosis (AVN, a bone disease that produces osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The facilitation of fat biosynthesis by steroids and alcohol disrupts the blood supply into the femoral head. SREBP-2 plays a central role in the maintenance of lipid homeostasis through stimulating expression of genes associated with cholesterol biosynthetic pathways. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the polymorphisms of the SREBP-2 gene and AVN susceptibility in the Korean population. Methods Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in the SREBP-2 gene, IVS1+8408 T>C (rs2267439, IVS3-342 G>T (rs2269657, IVS11+414 G>A (rs1052717 and IVS12-1667 G>A (rs2267443, were selected from public databases and genotyped in 443 AVN patients and 273 control subjects by using single-based extension (SBE genotyping. Results The minor allele (C frequency of rs2267439 showed a significant protective effect on AVN (P = 0.01, OR; 0.75, 95% CI; 0.604–0.935, and the genotype frequencies of this polymorphism were also different from the controls in all alternative analysis models (P range, 0.009–0.03, OR; 0.647–0.744. In contrast, rs1052717 and rs2267443 polymorphisms were significantly associated with AVN risk. Further analysis based on pathological etiology showed that the genotypes of rs2267439, rs1052717 and rs2267443 were also significantly associated with AVN susceptibility in each subgroup. Conclusion This study is the first report to evaluate the association between SREBP-2 gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility of AVN in the Korean population.

  3. Atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism and erythrocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2010-11-05

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. It has been reported that sub-clinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with CHD or mortality from cardiovascular causes but is sufficient to induce arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Moreover increased factor X activity in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism represents a potential hypercoagulable state. It has been also reported an acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries associated with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism and with a myocardial bridge too. It has been also reported an acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Furthermore it has been reported that at highly increased hematocrit levels patients may experience hyperviscosity symptoms. We present a case of atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism and erythrocytosis. Also this case focuses attention on the importance of a correct evaluation of subclinical hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of HIWI in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is significantly associated with poorer prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Wei; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Qi; Fan, Qingxia; Shou, Chengcao; Wang, Junsheng; Giercksky, Karl-Erik; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2009-01-01

    HIWI, the human homologue of Piwi family, is present in CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells and germ cells, but not in well-differentiated cell populations, indicating that HIWI may play an impotent role in determining or maintaining stemness of these cells. That HIWI expression has been detected in several type tumours may suggest its association with clinical outcome in cancer patients. With the methods of real-time PCR, western blot, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the expression of HIWI in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450 has been characterized. Then, we investigated HIWI expression in a series of 153 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and explored its association with clinicopathological features. The expression of HIWI was observed in tumour cell nuclei or/and cytoplasm in 137 (89.5%) cases, 16 (10.5%) cases were negative in both nuclei and cytoplasm. 86 (56.2%) were strongly positive in cytoplasm, while 49 (32.0%) were strongly positive in nuclei. The expression level of HIWI in cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells was significantly associated with histological grade (P = 0.011), T stage (P = 0.035), and clinic outcome (P < 0.001), while there was no correlation between the nuclear HIWI expression and clinicopathological features. The expression of HIWI in the cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells is significantly associated with higher histological grade, clinical stage and poorer clinical outcome, indicating its possible involvement in cancer development

  5. Expression of HIWI in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is significantly associated with poorer prognosis

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    Shou Chengcao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIWI, the human homologue of Piwi family, is present in CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and germ cells, but not in well-differentiated cell populations, indicating that HIWI may play an impotent role in determining or maintaining stemness of these cells. That HIWI expression has been detected in several type tumours may suggest its association with clinical outcome in cancer patients. Methods With the methods of real-time PCR, western blot, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the expression of HIWI in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450 has been characterized. Then, we investigated HIWI expression in a series of 153 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and explored its association with clinicopathological features. Results The expression of HIWI was observed in tumour cell nuclei or/and cytoplasm in 137 (89.5% cases, 16 (10.5% cases were negative in both nuclei and cytoplasm. 86 (56.2% were strongly positive in cytoplasm, while 49 (32.0% were strongly positive in nuclei. The expression level of HIWI in cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells was significantly associated with histological grade (P = 0.011, T stage (P = 0.035, and clinic outcome (P Conclusion The expression of HIWI in the cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells is significantly associated with higher histological grade, clinical stage and poorer clinical outcome, indicating its possible involvement in cancer development.

  6. Expression features and prognostic significance of Yes-associated protein in hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocellular carcinoma

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    WANG Chun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the expression of Yes-associated protein (YAP in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and cholangiocellular carcinoma (CC and its association with clinical prognosis. MethodsSamples were collected from 190 patients who were treated in The Second Hospital Affiliated to Chongqing Medical University from July 2004 to July 2009, among whom 110 had HCC and 80 had CC. The difference in YAP expression and its association were analyzed in both groups, and patients′ prognosis was compared between the two groups. The chi-square test was used to investigate the association between YAP expression and clinicopathological features of HCC and CC, and the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test were used to assess tumor-free survival rate and overall survival rate. A univariate Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of YAP expression on the prognosis of patients with HCC and CC. ResultsThe CC group had higher expression of YAP than the HCC group (68.7% vs 56.3%, P=0.036. High YAP expression in HCC and CC was significantly associated with tumor size (P<0.001 and P=0.024, alpha fetoprotein (P=0.009 and 0034, liver cirrhosis (P=0032 and 0.006, vascular invasion (P=0.011 and 0.028, and intrahepatic metastasis (P=0.049 and 0030. In both groups, the patients with high YAP expression had significantly lower tumor-free survival rate and overall survival rate than those with low YAP expression(all P<005. Multivariate analysis showed that high YAP expression is an adverse prognostic factor for tumor-free survival and overall survival in both groups (all P<005. ConclusionHigh YAP expression is frequently found in patients with HCC and CC, and high YAP expression is associated with low survival rate.

  7. Assessment of significant psychological distress at the end of pregnancy and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorén-Guerrero, L; Gascón-Catalán, A; Pasierb, D; Romero-Cardiel, M A

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of mental distress at the end of pregnancy and after birth and the impact of selected socio-demographic and obstetric factors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample is consisted of 351 puerperal women at the age of 18 and over. Sociodemographic, obstetric variables were collected to detect significant psychological distress; the instrument used was General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Logistic multivariable regressions were used to investigate associations. The prevalence of significant mental distress amounted to 81.2%, mostly related to social relationship and anxiety. The women who affirmed having more stress during pregnancy had too significantly increased emotional distress before the birth as well as during early puerperium, increasing somatic symptoms (p Psychological distress at the end of a full-term pregnancy and in the postpartum period occurs frequently and was associated mainly with stress experienced during pregnancy and parity. It is advisable to perform proper assessment of stress and significant psychological distress at the early stage of pregnancy and repeatedly later on until delivery. Information and support from professionals can help to decrease and prevent their negative impact on maternal and fetal health, as observed in the current evidence.

  8. Significant association between polymorphism of the erythropoietin gene promoter and myelodysplastic syndrome

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    O'Brien Susan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS may be induced by certain mutagenic environmental or chemotherapeutic toxins; however, the role of susceptibility genes remains unclear. The G/G genotype of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1617640 in the erythropoietin (EPO promoter has been shown to be associated with decreased EPO expression. We examined the association of rs1617640 genotype with MDS. Methods We genotyped the EPO rS1617640 SNP in 189 patients with MDS, 257 with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 106 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 97 with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 353 with chronic myeloid leukemia, and 95 healthy controls. Results The G/G genotype was significantly more common in MDS patients (47/187; 25.1% than in controls (6/95; 6.3% or in patients with other leukemias (101/813; 12.4% (all P P = 0.03. Time to neutrophils recovery after therapy was significantly longer in MDS patients with the G/G genotype (P = 0.02. Conclusions These findings suggest a strong association between the rs1617640 G/G genotype and MDS. Further studies are warranted to investigate the utility of screening for this marker in individuals exposed to environmental toxins or chemotherapy.

  9. Stress Exposure in Significant Relationships Is Associated with Lymph Node Status in Breast Cancer.

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    Chiara Renzi

    Full Text Available Life stress exposure may impact on health and disease. Previous literature showed that stressful life events are associated with cancer incidence, survival and mortality. In animal models, patterns of maternal care have been shown to critically affect stress sensitivity and immunity trajectories later in life, by modifying DNA methylation during critical periods early in life. However, the role of parental care in breast cancer progression and survival has only limitedly been explored. Here, we investigated whether these factors may be linked to biological prognostic variables.One hundred twenty-three women hospitalized for surgery of primary breast cancer completed a questionnaire assessing parental bonding. Stressful events throughout the life span were also assessed.We found that the absence of optimal parental relationships is significantly associated with an increased risk of lymph node involvement, adjusting for confounders, while cumulative stress in the area of sentimental relationships is borderline significantly associated with the same prognostic factor.Our results suggest that parental bonding and sentimental relations may have a role in breast cancer progression. These variables represent an important evolutionary aspect which may modulate cancer progression through psycho-physiological stress pathways and influence the immune system.

  10. The significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme activities: clinical, biochemical and radiological associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordekar, S R; Guthrie, P; Bonham, J R; Olpin, S E; Hargreaves, I; Baxter, P S

    2006-03-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are an important group of neurometabolic disorders in children with varied clinical presentations and diagnosis that can be difficult to confirm. To report the significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme (RCE) activity in muscle biopsy samples from children. Retrospective odds ratio was used to compare clinical and biochemical features, DNA studies, neuroimaging, and muscle biopsies in 18 children with and 48 without reduced RCE activity. Children with reduced RCE activity were significantly more likely to have consanguineous parents, to present with acute encephalopathy and lactic acidaemia and/or within the first year of life; to have an axonal neuropathy, CSF lactate >4 mmol/l; and/or to have signal change in the basal ganglia. There were positive associations with a maternal family history of possible mitochondrial cytopathy; a presentation with failure to thrive and lactic acidaemia, ragged red fibres, reduced fibroblast fatty acid oxidation and with an abnormal allopurinol loading test. There was no association with ophthalmic abnormalities, deafness, epilepsy or myopathy. The association of these clinical, biochemical and radiological features with reduced RCE activity suggests a possible causative link.

  11. Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-09-01

    The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in 12 case-control cohorts comprising 3,495 anorexia nervosa cases and 10,982 controls, the authors performed standard association analysis followed by a meta-analysis across cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to calculate genome-wide common variant heritability (single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]-based heritability [h 2 SNP ]), partitioned heritability, and genetic correlations (r g ) between anorexia nervosa and 159 other phenotypes. Results were obtained for 10,641,224 SNPs and insertion-deletion variants with minor allele frequencies >1% and imputation quality scores >0.6. The h 2 SNP of anorexia nervosa was 0.20 (SE=0.02), suggesting that a substantial fraction of the twin-based heritability arises from common genetic variation. The authors identified one genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 12 (rs4622308) in a region harboring a previously reported type 1 diabetes and autoimmune disorder locus. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, neuroticism, educational attainment, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significant negative genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and body mass index, insulin, glucose, and lipid phenotypes. Anorexia nervosa is a complex heritable phenotype for which this study has uncovered the first genome-wide significant locus. Anorexia nervosa also has large and significant genetic correlations with both psychiatric phenotypes and metabolic traits. The study results encourage a reconceptualization of this frequently lethal disorder as one with both psychiatric and metabolic etiology.

  12. Significant association between parathyroid hormone and uric acid level in men

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    Chin KY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kok-Yong Chin,1 Soelaiman Ima Nirwana,1 Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah21Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaBackground: Previous reports of patients undergoing parathyroidectomy and of patients receiving teriparatide as antiosteoporotic treatment have suggested a plausible relationship between parathyroid hormone (PTH and uric acid. However, similar data at population level were lacking. The current study aimed to determine the relationship between PTH and uric acid in a group of apparently healthy Malaysian men.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 380 Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and above, residing in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their body anthropometry was measured, and their fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The relationship between PTH and uric acid was analyzed using regression analysis.Results: Increased serum PTH level was significantly associated with increased serum uric acid level (β=0.165; P=0.001. Increased PTH level was also significantly associated with the condition of hyperuricemia in the study population (odds ratio [OR], 1.045; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.017–1.075; P=0.002. All analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index, vitamin D, total calcium, inorganic phosphate, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels.Conclusion: There is a significant positive relationship between PTH level and uric acid level in Malaysian men. This relationship and its clinical significance should be further investigated in a larger longitudinal study. Keywords: hyperuricemia, Asian, cross-sectional study, uric acid, urate

  13. A significant association between BDNF promoter methylation and the risk of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuting; Ji, Huihui; Liu, Guili; Wang, Qinwen; Liu, Huifen; Shen, Wenwen; Li, Longhui; Xie, Xiaohu; Zhou, Wenhua; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-06-10

    As a member of the neurotrophic factor family, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the survival and differentiation of neurons. The aim of our work was to evaluate the role of BDNF promoter methylation in drug addiction. A total of 60 drug abusers (30 heroin and 30 methylamphetamine addicts) and 52 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were recruited for the current case control study. Bisulfite pyrosequencing technology was used to determine the methylation levels of five CpGs (CpG1-5) on the BDNF promoter. Among the five CpGs, CpG5 methylation was significantly lower in drug abusers than controls. Moreover, significant associations were found between CpG5 methylation and addictive phenotypes including tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia, and depression-dejection. In addition, luciferase assay showed that the DNA fragment of BDNF promoter played a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Our results suggest that BDNF promoter methylation is associated with drug addiction, although further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which BDNF promoter methylation contributes to the pathophysiology of drug addiction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene is significantly associated with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Tortorella, Alfonso; Castaldo, Eloisa; Di Filippo, Carmela; Maj, Mario

    2007-02-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying binge eating disorder are poorly understood. Evidence exists for the fact that abnormalities in peptides involved in the regulation of appetite, including ghrelin, may play a role in binge eating behavior. Genes involved in the ghrelin physiology may therefore contribute to the biological vulnerability to binge eating disorder. We examined whether two polymorphisms of the ghrelin gene, the G152A (Arg51Gln) and C214A (Leu72Met), were associated with binge eating disorder. Ninety obese or nonobese women with binge eating disorder and 119 normal weight women were genotyped at the ghrelin gene. Statistical analyses showed that the Leu72Met ghrelin gene variant was significantly more frequent in binge eating disorder patients (chi2=5.940; d.f.=1, P=0.01) and was associated with a moderate, but significant risk to develop binge eating disorder (odds ratio=2.725, 95% confidence interval: 1.168-6.350). Although these data should be regarded as preliminary because of the small sample size, they suggest that the Leu72Met ghrelin gene variant may contribute to the genetic susceptibility to binge eating disorder.

  15. Type 1 IGF Receptor Localization in Paediatric Gliomas: Significant Association with WHO Grading and Clinical Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Florencia; Martin, Ayelen; Venara, Marcela; de Luján Calcagno, Maria; Mathó, Cecilia; Maglio, Silvana; Lombardi, Mercedes García; Bergadá, Ignacio; Pennisi, Patricia A

    2018-06-01

    Nuclear localization of insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 (IGF-1R) has been described as adverse prognostic factor in some cancers. We studied the expression and localization of IGF-1R in paediatric patients with gliomas, as well as its association with World Health Organization (WHO) grading and survival. We conducted a single cohort, prospective study of paediatric patients with gliomas. Samples were taken at the time of the initial surgery; IGF-1R expression and localization were characterized by immunohistochemistry (IHC), subcellular fractionation and western blotting. Tumours (47/53) showed positive staining for IGF-1R by IHC. IGF-1R nuclear labelling was observed in 10/47 cases. IGF-1R staining was mostly non-nuclear in low-grade tumours, while IGF-1R nuclear labelling was predominant in high-grade gliomas (p = 0.0001). Survival was significantly longer in patients with gliomas having non-nuclear IGF-1R localization than in patients with nuclear IGF-1R tumours (p = 0.016). In gliomas, IGF-1R nuclear localization was significantly associated with both high-grade tumours and increased risk of death. Based on a prospective design, we provide evidence of a potential usefulness of intracellular localization of IGF-1R as prognostic factor in paediatric patients with gliomas.

  16. Thyroid Autoimmunity and Behçet’s Disease: Is There a Significant Association?

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    Filiz Cebeci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Behcet’s disease (BD could be regarded as an autoimmune disease in many aspects. Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD is frequently accompanied by other various autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, there is not still enough data showing the association between BD and ATD. In addition, no controlled study is present in the PubMed, which evaluates thyroidal autoimmunity using antithyroid peroxidase antibody in a large series of patients with BD. Methods. We aimed to investigate the frequency of ATD in patients with BD. The study included 124 patients with BD and 99 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Results. Autoimmune thyroiditis was noted in 21 cases (16.9% with BD. In the control group, 22 cases (22.22% were diagnosed as autoimmune thyroiditis. There was no difference between the groups in respect to thyroid autoantibodies (. There were no statistically significant differences between baseline TSH levels of the BD patients and of the controls (. Statistically, the mean serum free T4 levels of the patients with BD were higher than those of the controls (. Conclusions. No association could be found between BD and ATD. Therefore, it is not of significance to investigate thyroid autoimmunity in BD.

  17. Breast-cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) may contribute

  18. Breast cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. Methods To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. Results We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor

  19. Significant association of interleukin-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism with susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Serbulent; Inanir, Ahmet; Tekcan, Akın; Tural, Ercan; Ozturk, Gokhan Tuna; Kismali, Gorkem; Karakus, Nevin

    2014-03-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a strong chondroprotective cytokine and polymorphisms within this gene may be a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). We aimed to investigate genotype and allele frequencies of IL-4 gene intron 3 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in patients with knee OA in a Turkish population. The study included 202 patients with knee OA and 180 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was isolated and IL-4 gene 70 bp VNTR polymorphism determined by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Our result show that there was statistically significant difference between knee OA patients and control group with respect to IL-4 genotype distribution and allele frequencies (p=0.000, OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.41, OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.12-0.42, respectively). Our findings suggest that there is an association of IL-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism with susceptibility of a person for development of knee OA. As a result, IL-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism could be a genetic marker in OA in a Turkish study population. This is the first association study that evaluates the associations between IL-4 gene VNTR polymorphism and knee OA. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors associated with an increased risk of vertebral fracture in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piot, J M; Royer, M; Schmidt-Tanguy, A; Hoppé, E; Gardembas, M; Bourrée, T; Hunault, M; François, S; Boyer, F; Ifrah, N; Renier, G; Chevailler, A; Audran, M; Chappard, D; Libouban, H; Mabilleau, G; Legrand, E; Bouvard, B

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of fractures. This study describes prospectively the bone status of MGUS patients and determines the factors associated with vertebral fracture. We included prospectively 201 patients with MGUS, incidentally discovered, and with no known history of osteoporosis: mean age 66.6±12.5 years, 48.3% women, 51.7% immunoglobulin G (IgG), 33.3% IgM and 10.4% IgA. Light chain was kappa in 64.2% patients. All patients had spinal radiographs and bone mineral density measurement in addition to gammopathy assessment. At least one prevalent non-traumatic vertebral fracture was discovered in 18.4% patients and equally distributed between men and women. Fractured patients were older, had a lower bone density and had also more frequently a lambda light chain isotype. Compared with patients with κ light chain, the odds ratio of being fractured for patients with λ light chain was 4.32 (95% confidence interval 1.80–11.16; P=0.002). These results suggest a high prevalence of non-traumatic vertebral fractures in MGUS associated with lambda light chain isotype and not only explained by low bone density

  1. ER, p53 and MIB-1 are significantly associated with malignant phyllodes tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawer, Nurhayati H; Md Zin, Reena; Md Ali, Siti-Aishah; Muhammad, Rohaizak; Ali, Jasmi; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Fibroadenomas (FA) are common while phyllodes tumors (PT) are rare and both tumors are composed of epithelial and stromal components. We evaluated the expression status of ER, Bc12, p53, and MIB-1 protein in these tumors. One hundred and ninety-three tumors comprising of 117 FAs and 76 PTs were examined using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray. The mean age of patients with FA was 28.5 years while the mean ages of patients with benign, borderline and malignant PTs were 41.7, 48.6 and 42.1 years, respectively. Also all types of PTs were large (>Scm). ER showed a strong nuclear staining in the epithelial component of all tumors while ER/3 immunoreactivity was detected in both the epithelial and stromal components ofF A and PT. ER/β (pcomponent were associated with tumor size. p53 expression was significantly associated with both the epithelial and stromal components of malignant PTs (pcomponent (p=0.000). In addition, MIB-1 was also found to be associated with ER and ER/3 in the stromal component (p=0.000). The expression of p53 with tumor size and histological grade in PT may increase the risk for malignancy.

  2. Radiotherapy is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Susan H; Haydu, Lauren E; Goh, Robin Yeong Hong; Fogarty, Gerald B

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare tumour of skin. This study is a retrospective audit of patients with MCC from St Vincent’s and Mater Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of radiotherapy (RT) on the local and regional control of MCC lesions and survival of patients with MCC. The data bases in anatomical pathology, RT and surgery. We searched for patients having a diagnosis of MCC between 1996 and 2007. Patient, tumour and treatment characteristics were collected and analysed. Univariate survival analysis of categorical variables was conducted with the Kaplan-Meier method together with the Log-Rank test for statistical significance. Continuous variables were assessed using the Cox regression method. Multivariate analysis was performed for significant univariate results. Sixty seven patients were found. Sixty two who were stage I-III and were treated with radical intent were analysed. 68% were male. The median age was 74 years. Forty-two cases (68%) were stage I or II, and 20 cases (32%) were stage III. For the subset of 42 stage I and II patients, those that had RT to their primary site had a 2-year local recurrence free survival of 89% compared with 36% for patients not receiving RT (p<0.001). The cumulative 2-year regional recurrence free survival for patients having adjuvant regional RT was 84% compared with 43% for patients not receiving this treatment (p<0.001). Immune status at initial surgery was a significant predictor for OS and MCCSS. In a multivariate analysis combining macroscopic size (mm) and immune status at initial surgery, only immune status remained a significant predictor of overall survival (HR=2.096, 95% CI: 1.002-4.385, p=0.049). RT is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma. Immunosuppression is an important factor in overall survival

  3. Essentially stronger -1999 EPCOR annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This annual report provides details of the financial operations of EPCOR, the newly formed utility, combining together three essential elements of modern living --electric power, water and natural gas-- as a single entity. In addition to this report on financial management, there are two companion reports on environmental performance entitled {sup E}ssential Balance', and on contributions to the community with the title of 'Essential Spirit'. While this report focuses on the Corporation's financial performance, it also provides a summary on the Corporation's growth, operational excellence, regulatory matters, environmental achievements and management of the Corporation's people resources. The financial report includes the customary consolidated financial statements, the auditor's report, and management's discussion and analysis of the financial report. Revenues for 1999 totalled just over one billion dollars ($978 million in 1998); net income was $116 million ($121 million in 1998); operating expenses were higher than in 1998 ($765 million versus $642 million) due to higher natural gas prices; capital spending was $198 million, compared to $153 million in 1998. Operations, maintenance, and administrative costs were also higher in 1999 due to higher employee costs across the EPCOR Group, one-time costs associated with EPCOR's master branding initiative, Y2K testing and remediation, and increased business development costs.

  4. Essentially stronger -1999 EPCOR annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This annual report provides details of the financial operations of EPCOR, the newly formed utility, combining together three essential elements of modern living --electric power, water and natural gas-- as a single entity. In addition to this report on financial management, there are two companion reports on environmental performance entitled E ssential Balance', and on contributions to the community with the title of 'Essential Spirit'. While this report focuses on the Corporation's financial performance, it also provides a summary on the Corporation's growth, operational excellence, regulatory matters, environmental achievements and management of the Corporation's people resources. The financial report includes the customary consolidated financial statements, the auditor's report, and management's discussion and analysis of the financial report. Revenues for 1999 totalled just over one billion dollars ($978 million in 1998); net income was $116 million ($121 million in 1998); operating expenses were higher than in 1998 ($765 million versus $642 million) due to higher natural gas prices; capital spending was $198 million, compared to $153 million in 1998. Operations, maintenance, and administrative costs were also higher in 1999 due to higher employee costs across the EPCOR Group, one-time costs associated with EPCOR's master branding initiative, Y2K testing and remediation, and increased business development costs

  5. Significant association between RGS14 rs12654812 and nephrolithiasis risk among Guangxi population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jun; Chen, Yang; Lin, Haisong; Liao, Ming; Li, Tianyu; Tong, Lei; Wei, Suchun; Xian, Xiaoying; Zhu, Jia; Chen, Jianxin; Tian, Jiarong; Wang, Qiuyan; Mo, Zengnan

    2018-03-26

    Nephrolithiasis is a worldwide health problem that affects almost all populations. This study aimed to evaluate the association between rs12654812 of regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) gene and nephrolithiasis in the Chinese population. A total of 1541 participators including 830 cases and 711 controls were included from Guangxi area in China. Age, sex, BMI, smoking status, drinking status, creatinine, uric acid, and urea nitrogen were analyzed between the case group and control group. We found that the G/A+A/A genotypes of rs12654812 had a significantly increased nephrolithiasis risk after adjusting age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, and hypertension, compared with G/G genotype (OR = 1.361, 95% CI = 1.033-1.794, P = .029). This hazardous effect was more pronounced in subgroup of age < 50, ever smoking, ever drinking, creatinine normal, and high uric acid. The G/A genotype of rs12654812 also had a significantly increased nephrolithiasis risk compared with G/G genotype. The A allele of rs12654812 significantly increased the risk of nephrolithiasis compared with the G allele after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking and hypertension (OR = 1.277, 95% CI = 1.013-1.609, P = .038). Our results suggest that the RGS14 polymorphism is involved in the etiology of nephrolithiasis and thus may be a genetic marker for nephrolithiasis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Mining, Validation, and Clinical Significance of Colorectal Cancer (CRC)-Associated lncRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangwei; Hu, Yingying; Zhang, Liang; Hu, Changyuan; Guo, Gangqiang; Mao, Chenchen; Xu, Jianfeng; Ye, Sisi; Huang, Guanli; Xue, Xiangyang; Guo, Aizhen; Shen, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the deadliest tumours, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. The involvement of differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in CRC tumorigenesis makes them suitable tumour biomarkers. Here, we screened 150 cases of CRC and 85 cases of paracancerous tissues in the GEO database for differentially expressed lncRNAs. The levels of lncRNA candidates in 84 CRC and paracancerous tissue samples were validated by qRT-PCR and their clinical significance was analyzed. We identified 15 lncRNAs with differential expression in CRC tumours; among them, AK098081 was significantly up-regulated, whereas AK025209, BC040303, BC037331, AK026659, and CR749831 were down-regulated in CRC. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve for the six lncRNAs was 0.914. High expression of AK098081 and low expression of BC040303, CR749831, and BC037331 indicated poor CRC differentiation. CRC patients with lymph node metastasis had lower expression of BC037331. In addition, the group with high AK098081 expression presented significantly lower overall survival and disease-free survival rates than the low-expression group, confirming AK098081 as an independent risk factor for CRC patients. In conclusion, we have identified multiple CRC-associated lncRNAs from microarray expression profiles that can serve as novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of CRC.

  7. CNTNAP2 Is Significantly Associated With Speech Sound Disorder in the Chinese Han Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun-Jing; Wang, Yue-Ping; Yang, Wen-Zhu; Sun, Hong-Wei; Ma, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Ya-Ru

    2015-11-01

    Speech sound disorder is the most common communication disorder. Some investigations support the possibility that the CNTNAP2 gene might be involved in the pathogenesis of speech-related diseases. To investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CNTNAP2 gene, 300 unrelated speech sound disorder patients and 200 normal controls were included in the study. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms were amplified and directly sequenced. Significant differences were found in the genotype (P = .0003) and allele (P = .0056) frequencies of rs2538976 between patients and controls. The excess frequency of the A allele in the patient group remained significant after Bonferroni correction (P = .0280). A significant haplotype association with rs2710102T/+rs17236239A/+2538976A/+2710117A (P = 4.10e-006) was identified. A neighboring single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs10608123, was found in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs2538976, and the genotypes exactly corresponded to each other. The authors propose that these CNTNAP2 variants increase the susceptibility to speech sound disorder. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs10608123 and rs2538976 may merge into one single-nucleotide polymorphism. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. A functionally significant polymorphism in ID3 is associated with human coronary pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Manichaikul

    Full Text Available We previously identified association between the ID3 SNP rs11574 and carotid intima-media thickness in the Diabetes Heart Study, a predominantly White diabetic population. The nonsynonymous SNP rs11574 results in an amino acid substitution in the C-terminal region of ID3, attenuating the dominant negative function of ID3 as an inhibitor of basic HLH factor E12-mediated transcription. In the current investigation, we characterize the association between the functionally significant polymorphism in ID3, rs11574, with human coronary pathology.The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA is a longitudinal study of subclinical cardiovascular disease, including non-Hispanic White (n = 2,588, African American (n = 2,560 and Hispanic (n = 2,130 participants with data on coronary artery calcium (CAC. The Coronary Assessment in Virginia cohort (CAVA included 71 patients aged 30-80 years, undergoing a medically necessary cardiac catheterization and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS at the University of Virginia. ID3 SNP rs11574 risk allele was associated with the presence of CAC in MESA Whites (P = 0.017. In addition, the risk allele was associated with greater atheroma burden and stenosis in the CAVA cohort (P = 0.003, P = 0.04 respectively. The risk allele remained predictive of atheroma burden in multivariate analysis (Model 1: covariates age, gender, and LDL, regression coefficient = 9.578, SE = 3.657, p = 0.0110; Model 2: covariates Model 1, presence of hypertension, presence of diabetes, regression coefficient = 8.389, SE = 4.788, p = 0.0163.We present additional cohorts that demonstrate association of ID3 SNP rs11574 directly with human coronary artery pathology as measured by CAC and IVUS: one a multiethnic, relatively healthy population with low levels of diabetes and the second a predominantly White population with a higher incidence of T2DM referred for cardiac catheterization.

  9. Acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

    2012-04-05

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. It has been reported that subclinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with coronary heart disease or mortality from cardiovascular causes but it is sufficient to induce arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Nowadays, there is growing interest regarding endogenous sublinical hyperthyroidism and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses in a 75-year-old Italian woman with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Also this case focuses attention on the importance of a correct evaluation of endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Pistelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001 and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01, but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72 or overall survival (p = 0.93. Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target.

  11. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistelli, Mirco, E-mail: mirco.pistelli@alice.it; Caramanti, Miriam [Clinica di Oncologia Medica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy); Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo [Anatomia Patologica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy); Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano [Clinica di Oncologia Medica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy)

    2014-06-27

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target.

  12. Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance: Bethesda Classification and Association with Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Macêdo Barcelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To analyze patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS through a cytology review and the presence of microbiological agents, with consideration of colposcopy and semiannual tracking. Methods. 103 women with ASCUS were reviewed and reclassified: normal/inflammatory, ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL. If ASCUS confirmed, it was subclassified in reactive or neoplastic ASCUS, ASC-US, or ASC-H; and Regione Emilia Romagna Screening Protocol. Patients underwent a colposcopic examination, and test for Candida sp., bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and human papillomavirus (HPV were performed. Results. Upon review, ASCUS was diagnosis in 70/103 (67.9%, being 38 (54.2% reactive ASCUS and 32 (45.71% neoplastic ASCUS; 62 (88.5% ASC-US and 8 (11.41% ASC-H. ASCUS (Regione Protocol, respectively 1-5: 15 (21.4%, 19 (27.1%, 3 (27.1%, 16 (22.8%, and 1 (1.4%. A higher number of cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II/III in the biopsies of patients with ASC-H compared to ASC-US (P=.0021. High-risk HPV test and presence of CIN II/III are more frequent in ASC-H than ASC-US (P=.031. Conclusions. ASC-H is associated with clinically significant disease. High-risk HPV-positive status in the triage for colposcopy of patients with ASC-US is associated with increased of CIN.

  13. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistelli, Mirco; Caramanti, Miriam; Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo; Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target

  14. Significant Association of HLA-DQ5 with Autoimmune Hepatitis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lok-Beng Koay

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic predisposition is known to be an important etiopathogenic factor of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH. HLA antigens associated with AIH have been well studied in Western countries and Japan, but there is no HLA typing data of AIH patients in Taiwan. We therefore investigated HLA phenotypes and their association with AIH patients and compared the results with those of normal subjects and patients with chronic liver disease. Group 1 consisted of 22 AIH patients. All were born in Taiwan with no history of blood transfusion. Group 2 consisted of 19 chronic liver disease patients. Group 3 consisted of 81 unrelated healthy subjects who were normal blood donors. All three groups were tested for HLA phenotypes (HLAA, B, C, DR, DQ using the polymerase chain reaction—sequence specific probe method. The statistical method used was Fisher's exact test. We found that HLA-DQ5 was significantly more frequent in the AIH group compared to the control group (RR, 2.03; p = 0.034. Low frequency of A1 (n = 2/22, B8 (n = 1/22 and DR3 (n = 0/22 were noted compared to results from the West; only HLA-DR4 showed a higher rate in our AIH patients (n = 8/22. This is a preliminary report of our study of HLA antigens in AIH patients. Further investigation to characterize AIH patients into HLA allelic subgroups is being done.

  15. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  16. Association between micronucleus frequency and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade in Thinprep cytological test and its significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yong-Hua; Wang, Bo-Wei; Tuokan, Talaf; Li, Qiao-Zhi; Zhang, Ya-Jing

    2015-01-01

    A micronucleus is an additional small nucleus formed due to chromosomes or chromosomal fragments fail to be incorporated into the nucleus during cell division. In this study, we assessed the utility of micronucleus counting as a screening tool in cervical precancerous lesions in Thinprep cytological test smears under oil immersion. High risk HPV was also detected by hybrid capture-2 in Thinprep cytological test smears. Our results showed that micronucleus counting was significantly higher in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and invasive carcinoma cases compared to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and non-neoplastic cases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that micronucleus counting possessed a high degree of sensitivity and specificity for identifying HSIL and invasive carcinoma. Cut-off of 7.5 for MN counting gave a sensitivity of 89.6% and a specificity of 66.7% (P = 0.024 and AUC = 0.892) for detecting HSIL and invasive carcinoma lesions. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only HSIL and invasive cancer lesions not age, duration of marital life and number of pregnancy are significantly associated with MN counting. The positive rate of high risk HPV was distinctly higher in LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer than that in non-neoplstic categories. In conclusions, MN evaluation may be viewed as an effective biomarker for cervical cancer screening. The combination of MN count with HPV DNA detection and TCT may serve as an effective means to screen precancerous cervical lesions in most developing nations.

  17. Relationship and significance of gait deviations associated with limb length discrepancy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Sam; Carmeli, Eli

    2017-09-01

    Controversy still exists as to the clinical significance of leg length discrepancy (LLD) in spite of the fact that further evidence has been emerging regarding the relationship between several clinical conditions and LLD. The objectives of our study were to review the available research with regard to LLD as a cause of clinically significant gait deviations, to determine if there is a relationship between the magnitude of LLD and the presence of gait deviations and to identify the most common gait deviations associated with LLD. In line with the PRISMA guidelines, a literature search was carried out throughout the Medline, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. Twelve articles met the predetermined inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Quality assessment using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) scale was completed for all included studies. Two main methodologies were found in 4 studies evaluating gait asymmetry in patients or healthy participants with anatomic LLD and 8 studies evaluating gait deviations while simulating LLD by employing artificial lifts of 1-5cm on healthy subjects. A significant relationship was found between anatomic LLD and gait deviation. Evidence suggests that gait deviations may occur with discrepancies of >1cm, with greater impact seen as the discrepancy increases. Compensatory strategies were found to occur in both the shorter and longer limb, throughout the lower limb. As the discrepancy increases, more compensatory strategies occur. Sagittal plane deviations seem to be the most effective deviations, although, frontal plane compensations also occur in the pelvis, hip and foot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep duration is significantly associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis incidence in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tsueko; Aoki, Toshinari; Yata, Syogo; Okada, Masahiko

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have indicated that sleep duration is associated with total mortality in a U-shaped fashion. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and carotid artery atherosclerosis in a Japanese population. In 2009-2010, a total of 2498 participants (1195 men, 1303 women; age range, 23-92 years) were recruited from members of a Japanese community receiving annual health check-up at a local health center who agreed to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria were as follows: age <40 or ≥85 years; and more than one missing value from either laboratory data or questionnaire responses. A total of 2214 participants were entered into the study. Carotid artery arteriosclerosis was evaluated ultrasonographically and quantified as intima-medial thickness (IMT). The presence of carotid artery atherosclerosis was defined as IMT≥1.2 mm. Sleep durations were compared with IMT measurements after controlling for confounding factors such as age, sex, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, alcohol intake, and smoking habit. Sleep duration ≥7 h correlated significantly with the incidence of IMT≥1.2 m when compared with a sleep duration of 6 h (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio, 1.263; 95% confidence interval, 1.031-1.546, P=0.024). Shorter sleep duration ≤5 h did not correlate significantly with the risk compared with a sleep duration of 6 h. Long sleep duration (≥7 h) correlated significantly with the incidence of carotid artery atherosclerosis compared with a sleep duration of 6 h, but shorter sleep duration did not. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (pObesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  20. Stronger relationship of serum apolipoprotein A-1 and B with diabetic retinopathy than traditional lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Ankit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the most common preventable cause of blindness where early detection and treatment can be sight-saving. Search for biomarkers of the disease has been relentless. We aimed to determine whether lipoproteins apolipoproteins A1 and B1 (Apo-A1 and Apo-B1 have stronger associations with DR in contrast to conventionally measured low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study and studied 117 patients. Serum lipid profile was assessed by autoanalyzer. Serum Apo-A1 and Apo-B were measured using immunoturbidimetric kit on an autoanalyzer. Apo-B/A1 ratio was calculated. Retinopathy was graded from the digital retinal photographs, taken with nonmydriatic auto fundus camera and classified according to International Clinical DR Disease Severity Scale. Results: Mean Apo-A1 for mild, moderate, severe retinopathy, and proliferative DR (PDR shows a significant negative correlation (P = 0.001 with severity of retinopathy. Mean Apo-B for mild, moderate, severe, PDR displayed a significant positive correlation with severity of retinopathy (P = 0.001. Mean Apo-B/A1 for mild, moderate, severe, PDR showed highly significant positive correlation with severity of retinopathy (P < 0.001. In contrast, mean LDL for mild, moderate, severe, PDR showed insignificant association with severity of DR (P = 0.081. Conclusion: Apo-A1 and Apo-B have a stronger association with the development of DR than traditional lipids and can thus facilitate early detection and treatment of the disease.

  1. Expression of Oct-4 is significantly associated with the development and prognosis of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHOU, HUAN; HU, YU; WANG, WEIPENG; MAO, YONG; ZHU, JINGJIE; ZHOU, BIN; SUN, JING; ZHANG, XUEGUANG

    2015-01-01

    Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4), is an essential transcription factor, which is required for pluripotency and self-renewal in embryonic stem cells and germ cells. It is also involved in maintaining cancer stem-like properties in certain types of tumor, and is an important biomarker for cancer stem cells. The present study investigated whether Oct-4 expression was associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). In order to achieve this, primary CRC tissues, matched non-tumor tissues and benign polyp tissues, representing different stages of carcinogenesis, were obtained, and Oct-4 expression was analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry analysis and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the medical records of patients with CRC were reviewed, and clinicopathological analysis was performed in order to assess the association between Oct-4 expression and certain clinicopathological parameters. It was shown that the transcription and translation of Oct-4 increased in a stepwise manner, from non-tumor to benign polyp tissues, and from benign polyps to CRC tissues. Oct-4 expression in CRC was significantly correlated with histological grade (P=0.007), lymph node metastasis (P=0.027), distant metastasis (P=0.017) and TNM stage (P=0.041). Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis demonstrated that Oct-4+ cases had a shorter median survival time (37.0 months) compared with Oct-4− cases (76.0 months; P=0.001). These results indicated that aberrant expression of Oct-4 may be involved in the development of CRC. Thus, Oct-4 may be a biomarker for the prediction, diagnosis or assessment of prognosis in CRC, in addition to a potential target for the treatment of this disease. PMID:26622555

  2. Mitochondrial DNA content in embryo culture medium is significantly associated with human embryo fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigliani, S; Anserini, P; Venturini, P L; Scaruffi, P

    2013-10-01

    Is the amount of cell-free DNA released by human embryos into culture medium correlated with embryo morphological features? The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content of culture medium is significantly associated with the fragmentation rate on Days 2 and 3 of embryo development, whether the oocyte came from women ≤ 35 or >35 years old. Cellular fragmentation is often utilized as one of the morphological parameters for embryo quality assessment. The amount of cellular fragments is considered to be an important morphological parameter for embryo implantation potential. It has been hypothesized that fragments are apoptotic bodies or anuclear cytoplasmatic pieces of blastomeres, although no definitive conclusion has been drawn about their pathogenesis. Human fertilized oocytes were individually cultured from Day 1 to Days 2 and 3. A total of 800 samples (166 spent media from Day 2 and 634 from Day 3) were enrolled into the present study. Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was quantified in 800 spent embryo culture media by Pico Green dye fluorescence assay. After DNA purification, genomic DNA (gDNA) and mtDNA were profiled by specific quantitative PCR. Statistical analyses defined correlations among DNA contents, embryo morphology and maternal age. Different independent tests confirmed the presence of DNA into embryo culture medium and, for the first time, we demonstrate that both gDNA and mtDNA are detectable in the secretome. The amount of DNA is larger in embryos with bad quality cleavage compared with high-grade embryos, suggesting that the DNA profile of culture medium is an objective marker for embryo quality assessment. In particular, DNA profiles are significantly associated with fragmentation feature (total dsDNA: P = 0.0010; mtDNA; P = 0.0247) and advanced maternal age. It is necessary to establish whether DNA profiling of spent embryo culture medium is a robust onsite test that can improve the prediction of blastulation, implantation and/or pregnancy rate. The

  3. A genome-wide association study demonstrates significant genetic variation for fracture risk in Thoroughbred racehorses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Thoroughbred racehorses are subject to non-traumatic distal limb bone fractures that occur during racing and exercise. Susceptibility to fracture may be due to underlying disturbances in bone metabolism which have a genetic cause. Fracture risk has been shown to be heritable in several species but this study is the first genetic analysis of fracture risk in the horse. Results Fracture cases (n = 269) were horses that sustained catastrophic distal limb fractures while racing on UK racecourses, necessitating euthanasia. Control horses (n = 253) were over 4 years of age, were racing during the same time period as the cases, and had no history of fracture at the time the study was carried out. The horses sampled were bred for both flat and National Hunt (NH) jump racing. 43,417 SNPs were employed to perform a genome-wide association analysis and to estimate the proportion of genetic variance attributable to the SNPs on each chromosome using restricted maximum likelihood (REML). Significant genetic variation associated with fracture risk was found on chromosomes 9, 18, 22 and 31. Three SNPs on chromosome 18 (62.05 Mb – 62.15 Mb) and one SNP on chromosome 1 (14.17 Mb) reached genome-wide significance (p fracture than cases, p = 1 × 10-4), while a second haplotype increases fracture risk (cases at 3.39 times higher risk of fracture than controls, p = 0.042). Conclusions Fracture risk in the Thoroughbred horse is a complex condition with an underlying genetic basis. Multiple genomic regions contribute to susceptibility to fracture risk. This suggests there is the potential to develop SNP-based estimators for genetic risk of fracture in the Thoroughbred racehorse, using methods pioneered in livestock genetics such as genomic selection. This information would be useful to racehorse breeders and owners, enabling them to reduce the risk of injury in their horses. PMID:24559379

  4. The Educational Program "Zajedno Jaci" (Stronger Together) in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanja, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore intercultural learning undertaken through the educational program "Stronger Together." The program "Stronger Together" was created in 1998 in order to support and educate teachers working with children in post-war regions of Croatia using intercultural education and cooperative learning as tools for…

  5. SULF 1 gene polymorphism, rs6990375 is in significant association with fetus failure in IVF technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Taghizadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfatase 1 (SULF1 function is to remove the 6-O-sulphate group from heparan sulfate. This action changes the binding sites of extracellular growth factors. SULF1 expression has been reported to be changed in angiogenesis. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of SULF1 would impact clinicopathologic characteristics. Objective: Study of SULF1 gene polymorphism with fetus failure in in vitro fertilization (IVF technique. Materials and Methods: We studied one common (minor allele frequency >0.05 regulatory SNP, rs6990375, with polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method, in 53 infertile women with fetus failure in IVF technique and 53 women with at least one healthy child as controls. Results: We found that rs6990375 is significantly associated with an early failure in IVF and frequency of G allele is high in women with fetus failure in IVF technique (p<0.001. Conclusion: These findings suggest that SULF1genetic variations may play a role in IVF technique fetus failure. Further studies with large sample sizes on SULF1 SNPs may be useful in support of this claim.

  6. Prevalence of Malaria, Dengue, and Chikungunya Significantly Associated with Mosquito Breeding Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; ZulKifle, Mohammad; Sherwani, Arish Mohammad Khan; Ghosh, Susanta Kumar; Tiwari, Satyanarayan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To observe the prevalence of malaria, dengue, and chikungunya and their association with mosquito breeding sites. Methods: The study was observational and analytical. A total of 162 houses and 670 subjects were observed during the study period. One hundred forty-two febrile patients were eligible for the study. After obtaining informed consent from all febrile patients, 140 blood samples were collected to diagnose malaria, dengue, and chikungunya. Larval samples were collected by the standard protocol that follows. Correlation of data was performed by Pearson correlation test. Results: Forty-seven blood samples were found positive: 33 for chikungunya, 3 for dengue, and 11 for malaria. Fifty-one out of 224 larval samples were found positive. Out of the 51 positive samples, 37 were positive for Aedes, 12 were positive for Anopheles, and two were positive for Culex larvae. Interpretation and Conclusion: Mosquito-borne fevers, especially malaria, dengue, and chikungunya, have shown a significant relationship with mosquito breeding sites. PMID:23610486

  7. Stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Qiu-Cheng; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation in the sum of variances of two observables is obtained. • An improved Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation in the product of variances of two observables is obtained. • A stronger uncertainty relation in the sum of variances of three observables is proposed. - Abstract: Uncertainty relation is one of the fundamental building blocks of quantum theory. Nevertheless, the traditional uncertainty relations do not fully capture the concept of incompatible observables. Here we present a stronger Schrödinger-like uncertainty relation, which is stronger than the relation recently derived by Maccone and Pati (2014) [11]. Furthermore, we give an additive uncertainty relation which holds for three incompatible observables, which is stronger than the relation newly obtained by Kechrimparis and Weigert (2014) [12] and the simple extension of the Schrödinger uncertainty relation.

  8. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  9. The prognostic significance of virus-associated changes in grade 1 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Worning, A M; Nordsten, M

    1987-01-01

    Virus-associated changes of the cervix uteri were assessed in patients treated for grade 1 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). Of 106 patients evaluated, 67 (63%) had virus-associated changes. The patients were treated without regard to the presence/absence of virus-associated changes. In 26...... patients the treatment was unsuccessful (persistence, recurrence, or progression of the neoplasia). The frequency of treatment failure was 33% in patients with, and 10% in patients without virus-associated changes (p less than 0.025). It is recommended that patients with CIN 1 and virus-associated changes...

  10. Do External or Internal Technology Spillovers Have a Stronger Influence on Innovation Efficiency in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionghe Qin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we bridge an important gap in the literature by comparing the extent to which external technology spillovers, as indicated by foreign direct investment (FDI, and internal technology spillovers, as indicated by university-institute-industry cooperation (UIC, influence innovation efficiency in China. We divide the innovation process into two sequential stages, namely the knowledge creation and technology commercialization stages, and employ a network data envelopment analysis approach to measure innovation efficiency at each stage. The spatial analysis of the distribution of knowledge creation efficiency and technology commercialization efficiency reveals the heterogeneity of innovation efficiency at the provincial level. Then, a panel data regression is used to analyze the effect of FDI and UIC on innovation efficiency at each stage, using data from 2009 to 2015 for 30 provinces in China. By comparing FDI with UIC, we find that FDI has a higher coefficient and stronger significance level at the knowledge creation stage, while only industry-institute linkages exhibit a stronger association with innovation efficiency at the technology commercialization stage.

  11. Seizure-associated aphasia has good lateralizing but poor localizing significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loesch, Anna Mira; Steger, Hannah; Losher, Claudia; Hartl, Elisabeth; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the occurrence of ictal and postictal aphasia in different focal epilepsy syndromes. We retrospectively analyzed the video-electroencephalographic monitoring data of 1,118 patients with focal epilepsy for seizure-associated aphasia (SAA). Statistical analysis included chi-square analysis and Fisher's exact test. We identified 102 of 1,118 patients (9.1%) in whom ictal or postictal aphasia (SAA) was part of their recorded seizures (n = 59 of 102; 57.8%) or who reported aphasia by history (n = 43; 42.2% only reported aphasia by history). Postictal aphasia was present in 18 patients (30.5%). Six of the 59 patients had both ictal and postictal aphasia (10.2%). SAA occurred either with left hemisphere seizure onset or with seizures spreading from the right to the left hemisphere. SAA was most common in patients with parieto-occipital epilepsy (10.9%; five of 46 patients), followed by patients with temporal (6.7%; 28 of 420 patients), focal (not further localized; 4.8%; 22 of 462 patients), and frontal epilepsy (2.1%; four of 190 patients; p = 0.04). SAA was more common in parieto-occipital epilepsy than in frontal epilepsy (p = 0.02). In contrast, there was no significant difference in SAA between temporal and parieto-occipital epilepsy (p = 0.36). SAA has a high lateralizing but limited localizing value, as it often reflects spread of epileptic activity into speech-harboring brain regions. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Fasting proinsulin levels are significantly associated with 20 year cancer mortality rates. The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, I.; van 't Riet, E.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Polak, B.C.P.; Moll, A.C.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Proinsulin is possibly associated with cancer through activation of insulin receptor isoform A. We sought to investigate the associations between proinsulin and 20 year cancer mortality rates. Methods: The study was performed within the Hoorn Study, a population-based study of

  13. Lower-Body Muscle Structure and Jump Performance of Stronger and Weaker Surfing Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secomb, Josh L; Nimphius, Sophia; Farley, Oliver R; Lundgren, Lina; Tran, Tai T; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-07-01

    To identify whether there are any significant differences in the lower-body muscle structure and countermovement-jump (CMJ) and squat-jump (SJ) performance between stronger and weaker surfing athletes. Twenty elite male surfers had their lower-body muscle structure assessed with ultrasonography and completed a series of lower-body strength and jump tests including isometric midthigh pull (IMTP), CMJ, and SJ. Athletes were separated into stronger (n = 10) and weaker (n = 10) groups based on IMTP performance. Large significant differences were identified between the groups for vastus lateralis (VL) thickness (P = .02, ES = 1.22) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) pennation angle (P = .01, ES = 1.20), and a large nonsignificant difference was identified in LG thickness (P = .08, ES = 0.89). Furthermore, significant differences were present between the groups for peak force, relative peak force, and jump height in the CMJ and SJ (P Stronger surfing athletes in this study had greater VL and LG thickness and LG pennation angle. These muscle structures may explain their better performance in the CMJ and SJ. A unique finding in this study was that the stronger group appeared to better use their strength and muscle structure for braking as they had significantly higher eccentric peak velocity and vertical displacement during the CMJ. This enhanced eccentric phase may have resulted in a greater production and subsequent utilization of stored elastic strain energy that led to the significantly better CMJ performance in the stronger group.

  14. Women's political participation leads to stronger local economies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-08

    Jun 8, 2016 ... Under changes to India's constitution, Indian women are gaining a stronger ... Legal reforms are encouraging women to contribute to economic growth ... on a panel on empowering women entrepreneurs at IDRC in Ottawa.

  15. TCF7L2 variant genotypes and type 2 diabetes risk in Brazil: significant association, but not a significant tool for risk stratification in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mill JG

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic polymorphisms of the TCF7L2 gene are strongly associated with large increments in type 2 diabetes risk in different populations worldwide. In this study, we aimed to confirm the effect of the TCF7L2 polymorphism rs7903146 on diabetes risk in a Brazilian population and to assess the use of this genetic marker in improving diabetes risk prediction in the general population. Methods We genotyped the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene in 560 patients with known coronary disease enrolled in the MASS II (Medicine, Angioplasty, or Surgery Study Trial and in 1,449 residents of Vitoria, in Southeast Brazil. The associations of this gene variant to diabetes risk and metabolic characteristics in these two different populations were analyzed. To access the potential benefit of using this marker for diabetes risk prediction in the general population we analyzed the impact of this genetic variant on a validated diabetes risk prediction tool based on clinical characteristics developed for the Brazilian general population. Results SNP rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the MASS-II population (OR = 1.57 per T allele, p = 0.0032, confirming, in the Brazilian population, previous reports of the literature. Addition of this polymorphism to an established clinical risk prediction score did not increased model accuracy (both area under ROC curve equal to 0.776. Conclusion TCF7L2 rs7903146 T allele is associated with a 1.57 increased risk for type 2 diabetes in a Brazilian cohort of patients with known coronary heart disease. However, the inclusion of this polymorphism in a risk prediction tool developed for the general population resulted in no improvement of performance. This is the first study, to our knowledge, that has confirmed this recent association in a South American population and adds to the great consistency of this finding in studies around the world

  16. Sniffing out significant "Pee values": genome wide association study of asparagus anosmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, Sarah C; Nuttall, Elizabeth; Turman, Constance; Sinnott, Jennifer; Rimm, Eric B; Ecsedy, Ethan; Unger, Robert H; Fall, Katja; Finn, Stephen; Jensen, Majken K; Rider, Jennifer R; Kraft, Peter; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2016-12-13

     To determine the inherited factors associated with the ability to smell asparagus metabolites in urine.  Genome wide association study.  Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts.  6909 men and women of European-American descent with available genetic data from genome wide association studies.  Participants were characterized as asparagus smellers if they strongly agreed with the prompt "after eating asparagus, you notice a strong characteristic odor in your urine," and anosmic if otherwise. We calculated per-allele estimates of asparagus anosmia for about nine million single nucleotide polymorphisms using logistic regression. P values asparagus anosmia, all in a region on chromosome 1 (1q44: 248139851-248595299) containing multiple genes in the olfactory receptor 2 (OR2) family. Conditional analyses revealed three independent markers associated with asparagus anosmia: rs13373863, rs71538191, and rs6689553.  A large proportion of people have asparagus anosmia. Genetic variation near multiple olfactory receptor genes is associated with the ability of an individual to smell the metabolites of asparagus in urine. Future replication studies are necessary before considering targeted therapies to help anosmic people discover what they are missing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Sniffing out significant “Pee values”: genome wide association study of asparagus anosmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, Sarah C; Nuttall, Elizabeth; Turman, Constance; Sinnott, Jennifer; Rimm, Eric B; Ecsedy, Ethan; Unger, Robert H; Fall, Katja; Finn, Stephen; Jensen, Majken K; Rider, Jennifer R; Kraft, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the inherited factors associated with the ability to smell asparagus metabolites in urine. Design Genome wide association study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts. Participants 6909 men and women of European-American descent with available genetic data from genome wide association studies. Main outcome measure Participants were characterized as asparagus smellers if they strongly agreed with the prompt “after eating asparagus, you notice a strong characteristic odor in your urine,” and anosmic if otherwise. We calculated per-allele estimates of asparagus anosmia for about nine million single nucleotide polymorphisms using logistic regression. P values asparagus anosmia, all in a region on chromosome 1 (1q44: 248139851-248595299) containing multiple genes in the olfactory receptor 2 (OR2) family. Conditional analyses revealed three independent markers associated with asparagus anosmia: rs13373863, rs71538191, and rs6689553. Conclusion A large proportion of people have asparagus anosmia. Genetic variation near multiple olfactory receptor genes is associated with the ability of an individual to smell the metabolites of asparagus in urine. Future replication studies are necessary before considering targeted therapies to help anosmic people discover what they are missing. PMID:27965198

  18. Significance of bacteria associated with invertebrates in drinking water distribution networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, E; du Preez, H H; de Wet, C M E; Venter, S N

    2005-01-01

    The implication of invertebrates found in drinking water distribution networks to public health is of concern to water utilities. Previous studies have shown that the bacteria associated with the invertebrates could be potentially pathogenic to humans. This study investigated the level and identity of bacteria commonly associated with invertebrates collected from the drinking water treatment systems as well as from the main pipelines leaving the treatment works. On all sampling occasions bacteria were isolated from the invertebrate samples collected. The highest bacterial counts were observed for the samples taken before filtration as was expected. There were, however, indications that optimal removal of invertebrates from water did not always occur. During the investigation, 116 colonies were sampled for further identification. The isolates represent several bacterial genera and species that are pathogenic or opportunistic pathogens of humans. Diarrhoea, meningitis, septicaemia and skin infections are among the diseases associated with these organisms. The estimated number of bacteria that could be associated with a single invertebrate (as based on average invertebrate numbers) could range from 10 to 4000 bacteria per organism. It can, therefore, be concluded that bacteria associated with invertebrates might under the worst case scenario pose a potential health risk to water users. In the light of the above findings it is clear that invertebrates in drinking water should be controlled at levels as low as technically and economically feasible.

  19. Diversity and significance of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea associated with coniferous trees in Poland: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiedrowicz Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the approximately 200 eriophyoid mite species associated with coniferous trees worldwide, 33 species (of the families Eriophyidae and Phytoptidae infest conifers in Poland, and 24 of them can cause visible feeding symptoms. In this paper we discuss the importance of eriophyoid mites to coniferous plants in Poland and their potential impact on the decorative value of ornamental plants. We emphasize the general lack of knowledge about the diversity of eriophyoid mites associated with coniferous trees and its role in the management and control of this economically important mite group.

  20. Food Addiction: Its Prevalence and Significant Association with Obesity in the General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C.; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Background ?Food addiction? shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, ?food addiction? contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. Objectives to assess 1) the prevalence of ?food addiction? in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of ?food addiction? were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than contr...

  1. Income is a stronger predictor of mortality than education in a national sample of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Shankar, Anoop

    2012-03-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with mortality in several populations. SES measures, such as education and income, may operate through different pathways. However, the independent effect of each measure mutually adjusting for the effect of other SES measures is not clear. The association between poverty-income ratio (PIR) and education and all-cause mortality among 15,646 adults, aged >20 years, who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the USA, was examined. The lower PIR quartiles and less than high school education were positively associated with all-cause mortality in initial models adjusting for the demographic, lifestyle and clinical risk factors. After additional adjustment for education, the lower PIR quartiles were still significantly associated with all-cause mortality. The multivariable odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of all-cause mortality comparing the lowest to the highest quartile of PIR was 2.11 (1.52-2.95, p trend education was no longer associated with all-cause mortality [multivariable OR (95% CI) of all-cause mortality comparing less than high school to more than high school education was 1.05 (0.85-1.31, p trend=0.57)]. The results suggest that income may be a stronger predictor of mortality than education, and narrowing the income differentials may reduce the health disparities.

  2. Tuberculosis relapse in Vietnam is significantly associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, Mai N. T.; Buu, Tran N.; Tiemersma, Edine; Lan, Nguyen T. N.; Dung, Nguyen H.; Kremer, Kristin; Soolingen, Dick V.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.

    2013-01-01

    In Vietnam, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype is associated with multi-drug resistance and is emerging. A possible explanation for this genotype's success is an increased rate of relapse. In a prospective cohort study, isolates from patients with smear-positive tuberculosis were

  3. Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond K.; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura M.; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark J.; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Adan, RAH

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. Method: Following uniformquality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in

  4. Significant locus and metabolic genetic correlations revealed in genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M; Kas, Martinus J.H.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. METHOD: Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3)

  5. Possible association between some geomagnetic anomalies and Vrancea (Romania) significant earthquakes occurred in the year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enescu, D.

    2006-01-01

    The association between geoelectromagnetic anomalies and Vrancea earthquakes of moment magnitudes 3.7 ≤ M W ≤ 5 was first proved by Enescu et al. in some earlier papers. This finding was extended by Enescu to a broader magnitude range 3.7 ≤ M W ≤ 6.3. That study proved that observable precursory anomalies in the geomagnetic impedance have preceded all Vrancea earthquakes of moment magnitudes M W ≥ 4.0 occurring in 2004 year. A similar study is made in the present paper for data recorded in 2005 year. This study confirms the main result obtained in the earlier papers, namely that the great majority of Vrancea earthquakes of magnitudes higher than 4 are associated with precursory anomalies in the geomagnetic impedance. It also seems that neither the precursor time or the amplitude of the precursory magnetic anomaly can be linked reliably with the magnitude of the anticipated earthquake. (author)

  6. Strongyloides stercoralis is associated with significant morbidity in rural Cambodia, including stunting in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Neumayr, Andreas; Char, Meng Chuor; Hatz, Christoph; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted nematode that can replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and highly prevalent in Cambodia. The extent of morbidity associated with S. stercoralis infection is difficult to assess due to the broad spectrum of symptoms and, thus, remains uncertain. Clinical signs were compared among S. stercoralis infected vs. non-infected participants in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 in eight villages of Northern Cambodia, and before and after treatment with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW) among participants harboring S. stercoralis. Growth retardation among schoolchildren and adolescents was assessed using height-for-age and thinness using body mass index-for-age. S. stercoralis prevalence was 31.1% among 2,744 participants. Urticaria (55% vs. 47%, OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) and itching (52% vs. 48%, OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4) were more frequently reported by infected participants. Gastrointestinal, dermatological, and respiratory symptoms were less prevalent in 103 mono-infected participants after treatment. Urticaria (66% vs. 11%, OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01-0.1) and abdominal pain (81 vs. 27%, OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.02-0.2) mostly resolved by treatment. S. stercoralis infection was associated with stunting, with 2.5-fold higher odds in case of heavy infection. The morbidity associated with S. stercoralis confirmed the importance of gastrointestinal and dermatological symptoms unrelated to parasite load, and long-term chronic effects when associated with malnutrition. The combination of high prevalence and morbidity calls for the integration of S. stercoralis into ongoing STH control measures in Cambodia.

  7. Prevalence of Malaria, Dengue, and Chikungunya Significantly Associated with Mosquito Breeding Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; ZulKifle, Mohammad; Sherwani, Arish Mohammad Khan; Ghosh, Susanta Kumar; Tiwari, Satyanarayan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To observe the prevalence of malaria, dengue, and chikungunya and their association with mosquito breeding sites. Methods: The study was observational and analytical. A total of 162 houses and 670 subjects were observed during the study period. One hundred forty-two febrile patients were eligible for the study. After obtaining informed consent from all febrile patients, 140 blood samples were collected to diagnose malaria, dengue, and chikungunya. Larval samples were collected by ...

  8. A significant causal association between C-reactive protein levels and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Inoshita, Masatoshi; Numata, Shusuke; Tajima, Atsushi; Kinoshita, Makoto; Umehara, Hidehiro; Nakataki, Masahito; Ikeda, Masashi; Maruyama, Souichiro; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Shimodera, Shinji; Hashimoto, Ryota; Imoto, Issei; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2016-01-01

    Many observational studies have shown elevated blood CRP levels in schizophrenia compared with controls, and one population-based prospective study has reported that elevated plasma CRP levels were associated with late- and very-late-onset schizophrenia. Furthermore, several clinical studies have reported the efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs on the symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. However, whether elevated CRP levels are causally related to schizophrenia is not still established be...

  9. Traction bronchiectasis in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: associated computed tomographic features and physiological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Sujal R.; Wells, Athol U.; Bois, Roland M. du; Rubens, Michael B.; Hansell, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the associated CT features and physiological consequences of traction bronchiectasis in patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). The CT scans of 212 patients with CFA (158 men, 54 women; mean age 62.2±10.6 years) were evaluated independently by two observers. The extent of fibrosis, the proportions of a reticular pattern and ground-glass opacification and the extent of emphysema were scored at five levels. The predominant CT pattern, coarseness of a reticular pattern and severity of traction bronchiectasis were graded semiquantitatively. Physiological indices were correlated with CT features. There was traction bronchiectasis on CT in 202 of 212 (95%) patients. Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis was independently associated with increasingly extensive CFA (p CO (p 2 (p<0.0005), but not indices of air-flow obstruction. In CFA, traction bronchiectasis increases with more extensive disease, a lower proportion of ground-glass opacification and a coarser reticular pattern, but it decreases with concurrent emphysema. Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis is associated with additional physiological impairment for a given extent of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. (orig.)

  10. Traction bronchiectasis in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: associated computed tomographic features and physiological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Sujal R. [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, SE5 9RS, London (United Kingdom); Wells, Athol U.; Bois, Roland M. du [Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, Emmanuel Kaye Building, Manresa Road, Fulham, SW6 6LR, London (United Kingdom); Rubens, Michael B.; Hansell, David M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, SW3 6NP, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the associated CT features and physiological consequences of traction bronchiectasis in patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). The CT scans of 212 patients with CFA (158 men, 54 women; mean age 62.2{+-}10.6 years) were evaluated independently by two observers. The extent of fibrosis, the proportions of a reticular pattern and ground-glass opacification and the extent of emphysema were scored at five levels. The predominant CT pattern, coarseness of a reticular pattern and severity of traction bronchiectasis were graded semiquantitatively. Physiological indices were correlated with CT features. There was traction bronchiectasis on CT in 202 of 212 (95%) patients. Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis was independently associated with increasingly extensive CFA (p<0.0005), a coarser reticular pattern (p<0.001), a lower proportion of ground-glass opacification (p<0.005) and less extensive emphysema (p<0.0005). Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis was independently related to depression of DL{sub CO} (p<0.005), FVC (p=0.02) and pO{sub 2} (p<0.0005), but not indices of air-flow obstruction. In CFA, traction bronchiectasis increases with more extensive disease, a lower proportion of ground-glass opacification and a coarser reticular pattern, but it decreases with concurrent emphysema. Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis is associated with additional physiological impairment for a given extent of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. (orig.)

  11. Prognostic significance of Fas and Fas ligand system-associated apoptosis in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, S; Tachibana, M; Shibakita, M; Dhar, D K; Yoshimura, H; Kinugasa, S; Kubota, H; Masunaga, R; Nagasue, N

    2000-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that gastric carcinomas express Fas ligand and down-regulate Fas to escape from the host immune attack; however, the prognostic importance of Fas/FasL expression in this tumor is yet to be evaluated. Specimens from 87 gastric carcinoma patients of different stages treated in a defined period with curative intent were evaluated for apoptosis, Fas, FasL, and CD8 expression using an immunohistochemical method. The percentage of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cells expressed as apoptotic index (AI) was higher in 43 patients when the cut-off value was set at the median value. There were no significant correlations between AI and clinicopathologic parameters. Thirty-nine patients showed a high number of CD8+ cells within cancer nests. Positive FasL and Fas expression was seen in 53 and 72 patients, respectively. CD8 and FasL expressions were related only to patients' age. Fas expression had significant correlations with tumor invasion and Lauren classification. There were significant direct correlations between AI and number of nest CD8+ cells and between AI and grade of Fas expression. Apoptotic index, pT stage, CD8 expression, and Fas expression were identified as independent prognostic factors. Spontaneous apoptosis in gastric carcinoma may be an independent prognosticator for survival and is significantly influenced by tumor Fas expression and number of nest CD8 + cells.

  12. Ureaplasma urealyticum is significantly associated with non-gonococcal urethritis in heterosexual Sydney men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couldwell, D L; Gidding, H F; Freedman, E V; McKechnie, M L; Biggs, K; Sintchenko, V; Gilbert, G L

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence of various genital organisms in 268 men with (cases) and 237 men without (controls) urethral symptoms/signs (urethral discharge, dysuria and/or urethral irritation) from two sexual health clinics in Sydney between April 2006 and November 2007. The presence of urethral symptoms/signs was defined as non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) for this study. Specific aims were to investigate the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum in NGU and the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in our population. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) assay was performed to detect 14 recognized or putative genital pathogens, including Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium, U. urealyticum and U. parvum. U. urealyticum was associated with NGU in men without another urethral pathogen (odds ratio [OR] 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.8; P = 0.04); this association remained after controlling for potential confounding by age and history of unprotected vaginal sex in the last four weeks (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9; P = 0.03). C. trachomatis (OR 7.5, P urethral pathogens. Further research should investigate the role of U. urealyticum subtypes among heterosexual men with NGU.

  13. Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-associated cytokine expression in hypopharyngeal carcinoma and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Wang, Junfu; Wang, Rui; Su, Qinghong; Luan, Junwen; Huang, Haiyan; Zhou, Peng; Liu, Jinsheng; Xu, Xiaoqun

    2016-02-01

    Th0 cells differentiate into Th1 or Th2 depending on multiple transcription factors acting on specific time points to regulate gene expression. Th17 cells, a subset of IL-17-producing T cells distinct from Th1 or Th2 cells, have been described as key players in inflammation and autoimmune diseases as well as cancer development. In the present study, 53 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer were included. The expression levels of Th1-, Th2- and Th17-associated cytokines in hypopharyngeal cancer tissues and pericarcinoma tissues were detected. The relationship between Th1, Th2, or Th17 infiltration and metastasis was studied. Our results showed that the mRNA and protein expressions of Th1 cytokines were lower, while the expressions of Th2 and Th17 cytokines were higher in tumor tissues, and the intensity of expression was strengthened with clinical stage increasing. Cancer tissues had higher level expressions of Th2 and Th17 cytokines than that of pericarcinoma tissues. From the above data, we speculated that high expressions of Th2- and Th17-associated cytokines in hypopharyngeal carcinoma may contribute to cancer development and metastasis.

  14. Clay mineral association in the salt formation of the Transylvanian Basin and its paleoenvironmental significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Bican-Bris̡an

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigated clay fraction was separated from salt samples recovered from three boreholes located in the Praid salt deposit area. For comparison, samples collected from Turda deposit (Franz Josef adit, the Rudolf and Ghizele chambers and from the salt massif from Sărăţel were also analyzed. The qualitative investigations evidenced a clay minerals association dominated by illite and chlorite accompanied by subordinate amounts of kaolinite, smectite, fibrous clays (sepiolite, palygorskite, and in minor amounts, by 14/14 chlorite/vermiculite and chlorite/smectite interstratifications. A quantitative evaluation (% including a standard graphical representation was performed only for the borehole samples (Praid, according to the vertical distribution. The genetical interpretation of the identified clay minerals association took into account the influence of the sedimentation mechanisms and the climate control on the mineral phases. The environment of formation for the salt in the Transylvanian Basin was defined by the presence of specific climatic factors, also suggested by the palynological investigations.

  15. Interpretation of genetic association studies: markers with replicated highly significant odds ratios may be poor classifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Jakobsdottir

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent successful discoveries of potentially causal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for complex diseases hold great promise, and commercialization of genomics in personalized medicine has already begun. The hope is that genetic testing will benefit patients and their families, and encourage positive lifestyle changes and guide clinical decisions. However, for many complex diseases, it is arguable whether the era of genomics in personalized medicine is here yet. We focus on the clinical validity of genetic testing with an emphasis on two popular statistical methods for evaluating markers. The two methods, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis, are applied to our age-related macular degeneration dataset. By using an additive model of the CFH, LOC387715, and C2 variants, the odds ratios are 2.9, 3.4, and 0.4, with p-values of 10(-13, 10(-13, and 10(-3, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC is 0.79, but assuming prevalences of 15%, 5.5%, and 1.5% (which are realistic for age groups 80 y, 65 y, and 40 y and older, respectively, only 30%, 12%, and 3% of the group classified as high risk are cases. Additionally, we present examples for four other diseases for which strongly associated variants have been discovered. In type 2 diabetes, our classification model of 12 SNPs has an AUC of only 0.64, and two SNPs achieve an AUC of only 0.56 for prostate cancer. Nine SNPs were not sufficient to improve the discrimination power over that of nongenetic predictors for risk of cardiovascular events. Finally, in Crohn's disease, a model of five SNPs, one with a quite low odds ratio of 0.26, has an AUC of only 0.66. Our analyses and examples show that strong association, although very valuable for establishing etiological hypotheses, does not guarantee effective discrimination between cases and controls. The scientific community should be cautious to avoid overstating the value of association findings in terms

  16. Lifestyle factors are significantly associated with the locomotive syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Manabu; Yoshihara, Shingo; Maeyashiki, Akie; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2017-10-18

    The Japanese Orthopedic Association first proposed the concept of "locomotive syndrome" in 2007. It refers to circumstances in which elderly people need nursing care services or are at high risk of requiring such services within a short time. Recently, the public health burden of providing nursing care for elderly individuals has increased. Therefore, locomotive syndrome, and the means of preventing it, are a major public health focus in Japan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of lifestyle factors, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, and dental health, with locomotive syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study using an internet panel survey. The participants comprised 747 individuals aged 30-90 years. Factors related to demographics (age, sex), general health (number of teeth, presence of periodontal disease), and lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep duration) were assessed. We also used the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale to determine whether each participant had locomotive syndrome. Multivariate analysis was conducted using logistic regression to investigate the independent relationships between locomotive syndrome and lifestyle factors after adjusting for sex and age. A greater proportion of women (17.7%) than men (11.2%) had locomotive syndrome (p syndrome compared with those aged syndrome, whereas sleep duration was not. The frequency of alcohol consumption, except for daily drinking, was also associated with locomotive syndrome. Our study indicates that lifestyle factors, such as smoking and number of existing teeth, may partly affect the prevalence of locomotive syndrome. Hence, lifestyle modifications, such as improving oral hygiene and promoting cessation of smoking, are important means to reduce the risk of locomotive syndrome and should be promoted by public health staff.

  17. Significance of appendiceal thickening in association with typhlitis in pediatric oncology patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarville, M.B.; Thompson, J.; Adelman, C.S.; Lee, M.O.; Li, C.; Alsammarae, D.; Rao, B.N.; May, M.V.; Jones, S.C.; Sandlund, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The management of pediatric oncology patients with imaging evidence of appendiceal thickening is complex because they are generally poor surgical candidates and often have confounding clinical findings. Objective: We sought to determine the significance of appendiceal thickening in pediatric oncology patients who also had typhlitis. Specifically, we evaluated the impact of this finding on the duration of typhlitis, its clinical management, and outcome. Materials and methods: From a previous review of the management of typhlitis in 90 children with cancer at our institution, we identified 4 with imaging evidence of appendiceal thickening. We compared colonic wall measurements, duration of typhlitis symptoms, management, and outcome of patients with appendiceal thickening and typhlitis to patients with typhlitis alone. Results: There was no significant difference in duration of typhlitis symptoms between patients with typhlitis only (15.6 ± 1.2 days) and those with typhlitis and appendiceal thickening (14.5 ± 5.8 days; P = 0.9). Two patients with appendiceal thickening required surgical treatment for ischemic bowel, and two were treated medically. Only one patient in the typhlitis without appendiceal thickening group required surgical intervention. There were no deaths in children with appendiceal thickening; two patients died of complications of typhlitis alone. (orig.)

  18. Tuberculosis after kidney transplantation is associated with significantly impaired allograft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Silvana Daher; de Sandes-Freitas, Tainá Veras; Jacinto, Camilla Neves; Martiniano, Lorena Vasconcelos Mesquita; Amaral, Yago Sucupira; Paes, Fernando José Villar Nogueira; Sales, Maria Luiza de Mattos Brito Oliveira; Esmeraldo, Ronaldo de Matos; Daher, Elizabeth de Francesco

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate renal function before, during, and after the course of tuberculosis (TB) disease in kidney transplant recipients, and assess the risk factors for non-recovery of baseline renal function. We performed a retrospective, single-center cohort study, including all patients with confirmed or presumed TB diagnosis after kidney transplant (n=34, 2.1%). Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine (Cr) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) adjusted for deaths and graft losses. A significant increase was seen in serum Cr during TB disease and treatment: 1.5 mg/dL at baseline (Cr base ), 1.7 mg/dL at diagnosis (Ppotential causes for this outcome. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Fibrillary glomerulonephritis associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance showing lambda-type Bence Jones protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Tomoaki; Okura, Takafumi; Miyoshi, Ken-Ichi; Watanabe, Sanae; Manabe, Seiko; Kurata, Mie; Irita, Jun; Fukuoka, Tomikazu; Higaki, Jitsuo

    2005-09-01

    A 79-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of leg edema due to a nephrotic syndrome. Urinary and serum immunoelectrophoresis showed positive for the lambda type of Bence Jones protein. A bone marrow aspiration test revealed mild plasmacytosis (6.4% of the total cells). These findings confirmed her diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Her renal biopsy specimen revealed mild mesangial cell proliferation and an increase in the mesangial matrix. Immunofluorescence studies showed positive staining for IgG, IgA, C3, and kappa and lambda light chains in the capillary wall and mesangium area. Electron microscopy showed that the electron deposits in the thickened basement membrane were formed by randomly arranged 16- to 18-nm nonbranching fibrils. A Congo red stain for amyloid was negative. These findings corresponded with the diagnosis of fibrillary glomerulonephritis. Therefore, this case showed a rare combination of fibrillary glomerulonephritis and MGUS.

  20. Significant Association of Interleukin-10 Polymorphisms with Childhood Leukemia Susceptibility in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wen-Jyi; Chang, Wen-Shin; Hsu, Han-Fang; Ji, Hong-Xue; Hsiao, Chieh-Lun; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Yeh, Su-Peng; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Bau, DA-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports the notion that inflammatory processes play a role in carcinogenesis, and interleukin-10 (IL10) is an important inflammatory cytokine. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of IL10 A-1082G (rs1800896), T-819C (rs3021097) and A-592C (rs1800872) genotypes to the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Taiwan. Associations of these IL10 polymorphic genotypes with ALL risk were analyzed in 266 patients with childhood ALL patients and 266 non-cancer healthy controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodology. The results showed that CC genotype carriers at IL10 T-819C were at lower risk for childhood ALL (odds ratio=0.33, 95% confidence interval=0.16-0.68). On the contrary, AC and CC genotype carriers at IL10 A-592C were at higher risk for childhood ALL (odds ratio=1.73 and 6.34, 95% confidence interval=1.19-2.51 and 3.16-12.72, respectively). There was no difference in the distribution of A-1082G genotypes between childhood ALL and control groups. The genotypes at IL10 T-819C and A-592C may serve as predictive biomarkers for childhood ALL in Taiwan. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.

    2016-05-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d-1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  2. Neonatal infection produces significant changes in immune function with no associated learning deficits in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Brittany F; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Solomotis, Samantha A; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2017-10-01

    The current experiments examined the impact of early-life immune activation and a subsequent mild immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 25µg/kg) on hippocampal-dependent learning, proinflammatory cytokine expression in the brain, and peripheral immune function in juvenile male and female rats at P24, an age when hippocampal-dependent learning and memory first emerges. Our results indicate that neonatal infection did not produce learning deficits in the hippocampal-dependent context pre-exposure facilitation effect paradigm in juvenile males and females, contrary to what has been observed in adults. Neonatal infection produced an increase in baseline IL-1β expression in the hippocampus (HP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of juvenile rats. Furthermore, neonatally infected rats showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the HP following LPS treatment as juveniles; and juvenile females, but not males, showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the mPFC following LPS treatment. Neonatal infection attenuated the production of IL-6 expression following LPS treatment in both the brain and the spleen, and neonatal infection decreased the numbers of circulating white blood cells in juvenile males and females, an effect that was further exacerbated by subsequent LPS treatment. Together, our data indicate that the consequences of neonatal infection are detectable even early in juvenile development, though we found no concomitant hippocampal-dependent learning deficits at this young age. These findings underscore the need to consider age and associated on-going neurodevelopmental processes as important factors contributing to the emergence of cognitive and behavioral disorders linked to early-life immune activation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1221-1236, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Clinical significance of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia in Epstein-Barr virus-associated and Epstein-Barr virus-negative gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Jian-Ning; Dong, Min; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Yi-Wang; Wu, Jun-Yan; Du, Hong; Li, Hai-Gang; Huang, Yan; Shao, Chun-Kui

    2017-05-01

    Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) have been recognized as neoplastic precursors in gastric carcinogenesis. We explored the relationship between SPEM and IM in Epstein-Barr virus-associated (EBVaGC) and Epstein-Barr virus-negative (EBVnGC) gastric cancer. Sixty-four EBVaGC and one hundred and fifty-four EBVnGC patients were included. EBV positivity was identified using Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA-1 in situ hybridization. SPEM was subclassified into absent, early, and advanced SPEM. Acute and chronic inflammation was graded as absent, mild, moderate, and marked. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the correlation between SPEM, IM, and inflammation. Our study revealed that SPEM was detected in 87.5% EBVaGC and 85.1% EBVnGC patients. Distribution of patients according to the SPEM classification was significantly different between EBVaGC and EBVnGC groups (P=.038). IM was observed less frequently in EBVaGC when compared with EBVnGC patients (P<.001). No difference was observed between EBVaGC and EBVnGC in the levels of acute and chronic inflammation. A positive correlation between IM and SPEM status was observed in both EBVaGC and EBVnGC patients. Furthermore, advanced SPEM was an independent influential factor to IM in EBVnGC (P=.013). In conclusion, SPEM was associated with both EBVaGC and EBVnGC more frequently than IM. Moreover, advanced SPEM had a stronger association with IM than early SPEM in EBVnGC. These results suggest that identification of SPEM should be used as a high-risk indicator for detecting early gastric carcinoma, and should be brought to the attention of pathologists and clinicians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. MRI estimation of total renal volume demonstrates significant association with healthy donor weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Emil I.; Kelly, Sarah A.; Edye, Michael; Mitty, Harold A.; Bromberg, Jonathan S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to correlate total renal volume (TRV) calculations, obtained through the voxel-count method and ellipsoid formula with various physical characteristics. Materials and methods: MRI reports and physical examination from 210 healthy kidney donors (420 kidneys), on whom renal volumes were obtained using the voxel-count method, were retrospectively reviewed. These values along with ones obtained through a more traditional method (ellipsoid formula) were correlated with subject height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), and age. Results: TRV correlated strongly with body weight (r = 0.7) and to a lesser degree with height, age, or BMI (r = 0.5, -0.2, 0.3, respectively). The left kidney volume was greater than the right, on average (p < 0.001). The ellipsoid formula method over-estimated renal volume by 17% on average which was significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Body weight was the physical characteristic which demonstrated the strongest correlation with renal volume in healthy subjects. Given this finding, a formula was derived for estimating the TRV for a given patient based on the his or her weight: TRV = 2.96 x weight (kg) + 113 ± 64.

  5. MDS-associated somatic mutations and clonal hematopoiesis are common in idiopathic cytopenias of undetermined significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Brian; Hall, Jeff M; Witte, John S; Xu, Yin; Reddy, Prashanti; Lin, Keming; Flamholz, Rachel; Dabbas, Bashar; Yung, Aine; Al-Hafidh, Jenan; Balmert, Emily; Vaupel, Christine; El Hader, Carlos; McGinniss, Matthew J; Nahas, Shareef A; Kines, Julie; Bejar, Rafael

    2015-11-19

    Establishing a diagnosis in patients suspected of having a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) can be challenging and could be informed by the identification of somatic mutations. We performed a prospective study to examine the frequency and types of mutations encountered in 144 patients with unexplained cytopenias. Based on bone marrow findings, 17% were diagnosed with MDS, 15% with idiopathic cytopenias of undetermined significance (ICUS) and some evidence of dysplasia, and 69% with ICUS and no dysplasia. Bone marrow DNA was sequenced for mutations in 22 frequently mutated myeloid malignancy genes. Somatic mutations were identified in 71% of MDS patients, 62% of patients with ICUS and some dysplasia, and 20% of ICUS patients and no dysplasia. In total, 35% of ICUS patients carried a somatic mutation or chromosomal abnormality indicative of clonal hematopoiesis. We validated these results in a cohort of 91 lower-risk MDS and 249 ICUS cases identified over a 6-month interval. Mutations were found in 79% of those with MDS, in 45% of those with ICUS with dysplasia, and in 17% of those with ICUS without dysplasia. The spectrum of mutated genes was similar with the exception of SF3B1 which was rarely mutated in patients without dysplasia. Variant allele fractions were comparable between clonal ICUS (CCUS) and MDS as were mean age and blood counts. We demonstrate that CCUS is a more frequent diagnosis than MDS in cytopenic patients. Clinical and mutational features are similar in these groups and may have diagnostic utility once outcomes in CCUS patients are better understood. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  6. Regular exercisers have stronger pelvic floor muscles than nonregular exercisers at midpregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Ellstrøm Engh, Marie; Hilde, Gunvor

    2018-04-01

    Today all healthy pregnant women are encouraged to be physically active throughout pregnancy, with recommendations to participate in at least 30 minutes of aerobic activity on most days of the week in addition to performing strength training of the major muscle groups 2-3 days per week and also pelvic floor muscle training. There is, however, an ongoing debate whether general physical activity enhances or declines pelvic floor muscle function. The objectives of the study were to compare vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength, and endurance in regular exercisers (exercise ≥30 minutes 3 or more times per week) and nonexercisers at midpregnancy. Furthermore, another objective was to assess whether regular general exercise or pelvic floor muscle strength was associated with urinary incontinence. This was a cross-sectional study at mean gestational week 20.9 (±1.4) including 218 nulliparous pregnant women, with a mean age of 28.6 years (range, 19-40 years) and prepregnancy body mass index of 23.9 kg/m 2 (SD, 4.0). Vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength, and pelvic floor muscle endurance were measured by a high-precision pressure transducer connected to a vaginal balloon. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence Short Form was used to assess urinary incontinence. Differences between groups were analyzed using an independent-sample Student t test. Linear regression analysis was conducted to adjust for prepregnancy body mass index, age, smoking during pregnancy, and regular pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. The significance value was set to P ≤ .05. Regular exercisers had statistically significant stronger (mean 6.4 cm H 2 O [95% confidence interval, 1.7-11.2]) and more enduring (mean 39.9 cm H 2 Osec [95% confidence interval, 42.2-75.7]) pelvic floor muscles. Only pelvic floor muscle strength remained statistically significant, when adjusting for possible confounders. Pelvic floor

  7. A Stronger Reason for the Right to Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Is the right to sign language only the right to a minority language? Holding a capability (not a disability) approach, and building on the psycholinguistic literature on sign language acquisition, I make the point that this right is of a stronger nature, since only sign languages can guarantee that each deaf child will properly develop the…

  8. Female Psychology in August Strindberg’s The Stronger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sutandio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to offer interpretations of August Strindberg’s The Stronger through the lens of female psychology. The Stronger is unique as it seemed very simple yet so intense and powerful with layers of interpretations. Written during 1888-1889, The Stronger, which only had two characters and only one speaking character, had become one of Strindberg’s shortest yet important plays during his career. The female psychology approach used in the analysis would cover the discussion of gender role, women’s self-esteem, competition for males, women’s friendships, ego style, and female psychology. It was an interdisciplinary research that combined structuralist, historical, biographical, and feminist approach to gain a better interpretation on the play. By referring to three different sources on the concept of female psychology, the analysis offered different and interesting interpretations on the nature and dynamics of the two female characters’ relationship. The Stronger has shown an enigmatic attraction in Strindberg’s authorship in which the readers could see the co-existence, collision, conflict, and merge of different paradigms concerning sex, gender, and sexuality.

  9. Women's political participation leads to stronger local economies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Edgard Rodriguez - IDRC. Women attend a self-help group meeting near Hyderabad, India. Keenara Khanderia. Under changes to India's constitution, Indian women are gaining a stronger political voice. Legal reforms are encouraging women to contribute to economic growth and investments in community growth.

  10. Significant association of periodontal disease with anti-citrullinated peptide antibody in a Japanese healthy population - The Nagahama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Chikashi; Asai, Keita; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamazaki, Toru; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Takahashi, Katsu; Takei, Noriko; Ishii, Takanori; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Meiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Fujii, Takao; Yamada, Ryo; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2015-05-01

    Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) is a highly specific autoantibody to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies have revealed that periodontal disease (PD) is closely associated with RA and production of ACPA in RA. Analyses of associations between PD and ACPA production in a healthy population may deepen our understandings. Here, we analyzed a total of 9554 adult healthy subjects. ACPA and IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) was quantified and PD status was evaluated using the number of missing teeth (MT), the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Loss of Attachment (LA) for these subjects. PD status was analyzed for its association with the positivity and categorical levels of ACPA and RF conditioned for covariates which were shown to be associated with PD, ACPA or RF. As a result, all of MT, CPI and LA showed suggestive or significant associations with positivity (p = 0.024, 0.0042 and 0.037, respectively) and levels of ACPA (p ≤ 0.00031), but none of the PD parameters were associated with those of RF. These association patterns were also observed when we analyzed 6206 non-smokers of the participants. The significant associations between PD parameters and positivity and levels of ACPA in healthy population support the fundamental involvement of PD with ACPA production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Sassoon, Stephanie A.; Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II ≥ 14 vs. minimal, BDI-II < 14) was associated with poorer cognitive or psychosocial function in alcoholism-HIV co...

  12. A putatively functional polymorphism in the HTR2C gene is associated with depressive symptoms in white females reporting significant life stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly H Brummett

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress is well known to be positively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms. Cortisol response to stress may be one of a number of biological mechanisms that links psychological stress to depressive symptoms, although the precise causal pathway remains unclear. Activity of the x-linked serotonin 5-HTR2C receptor has also been shown to be associated with depression and with clinical response to antidepressant medications. We recently demonstrated that variation in a single nucleotide polymorphism on the HTR2C gene, rs6318 (Ser23Cys, is associated with different cortisol release and short-term changes in affect in response to a series of stress tasks in the laboratory. Based on this observation, we decided to examine whether rs6318 might moderate the association between psychosocial stress and subsequent depressive symptoms. In the present study we use cross-sectional data from a large population-based sample of young adult White men (N = 2,366 and White women (N = 2,712 in the United States to test this moderation hypothesis. Specifically, we hypothesized that the association between self-reported stressful life events and depressive symptoms would be stronger among homozygous Ser23 C females and hemizygous Ser23 C males than among Cys23 G carriers. In separate within-sex analyses a genotype-by-life stress interaction was observed for women (p = .022 but not for men (p = .471. Homozygous Ser23 C women who reported high levels of life stress had depressive symptom scores that were about 0.3 standard deviations higher than female Cys23 G carriers with similarly high stress levels. In contrast, no appreciable difference in depressive symptoms was observed between genotypes at lower levels of stress. Our findings support prior work that suggests a functional SNP on the HTR2C gene may confer an increased risk for depressive symptoms in White women with a history of significant life stress.

  13. [Clinical significance of drug resistance-associated mutations in treatment of hepatitis C with direct-acting antiviral agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Chen, Z W; Ren, H; Hu, P

    2017-03-20

    Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) achieve a high sustained virologic response rate in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. However, drug resistance-associated mutations play an important role in treatment failure and have attracted more and more attention. This article elaborates on the clinical significance of drug resistance-associated mutations from the aspects of their definition, association with genotype, known drug resistance-associated mutations and their prevalence rates, the impact of drug resistance-associated mutations on treatment naive and treatment-experienced patients, and the role of clinical detection, in order to provide a reference for clinical regimens with DAAs and help to achieve higher sustained virologic response rates.

  14. The significance of platelet-associated immunoglobulin G in non-thrombocytopenic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P G; Mickley, H; Fristed, P

    1985-01-01

    The possible pathogenetic significance of platelet-associated immunoglobulin G in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been studied, using a semiquantitative immunofluorescence technique. The study included 22 patients suffering from SLE during the period 1973-81. Thirteen patients had various ...

  15. Clinical significance of MCM-2 and MCM-5 expression in colon cancer: association with clinicopathological parameters and tumor proliferative capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Georgiadou, Maria; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Tsourouflis, Gerasimos; Gatzidou, Elisavet; Kouraklis, Gregorios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2009-02-01

    Minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins are essential components of DNA replication, being related to cell proliferation, and serve as useful markers for cancer screening, surveillance, and prognosis. Our aim was to examine the clinical significance of MCM-2 and MCM-5 protein expression in colon cancer and to evaluate the association with various clinicopathological characteristics and tumor proliferative capacity. Immunohistochemical expression of MCM-2 and MCM-5 was performed on paraffin-embedded malignant tissue sections obtained from 96 patients with colon cancer. MCM-2 and MCM-5 expression was correlated with different clinicopathological characteristics, proliferative capacity (Ki-67 labeling index), and p53 cell-cycle regulator expression. MCM-2 and Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with the tumors' histological grade (P = 0.003), existence of nodular metastases (N) (P = 0.003 and P = 0.030, respectively), malignancy on adenoma (P = 0.029 and P = 0.024, respectively), and vascular invasion (P = 0.010 and P = 0.011, respectively). MCM-2 expression was additionally associated with Dukes' stage (P = 0.005). Significant positive relationships were found between the expression of MCM-2 or MCM-5 proteins and that of Ki-67 protein (r = 0.963, P-value characteristics examined. The current data suggest that MCM-2 protein expression is significantly associated with important clinicopathological characteristics for patients' management, being correlated with the cell proliferation state in colon cancer.

  16. Significant association of RNF213 p.R4810K, a moyamoya susceptibility variant, with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Takaaki; Mineharu, Yohei; Ono, Koh; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Ichihara, Sahoko; Kabata, Risako; Takagi, Yasushi; Cao, Yang; Zhao, Lanying; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Harada, Kouji H; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Funaki, Takeshi; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Yamamoto, Ken; Izawa, Hideo; Kimura, Takeshi; Miyamoto, Susumu; Koizumi, Akio

    2017-01-01

    The genetic architecture of coronary artery disease has not been fully elucidated, especially in Asian countries. Moyamoya disease is a progressive cerebrovascular disease that is reported to be complicated by coronary artery disease. Because most Japanese patients with moyamoya disease carry the p.R4810K variant of the ring finger 213 gene (RNF213), this may also be a risk factor for coronary artery disease; however, this possibility has never been tested. We genotyped the RNF213 p.R4810K variant in 956 coronary artery disease patients and 716 controls and tested the association between p.R4810K and coronary artery disease. We also validated the association in an independent population of 311 coronary artery disease patients and 494 controls. In the replication study, the p.R4810K genotypes were imputed from genome-wide genotyping data based on the 1000 Genomes Project. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to adjust for well-known risk factors such as dyslipidemia and smoking habits. In the primary study population, the frequency of the minor variant allele was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease than in controls (2.04% vs. 0.98%), with an odds ratio of 2.11 (p = 0.017). Under a dominant model, after adjustment for risk factors, the association remained significant, with an odds ratio of 2.90 (95% confidence interval: 1.37-6.61; p = 0.005). In the replication study, the association was significant after adjustment for age and sex (odds ratio = 4.99; 95% confidence interval: 1.16-21.53; p = 0.031), although it did not reach statistical significance when further adjusted for risk factors (odds ratio = 3.82; 95% confidence interval: 0.87-16.77; p = 0.076). The RNF213 p.R4810K variant appears to be significantly associated with coronary artery disease in the Japanese population.

  17. Communicating Hydrocephalus Associated with Small- to Medium-Sized Vestibular Schwannomas: Clinical Significance of the Tumor Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masaaki; Nakai, Tomoaki; Kohta, Masaaki; Kimura, Hidehito; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-10-01

    The etiology of hydrocephalus associated with the small- to medium-sized vestibular schwannomas is still controversial. We investigated tumor-specific factors related to the association of hydrocephalus with small- to medium-sized vestibular schwannomas. Among the 77 patients with vestibular schwannoma smaller than 30 mm, 9 patients demonstrated associated communicating hydrocephalus. Patient medical records, radiologic data, and histopathologic specimens were reviewed retrospectively. The age of the patients, and size, mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, and histologic features of the tumors were compared with those of patients without hydrocephalus. The symptoms related to hydrocephalus improved in all patients after tumor removal. Both the mean size and ADC values exhibited a statistically significant difference between the tumors with and without hydrocephalus (P hydrocephalus. The increased tumor ADC value was considered to be the result of degenerative change and suggested the involvement of protein sloughing in the etiology of the associated hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in patients with coronary heart diseases and clinic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lingyan; Cai Gaojun; Zhang Wenwei; Wang Wenzhi; Sun Wenwei; Yan Weiqun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and occurance, development of cardiovascular diseases, and lipids. Methods: 75 patients with coronary disease were divided into acute myocardial infarction (n=32), unstable angina pectoris (n=22) and stable angina pectoris (n=21) groups, and 60 subjects without coronary diseases were used as controls. The serum PAPP-A, IL-6, IL-10, lipids were measured in all patients and controls by different methods of enzymatically amplified two-step sandwith- type immunoassay, double antibody radio-immunoassay, ABC-HRP, auto biochemistic analytist. Results: (1) The level of PAPP-A in acute coronary syndrome (ACS, including acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris) patients was significantly higher than that in stable angina pectoris patients and controls (P<0.05). (2) There were significantly associations between PAPP-A and serum totle cholesterol, ApoA1/ApoB (r=0.348, 0.420, P<0.05). (3) The levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in coronary heart disease patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05), and the variations among acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, stable angina pectoris patients were significantly (P<0.05). There were significantly associations between PAPP-A, IL-6 and IL-10 (Spearman r 0.446, 0.523, P<0.05). Conclusion: PAPP-A is significantly associated with occurance and development of coronary heart disease, probablely as a marker of unstable plaque in coronary heart disease. (authors)

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies TF as a significant modifier gene of iron metabolism in HFE hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tayrac, Marie; Roth, Marie-Paule; Jouanolle, Anne-Marie; Coppin, Hélène; le Gac, Gérald; Piperno, Alberto; Férec, Claude; Pelucchi, Sara; Scotet, Virginie; Bardou-Jacquet, Edouard; Ropert, Martine; Bouvet, Régis; Génin, Emmanuelle; Mosser, Jean; Deugnier, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is the most common form of genetic iron loading disease. It is mainly related to the homozygous C282Y/C282Y mutation in the HFE gene that is, however, a necessary but not a sufficient condition to develop clinical and even biochemical HH. This suggests that modifier genes are likely involved in the expressivity of the disease. Our aim was to identify such modifier genes. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using DNA collected from 474 unrelated C282Y homozygotes. Associations were examined for both quantitative iron burden indices and clinical outcomes with 534,213 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotypes, with replication analyses in an independent sample of 748 C282Y homozygotes from four different European centres. One SNP met genome-wide statistical significance for association with transferrin concentration (rs3811647, GWAS p value of 7×10(-9) and replication p value of 5×10(-13)). This SNP, located within intron 11 of the TF gene, had a pleiotropic effect on serum iron (GWAS p value of 4.9×10(-6) and replication p value of 3.2×10(-6)). Both serum transferrin and iron levels were associated with serum ferritin levels, amount of iron removed and global clinical stage (pHFE-associated HH (HFE-HH) patients, identified the rs3811647 polymorphism in the TF gene as the only SNP significantly associated with iron metabolism through serum transferrin and iron levels. Because these two outcomes were clearly associated with the biochemical and clinical expression of the disease, an indirect link between the rs3811647 polymorphism and the phenotypic presentation of HFE-HH is likely. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The antibiotic resistome of swine manure is significantly altered by association with the Musca domestica larvae gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Sangwan, Naseer; Li, Hong-Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; Oyang, Wei-Yin; Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Gilbert, Jack A; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ping, Fan; Zhang, Han-Luo

    2017-01-01

    The overuse of antibiotics as veterinary feed additives is potentially contributing to a significant reservoir of antibiotic resistance in agricultural farmlands via the application of antibiotic-contaminated manure. Vermicomposting of swine manure using housefly larvae is a promising biotechnology for waste reduction and control of antibiotic pollution. To determine how vermicomposting influences antibiotic resistance traits in swine manure, we explored the resistome and associated bacterial community dynamics during larvae gut transit over 6 days of treatment. In total, 94 out of 158 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were significantly attenuated (by 85%), while 23 were significantly enriched (3.9-fold) following vermicomposting. The manure-borne bacterial community showed a decrease in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, and an increase in Proteobacteria, specifically Ignatzschineria, following gut transit. ARG attenuation was significantly correlated with changes in microbial community succession, especially reduction in Clostridiales and Bacteroidales. Six genomes were assembled from the manure, vermicompost (final product) and gut samples, including Pseudomonas, Providencia, Enterococcus, Bacteroides and Alcanivorax. Transposon-linked ARGs were more abundant in gut-associated bacteria compared with those from manure and vermicompost. Further, ARG-transposon gene cassettes had a high degree of synteny between metagenomic assemblies from gut and vermicompost samples, highlighting the significant contribution of gut microbiota through horizontal gene transfer to the resistome of vermicompost. In conclusion, the larvae gut microbiome significantly influences manure-borne community succession and the antibiotic resistome during animal manure processing.

  1. Significant association between renal function and amyloid-positive area in renal biopsy specimens in AL amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroda Takeshi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kidney is a major target organ for systemic amyloidosis that often affects the kidney including proteinura, and elevated serum creatinine (Cr. The correlation between amount of amyloid deposits and clinical parameters is not known. The aim of this study was to clarify correlation the amyloid area in all renal biopsy specimen and clinical parameters. Methods Fifty-eight patients with an established diagnosis of AL amyloidosis participated in the study. All patients showed amyloid deposits in renal biopsies. We retrospectively investigated the correlation between clinical data and amyloid occupied area in whole renal biopsy specimens. Results The area occupied by amyloid was less than 10% in 57 of the 58 patients, and was under 2% in 40. For statistical analyses, %amyloid-positive areas were transformed to common logarithmic values (Log10%amyloid. Cr showed significant correlation with Log10%amyloid and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR showed the significant negative correlation. Patient age, cleatinine clearance (Ccr, blood urea nitorogen, and urinary protein was not significantly correlated with Log10%amyloid. The correlation with other clinical factors such as sex, and serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins, compliments was evaluated. None of these factors significantly correlated with Log10%amyloid. According to sex- and age- adjusted multiple linear regression analysis, Log10%amyloid had significant positive association with Cr and significant negative association with eGFR. Conclusion There is significant association between amyloid-positive area in renal tissue and renal function, especially Cr and eGFR. The level of Cr and eGFR may be a marker of amount of amyloid in renal tissue.

  2. Clinically significant fatigue: prevalence and associated factors in an international sample of adults with multiple sclerosis recruited via the internet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey J Weiland

    Full Text Available Fatigue contributes a significant burden of disease for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS. Modifiable lifestyle factors have been recognized as having a role in a range of morbidity outcomes in PwMS. There is significant potential to prevent and treat fatigue in PwMS by addressing modifiable risk factors.To explore the associations between clinically significant fatigue and demographic factors, clinical factors (health-related quality of life, disability and relapse rate and modifiable lifestyle, disease-modifying drugs (DMD and supplement use in a large international sample of PwMS.PwMS were recruited to the study via Web 2.0 platforms and completed a comprehensive survey measuring demographic, lifestyle and clinical characteristics, including health-related quality of life, disability, and relapse rate.Of 2469 participants with confirmed MS, 2138 (86.6% completed a validated measure of clinically significant fatigue, the Fatigue Severity Scale. Participants were predominantly female from English speaking countries, with relatively high levels of education, and due to recruitment methods may have been highly pro-active about engaging in lifestyle management and self-help. Approximately two thirds of our sample (1402/2138; 65.6% (95% CI 63.7-67.7 screened positive for clinically significant fatigue. Bivariate associations were present between clinically significant fatigue and several demographic, clinical, lifestyle, and medication variables. After controlling for level of disability and a range of stable socio-demographic variables, we found increased odds of fatigue associated with obesity, DMD use, poor diet, and reduced odds of fatigue with exercise, fish consumption, moderate alcohol use, and supplementation with vitamin D and flaxseed oil.This study supports strong and significant associations between clinically significant fatigue and modifiable lifestyle factors. Longitudinal follow-up of this sample may help clarify the contribution

  3. Insertion/Deletion Within the KDM6A Gene Is Significantly Associated With Litter Size in Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A previous whole-genome association analysis identified lysine demethylase 6A (KDM6A, which encodes a type of histone demethylase, as a candidate gene associated to goat fecundity. KDM6A gene knockout mouse disrupts gametophyte development, suggesting that it has a critical role in reproduction. In this study, goat KDM6A mRNA expression profiles were determined, insertion/deletion (indel variants in the gene identified, indel variants effect on KDM6A gene expression assessed, and their association with first-born litter size analyzed in 2326 healthy female Shaanbei white cashmere goats. KDM6A mRNA was expressed in all tissues tested (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscle, brain, skin and testis; the expression levels in testes at different developmental stages [1-week-old (wk, 2, 3 wk, 1-month-old (mo, 1.5 and 2 mo] indicated a potential association with the mitosis-to-meiosis transition, implying that KDM6A may have an essential role in goat fertility. Meanwhile, two novel intronic indels of 16 bp and 5 bp were identified. Statistical analysis revealed that only the 16 bp indel was associated with first-born litter size (P < 0.01, and the average first-born litter size of individuals with an insertion/insertion genotype higher than that of those with the deletion/deletion genotype (P < 0.05. There was also a significant difference in genotype distributions of the 16 bp indel between mothers of single-lamb and multi-lamb litters in the studied goat population (P = 0.001. Consistently, the 16 bp indel also had a significant effect on KDM6A gene expression. Additionally, there was no significant linkage disequilibrium (LD between these two indel loci, consistent with the association analysis results. Together, these findings suggest that the 16 bp indel in KDM6A may be useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS of goats.

  4. Associations Between PET Textural Features and GLUT1 Expression, and the Prognostic Significance of Textural Features in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Young Wha; Park, Seong Yong; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Lee, Su Jin

    2018-02-01

    We evaluated the association between positron emission tomography (PET) textural features and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression level and further investigated the prognostic significance of textural features in lung adenocarcinoma. We evaluated 105 adenocarcinoma patients. We extracted texture-based PET parameters of primary tumors. Conventional PET parameters were also measured. The relationships between PET parameters and GLUT1 expression levels were evaluated. The association between PET parameters and overall survival (OS) was assessed using Cox's proportional hazard regression models. In terms of PET textural features, tumors expressing high levels of GLUT1 exhibited significantly lower coarseness, contrast, complexity, and strength, but significantly higher busyness. On univariate analysis, the metabolic tumor volume, total lesion glycolysis, contrast, busyness, complexity, and strength were significant predictors of OS. Multivariate analysis showed that lower complexity (HR=2.017, 95%CI=1.032-3.942, p=0.040) was independently associated with poorer survival. PET textural features may aid risk stratification in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1C in impaired glucose tolerant Pakistani subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasat, Tasnim; Sharif, Saima; Naz, Shagufta; Fazal, Sabiha

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the serum concentration of creatinine and determine its relationship with potential risk factors of diabetes in Impaired Glucose tolerance subjects. This cross sectional study was conducted on 100 IGT patients who attended Amin Hayat diabetic center in Lahore from January 2011- June 2011. Patients with age group 34-67 years, (both sexes) were included in the study. Different demographic parameters as age, BMI, WHR, B.P, personal history and socioeconomic status were recorded. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed. The biochemical parameters including HbA1c, lipid profile, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin level were measured by chemistry analyzer. A strong correlation between creatinine and HbA1c was observed. The level of creatinine was also significantly associated with age in IGT subjects. Creatinine is non-significantly correlated with Cholesterol, LDL-Chol and TG while negatively significantly associated with BMI, fasting blood glucose and HDL-Chol. The present study concluded significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1c, BMI and HDL cholesterol.

  6. Predatory blue crabs induce stronger nonconsumptive effects in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica than scavenging blue crabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery E. Scherer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available By influencing critical prey traits such as foraging or habitat selection, predators can affect entire ecosystems, but the nature of cues that trigger prey reactions to predators are not well understood. Predators may scavenge to supplement their energetic needs and scavenging frequency may vary among individuals within a species due to preferences and prey availability. Yet prey reactions to consumers that are primarily scavengers versus those that are active foragers have not been investigated, even though variation in prey reactions to scavengers or predators might influence cascading nonconsumptive effects in food webs. Oysters Crassostrea virginica react to crab predators by growing stronger shells. We exposed oysters to exudates from crabs fed live oysters or fed aged oyster tissue to simulate scavenging, and to controls without crab cues. Oysters grew stronger shells when exposed to either crab exudate, but their shells were significantly stronger when crabs were fed live oysters. The stronger response to predators than scavengers could be due to inherent differences in diet cues representative of reduced risk in the presence of scavengers or to degradation of conspecific alarm cues in aged treatments, which may mask risk from potential predators subsisting by scavenging.

  7. Stronger misdirection in curved than in straight motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge eOtero-Millan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Illusions developed by magicians are a rich and largely untapped source of insight into perception and cognition. Here we show that curved motion, as employed by the magician in a classic sleight of hand trick, generates stronger misdirection than rectilinear motion, and that this difference can be explained by the differential engagement of the smooth pursuit and the saccadic oculomotor systems. This research moreover exemplifies how the magician’s intuitive understanding of the spectator’s mindset can surpass that of the cognitive scientist in specific instances, and that observation-based behavioral insights developed by magicians are worthy of quantitative investigation in the neuroscience laboratory.

  8. The right of the stronger: The play Sisyphus and critias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordović Ivan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Focus of this study is the standpoint of the play Sisyphus and critias the leader of the thirty towards the right of the stronger. this is a question of constant interest in scientific circles, since its answer can serve as the indicator of the influence this famous theory has had. this interest has been encouraged by the fact that critias’ authorship of the play is questionable. however, the question of the author is not of primary importance for this article, because there are some arguments, among some well known ones, which were not considered and which Show that in this satire, regardless of the author and the purpose of this fragment, the right of the stronger is actually non-existant. the first argument to support this theory is that nomosphysis antithesis is nowhere explicitly mentioned although it is the crucial element of the right of the stronger. in addition there is no claim in the play that the exploitation of the strong by the week or by law accrued. the second argument is that despite the incapability of laws to prevent the secret injustice, they and their importance for the human society are depicted in a positive light. it should also be noted that, unlike callicles and glaucon, laws are created to stop the bad and not the good. the third argument is that the invention of religion is accepted as a positive achievement, which finally enables the overcoming of primeval times and lawlessness. the reflection of this argument is a positive characterization of the individual who invented the fear of gods. the fourth argument, which has not been taken into consideration so far is the way the supporters and opponents of lawlessness are described and marked as κακοί and έσξλοί in the satire only physically strong are considered as strong as opposed to callicles, where they are also spiritually superior. intelectually superior in Sisyphus is the inventor of the fear of gods who is also in favor of law and order. the fact

  9. Exercise training raises daily activity stronger than predicted from exercise capacity in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Michaela; Wewel, Alexandra R; Kirsten, Detlef; Jörres, Rudolf A; Magnussen, Helgo

    2005-06-01

    The 6-min walking (6MWD) and 6-min treadmill distance (6MTD) are often used as measures of exercise performance in patients with COPD. The aim of our study was to assess their relationship to daily activity in the course of an exercise training program. Eighty-eight patients with stable COPD (71m/17f; mean +/- SD age, 60 +/-8 year; FEV1, 43+/-14% pred) were recruited, 66 of whom performed a hospital-based 10-day walking training, whereas 22 were treated as control. On day 16MTD, and on days 8 and 10, 6MTD and 6MWD were determined. In addition, patients used an accelerometer (TriTrac-R3D) to record 24 h-activity, whereby training sessions were excluded. In both groups there was a linear relationship (r > or = 0.84 and P daily activity did not markedly vary with exercise capacity under baseline conditions. Participation in a training program increased activity significantly stronger than predicted from the gain in exercise capacity. This underlines the importance of non-physiological, patient-centered factors associated with training in COPD.

  10. Polymorphisms in the Tlr4 and Tlr5 Gene Are Significantly Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in German Shepherd Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrani, Aarti; House, Arthur; Catchpole, Brian; Murphy, Angela; German, Alex; Werling, Dirk; Allenspach, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is considered to be the most common cause of vomiting and diarrhoea in dogs, and the German shepherd dog (GSD) is particularly susceptible. The exact aetiology of IBD is unknown, however associations have been identified between specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and human IBD. However, to date, no genetic studies have been undertaken in canine IBD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in canine TLR 2, 4 and 5 genes are associated with IBD in GSDs. Mutational analysis of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR5 was performed in 10 unrelated GSDs with IBD. Four non-synonymous SNPs (T23C, G1039A, A1571T and G1807A) were identified in the TLR4 gene, and three non-synonymous SNPs (G22A, C100T and T1844C) were identified in the TLR5 gene. The non-synonymous SNPs identified in TLR4 and TLR5 were evaluated further in a case-control study using a SNaPSHOT multiplex reaction. Sequencing information from 55 unrelated GSDs with IBD were compared to a control group consisting of 61 unrelated GSDs. The G22A SNP in TLR5 was significantly associated with IBD in GSDs, whereas the remaining two SNPs were found to be significantly protective for IBD. Furthermore, the two SNPs in TLR4 (A1571T and G1807A) were in complete linkage disequilibrium, and were also significantly associated with IBD. The TLR5 risk haplotype (ACC) without the two associated TLR4 SNP alleles was significantly associated with IBD, however the presence of the two TLR4 SNP risk alleles without the TLR5 risk haplotype was not statistically associated with IBD. Our study suggests that the three TLR5 SNPs and two TLR4 SNPs; A1571T and G1807A could play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD in GSDs. Further studies are required to confirm the functional importance of these polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:21203467

  11. Polymorphisms in the TLR4 and TLR5 gene are significantly associated with inflammatory bowel disease in German shepherd dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrani, Aarti; House, Arthur; Catchpole, Brian; Murphy, Angela; German, Alex; Werling, Dirk; Allenspach, Karin

    2010-12-23

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is considered to be the most common cause of vomiting and diarrhoea in dogs, and the German shepherd dog (GSD) is particularly susceptible. The exact aetiology of IBD is unknown, however associations have been identified between specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and human IBD. However, to date, no genetic studies have been undertaken in canine IBD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in canine TLR 2, 4 and 5 genes are associated with IBD in GSDs. Mutational analysis of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR5 was performed in 10 unrelated GSDs with IBD. Four non-synonymous SNPs (T23C, G1039A, A1571T and G1807A) were identified in the TLR4 gene, and three non-synonymous SNPs (G22A, C100T and T1844C) were identified in the TLR5 gene. The non-synonymous SNPs identified in TLR4 and TLR5 were evaluated further in a case-control study using a SNaPSHOT multiplex reaction. Sequencing information from 55 unrelated GSDs with IBD were compared to a control group consisting of 61 unrelated GSDs. The G22A SNP in TLR5 was significantly associated with IBD in GSDs, whereas the remaining two SNPs were found to be significantly protective for IBD. Furthermore, the two SNPs in TLR4 (A1571T and G1807A) were in complete linkage disequilibrium, and were also significantly associated with IBD. The TLR5 risk haplotype (ACC) without the two associated TLR4 SNP alleles was significantly associated with IBD, however the presence of the two TLR4 SNP risk alleles without the TLR5 risk haplotype was not statistically associated with IBD. Our study suggests that the three TLR5 SNPs and two TLR4 SNPs; A1571T and G1807A could play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD in GSDs. Further studies are required to confirm the functional importance of these polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of this disease.

  12. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Lilly M; Incani, Renzo N; Franco, Carolina R; Ugarte, Alejandra; Cadenas, Yeneska; Sierra Ruiz, Carmen I; Hermans, Peter W M; Hoek, Denise; Campos Ponce, Maiza; de Waard, Jacobus H; Pinelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 390 children aged 4-16 years from three rural areas of Venezuela: the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. Stool samples were collected for direct parasitic examinations. Anthropometric indicators of chronic (height-for-age Z score) and acute (weight-for-height and Body Mass Index (BMI)-for-age Z score in respectively children under 5 years of age and children aged 5 years and above) malnutrition were calculated. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were built to determine factors associated with nutritional status and polyparasitism. Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalences were highest in children from the Amazon rainforest (respectively 72% and 18%) while children from the Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State showed higher rates of Ascaris lumbricoides (respectively 28% and 37%) and Trichuris trichiura (40% in both regions). The prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection was not significantly different between regions (average: 18%). Anemia prevalence was highest in the Amazon Region (24%). Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in children with a hookworm infection. Malnutrition was present in respectively 84%, 30% and 13% of children from the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. In multivariate analysis including all regions, G. lamblia and helminth infections were significantly and negatively associated with respectively height-for-age and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age Z scores. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were positively associated with the height-for-age Z score (0.11, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.20). In rural populations in Venezuela helminthiasis and giardiasis were associated with acute and chronic

  13. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilly M Verhagen

    Full Text Available Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children.This cross-sectional study was conducted in 390 children aged 4-16 years from three rural areas of Venezuela: the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. Stool samples were collected for direct parasitic examinations. Anthropometric indicators of chronic (height-for-age Z score and acute (weight-for-height and Body Mass Index (BMI-for-age Z score in respectively children under 5 years of age and children aged 5 years and above malnutrition were calculated. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were built to determine factors associated with nutritional status and polyparasitism.Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalences were highest in children from the Amazon rainforest (respectively 72% and 18% while children from the Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State showed higher rates of Ascaris lumbricoides (respectively 28% and 37% and Trichuris trichiura (40% in both regions. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection was not significantly different between regions (average: 18%. Anemia prevalence was highest in the Amazon Region (24%. Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in children with a hookworm infection. Malnutrition was present in respectively 84%, 30% and 13% of children from the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. In multivariate analysis including all regions, G. lamblia and helminth infections were significantly and negatively associated with respectively height-for-age and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age Z scores. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were positively associated with the height-for-age Z score (0.11, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.20.In rural populations in Venezuela helminthiasis and giardiasis were associated with acute and

  14. Painful Intercourse Is Significantly Associated with Evoked Pain Perception and Cognitive Aspects of Pain in Women with Pelvic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryl J. Alappattu, DPT, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Differences in local pain ratings suggest that women with pelvic pain perceive stimuli in this region as more painful than pain-free women although the magnitude of stimuli does not differ. Alappattu MJ, George SZ, Robinson ME, Fillingim RB, Moawad N, LeBrun EW, and Bishop MD. Painful intercourse is significantly associated with evoked pain perception and cognitive aspects of pain in women with pelvic pain. Sex Med 2015;3:14–23.

  15. The Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio at Diagnosis Is Significantly Associated with Survival in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Piciucchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Different inflammation-based scores such as the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR, the Odonera Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI, the Glasgow Prognostic Score, the platelet/lymphocyte ratio, and the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio have been found to be significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (PDAC prognosis. However, most studies have investigated patients undergoing surgery, and few of them have compared these scores. We aimed at evaluating the association between inflammatory-based scores and PDAC prognosis. In a single center cohort study, inflammatory-based scores were assessed at diagnosis and their prognostic relevance as well as that of clinic-pathological variables were evaluated through multiple logistic regression and survival probability analysis. In 206 patients, age, male sex, tumor size, presence of distant metastasis, access to chemotherapy, and an NLR > 5 but not other scores were associated with overall survival (OS at multivariate analysis. Patients with an NLR < 5 had a median survival of 12 months compared to 4 months in those with an NLR > 5. In the 81 patients with distant metastasis at diagnosis, an NLR > 5 resulted in the only variable significantly associated with survival. Among patients with metastatic disease who received chemotherapy, the median survival was 3 months in patients with an NLR > 5 and 7 months in those with an NLR < 5. The NLR might drive therapeutic options in PDAC patients, especially in the setting of metastatic disease.

  16. Socioeconomic status is significantly associated with dietary salt intakes and blood pressure in Japanese workers (J-HOPE Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

    2013-03-11

    The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266) who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of salt intake with the confounding factors. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with salt intake, as well as blood pressures (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, both years of education and household income significantly affect the salt intake (for education, β = -0.031, P = 0.040; for household income, β = -0.046, P = 0.003). SES factors also affect the risk of hypertension, those subjects with higher levels of education or income had lower risk to become hypertensive (ORs for education was 0.904, P < 0.001; ORs for income was 0.956, P = 0.032). Our results show that SES is an independent determinant of salt intake and blood pressure, in order to lower the risk of hypertension, the efforts to narrow the social status gaps should be considered by the health policy-makers.

  17. Insertion/Deletion Within the KDM6A Gene Is Significantly Associated With Litter Size in Goat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yang; Yan, Hailong; Wang, Ke; Xu, Han; Zhang, Xuelian; Zhu, Haijing; Liu, Jinwang; Qu, Lei; Lan, Xianyong; Pan, Chuanying

    2018-01-01

    A previous whole-genome association analysis identified lysine demethylase 6A (KDM6A), which encodes a type of histone demethylase, as a candidate gene associated to goat fecundity. KDM6A gene knockout mouse disrupts gametophyte development, suggesting that it has a critical role in reproduction. In this study, goat KDM6A mRNA expression profiles were determined, insertion/deletion (indel) variants in the gene identified, indel variants effect on KDM6A gene expression assessed, and their association with first-born litter size analyzed in 2326 healthy female Shaanbei white cashmere goats. KDM6A mRNA was expressed in all tissues tested (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscle, brain, skin and testis); the expression levels in testes at different developmental stages [1-week-old (wk), 2, 3 wk, 1-month-old (mo), 1.5 and 2 mo] indicated a potential association with the mitosis-to-meiosis transition, implying that KDM6A may have an essential role in goat fertility. Meanwhile, two novel intronic indels of 16 bp and 5 bp were identified. Statistical analysis revealed that only the 16 bp indel was associated with first-born litter size (P goat population (P = 0.001). Consistently, the 16 bp indel also had a significant effect on KDM6A gene expression. Additionally, there was no significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) between these two indel loci, consistent with the association analysis results. Together, these findings suggest that the 16 bp indel in KDM6A may be useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of goats. PMID:29616081

  18. Genome-wide significant associations in schizophrenia to ITIH3/4, CACNA1C and SDCCAG8, and extensive replication of associations reported by the Schizophrenia PGC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamshere, M L; Walters, J T R; Smith, R

    2013-01-01

    The Schizophrenia Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Study Consortium (PGC) highlighted 81 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with moderate evidence for association to schizophrenia. After follow-up in independent samples, seven loci attained genome-wide significance (GWS), but multi-locus t...... interval (CI) 78-100%) of the original set of 78 SNPs represent true associations. We also provide strong evidence for overlap in genetic risk between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 22 May 2012; doi:10.1038/mp.2012.67....

  19. Visceral adiposity index is associated with significant fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, S; Amato, M C; Di Marco, V; Cammà, C; Pizzolanti, G; Barcellona, M R; Cabibi, D; Galluzzo, A; Sinagra, D; Giordano, C; Craxì, A

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic factors have been associated with liver damage in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To test a new marker of adipose dysfunction, the visceral adiposity index (VAI), in NAFLD patients to assess whether or not it is associated with host factors, and to investigate a potential correlation with histological findings. One hundred and forty-two consecutive NAFLD patients were evaluated by liver biopsy, and clinical and metabolic measurements, including insulin resistance with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and VAI by using waist circumference, body mass index, triglycerides and HDL. Serum levels of TNFα, IL-6, adiponectin and leptin were also assessed. All biopsies were scored for NAFLD activity score (NAS) and its components, and for staging (Kleiner). By multiple linear regression analysis, VAI was independently associated with higher HOMA (P = 0.04), and fibrosis (P = 0.04). In addition, an independent association was found between higher VAI and lower adiponectin levels (P = 0.002). Higher HOMA (OR 1.149, 95% CI 1.003-1.316, P = 0.04), higher VAI (OR 1.446, 95% CI 1.023-2.043, P = 0.03), lobular inflammation (OR 3.777, 95% CI 1.771-8.051, P = 0.001), and ballooning (OR 2.884, 95% CI 1.231-6.757, P = 0.01) were correlated with significant fibrosis (F2-F4) on multiple logistic regression analysis. In particular, the prevalence of significant fibrosis progressively increased from patients with a VAI ≤ 2.1 and HOMA ≤ 3.4 (26%) to those with a VAI > 2.1 and HOMA > 3.4 (83%). In NAFLD patients, visceral adiposity index is an expression of both qualitative and quantitative adipose tissue dysfunction and, together with insulin resistance, is independently correlated with significant fibrosis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Highly significant association between two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in CORIN gene and preeclampsia in Caucasian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Stepanian

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a frequent medical complication during pregnancy. Corin, a serine protease which activates pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, has recently been shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to search for CORIN gene variations and their association to preeclampsia in Caucasian and African women. Our study population was composed of 571 pregnant women (295 with preeclampsia and 276 normotensive controls matched for maternal and gestational age, and ethnic origin. The 22 exons of the CORIN gene were sequenced in a discovery sample (n = 260, where 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. In a replication sample (n = 311, 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested. Two minor alleles (C for rs2271036 and G for rs2271037 were significantly associated to preeclampsia. Adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence interval] were 2.5 [1.2-3.8] (p = 0.007 and 2.3 [1.5-3.5] (p = 1.3 × 10(-4, respectively. These associations were ethnic-specific, as only found in the Caucasian of subjects (odds ratio = 3.5 [1.8-6.6], p = 1.1 × 10(-4; odds ratio = 3.1 [1.7-5.8], p = 2.1 × 10(-4, for each single nucleotide polymorphism, respectively. The two single nucleotide polymorphisms are in almost perfect linkage disequilibrium (r(2 = 0.93. No specific association was found with severe preeclampsia, early-onset preeclampsia nor fetal growth retardation. In conclusion, this is the first report of a highly significant association between these two single nucleotide polymorphisms in CORIN gene and preeclampsia. Our findings further support the probability of a critical role of corin in preeclamspia pathophysiology at the uteroplacental interface.

  1. Rib fractures and their association With solid organ injury: higher rib fractures have greater significance for solid organ injury screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostas, Jack W; Lively, Timothy B; Brevard, Sidney B; Simmons, Jon D; Frotan, Mohammad A; Gonzalez, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patients with rib injuries who were at risk for solid organ injury. A retrospective chart review was performed of all blunt trauma patients with rib fractures during the period from July 2007 to July 2012. Data were analyzed for association of rib fractures and solid organ injury. In all, 1,103 rib fracture patients were identified; 142 patients had liver injuries with 109 (77%) associated right rib fractures. Right-sided rib fractures with highest sensitivity for liver injury were middle rib segment (5 to 8) and lower segment (9 to 12) with liver injury sensitivities of 68% and 43%, respectively (P rib fractures. Left middle segment rib fractures and lower segment rib fractures had sensitivities of 80% and 63% for splenic injury, respectively (P Rib fractures higher in the thoracic cage have significant association with solid organ injury. Using rib fractures from middle plus lower segments as indication for abdominal screening will significantly improve rib fracture sensitivity for identification of solid organ injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-09-30

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II>14 vs. minimal, BDI-IIalcoholism-HIV comorbidity. Participants with significant depressive symptoms demonstrated slower manual motor speed and poorer visuospatial memory than those with minimal depressive symptoms. HIV patients with depressive symptoms showed impaired manual motor speed. Alcoholics with depressive symptoms showed impaired visuospatial memory. HIV+ alcoholics with depressive symptoms reported the poorest quality of life; alcoholics with depressive symptoms, irrespective of HIV status, had poorest life functioning. Thus, significant depressive symptoms were associated with poorer selective cognitive and life functioning in alcoholism and in HIV infection, even though depressive symptoms had neither synergistic nor additive effects on cognition in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. The results suggest the relevance of assessing and treating current depressive symptoms to reduce cognitive compromise and functional disability in HIV infection, alcoholism, and their comorbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Significance, Nature, and Direction of the Association Between Child Sexual Abuse and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    To elucidate the significance, nature, and direction of the potential relationship between child sexual abuse and conduct disorder, all the pertinent studies were reviewed. Ten databases were searched. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were performed by two independent researchers. Thirty-six studies including 185,358 participants and meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to ensure objectivity and to not invalidate results were analyzed. Across the majority of studies, conduct disorder was significantly and directly related to child sexual abuse, especially repeated sexual molestation and abuse involving penetration, even after controlling for various sociodemographic, family, and clinical variables. The association between child sexual abuse and conduct disorder was not confounded by other risk factors, such as gender, socioeconomic status, school achievement, substance problems, physical abuse, parental antisocial behavior or substance problems, parent-child relationships, and family disruption, conflict, or violence. Evidence for a significant interactive effect between child sexual abuse and monoamine oxidase A gene on conduct disorder was scant. Early sexual abuse might predispose to the subsequent onset of conduct disorder which, in turn, may lead to further sexual victimization through association with sexually abusive peers or involvement in dangerous situations or sexual survival strategies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Irrigation Is Significantly Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Produce Production Environments in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-06-01

    Environmental (i.e., meteorological and landscape) factors and management practices can affect the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes), Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in produce production environments and to identify environmental factors and management practices associated with their isolation. Ten produce farms in New York State were sampled during a 6-week period in 2010, and 124 georeferenced samples (80 terrestrial, 33 water, and 11 fecal) were collected. L. monocytogenes, Listeria spp., Salmonella, and STEC were detected in 16, 44, 4, and 5% of terrestrial samples, 30, 58, 12, and 3% of water samples, and 45, 45, 27, and 9% of fecal samples, respectively. Environmental factors and management practices were evaluated for their association with terrestrial samples positive for L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species by univariate logistic regression; analysis was not conducted for Salmonella or STEC because the number of samples positive for these pathogens was low. Although univariate analysis identified associations between isolation of L. monocytogenes or Listeria spp. from terrestrial samples and various water-related factors (e.g., proximity to wetlands and precipitation), multivariate analysis revealed that only irrigation within 3 days of sample collection was significantly associated with isolation of L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 39) and Listeria spp. (odds ratio = 5) from terrestrial samples. These findings suggest that intervention at the irrigation level may reduce the risk of produce contamination.

  5. Sensitive Troponin I Assay in Patients with Chest Pain - Association with Significant Coronary Lesions with or Without Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Bossa, Aline Siqueira; Zullino, Cindel Nogueira; Biselli, Bruno; Soeiro, Maria Carolina Feres de Almeida; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Serrano, Carlos Vicente; Oliveira Junior, Mucio Tavares de

    2018-01-01

    Despite having higher sensitivity as compared to conventional troponins, sensitive troponins have lower specificity, mainly in patients with renal failure. Study aimed at assessing the sensitive troponin I levels in patients with chest pain, and relating them to the existence of significant coronary lesions. Retrospective, single-center, observational. This study included 991 patients divided into two groups: with (N = 681) and without (N = 310) significant coronary lesion. For posterior analysis, the patients were divided into two other groups: with (N = 184) and without (N = 807) chronic renal failure. The commercial ADVIA Centaur® TnI-Ultra assay (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics) was used. The ROC curve analysis was performed to identify the sensitivity and specificity of the best cutoff point of troponin as a discriminator of the probability of significant coronary lesion. The associations were considered significant when p renal failure, the areas under the ROC curve were 0.703 (95% CI: 0.66 - 0.74) and 0.608 (95% CI: 0.52 - 0.70), respectively. The best cutoff points to discriminate the presence of significant coronary lesion were: in the general population, 0.605 ng/dL (sensitivity, 63.4%; specificity, 67%); in patients without renal failure, 0.605 ng/dL (sensitivity, 62.7%; specificity, 71%); and in patients with chronic renal failure, 0.515 ng/dL (sensitivity, 80.6%; specificity, 42%). In patients with chest pain, sensitive troponin I showed a good correlation with significant coronary lesions when its level was greater than 0.605 ng/dL. In patients with chronic renal failure, a significant decrease in specificity was observed in the correlation of troponin levels and severe coronary lesions.

  6. Stronger multilayer acrylic dielectric elastomer actuators with silicone gel coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gih-Keong; La, Thanh-Giang; Sheng-Wei Foong, Ervin; Shrestha, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Multilayer dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) perform worst off than single-layer DEAs due to higher susceptibility to electro-thermal breakdown. This paper presents a hot-spot model to predict the electro-thermal breakdown field of DEAs and its dependence on thermal insulation. To inhibit the electrothermal breakdown, silicone gel coating was applied as barrier coating to multilayer acrylic DEA. The gel coating helps suppress the electro-thermally induced puncturing of DEA membrane at the hot spot. As a result, the gel-coated DEAs, in either a single layer or a multilayer stack, can produce 30% more isometric stress change as compared to those none-coated. These gel-coated acrylic DEAs show great potential to make stronger artificial muscles.

  7. Dimensions of adult attachment are significantly associated with specific affective temperament constellations in a Hungarian university sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andras; Papp, Barbara; Gonda, Xenia; Dome, Peter; Rihmer, Zoltan

    2016-02-01

    Related to emotion regulation and mental health, adult attachment and affective temperaments are relevant research topics of contemporary psychiatry and clinical psychology. However, to date, only one study investigated the relationship between these two constructs. Thus, we aimed to further reveal adult attachment's association with affective temperaments. Affective temperament and adult attachment dimensions of 1469 Hungarian university students were assessed with self-report measures (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego autoquestionnaire and Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, respectively). Age and measured variables were compared between genders with ANOVAs. Associations between attachment dimensions and affective temperaments were examined with Pearson's correlations and partial correlations; the moderation effect of age and gender on these relationships was tested with PROCESS macro. Using Fisher r-to-z transformation, we also compared our results with the findings of the previous study. Cohen's ds were used to report effect size and Cronbach's alphas were computed as indices of internal reliability. Significant correlations were found between attachment dimensions and affective temperaments. Correlations were especially robust between attachment anxiety and depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperaments. Contrasted with the results of the previous study, hyperthymic temperament was negatively related to attachment avoidance and anxious temperament was significantly more strongly correlated with attachment anxiety in our study. We used a previous version of the adult attachment measure. Our sample differed from the target sample in several ways. Participants were not screened for mental disorders. Findings highlight that adult attachment dimensions are significantly associated with affective temperaments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Meta-Analysis Reveals Significant Association of the 3'-UTR VNTR in SLC6A3 with Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunlong; Fan, Rongli; Li, Ming D

    2016-07-01

    Although many studies have analyzed the association of 3'-untranslated region variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in SLC6A3 with alcohol dependence (AD), the results remain controversial. This study aimed to determine whether this variant indeed has any genetic effect on AD by integrating 17 reported studies with 5,929 participants included. The A9-dominant genetic model that considers A9-repeat and non-A9 repeat as 2 genotypes and compared their frequencies in alcoholics with that in controls was adopted. Considering the potential influence of ethnicity, differences in diagnostic criteria of AD, and alcoholic subgroups, stratified meta-analyses were conducted. There existed no evidence for the presence of heterogeneity among the studied samples, indicating the results under the fixed-effects model are acceptable. We found a significant association of VNTR A9 genotypes with AD in all ethnic populations (pooled odds ratio [OR] 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00, 1.25; p = 0.045) and the Caucasian population (pooled OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01, 1.31; p = 0.036). We also found VNTR A9 genotypes to be significantly associated with alcoholism as defined by the DSM-IV criteria (pooled OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.03, 1.36; p = 0.02). Further, we found a significant association between VNTR A9 genotypes and alcoholism associated with alcohol withdrawal seizure or delirium tremens (pooled OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.24, 1.92; p = 1.0 × 10(-4) ). In all these meta-analyses, no evidence of publication bias was detected. We concluded that the VNTR polymorphism has an important role in the etiology of AD, and individuals with at least 1 A9 allele are more likely to be dependent on alcohol than persons carrying the non-A9 allele. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. The expression and significance of P-glycoprotein, lung resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein in gastric cancer

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    Li Yan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To detect the expression of multidrug resistance molecules P-glycoprotein (P-gp, Lung resistnce protein (LRP and Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP and analyze the relationship between them and the clinico-pathological features. Methods The expressions of P-gp, LRP and MRP in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 59 gastric cancer patients were determined by a labbelled Streptavidin-Peroxidase (SP immunohistochemical technique, and the results were analyzed in correlation with clinicopathological data. None of these patients received chemotherapy prior to surgery. Results The positive rates of P-gp, LRP, MRP were 86.4%, 84.7% and 27.1%, respectively. The difference between the positive rate of P-gp and MRP was significant statistically, as well as the difference between the expression of MRP and LRP. No significant difference was observed between P-gp and LRP, but the positively correlation between the expression of P-gp and LRP had been found. No significant correlation between the expression of P-gp, LRP, MRP and the grade of differentiation were observed. The expression of P-gp was correlated with clinical stages positively (r = 0.742, but the difference with the expression of P-gp in different stages was not significant. Conclusion The expressions of P-gp, LRP and MRP in patients with gastric cancer without prior chemotherapy are high, indicating that innate drug resistance may exist in gastric cancer.

  10. Expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 and its clinical significance in kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Tong; Yang, Guosheng; Qiu, Xiaofu; Luo, Youhua; Liu, Baichuan; Wang, Bingwei

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the expression and clinical significance of TRAP1 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1) in kidney cancer. TRAP1 expression was detected in kidney cancer and normal kidney tissues by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. Then, the correlation of TRAP1 expression with clinicopathological characters and patients' prognosis was evaluated in kidney cancer. IHC results revealed that the high-expression rates of TRAP1 in kidney cancer tissues and normal kidney tissues were 51.3% (41/80), 23.3% (7/30), and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.01). Also, TRAP1 mRNA level in kidney cancer was found to be significantly greater compared with those in normal kidney by qRT-PCR. In addition, TRAP1 expression in kidney cancer significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and clinical stage (Pkidney cancer and correlates with patients prognosis, which may be served as a potential marker for the diagnosis and treatment of kidney cancer.

  11. A genome scan revealed significant associations of growth traits with a major QTL and GHR2 in tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Sun, Fei; Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Jian; Fu, Gui Hong; Lin, Grace; Tu, Rong Jian; Wan, Zi Yi; Quek, Delia; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-01-01

    Growth is an important trait in animal breeding. However, the genetic effects underpinning fish growth variability are still poorly understood. QTL mapping and analysis of candidate genes are effective methods to address this issue. We conducted a genome-wide QTL analysis for growth in tilapia. A total of 10, 7 and 8 significant QTLs were identified for body weight, total length and standard length at 140 dph, respectively. The majority of these QTLs were sex-specific. One major QTL for growth traits was identified in the sex-determining locus in LG1, explaining 71.7%, 67.2% and 64.9% of the phenotypic variation (PV) of body weight, total length and standard length, respectively. In addition, a candidate gene GHR2 in a QTL was significantly associated with body weight, explaining 13.1% of PV. Real-time qPCR revealed that different genotypes at the GHR2 locus influenced the IGF-1 expression level. The markers located in the major QTL for growth traits could be used in marker-assisted selection of tilapia. The associations between GHR2 variants and growth traits suggest that the GHR2 gene should be an important gene that explains the difference in growth among tilapia species. PMID:25435025

  12. Genome-wide association study of CSF levels of 59 alzheimer's disease candidate proteins: significant associations with proteins involved in amyloid processing and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauwe, John S K; Bailey, Matthew H; Ridge, Perry G; Perry, Rachel; Wadsworth, Mark E; Hoyt, Kaitlyn L; Staley, Lyndsay A; Karch, Celeste M; Harari, Oscar; Cruchaga, Carlos; Ainscough, Benjamin J; Bales, Kelly; Pickering, Eve H; Bertelsen, Sarah; Fagan, Anne M; Holtzman, David M; Morris, John C; Goate, Alison M

    2014-10-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 42 amino acid species of amyloid beta (Aβ42) and tau levels are strongly correlated with the presence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology including amyloid plaques and neurodegeneration and have been successfully used as endophenotypes for genetic studies of AD. Additional CSF analytes may also serve as useful endophenotypes that capture other aspects of AD pathophysiology. Here we have conducted a genome-wide association study of CSF levels of 59 AD-related analytes. All analytes were measured using the Rules Based Medicine Human DiscoveryMAP Panel, which includes analytes relevant to several disease-related processes. Data from two independently collected and measured datasets, the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC) and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), were analyzed separately, and combined results were obtained using meta-analysis. We identified genetic associations with CSF levels of 5 proteins (Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4), Interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) and Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3)) with study-wide significant p-values (pprocessing and pro-inflammatory signaling. SNPs associated with ACE, IL6R and MMP3 protein levels are located within the coding regions of the corresponding structural gene. The SNPs associated with CSF levels of CCL4 and CCL2 are located in known chemokine binding proteins. The genetic associations reported here are novel and suggest mechanisms for genetic control of CSF and plasma levels of these disease-related proteins. Significant SNPs in ACE and MMP3 also showed association with AD risk. Our findings suggest that these proteins/pathways may be valuable therapeutic targets for AD. Robust associations in cognitively normal individuals suggest that these SNPs also influence regulation of these proteins more generally and may therefore be relevant to other diseases.

  13. Amerindian (but not African or European) ancestry is significantly associated with diurnal preference within an admixed Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Kieren J; Campos Santos, Hadassa; Beijamini, Felipe; Duarte, Núbia E; Horimoto, Andréa R V R; Taporoski, Tâmara P; Vallada, Homero; Negrão, André B; Krieger, José E; Pedrazzoli, Mário; Knutson, Kristen L; Pereira, Alexandre C; von Schantz, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    Significant questions remain unanswered regarding the genetic versus environmental contributions to racial/ethnic differences in sleep and circadian rhythms. We addressed this question by investigating the association between diurnal preference, using the morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), and genetic ancestry within the Baependi Heart Study cohort, a highly admixed Brazilian population based in a rural town. Analysis was performed using measures of ancestry, using the Admixture program, and MEQ from 1,453 individuals. We found an association between the degree of Amerindian (but not European of African) ancestry and morningness, equating to 0.16 units for each additional percent of Amerindian ancestry, after adjustment for age, sex, education, and residential zone. To our knowledge, this is the first published report identifying an association between genetic ancestry and MEQ, and above all, the first one based on ancestral contributions within individuals living in the same community. This previously unknown ancestral dimension of diurnal preference suggests a stratification between racial/ethnic groups in an as yet unknown number of genetic polymorphisms.

  14. Clinical significance of gastritis cystica profunda and its association with Epstein-Barr virus in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Gew; Jeong, Ji Yun; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Bae, Jae Moon; Noh, Jae Hyung; Sohn, Tae Sung; Kim, Sung

    2012-11-01

    Gastritis cystica profunda (GCP) is a relatively rare disorder characterized by hyperplastic and cystic down growth of gastric glands into the submucosa. In the current study, the authors attempted to clarify the clinical and pathologic features of GCP in patients with gastric cancer. The records of 10,728 patients with gastric cancer who underwent gastric cancer surgery were reviewed. The clinicopathologic features of patients who had GCP (n = 161) were compared with the features of patients without GCP (n = 10,567). In situ hybridization to determine Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positivity was performed in cancer tissues from patients with (n = 119) and without (n = 503) GCP. GCP was associated significantly with older age, male gender, proximal tumor location, differentiated histology and Lauren intestinal type compared with non-GCP. GCP also was present more frequently in remnant and multiple gastric cancers. Patients who had GCP presented with earlier tumor stages in terms of depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis, and they had less lymphatic and perineural invasion than patients without GCP; however, the presence of GCP was not an independent prognostic factor. The EBV-positive rate was significantly higher in the GCP group (31.1%) than in the non-GCP group (5.8%). Patients with gastric cancer who had GCP had clinicopathologic features that differed from the features observed in patients without GCP. GCP was associated significantly with EBV-positive gastric cancers, and its possible role as a premalignant lesion needs to be clarified. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  15. Nonapnea Sleep Disorders in Patients Younger than 65 Years Are Significantly Associated with CKD: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo You-Hsien Lin

    Full Text Available Nonapnea sleep disorders (NASD and sleep-related problems are associated with poor health outcomes. However, the association between NASD and the development and prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD has not been investigated thoroughly. We explored the association between CKD and NASD in Taiwan.We conducted a population-based study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance database with1,000,000 representative data for the period from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009. We investigated the incidence and risk of CKD in 7,006 newly diagnosed NASD cases compared with 21,018 people without NASD matched according to age, sex, index year, urbanization, region, and monthly income at a 1:3 ratio.The subsequent risk of CKD was 1.48-foldhigher in the NASD cohort than in the control cohort (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26-1.73, p< 0.001. Men, older age, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and gout were significant factors associated with the increased risk of CKD (p< 0.001. Among different types of NASDs, patients with insomnia had a 52% increased risk of developing CKD (95%CI = 1.23-1.84; P<0.01, whereas patients with sleep disturbance had a 49%increased risk of subsequent CKD (95% CI = 1.19-1.87; P<0.001. Younger women (aged < 65 years were at a high risk of CKD with NASD (adjusted hazard ratio, [HR] = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.35-2.40, p< 0.001.In this nationwide population-based cohort study, patients with NASD, particularly men of all ages and women aged younger than 65 years, were at high risk of CKD.

  16. The Gut-Brain Axis in Healthy Females: Lack of Significant Association between Microbial Composition and Diversity with Psychiatric Measures.

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    Susan C Kleiman

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota and measures of depression, anxiety, eating disorder psychopathology, stress, and personality in a group of healthy adult females.Female participants (n = 91 ages 19-50 years with BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2 were recruited from central North Carolina between July 2014 and March 2015. Participants provided a single fecal sample and completed an online psychiatric questionnaire that included five measures: (i Beck Anxiety Inventory; (ii Beck Depression Inventory-II; (iii Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; (iv Perceived Stress Scale; and (v Mini International Personality Item Pool. Bacterial composition and diversity were characterized by Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and associations were examined using Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient, in conjunction with Benjamini and Hochberg's False Discovery Rate procedure.We found no significant associations between microbial markers of gut composition and diversity and scores on psychiatric measures of anxiety, depression, eating-related thoughts and behaviors, stress, or personality in a large cohort of healthy adult females.This study was the first specifically to examine associations between the intestinal microbiota and psychiatric measures in healthy females, and based on 16S rRNA taxonomic abundances and diversity measures, our results do not suggest a strong role for the enteric microbe-gut-brain axis in normal variation on responses to psychiatric measures in this population. However, the role of the intestinal microbiota in the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness may be limited to more severe psychopathology.

  17. Conservatives Anticipate and Experience Stronger Emotional Reactions to Negative Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Samantha; Burton, Caitlin M; Plaks, Jason E

    2014-02-01

    The present work examined whether conservatives and liberals differ in their anticipation of their own emotional reactions to negative events. In two studies, participants imagined experiencing positive or negative outcomes in domains that do not directly concern politics. In Study 1, 190 American participants recruited online (64 male, Mage  = 32 years) anticipated their emotional responses to romantic relationship outcomes. In Study 2, 97 Canadian undergraduate students (26 male, Mage  = 21 years) reported on their anticipated and experienced emotional responses to academic outcomes. In both studies, more conservative participants predicted they would feel stronger negative emotions following negative outcomes than did more liberal participants. Furthermore, a longitudinal follow-up of Study 2 participants revealed that more conservative participants actually felt worse than more liberal participants after receiving a lower-than-desired exam grade. These effects remained even when controlling for the Big Five traits, prevention focus, and attachment style (Study 1), and optimism (Study 2). We discuss how the relationship between political orientation and anticipated affect likely contributes to differences between conservatives and liberals in styles of decision and policy choices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Enforcement costs: some humanitarian alternatives to stronger patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Diseases that cause comparatively few problems in developed countries kill millions of people in the Third World each year. In many cases, people die because they cannot afford the medication needed to save their lives. In others, there are simply no drugs available because there are no wealthy western patients to justify pharmaceutical companies investing in a cure. This reveals a deep-seated problem within the patent system and the pharmaceutical industry that emphasises markets and profits at the expense of health and global welfare. Global efforts have seen substantial improvements in access to medicines in isolated areas, but with international agreements driving towards stronger patent protection and the expiry date for the TRIPS grace period fast approaching, it is time to consider alternatives which will allow the patent system to work for the humanitarian cause rather than against it. This paper considers two such problems in the patent system and pharmaceutical industry - prohibitive pricing and misdirected incentives - to offer a mode of regulation and enforcement that will support both a viable pharmaceutical industry and the human right to health and medication.

  19. Association between the CpG island methylator phenotype and its prognostic significance in primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Young Wha; Chun, Sung-Min; Park, Young-Soo; Song, Joon Seon; Lee, Geon Kook; Khang, Shin Kwang; Jang, Se Jin

    2016-08-01

    Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands is one of the most important inactivation mechanisms for tumor suppressor and tumor-related genes. Previous studies using genome-wide DNA methylation microarray analysis have suggested the existence of a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in lung adenocarcinomas. Although the biological behavior of these tumors varies according to tumor stage, no large-scale study has examined the CIMP in lung adenocarcinoma patients according to tumor stage. Furthermore, there have been no reported results regarding the clinical significance of each of the six CIMP markers. To examine the CIMP in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma after a surgical resection, we performed methylation analysis of six genes (CCNA1, ACAN, GFRA1, EDARADD, MGC45800, and p16 (INK4A)) in 230 pulmonary adenocarcinoma cases using the SEQUENOM MassARRAY platform. Fifty-four patients (28 %, 54/191) were in the CIMP-high (CIMP-H) group associated with high nodal stage (P = 0.007), the presence of micropapillary or solid histology (P = 0.003), and the absence of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (P = 0.002). By multivariate analysis, CIMP was an independent prognostic marker for overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (P = 0.03 and P = 0.43, respectively). In the stage I subgroups alone, CIMP-H patients had lower OS rates than the CIMP-low (CIMP-L) group (P = 0.041). Of the six CIMP markers, ACAN alone was significantly associated with patient survival. CIMP predicted the risk of progression independently of clinicopathological variables and enables the stratification of pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients, particularly among stage I cases.

  20. Significant rising antibody titres to influenza A are associated with an acute reduction in milk yield in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Timothy R; Brown, Ian H; Essen, Steve C; Young, Stuart C L

    2008-10-01

    Sporadic cases of an acute fall in milk production, "milk drop", were investigated in a Holstein Friesian dairy herd in Devon. The investigation was a case control study with two controls per case. Paired blood samples demonstrated that rising antibody titres to human influenza A/England/333/80 (H1N1) and human influenza A/Eng/427/88 (H3N2) were associated with an acute fall in milk production. Rising titres to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and parainfluenza virus 3 (PI3) were not associated with an acute fall in milk production. Cases with rises in antibody to influenza A had significantly higher respiratory scores and rectal temperatures than their controls. The mean loss of milk production for the cases with rises in antibody to influenza A compared to their controls was 159.9L. This study provides further evidence that influenza A persists in cattle and causes clinical disease.

  1. Trophic significance of the kelp Laminaria digitata (Lamour.) for the associated food web: a between-sites comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Gauthier; Riera, Pascal; Leroux, Cédric

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed at establishing the trophic significance of the kelp Laminaria digitata for consumers inhabiting two rocky shores of Northern Brittany (France), displaying contrasted ecological conditions. The general trophic structure did not vary between these two sites, with a wide diversity of filter-feeders and predators, and only 14% of the species sampled belonging to the grazers' trophic group. The diversity of food sources fueling the food web appeared also similar. The food webs comprised four trophic levels and the prevalence of omnivory appeared relatively low compared to previous studies in the same area. Conversely, to the food web structure, which did not differ, the biochemical composition of L. digitata differed between the two sites, and was correlated to a larger diversity of grazers feeding on this kelp in sheltered conditions. This indicated that the spatial variability occurring in the nutritive value of L. digitata is likely to deeply affect the functioning of kelp-associated food webs. The contribution of L. digitata-derived organic matter to the diet of filter-feeders inhabiting these two environments was assessed using the mixing model Isosource, which showed the higher contribution of kelp matter in sheltered conditions. These results highlight the spatial variability that may occur in the functioning of kelp-associated food webs. Moreover, this suggests that hydrodynamics is likely to control the availability of kelp-derived organic matter to local filter-feeders, probably through an increase of detritus export in exposed areas.

  2. Dual prognostic significance of tumour-associated macrophages in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated or untreated with chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caro, Giuseppe; Cortese, Nina; Castino, Giovanni Francesco; Grizzi, Fabio; Gavazzi, Francesca; Ridolfi, Cristina; Capretti, Giovanni; Mineri, Rossana; Todoric, Jelena; Zerbi, Alessandro; Allavena, Paola; Mantovani, Alberto; Marchesi, Federica

    2016-10-01

    Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) play key roles in tumour progression. Recent evidence suggests that TAMs critically modulate the efficacy of anticancer therapies, raising the prospect of their targeting in human cancer. In a large retrospective cohort study involving 110 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), we assessed the density of CD68-TAM immune reactive area (%IRA) at the tumour-stroma interface and addressed their prognostic relevance in relation to postsurgical adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX). In vitro, we dissected the synergism of CTX and TAMs. In human PDAC, TAMs predominantly exhibited an immunoregulatory profile, characterised by expression of scavenger receptors (CD206, CD163) and production of interleukin 10 (IL-10). Surprisingly, while the density of TAMs associated to worse prognosis and distant metastasis, CTX restrained their protumour prognostic significance. High density of TAMs at the tumour-stroma interface positively dictated prognostic responsiveness to CTX independently of T-cell density. Accordingly, in vitro, gemcitabine-treated macrophages became tumoricidal, activating a cytotoxic gene expression programme, inhibiting their protumoural effect and switching to an antitumour phenotype. In patients with human PDAC, neoadjuvant CTX was associated to a decreased density of CD206(+) and IL-10(+) TAMs at the tumour-stroma interface. Overall, our data highlight TAMs as critical determinants of prognostic responsiveness to CTX and provide clinical and in vitro evidence that CTX overall directly re-educates TAMs to restrain tumour progression. These results suggest that the quantification of TAMs could be exploited to select patients more likely to respond to CTX and provide the basis for novel strategies aimed at re-educating macrophages in the context of CTX. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Using the longest significance run to estimate region-specific p-values in genetic association mapping studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsin-Chou

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association testing is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes underlying complex diseases. Technological advances have yielded a dramatic increase in the density of available genetic markers, necessitating an increase in the number of association tests required for the analysis of disease susceptibility genes. As such, multiple-tests corrections have become a critical issue. However the conventional statistical corrections on locus-specific multiple tests usually result in lower power as the number of markers increases. Alternatively, we propose here the application of the longest significant run (LSR method to estimate a region-specific p-value to provide an index for the most likely candidate region. Results An advantage of the LSR method relative to procedures based on genotypic data is that only p-value data are needed and hence can be applied extensively to different study designs. In this study the proposed LSR method was compared with commonly used methods such as Bonferroni's method and FDR controlling method. We found that while all methods provide good control over false positive rate, LSR has much better power and false discovery rate. In the authentic analysis on psoriasis and asthma disease data, the LSR method successfully identified important candidate regions and replicated the results of previous association studies. Conclusion The proposed LSR method provides an efficient exploratory tool for the analysis of sequences of dense genetic markers. Our results show that the LSR method has better power and lower false discovery rate comparing with the locus-specific multiple tests.

  4. Association mapping to discover significant marker-trait associations for resistance against fusarium wilt variant 2 in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh] using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prakash G; Dubey, Jyotirmay; Bohra, Abhishek; Mishra, R K; Saabale, P R; Das, Alok; Rathore, Meenal; Singh, N P

    2017-08-01

    Pigeonpea production is severely constrained by wilt disease caused by Fusarium udum. In the current study, we discover the putative genomic regions that control resistance response to variant 2 of fusarium wilt using association mapping approach. The association panel comprised of 89 diverse pigeonpea genotypes including seven varieties, three landraces and 79 germplasm lines. The panel was screened rigorously for 3 consecutive years (2013-14, 2014-15 and 2015-2016) against variant 2 in a wilt-sick field. A total of 65 pigeonpea specific hypervariable SSR markers (HASSRs) were screened representing seven linkage groups and 29 scaffolds of the pigeonpea genome. A total of 181 alleles were detected, with average values of gene diversity and polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.55 and 0.47, respectively. Further analysis using model based (STRUCTURE) and distance based (clustering) approaches separated the entire pigeonpea collection into two distinct subgroups (K = 2). The marker trait associations (MTAs) were established based on three-year wilt incidence data and SSR dataset using a unified mixed linear model. Consequently, six SSR markers were identified, which were significantly associated with wilt resistance and explained up to 6% phenotypic variance (PV) across the years. Among these SSRs, HASSR18 was found to be the most stable and significant, accounting for 5-6% PV across the years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of identification of favourable alleles for resistance to variant 2 of Fusarium udum in pigeonpea using association mapping. The SSR markers identified here will greatly facilitate marker assisted resistance breeding against fusarium wilt in pigeonpea.

  5. Association between the Delta Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and the Prevalence of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Korean Males

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    Tae-Dong Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the association between the reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS in Korean males. Methods. We enrolled 723 healthy Korean males. Serum creatinine concentration, serum electrophoresis, serum immunofixation, and the serum free light chain assay were performed. We calculated delta eGFR per year (ΔeGFR/yr. The prevalence of MGUS was compared based on the ΔeGFR/yr and age group. Results. Thirteen (1.8% of 723 participants exhibited the monoclonal band on serum immunofixation. Prevalence of MGUS by age group was 0.00% (0/172 for 40 years, 1.63% (6/367 for 60 years, and 3.80% (7/184 for >60 years. The median decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was 5.3%. The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decline in ΔeGFR/yr was significantly higher than those with 5.3% decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was similar to that of healthy males in their 60s. Conclusion. Using the rate of reduction in ΔeGFR/yr in healthy Korean males who had their serum creatinine level checked regularly may increase the MGUS detection rate in clinical practice.

  6. Family-based Association Analyses of Imputed Genotypes Reveal Genome-Wide Significant Association of Alzheimer’s disease with OSBPL6, PTPRG and PDCL3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Christine; Hooli, Basavaraj V.; Mullin, Kristina; Liu, Tian; Roehr, Johannes T; Mattheisen, Manuel; Parrado, Antonio R.; Bertram, Lars; Lange, Christoph; Tanzi, Rudolph E.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic basis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is complex and heterogeneous. Over 200 highly penetrant pathogenic variants in the genes APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 cause a subset of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD). On the other hand, susceptibility to late-onset forms of AD (LOAD) is indisputably associated to the ε4 allele in the gene APOE, and more recently to variants in more than two-dozen additional genes identified in the large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and meta-analyses reports. Taken together however, although the heritability in AD is estimated to be as high as 80%, a large proportion of the underlying genetic factors still remain to be elucidated. In this study we performed a systematic family-based genome-wide association and meta-analysis on close to 15 million imputed variants from three large collections of AD families (~3,500 subjects from 1,070 families). Using a multivariate phenotype combining affection status and onset age, meta-analysis of the association results revealed three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that achieved genome-wide significance for association with AD risk: rs7609954 in the gene PTPRG (P-value = 3.98·10−08), rs1347297 in the gene OSBPL6 (P-value = 4.53·10−08), and rs1513625 near PDCL3 (P-value = 4.28·10−08). In addition, rs72953347 in OSBPL6 (P-value = 6.36·10−07) and two SNPs in the gene CDKAL1 showed marginally significant association with LOAD (rs10456232, P-value: 4.76·10−07; rs62400067, P-value: 3.54·10−07). In summary, family-based GWAS meta-analysis of imputed SNPs revealed novel genomic variants in (or near) PTPRG, OSBPL6, and PDCL3 that influence risk for AD with genome-wide significance. PMID:26830138

  7. Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Kate

    2011-09-30

    This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from October 2007 – September 2011 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-07NT43264, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Energy Assurance and Critical Infrastructure, State and Regional Technical Assistance, Regional Initiative, Regional Coordination and Technical Assistance, and International Activities in China. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.

  8. Significant decline in lymphatic filariasis associated with nationwide scale-up of insecticide-treated nets in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nsakashalo-Senkwe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a mosquito-borne disease, broadly endemic in Zambia, and is targeted for elimination by mass drug administration (MDA of albendazole and diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC to at-risk populations. Anopheline mosquitoes are primary vectors of LF in Africa, and it is possible that the significant scale-up of malaria vector control over the past decade may have also impacted LF transmission, and contributed to a decrease in prevalence in Zambia. We therefore aimed to examine the putative association between decreasing LF prevalence and increasing coverage of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs for malaria vector control, by comparing LF mapping data collected between 2003–2005 and 2009–2011 to LF sentinel site prevalence data collected between 2012 and 2014, before any anti-LF MDA was started. The coverage of ITNs for malaria was quantified and compared for each site in relation to the dynamics of LF. We found a significant decrease in LF prevalence from the years 2003–2005 (11.5% CI95 6.6; 16.4 to 2012–2014 (0.6% CI95 0.03; 1.1; at the same time, there was a significant scale-up of ITNs across the country from 0.2% (CI95 0.0; 0.3 to 76.1% (CI95 71.4; 80.7 respectively. The creation and comparison of two linear models demonstrated that the geographical and temporal variation in ITN coverage was a better predictor of LF prevalence than year alone. Whilst a causal relationship between LF prevalence and ITN coverage cannot be proved, we propose that the scale-up of ITNs has helped to control Anopheles mosquito populations, which have in turn impacted on LF transmission significantly before the scale-up of MDA. This putative synergy with vector control has helped to put Zambia on track to meet national and global goals of LF elimination by 2020.

  9. One Year After Fukushima, Nuclear Safety Is Stronger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear power is safer than it was a year ago as the nuclear industry, regulators and governments act on the lessons of Fukushima, but that safety must never be taken for granted, said Yukiya Amano, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Speaking ahead of the first anniversary of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on 11 March, Amano said a culture of constant vigilance and improvement was vital to ensure that the benefits of nuclear power could be harnessed as safely as humanly possible. 'Nuclear safety is stronger than it was a year ago', he said. 'Fukushima Daiichi was a very serious accident, but we know what went wrong and we have a clear course of action to tackle those causes - not only in Japan, but anywhere in the world. 'Now we have to keep up the momentum. Complacency can kill'. On 11 March 2011 a huge earthquake and tsunami left more than 20 000 people dead or missing in eastern Japan. Amidst widespread destruction, the tsunami slammed into the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, disabling cooling systems and leading to fuel meltdowns in three of the six Units. The accident was a jolt to the nuclear industry, regulators and governments. It was triggered by a massive force of nature, but it was existing weaknesses of design regarding defence against natural hazards, regulatory oversight, accident management and emergency response that allowed it to unfold as it did. For example: The nuclear regulator was not sufficiently independent, allowing weak oversight of the operator, TEPCO, and regulatory requirements fell short of international best practice; Not enough attention was paid to guarding against possible extreme events at the Fukushima Daiichi site, leaving critical safety functions such as cooling systems vulnerable to the tsunami; Training to respond to serious accidents was inadequate, as were mitigation measures to prevent hydrogen explosions and protect the venting system; and Accident command lines

  10. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Incani, R.N.; Franco, C.R.; Ugarte, A.; Cadenas, Y.; Ruiz, C.I. Sierra; Hermans, P.W.M.; Hoek, D. van der; Ponce, M.; Waard, J.H. de; Pinelli, E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. METHODS: This

  11. The presence of dupA in Helicobacter pylori is not significantly associated with duodenal ulceration in Belgium, South Africa, China, or North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, Richard H; Burette, Alain; Miendje Deyi, Véronique Y; Atherton, John C

    2007-11-01

    A previous study suggested that Helicobacter pylori strains possessing dupA are positively associated with duodenal ulceration and negatively associated with gastric adenocarcinoma. We determined the prevalence of dupA in H. pylori strains recovered from 4 independent populations and found a significant association with gastric cancer but not with duodenal ulceration.

  12. Organization as Information Processing Systems. Toward a Model of the Research Factors Associated with Significant Research Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    institutional conditions enable and reinforce behavior that leads to significant research oit comes. Financial grants, research assistance, and a...include positive instituitional conditions, diverse idea sources and widespread * communications, a goal of theoretical understanding, a relevant research

  13. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Incani, R.N.; Franco, C.R.; Ugarte, A.; Cadenas, Y.; Sierra Ruiz, C.I.; Hermans, P.W.; Hoek, D.; Campos Ponce, M.; de Waard, J.H.; Pinelli, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children.Methods:This

  14. Faster, Stronger, Healthier: Adolescent-Stated Reasons for Dietary Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdešar Kotnik, Katja; Jurak, Gregor; Starc, Gregor; Golja, Petra

    Examine the underlying reasons and sources of recommendation for dietary supplement (DS) use among adolescents. Cross-sectional analysis of children's development in Slovenia in September to October, 2014. Nationally recruited sample. Adolescents aged 14-19 years enrolled in 15 high schools (n = 1,463). Reasons for and sources of recommendation for DS use, sports club membership, sports discipline, and extent of physical activity (PA) were self-reported data. Chi-square test of independence was performed to compare the prevalence of DS use between groups with different extents of PA and nonathletes/athletes, referring to 11 different reasons and 9 different sources of recommendation for DS use. Use of DS was widespread among adolescents (69%), athletes (76%), and nonathletes (66%). Higher prevalence of supplementation was observed in males, who justified it use for sports performance enhancement and better development and function of muscles. In contrast, females emphasized immune system improvement. Higher extent of PA was associated with a higher prevalence of DS use. This was especially evident in males, who participated in team sports. A high percentage of adolescents (41%) decided on their own to use DS and because of advice from parents or relatives (30%). Several reasons for the widespread use of DS in adolescents were associated with sports participation. Therefore, educational programs regarding DS use should be targeted primarily to adolescents and their parents who are involved in sports, and especially team sports. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Self induced digital pressure associated with significant transient corneal distortions in a pediatric patient – A multi disciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haya Shames

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present case study is of an 8-year old male who was found to have refractive instability due to corneal distortions that were associated with chronic habit of abnormal eye rubbing (CHAR. Psychiatric evaluation and treatment alleviated the CHAR and at the same time refraction stabilized and the cornea resumed a regular shape. Treatment of this case was made possible by close collaboration between the health care professionals caring for this child.

  16. Location of skin lesions in Henoch-Schönlein purpura and its association with significant renal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Jessica; Vedak, Priyanka; Garza-Mayers, Anna Cristina; Hoang, Mai P; Nigwekar, Sagar U; Kroshinsky, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a small vessel IgA-predominant vasculitis. To describe adult patients with HSP and determine if the distribution of skin lesions (ie, purpura above the waist or purpura below the waist only), is a predictor of significant renal involvement at the time of the skin biopsy and the months following. A retrospective study on renal function from 72 adult patients with skin-biopsy proven HSP. Longitudinal renal data were analyzed after HSP diagnosis by using baseline renal function for comparison. Statistical analysis adjusted for sex, age, and baseline creatinine revealed a trend between HSP lesions only on the upper and lower extremities and long-term renal involvement (4.767, P = .067). Moreover, in another analysis adjusted for age and baseline creatinine, lesions located only on the upper and lower extremities significantly increased the odds of having long-term significant renal involvement (6.55, P = .049) in men. This retrospective study used patient information that was subject to selection bias. In patients with HSP, skin lesion distribution on the extremities might be predictive of significant long-term renal involvement and might be critical for risk stratification and development of personalized diagnostics and therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. No significant association of the 5' end of neuregulin 1 and schizophrenia in a large Danish sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingason, Andrés; Søeby, Karen; Timm, Sally

    2006-01-01

    schizophrenia patients. We found that the at-risk haplotype initially reported in the Icelandic population was not found in significant excess (or = 1.4, p = 0.12). The haplotype structure in the Danish sample was similar to that of other reported in other Caucasian populations and highly different from...

  18. A Geochemical Analysis of Rare Earth Elements Associated with Significant Phosphate Deposits of West-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K. M.; Owens, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) such as the lanthanide series as well as yttrium, uranium, and thorium are an important industrial resource for expanding technological sectors; therefore, demand and production will continue to increase. Increased market prices resulting in decreased demand has led to new exploration for REE mineral resources in North America. Phosphorite deposits are being investigated as a possible supply but the overall concentrations, depositional environments, and ages are relatively unexplored. Phosphorite is commonly associated with ocean floor sediment deposition and upwelling; however, it may also form in estuarine and supratidal zones with low wave activity, present along Florida's west coast. Interestingly, it seems that major ancient phosphorite deposits are often, if not always, associated with major icehouse conditions (widespread glaciations) and rarely observed during greenhouse conditions. By analyzing a set of sonic drill cores, spatiotemporal REE concentrations can be better constrained for a wide-age range of the Miocene-Pliocene aged Bone Valley Member of the Peace River Formation, the largest North American phosphate deposit. We present concentrations from a depth-transect of samples collected in West-Central Florida, showing the phosphatic sands and silts of the area are highly enriched sedimentary archives for REE, yielding concentrations up to 200 ppm for some REE. The weathering and transport of igneous and metamorphic minerals from the southern Appalachians to the Florida coast where a series of winnowing events occurred may explain the enrichment seen by our data. Sediment cores showing well-rounded quartz sands, dolomitic silts, teeth, bones, and marine fossils commonly found in a near shore depositional environment support this hypothesis. Previous analysis of phosphate grains, teeth, bones, and bulk sediment indicate REE are not associated with and/or sourcing from biogenic components, but rather entering the lattice

  19. Occupational exposures at a polyvinyl chloride production facility are associated with significant changes to the plasma metabolome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiola, John J.; Beier, Juliane I.; Falkner, K. Cameron; Wheeler, Benjamin; McClain, Craig James; Cave, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Occupational vinyl chloride (VC) exposures have been associated with toxicant-associated steatohepatitis and liver cancer. Metabolomics has been used to clarify mode of action in drug-induced liver injury but has not been performed following VC exposures. Methods: Plasma samples from 17 highly exposed VC workers without liver cancer and 27 unexposed healthy volunteers were obtained for metabolite extraction and GC/MS and LC/MS 2 analysis. Following ion identification/quantification, Ingenuity pathway analysis was performed. Results: 613 unique named metabolites were identified. Of these, 189 metabolites were increased in the VC exposure group while 94 metabolites were decreased. Random Forest analysis indicated that the metabolite signature could separate the groups with 94% accuracy. VC exposures were associated with increased long chain (including arachidonic acid) and essential (including linoleic acid) fatty acids. Occupational exposure increased lipid peroxidation products including monohydroxy fatty acids (including 13-HODE); fatty acid dicarboxylates; and oxidized arachidonic acid products (including 5,9, and 15-HETE). Carnitine and carnitine esters were decreased, suggesting peroxisomal/mitochondrial dysfunction and alternate modes of lipid oxidation. Differentially regulated metabolites were shown to interact with extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and the N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. The top canonical pathways affected by occupational exposure included tRNA charging, nucleotide degradation, amino acid synthesis/degradation and urea cycle. Methionine and homocysteine was increased with decreased cysteine, suggesting altered 1-carbon metabolism. Conclusions: Occupational exposure generated a distinct plasma metabolome with markedly altered lipid and amino acid metabolites. ERK1/2, Akt, AMPK, and NMDA were identified as protein targets for vinyl chloride toxicity. - Highlights:

  20. Variations of insulin resistance and associated hormone levels in elderly and middle-aged male persons and their clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Liankun; Yan Daochun; Chen Xiumei; Liu Peng; Zhang Aihua

    2005-01-01

    To study the relationship between age and insulin resistance and the variation of associated hormones in elderly and middle-aged males, blood levels of LH, FSH, T, SHBG, TSH, INS were determined by RIA, FBG by GPO, IR by HOMA in 268 healthy male persons aged 41 to 60 years and in 80 normal control male persions of 35 to 40 years old. The results showed that levels of IR, LH, FSH, SHBG were increasing and T, TSH were decreasing along with the increase of age except for TSH. Therefore, analyzing these changes could evaluate the conditions of elderly and middle-aged males. (authors)

  1. Occupational exposures at a polyvinyl chloride production facility are associated with significant changes to the plasma metabolome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardiola, John J. [University of Louisville Department of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40206 (United States); Beier, Juliane I. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Louisville, KY 40206 (United States); Falkner, K. Cameron; Wheeler, Benjamin [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Louisville, KY 40206 (United States); McClain, Craig James [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Louisville, KY 40206 (United States); Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Louisville, KY 40206 (United States); The Robley Rex Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Louisville, KY, 40206 (United States); The Kentucky One Health Jewish Hospital Liver Transplant Program, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Cave, Matt, E-mail: matt.cave@louisville.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Louisville, KY 40206 (United States); Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Louisville, KY 40206 (United States); The Robley Rex Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Louisville, KY, 40206 (United States); The Kentucky One Health Jewish Hospital Liver Transplant Program, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisville, KY, 40202 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Background: Occupational vinyl chloride (VC) exposures have been associated with toxicant-associated steatohepatitis and liver cancer. Metabolomics has been used to clarify mode of action in drug-induced liver injury but has not been performed following VC exposures. Methods: Plasma samples from 17 highly exposed VC workers without liver cancer and 27 unexposed healthy volunteers were obtained for metabolite extraction and GC/MS and LC/MS{sup 2} analysis. Following ion identification/quantification, Ingenuity pathway analysis was performed. Results: 613 unique named metabolites were identified. Of these, 189 metabolites were increased in the VC exposure group while 94 metabolites were decreased. Random Forest analysis indicated that the metabolite signature could separate the groups with 94% accuracy. VC exposures were associated with increased long chain (including arachidonic acid) and essential (including linoleic acid) fatty acids. Occupational exposure increased lipid peroxidation products including monohydroxy fatty acids (including 13-HODE); fatty acid dicarboxylates; and oxidized arachidonic acid products (including 5,9, and 15-HETE). Carnitine and carnitine esters were decreased, suggesting peroxisomal/mitochondrial dysfunction and alternate modes of lipid oxidation. Differentially regulated metabolites were shown to interact with extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and the N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. The top canonical pathways affected by occupational exposure included tRNA charging, nucleotide degradation, amino acid synthesis/degradation and urea cycle. Methionine and homocysteine was increased with decreased cysteine, suggesting altered 1-carbon metabolism. Conclusions: Occupational exposure generated a distinct plasma metabolome with markedly altered lipid and amino acid metabolites. ERK1/2, Akt, AMPK, and NMDA were identified as protein targets for vinyl chloride toxicity

  2. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with mushroom worker's lung: an update on the clinical significance of the importation of exotic mushroom varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John E; Convery, Rory P; Millar, B Cherie; Rao, Juluri R; Elborn, J Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis remains an important industrial disease in mushroom workers. It has a significant morbidity, and early diagnosis and removal from exposure to the antigen are critically important in its management. Recently, several new allergens have been described, particularly those from mushroom species originating in the Far East, which are of clinical significance to workers occupationally exposed to such allergens in cultivation, picking, and packing of commercial mushroom crops. Importing of exotic mushrooms including Shiitake is common in EU countries, and some of the exotic species of mushrooms are cultivated for local markets. This practice may contribute to an increase in clinical cases of mushroom hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This update reviews the recent literature and examines changing trends of mushroom worker's lung, with increased movement of commercial product and labour markets worldwide.

  3. Triglyceride content in remnant lipoproteins is significantly increased after food intake and is associated with plasma lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Sakamaki, Koji; Shimomura, Younosuke; Kobayashi, Junji; Kamachi, Keiko; Tanaka, Akira; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J; Wang, Tao; Machida, Tetsuo; Murakami, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Previous large population studies reported that non-fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) reflect a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than TG in the fasting plasma. This is suggestive of the presence of higher concentration of remnant lipoproteins (RLP) in postprandial plasma. TG and RLP-TG together with other lipids, lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in both fasting and postprandial plasma were determined in generally healthy volunteers and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after consuming a fat load or a more typical moderate meal. RLP-TG/TG ratio (concentration) and RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio (particle size) were significantly increased in the postprandial plasma of both healthy controls and CAD patients compared with those in fasting plasma. LPL/RLP-TG ratio demonstrated the interaction correlation between RLP concentration and LPL activity The increased RLP-TG after fat consumption contributed to approximately 90% of the increased plasma TG, while approximately 60% after a typical meal. Plasma LPL in postprandial plasma was not significantly altered after either type of meal. Concentrations of RLP-TG found in the TG along with its particle size are significantly increased in postprandial plasma compared with fasting plasma. Therefore, non-fasting TG determination better reflects the presence of higher RLP concentrations in plasma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The imperative for stronger vaccine supply and logistics systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffran, Michel; Vandelaer, Jos; Kristensen, Debra; Melgaard, Bjørn; Yadav, Prashant; Antwi-Agyei, K O; Lasher, Heidi

    2013-04-18

    With the introduction of new vaccines, developing countries are facing serious challenges in their vaccine supply and logistics systems. Storage capacity bottlenecks occur at national, regional, and district levels and system inefficiencies threaten vaccine access, availability, and quality. As countries adopt newer and more expensive vaccines and attempt to reach people at different ages and in new settings, their logistics systems must be strengthened and optimized. As a first step, national governments, donors, and international agencies have crafted a global vision for 2020 vaccine supply and logistics systems with detailed plans of action to achieve five priority objectives. Vaccine products and packaging are designed to meet the needs of developing countries. Immunization supply systems support efficient and effective vaccine delivery. The environmental impact of energy, materials, and processes used in immunization systems is minimized. Immunization information systems enable better and more timely decision-making. Competent and motivated personnel are empowered to handle immunization supply chain issues. Over the next decade, vaccine supply and logistics systems in nearly all developing countries will require significant investments of time and resources from global and national partners, donors, and governments. These investments are critical if we are to reach more people with current and newer vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stronger Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Daniel; Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Estefanía; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Canet-Pons, Júlia; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G; Rico, Alberto J; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Navarro, Gemma; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antonio; Labandeira-García, José L; Casadó, Vicent; Lanciego, José L; Franco, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Radioligand binding assays to rat striatal dopamine D1 receptors showed that brain lateralization of the dopaminergic system were not due to changes in expression but in agonist affinity. D1 receptor-mediated striatal imbalance resulted from a significantly higher agonist affinity in the left striatum. D1 receptors heteromerize with dopamine D3 receptors, which are considered therapeutic targets for dyskinesia in parkinsonian patients. Expression of both D3 and D1-D3 receptor heteromers were increased in samples from 6-hydroxy-dopamine-hemilesioned rats rendered dyskinetic by treatment with 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA). Similar findings were obtained using striatal samples from primates. Radioligand binding studies in the presence of a D3 agonist led in dyskinetic, but not in lesioned or L-DOPA-treated rats, to a higher dopamine sensitivity. Upon D3-receptor activation, the affinity of agonists for binding to the right striatal D1 receptor increased. Excess dopamine coming from L-DOPA medication likely activates D3 receptors thus making right and left striatal D1 receptors equally responsive to dopamine. These results show that dyskinesia occurs concurrently with a right/left striatal balance in D1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  6. The Association between Heavy Episodic Drinking and Gender Orientation among U.S. College Students: The Significance of Masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L; L Mulhollem, Marcella; Blue, Courtney; Stewart, Breanna C

    2018-05-12

    Heavy episodic drinking (HED) remains a public health concern among college students. Sex differences are routinely reported in the literature although some evidence of convergence in drinking patterns has been observed. The association between sex and gender-orientation in HED remains unclear because sex and gender are often conflated. We examine the intersection of sex, gender-orientation and HED to determine if gender-orientation alone and/or in conjunction with sex play a role in HED among college students. Data were collected using a web-based self-administered survey made available to students enrolled in courses at a mid-sized Midwestern public university during the Fall of 2013 and the Spring of 2014 (N = 793). Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between HED, sex, and gender orientation (measured using the short-form Bem Sex Role Inventory). Our findings indicate that, regardless of sex, a masculine gender-orientation was positively associated with HED. Those who were found to have a feminine gender-orientation appeared to be at decreased risk for HED. Our findings indicate that sex and gender-orientation should be taken into account in prevention and intervention protocols at colleges and universities. Future work should examine the role of gender orientation among LGBTQ and ethno-racial minority populations.

  7. Microchemistry, geochemistry and geochronology of the Lagoa Real Uranium Province (BA) magmatic association: petrological and evolutionary significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Lucas Eustaquio Dias

    2016-01-01

    The Lagoa Real Uranium Province (PULR) is located in the center-south of the Bahia State, in the central part of Sao Francisco Craton and consists of an association of Paleoproterozoic meta-granites, alkali-gneiss, albitites, meta-leucodiorite and charnockites. This work has as objective the studies of the magmatic association, trying to understand its petrological and evolutionary meaning. For this purpose, representative bodies were sampled in order to develop unpublished studies of litogeochemistry, isotopes, geochronology and mineral chemistry. These analyzes were performed in: different preserved granitoid facies (Lagoa do Barro, Sao Timoteo, Juazeirinho and late pegmatitic phases), the meta-leucodiorites and charnockite. The data obtained using several modern methodologies, such as geochronology and mineral chemistry by LA-ICP-MS, provided results that allowed the characterization of two magmatic lithologies not described in the literature (Juazeirinho granite e late pegmatitic phases), and also a lithology preliminarily described (Lagoa do Barro granite). Moreover, these data contributed to elucidate the origin and meaning of the leucodiorite and charnoquito varieties, and made it possible to verify new compositional and mineral chemistry tendencies of Sao Timoteo granite. The data presented show that the studied granites were affected by albititization events (tardi or post-magmatic), which have different micro-chemical characteristics from the processes of albite formation related to the non-mineralized albitites bodies. Three albititization events were identified: a) An event that affected the granites characterized by the formation of albite with Rb and U, (b) Another event related to fluids associated with late pegmatitic bodies that formed albite with high levels of U, Rb and Ba, and partially affected the granites of the next pegmatoids portions; and (c) a final albititization event that caused the formation of the albite gneiss bodies, with albite

  8. The distribution of P-values in medical research articles suggested selective reporting associated with statistical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perneger, Thomas V; Combescure, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Published P-values provide a window into the global enterprise of medical research. The aim of this study was to use the distribution of published P-values to estimate the relative frequencies of null and alternative hypotheses and to seek irregularities suggestive of publication bias. This cross-sectional study included P-values published in 120 medical research articles in 2016 (30 each from the BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine). The observed distribution of P-values was compared with expected distributions under the null hypothesis (i.e., uniform between 0 and 1) and the alternative hypothesis (strictly decreasing from 0 to 1). P-values were categorized according to conventional levels of statistical significance and in one-percent intervals. Among 4,158 recorded P-values, 26.1% were highly significant (P values values equal to 1, and (3) about twice as many P-values less than 0.05 compared with those more than 0.05. The latter finding was seen in both randomized trials and observational studies, and in most types of analyses, excepting heterogeneity tests and interaction tests. Under plausible assumptions, we estimate that about half of the tested hypotheses were null and the other half were alternative. This analysis suggests that statistical tests published in medical journals are not a random sample of null and alternative hypotheses but that selective reporting is prevalent. In particular, significant results are about twice as likely to be reported as nonsignificant results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical significance of AGE-RAGE axis in colorectal cancer: associations with glyoxalase-I, adiponectin receptor expression and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakellariou, Stratigoula; Fragkou, Paraskevi; Levidou, Georgia; Gargalionis, Antonios N.; Piperi, Christina; Dalagiorgou, Georgia; Adamopoulos, Christos; Saetta, Angelica; Agrogiannis, George; Theohari, Irini; Sougioultzis, Stavros; Tsioli, Panagiota; Karavokyros, Ioannis; Tsavaris, Nikolaos; Kostakis, Ioannis D.; Zizi-Serbetzoglou, Adamantia; Vandoros, Gerasimos P.; Patsouris, Efstratios; Korkolopoulou, Penelope

    2016-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor RAGE emerge as important pathogenic contributors in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, their relationship to the detoxification enzyme Glyoxalase (GLO)-I and Adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is currently understudied. In the present study, we investigated the expression levels of the above molecules in CRC compared to adjacent non-tumoral tissue and their potential correlation with clinicopathological characteristics and patients’ survival. We analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of AGE, RAGE, GLO-1, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in 133 primary CRC cases, focusing on GLO-I. The tumour MSI status was further assessed in mucinous carcinomas. Western immunoblotting was employed for validation of immunohistochemical data in normal and tumoral tissues as well in three CRC cell lines. An independent set of 55 patients was also used to validate the results of univariate survival analysis regarding GLO-I. CRC tissue showed higher intensity of both AGE and RAGE expression compared with normal colonic mucosa which was negative for GLO-I in most cases (78 %). Western immunoblotting confirmed AGE, RAGE and GLO-I overexpression in tumoral tissue. GLO-I expression was directly related to RAGE and inversely related to AGE immunolabeling. There was a trend towards higher expression of all markers (except for RAGE) in the subgroup of mucinous carcinomas which, although of borderline significance, seemed to be more prominent for AdipoR1 and AGE. Additionally, AGE, AdipoR1 and Adipo R2 expression was related to tumor grade, whereas GLO-1 and AdipoR1 to T-category. In survival analysis, AdipoR2 and GLO-I overexpression predicted shortened survival in the entire cohort and in early stage cases, an effect which for GLO-I was reproduced in the validation cohort. Moreover, GLO-I emerged as an independent prognosticator of adverse significance in the patients’ cohort. We herein provide novel

  10. Ministers at IAEA Conference Call for Stronger Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Despite substantial progress in strengthening nuclear security in recent years, more needs to be done worldwide to defend against the threat of nuclear terrorism and other malicious acts involving nuclear or radiological material, a Ministerial Declaration at the IAEA's International Conference on Nuclear Security: Enhancing Global Efforts stated today. More than 1 300 participants at the Conference, which is open to all 159 IAEA Member States, will analyse past and current efforts and consider how future challenges can best be met to ensure effective and sustainable nuclear security worldwide. The Conference, which started in Vienna today and ends on Friday, includes representatives from 123 countries and 21 governmental and non-governmental organizations. The Ministerial Declaration, adopted at a plenary session attended by 34 government ministers and other Heads of Delegation including the Conference President, Hungarian Foreign Affairs Minister Janos Martonyi, says they ''remain concerned about the threat of nuclear and radiological terrorism and of other malicious acts or sabotage related to facilities and activities involving nuclear and other radioactive material.'' The Declaration - the first of its kind for nuclear security - notes that all States are responsible for their own nuclear security, but that international cooperation is important in supporting States' efforts to fulfil their responsibilities. It affirms the central role of the IAEA in strengthening nuclear security globally, and leading coordination of international activities in this field. ''We encourage all States to maintain highly effective nuclear security, including physical protection, for all nuclear and other radioactive material, their transport, use and storage and their associated facilities, as well as protecting sensitive information and maintaining the necessary nuclear security systems and measures to assess and manage their nuclear security effectively,'' the

  11. Social marketing campaign significantly associated with increases in syphilis testing among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jorge A; Kent, Charlotte K; Rotblatt, Harlan; McCright, Jacque; Kerndt, Peter R; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2005-07-01

    Between 1999 and 2002, San Francisco experienced a sharp increase in early syphilis among gay and bisexual men. In response, the San Francisco Department of Public Health launched a social marketing campaign to increase testing for syphilis, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men. A convenience sample of 244 gay and bisexual men (18-60 years of age) were surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign. Respondents were interviewed to elicit unaided and aided awareness about the campaign, knowledge about syphilis, recent sexual behaviors, and syphilis testing behavior. After controlling for other potential confounders, unaided campaign awareness was a significant correlate of having a syphilis test in the last 6 months (odds ratio, 3.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-7.97) compared with no awareness of the campaign. A comparison of respondents aware of the campaign with those not aware also revealed significant increases in awareness and knowledge about syphilis. The Healthy Penis 2002 campaign achieved its primary objective of increasing syphilis testing, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

  12. Plant Identity Exerts Stronger Effect than Fertilization on Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in a Sown Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Chen, Liang; Luo, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Shi-Ping; Guo, Liang-Dong

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play key roles in plant nutrition and plant productivity. AM fungal responses to either plant identity or fertilization have been investigated. However, the interactive effects of different plant species and fertilizer types on these symbiotic fungi remain poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of the factorial combinations of plant identity (grasses Avena sativa and Elymus nutans and legume Vicia sativa) and fertilization (urea and sheep manure) on AM fungi following 2-year monocultures in a sown pasture field study. AM fungal extraradical hyphal density was significantly higher in E. nutans than that in A. sativa and V. sativa in the unfertilized control and was significantly increased by urea and manure in A. sativa and by manure only in E. nutans, but not by either fertilizers in V. sativa. AM fungal spore density was not significantly affected by plant identity or fertilization. Forty-eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were obtained through 454 pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA. The OTU richness and Shannon diversity index of AM fungi were significantly higher in E. nutans than those in V. sativa and/or A. sativa, but not significantly affected by any fertilizer in all of the three plant species. AM fungal community composition was significantly structured directly by plant identity only and indirectly by both urea addition and plant identity through soil total nitrogen content. Our findings highlight that plant identity has stronger influence than fertilization on belowground AM fungal community in this converted pastureland from an alpine meadow.

  13. Betting on Life: Associations Between Significant Life Events and Gambling Trajectories Among Gamblers with the Intent to Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Alexandra; Kushnir, Vladyslav; Hodgins, David C; Hendershot, Christian S; Cunningham, John A

    2018-03-24

    Considerable evidence has suggested that problem gambling may be transitory and episodic, with gamblers routinely moving in and out of clinical thresholds. Findings in qualitative and quantitative studies have converged on identifying preliminary evidence for the role of life events as motivators and contributing factors for gambling changes over time. The aim of this study was to conduct an exploratory analysis of the relationship between life events, their respective experience as positive or negative, and gambling trajectories among problem gamblers intending to quit. Life event occurrence and ratings as positive or negative, and changes in gambling severity were analyzed over a 12-month period for 204 adult problem gamblers intending to reduce or quit their gambling. Overall, mixed effects models revealed several relationships between life events and both the magnitude and direction of gambling change over time. In particular, gamblers who experienced a greater number of positive events or specific events such as legal events, the adoption/loss of a child, or negative changes to their social relationships, finances, work environments or social/health activities were more likely to exhibit greater gambling reductions over time. Conversely, gamblers who experienced a greater number of negative events, such as family bereavement, the dissolution of a marriage, or negative changes to their residence exhibited smaller gambling reductions or increases in gambling severity. Possible mechanisms which may explain the findings and the importance of examining the subjective experience of life events are discussed. Recommendations for future studies examining associations between life events and gambling trajectories are provided.

  14. Significance of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of vertebral artery injury associated with blunt cervical spine trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Hiroyuki; Atsumi, Takahiro; Araki, Takashi; Fuse, Akira; Sato, Hidetaka; Kawai, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Vertebral artery injury associated with non-penetrating cervical trauma is rare. We report 11 cases of vertebral artery injury diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after blunt trauma to the cervical spine and discuss about the importance of MRI in the diagnosis of this injury. Seven cases were caused by motor vehicle accidents, three by diving accidents, and one by static compression of the neck. All of the patients had documented cervical spine fractures and dislocations. In three patients, the diagnosis of complete occlusion of the vertebral artery was made on the basis of MRI and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). In the other patients, mural injuries of the vertebral artery were demonstrated with DSA. These 11 patients presented with acute, nonspecific changes in neurological status. Two had infarctions of the cerebellum and brainstem. None were treated with anticoagulants. All of them survived and were discharged to other hospitals for physical and occupational therapy. Although DSA remains the gold standard for diagnosing vertebral artery injuries, MRI is a newer modality for assessing cervical cord injury, and it may be useful for evaluating the presence of vertebral injury after blunt cervical spine trauma. (author)

  15. Love is the triumph of the imagination: Daydreams about significant others are associated with increased happiness, love and connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerio, Giulia L; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2015-05-01

    Social relationships and interactions contribute to daily emotional well-being. The emotional benefits that come from engaging with others are known to arise from real events, but do they also come from the imagination during daydreaming activity? Using experience sampling methodology with 101 participants, we obtained 371 reports of naturally occurring daydreams with social and non-social content and self-reported feelings before and after daydreaming. Social, but not non-social, daydreams were associated with increased happiness, love and connection and this effect was not solely attributable to the emotional content of the daydreams. These effects were only present when participants were lacking in these feelings before daydreaming and when the daydream involved imagining others with whom the daydreamer had a high quality relationship. Findings are consistent with the idea that social daydreams may function to regulate emotion: imagining close others may serve the current emotional needs of daydreamers by increasing positive feelings towards themselves and others. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bloodstream Infections and Clinical Significance of Healthcare-associated Bacteremia: A Multicenter Surveillance Study in Korean Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jun Seong; Ko, Kwan Soo; Yeom, Joon Sup; Ki, Hyun Kyun; Kim, Shin-Woo; Chang, Hyun-Ha; Ryu, Seong Yeol; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Jung, Sook-In; Shin, Sang Yop; Oh, Hee Bok; Lee, Yeong Seon; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lee, Nam Yong; Peck, Kyong Ran

    2010-01-01

    Recent changes in healthcare systems have changed the epidemiologic paradigms in many infectious fields including bloodstream infection (BSI). We compared clinical characteristics of community-acquired (CA), hospital-acquired (HA), and healthcare-associated (HCA) BSI. We performed a prospective nationwide multicenter surveillance study from 9 university hospitals in Korea. Total 1,605 blood isolates were collected from 2006 to 2007, and 1,144 isolates were considered true pathogens. HA-BSI accounted for 48.8%, CA-BSI for 33.2%, and HCA-BSI for 18.0%. HA-BSI and HCA-BSI were more likely to have severe comorbidities. Escherichia coli was the most common isolate in CA-BSI (47.1%) and HCA-BSI (27.2%). In contrast, Staphylococcus aureus (15.2%), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (15.1%) were the common isolates in HA-BSI. The rate of appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy was the highest in CA-BSI (89.0%) followed by HCA-BSI (76.4%), and HA-BSI (75.0%). The 30-day mortality rate was the highest in HA-BSI (23.0%) followed by HCA-BSI (18.4%), and CA-BSI (10.2%). High Pitt score and inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy were the independent risk factors for mortality by multivariate analysis. In conclusion, the present data suggest that clinical features, outcome, and microbiologic features of causative pathogens vary by origin of BSI. Especially, HCA-BSI shows unique clinical characteristics, which should be considered a distinct category for more appropriate antibiotic treatment. PMID:20592888

  17. Clinical significance of bone bruises and cartilage lesions associated with anterior cruciate ligament injuries by magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawata, Koji; Yamamoto, Kichizo; Teshima, Ryota; Suzuki, Toshiro; Yamagata, Taiji.

    1995-01-01

    In 85 patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, we examined bone bruises retrospectively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 53 patients who underwent arthroscopy, the bone bruises were compared with the cartilage lesions. Depending on the time from their ligamentous injury to the performance of MRI, the patients were divided into three groups: the acute group (less than 1 months, n=29), the subacute group (between 1 and 12 months, n=29), and the chronic group (12 months or more, n=27). The detection rate of bone bruises by MRI was significantly higher in the acute group than in the other groups (p<0.0001). Bone bruises were always detected in the same locations of the lateral compartment of the knee joint. In four patients who observed bone bruises in the first MRI and underwent follow-up MRI 3-6 months later, bone bruises had disappeared in the follow-up MRI. In the acute group, bone bruises in the lateral femoral condyle were often found to be accompanied by cartilaginous injuries. In the subacute and chronic groups, the rate of degeneration of these cartilaginous lesions had progressed. (author)

  18. Mechanical Ventilation–associated Lung Fibrosis in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome A Significant Contributor to Poor Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Benitez, Nuria E.; Laffey, John G.; Parotto, Matteo; Spieth, Peter M.; Villar, Jesús; Zhang, Haibo; Slutsky, Arthur S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in critical care medicine is the management of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Increasing evidence from experimental and clinical studies suggests that mechanical ventilation, which is necessary for life support in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, can cause lung fibrosis, which may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality. The role of mechanical stress as an inciting factor for lung fibrosis versus its role in lung homeostasis and the restoration of normal pulmonary parenchymal architecture is poorly understood. In this review, the authors explore recent advances in the field of pulmonary fibrosis in the context of acute respiratory distress syndrome, concentrating on its relevance to the practice of mechanical ventilation, as commonly applied by anesthetists and intensivists. The authors focus the discussion on the thesis that mechanical ventilation—or more specifically, that ventilator-induced lung injury—may be a major contributor to lung fibrosis. The authors critically appraise possible mechanisms underlying the mechanical stress–induced lung fibrosis and highlight potential therapeutic strategies to mitigate this fibrosis. PMID:24732023

  19. Endoglin (CD105) expression on microvessel endothelial cells in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: tissue microarray analysis and association with prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Sun, Xi-Cai; Hu, Li; Liu, Zhuo-Fu; Yu, Hua-Peng; Li, Han; Wang, Shu-Yi; Wang, De-Hui

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine endoglin (CD105) expression on microvessel endothelial cells (ECs) in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) and its relationship with recurrence. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect CD105 expression in a tissue microarray from 70 patients with JNA. Correlation between CD105 expression on microvessel ECs and clinicopathological features, as well as tumor recurrence, were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry revealed CD105 expression on ECs but not in stroma of patients with JNA. Chi-square analysis indicated CD105-based microvessel density (MVD) was correlated with JNA recurrence (p = .013). Univariate and multivariate analyses determined that MVD was a significant predictor of time to recurrence (p = .009). The CD105-based MVD was better for predicting disease recurrence (AUROC: 0.673; p = .036) than other clinicopathological features. MVD is a useful predictor for poor prognosis of patients with JNA after curative resection. Angiogenesis, which may play an important role in the occurrence and development of JNA, is therefore a potential therapeutic target for JNA. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  20. Aluminium phosphate sulphate minerals (APS) associated with proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits: crystal-chemical characterisation and petrogenetic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaboreau, St.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium phosphate sulfate minerals (APS) are particularly widespread and spatially associated with hydrothermal clay alteration in both the East Alligator River Uranium Field (Northern Territory, Australia) and the Athabasca basin (Saskatchewan, Canada), in the environment of proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits (URUD). The purpose of this study is both: 1) to characterize the nature and the origin of the APS minerals on both sides of the middle proterozoic unconformity between the overlying sandstones and the underlying metamorphic basement rocks that host the uranium ore bodies, 2) to improve our knowledge on the suitability of these minerals to indicate the paleo-conditions (redox, pH) at which the alteration processes relative to the uranium deposition operated. The APS minerals result from the interaction of oxidising and relatively acidic fluids with aluminous host rocks enriched in monazite. Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have also been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore bodies or from the structural discontinuities which drained the hydrothermal solutions during the mineralisation event. One of the main results of this study is that the index mineral assemblages, used in the recent literature to describe the alteration zones around the uranium ore bodies, can be theoretically predicted by a set of thermodynamic calculations which simulate different steps of fluid-rock interaction processes related to a downward penetrating of hyper-saline, oxidizing and acidic diagenetic fluids through the lower sandstone units of the basins and then into the metamorphic basement rocks. The above considerations and the fact that APS with different crystal-chemical compositions crystallized in a range of fO 2 and pH at which uranium can either be transported in solution or precipitated as uraninite in the host-rocks make these minerals not only good markers of the degree of alteration of the

  1. Genome-Wide Association Study of Short-Acting beta(2)-Agonists A Novel Genome-Wide Significant Locus on Chromosome 2 near ASB3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israel, Elliot; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Markezich, Amy; Damask, Amy; Szefler, Stanley J.; Schuemann, Brooke; Klanderman, Barbara; Sylvia, Jody; Kazani, Shamsah; Wu, Rongling; Martinez, Fernando; Boushey, Homer A.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Mauger, Dave; Weiss, Scott T.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Navis, Gerjan J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: [beta(2)-Agonists are the most common form of treatment of asthma, but there is significant variability in response to these medications. A significant proportion of this responsiveness may be heritable. Objectives: To investigate whether a genome-wide association study (GWAS) could

  2. Presence and significance of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins associated with the Andean weevil Premnotrypes vorax (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SilvioAlejandro López-Pazos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Andean weevil Premnotrypes vorax represents an important cause of damage to Colombian potato crops. Due to the impact of this plague on the economy of the country, we searched for new alternatives for its biological control, based on the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. A total of 300 B. thuringiensis strains obtained from potato plantations infested with P. vorax were analyzed through crystal morphology, SDS-PAGE, PCR and bioassays. We used site- directed mutagenesis to modify the Cry3Aa protein. Most of the B. thuringiensis isolates had a bipyramidal crystal morphology. SDS-PAGE analyses had seven strains groups with σ-endotoxins from 35 to 135 kDa. The genes cry 2 and cry 1 were significantly more frequent in the P. vorax habitat (PCR analyses. Three mutant toxins, 1 (D354E, 2 (R345A, ∆Y350, ∆Y351, and 3 (Q482A, S484A, R485A, were analyzed to assess their activity against P. vorax larvae. Toxicity was low, or absent, against P. vorax for isolates, wild type cry 3Aa and cry 3Aa mutants. The genetic characterization of the collection provides opportunities for the selection of strains to be tested in bioassays against other insect pests of agricultural importance, and for designing Cry proteins with improved insecticidal toxicity. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1235-1243. Epub 2009 December 01.El gorgojo andino Premnotrypes vorax es una causa importante de daño en los cultivos colombianos de este tubérculo. Debido al impacto que esta plaga tiene sobre la economía del país, nos interesamos en buscar alternativas nuevas para el control biológico de P. vorax, basadas en la bacteria entomopatógena Bacillus thuringiensis. Se recolectaron un total de 300 cepas de B. thuringiensis a partir de plantaciones de papa infestadas con P. vorax, las cuales fueron analizadas por medio de la morfología del cristal, SDS-PAGE, PCR y ensayos biológicos. La mayoría de los aislamientos de B. thuringiensis presentaron cristales

  3. Significant association between ERCC2 and MTHR polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility in Moroccan population: genotype and haplotype analysis in a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardi, Hanaa; Melki, Rahma; Boughaleb, Zouhour; El Harroudi, Tijani; Aissaoui, Souria; Boukhatem, Noureddine

    2018-03-15

    Genetic determinants of breast cancer (BC) remained largely unknown in the majority of Moroccan patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the association of ERCC2 and MTHFR polymorphisms with genetic susceptibility to breast cancer in Moroccan population. We genotyped ERCC2 polymorphisms (rs1799793 (G934A) and rs13181 (A2251C)) and MTHFR polymorphisms (rs1801133 (C677T) and rs1801131 (A1298C)) using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. Genotypes were compared in 151 BC cases and 156 population-matched controls. Allelic, genotypic and haplotype associations with the risk and clinicopathological features of BC were assessed using logistic regression analyses. ERCC2-rs1799793-AA genotype was associated with high risk of BC compared to wild type genotype (recessive model: OR: 2.90, 95% CI: 1.34-6.26, p = 0.0069) even after Bonferroni correction (p < 0,0125). MTHFR rs1801133-TT genotype was associated with increased risk of BC (recessive model, OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.17-5.29, p = 0.017) but the association turned insignificant after Bonferroni correction. For the rest of SNPs, no statistical associations to BC risk were detected. Significant association with clinical features was detected for MTHFR-rs1801133-TC genotype with early age at diagnosis and familial BC. Following Bonferroni correction, only association with familial BC remained significant. MTHFR-rs1801131-CC genotype was associated with sporadic BC. ERCC2-rs1799793-AA genotype correlated with ER+ and PR+ breast cancer. ERCC2-rs13181-CA genotype was significantly associated large tumors (T ≥ 3) in BC patients. None of these associations passed Bonferroni correction. Haplotype analysis showed that ERCC2 A-C haplotype was significantly associated with increased BC risk (OR: 3.71, 95% CI: 1.7-8.12, p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0008 before and after Bonferroni correction, respectively) and positive expression of ER and PR in BC patients. ERCC2 G-C haplotype was correlated with PR negative and

  4. F247. INTERNALIZED STIGMA HAS A STRONGER RELATIONSHIP WITH INTRINSIC MOTIVATION COMPARED TO AMOTIVATION IN EARLY PHASE AND PROLONGED SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Ruth; Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul; Vohs, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Motivation deficits predict decreased functioning in schizophrenia. Recent work suggests deficits reflect challenges in separate domains: intrinsic motivation (one’s internal drive to engage in a behavior out of enjoyment or interest) and amotivation (one’s broader decrease in motivated behavior linked to avolition and anhedonia). Internalized stigma is another determinant of functioning for people with schizophrenia that may impact motivation. However, little is known about these relationships, including which aspects of motivation it may impact nor when these links emerge. Identifying the link between these constructs may help to identify whether internalized stigma may be a novel treatment target to facilitate improvements in motivation. Methods Forty adults with early phase schizophrenia and 66 adults with prolonged schizophrenia completed measures of internalized stigma, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. Pearson’s correlations were examined followed by Fischer’s r-to-z transformations to compare differences in the magnitude of associations between internalized stigma and intrinsic motivation and internalized stigma and amotivation among the first episode and prolonged samples. Next, we conducted stepwise regressions to examine whether internalized stigma was associated with intrinsic motivation above and beyond associations with amotivation in each sample. Results In the early phase sample, the association between internalized stigma was greater with intrinsic motivation (r=-0.48, p=.00) compared to amotivation (r=0.27, p=0.10). Associations with internalized stigma in the prolonged sample were also greater with intrinsic motivation (r=-0.30, p=0.02) versus amotivation (r=0.19, p=0.12). The magnitude of the associations between internalized stigma and intrinsic motivation (z=1.03, p=0.15) and between internalized stigma and amotivation (z=0.41, p = 0.34) did not significantly differ when comparing phase of illness. Regression

  5. Significant association between renal function and area of amyloid deposition in kidney biopsy specimens in both AA amyloidosis associated with rheumatoid arthritis and AL amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Tanabe, Naohito; Hasegawa, Eriko; Wakamatsu, Ayako; Nozawa, Yukiko; Sato, Hiroe; Nakatsue, Takeshi; Wada, Yoko; Ito, Yumi; Imai, Naofumi; Ueno, Mitsuhiro; Nakano, Masaaki; Narita, Ichiei

    2017-06-01

    The kidney is a major target organ for systemic amyloidosis, which results in proteinuria and an elevated serum creatinine level. The clinical manifestations and precursor proteins of amyloid A (AA) and light-chain (AL) amyloidosis are different, and the renal damage due to amyloid deposition also seems to differ. The purpose of this study was to clarify haw the difference in clinical features between AA and AL amyloidosis are explained by the difference in the amount and distribution of amyloid deposition in the renal tissues. A total of 119 patients participated: 58 patients with an established diagnosis of AA amyloidosis (AA group) and 61 with AL amyloidosis (AL group). We retrospectively investigated the correlation between clinical data, pathological manifestations, and the area occupied by amyloid in renal biopsy specimens. In most of the renal specimens the percentage area occupied by amyloid was less than 10%. For statistical analyses, the percentage area of amyloid deposition was transformed to a common logarithmic value (Log 10 %amyloid). The results of sex-, age-, and Log 10 %amyloid-adjusted analyses showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP) was higher in the AA group. In terms of renal function parameters, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance (Ccr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) indicated significant renal impairment in the AA group, whereas urinary protein indicated significant renal impairment in the AL group. Pathological examinations revealed amyloid was predominantly deposited at glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and easily transferred to the mesangial area in the AA group, and it was predominantly deposited at in the AL group. The degree of amyloid deposition in the glomerular capillary was significantly more severe in AL group. The frequency of amyloid deposits in extraglomerular mesangium was not significantly different between the two groups, but in AA group, the degree amyloid deposition was significantly more severe, and

  6. The presence of advanced lesions and associating risk factors for advanced cervical carcinoma in patients with atypical sguamous cells of undetermined significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L L; Chen, W; Fan, Y Y; Wang, M L; Wang, L N

    2015-01-01

    To characterize histopathological status, high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection status, and associated risk factors in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). Cervical biopsies obtained from 130 ASCUS patients were subjected to histopathological examination and hr-HPV testing. Associations between advanced lesions and hr-HPV load or age were analyzed, and the confounding factors for high-grade cervical lesions were identified. Cervical biopsies from ASCUS patients had a wide range of pathological states, ranging from normal to invasive cervical carcinoma. High-risk HPV infection was significantly associated with advanced cervical lesions in ASCUS patients; hr-HPV infection and the number of gestations were risk factors for developing advanced cervical disease. A significant portion of ASCUS patients harbor advanced cervical lesions. The number of gestations and hr-HPV infection can increase the risk of developing advanced cervical lesions in ASCUS patients.

  7. The survival–reproduction association becomes stronger when conditions are good

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Alexandre; Bolton, Mark; Jiguet, Frédéric; Bried, Joël

    2015-01-01

    Positive covariations between survival and reproductive performance (S–R covariation) are generally interpreted in the context of fixed or dynamic demographic heterogeneity (i.e. persistent differences between individuals, or dynamic variation in resource acquisition), but the processes underlying covariations are still unknown. We used multi-event modelling to investigate how environmental and individual features influence S–R covariation patterns in a long-lived seabird, the Monteiro's stor...

  8. Brain potentials highlight stronger implicit food memory for taste than context associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R.; Jolij, Jacob; ter Horst, Gert J.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the

  9. Brain Potentials Highlight Stronger Implicit Food Memory for Taste than Health and Context Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R.; Jolij, Jacob; Horst, ter Gert; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the

  10. Physical activity, obesity and mortality: does pattern of physical activity have stronger epidemiological associations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E.; Grunseit, Anne C.; Rangul, Vegar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most studies of physical activity (PA) epidemiology use behaviour measured at a single time-point. We examined whether 'PA patterns' (consistently low, consistently high or inconsistent PA levels over time) showed different epidemiological relationships for anthropometric and mortality...... and time 3, and sport and active travel at times 1 and 2 with BMI, waist, hip circumference and mortality (death from coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)) were compared to 'PA patterns' spanning multiple time points. PA pattern classified participants' PA as either 1) inactive......: The moderately and highly active groups for PA at times 1 and 3 had up to 1.7 cm lower increase in waist circumference compared with the inactive/low active group. Across 'PA patterns', 'active maintainers' had a 2.0 cm lower waist circumference than 'inactive/low maintainers'. Waist circumference was inversely...

  11. Brain Potentials Highlight Stronger Implicit Food Memory for Taste than Health and Context Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R.; Jolij, Jacob; ter Horst, Gert J.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the actual perception of a food's sensory properties, and therefore highly rely on previous experiences of similar consumptions stored in memory. In this study we assessed the differential strength of...

  12. Study finds stronger nicotine dependency associated with higher risk of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI headed study finds people who are highly addicted to nicotine -- those who smoke their first cigarette within five minutes after awakening -- are at higher risk of developing lung cancer than those who wait for an hour or more to smoke.

  13. Socioeconomic Status Is Significantly Associated with the Dietary Intakes of Folate and Depression Scales in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Shimbo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The association of socioeconomic status (SES with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ. The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the validated Japanese version of the K6 scale. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of intake with the confounding factors. Path analysis was conducted to describe the impacts of intake on health outcomes. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with intake of folate and depression scales (p < 0.05. After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, years of education significantly affect the folate intake (β = 0.117, p < 0.001. The structural equation model (SEM shows that the indirect effect of folate intake is statistically significant and strong (p < 0.05, 56% of direct effect in the pathway of education level to depression scale. Our study shows both education and income are significantly associated with depression scales in Japanese workers, and the effort to increase the folate intake may alleviate the harms of social disparities on mental health.

  14. Stronger influence of maternal than paternal obesity on infant and early childhood body mass index: the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linabery, A M; Nahhas, R W; Johnson, W; Choh, A C; Towne, B; Odegaard, A O; Czerwinski, S A; Demerath, E W

    2013-06-01

    also included parental covariates, infant sex, age and birth variables, and interactions with child's age. Infant BMI curves were significantly different across the three maternal BMI categories (Poverall  obese mothers had greater mean BMI at birth and between 1.5 and 3.5 years than those of over- and normal weight mothers (P ≤ 0.02). Average differences between offspring of obese and normal weight mothers were similar at birth (0.8 kg m(-2) , P = 0.0009) and between 2 and 3.5 years (0.7-0.8 kg m(-2) , P obese fathers also had BMI growth curves distinct from those of normal weight fathers (P = 0.02). Infant BMI was more strongly associated with maternal than paternal obesity overall (P maternal BMI has a stronger influence on BMI growth than paternal BMI, suggesting weight control in reproductive age women may be of particular benefit for preventing excess infant BMI. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  15. Serum albumin coating of demineralized bone matrix results in stronger new bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthy, Dénes B; Vácz, Gabriella; Szabó, Tamás; Szigyártó, Imola C; Toró, Ildikó; Vámos, Boglárka; Hornyák, István; Renner, Károly; Klára, Tamás; Szabó, Bence T; Dobó-Nagy, Csaba; Doros, Attila; Lacza, Zsombor

    2016-01-01

    Blood serum fractions are hotly debated adjuvants in bone replacement therapies. In the present experiment, we coated demineralized bone matrices (DBM) with serum albumin and investigated stem cell attachment in vitro and bone formation in a rat calvaria defect model. In the in vitro experiments, we observed that significantly more cells adhere to the serum albumin coated DBMs at every time point. In vivo bone formation with albumin coated and uncoated DBM was monitored biweekly by computed tomography until 11 weeks postoperatively while empty defects served as controls. By the seventh week, the bone defect in the albumin group was almost completely closed (remaining defect 3.0 ± 2.3%), while uncoated DBM and unfilled control groups still had significant defects (uncoated: 40.2 ± 9.1%, control: 52.4 ± 8.9%). Higher density values were also observed in the albumin coated DBM group. In addition, the serum albumin enhanced group showed significantly higher volume of newly formed bone in the microCT analysis and produced significantly higher breaking force and stiffness compared to the uncoated grafts (peak breaking force: uncoated: 15.7 ± 4 N, albumin 46.1 ± 11 N). In conclusion, this investigation shows that implanting serum albumin coated DBM significantly reduces healing period in nonhealing defects and results in mechanically stronger bone. These results also support the idea that serum albumin coating provides a convenient milieu for stem cell function, and a much improved bone grafting success can be achieved without the use of exogenous stem cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. High Plasma TIMP-1 and Serum CEA Levels during Combination Chemotherapy for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Are Significantly Associated with Poor Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldulaymi, Bahir; Byström, Per; Berglund, Ake

    2010-01-01

    . The first response evaluation was performed after 8 weeks of chemotherapy. Results: Median plasma TIMP-1 and serum CEA levels did not change significantly during 6 weeks of treatment. High plasma TIMP-1 and high serum CEA levels before treatment and at weeks 2, 4 and 6 were related to poor objective...... associated with poor overall survival; p

  17. Socioeconomic status is significantly associated with the dietary intakes of folate and depression scales in Japanese workers (J-HOPE Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

    2013-02-18

    The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the validated Japanese version of the K6 scale. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of intake with the confounding factors. Path analysis was conducted to describe the impacts of intake on health outcomes. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with intake of folate and depression scales (p workers, and the effort to increase the folate intake may alleviate the harms of social disparities on mental health.

  18. Stronger activation of SREBP-1a by nucleus-localized HBx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qi; Qiao, Ling; Yang, Jian; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein activates the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a). Here we examined the role of nuclear localization of HBx in this process. In comparison to the wild-type and cytoplasmic HBx, nuclear HBx had stronger effects on SREBP-1a and fatty acid synthase transcription activation, intracellular lipid accumulation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, nuclear HBx could activate HBV enhancer I/X promoter and was more effective on up-regulating HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication than the wild-type HBx, while the cytoplasmic HBx had no effect. Our results demonstrate the functional significance of the nucleus-localized HBx in regulating host lipogenic pathway and HBV replication. - Highlights: • Nuclear HBx is more effective on activating SREBP-1a and FASN transcription. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing intracellular lipid accumulation. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing cell proliferation. • Nuclear HBx up-regulates HBV enhancer I/X promoter activity. • Nuclear HBx increases HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication

  19. Stronger activation of SREBP-1a by nucleus-localized HBx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qi [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Qiao, Ling [VIDO-InterVac, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Yang, Jian [Drug Discovery Group, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Zhou, Yan [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, Vaccinology and Immunotherapeutics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Liu, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.liu@usask.ca [VIDO-InterVac, Veterinary Microbiology, Vaccinology and Immunotherapeutics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2015-05-08

    We previously showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein activates the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a). Here we examined the role of nuclear localization of HBx in this process. In comparison to the wild-type and cytoplasmic HBx, nuclear HBx had stronger effects on SREBP-1a and fatty acid synthase transcription activation, intracellular lipid accumulation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, nuclear HBx could activate HBV enhancer I/X promoter and was more effective on up-regulating HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication than the wild-type HBx, while the cytoplasmic HBx had no effect. Our results demonstrate the functional significance of the nucleus-localized HBx in regulating host lipogenic pathway and HBV replication. - Highlights: • Nuclear HBx is more effective on activating SREBP-1a and FASN transcription. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing intracellular lipid accumulation. • Nuclear HBx is more effective on enhancing cell proliferation. • Nuclear HBx up-regulates HBV enhancer I/X promoter activity. • Nuclear HBx increases HBV mRNA level in the context of HBV replication.

  20. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-03-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatment significantly decreased soil nematodes density, and night-time warming treatment marginally affected the density. The response of bacterivorous nematode and fungivorous nematode to experimental warming showed the same trend with the total density. Redundancy analysis revealed an opposite effect of soil moisture and soil temperature, and the most important of soil moisture and temperature in night-time among the measured environment factors, affecting soil nematode community. Our findings suggested that daily minimum temperature and warming induced drying are most important factors affecting soil nematode community under the current global asymmetric warming.

  1. Earlier adolescent substance use onset predicts stronger connectivity between reward and cognitive control brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, David G; Schriber, Roberta A; Fassbender, Catherine; Atherton, Olivia; Krafft, Cynthia; Robins, Richard W; Hastings, Paul D; Guyer, Amanda E

    2015-12-01

    Early adolescent onset of substance use is a robust predictor of future substance use disorders. We examined the relation between age of substance use initiation and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the core reward processing (nucleus accumbens; NAcc) to cognitive control (prefrontal cortex; PFC) brain networks. Adolescents in a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth reported their substance use annually from ages 10 to 16 years. At age 16, 69 adolescents participated in a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seed-based correlational analyses were conducted using regions of interest in bilateral NAcc. The earlier that adolescents initiated substance use, the stronger the connectivity between bilateral NAcc and right dorsolateral PFC, right dorsomedial PFC, right pre-supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule, and left medial temporal gyrus. The regions that demonstrated significant positive linear relationships between the number of adolescent years using substances and connectivity with NAcc are nodes in the right frontoparietal network, which is central to cognitive control. The coupling of reward and cognitive control networks may be a mechanism through which earlier onset of substance use is related to brain function over time, a trajectory that may be implicated in subsequent substance use disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Lack of significant associations with early career performance suggest no link between the DMRT3 "Gait Keeper" mutation and precocity in Coldblooded trotters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jäderkvist Fegraeus

    Full Text Available The Swedish-Norwegian Coldblooded trotter (CBT is a local breed in Sweden and Norway mainly used for harness racing. Previous studies have shown that a mutation from cytosine (C to adenine (A in the doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3 gene has a major impact on harness racing performance of different breeds. An association of the DMRT3 mutation with early career performance has also been suggested. The aim of the current study was to investigate this proposed association in a randomly selected group of CBTs. 769 CBTs (485 raced, 284 unraced were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. The association with racing performance was investigated for 13 performance traits and three different age intervals: 3 years, 3 to 6 years, and 7 to 10 years of age, using the statistical software R. Each performance trait was analyzed for association with DMRT3 using linear models. The results suggest no association of the DMRT3 mutation with precocity (i.e. performance at 3 years of age. Only two traits (race time and number of disqualifications were significantly different between the genotypes, with AA horses having the fastest times and CC horses having the highest number of disqualifications at 3 years of age. The frequency of the AA genotype was significantly lower in the raced CBT sample compared with the unraced sample and less than 50% of the AA horses participated in a race. For the age intervals 3 to 6 and 7 to 10 years the AA horses also failed to demonstrate significantly better performance than the other genotypes. Although suggested as the most favorable genotype for racing performance in Standardbreds and Finnhorses across all ages, the AA genotype does not appear to be associated with superior performance, early or late, in the racing career of CBTs.

  3. Age and associated fibrocystic changes are prognostically significant in patients with small node-negative (T1a,bN0) invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Merih Guray; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M; Hanrahan, Emer O; Broglio, Kristine R; Valero, Vicente; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Hunt, Kelly K; Sahin, Aysegul A

    2011-01-01

    Some patients with small (≤1.0 cm) node-negative (T1a,bN0) invasive breast cancer (IBC) who undergo only local therapy experience recurrences. There is limited information on prognostic factors in these patients. We sought to identify prognostic factors associated with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with T1a,bN0 IBC. Histologic sections from 273 T1a,bN0 IBC patients treated at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) between 1980 and 1999 were reviewed. Microscopic tumor size; multifocality; histologic type, grade of tumor; presence, type, grade of associated ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); presence of fibrocystic changes (FCC) with/without atypia; and lymphovascular invasion were identified. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate DFS and OS. Median patient age was 58 years, median follow-up period was 10.8 years, and median tumor size was 0.8 cm. Multifocal disease was identified in 26% of cases. At 10 years, the DFS and OS rates were 91% and 88%, respectively. Twenty-one percent of patients had extensive (>50%), and 30% had grade 3 DCIS. Nonproliferative FCC and proliferative FCC with/without atypia were present in 80%, 36%, and 38% of patients, respectively. In univariate analysis, age at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), grade (p = 0.015), and percent (p = 0.046) of DCIS were significantly associated with DFS; presence of FCC was associated with longer DFS and OS. In multivariable models, age and presence of FCC remained significantly associated with survival. Age at diagnosis and associated FCC are significant factors in predicting recurrence in patients with T1a,bN0 IBC. Adjuvant systemic therapy should be discussed with and considered for young patients with T1a,bN0 IBC. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Pharmacogenetics of efficacy and safety of HCV treatment in HCV-HIV coinfected patients: significant associations with IL28B and SOCS3 gene variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Vidal

    Full Text Available This was a safety and efficacy pharmacogenetic study of a previously performed randomized trial which compared the effectiveness of treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with pegylated interferon alpha (pegIFNα 2a vs. 2b, both with ribavirin, for 48 weeks, in HCV-HIV coinfected patients.The study groups were made of 99 patients (efficacy pharmacogenetic substudy and of 114 patients (safety pharmacogenetic substudy. Polymorphisms in the following candidate genes IL28B, IL6, IL10, TNFα, IFNγ, CCL5, MxA, OAS1, SOCS3, CTLA4 and ITPA were assessed. Genotyping was carried out using Sequenom iPLEX-Gold, a single-base extension polymerase chain reaction. Efficacy end-points assessed were: rapid, early and sustained virological response (RVR, EVR and SVR, respectively. Safety end-points assessed were: anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, flu-like syndrome, gastrointestinal disturbances and depression. Chi square test, Student's T test, Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression were used for statistic analyses.As efficacy is concerned, IL28B and CTLA4 gene polymorphisms were associated with RVR (p<0.05 for both comparisons. Nevertheless, only polymorphism in the IL28B gene was associated with SVR (p = 0.004. In the multivariate analysis, the only gene independently associated with SVR was IL28B (OR 2.61, 95%CI 1.2-5.6, p = 0.01. With respect to safety, there were no significant associations between flu-like syndrome or depression and the genetic variants studied. Gastrointestinal disturbances were associated with ITPA gene polymorphism (p = 0.04. Anemia was associated with OAS1 and CTLA4 gene polymorphisms (p = 0.049 and p = 0.045, respectively, neutropenia and thromobocytopenia were associated with SOCS3 gene polymorphism (p = 0.02 and p = 0.002, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, the associations of the SOCS3 gene polymorphism with neutropenia (OR 0.26, 95%CI 0.09-0.75, p = 0.01 and thrombocytopenia (OR

  5. Prognostic significance of repeat biopsy in lupus nephritis: Histopathologic worsening and a short time between biopsies is associated with significantly increased risk for end stage renal disease and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriens, Cristina; Chen, Sixia; Karp, David R; Saxena, Ramesh; Sambandam, Kamalanathan; Chakravarty, Eliza; James, Judith A; Merrill, Joan T

    2017-12-01

    histopathology had died compared to 2 (3.2%) of non-worsening patients. Biopsy worsening was associated with a significantly greater 15-year risk of ESRD (Hazard Ratio 4.2, p=0.0001) and death (Hazard Ratio 4.3, p=0.022), adjusting for age, gender, race, biopsy class, and treatment. Time between first and second biopsies was 5years in 28. Over a 15-year period, those with <1year between first and second biopsies (presumably enriched for patients with early clinical signs of progression) had a significantly greater risk of ESRD (Hazard Ratio 13.7, p<0.0001) and death (Hazard Ratio 16.9, p=0.0022) after adjusting for age, gender, race, biopsy class, and treatment. A repeat renal biopsy demonstrating worsening pathology increases the risk of ESRD and death more than four-fold compared to non-worsening patients. Given known potential mismatch between biopsy and clinical data, repeat biopsies may add important information and justify changes in treatment not considered on clinical grounds. Earlier detection of poor prognostic signs in those without early clinical deterioration might improve outcomes in enough patients to reconsider cost effectiveness of routine repeat biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association analysis of bitter receptor genes in five isolated populations identifies a significant correlation between TAS2R43 variants and coffee liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirastu, Nicola; Kooyman, Maarten; Traglia, Michela; Robino, Antonietta; Willems, Sara M; Pistis, Giorgio; d'Adamo, Pio; Amin, Najaf; d'Eustacchio, Angela; Navarini, Luciano; Sala, Cinzia; Karssen, Lennart C; van Duijn, Cornelia; Toniolo, Daniela; Gasparini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Coffee, one of the most popular beverages in the world, contains many different physiologically active compounds with a potential impact on people's health. Despite the recent attention given to the genetic basis of its consumption, very little has been done in understanding genes influencing coffee preference among different individuals. Given its markedly bitter taste, we decided to verify if bitter receptor genes (TAS2Rs) variants affect coffee liking. In this light, 4066 people from different parts of Europe and Central Asia filled in a field questionnaire on coffee liking. They have been consequently recruited and included in the study. Eighty-eight SNPs covering the 25 TAS2R genes were selected from the available imputed ones and used to run association analysis for coffee liking. A significant association was detected with three SNP: one synonymous and two functional variants (W35S and H212R) on the TAS2R43 gene. Both variants have been shown to greatly reduce in vitro protein activity. Surprisingly the wild type allele, which corresponds to the functional form of the protein, is associated to higher liking of coffee. Since the hTAS2R43 receptor is sensible to caffeine, we verified if the detected variants produced differences in caffeine bitter perception on a subsample of people coming from the FVG cohort. We found a significant association between differences in caffeine perception and the H212R variant but not with the W35S, which suggests that the effect of the TAS2R43 gene on coffee liking is mediated by caffeine and in particular by the H212R variant. No other significant association was found with other TAS2R genes. In conclusion, the present study opens new perspectives in the understanding of coffee liking. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of the TAS2R43 gene in coffee hedonics and to identify which other genes and pathways are involved in its genetics.

  7. Association analysis of bitter receptor genes in five isolated populations identifies a significant correlation between TAS2R43 variants and coffee liking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pirastu

    Full Text Available Coffee, one of the most popular beverages in the world, contains many different physiologically active compounds with a potential impact on people's health. Despite the recent attention given to the genetic basis of its consumption, very little has been done in understanding genes influencing coffee preference among different individuals. Given its markedly bitter taste, we decided to verify if bitter receptor genes (TAS2Rs variants affect coffee liking. In this light, 4066 people from different parts of Europe and Central Asia filled in a field questionnaire on coffee liking. They have been consequently recruited and included in the study. Eighty-eight SNPs covering the 25 TAS2R genes were selected from the available imputed ones and used to run association analysis for coffee liking. A significant association was detected with three SNP: one synonymous and two functional variants (W35S and H212R on the TAS2R43 gene. Both variants have been shown to greatly reduce in vitro protein activity. Surprisingly the wild type allele, which corresponds to the functional form of the protein, is associated to higher liking of coffee. Since the hTAS2R43 receptor is sensible to caffeine, we verified if the detected variants produced differences in caffeine bitter perception on a subsample of people coming from the FVG cohort. We found a significant association between differences in caffeine perception and the H212R variant but not with the W35S, which suggests that the effect of the TAS2R43 gene on coffee liking is mediated by caffeine and in particular by the H212R variant. No other significant association was found with other TAS2R genes. In conclusion, the present study opens new perspectives in the understanding of coffee liking. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of the TAS2R43 gene in coffee hedonics and to identify which other genes and pathways are involved in its genetics.

  8. First High-Density Linkage Map and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Significantly Associated With Traits of Economic Importance in Yellowtail Kingfish Seriola lalandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen H. Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic resources available for the commercially important fish species Yellowtail kingfish (YTK (Seriola lalandi are relative sparse. To overcome this, we aimed (1 to develop a linkage map for this species, and (2 to identify markers/variants associated with economically important traits in kingfish (with an emphasis on body weight. Genetic and genomic analyses were conducted using 13,898 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs generated from a new high-throughput genotyping by sequencing platform, Diversity Arrays Technology (DArTseqTM in a pedigreed population comprising 752 animals. The linkage analysis enabled to map about 4,000 markers to 24 linkage groups (LGs, with an average density of 3.4 SNPs per cM. The linkage map was integrated into a genome-wide association study (GWAS and identified six variants/SNPs associated with body weight (P < 5e-8 when a multi-locus mixed model was used. Two out of the six significant markers were mapped to LGs 17 and 23, and collectively they explained 5.8% of the total genetic variance. It is concluded that the newly developed linkage map and the significantly associated markers with body weight provide fundamental information to characterize genetic architecture of growth-related traits in this population of YTK S. lalandi.

  9. First High-Density Linkage Map and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Significantly Associated With Traits of Economic Importance in Yellowtail Kingfish Seriola lalandi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyen H; Rastas, Pasi M A; Premachandra, H K A; Knibb, Wayne

    2018-01-01

    The genetic resources available for the commercially important fish species Yellowtail kingfish (YTK) ( Seriola lalandi) are relative sparse. To overcome this, we aimed (1) to develop a linkage map for this species, and (2) to identify markers/variants associated with economically important traits in kingfish (with an emphasis on body weight). Genetic and genomic analyses were conducted using 13,898 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) generated from a new high-throughput genotyping by sequencing platform, Diversity Arrays Technology (DArTseq TM ) in a pedigreed population comprising 752 animals. The linkage analysis enabled to map about 4,000 markers to 24 linkage groups (LGs), with an average density of 3.4 SNPs per cM. The linkage map was integrated into a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and identified six variants/SNPs associated with body weight ( P 5e -8 ) when a multi-locus mixed model was used. Two out of the six significant markers were mapped to LGs 17 and 23, and collectively they explained 5.8% of the total genetic variance. It is concluded that the newly developed linkage map and the significantly associated markers with body weight provide fundamental information to characterize genetic architecture of growth-related traits in this population of YTK S. lalandi .

  10. Male infertility is significantly associated with multiple deletions in an 8.7-kb segment of sperm mtDNA in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Irfan Afzal; Irfan, Asma; Jahan, Sarwat; Hameed, Abdul

    2017-06-12

    This study aimed to find a link between sperm mitochondrial DNA mutations and male infertility in Pakistan. DNA from semen samples was extracted and amplified by PCR using 7.8-kb deletion-specific primers. The PCR products were separated on agarose gel, visualized under UV-illumination, and then photographed. The results were genotyped and the data were analyzed using SPSS. Deletion analysis of the 8.7-kb fragment by long PCR revealed multiple deletions. The frequency of deletion was much higher in infertile groups as compared to the control group. Further, on comparison between different subtypes of infertile groups, the deletions were highest in the oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) group. The statistical analysis of case and control groups showed a significant association of the 8.7-kb deletion with human male infertile groups (P = 0.031), and particularly a very significant association with the OAT subgroup (P = 0.019). A significant association has been found between human male infertility and mtDNA deletions in an 8.7-kb segment of sperm mtDNA in a Pakistani population.

  11. Esomeprazole use is independently associated with significant reduction of BMD: 1-year prospective comparative safety study of four proton pump inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiri, Elton; Islami, Hilmi; Hoxha, Rexhep; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Hoti, Kreshnik; Thaçi, Kujtim; Thaçi, Shpetim; Karakulak, Çağla

    2016-09-01

    Because of the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), their the use is increasing dramatically. The risk of adverse effects of short-term PPI therapy is low, but there are important safety concerns for potential adverse effects of prolonged PPI therapy. Findings from studies assessing the association between PPI use and bone mineral density (BMD) and/or fracture risk are contradictory. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess potential association of PPI treatment with the 12-month change in BMD of the lumbar spine, femur neck, and total hip. The study was performed in 200 PPI users and 50 PPI nonusers. Lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck, and total hip BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the baseline and at 12 months. A total of 209 subjects completed the entire 12 months of the study and were included in the final analysis. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that at 12 months PPI use was associated with statistically significant reductions in femur neck and total hip T scores (Z = -2.764, p = 0.005 and Z = -3.281, p = 0.001, respectively). A multiple linear regression analysis showed that only esomeprazole added significantly to the prediction of total lumbar spine and femur neck T scores (p = 0.048 and p = 0.037, respectively). Compared with the baseline, 12 months of PPI treatment resulted in lower femur neck and total hip BMD T scores. Among the four PPIs studied, esomeprazole was independently associated with significant reduction of BMD, whereas omeprazole had no effects on BMD. Considering the widespread use of PPIs, BMD screening should be considered in the case of prolonged PPI use.

  12. The C(-1019G 5-HT1A promoter polymorphism and personality traits: no evidence for significant association in alcoholic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zill P

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 5HT1A receptor is one of at least 14 different receptors for serotonin which has a role in moderating several brain functions and may be involved in the aetiology of several psychiatric disorders. The C(-1019G 5-HT1A promoter polymorphism was reported to be associated with major depression, depression-related personality traits and suicidal behavior in various samples. The G(-1019 allele carriers are prone to depressive personality traits and suicidal behavior, because serotonergic neurotransmission is reduced. The aim of this study is to replicate previous findings in a sample of 185 Alcohol-dependent individuals. Personality traits were evaluated using the NEO FFI and TCI. History of suicidal behavior was assessed by a standardized semistructured interview (SSAGA. No significant differences across C(-1019G 5-HT1A genotype groups were found for TCI temperament and character traits and for NEO FFI personality scales. No association was detected between this genetic variant and history of suicide attempts. These results neither support a role of C(-1019G 5-HT1A promoter polymorphism in the disposition of personality traits like harm avoidance or neuroticism, nor confirm previous research reporting an involvement of the G allele in suicidal behavior in alcoholics. Significant associations, however, were detected between Babor's Type B with number of suicide attempts in history, high neuroticism and harm avoidance scores in alcoholics.

  13. HOMA-IR is associated with significant angiographic coronary artery disease in non-diabetic, non-obese individuals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossmann, Márcio; Wainstein, Marco V; Gonçalves, Sandro C; Wainstein, Rodrigo V; Gravina, Gabriela L; Sangalli, Marlei; Veadrigo, Francine; Matte, Roselene; Reich, Rejane; Costa, Fernanda G; Bertoluci, Marcello C

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a major component of metabolic syndrome, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Although important in T2DM, its role as a predictor of CAD in non-diabetic patients is less studied. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the association of HOMA-IR with significant CAD, determined by coronary angiography in non-obese, non-T2DM patients. We also evaluate the association between 3 oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) based insulin sensitivity indexes (Matsuda, STUMVOLL-ISI and OGIS) and CAD. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 54 non-obese, non-diabetic individuals referred for coronary angiography due to suspected CAD. CAD was classified as the "anatomic burden score" corresponding to any stenosis equal or larger than 50 % in diameter on the coronary distribution. Patients without lesions were included in No-CAD group. Patients with at least 1 lesion were included in the CAD group. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with measurements of plasma glucose and serum insulin at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min was obtained to calculate insulin sensitivity parameters. HOMA-IR results were ranked and patients were also categorized into insulin resistant (IR) or non-insulin resistant (NIR) if they were respectively above or below the 75th percentile (HOMA-IR > 4.21). The insulin sensitivity tests results were also divided into IR and NIR, respectively below and above each 25th percentile. Chi square was used to study association. Poisson Regression Model was used to compare prevalence ratios between categorized CAD and IR groups. Fifty-four patients were included in the study. There were 26 patients (48 %) with significant CAD. The presence of clinically significant CAD was significant associated with HOMA-IR above p75 (Chi square 4.103, p = 0.0428) and 71 % of patients with HOMA-IR above p75 had significant CAD. Subjects with CAD had increased prevalence ratio of HOMA-IR above p75 compared to subjects without

  14. Significant association between asthma risk and the GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms: an updated meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Siqiao; Wei, Xuan; Gong, Chen; Wei, Jinmei; Chen, Zhangrong; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Zhibo; Deng, Jingmin

    2013-07-01

    Polymorphisms in GSTM1 and GSTT1 may be associated with asthma risk, yet several studies and meta-analyses have reported inconclusive results. Therefore, an updated meta-analysis was conducted. Literature searches were performed using the Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science databases until October 2012. Variant 'null' genotype was compared with wild-type 'present' in the pooled data. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA 11.0. A total of 26 case-control studies were suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. In the overall population, a significant association was found for both the GSTM1 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.452; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.192-1.770) and GSTT1 polymorphism (OR = 1.792; 95% CI:1.293-2.483). For subgroup analysis by age, GSTM1 significantly increased risk for both children (OR = 1.368; 95% CI: 1.051-1.781) and adults (OR = 1.859; 95% CI: 1.183-2.921). For GSTT1, a significant association was only found in the adult population (OR = 2.312; 95%CI: 1.204-4.439). Based on subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significant association for GSTM1 was found in Europe (OR = 1.303; 95% CI: 1.018-1.667), Africa (OR = 2.175; 95%CI: 1.560-3.031) and Latin America (OR = 2.265; 95%CI: 1.375-3.729). For GSTT1, significantly increased risk was found only for Asian (OR = 2.105; 95% CI: 1.101-4.025) and Russian (OR = 2.747; 95% CI: 1.071-7.046) populations. This meta-analysis provides evidence that GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms may be risk factors for asthma. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  15. Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma genitalium are found to be significantly associated with microscopy-confirmed urethritis in a routine genitourinary medicine setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ciara; McKenna, James P; Watt, Alison P; Coyle, Peter V

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation of the urethra defined by an excess of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the absence of sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is called non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis (NCNGU). Although Mycoplasma genitalium is now recognised as causing a sexually transmitted infection, the clinical significance of the other Mollicute species is less clear. This study used specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays to detect and quantify four Mollicute species, M. genitalium, M. hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum, in urine specimens from men with and without NCNGU. A total of 165 urine specimens from male patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic were eligible for the study, with microscopy-confirmed (≥5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes in urethral swab) NCNGU in 75 (45.5%) and non-confirmed NCNGU in 90 (54.5%). Chi-squared statistical analysis indicated a significantly higher prevalence of U. parvum (17.3% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.03) and M. genitalium (12% vs. 0%; p < 0.001) in NCNGU. In a subset analysis, M. genitalium was also significantly (p = 0.03) higher in men who have sex with men (MSM; 13.5%) compared to non-MSM (3.1%). No significant associations were reported for U. urealyticum and M. hominis In conclusion, this study supports a clinically significant role in NGNCU for both U. parvum and M. genitalium. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Changes in body weight are significantly associated with changes in fasting plasma glucose and HDL cholesterol in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference < 85 cm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu

    2011-06-01

    The aims are to examine whether changes in body weight (dBW) are associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) obesity. It is a retrospective study in 692 Japanese men without abdominal obesity who took annual health screening tests consecutively over one year. Standardized linear regression coefficients (SRCs) of dBW and dWC were calculated for changes in systolic blood pressure (dSBP), diastolic blood pressure (dDBP), fasting plasma glucose (dFPG), triglycerides (dTG), HDL cholesterol (dHDL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (dCRP). The SRCs of dBW for dFPG and dHDL were significant in all men and in men with each risk factor corresponding to the component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The SRCs of dWC for dTG and dCRP were significant in all men but not in men with each risk factor corresponding to the MetS component. In conclusions, dBW were significantly associated with dFPG and dHDL in Japanese men without abdominal obesity. Therefore, abdominal obesity should not be considered as a necessary component of MetS in Japanese men. dBW may be more useful than dWC as a marker of changes in cardiovascular risk factors in lifestyle intervention programs.

  17. Assessment of Tools for Marker-Assisted Selection in a Marine Commercial Species: Significant Association between MSTN-1 Gene Polymorphism and Growth Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Sánchez-Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection in complex traits as growth. Polymorphisms have been studied in five candidate genes influencing growth in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata: the growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, myostatin (MSTN-1, prolactin (PRL, and somatolactin (SL genes. Specimens evaluated were from a commercial broodstock comprising 131 breeders (from which 36 males and 44 females contributed to the progeny. In all samples eleven gene fragments, covering more than 13,000 bp, generated by PCR-RFLP, were analyzed; tests were made for significant associations between these markers and growth traits. ANOVA results showed a significant association between MSTN-1 gene polymorphism and growth traits. Pairwise tests revealed several RFLPs in the MSTN-1 gene with significant heterogeneity of genotypes among size groups. PRL and MSTN-1 genes presented linkage disequilibrium. The MSTN-1 gene was mapped in the centromeric region of a medium-size acrocentric chromosome pair.

  18. Association of Placebo, Indomethacin, Ibuprofen, and Acetaminophen With Closure of Hemodynamically Significant Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Souvik; Florez, Ivan D; Tamayo, Maria E; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Vanniyasingam, Thuva; Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Zea, Adriana M; Zhang, Yuan; Sadeghirad, Behnam; Thabane, Lehana

    2018-03-27

    Despite increasing emphasis on conservative management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants, different pharmacotherapeutic interventions are used to treat those developing a hemodynamically significant PDA. To estimate the relative likelihood of hemodynamically significant PDA closure with common pharmacotherapeutic interventions and to compare adverse event rates. The databases of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception until August 15, 2015, and updated on December 31, 2017, along with conference proceedings up to December 2017. Randomized clinical trials that enrolled preterm infants with a gestational age younger than 37 weeks treated with intravenous or oral indomethacin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen vs each other, placebo, or no treatment for a clinically or echocardiographically diagnosed hemodynamically significant PDA. Data were independently extracted in pairs by 6 reviewers and synthesized with Bayesian random-effects network meta-analyses. Primary outcome: hemodynamically significant PDA closure; secondary: included surgical closure, mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage. In 68 randomized clinical trials of 4802 infants, 14 different variations of indomethacin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen were used as treatment modalities. The overall PDA closure rate was 67.4% (2867 of 4256 infants). A high dose of oral ibuprofen was associated with a significantly higher odds of PDA closure vs a standard dose of intravenous ibuprofen (odds ratio [OR], 3.59; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.64-8.17; absolute risk difference, 199 [95% CrI, 95-258] more per 1000 infants) and a standard dose of intravenous indomethacin (OR, 2.35 [95% CrI, 1.08-5.31]; absolute risk difference, 124 [95% CrI, 14-188] more per 1000 infants). Based on the ranking statistics, a high dose of oral ibuprofen ranked as the best pharmacotherapeutic option for PDA closure (mean surface under the

  19. High Malnutrition Rate in Venezuelan Yanomami Compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: Significant Associations WITH Intestinal Parasites and Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Lilly M.; Incani, Renzo N.; Franco, Carolina R.; Ugarte, Alejandra; Cadenas, Yeneska; Sierra Ruiz, Carmen I.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Hoek, Denise; Campos Ponce, Maiza; de Waard, Jacobus H.; Pinelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Background Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 390 children aged 4-16 years from three rural areas of Venezuela: the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. Stool samples were collected for direct parasitic examinations. Anthropometric indicators of chronic (height-for-age Z score) and acute (weight-for-height and Body Mass Index (BMI)-for-age Z score in respectively children under 5 years of age and children aged 5 years and above) malnutrition were calculated. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were built to determine factors associated with nutritional status and polyparasitism. Results Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalences were highest in children from the Amazon rainforest (respectively 72% and 18%) while children from the Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State showed higher rates of Ascaris lumbricoides (respectively 28% and 37%) and Trichuris trichiura (40% in both regions). The prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection was not significantly different between regions (average: 18%). Anemia prevalence was highest in the Amazon Region (24%). Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in children with a hookworm infection. Malnutrition was present in respectively 84%, 30% and 13% of children from the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. In multivariate analysis including all regions, G. lamblia and helminth infections were significantly and negatively associated with respectively height-for-age and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age Z scores. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were positively associated with the height-for-age Z score (0.11, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.20). Conclusions In rural populations in Venezuela helminthiasis and giardiasis were

  20. Clinical significance of measurement of serum IL-8, TNF-α and gastrin contents in helicobacter pylori associated digestive tract diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jianfan; Ma Yunbao; Gao Leihua

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the serum levels of IL-8, TNF-α, Gastrin and disease process in HP infection associated chronic gastritis and duodenal ulcer. Methods: Diagnosis was established in 35 HP positive chronic gastritis and 30 HP positive duodenal ulcer patients through gastroscopy, histopathology and 14 C-UBT test. RIA was adopted to measure the plasma contents of the three parameters in those 65 patients and 32 controls. Results: The serum IL-8, TNF-α and Gastrin (Gas) levels in patients with chronic gastritis were significantly higher than those in controls (p<0.01). Significant difference also existed between the contents in the two disease group (p<0.01). Conclusion: It proved that HP infection played an important role in the development of the two digestive tract diseases

  1. Partner meeting place is significantly associated with gonorrhea and chlamydia in adolescents participating in a large high school sexually transmitted disease screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Felicia M T; Newman, Daniel R; Anschuetz, Greta L; Mettey, Aaron; Asbel, Lenore; Salmon, Melinda E

    2014-10-01

    From 2003 to 2012, the Philadelphia High School STD Screening Program screened 126,053 students, identifying 8089 Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) infections. We examined sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with CT/GC diagnoses among a sample of this high-risk population. Standardized interviews were given to infected students receiving in-school CT/GC treatment (2009-2012) and to uninfected students calling for results (2011-2012). Sex-stratified multivariable logistic models were created to examine factors independently associated with a CT/GC diagnosis. A simple risk index was developed using variables significant on multivariable analysis. A total of 1489 positive and 318 negative students were interviewed. Independent factors associated with a GC/CT diagnosis among females were black race (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.27; confidence interval, 1.12-4.58), history of arrest (AOR, 2.26; 1.22-4.21), higher partner number (AOR, 1.75; 1.05-2.91), meeting partners in own neighborhood (AOR, 1.92; 1.29-2.86), and meeting partners in venues other than own school, neighborhood, or through friends ("all other"; AOR, 9.44; 3.70-24.09). For males, factors included early sexual debut (AOR, 1.99; 1.21-3.26) and meeting partners at "all other" venues (AOR, 2.76; 1.2-6.4); meeting through friends was protective (AOR, 0.63; 0.41-0.96). Meeting partners at own school was protective for both sexes (males: AOR, 0.33; 0.20-0.55; females: AOR, 0.65; 0.44-0.96). Although factors associated with a GC/CT infection differed between males and females in our sample, partner meeting place was associated with infection for both sexes. School-based screening programs could use this information to target high-risk students for effective interventions.

  2. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, K E; Johansen, J D

    2003-01-01

    Household and cleaning products often contain both allergens and irritants. The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, paired study was to determine whether patch testing with an allergen (hydroxycitronellal) combined with an irritant [sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)] cause a stronger patch test...

  3. Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harndahl, Mikkel Nors; Rasmussen, Michael; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Peptide-MHC class I stability is a stronger predictor of CTL immunogenicity than peptide affinity Mikkel Harndahla, Michael Rasmussena, Morten Nielsenb, Soren Buusa,∗ a Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark b Center for Biological Seq...... al., 2007. J. Immunol. 178, 7890–7901. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2012.02.025...

  4. BUILDING STRONGER STATE ENERGY PARTNERSHIPS WITH THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kate Burke

    2002-11-01

    This technical progress report includes an update of the progress during the second year of cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. The report also describes the barriers in conduct of the effort, and our assessment of future progress and activities.

  5. Becoming Stronger at Broken Places: A Model for Group Work with Young Adult from Divorced Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Sally M.; Nosanow, Mia

    2000-01-01

    Describes a model for group work with young adults from divorced families using an 8-session psychoeducational group intervention. Goals include reducing isolation, establishing connectedness, and building a stronger sense of identify. By educating young adults on topics such as assertiveness, communication skills, and self-esteem, it will give…

  6. A Human Capital Framework for a Stronger Teacher Workforce. Advancing Teaching--Improving Learning. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Jeannie; Martinez, Krissia; Nordstrum, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Building a stronger teacher workforce requires the thoughtful orchestration of multiple processes working together in a human capital system. This white paper presents a framework that can be used to take stock of current efforts to enhance the teacher workforce in school districts or educational organizations, as well as their underlying theories…

  7. A novel synonymous SNP (A47A of the TMEM95 gene is significantly associated with the reproductive traits related to testis in male piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmembrane protein 95 (TMEM95 is located on the acrosomal membrane of the sperm head involved in the acrosome reaction; thus, it is regarded as affecting spermatogenesis and reproduction traits. The aim of this study was to explore the novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the pig TMEM95 gene as well as to evaluate their associations with the testicular sizes in male Landrace (LD and Large White (LW breeds. After pool sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, only one novel coding SNP was found in exon 1, namely NC_010454.3: g.341T > C, resulting in a synonymous mutation (A47A. This SNP could be genotyped using the StuI polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP assay. The minor allelic frequencies (MAFs were 0.259 and 0.480 in the LD and LW breeds. Their polymorphism information content (PIC values were 0.310 and 0.375. The LW population was at the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE (p > 0.05, whereas the LD population was not (p < 0.05. Association analyses demonstrated that a significant relationship was found between this A47A polymorphism and testis weight at 40 days of age in the LW population (p  =  0.047, and the heterozygote individuals showed lower testis weight than those with other genotypes. Moreover, this SNP was significantly associated with three testis measurement traits at 15 days of age in the LW population (p < 0.05; the individuals with genotypes TT and TC showed consistently superior testis measurement traits than those with genotype CC. These findings demonstrate that the A47A polymorphism had a significant effect on testis measurement traits, suggesting that the TMEM95 gene could be a candidate gene associated with reproductive traits. These results could contribute to breeding and genetics programs in the pig industry via DNA marker-assisted selection (MAS.

  8. Effects of radiation therapy on tissue and serum concentrations of tumour associated trypsin inhibitor and their prognostic significance in rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaber, Alexander; Jirström, Karin; Stene, Christina; Hotakainen, Kristina; Nodin, Björn; Palmquist, Ingrid; Bjartell, Anders; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Jeppsson, Bengt; Johnson, Louis B

    2011-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that elevated concentrations of tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) in both tumour tissue (t-TATI) and in serum (s-TATI) are associated with a poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. It was also found that s-TATI concentrations were lower in patients with rectal cancer compared to patients with colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT) on concentrations of t-TATI and s-TATI in patients with rectal cancer. TATI was analysed in serum, normal mucosa and tumour tissue collected at various time points in 53 rectal cancer patients enrolled in a case-control study where 12 patients received surgery alone, 20 patients 5 × 5 Gy (short-term) preoperative RT and 21 patients 25 × 2 Gy (long-term) preoperative RT. T-TATI was analysed by immunohistochemistry and s-TATI was determined by an immunofluorometric assay. Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Z (Z) test were used to assess t-TATI and s-TATI concentrations in relation to RT. Spearman's correlation (R) test was used to explore the associations between t-TATI, s-TATI and clinicopathological parameters. Overall survival (OS) according to high and low t-TATI and s-TATI concentrations was estimated by classification and regression tree analysis, Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log rank test. RT did not affect concentrations of t-TATI or s-TATI. In patients receiving short-term but not long-term RT, s-TATI concentrations were significantly higher 4 weeks post surgery than in serum drawn prior to surgery (Z = -3.366, P < 0.001). T-TATI expression correlated with male gender (R = 0.406, P = 0.008). High t-TATI expression in surgical specimens was associated with a significantly shorter OS (P = 0.045). S-TATI concentrations in serum drawn at all time points were associated with an impaired OS (P = 0.035 before RT, P = 0.001 prior to surgery, P = 0.043 post surgery). At all time points, s-TATI correlated with higher age (P < 0

  9. The association of HMGB1 expression with clinicopathological significance and prognosis in Asian patients with colorectal carcinoma: a meta-analysis and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang XL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Zhang,1,2 Jinming Yu,1,2 Minghuan Li,2 Hui Zhu,2 Xindong Sun,2 Li Kong2 1Department of Oncology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Background: The association of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 expression with clinicopathological significance and prognosis in Asian patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis and literature review to identify the role of HMGB1 in the development and prognosis of CRC in Asians. Methods: All eligible studies regarding the association between HMGB1 expression in tissue with clinicopathological significance and prognosis in Asian patients with CRC published up to January 2015 were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WanFang database. Analysis of pooled data was performed, while odds ratio (OR or hazard radio with 95% confidence interval (CI was calculated and summarized to evaluate the strength of this association in fixed- or random-effects model. Results: The expression level of HMGB1 in CRC tissues was much higher than normal colorectal tissues (OR =27.35, 95% CI 9.32–80.26, P<0.0001 and para-tumor colorectal tissues (OR =10.06, 95% CI 4.61–21.95, P<0.0001. There was no relation between the HMGB1 expression and sex, age, clinical T stage, tumor size, and location (colon or rectum cancer. However, a significant relation was detected between the HMGB1 expression and clinical stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer 7, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, tumor invasion depth, and differentiation rate (P=0.002, P≤0.0001, P<0.0001, P<0.0001, and P=0.007, respectively. Patients with higher HMGB1 expression had shorter overall survival time, whereas patients with lower level of HMGB1 had better survival (hazard

  10. Self-reported interpersonal problems and impact messages as perceived by significant others are differentially associated with the process and outcome of depression therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenstein-Yamanaka, David; Zimmermann, Johannes; Krieger, Tobias; Dörig, Nadja; Grosse Holtforth, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Interpersonal factors play a major role in causing and maintaining depression. This study sought to investigate how patients' self-perceived interpersonal problems and impact messages as perceived by significant others are interrelated, change over therapy, and differentially predict process and outcome in psychotherapy of depression. For the present study, we used data from 144 outpatients suffering from major depression that were treated within a psychotherapy study. Interpersonal variables were assessed pre- and posttherapy with the self-report Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scale (IIP-32; Thomas, Brähler, & Strauss, 2011) and with the informant-based Impact Message Inventory (Caspar, Berger, Fingerle, & Werner, 2016). Patients' levels on the dimensions of Agency and Communion were calculated from both measures; their levels on Interpersonal Distress were measured with the IIP. Depressive and general symptomatology was assessed at pre-, post-, and at 3-month follow-up; patient-reported process measures were assessed during therapy. The Agency scores of IIP and IMI correlated moderately, but the Communion scores did not. IIP Communion was positively associated with the quality of the early therapeutic alliance and with the average level of cognitive-emotional processing during therapy. Whereas IIP Communion and IMI Agency increased over therapy, IIP Distress decreased. A pre-post-decrease in IIP Distress was positively associated with pre-postsymptomatic change over and above the other interpersonal variables, but pre-post-increase in IMI Agency was positively associated with symptomatic improvement from post- to 3-month follow-up. These findings suggest that significant others seem to provide important additional information about the patients' interpersonal style. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. TNFα blockade for inflammatory rheumatic diseases is associated with a significant gain in android fat mass and has varying effects on adipokines: a 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussirot, Éric; Mourot, Laurent; Dehecq, Barbara; Wendling, Daniel; Grandclément, Émilie; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the long-term consequences of TNFα inhibitors on body composition and fat distribution, as well as changes in serum adipokines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Eight patients with RA and twelve with AS requiring a TNFα inhibitor were prospectively followed for 2 years. Body composition was evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry and included measurements of total fat mass, lean mass, fat in the gynoid and android regions, and visceral fat. Serum leptin, total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, resistin, and ghrelin were also assessed. There was a significant gain in body mass index (p = 0.05) and a tendency for weight (p = 0.07), android fat (p = 0.07), and visceral fat (p = 0.059) increase in patients with RA, while in AS, total fat mass significantly increased (p = 0.02) with a parallel weight gain (p = 0.07). When examining the whole population of patients, we observed after 2 years a significant increase in body weight (+1.9%; p = 0.003), body mass index (+2.5%; p = 0.004), total fat mass (+11.1%; p = 0.007), and fat in the android region (+18.3%; p = 0.02). There was a substantial, albeit nonsignificant gain in visceral fat (+24.3%; p = 0.088). Lean mass and gynoid fat were not modified. No major changes were observed for serum leptin, total adiponectin, and ghrelin, while HMW adiponectin and the HMW/total adiponectin ratio tended to decrease (-15.2%, p = 0.057 and -9.3%, p = 0.067, respectively). Resistin decreased significantly (-22.4%, p = 0.01). Long-term TNFα inhibition in RA and AS is associated with a significant gain in fat mass, with a shift to the android (visceral) region. This fat redistribution raises questions about its influence on the cardiovascular profile of patients receiving these treatments.

  12. Whole-body MRI quantitative biomarkers are associated significantly with treatment response in patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma following bortezomib induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifoltojar, Arash; Dikaios, Nikolaos [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Hall-Craggs, Margaret; Taylor, Stuart A.; Halligan, Steve; Punwani, Shonit [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Bainbridge, Alan; Sokolska, Magdalena [University College London Hospital, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, London (United Kingdom); Rabin, Neil; Popat, Rakesh; Rismani, Ali; D' Sa, Shirley; Yong, Kwee [University College London Hospital, Department of Haematology, London (United Kingdom); Antonelli, Michela; Ourselin, Sebastien [University College London, Translational Imaging Group, Centre for Medical Imaging Computing, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) parameters significantly associated with treatment response in multiple myeloma (MM). Twenty-one MM patients underwent WB-MRI at diagnosis and after two cycles of chemotherapy. Scans acquired at 3.0 T included T2, diffusion-weighted-imaging (DWI) and mDixon pre- and post-contrast. Twenty focal lesions (FLs) matched on DWI and post-contrast mDixon were selected for each time point. Estimated tumour volume (eTV), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), enhancement ratio (ER) and signal fat fraction (sFF) were derived. Clinical treatment response to chemotherapy was assessed using conventional criteria. Significance of temporal parameter change was assessed by the paired t test and receiver operating characteristics/area under the curve (AUC) analysis was performed. Parameter repeatability was assessed by interclass correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis of 10 healthy volunteers scanned at two time points. Fifteen of 21 patients responded to treatment. Of 254 FLs analysed, sFF (p < 0.0001) and ADC (p = 0.001) significantly increased in responders but not non-responders. eTV significantly decreased in 19/21 cases. Focal lesion sFF was the best discriminator of treatment response (AUC 1.0). Bone sFF repeatability was excellent (ICC 0.98) and better than bone ADC (ICC 0.47). WB-MRI derived focal lesion sFF shows promise as an imaging biomarker of treatment response in newly diagnosed MM. (orig.)

  13. Association between metformin use and progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to multiple myeloma in US veterans with diabetes mellitus: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Hsin; Luo, Suhong; O'Brian, Katiuscia K; Thomas, Theodore S; Colditz, Graham A; Carlsson, Nils P; Carson, Kenneth R

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is one of the most common haematological malignancies in the USA and is consistently preceded by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). We aimed to assess the association between metformin use and progression of MGUS to multiple myeloma. We did a retrospective cohort study of patients registered in the US Veterans Health Administration database and diagnosed with MGUS between Oct 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2009. We included patients (aged >18 years) with at least one International Classification of Diseases (9th revision) code for diabetes mellitus and one treatment for their diabetes before MGUS diagnosis. We reviewed patient-level clinical data to verify diagnoses and extract any available data for size of baseline M-protein and type of MGUS. We defined metformin users as patients with diabetes who were given metformin consistently for 4 years after their diabetes diagnosis and before multiple myeloma development, death, or censorship. Our primary outcome was time from MGUS diagnosis to multiple myeloma diagnosis. We used Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox models to analyse the association between metformin use and MGUS progression. We obtained data for 3287 patients, of whom 2003 (61%) were included in the final analytical cohort. Median follow-up was 69 months (IQR 49–96). 463 (23%) participants were metformin users and 1540 (77%) participants were non-users. 13 (3%) metformin users progressed to multiple myeloma compared with 74 (5%) non-users. After adjustment, metformin use was associated with a reduced risk of progression to multiple myeloma (hazard ratio 0·47, 95% CI 0·25–0·87). For patients with diabetes diagnosed with MGUS, metformin use for 4 years or longer was associated with a reduced risk of progression of MGUS to multiple myeloma. Prospective studies are needed to establish whether this association is causal and whether these results can be extrapolated to non-diabetic individuals. Barnes-Jewish Hospital Foundation

  14. Copper surfaces are associated with significantly lower concentrations of bacteria on selected surfaces within a pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael G; von Dessauer, Bettina; Benavente, Carmen; Benadof, Dona; Cifuentes, Paulina; Elgueta, Alicia; Duran, Claudia; Navarrete, Maria S

    2016-02-01

    Health care-associated infections result in significant patient morbidity and mortality. Although cleaning can remove pathogens present on hospital surfaces, those surfaces may be inadequately cleaned or recontaminated within minutes. Because of copper's inherent and continuous antimicrobial properties, copper surfaces offer a solution to complement cleaning. The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the bacterial microbial burden coincident with an assessment of the ability of antimicrobial copper to limit the microbial burden associated with 3 surfaces in a pediatric intensive care unit. A pragmatic trial was conducted enrolling 1,012 patients from 2 high acuity care units within a 249-bed tertiary care pediatric hospital over 12 months. The microbial burden was determined from 3 frequently encountered surfaces, regardless of room occupancy, twice monthly, from 16 rooms, 8 outfitted normally and 8 outfitted with antimicrobial copper. Copper surfaces were found to be equivalently antimicrobial in pediatric settings to activities reported for adult medical intensive care units. The log10 reduction to the microbial burden from antimicrobial copper surfaced bed rails was 1.996 (99%). Surprisingly, introduction of copper objects to 8 study rooms was found to suppress the microbial burden recovered from objects assessed in control rooms by log10 of 1.863 (73%). Copper surfaces warrant serious consideration when contemplating the introduction of no-touch disinfection technologies for reducing burden to limit acquisition of HAIs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of radiation therapy on tissue and serum concentrations of tumour associated trypsin inhibitor and their prognostic significance in rectal cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenman Ulf-Håkan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously demonstrated that elevated concentrations of tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI in both tumour tissue (t-TATI and in serum (s-TATI are associated with a poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. It was also found that s-TATI concentrations were lower in patients with rectal cancer compared to patients with colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT on concentrations of t-TATI and s-TATI in patients with rectal cancer. Methods TATI was analysed in serum, normal mucosa and tumour tissue collected at various time points in 53 rectal cancer patients enrolled in a case-control study where 12 patients received surgery alone, 20 patients 5 × 5 Gy (short-term preoperative RT and 21 patients 25 × 2 Gy (long-term preoperative RT. T-TATI was analysed by immunohistochemistry and s-TATI was determined by an immunofluorometric assay. Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Z (Z test were used to assess t-TATI and s-TATI concentrations in relation to RT. Spearman's correlation (R test was used to explore the associations between t-TATI, s-TATI and clinicopathological parameters. Overall survival (OS according to high and low t-TATI and s-TATI concentrations was estimated by classification and regression tree analysis, Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log rank test. Results RT did not affect concentrations of t-TATI or s-TATI. In patients receiving short-term but not long-term RT, s-TATI concentrations were significantly higher 4 weeks post surgery than in serum drawn prior to surgery (Z = -3.366, P Conclusions The results presented here further validate the utility of t-TATI and s-TATI as prognostic biomarkers in patients with rectal cancer, independent of neoadjuvant RT.

  16. Oxidative damage markers are significantly associated with the carotid artery intima-media thickness after controlling for conventional risk factors of atherosclerosis in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the association between oxidative damage markers and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT after controlling for conventional risk factors of atherosclerosis in multiple logistic regression models.Fifty-one case male participants (CIMT ≥ 0.9 mm were enrolled during their visits to Korean Genomic Rural Cohort Study of Wonju centers between May 1 and August 31, 2011, along with 51 control participants (CIMT < 0.9 mm selected using frequency matching by age group. The levels of oxidative damage markers, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyquuanosine (8-OHdG, malondialdehyde (MDA, and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (Isoprostane, were measured. Conditional logistic regression models were used to evaluate relative relationships between the oxidative damage markers and the risk of high CIMT.The markers of oxidative lipid (Isoprostane and MDA and DNA (8-OHdG damage were associated with CIMT after controlling for the conventional risk factors, including age, low density lipoprotein, body mass index, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and metabolic syndrome (ORs [95% CI] for Isoprostane: 3rd tertile, 8.47 [2.59-27.67]; for MDA: 3rd tertile, 8.47 [2.59-27.67]; for 8-OHdG: 3rd tertile, 5.58 [1.79-17.33]. When all the oxidative damage markers were incorporated in the same logistic regression model, only Isoprostane was significantly related to CIMT (OR [95% CI]: 4.22 [1.31-13.53] in 2nd tertile and 14.21 [3.34-60.56] in 3rd tertile.In this nested case-control study, the oxidative damage markers of lipid and DNA were associated with CIMT even after controlling for the conventional risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Removal of proprioception by BCI raises a stronger body ownership illusion in control of a humanlike robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2016-09-22

    Body ownership illusions provide evidence that our sense of self is not coherent and can be extended to non-body objects. Studying about these illusions gives us practical tools to understand the brain mechanisms that underlie body recognition and the experience of self. We previously introduced an illusion of body ownership transfer (BOT) for operators of a very humanlike robot. This sensation of owning the robot's body was confirmed when operators controlled the robot either by performing the desired motion with their body (motion-control) or by employing a brain-computer interface (BCI) that translated motor imagery commands to robot movement (BCI-control). The interesting observation during BCI-control was that the illusion could be induced even with a noticeable delay in the BCI system. Temporal discrepancy has always shown critical weakening effects on body ownership illusions. However the delay-robustness of BOT during BCI-control raised a question about the interaction between the proprioceptive inputs and delayed visual feedback in agency-driven illusions. In this work, we compared the intensity of BOT illusion for operators in two conditions; motion-control and BCI-control. Our results revealed a significantly stronger BOT illusion for the case of BCI-control. This finding highlights BCI's potential in inducing stronger agency-driven illusions by building a direct communication between the brain and controlled body, and therefore removing awareness from the subject's own body.

  18. Significant differences in gene expression and key genetic components associated with high growth vigor in populus section tacamahaca as revealed by comparative transcriptome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.; Chen, M.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, X.; Wang, J.

    2017-01-01

    To identify genetic components involved in high growth vigor in F1 Populus section Tacamahaca hybrid plants, high and low vigor plants showing significant differences in apical dominance during a rapid growth period were selected. Apical bud transcriptomes of high and low-growth-vigor hybrids and their parents were analyzed using high-throughput RNA sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 5,542 genes were differently expressed between high growth vigor hybrid and its parents, the genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to processes such as photosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthetic processes and nucleoside metabolic processes. There were 1410 differentially expressed genes between high and low growth vigor hybrid, the genes were mainly involved in photosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthetic process, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. Moreover, a k-core of a gene co-expression network analysis was performed to identify the potential functions of genes related to high growth vigor. The functions of 8 selected candidate genes were associated mainly with circadian rhythm, water transport, cellulose catabolic processes, sucrose biosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, purine nucleotide biosynthesis, meristem maintenance, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis of high growth vigor in hybrids and its regulation. (author)

  19. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivinius R

    2016-02-01

    group (P=0.0123. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596, 2-year (P=0.8620, 5-year (P=0.2737, or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049. Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786.Conclusion: Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with increased mortality after HTX. Keywords: amiodarone, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, heart transplantation, mortality

  20. Clinical significance of serum tumor markers for gastric cancer: a systematic review of literature by the Task Force of the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Noie, Tamaki; Ohashi, Manabu; Oba, Koji; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate the clinical significance of serum tumor markers, particularly CEA, CA19-9, and CA72-4, in patients with gastric cancer. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "gastric cancer" and "tumor marker," to select 4,925 relevant reports published before the end of November 2012. A total of 187 publications contained data for CEA and CA19-9, and 19 publications contained data related to all three tumor markers. The positive rates were 21.1 % for CEA, 27.8 % for CA19-9, and 30.0 % for CA72-4. These three markers were significantly associated with tumor stage and patient survival. Serum markers are not useful for early cancer, but they are useful for detecting recurrence and distant metastasis, predicting patient survival, and monitoring after surgery. Tumor marker monitoring may be useful for patients after surgery because the positive conversion of tumor markers usually occurs 2-3 months before imaging abnormalities. Among other tumor markers, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is useful for detecting and predicting liver metastases. Moreover, CA125 and sialyl Tn antigens (STN) are useful for detecting peritoneal metastases. Although no prospective trial has yet been completed to evaluate the clinical significance of these serum markers, this literature survey suggests that combinations of CEA, CA19-9, and CA72-4 are the most effective ways for staging before surgery or chemotherapy. In particular, monitoring tumor markers that were elevated before surgery or chemotherapy could be useful for detection of recurrence or evaluation of the response.

  1. Spectral intensity dependence an isotropy of sources stronger than 0.1 Jy at 2700 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonek, T.J.; Broderick, J.J.; Condon, J.J.; Crawford, D.F.; Jauncey, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The 1000-foot (305 m) telescope of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center was used to measure 430 MHz flux densities of sources stronger than 0.1 Jy at 2700 MHz. Distributions of the resulting two-point spectral indices α (430, 2700) of sources in the intensity range 0.1less than or equal toS<0.35 Jy were compared with α (318, 2700) distributions of sources stronger than 0.35 Jy at 2700 MHz. The median normal-component spectral index and fraction of flat-spectrum sources in the faintest sample do not continue the previously discovered trend toward increased spectral steepening of faint sources. This result differs from the prediction of simple evolutionary cosmological models and therefore favors the alternative explanation that local source-density inhomogeneities are responsible for the observed intensity dependence of spectral indices

  2. Crosstalk in concurrent repeated games impedes direct reciprocity and requires stronger levels of forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Johannes G; Hilbe, Christian; Rand, David G; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2018-02-07

    Direct reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation among humans. Many of our daily interactions are repeated. We interact repeatedly with our family, friends, colleagues, members of the local and even global community. In the theory of repeated games, it is a tacit assumption that the various games that a person plays simultaneously have no effect on each other. Here we introduce a general framework that allows us to analyze "crosstalk" between a player's concurrent games. In the presence of crosstalk, the action a person experiences in one game can alter the person's decision in another. We find that crosstalk impedes the maintenance of cooperation and requires stronger levels of forgiveness. The magnitude of the effect depends on the population structure. In more densely connected social groups, crosstalk has a stronger effect. A harsh retaliator, such as Tit-for-Tat, is unable to counteract crosstalk. The crosstalk framework provides a unified interpretation of direct and upstream reciprocity in the context of repeated games.

  3. [The significances of peripheral neutrophils CD(55) and myeloperoxidase expression in patients with myeloperoxidase-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X L; Zheng, M J; Shuai, Z W; Zhang, L; Zhang, M M; Chen, S Y

    2017-06-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of CD(55) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) on neutrophils in patients with MPO-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis(MPO-AAV), and analyze the relationship between the expression and clinical manifestation. Methods: Forty untreated patients with active MPO-AAV (patient group) and 30 healthy volunteers (control group) were enrolled in this study. The CD(55) on neutrophils and both membrane and cytoplasmic MPO were detected by flow cytometry. Serum fragment-from the activated complement factor B(Ba) and MPO were measured by ELISA. The clinical activity of vasculitis was valued by Birmingham vasculitis activity score-version 3(BVAS-V3). The significance of laboratory data was evaluated by Spearman correlation test and multivariate linear regression analysis. Results: (1)The mean fluorescence intensity(MFI) of CD(55) expressed on neutrophils was significantly higher than that in control group[4 068.6±2 306.0 vs 2 999.5±1 504.9, P =0.033]. Similar results of serum MPO and Ba in patient group were found compared to controls [500.0(381.0, 612.7) IU/L vs 286.9(225.5, 329.1) IU/L, P <0.001; 35.2(25.2, 79.5) ng/L vs 18.0(15.0, 28.0) ng/L, P <0.001], respectively. However, MIF of cytoplasmic MPO in patients was significantly lower than that of control group(1 577.1±1 175.9 vs 3 105.3±2 323.0, P =0.003) . (2) In patient group, cytoplasmic intensity of MPO was negatively associated with the serum levels of MPO( r =-0.710, P <0.001) and Ba ( r =-0.589, P =0.001). Moreover, serum MPO was positively associated with serum Ba( r =0.691, P <0.001). Membrane intensity of CD(55) on neutrophils was positively correlated with patient age ( r =0.514, P =0.001), C reactive protein ( r =0.376, P =0.018), peripheral neutrophils count ( r =0.485, P =0.001) and BVAS-V3 ( r =0.484, P =0.002), whereas negative correlation between membrane CD(55) and disease duration was seen ( r =-0.403, P =0.01). (3) The result of multiple

  4. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-01-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatmen...

  5. Localization of aPKC lambda/iota and its interacting protein, Lgl2, is significantly associated with lung adenocarcinoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Naoko; Horikoshi, Yosuke; Matsuzaki, Tomohiko; Toriumi, Kentaro; Kitatani, Kanae; Ogura, Go; Masuda, Ryota; Nakamura, Naoya; Takekoshi, Susumu; Iwazaki, Masayuki

    2013-12-20

    Atypical protein kinase C lambda/iota (aPKC λ/ι) is expressed in several human cancers; however, the correlation between aPKC λ/ι localization and cancer progression in human lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) remains to be clarified. We found that patients with a high level of aPKC λ/ι expression in LAC had significantly shorter overall survival than those with a low level of aPKC λ/ι expression. In addition, localization of aPKC λ/ι in the apical membrane or at the cell-cell contact was associated with both lymphatic invasion and metastasis. The intercellular adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, was decreased in LACs with highly expressed aPKC λ/ι at the invasion site of tumor cells. This result suggested that the expression levels of aPKC λ/ι and E-cadherin reflect the progression of LAC. On double-immunohistochemical analysis, aPKC λ/ι and Lgl2, a protein that interacts with aPKC λ/ι, were co-localized within LACs. Furthermore, we found that Lgl2 bound the aPKC λ/ι-Par6 complex in tumor tissue by immune-cosedimentation analysis. Apical membrane localization of Lgl2 was correlated with lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis. These results thus indicate that aPKC λ/ι expression is altered upon the progression of LAC. This is also the first evidence to show aPKC λ/ι overexpression in LAC and demonstrates that aPKC λ/ι localization at the apical membrane or cell-cell contact is associated with lymphatic invasion and metastasis of the tumor.

  6. The sigh of the oppressed: The palliative effects of ideology are stronger for people living in highly unequal neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Nikhil K; Greaves, Lara M; Osborne, Danny; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-09-01

    Ideologies that legitimize status hierarchies are associated with increased well-being. However, which ideologies have 'palliative effects', why they have these effects, and whether these effects extend to low-status groups remain unresolved issues. This study aimed to address these issues by testing the effects of the ideology of Symbolic Prejudice on well-being among low- and high-status ethnic groups (4,519 Europeans and 1,091 Māori) nested within 1,437 regions in New Zealand. Results showed that Symbolic Prejudice predicted increased well-being for both groups, but that this relationship was stronger for those living in highly unequal neighbourhoods. This suggests that it is precisely those who have the strongest need to justify inequality that accrue the most psychological benefit from subscribing to legitimizing ideologies. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Carboniferous volcanic rocks associated with back-arc extension in the western Chinese Tianshan, NW China: Insight from temporal-spatial character, petrogenesis and tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenbo; Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Wan, Bo; Wang, Xiangsong; Bao, Zihe; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-06-01

    The Yili-Central Tianshan Block, as a Late Paleozoic major continental silver of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, holds a massive volume of Carboniferous volcanic rocks, occurring as subparallel magmatic belts. However, the petrogenesis and tectonic implications of these volcanic rocks remain enigmatic. This study compiled isotopic age data for mapping their temporal-spatial character, and conducted petrogenetic study of these magmatic belts, aiming to understand their tectonic implications. Our compiled dataset reveals four magmatic belts in the Yili-Central Tianshan Block, including the Keguqinshan-Tulasu belt and the Awulale belt in the north, and the Wusun Mountain belt and the Haerk-Nalati belt in the south. In addition, our new zircon U-Pb dating results define two significant Early Carboniferous eruptive events (ca. 355-350 Ma and 325 Ma) in the Wusun Mountain belt. Volcanic rocks of the early significant eruptive event (ca. 355-350 Ma) in the Wusun Mountain comprise basalt, trachy-andesite, andesite, dacite and rhyolite, which are similar to the typical rock assemblage of a continental arc. Their positive εNd(t) values (+0.3 to +1.5) and relatively high Th/Yb and Nb/Yb ratios suggest the derivation from a mantle source with additions of slab-derived components. The gabbroic dykes and rhyolites of the late volcanic event (ca. 325 Ma) form a bimodal rock association, and they show alkaline features, with relatively low Th/Yb and Th/Nb ratios, and higher positive εNd(t) values (εNd(t) = +3.3-+5.0). It is interpreted that the gabbroic dykes and rhyolites may have been derived from mantle and juvenile crustal sources, respectively. The isotopic and trace elemental variations with time elapse of the Wusun Mountain magmatic belt show an important clue for strengthening depletion of the magma sources. Considering the distinctive temporal-spatial character of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks, two separate subduction systems in the southern and northern margins of

  8. α2-Macroglobulin Is a Significant In Vivo Inhibitor of Activated Protein C and Low APC:α2M Levels Are Associated with Venous Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Laura; Ramón, Luis Andrés; Oto, Julia; Fernández-Pardo, Álvaro; Bonanad, Santiago; Cid, Ana Rosa; Gruber, Andras; Griffin, John H; España, Francisco; Navarro, Silvia; Medina, Pilar

    2018-04-01

     Activated protein C (APC) is a major regulator of thrombin formation. Two major plasma inhibitors form complexes with APC, protein C inhibitor (PCI) and α 1 -antitrypsin (α 1 AT), and these complexes have been quantified by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Also, complexes of APC with α 2 -macroglobulin (α 2 M) have been observed by immunoblotting. Here, we report an ELISA for APC:α 2 M complexes in plasma.  Plasma samples were pre-treated with dithiothreitol and then with iodoacetamide. The detection range of the newly developed APC:α 2 M assay was 0.031 to 8.0 ng/mL of complexed APC. Following infusions of APC in humans and baboons, complexes of APC with α 2 M, PCI and α 1 AT were quantified. These complexes as well as circulating APC were also measured in 121 patients with a history of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and 119 matched controls.  In all the in vivo experiments, α 2 M was a significant APC inhibitor. The VTE case-control study showed that VTE patients had significantly lower APC:α 2 M and APC levels than the controls ( p  APC:α 2 M or the lowest quartile of APC had approximately four times more VTE risk than those in the highest quartile of APC:α 2 M or of APC. The risk increased for individuals with low levels of both parameters.  The APC:α 2 M assay reported here may be useful to help monitor the in vivo fate of APC in plasma. In addition, our results show that a low APC:α 2 M level is associated with increased VTE risk. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  9. [Case report: a recurrent gastric cancer in the terminal stage, associated with obstructive jaundice which responded significantly to oral administration of TS-1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, K; Tomofuzi, Y; Sugihara, Z; Fukuda, H

    2001-10-01

    TS-1, a novel oral formation of 5-fluorouracil that consists of 1M tegafur (5-FU), 0.4M CDHP and 1M Oxo, is reported to achieve a higher response rate of 49% in patients with advanced gastric cancer in a late phase II study. We report a case of recurrent gastric cancer that responded significantly to the short-term administration of TS-1. A 73-year-old man, who had undergone a curative distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy 2 years earlier, had presented with obstructive jaundice resulting from cancerous lymphadenopathy. PTCD was performed for drainage, but cholestasis disappeared completely through the two courses of oral administration of TS-1. The serum level of transaminase and bilirubin remained within normal limits, even with PTCD unequipped, until the patient died of the original disease. The adverse effects observed with the drug were anemia (grade 1) and skin pigmentation (grade 2), both of which improved soon after discontinuing the medication. In conclusion, TS-1 may be well-tolerable and effective in some cases of terminal-stage and/or recurrent gastric cancer, especially those associated with obstructive jaundice arising from the cancerous lymphadenopathy, in that patient QOL can be maintained to a much greater extent.

  10. Clinical and diagnostic significance of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-2 measurement in children with microbial inflammatory kidney and urinary tract diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Eremeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the clinical and diagnostic significance of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-2 (NGAL measurement in children with urinary tract infection (я=15 and pyelonephritis (я=15. The patients' age was 1 to 16 years (mean age, 7.32+4.52 years. The diagnosis was verified on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings and medical history and instrumental examination data. Urinary NGAL levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay (a Bio\\fendor Laboratory Medicine kit and calculated with reference to mg of creatinine. Urinary NGAL levels were established to depend on the degree of renal parenchymal damage. The investigation showed a relationship between the excretion of NGAL during the acute phase of pyelonephritis and the detection of renal scarring, as evidenced by statistical DMCA nephroscintigraphy. The acute pyelonephritis group exhibited a moderate direct correlation between the renal excretion of NGAL and the degree of leukocytosis and the blood levels of C-reactive protein. The findings allow recommendations for measuring urinary NGAL levels as an additional noninvasive marker for the early detection of renal parenchymal damage.

  11. Reduced bone mineral density is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Dennis T; Kotyk, John J; Armamento-Villareal, Reina C; Kenguva, Venkata; Seaman, Pamela; Shahar, Allon; Wald, Michael J; Kleerekoper, Michael; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-02-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces bone quantity but not bone quality in rodents. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of CR with adequate intake of vitamin and minerals on bone quantity and quality in middle-aged lean individuals. In this study, we evaluated body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and serum markers of bone turnover and inflammation in 32 volunteers who had been eating a CR diet (approximately 35% less calories than controls) for an average of 6.8 ± 5.2 years (mean age 52.7 ± 10.3 years) and 32 age- and sex-matched sedentary controls eating Western diets (WD). In a subgroup of 10 CR and 10 WD volunteers, we also measured trabecular bone (TB) microarchitecture of the distal radius using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the CR volunteers had significantly lower body mass index than the WD volunteers (18.9 ± 1.2 vs. 26.5 ± 2.2 kg m(-2) ; P = 0.0001). BMD of the lumbar spine (0.870 ± 0.11 vs. 1.138 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) and hip (0.806 ± 0.12 vs. 1.047 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) was also lower in the CR than in the WD group. Serum C-terminal telopeptide and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase concentration were similar between groups, while serum C-reactive protein (0.19 ± 0.26 vs. 1.46 ± 1.56 mg L(-1) , P = 0.0001) was lower in the CR group. Trabecular bone microarchitecture parameters such as the erosion index (0.916 ± 0.087 vs. 0.877 ± 0.088; P = 0.739) and surface-to-curve ratio (10.3 ± 1.4 vs. 12.1 ± 2.1, P = 0.440) were not significantly different between groups. These findings suggest that markedly reduced BMD is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in middle-aged men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

  12. Production of plastified wood with stronger static bending strength means of polymerization induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, Elias

    1999-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation to obtain wood-polymer composites is one of the applications of radiation that presents the most commercial interest. The process, denominated radiopolymerization, comprises the impregnation of monomers into the completely dried wood followed by exposure to gamma radiation to induce polymerization of the impregnated monomers. I this context, the present work aimed the application of this process to seven kinds of wood existing in the brazilian forests. The considered monomer is styrene and the gamma source is Cobalt-60. The obtained wood-polystyrene composites were found to have stronger static bending strength. (author)

  13. Why is the radial flow in central pA collisions stronger than in AA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Shuryak, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Both the transverse size and entropy density per area in central pA collisions is smaller than in central AA, and yet the radial flow is stronger. We propose an explanation to this puzzle. Using a weak attraction between strings through the σ-meson exchange, fitted to the lattice data, we find collective implosion of the “spaghetti” multi-string state. Collectivization of the sigma field of the strings is the QCD analog of the black hole formation occurring in holographic models

  14. Selection is stronger in early-versus-late stages of divergence in a Neotropical livebearing fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingley, Spencer J; Johnson, Jerald B

    2016-03-01

    How selection acts to drive trait evolution at different stages of divergence is of fundamental importance in our understanding of the origins of biodiversity. Yet, most studies have focused on a single point along an evolutionary trajectory. Here, we provide a case study evaluating the strength of divergent selection acting on life-history traits at early-versus-late stages of divergence in Brachyrhaphis fishes. We find that the difference in selection is stronger in the early-diverged population than the late-diverged population, and that trait differences acquired early are maintained over time. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Malnutrition Increases With Obesity and Is a Stronger Independent Risk Factor for Postoperative Complications: A Propensity-Adjusted Analysis of Total Hip Arthroplasty Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Michael C; D'Ambrosia, Christopher; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Schairer, William W; Padgett, Douglas E; Cross, Michael B

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is frequently associated with complications after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and is often concomitant with malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent morbidity risk of malnutrition relative to obesity. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from 2005 to 2013 was queried for elective primary THA cases. Malnutrition was defined as albumin malnutrition with 30-day outcomes. A total of 40,653 THA cases were identified, of which 20,210 (49.7%) had preoperative albumin measurements. Propensity score adjustment successfully reduced potential selection bias, with P > .05 for differences between those with and without albumin data. Malnutrition incidence increased from 2.8% in obese I to 5.7% in obese III patients. With multivariable propensity-adjusted logistic regression, malnutrition was a more robust predictor than any obesity class for any postoperative complication(s) (odds ratio [OR] 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-2.08), major complications (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.21-2.19), respiratory complications (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.27-4.37), blood transfusions (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.44-2.03), and extended length of stay (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.14-1.59). Malnutrition incidence increased significantly from obese I to obese III patients and was a stronger and more consistent predictor than obesity of complications after THA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Daily Administration of Short-Acting Liothyronine Is Associated with Significant Triiodothyronine Excursions and Fails to Alter Thyroid-Responsive Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Burman, Kenneth D

    2016-06-01

    TSH to the values seen during levothyroxine therapy. There were significant excursions in serum total and free T3 concentrations with once-daily therapy. Trials of combination therapy are likely to be associated with similar excursions, albeit of a lesser magnitude. Only the physical component score of the SF36 questionnaire and hyperthyroid symptoms changed significantly with conversion to liothyronine monotherapy. Sustained release preparations with stable serum T3 profiles may have entirely different outcomes.

  17. Stronger interference from distractors in the right hemifield during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlei, Christophe; Kerzel, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    The orientation-bias hypothesis states that there is a bias to attend to the right visual hemifield (RVF) when there is spatial competition between stimuli in the left and right hemifield [Pollmann, S. (1996). A pop-out induced extinction-like phenomenon in neurologically intact subjects. Neuropsychologia, 34(5), 413-425. doi: 10.1016/0028-3932(95)00125-5 ]. In support of this hypothesis, stronger interference was reported for RVF distractors with contralateral targets. In contrast, previous studies using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) found stronger interference from distractors in the left visual hemifield (LVF). We used the additional singleton paradigm to test whether this discrepancy was due to the different distractor features that were employed (colour vs. orientation). Interference from the colour distractor with contralateral targets was larger in the RVF than in the LVF. However, the asymmetrical interference disappeared when observers had to search for an inconspicuous colour target instead of the inconspicuous shape target. We suggest that the LVF orienting-bias is limited to situations where search is driven by bottom-up saliency (singleton search) instead of top-down search goals (feature search). In contrast, analysis of the literature suggests the opposite for the LVF bias in RSVP tasks. Thus, the attentional asymmetry may depend on whether the task involves temporal or spatial competition, and whether search is based on bottom-up or top-down signals.

  18. Fathers see stronger family resemblances than non-fathers in unrelated children's faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Paola; Dal Pos, Stefania

    2012-12-01

    Even after they have taken all reasonable measures to decrease the probability that their spouses cheat on them, men still face paternal uncertainty. Such uncertainty can lead to paternal disinvestment, which reduces the children's probability to survive and reproduce, and thus the reproductive success of the fathers themselves. A theoretical model shows that, other things being equal, men who feel confident that they have fathered their spouses' offspring tend to enjoy greater fitness (i.e., leave a larger number of surviving progeny) than men who do not. This implies that fathers should benefit from exaggerating paternal resemblance. We argue that the self-deceiving component of this bias could be concealed by generalizing this resemblance estimation boost to (1) family pairs other than father-child and (2) strangers. Here, we tested the prediction that fathers may see, in unrelated children's faces, stronger family resemblances than non-fathers. In Study 1, 70 men and 70 women estimated facial resemblances between children paired, at three different ages (as infants, children, and adolescents), either to themselves or to their parents. In Study 2, 70 men and 70 women guessed the true parents of the same children among a set of adults. Men who were fathers reported stronger similarities between faces than non-fathers, mothers, and non-mothers did, but were no better at identifying childrens' real parents. We suggest that, in fathers, processing of facial resemblances is biased in a manner that reflects their (adaptive) wishful thinking that fathers and children are related.

  19. When surging seas meet stronger rain: Nuclear techniques in flood management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Unusually high rainfall in many parts of the world is a result of climate change, scientists say. Since warmer air can hold more water, the rationale goes, increased temperatures will increase the chances of stronger rainfall events. And when surging seas combine with stronger rain, the outcome is almost certain: floods. Floods are the most frequently occurring natural disasters, and south-east Asia is particularly vulnerable. Climate change and variability are expected to bring about increased typhoon activities, rising sea levels and off-season monsoon rains in southeast Asia and other regions. These can cause devastating floods in countries like Cambodia, Laos, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. For the residents of these countries who have survived the ravages of major floods, the road to recovery can be long and arduous. As the flood water recedes, they have to contend with new forms of flood: floods of concern and worries as to how to rebuild their houses, their lives and their cities. Governments, too, face huge challenges in rebuilding roads, public buildings, infrastructure and natural resources destroyed or polluted by the flood.

  20. A configural dominant account of contextual cueing: Configural cues are stronger than colour cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A; John, Rebecca; Sweetman, Hollie

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that reaction times to find a target in displays that have been repeated are faster than those for displays that have never been seen before. This learning effect, termed "contextual cueing" (CC), has been shown using contexts such as the configuration of the distractors in the display and the background colour. However, it is not clear how these two contexts interact to facilitate search. We investigated this here by comparing the strengths of these two cues when they appeared together. In Experiment 1, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configural cues, compared with when the target was only predicted by configural information. The results showed that the addition of a colour cue did not increase contextual cueing. In Experiment 2, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configuration compared with when the target was only cued by colour. The results showed that adding a predictive configural cue led to a stronger CC benefit. Experiments 3 and 4 tested the disruptive effects of removing either a learned colour cue or a learned configural cue and whether there was cue competition when colour and configural cues were presented together. Removing the configural cue was more disruptive to CC than removing colour, and configural learning was shown to overshadow the learning of colour cues. The data support a configural dominant account of CC, where configural cues act as the stronger cue in comparison to colour when they are presented together.

  1. Significant association of the dupA gene of Helicobacter pylori with duodenal ulcer development in a South-east Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Jawed; Maiti, Sankar; Ghosh, Prachetash; De, Ronita; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Das, Suryasnata; Macaden, Ragini; Devarbhavi, Harshad; Ramamurthy, T; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2012-09-01

    A novel virulence factor, duodenal ulcer-promoting gene A (dupA), in Helicobacter pylori has been found to be associated with disease in certain populations but not in others. This study analysed a South-east Indian population as part of the debate about the relevance of dupA for the prediction of clinical outcomes. A total of 140 H. pylori strains isolated from duodenal ulcer (DU) (n = 83) and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) patients (n = 57) were screened by PCR and dot-blot hybridization to determine the presence of the ORFs jhp0917 and jhp0918. Part of jhp0917-jhp0918 was sequenced to search for the C/T insertion that characterizes dupA and the levels of dupA transcripts were also assessed. The PCR and dot-blot results indicated the presence of jhp0917 and jhp0918 in 37.3 % (31/83) and 12.2 % (7/57) of H. pylori strains isolated from DU and NUD patients, respectively. Sequencing analysis showed insertion of a C at nt 1386 in the 3' region of jhp0917, forming the dupA gene in 35 strains. RT-PCR analysis detected the dupA transcript in 28 of these 35 strains. The expression level of the dupA transcript varied from strain to strain, as shown by real-time PCR. The results demonstrated that analysis based on PCR only for dupA may produce an erroneous interpretation. The prevalence of dupA was significantly greater among strains isolated from patients with DU than from patients with NUD in this population (P = 0.001, odds ratio = 4.26, confidence interval = 1.60-11.74). Based on these findings, dupA can be considered a biomarker for DU patients in India. The reported discrepancies for this putative virulence marker in different populations may be due to the genome plasticity of H. pylori.

  2. Using social capital to construct a conceptual International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health Children and Youth version-based framework for stronger inclusive education policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gregor; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

    2012-02-01

    Inclusive education is part of social inclusion; therefore, social capital can be linked to an inclusive education policy and practice. This association is explored in this article, and a practical measure is proposed. Specifically, the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY) is proposed as the link between social capital and inclusive education. By mapping participation and trust indicators of social capital to the ICF-CY and by using the Matrix to Analyse Functioning in Education Systems (MAFES) to analyze the functioning of inclusive education policies and systems, a measure for stronger inclusive education policies is proposed. Such a tool can be used for policy planning and monitoring to ensure better inclusive education environments. In conclusion, combining enhanced social capital linked to stronger inclusive education policies, by using the ICF-CY, can lead to better health and well-being for all.

  3. Individual patient data meta-analysis shows a significant association between the ATM rs1801516 SNP and toxicity after radiotherapy in 5456 breast and prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Rosenstein, Barry S; Kerns, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several small studies have indicated that the ATM rs1801516 SNP is associated with risk of normal tissue toxicity after radiotherapy. However, the findings have not been consistent. In order to test this SNP in a well-powered study, an individual patient data meta-analysis was carried ou...

  4. Temporal course of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in angioplasty-treated ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients and potential significance of concomitant heparin administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Christian J; Oxvig, Claus; Nørgaard, Bjarne L

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a putative plaque instability marker. In acute coronary syndromes, the disrupted culprit plaque contains abundant PAPP-A, and circulating PAPP-A levels predict clinical outcomes. Determinants of circulating PAPP-A levels, however, are not fully...

  5. PolySearch2: a significantly improved text-mining system for discovering associations between human diseases, genes, drugs, metabolites, toxins and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifeng; Liang, Yongjie; Wishart, David

    2015-07-01

    PolySearch2 (http://polysearch.ca) is an online text-mining system for identifying relationships between biomedical entities such as human diseases, genes, SNPs, proteins, drugs, metabolites, toxins, metabolic pathways, organs, tissues, subcellular organelles, positive health effects, negative health effects, drug actions, Gene Ontology terms, MeSH terms, ICD-10 medical codes, biological taxonomies and chemical taxonomies. PolySearch2 supports a generalized 'Given X, find all associated Ys' query, where X and Y can be selected from the aforementioned biomedical entities. An example query might be: 'Find all diseases associated with Bisphenol A'. To find its answers, PolySearch2 searches for associations against comprehensive collections of free-text collections, including local versions of MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, Wikipedia full-text articles and US Patent application abstracts. PolySearch2 also searches 14 widely used, text-rich biological databases such as UniProt, DrugBank and Human Metabolome Database to improve its accuracy and coverage. PolySearch2 maintains an extensive thesaurus of biological terms and exploits the latest search engine technology to rapidly retrieve relevant articles and databases records. PolySearch2 also generates, ranks and annotates associative candidates and present results with relevancy statistics and highlighted key sentences to facilitate user interpretation. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Significant association of the dupA gene of Helicobacter pylori with duodenal ulcer development in a South-east Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Jawed; Maiti, Sankar; Ghosh, Prachetash; De, Ronita; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Das, Suryasnata; Macaden, Ragini; Devarbhavi, Harshad; Ramamurthy, T.; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.

    2012-01-01

    A novel virulence factor, duodenal ulcer-promoting gene A (dupA), in Helicobacter pylori has been found to be associated with disease in certain populations but not in others. This study analysed a South-east Indian population as part of the debate about the relevance of dupA for the prediction of clinical outcomes. A total of 140 H. pylori strains isolated from duodenal ulcer (DU) (n=83) and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) patients (n=57) were screened by PCR and dot-blot hybridization to determin...

  7. Phosphocreatine recovery overshoot after high intensity exercise in human skeletal muscle is associated with extensive muscle acidification and a significant decrease in phosphorylation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Korzeniewski, Bernard; Kulinowski, Piotr; Zapart-Bukowska, Justyna; Majerczak, Joanna; Jasiński, Andrzej

    2010-09-01

    The phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery overshoot in skeletal muscle is a transient increase of PCr concentration above the resting level after termination of exercise. In the present study [PCr], [ATP], [P(i)] and pH were measured in calf muscle during rest, during plantar flexion exercise until exhaustion and recovery, using the (31)P NMR spectroscopy. A significantly greater acidification of muscle cells and significantly lower phosphorylation potential (DeltaG (ATP)) at the end of exercise was encountered in the group of subjects that evidenced the [PCr] overshoot as well as [ADP] and [P(i)] undershoots than in the group that did not. We postulate that the role of the PCr overshoot-related transiently elevated [ATP]/[ADP(free)] ratio is to activate different processes (including protein synthesis) that participate in repairing numerous damages of the muscle cells caused by intensive exercise-induced stressing factors, such as extensive muscle acidification, a significant decrease in DeltaG (ATP), an elevated level of reactive oxygen species or mechanical disturbances.

  8. Strategies of Building a Stronger Sense of Community for Sustainable Neighborhoods: Comparing Neighborhood Accessibility with Community Empowerment Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-I Albert Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New Urbanist development in the U.S. aims at enhancing a sense of community and seeks to return to the design of early transitional neighborhoods which have pedestrian-oriented environments with retail shops and services within walking distances of housing. Meanwhile, 6000 of Taiwan’s community associations have been running community empowerment programs supported by the Council for Cultural Affairs that have helped many neighborhoods to rebuild so-called community cohesion. This research attempts to evaluate whether neighborhoods with facilities near housing and shorter travel distances within a neighborhood would promote stronger social interactions and form a better community attachment than neighborhoods that have various opportunities for residents to participate in either formal or informal social gatherings. After interviewing and surveying residents from 19 neighborhoods in Taipei’s Beitou District, and correlating the psychological sense of community with inner neighborhood’s daily travel distances and numbers of participatory activities held by community organizations under empowerment programs together with frequencies of regular individual visits and casual meetings, statistical evidence yielded that placing public facilities near residential locations is more effective than providing various programs for elevating a sense of community.

  9. Significance of high-intensity signals on cranial MRI T2 weighted image in diagnosis of age-associated dementia. From a viewpoint of reversibility of brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishiro, Masaki

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether changes of EEG band profile in patients showing high-intensity signal (HIS) on cranial magnetic resonance images (MRI), who had however no vascular lesions on cranial CT, were similar to those in multi-infarct dementia (MID) or senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) patients and to determine the significance of HIS in the diagnosis of SDAT. Forty-two patients with dementia diagnosed according to DSM-III-R were divided into HIS (n=21), MID (n=13), and SDAT (n=8) based on CT and MRI findings. Multi-infarcted lesions were seen on cranial CT and HIS was seen on cranial MRI in MID patients. There were no abnormal lesions except brain atrophy on cranial CT and MRI in SDAT patients. Appearance rates (%) of the 2-18 c/s frequency bands using computerized quantitative EEG before and after administration of protirelin tartrate (TRH-T) were analyzed in the frontal, central, parietal and occipital areas of the brain. There were no significant differences in appearance rates of EEG frequency bands before administration of TRH-T in HIS, MID, and SDAT patients. A significant decrease in appearance rates of slow waves and a significant increase in appearance rates of α waves were observed after administration of TRH-T in the four areas in MID patients compared with those before administration. No significant differences in appearance rates of EEG frequency bands were observed after administration of TRH-T in the four areas in HIS and SDAT patients compared with those before administration. Changes of the EEG band profile in HIS patients were similar to those in SDAT patients. In the presence of appearance of HSI on cranial MRI T 2 weighted images, the possibility of SDAT patients cannot be excluded. Therefore, SDAT should be diagnosed based on both clinical data and the absence of brain vascular lesions on cranial CT. Also, HIS on MRI T 2 -weighted images is considered to reflect non-vascular lesions. (J.N.P.)

  10. The Integration Role of European Defense Procurement in Achieving a More Competitive and Stronger European Defense Equipment Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    and systems, even monopolistic ) essence of the supply side of the defense market . There are only a few suppliers that can meet today’s complex...DEFENSE PROCUREMENT IN ACHIEVING A MORE COMPETITIVE AND STRONGER EUROPEAN DEFENSE EQUIPMENT MARKET by Kiril O. Angelov June 2015 Thesis Advisor...COMPETITIVE AND STRONGER EUROPEAN DEFENSE EQUIPMENT MARKET 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Kiril O. Angelov 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  11. The association, clinicopathological significance, and diagnostic value of CDH1 promoter methylation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis of 23 studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen ZS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhisen Shen,1 Chongchang Zhou,1,2 Jinyun Li,2 Hongxia Deng,1 Qun Li,1 Jian Wang3 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Lihuili Hospital, Ningbo University, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical School of Ningbo University, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Ningbo Yinzhou People’s Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Epithelial cadherin (encoded by the CDH1 gene is a tumor suppressor glycoprotein that plays a role in the invasion and metastasis of human cancers. As previous studies regarding the association between CDH1 promoter methylation and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC have yielded inconsistent conclusions, a meta-analysis was performed. A systematic literature review was undertaken from four databases: PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. Finally, a total of 23 studies (including 1,727 cases of HNSCC and 555 normal controls were included in the present study. Our results showed that the frequency of CDH1 promoter methylation in HNSCC was statistically greater than in controls (odds ratio [OR] =5.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.36–10.51, P<0.001. In reported cases of HNSCC, CDH1 promoter methylation was statistically associated with tumor stage (OR =0.46, 95% CI: 0.27–0.78, P=0.004 and a history of alcohol consumption (OR =6.04, 95% CI: 2.41–15.14, P<0.001. Moreover, the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of the summary receiver operator characteristic for the included studies were 0.50 (95% CI: 0.4–0.61, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.79–0.95, and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.70–0.78, respectively. In conclusion, our meta-analyses indicated that CDH1 promoter methylation was associated with HNSCC risk, and may be utilized as a valuable diagnostic biomarker for HNSCC. Keywords: CDH1, methylation, diagnosis, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, HNSCC 

  12. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehling, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.stehling@radiology.ucsf.edu [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Souza, Richard B. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T. [Pfizer Inc. New London, CT (United States); Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008-0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  13. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehling, Christoph; Souza, Richard B.; Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T.; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008–0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  14. Significant associations of the mitochondrial transcription factor A promoter polymorphisms with marbling and subcutaneous fat depth in Wagyu x Limousin F2 crosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhihua; Kunej, Tanja; Michal, Jennifer J.; Gaskins, Charles T.; Reeves, Jerry J.; Busboom, Jan R.; Dovc, Peter; Wright, Raymond W.

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a nucleus-encoded protein, regulates the initiation of transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Decreased expression of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes has been associated with onset of obesity in mice. Therefore, we hypothesized genetic variants in TFAM gene influence mitochondrial biogenesis consequently affecting body fat deposition and energy metabolism. In the present study, both cDNA (2259 bp) and genomic DNA (16,666 bp) sequences were generated for the bovine TFAM gene using a combination of in silico cloning with targeted region PCR amplification. Alignment of both cDNA and genomic sequences led to the determination of genomic organization and characterization of the promoter region of the bovine TFAM gene. Two closely linked A/C and C/T single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the bovine TFAM promoter and then genotyped on 237 Wagyu x Limousin F 2 animals with recorded phenotypes for marbling and subcutaneous fat depth (SFD). Statistical analysis demonstrated that both SNPs and their haplotypes were associated with marbling (P = 0.0153 for A/C, P = 0.0026 for C/T, and P = 0.0004 for haplotype) and SFD (P = 0.0200 for A/C, P = 0.0039 for C/T, and P = 0.0029 for haplotype), respectively. A search for transcriptional regulatory elements using MatInspector indicated that both SNPs lead to a gain/loss of six putative-binding sites for transcription factors relevant to fat deposition and energy metabolism. Our results suggest for the first time that TFAM gene plays an important role in lipid metabolism and may be a strong candidate gene for obesity in mammals

  15. Human Tubal-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Associated with Low Level Laser Therapy Significantly Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very debilitating disease, with a very high prevalence worldwide, which results in a expressive economic and social burden. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches to treat these patients are of unquestionable relevance. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs is an innovative and yet accessible approach for pulmonary acute and chronic diseases, mainly due to its important immunoregulatory, anti-fibrogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic. Besides, the use of adjuvant therapies, whose aim is to boost or synergize with their function should be tested. Low level laser (LLL therapy is a relatively new and promising approach, with very low cost, no invasiveness and no side effects. Here, we aimed to study the effectiveness of human tube derived MSCs (htMSCs cell therapy associated with a 30mW/3J-660 nm LLL irradiation in experimental cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 75 days (twice a day and all experiments were performed on day 76. Experimental groups receive htMSCS either intraperitoneally or intranasally and/or LLL irradiation either alone or in association. We show that co-therapy greatly reduces lung inflammation, lowering the cellular infiltrate and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and KC, which were followed by decreased mucus production, collagen accumulation and tissue damage. These findings seemed to be secondary to the reduction of both NF-κB and NF-AT activation in lung tissues with a concomitant increase in IL-10. In summary, our data suggests that the concomitant use of MSCs + LLLT may be a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD.

  16. Surveillance Data Highlights Feed Form, Biosecurity, and Disease Control as Significant Factors Associated with Salmonella Infection on Farrow-to-Finish Pig Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Argüello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the zoonotic pathogens affecting pigs, Salmonella stands out due to the high number of human cases linked to pork consumption. In the last two decades many countries have put considerable effort into the control of the infection by surveillance and control strategies on farm. Despite this effort, many herds still have a high Salmonella prevalence and they require guidance to address this problem. The present study, using the serological surveillance data of finishing pigs from the Irish National pig Salmonella Control Programme, aimed to highlight factors associated with increased risk or that might mitigate Salmonella occurrence on farm. A questionnaire with 33 questions regarding herd characteristics, management, feeding, biosecurity, and health was completed for 61 individual herds. After the multivariate analysis by linear regression, nine variables were retained in the final model and linked to herd seroprevalence. Home produced-feed linked to the use of meal showed an eight points reduction in Salmonella prevalence compared to purchased feed (p = 0.042. Different biosecurity measures were associated to lower seroprevalence. Changing of footwear from outside to inside the farm decreased seroprevalence nearly 20 units (p = 0.014 and policies not permitting access to the farmyard to feed trucks (p = 0.048 or avoiding the presence of cats on the farm (p = 0.05 were estimated in 10 units less of seroprevalence. In contrast, the lack of perimeter fence increased the chance to have higher seroprevalence in five units (p = 0.05. Finally, intestinal diseases such as swine dysentery (p = 0.044 and E. coli diarrhea (p = 0.1 were estimated to increase Salmonella prevalence in ~20 and 10 units, respectively, demonstrating the importance of controlling other enteric pathogens in an on-farm Salmonella control programme. These results show the usefulness of surveillance data to improve on-farm control and confirm that Salmonella infection in pigs is

  17. Age differences in autobiographical memory across the adult lifespan: older adults report stronger phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Martina; Sutin, Angelina R

    2018-01-01

    As an individual's life story evolves across adulthood, the subjective experience (phenomenology) of autobiographical memory likely changes. In addition to age at retrieval, both the recency of the memory and the age when a memory is formed may be particularly important to its phenomenology. The present work examines the effect of three temporal factors on phenomenology ratings: (a) age of the participant, (b) age at the event reported in the memory, and (c) memory age (recency). A large sample of Americans (N = 1120), stratified by chronological age, recalled and rated two meaningful memories, a Turning Point and an Early Childhood Memory. Ratings of phenomenology (e.g., vividness of turning points) were higher among older adults compared to younger adults. Memories of events from the reminiscence bump were more positive in valence than events from other time periods but did not differ on other phenomenological dimensions; recent memories had stronger phenomenology than remote memories. In contrast to phenomenology, narrative content was generally unrelated to participant age, age at the event, or memory age. Overall, the findings indicate age-related differences in how meaningful memories are re-experienced.

  18. UGC galaxies stronger than 25 mJy at 4.85 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, J.J.; Frayer, D.T.; Broderick, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    UGC galaxies in the declination band +5 to +75 deg were identified by position coincidence with radio sources stronger than 25 mJy on the Green Bank 4.85 GHz sky maps. Candidate identifications were confirmed or rejected with the aid of published aperture-synthesis maps and new 4.86 GHz VLA maps having 15 or 18 arcsec resolution, resulting in a sample of 347 nearby radio galaxies plus five new quasar-galaxy pairs. The radio energy sources in UGC galaxies were classified as starbursts or monsters on the basis of their infrared-radio flux ratios, infrared spectral indices, and radio morphologies. The rms scatter in the logarithmic infrared-radio ratio q is not more than 0.16 for starburst galaxies selected at 4.85 GHz. Radio spectral indices were obtained for nearly all of the UGC galaxies, and S0 galaxies account for a disproportionate share of the compact flat-spectrum (alpha less than 0.5) radio sources. The extended radio jets and lobes produced by monsters are preferentially, but not exclusively, aligned within about 30 deg of the optical minor axes of their host galaxies. The tendency toward minor-axis ejection appears to be independent of radio-source size and is strongest for elliptical galaxies. 230 refs

  19. TIMP-1 Is Significantly Associated with Objective Response and Survival in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving Combination of Irinotecan, 5-Fluorouracil, and Folinic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna M; Byström, Per; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2007-01-01

    that patients with low plasmaTIMP-1had higher probability of obtaining an objective response [odds ratio (OR), 3.5; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.4-8.5,P =0.007].CEAtreatedas a continuous variablewas also a statistically significantpredictorof no response (OR,1.3; 95%CI,1.0-1.7, P = 0.02, areaunder......Purpose: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is known to protect cells against apoptosis.We raisedth e hypothesis that elevatedtu mor tissue levels and thereby plasma levels of TIMP-1wouldp redict resistance to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy. Experimental Design: Ninety patients...... includingTTP instead of OS showed that only plasmaTIMP-1was retained in the model (HR,1.5). CEA was not significantly associatedw ith TTP or OS when TIMP-1was included in the model. Conclusion: This study shows that plasmaTIMP-1 levels are significantly and independently associatedw ith objective response...

  20. Metallogenetic systems associated with granitoid magmatism in the Amazonian Craton: An overview of the present level of understanding and exploration significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Jorge Silva; Juliani, Caetano; Xavier, Roberto P.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Bastos Neto, Artur C.; Klein, Evandro L.; Assis, Rafael R.; Leite, Washington Barbosa, Jr.; Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Fernandes, Carlos Marcello Dias; Pereira, Vitor Paulo

    2016-07-01

    The Amazonian Craton hosts world-class metallogenic provinces with a wide range of styles of primary precious, rare, base metal, and placer deposits. This paper provides a synthesis of the geological database with regard to granitoid magmatic suites, spatio temporal distribution, tectonic settings, and the nature of selected mineral deposits. The Archean Carajás Mineral Province comprises greenstone belts (3.04-2.97 Ga), metavolcanic-sedimentary units (2.76-2.74 Ga), granitoids (3.07-2.84 Ga) formed in a magmatic arc and syn-collisional setting, post-orogenic A2-type granites as well as gabbros (ca. 2.74 Ga), and anorogenic granites (1.88 Ga). Archean iron oxide-Cu-Au (IOCG) deposits were synchronous or later than bimodal magmatism (2.74-2.70 Ga). Paleoproterozoic IOCG deposits, emplaced at shallow-crustal levels, are enriched with Nb-Y-Sn-Be-U. The latter, as well as Sn-W and Au-EGP deposits are coeval with ca. 1.88 Ga A2-type granites. The Tapajós Mineral Province includes a low-grade meta-volcano-sedimentary sequence (2.01 Ga), tonalites to granites (2.0-1.87 Ga), two calc-alkaline volcanic sequences (2.0-1.95 Ga to 1.89-1.87 Ga) and A-type rhyolites and granites (1.88 Ga). The calc-alkaline volcanic rocks host epithermal Au and base metal mineralization, whereas Cu-Au and Cu-Mo ± Au porphyry-type mineralization is associated with sub-volcanic felsic rocks, formed in two continental magmatic arcs related to an accretionary event, resulting from an Andean-type northwards subduction. The Alta Floresta Gold Province consists of Paleoproterozoic plutono-volcanic sequences (1.98-1.75 Ga), generated in ocean-ocean orogenies. Disseminated and vein-type Au ± Cu and Au + base metal deposits are hosted by calc-alkaline I-type granitic intrusions (1.98 Ga, 1.90 Ga, and 1.87 Ga) and quartz-feldspar porphyries (ca. 1.77 Ga). Timing of the gold deposits has been constrained between 1.78 Ga and 1.77 Ga and linked to post-collisional Juruena arc felsic magmatism (e.g., Col

  1. Significance of host cell kinases in herpes simplex virus type 1 egress and lamin-associated protein disassembly from the nuclear lamina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Natalie R.; Roller, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is thought to be a steric barrier to the herpesvirus capsid. Disruption of the lamina accompanied by phosphorylation of lamina proteins is a conserved feature of herpesvirus infection. In HSV-1-infected cells, protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and delta isoforms are recruited to the nuclear membrane and PKC delta has been implicated in phosphorylation of emerin and lamin B. We tested two critical hypotheses about the mechanism and significance of lamina disruption. First, we show that chemical inhibition of all PKC isoforms reduced viral growth five-fold and inhibited capsid egress from the nucleus. However, specific inhibition of either conventional PKCs or PKC delta does not inhibit viral growth. Second, we show hyperphosphorylation of emerin by viral and cellular kinases is required for its disassociation from the lamina. These data support hypothesis that phosphorylation of lamina components mediates lamina disruption during HSV nuclear egress.

  2. Evaluation of Vitronectin Expression in Prostate Cancer and the Clinical Significance of the Association of Vitronectin Expression with Prostate Specific Antigen in Detecting Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yue; Zhang, Ling; Bi, Xing; Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Peng

    2016-03-05

    To detect the expression of vitronectin (VTN) in the tissues and blood serum of prostate cancer (PCa) patients, and evaluate its clinical significance and to evaluate the significance of the combined assay of VTN and prostate specific antigens (PSA) in PCa diagnosis. To detect the expression of VTN as a potential marker for PCa diagnosis and prognosis, immunohistochemistry was performed on the tissues of 32 patients with metastatic PCa (PCaM), 34 patients with PCa without metastasis (PCa), and 41 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The sera were then subjected to Western blot analysis. All cases were subsequently examined to determine the concentrations of PSA and VTN in the sera. The collected data were collated and analyzed. The positive expression rates of VTN in the tissues of the BPH and PCa groups (including PCa and PCaM groups) were 75.61% and 45.45%, respectively (P = .005). VTN was more highly expressed in the sera of the BPH patients (0.83 ± 0.07) than in the sera of the PCa patients (0.65 ± 0.06) (P < .05). It was also more highly expressed in the sera of the PCa patients than in the sera of the PCaM patients (0.35 ± 0.08) (P < .05). In the diagnosis of BPH and PCa, the Youden indexes of PSA detection, VTN detection, and combined detection were 0.2620, 0.3468, and 0.5635; the kappa values were 0.338, 0.304, and 0.448, respectively, and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.625, 0.673, and 0.703 (P < .05), respectively. VTN levels in sera may be used as a potential marker of PCa for the diagnosis and assessment of disease progression and metastasis. The combined detection of VTN and PSA in sera can be clinically applied in PCa diagnosis. .

  3. Stronger back muscles reduce the incidence of vertebral fractures: a prospective 10 year follow-up of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaki, M; Itoi, E; Wahner, H W; Wollan, P; Gelzcer, R; Mullan, B P; Collins, D A; Hodgson, S F

    2002-06-01

    The long-term protective effect of stronger back muscles on the spine was determined in 50 healthy white postmenopausal women, aged 58-75 years, 8 years after they had completed a 2 year randomized, controlled trial. Twenty-seven subjects had performed progressive, resistive back-strengthening exercises for 2 years and 23 had served as controls. Bone mineral density, spine radiographs, back extensor strength, biochemical marker values, and level of physical activity were obtained for all subjects at baseline, 2 years, and 10 years. Mean back extensor strength (BES) in the back-exercise (BE) group was 39.4 kg at baseline, 66.8 kg at 2 years (after 2 years of prescribed exercises), and 32.9 kg at 10 years (8 years after cessation of the prescribed exercises). Mean BES in the control (C) group was 36.9 kg at baseline, 49.0 kg at 2 years, and 26.9 kg at 10 years. The difference between the two groups was still statistically significant at 10 year follow-up (p = 0.001). The difference in bone mineral density, which was not significant between the two groups at baseline and 2 year follow-up, was significant at 10 year follow-up (p = 0.0004). The incidence of vertebral compression fracture was 14 fractures in 322 vertebral bodies examined (4.3%) in the C group and 6 fractures in 378 vertebral bodies examined (1.6%) in the BE group (chi-square test, p = 0.0290). The relative risk for compression fracture was 2.7 times greater in the C group than in the BE group. To our knowledge, this is the first study reported in the literature demonstrating the long-term effect of strong back muscles on the reduction of vertebral fractures in estrogen-deficient women.

  4. The brain matures with stronger functional connectivity and decreased randomness of its network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J A Smit

    Full Text Available We investigated the development of the brain's functional connectivity throughout the life span (ages 5 through 71 years by measuring EEG activity in a large population-based sample. Connectivity was established with Synchronization Likelihood. Relative randomness of the connectivity patterns was established with Watts and Strogatz' (1998 graph parameters C (local clustering and L (global path length for alpha (~10 Hz, beta (~20 Hz, and theta (~4 Hz oscillation networks. From childhood to adolescence large increases in connectivity in alpha, theta and beta frequency bands were found that continued at a slower pace into adulthood (peaking at ~50 yrs. Connectivity changes were accompanied by increases in L and C reflecting decreases in network randomness or increased order (peak levels reached at ~18 yrs. Older age (55+ was associated with weakened connectivity. Semi-automatically segmented T1 weighted MRI images of 104 young adults revealed that connectivity was significantly correlated to cerebral white matter volume (alpha oscillations: r = 33, p<01; theta: r = 22, p<05, while path length was related to both white matter (alpha: max. r = 38, p<001 and gray matter (alpha: max. r = 36, p<001; theta: max. r = 36, p<001 volumes. In conclusion, EEG connectivity and graph theoretical network analysis may be used to trace structural and functional development of the brain.

  5. Fission-track ages of the Tokai Group and associate formations in the east coast areas of Ise Bay and their significance in geohistory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makinouchi, Takeshi; Danhara, Toru; Isoda, Kunitoshi.

    1983-01-01

    Fission-track ages of volcanic ash layers within the Tokai Group and associate formations in the east coast areas of Ise Bay are obtained by grain-by-grain method with which individual ages for the respective zircon grains are measured. They are as follows; 1) a volcanic ash layer in the Karayama Formation (tentative age: 1.9 +- 0.4 Ma). Among the zircon grains in this layer, essential ones occupy only 1 per cent, and the others are accidental. 2) Ohtani volcanic ash layer (4.3 +- 0.6 Ma). 3) Kosugaya volcanic ash layer (4.0 +- 0.5 Ma). 4) Kaminoma volcanic ash layer (5.3 +- 0.4 Ma). 5) A volcanic ash layer in the Toyoura Formation seems to be older than 10 Ma. 6) Zircon grains in the Kofu volcanic ash layer (Tokai Group) include two types of spontaneous namely track, clear and vague ones. The latter vague tracks are shorter and thiner, and seem to suffer thermal annealing. The ages obtained have clarified the following Points; a) The tentative age, 1.9 Ma, of the ''Karayama'' volcanic ash layer suggests the existence of unknown Plio-Pleistocene sediment in the Nagoya area. b) The sedimentary basin of Lake Tokai was formed in the latest Miocene, about 6.5 Ma. Generation of the basin coincides approximately with the stage of synchronous and abrupt change in sedimentation rate in sedimentary basins on the Pacific side of central and southern Japan. c) The Tokai Group in Chita (Tokoname Group) intercalates the Gilbert/Epoch 5 boundary in the paleomagnetic chronology in the middle horizon of the group. d) Average rate of sedimentation is about 1 m/10 4 yrs in the marginal areas of the basin, and 3-5 m/10 4 yrs in the central areas. (author)

  6. Role of exonucleolytic processing and polymerase-DNA association in bypass of lesions during replication in vitro. Significance for SOS-targeted mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shwartz, H.; Shavitt, O.; Livneh, Z.

    1988-01-01

    The role of exonuclease activity in trans-lesion DNA replication with Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme was investigated. RecA protein inhibited the 3'----5' exonuclease activity of the polymerase 2-fold when assayed in the absence of replication and had no effect on turnover of dNTPs into dNMPs. In contrast, single-stranded DNA-binding protein, which had no effect on the exonuclease activity in the absence of replication, showed a pronounced 7-fold suppression of the 3'----5' exonuclease activity during replication. The excision of incorporated dNMP alpha S residues from DNA by the 3'----5' exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme was inhibited 10-20-fold; still no increase in bypass of pyrimidine photodimers was observed. Thus, in agreement with our previous results in which the exonuclease activity was inhibited at the protein level, inhibition at the DNA level also did not increase bypass of photodimers. Fractionation of the replication mixture after termination of DNA synthesis on a Bio-Gel A-5m column under conditions which favor polymerase-DNA binding yielded a termination complex which could perform turnover of dNTPs into dNMPs. Adding challenge-primed single-stranded DNA to the complex yielded a burst of DNA synthesis which was promoted most likely by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme molecules transferred from the termination complex to the challenge DNA thus demonstrating the instability of the polymerase-DNA association. Addition of a fresh sample of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme to purified termination products, which consist primarily of partially replicated molecules with nascent chains terminated at UV lesions, did not result in any net DNA synthesis as expected

  7. Nature and regional significance of unconformities associated with the Middle Ordovician Hagan K-bentonite complex in the North American midcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolata, Dennis R.; Huff, W.D.; Bergstrom, Stig M.

    1998-01-01

    Stratal patterns of the Middle Ordovician Hagan K-bentonite complex and associated rocks show that the Black River-Trenton unconformity in the North American midcontinent formed through the complex interplay of eustasy, sediment accumulation rates, siliciclastic influx, bathymetry, seawater chemistry, and perhaps local tectonic uplift. The unconformity is diachronous and is an amalgamated surface that resulted from local late Turinian lowstand exposure followed by regional early Chatfieldian transgressive drowning and sediment starvation. The duration of the unconformity is greatest in southern Wisconsin, northern Illinois, and northern Indiana, where the Deicke and Millbrig K-bentonite Beds converge at the unconformity. On the basis of published isotopic ages for the Deicke and Millbrig beds, it is possible that in these regions erosion and non-deposition spanned a period of as much as 3.2 m.y. Two broad coeval depositional settings are recognized within the North American midcontinent during early Chatfieldian time. 1) An inner shelf, subtidal facies of fossiliferous shale (Spechts Ferry Shale Member and Ion Shale Member of the Decorah Formation) and argillaceous lime mudstone and skeletal wackestone (Guttenberg and Kings Lake Limestone Members) extended from the Canadian shield and Transcontinental arch southeastward through Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Missouri. 2) A seaward, relatively deep subtidal, sediment-starved, middle shelf extended eastward from the Mississippi Valley region to the Taconian foreland basins in the central and southern Appalachians and southward through the pericratonic Arkoma and Black Warrior basins. In the inner shelf region, the Black River-Trenton unconformity is a composite of at least two prominent hardground omission surfaces, one at the top of the Castlewood and Carimona Limestone Members and the other at the top of the Guttenberg and Kings Lake Limestone Members, both merging to a single surface in the middle shelf region

  8. Genetic significance of the 867 cm- 1 out-of-plane Raman mode in graphite associated with V-bearing green grossular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rainer; Rericha, Adolf; Pohl, Walter L.; Davidson, Paul

    2018-03-01

    SE Kenya is the world's largest producer of green vanadium grossular gemstones (tsavorite). Samples from one of the mines near Mwatate, and of occurrences in Tanzania yielded remarkable new insights into the genesis of tsavorite. Graphite is intimately associated with V-grossular and is one of the keys to understanding its origin. In the course of this study we found five different types of graphite. Surprisingly, in one graphite type the "Raman-forbidden" and IR-active 867 cm- 1 band was observed. In this communication, we attempt to find an explanation for this unusual phenomenon. Additionally, our observations also address some of the issues pertaining to the origin of the green grossular-dominated rocks (grossularites), as well as the gem quality tsavorite crystals, since we propose that the anomalous spectroscopic behavior of the graphite is related to the unusual conditions during crystallization of both the grossular and graphite from a near-supercritical volatile- and sulfur-rich silicate melt. The massive green vanadium grossular contains abundant unequivocal crystallized melt inclusions, while the transparent gem quality grossular (tsavorite) displays only fluid inclusions. On the basis of inclusion studies we suggest that anatectic melts originated in the peculiar evaporitic host lithology of the tsavorite deposits. Near peak metamorphic temperatures ( 700 °C) these liquids occurred as a supercritical volatile-rich "fluid/melt phase" characterized by complete miscibility between H2O and silicate liquid. Relatively dry liquid batches precipitated non-transparent green grossular, whereas wet batches segregated fluids that formed transparent tsavorite.

  9. Lack of clinical AIDS in SIV-infected sooty mangabeys with significant CD4+ T cell loss is associated with double-negative T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milush, Jeffrey M.; Mir, Kiran D.; Sundaravaradan, Vasudha; Gordon, Shari N.; Engram, Jessica; Cano, Christopher A.; Reeves, Jacqueline D.; Anton, Elizabeth; O’Neill, Eduardo; Butler, Eboneé; Hancock, Kathy; Cole, Kelly S.; Brenchley, Jason M.; Else, James G.; Silvestri, Guido; Sodora, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    SIV infection of natural host species such as sooty mangabeys results in high viral replication without clinical signs of simian AIDS. Studying such infections is useful for identifying immunologic parameters that lead to AIDS in HIV-infected patients. Here we have demonstrated that acute, SIV-induced CD4+ T cell depletion in sooty mangabeys does not result in immune dysfunction and progression to simian AIDS and that a population of CD3+CD4–CD8– T cells (double-negative T cells) partially compensates for CD4+ T cell function in these animals. Passaging plasma from an SIV-infected sooty mangabey with very few CD4+ T cells to SIV-negative animals resulted in rapid loss of CD4+ T cells. Nonetheless, all sooty mangabeys generated SIV-specific antibody and T cell responses and maintained normal levels of plasma lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, all CD4-low sooty mangabeys elicited a de novo immune response following influenza vaccination. Such preserved immune responses as well as the low levels of immune activation observed in these animals were associated with the presence of double-negative T cells capable of producing Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines. These studies indicate that SIV-infected sooty mangabeys do not appear to rely entirely on CD4+ T cells to maintain immunity and identify double-negative T cells as a potential subset of cells capable of performing CD4+ T cell–like helper functions upon SIV-induced CD4+ T cell depletion in this species. PMID:21317533

  10. Understanding significant processes during work environment interventions to alleviate time pressure and associated sick leave of home care workers--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gunn Robstad; Westgaard, Rolf H

    2013-11-15

    Ergonomic and work stress interventions rarely show long-term positive effect. The municipality participating in this study received orders from the Norwegian Labour Inspectorate due to an identified unhealthy level of time pressure, and responded by effectuating several work environment interventions. The study aim is to identify critical factors in the interaction between work environment interventions and independent rationalization measures in order to understand a potential negative interfering effect from concurrent rationalizations on a comprehensive work environment intervention. The study, using a historic prospective mixed-method design, comprised 6 home care units in a municipality in Norway (138 respondents, response rate 76.2%; 17 informants). The study included quantitative estimations, register data of sick leave, a time line of significant events and changes, and qualitative descriptions of employee appraisals of their work situation gathered through semi-structured interviews and open survey responses. The work environment interventions were in general regarded as positive by the home care workers. However, all units were simultaneously subjected to substantial contextual instability, involving new work programs, new technology, restructurings, unit mergers, and management replacements, perceived by the home care workers to be major sources of stress. Findings suggest that concurrent changes induced through rationalization resulted in negative exposure effects that negated positive work environment intervention effects, causing an overall deteriorated work situation for the home care workers. Establishment and active utilization of communication channels from workers to managers are recommended in order to increase awareness of putative harmful and interruptive effects of rationalization measures.

  11. Fasting insulin has a stronger association with an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile than insulin resistance: the RISC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Kozakova, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fasting insulin concentrations are often used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. We investigated the relative contributions of fasting insulin and insulin resistance to cardiometabolic risk and preclinical atherosclerosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Relationship between Insulin...... of the metabolic syndrome in 1177 participants. Carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) was measured by ultrasound to assess preclinical atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Fasting insulin was correlated with all elements of the metabolic syndrome. Insulin sensitivity (M/I) was correlated with most elements. The odds...... ratio for the metabolic syndrome of those in the highest quartile of fasting insulin compared with those in the lower quartiles was 5.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10.3, adjusted for insulin sensitivity) in men and 5.1 (2.6-9.9) in women. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome of those with insulin...

  12. Stronger pack warnings predict quitting more than weaker ones: finding from the ITC Malaysia and Thailand surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David

    2013-09-18

    mechanisms for influencing quitting regardless of warning strength. The larger and more informative Thai warnings were associated with higher levels of reactions predictive of quitting and stronger associations with subsequent quitting, demonstrating their greater potency.

  13. Significant Association between Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Uranium-Reducing Microbial Communities as Revealed by a Combined Massively Parallel Sequencing-Indicator Species Approach▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Jardine, Philip M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Marsh, Terence L.; Tiedje, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared. PMID:20729318

  14. Significant association between sulfate-reducing bacteria and uranium-reducing microbial communities as revealed by a combined massively parallel sequencing-indicator species approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K; Jardine, Philip M; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S; Marsh, Terence L; Tiedje, James M

    2010-10-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared.

  15. The bigger, the stronger? Insights from muscle architecture and nervous characteristics in obese adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vicencio, S; Coudeyre, E; Kluka, V; Cardenoux, C; Jegu, A-G; Fourot, A-V; Ratel, S; Martin, V

    2016-02-01

    Young obese youth are generally stronger than lean youth. This has been linked to the loading effect of excess body mass, acting as a training stimulus comparable to strength training. Whether this triggers specific adaptations of the muscle architecture (MA) and voluntary activation (VA) that could account for the higher strength of obese subjects remains unknown. MA characteristics (that is, pennation angle (PA), fascicle length (FL) and muscle thickness (MT)) and muscle size (that is, anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA)) of the knee extensor (KE) and plantar flexor (PF) muscles were evaluated in 12 obese and 12 non-obese adolescent girls (12-15 years). Maximal isometric torque and VA of the KE and PF muscles were also assessed. Results revealed higher PA (Pmuscles in obese girls. Moreover, obese individuals produced a higher absolute torque than their lean counterparts on the KE (224.6±39.5 vs 135.7±32.7 N m, respectively; Pmuscles (73.3±16.5 vs 44.5±6.2 N m; Pmuscles (r=0.45-0.55, P<0.05-0.01). MVC was also correlated with VA (KE: r=0.44, P<0.05; PF: r=0.65, P<0.001) and segmental lean mass (KE: r=0.48, P<0.05; PF: r=0.57, P<0.01). This study highlighted favorable muscular and nervous adaptations to obesity that account for the higher strength of obese youth. The excess of body mass supported during daily activities could act as a chronic training stimulus responsible for these adaptations.

  16. High-pressure metamorphic age and significance of eclogite-facies continental fragments associated with oceanic lithosphere in the Western Alps (Etirol-Levaz Slice, Valtournenche, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassmer, Kathrin; Obermüller, Gerrit; Nagel, Thorsten J.; Kirst, Frederik; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Sandmann, Sascha; Miladinova, Irena; Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Münker, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    The Etirol-Levaz Slice in the Penninic Alps (Valtournenche, Italy) is a piece of eclogite-facies continental basement sandwiched between two oceanic units, the blueschist-facies Combin Zone in the hanging wall and the eclogite-facies Zermatt-Saas Zone in the footwall. It has been interpreted as an extensional allochthon from the continental margin of Adria, emplaced onto ultramafic and mafic basement of the future Zermatt-Saas Zone by Jurassic, rifting-related detachment faulting, and later subducted together with the future Zermatt-Saas Zone. Alternatively, the Etirol-Levaz Slice could be derived from a different paleogeographic domain and be separated from the Zermatt-Saas Zone by an Alpine shear zone. We present Lu-Hf whole rock-garnet ages of two eclogite samples, one from the center of the unit and one from the border to the Zermatt-Saas Zone below. These data are accompanied by a new geological map of the Etirol-Levaz Slice and the surrounding area, as well as detailed petrology of these two samples. Assemblages, mineral compositions and garnet zoning in both samples indicate a clockwise PT-path and peak-metamorphic conditions of about 550-600 °C/20-25 kbar, similar to conditions proposed for the underlying Zermatt-Saas Zone. Prograde garnet ages of the two samples are 61.8 ± 1.8 Ma and 52.4 ± 2.1 Ma and reflect different timing of subduction. One of these is significantly older than published ages of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Zermatt-Saas Zone and thus contradicts the hypothesis of Mesozoic emplacement. The occurrence of serpentinite and metagabbro bodies possibly derived from the Zermatt-Saas Zone inside the Etirol-Levaz Slice suggests that the latter is a tectonic composite. The basement slivers forming the Etirol-Levaz Slice and other continental fragments were subducted earlier than the Zermatt-Saas Zone, but nonetheless experienced similar pressure-temperature histories. Our results support the hypothesis that the Zermatt-Saas Zone and the

  17. Plant-microbial association in petroleum and gas exploration sites in the state of Assam, north-east India-significance for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Hemen; Islam, N F; Prasad, M N V

    2017-03-01

    The state of Assam in north-east India gained popularity in Asia because of discovery of oil. Pollution due to petroleum and gas exploration is a serious problem in Assam. Oil and gas exploration by various agencies in Assam resulted in soil pollution due to hydrocarbons (HCs) and heavy metals (HMs). Bioremediation gained considerable significance in addressing petroleum hydrocarbon polluted sites in various parts of the world. In this investigation, we have observed 15 species of plants belonging to grass growing on the contaminated soils. Among 15 species of grasses, 10 species with high important value index (IVI) were found to be better adapted. The highest IVI is exhibited by Axonopus compressus (21.41), and this grass can be identified as key ecological tool in the rehabilitation of the degraded site. But no definite correlation between the IVI and the biomass of the various grass existed in the study sites. Chemical study of rhizosphere (RS) and non-rhizosphere (NRS) soil of these grasses revealed both aromatic and aliphatic compounds (M.W. 178-456). Four-ring pyrene was detected in NRS soil but not in RS soil. Microbiological study of RS and NRS soil showed high colony-forming unit (CFU) of HC-degrading microbes in RS compared to NRS. The increased microbial catabolism in RS soil established the fact that pyrene is transformed to aliphatic compounds. Metals in RS soil ranged from (in mg kg -1 ) 222.6 to 267.3 (Cr), 854 to 956 (Pb) and 180 to 247 (Ni), but despite the very high total metal concentration in RS and NRS soil, the CaCl 2 -extracted metals were relatively low in RS soil (1.04 for Cr, 0.56 for Pb, 0.35 for Ni). Plants with the highest uptake of metals were Leersia hexandra (36.43 mg Cr kg -1 ) and Kyllinga brevifolia (67.73 mg Pb kg -1 and 40.24 mg Ni kg -1 ). These plant species could be potentially exploited for biomonitoring and bioremediation. Out of 15 plant species, 8 of them have high percentages of cellulose, crude fibres, lignin

  18. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  19. Density regulation in Northeast Atlantic fish populations: Density dependence is stronger in recruitment than in somatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Fabian; Ricard, Daniel; Heino, Mikko

    2018-05-01

    Population regulation is a central concept in ecology, yet in many cases its presence and the underlying mechanisms are difficult to demonstrate. The current paradigm maintains that marine fish populations are predominantly regulated by density-dependent recruitment. While it is known that density-dependent somatic growth can be present too, its general importance remains unknown and most practical applications neglect it. This study aimed to close this gap by for the first time quantifying and comparing density dependence in growth and recruitment over a large set of fish populations. We fitted density-dependent models to time-series data on population size, recruitment and age-specific weight from commercially exploited fish populations in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Data were standardized to enable a direct comparison within and among populations, and estimated parameters were used to quantify the impact of density regulation on population biomass. Statistically significant density dependence in recruitment was detected in a large proportion of populations (70%), whereas for density dependence in somatic growth the prevalence of density dependence depended heavily on the method (26% and 69%). Despite age-dependent variability, the density dependence in recruitment was consistently stronger among age groups and between alternative approaches that use weight-at-age or weight increments to assess growth. Estimates of density-dependent reduction in biomass underlined these results: 97% of populations with statistically significant parameters for growth and recruitment showed a larger impact of density-dependent recruitment on population biomass. The results reaffirm the importance of density-dependent recruitment in marine fishes, yet they also show that density dependence in somatic growth is not uncommon. Furthermore, the results are important from an applied perspective because density dependence in somatic growth affects productivity and

  20. Faster and stronger manifestation of mitochondrial diseases in skeletal muscle than in heart related to cytosolic inorganic phosphate (Pi) accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    A model of the cell bioenergetic system was used to compare the effect of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) deficiencies in a broad range of moderate ATP demand in skeletal muscle and heart. Computer simulations revealed that kinetic properties of the system are similar in both cases despite the much higher mitochondria content and "basic" OXPHOS activity in heart than in skeletal muscle, because of a much higher each-step activation (ESA) of OXPHOS in skeletal muscle than in heart. Large OXPHOS deficiencies lead in both tissues to a significant decrease in oxygen consumption (V̇o2) and phosphocreatine (PCr) and increase in cytosolic ADP, Pi, and H(+) The main difference between skeletal muscle and heart is a much higher cytosolic Pi concentration in healthy tissue and much higher cytosolic Pi accumulation (level) at low OXPHOS activities in the former, caused by a higher PCr level in healthy tissue (and higher total phosphate pool) and smaller Pi redistribution between cytosol and mitochondria at OXPHOS deficiency. This difference does not depend on ATP demand in a broad range. A much greater Pi increase and PCr decrease during rest-to-moderate work transition in skeletal muscle at OXPHOS deficiencies than at normal OXPHOS activity significantly slows down the V̇o2 on-kinetics. Because high cytosolic Pi concentrations cause fatigue in skeletal muscle and can compromise force generation in skeletal muscle and heart, this system property can contribute to the faster and stronger manifestation of mitochondrial diseases in skeletal muscle than in heart. Shortly, skeletal muscle with large OXPHOS deficiencies becomes fatigued already during low/moderate exercise. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Bell inequalities stronger than the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for three-level isotropic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsuyoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Avis, David

    2006-01-01

    We show that some two-party Bell inequalities with two-valued observables are stronger than the CHSH inequality for 3x3 isotropic states in the sense that they are violated by some isotropic states in the 3x3 system that do not violate the CHSH inequality. These Bell inequalities are obtained by applying triangular elimination to the list of known facet inequalities of the cut polytope on nine points. This gives a partial solution to an open problem posed by Collins and Gisin. The results of numerical optimization suggest that they are candidates for being stronger than the I 3322 Bell inequality for 3x3 isotropic states. On the other hand, we found no Bell inequalities stronger than the CHSH inequality for 2x2 isotropic states. In addition, we illustrate an inclusion relation among some Bell inequalities derived by triangular elimination

  2. Meditation has stronger relationships with mindfulness, kundalini, and mystical experiences than yoga or prayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, John M

    2015-09-01

    Contemplative practices can have profound effects on mindfulness and on physical and sensory and mystical experiences. Individuals who self-reported meditation, yoga, contemplative prayer, or a combination of practices and their patterns of practice were compared for mindfulness, kundalini effects, and mystical experiences. The results suggest that the amount of practice but not the pattern and social conditions of practice influences mindfulness and possibly mystical experiences. Meditation, yoga, contemplative prayer, or a combination of practices all were found to be associated with enhancements of mindfulness, kundalini effects, and mystical experiences, but meditation had particularly strong associations and may be the basis of the associations of yoga and prayer with these outcomes. The results further suggest that the primary association of contemplative practices is with the real time awareness and appreciation of sensory and perceptual experiences which may be the intermediary between disparate practices and mindfulness, kundalini effects, and mystical experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 'Fat mass and obesity associated' gene (FTO: No significant association of variant rs9939609 with weight loss in a lifestyle intervention and lipid metabolism markers in German obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Timo D

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously identified strong association of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene to early onset extreme obesity within the first genome wide association study (GWA for this phenotype. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the obesity risk allele of one of these SNPs (rs9939609 is associated with weight loss in a lifestyle intervention program. Additionally, we tested for association of rs9939609 alleles with fasting blood parameters indicative of glucose and lipid metabolism. Methods We initially analysed rs9939609 in a case-control study comprising 519 German overweight and obese children and adolescents and 178 normal weight adults. In 207 of the obese individuals who took part in the outpatient obesity intervention program 'Obeldicks' we further analysed whether carrier status of the obesity risk A-allele of rs9939609 has a differential influence on weight loss after the intervention program. Additionally, we investigated in 480 of the overweight and obese patients whether rs9939609 is associated with fasting blood levels of glucose, triglycerides and HDL and LDL-cholesterol. Genotyping was performed using allele specific polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR. For the association study (case-control approach, the Cochran-Armitage trend test was applied. Blood parameters were analysed using commercially available test kits and the log10-transformed blood parameters and changes in BMI-standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS were analysed by linear regression with sex and age as covariates under an additive mode of inheritance with the rs9939609 A-allele as risk allele. Results We confirmed the association of the risk A-allele of rs9939609 with overweight and early onset obesity (one sided p = 0.036. However, we observed no association of rs9939609 alleles with weight loss or fasting levels of blood glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. Conclusion We confirmed

  4. Females have stronger neurogenic response than males after non-specific nasal challenge in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenovic, Dejan; Baudoin, Tomislav; Megla, Zeljka Bukovec; Geber, Goran; Scadding, Glenis; Kalogjera, Livije

    2018-07-01

    Epidemiological studies show female predominance in the prevalence of non- allergic rhinitis (NAR) and local allergic rhinitis (LAR). Experimental studies show female patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) demonstrate higher levels of sensitivity to irritants and airway hyperresponsiveness than males. Bronchial asthma shows female predominance in post-puberty patients, and gender interaction with severe asthma endotypes. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, migraine and chronic cough, syndromes, which are commonly related to neurokinin substance P (SP) in the literature, also show strong female predominance. Studies have demonstrated that sex hormones, primarily oestrogens, affect mast cell activation. Mast cell proteases can amplify neurogenic inflammatory responses including the release of SP. Based on human epidemiological data and animal experimental data we hypothesized that female patients have different interaction between mast cell activation and neurogenic inflammation, i.e. substance P release, resulting in a different nasal symptom profile. To test the hypothesis we performed allergen and non-specific nasal challenges in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) out of season and looked for gender differences in subjective and objective responses. The interaction between subjective and objective reactivity was evaluated through the comparison of subjective symptom scores, concentrations of neurokinin substance P (SP) and cellular markers in nasal lavages after low doses of nasal allergen challenges. Female allergic subjects tended to have higher substance P (SP) concentrations both before and after non-specific challenges. The difference between post-allergen and post - hypertonic saline (HTS) challenge was highly significant in female patients (p = 0.001), while insignificant in male subjects (p = 0.14). Female patients had significantly stronger burning sensation after HTS challenge than male. These data indicate difference in the

  5. Gender differences in the association between self-reported stress and cigarette smoking in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisok Kim

    2016-06-01

    This study found a statistically significant association between stress and smoking among Korean adolescents and this association was stronger in girls than boys. Further research is needed to understand more fully the link between stress and smoking in adolescents, with particular attention to sex differences.

  6. A candidate gene study of serotonergic pathway genes and pain relief during treatment with escitalopram in patients with neuropathic pain shows significant association to serotonin receptor2C (HTR2C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte; Møller, Malik U; Christiansen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    the association between polymorphisms in genes involved in the serotonergic pathway and the effect of escitalopram on peripheral neuropathic pain. METHODS: We genotyped 34 participants from a placebo-controlled trial of escitalopram in peripheral neuropathic pain for polymorphisms in five genes: the serotonin.......047), with 75% carrying the C allele being responders. The same tendency was seen in women. Similarly, carriership of the C allele at rs6318 was associated with better pain relief during treatment with escitalopram [odds ratio (OR) 15.5, p = 0.014)] Furthermore, there was a tendency of better relief...... with increasing number of short alleles for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (OR 5.7, p = 0.057). None of the other polymorphisms showed a significant association with treatment response to escitalopram. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that variation in the HTR2C gene is associated...

  7. GPE 2020: Improving Learning and Equity through Stronger Education Systems. Strategic Plan 2016-2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global Partnership for Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Global Partnership for Education (GPE) addresses the most significant education challenges faced by developing countries through supporting governments to improve equity and learning by strengthening their education systems. GPE is a global fund and a partnership focused entirely on education in developing countries. The partnership has a…

  8. Becoming stronger by becoming weaker: the hunger strike as a mode of doing politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Carl Sebastian; Danyi, Endre

    2018-01-01

    immigrants, we aim to achieve three things. First, we foreground physical bodies as political entities caught up in multiple modes of doing politics. Second, we show how such modes relate to one another, reinforcing citizenship, activism and party politics as specific performances of agency associated...... with liberal democracy. Finally, we argue that the Brussels hunger strike also challenges these performances by failing to meet certain expectations about what it is to be political/act politically. As the European refugee crisis is generating louder and louder voices, hunger strikes sensitise us to modes...

  9. Earlier adolescent substance use onset predicts stronger connectivity between reward and cognitive control brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Weissman

    2015-12-01

    Discussion: The regions that demonstrated significant positive linear relationships between the number of adolescent years using substances and connectivity with NAcc are nodes in the right frontoparietal network, which is central to cognitive control. The coupling of reward and cognitive control networks may be a mechanism through which earlier onset of substance use is related to brain function over time, a trajectory that may be implicated in subsequent substance use disorders.

  10. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., "spatial ability is for boys") in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest-instruction-posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  11. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Vander Heyden

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM and girls’ underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., ‘spatial ability is for boys’ in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT. Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest – instruction – posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children’s spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding. The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children’s choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  12. "Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger": Negative Comparison on Facebook and Adolescents' Life Satisfaction Are Reciprocally Related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Eline; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-03-01

    Social networking sites, such as Facebook, offer adolescent users an ideal platform for negative comparison (i.e., experiencing negative feelings from social comparison). Although such negative comparison on Facebook has been associated with users' well-being, the reciprocal relations between the two remain unclear, particularly in an adolescent sample. To examine this reciprocal process, a two-wave study among a representative sample of Flemish adolescents was set up (N Time1 = 1,840). Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Cross-lagged analyses indicated that negative comparison on Facebook predicted decreases in life satisfaction over time. Conversely, lower scores on life satisfaction predicted increases in negative comparison on Facebook. The discussion focuses on the understanding of these findings, key limitations, directions for future research, and implications for prevention and intervention strategies.

  13. Is maternal transmission of coronary heart disease risk stronger than paternal transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinra, S; Davey Smith, G; Okasha, M; McCarron, P; McEwen, J

    2003-08-01

    To test whether intergenerational transmission of coronary heart disease (CHD) to offspring is greater from the mother than from the father, the association between parental history of CHD and coronary mortality in male offspring was examined. Prospective cohort study with 43 years of follow up. University of Glasgow. Male students (n = 8402) aged 16-30 years when examined in 1948 to 1968. Fatal CHD. Of the 8402 men studied, 615 (7.3%) reported a history of CHD in at least one of the parents: 479 (5.8%) for fathers only, 124 (1.6%) for mothers only, and a further 12 (0.2%) for both their parents. During follow up, 373 (4.4%) men died of CHD. Parental history of disease was associated with fatal CHD and controlling for personal risk factors such as cigarette smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and father's social class did not attenuate this relation. The fully adjusted hazard ratios were 1.53 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 2.18), 1.19 (95% CI 0.61 to 2.32), and 8.65 (95% CI 2.65 to 28.31) for father only, mother only, and both parents with CHD, respectively, compared with men whose parents did not have CHD. There was some evidence for interaction between parental histories (p = 0.049), with particularly high risk if both parents reported a history of CHD. This study found no differential transmission of CHD. Paternal history of CHD was at least as important as maternal history. Data from other comparable cohorts provide no consistent evidence of differential transmission. Intergenerational transmission of CHD does not appear to have differential effects between mothers and fathers.

  14. Land use change has stronger effects on functional diversity than taxonomic diversity in tropical Andean hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Boris A; Santillán, Vinicio E; Graham, Catherine H

    2018-03-01

    Land use change modifies the environment at multiple spatial scales, and is a main driver of species declines and deterioration of ecosystem services. However, most of the research on the effects of land use change has focused on taxonomic diversity, while functional diversity, an important predictor of ecosystem services, is often neglected. We explored how local and landscape scale characteristics influence functional and taxonomic diversity of hummingbirds in the Andes Mountains in southern Ecuador. Data was collected in six landscapes along a land use gradient, from an almost intact landscape to one dominated by cattle pastures. We used point counts to sample hummingbirds from 2011 to 2012 to assessed how local factors (i.e., vegetation structure, flowering plants richness, nectar availability) and landscape factors (i.e., landscape heterogeneity, native vegetation cover) influenced taxonomic and functional diversity. Then, we analyzed environment - trait relationships (RLQ test) to explore how different hummingbird functional traits influenced species responses to these factors. Taxonomic and functional diversity of hummingbirds were positively associated with landscape heterogeneity but only functional diversity was positively related to native vegetation coverage. We found a weak response of taxonomic and functional diversity to land use change at the local scale. Environment-trait associations showed that body mass of hummingbirds likely influenced species sensitivity to land use change. In conclusion, landscape heterogeneity created by land use change can positively influence hummingbird taxonomic and functional diversity; however, a reduction of native vegetation cover could decrease functional diversity. Given that functional diversity can mediate ecosystem services, the conservation of native vegetation cover could play a key role in the maintenance of hummingbird pollination services in the tropical Andes. Moreover, there are particular functional

  15. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year is associated with a significant protective effect for travellers' diarrhoea: a prospective observational cohort study in travellers to South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzli, Esther; Juergensen, David; Kling, Kerstin; Jaeger, Veronika K; DeCrom, Susan; Steffen, Robert; Widmer, Andreas F; Battegay, Manuel; Hatz, Christoph; Neumayr, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem in travellers. Depending on the region visited, up to 40% of travellers develop diarrhoea during a 2-week trip. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for TD among travellers to the Indian subcontinent. An observational prospective multicentre cohort study investigated travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Participants completed questionnaires assessing the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea and identifying potential risk factors. Covariates were assessed univariately, followed by a multivariate regression. Two-hundred and twenty-six travellers were enrolled into the study, 178 filled in both pre- and post-travel questionnaires. Overall, the attack rate of travellers' diarrhoea was 38.2%. Travel destination is a key risk factor for the occurrence of TD. Travelling to India or Nepal vs Bhutan is associated with an increased risk for TD (OR 6.68 and 6.62, respectively). A length of stay of more than 3 weeks compared to less than 2 weeks is also associated with a significantly increased risk (OR 5.45). Having stayed in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year before the current trip is associated with a significantly decreased risk (OR 0.19). No association was found between consumption of high risk food (i.e. tap water, ice cream, raw meat and hamburgers) and travellers' diarrhoea. Travellers' diarrhoea is a frequent problem in travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year appears to have a significant protective effect. Furthermore, an association between the occurrence of travellers' diarrhoea and travel destination and length of stay, respectively, was observed. Consumption of risk food did not confer a TD risk in our study. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Controlling radioactive sources. Stronger 'cradle-to-grave' security needed, IAEA says

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This article highlights the IAEA activities in the field of radiation safety and security of radiation sources and other radioactive materials in its Member States. The IAEA has been active in lending its expertise to search out and secure orphaned sources in several countries. Additionally more than 70 States have joined with the IAEA to collect and share information on trafficking incidents and other unauthorized movements of radioactive sources and other radioactive materials. In March 2002 the IAEA Board of Governors approved a multi-faceted Action plan to Combat Nuclear Terrorism that includes upgrading radiation safety and security. One programme is designed to ensure that significant, uncontrolled radioactive sources are brought under regulatory control and properly secured by providing assistance to Member States in their efforts to identify, locate and secure or dispose of orphan sources

  17. [Significance of the doctorate in scientific medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Matthias

    2018-02-01

    According to European and German law, the medical education of physicians must take place in a scientific degree program at a university or under the supervision of a university. To keep up the ideal of a scientific degree program, various organizations and associations, such as the German Research Foundation, the German Council of Science and Humanities and the German Medical Faculty Association, see the need for an even stronger anchoring of academic learning content in the course of study. Traditionally, a scientific project, which is carried out during the studies, provides the basis for the Doctor of Medicine (Dr. med.) after graduation, although the research projects as a basis for medical degrees are currently not obligatory parts of the curricula. The number of medical students performing such research projects is significantly decreasing, thus they are missing major skills for working in science. To counteract these developments, faculties of medicine are currently developing model curricula including deepened scientific education. Despite these efforts, the German Association of Faculties of Medicine argues that the performance of research projects leading to the doctoral degree is most suitable for obtaining expertise in scientific work. According to recommendations by the German Council of Science on the requirements for quality assurance of graduation doctoral degree programs have been introduced. This and further measures, like MD/PhD programs or research-based additional study programs serving the scientific qualification of medical students, are the subject of this article.

  18. A Stronger EU in Cosmos: Embracing the Concept of Space Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The recently unveiled EU Global Strategy for Foreign and Security Policy presents bold and ambitious plans in several increasingly important domains for Europe, including outer space. The EU has committed itself to securing an autonomous access to space, providing security for its space-based assets, and promoting the adoption of a voluntary code of conduct in space. With the evolving dynamics in astropolitics, space security has become an ever more important aspect of space activities. Clearly, the EU has a vested interest in space security, whereas space-enabled services form an important part of European economy and contribute to effective implementation of its energy policy, migration, border control as well as domestic and international crisis management. Since the EU is currently in the process of drafting a European Space Strategy, it should seize the opportunity to take stock of its existing space programs and lay out a promising way forward. Besides reinforcing the existing Copernicus and Galileo programs and further developing the Governmental Satellite Communications (GOVSATCOM project, the EU should make a significant investment in space security, particularly through boosting its Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST capabilities and actively working on the international fora to promote a responsible behavior in outer space that could be eventually transformed into a voluntary international code of conduct. Through a comprehensive space policy and by reinforcing its autonomy in outer space, the EU will not only strengthen its foreign and security policy, but also reconfirm its relevant role in global affairs.

  19. The phosphatidylinositol synthase gene (GhPIS) contributes to longer, stronger, and finer fibers in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Qin; Yue, Fang; Liu, Ruochen; Song, Shuiqing; Li, Xianbi; Ding, Bo; Yan, Xingying; Pei, Yan

    2018-05-11

    Cotton fibers are the most important natural raw material used in textile industries world-wide. Fiber length, strength, and fineness are the three major traits which determine the quality and economic value of cotton. It is known that exogenous application of phosphatidylinositols (PtdIns), important structural phospholipids, can promote cotton fiber elongation. Here, we sought to increase the in planta production of PtdIns to improve fiber traits. Transgenic cotton plants were generated in which the expression of a cotton phosphatidylinositol synthase gene (i.e., GhPIS) was controlled by the fiber-specific SCFP promoter element, resulting in the specific up-regulation of GhPIS during cotton fiber development. We demonstrate that PtdIns content was significantly enhanced in transgenic cotton fibers and the elevated level of PtdIns stimulated the expression of genes involved in PtdIns phosphorylation as well as promoting lignin/lignin-like phenolic biosynthesis. Fiber length, strength and fineness were also improved in the transgenic plants as compared to the wild-type cotton, with no loss in overall fiber yield. Our data indicate that fiber-specific up-regulation of PtdIns synthesis is a promising strategy for cotton fiber quality improvement.

  20. Geographical constraints are stronger than invasion patterns for European urban floras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ricotta

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that affect invasion success of alien species is an important prerequisite for the effective management of present and future aliens. To gain insight into this matter we asked the following questions: Are the geographical patterns of species distributions in urban floras different for native compared with alien plant species? Does the introduction of alien species contribute to the homogenization of urban floras? We used a Mantel test on Jaccard dissimilarity matrices of 30 urban floras across the British Isles, Italy and central Europe to compare the spatial distribution of native species with four classes of alien species: archaeophytes, all neophytes, non-invasive neophytes, and invasive neophytes. Archaeophytes and neophytes are species that were introduced into Europe before and after 1500 AD, respectively. To analyze the homogenizing effect of alien species on the native urban floras, we tested for differences in the average dissimilarity of individual cities from their group centroid in ordination space. Our results show that the compositional patterns of native and alien species seem to respond to the same environmental drivers, such that all four classes of alien species were significantly related to native species across urban floras. In this framework, alien species may have an impact on biogeographic patterns of urban floras in ways that reflect their history of introduction and expansion: archaeophytes and invasive neophytes tended to homogenize, while non-invasive neophytes tended to differentiate urban floras.

  1. Growing season carries stronger contributions to albedo dynamics on the Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li; Chen, Jiquan; Zhang, Yangjian

    2017-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has experienced higher-than-global-average climate warming in recent decades, resulting in many significant changes in ecosystem structure and function. Among them is albedo, which bridges the causes and consequences of land surface processes and climate. The plateau is covered by snow/ice and vegetation in the non-growing season (nGS) and growing season (GS), respectively. Based on the MODIS products, we investigated snow/ice cover and vegetation greenness in relation to the spatiotemporal changes of albedo on the Tibetan Plateau from 2000 through 2013. A synchronous relationship was found between the change in GSNDVI and GSalbedo over time and across the Tibetan landscapes. We found that the annual average albedo had a decreasing trend, but that the albedo had slightly increased during the nGS and decreased during the GS. Across the landscapes, the nGSalbedo fluctuated in a synchronous pattern with snow/ice cover. Temporally, monthly snow/ice coverage also had a high correspondence with albedo, except in April and October. We detected clear dependencies of albedo on elevation. With the rise in altitude, the nGSalbedo decreased below 4000 m, but increased for elevations of 4500-5500 m. Above 5500 m, the nGSalbedo decreased, which was in accordance with the decreased amount of snow/ice coverage and the increased soil moisture on the plateau. More importantly, the decreasing albedo in the most recent decade appeared to be caused primarily by lowered growing season albedo.

  2. Escherichia coli O157:H7 induces stronger plant immunity than Salmonella enterica Typhimurium SL1344.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debanjana; Panchal, Shweta; Rosa, Bruce A; Melotto, Maeli

    2013-04-01

    Consumption of fresh produce contaminated with bacterial human pathogens has resulted in various, sometimes deadly, disease outbreaks. In this study, we assessed plant defense responses induced by the fully pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 in both Arabidopsis thaliana and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Unlike SL1344, O157:H7 induced strong plant immunity at both pre-invasion and post-invasion steps of infection. For instance, O157:H7 triggered stomatal closure even under high relative humidity, an environmental condition that generally weakens plant defenses against bacteria in the field and laboratory conditions. SL1344 instead induced a transient stomatal immunity. We also observed that PR1 gene expression was significantly higher in Arabidopsis leaves infected with O157:H7 compared with SL1344. These results suggest that plants may recognize and respond to some human pathogens more effectively than others. Furthermore, stomatal immunity can diminish the penetration of human pathogens through the leaf epidermis, resulting in low bacterial titers in the plant apoplast and suggesting that additional control measures can be employed to prevent food contamination. The understanding of how plant responses can diminish bacterial contamination is paramount in preventing outbreaks and improving the safety of food supplies.

  3. Does stronger pollen competition improve offspring fitness when pollen load does not vary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélabon, Christophe; Hennet, Lauriane; Bolstad, Geir H; Albertsen, Elena; Opedal, Øystein H; Ekrem, Runa K; Armbruster, W Scott

    2016-03-01

    Competition among pollen grains from a single donor is expected to increase the quality of the offspring produced because of the recessive deleterious alleles expressed during pollen-tube growth. However, evidence for such an effect is inconclusive; a large number of studies suffer from confounding variation in pollen competition with variation in pollen load. In this study, we tested the effect of pollen competition on offspring performance independently of pollen-load variation. We compared seed mass and early seedling performance in Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae) between crosses in which variation in pollen competition was achieved, without variation in pollen load, by manipulating the dispersion of pollen grains on the stigmas. Despite a large sample size (211 crosses on 20 maternal plants), we failed to find an effect of pollen competition on seed characteristics or early seedling performance. Paternal effects were always limited, and pollen competition never reduced the within-father (residual) variance. These results suggest that limited within-donor variation in genetic quality of pollen grains reduces the potential benefits of pollen competition in the study population. The lack of paternal effects on early sporophyte performance further suggests that benefits of pollen competition among pollen from multiple donors should be limited as well, and it raises questions about the significance of pollen competition as a mechanism of sexual selection. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  4. REXUS/BEXUS: launching student experiments -a step towards a stronger space science community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittock, Mark; Stamminger, Andreas; Maria, Roth; Dannenberg, Kristine; Page, Helen

    The REXUS/BEXUS (Rocket/Balloon Experiments for University Students) programme pro-vides opportunities to teams of European student scientists and engineers to fly experiments on sounding rockets and high altitude balloons. This is an opportunity for students and the scientific community to benefit from encouragement and support for experiments. An important feature of the programme is that the students experience a full project life-cycle which is typically not a part of their university education and which helps to prepare them for further scientific work. They have to plan, organize, and control their project in order to develop and build up an experiment but must also work on the scientic aspects. Many of the students continue to work in the field on which they focused in the programme and can often build upon both the experience and the results from flight. Within the REXUS/BEXUS project cycle, they are encouraged to write and present papers about their experiments and results; increasing amounts of scientific output are seen from the students who participate. Not only do the students learn and develop from REXUS/BEXUS but the scientific community also reaps significant benefits. Another major benefit of the programme is the promotion that the students are able to bring to the whole space community. Not only are the public made more aware of advanced science and technical concepts but an advantage is present in the contact that the students who participate have to other university level students. Students are less restricted in their publicity and attract large public followings online as well as presenting themselves in more traditional media outlets. Many teams' creative approach to outreach is astonishing. The benefits are not only for the space science community as a whole; institutes, universities and departments can see increased interest following the support of participating students in the programme. The programme is realized under a bilateral Agency

  5. Growing season carries stronger contributions to albedo dynamics on the Tibetan plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau has experienced higher-than-global-average climate warming in recent decades, resulting in many significant changes in ecosystem structure and function. Among them is albedo, which bridges the causes and consequences of land surface processes and climate. The plateau is covered by snow/ice and vegetation in the non-growing season (nGS and growing season (GS, respectively. Based on the MODIS products, we investigated snow/ice cover and vegetation greenness in relation to the spatiotemporal changes of albedo on the Tibetan Plateau from 2000 through 2013. A synchronous relationship was found between the change in GSNDVI and GSalbedo over time and across the Tibetan landscapes. We found that the annual average albedo had a decreasing trend, but that the albedo had slightly increased during the nGS and decreased during the GS. Across the landscapes, the nGSalbedo fluctuated in a synchronous pattern with snow/ice cover. Temporally, monthly snow/ice coverage also had a high correspondence with albedo, except in April and October. We detected clear dependencies of albedo on elevation. With the rise in altitude, the nGSalbedo decreased below 4000 m, but increased for elevations of 4500-5500 m. Above 5500 m, the nGSalbedo decreased, which was in accordance with the decreased amount of snow/ice coverage and the increased soil moisture on the plateau. More importantly, the decreasing albedo in the most recent decade appeared to be caused primarily by lowered growing season albedo.

  6. Diversity has stronger top-down than bottom-up effects on decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Diane S; Cardinale, Bradley J; Downing, Amy L; Duffy, J Emmett; Jouseau, Claire; Sankaran, Mahesh; Wright, Justin P

    2009-04-01

    The flow of energy and nutrients between trophic levels is affected by both the trophic structure of food webs and the diversity of species within trophic levels. However, the combined effects of trophic structure and diversity on trophic transfer remain largely unknown. Here we ask whether changes in consumer diversity have the same effect as changes in resource diversity on rates of resource consumption. We address this question by focusing on consumer-resource dynamics for the ecologically important process of decomposition. This study compares the top-down effect of consumer (detritivore) diversity on the consumption of dead organic matter (decomposition) with the bottom-up effect of resource (detrital) diversity, based on a compilation of 90 observations reported in 28 studies. We did not detect effects of either detrital or consumer diversity on measures of detrital standing stock, and effects on consumer standing stock were equivocal. However, our meta-analysis indicates that reductions in detritivore diversity result in significant reductions in the rate of decomposition. Detrital diversity has both positive and negative effects on decomposition, with no overall trend. This difference between top-down and bottom-up effects of diversity is robust to different effect size metrics and could not be explained by differences in experimental systems or designs between detritivore and detrital manipulations. Our finding that resource diversity has no net effect on consumption in "brown" (detritus-consumer) food webs contrasts with previous findings from "green" (plant-herbivore) food webs and suggests that effects of plant diversity on consumption may fundamentally change after plant death.

  7. Stress-altered synaptic plasticity and DAMP signaling in the hippocampus-PFC axis; elucidating the significance of IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα expression in neural changes associated with a prolonged exposure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, Olalekan M; Ebenezer, Philip J; Lee, Charles C; Francis, Joseph

    2017-06-14

    Traumatic stress patients showed significant improvement in behavior after a prolonged exposure to an unrelated stimulus. This treatment method attempts to promote extinction of the fear memory associated with the initial traumatic experience. However, the subsequent prolonged exposure to such stimulus creates an additional layer of neural stress. Although the mechanism remains unclear, prolonged exposure therapy (PET) likely involves changes in synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter function and inflammation; especially in parts of the brain concerned with the formation and retrieval of fear memory (Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex: PFC). Since certain synaptic proteins are also involved in danger-associated molecular pattern signaling (DAMP), we identified the significance of IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα expression as a potential link between the concurrent progression of synaptic and inflammatory changes in stress. Thus, a comparison between IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα, synaptic and DAMP proteins in stress and PET may highlight the significance of PET on synaptic morphology and neuronal inflammatory response. In behaviorally characterized Sprague-Dawley rats, there was a significant decline in neural IGF-1 (pIGF-1R expression. These animals showed a significant loss of presynaptic markers (synaptophysin; pIGF-1 (pIGF-1R was recorded in the Stress-PET group (pIGF-1/IGF-1R, an increase in activated hippocampal and cortical microglia was seen in stress (pIGF1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα. Firstly, we showed a direct relationship between IGF-1/IGF-1R expression, presynaptic function (synaptophysin) and neurotransmitter activity in stress and PET. Secondly, we identified the possible role of CaMKIIα in post-synaptic function and regulation of small ion conductance channels. Lastly, we highlighted some of the possible links between IGF1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα, the expression of DAMP proteins, Microglia activation, and its implication on synaptic plasticity during stress and PET. Copyright © 2017

  8. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  9. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  10. A significant reduction in the frequency of HIV-1 drug resistance in Québec from 2001 to 2011 is associated with a decrease in the monitored viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Charest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance represents a major threat for effective treatment. We assessed the trends in the frequency of drug resistance mutations and the monitored viral load (VL in treatment-naïve (TN and treatment-experienced (TE individuals infected with HIV-1 in Québec, Canada, between 2001 and 2011. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Resistance data were obtained from 4,105 and 5,086 genotypic tests performed on TN and TE patients, respectively. Concomitantly, 274,161 VL tests were carried out in the Province. Changes over time in drug resistance frequency and in different categories of VL were assessed using univariate logistic regression. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between the rates of certain mutations and antiretroviral prescriptions. From 2001 to 2011, the proportion of undetectable VL test results continually increased, from 42.1% to 75.9%, while a significant decrease in the frequency of resistance mutations associated with protease inhibitors [PI (from 54% to 16%], nucleoside [NRTI (from 78% to 37% and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTI (from 44% to 31%] was observed in TE patients. In TN individuals, the overall frequency of transmitted drug resistance was 13.1%. A multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the introduction of co-formulated emtricitabine/tenofovir or emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz was positively associated with the decrease of the frequency of the M184I/V mutations observed overtime (p = 0.0004. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant decrease in the frequency of drug resistance mutations in TE patients, concomitant with a decrease in the proportion of patients with detectable viremia. These findings may be related to both the increased potencies and adherence to therapy associated with newer antiretroviral regimens. Nevertheless, our data demonstrate that broad use of antiretrovirals does not increase the level of circulating drug resistant

  11. Specific cytogenetic abnormalities are associated with a significantly inferior outcome in children and adolescents with mature B-cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Results of the FAB/LMB 96 international study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, HA; Cairo, MS; Heerema, NA; Swansbury, J; Aupérin, A; Launay, E; Sanger, WG; Talley, P; Perkins, SL; Raphaël, M; McCarthy, K; Sposto, R; Gerrard, M; Bernheim, A; Patte, C

    2010-01-01

    Clinical studies showed that advanced stage, high LDH, poor response to reduction therapy and combined bone marrow and central nervous system disease are significantly associated with a decreased event free survival (EFS) in pediatric mature B-NHL treated on FAB/LMB96. Although rearranged MYC/8q24 (R8q24) is characteristic of Burkitt Lymphoma (BL), little information is available on other cytogenetic abnormalities and their prognostic importance. We performed an international review of 238 abnormal karyotypes in childhood mature-B-NHL treated on FAB/LMB96: 76% BL, 8% Burkitt-like lymphoma, 13% diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The main BL R8q24 associated chromosomal aberrations were +1q [29%], +7q and del(13q) [14% each]. The DLBCL appeared heterogeneous and more complex. Incidence of R8q24 [34%] was higher than reported in adult DLBCL. The prognostic value of cytogenetic abnormalities on EFS was studied by Cox model controlling for the known risk factors: R8q24, +7q and del(13q) were independently associated with a significant inferior EFS [HR: 6.1 (p=0.030), 2.5 (p=0.015), 4.0 (p=0.0003), respectively]. The adverse prognosis of R8q24 was observed only in DLBCL while del(13q) and +7q had a similar effect in DLBCL and BL. These results emphasize the significant biological heterogeneity and the development of cytogenetic risk adapted therapy in childhood mature-B-NHL. PMID:19020548

  12. Which global stock indices trigger stronger contagion risk in the Vietnamese stock market? Evidence using a bivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kuan-Min

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends recent investigations into risk contagion effects on stock markets to the Vietnamese stock market. Daily data spanning October 9, 2006 to May 3, 2012 are sourced to empirically validate the contagion effects between stock markets in Vietnam, and China, Japan, Singapore, and the US. To facilitate the validation of contagion effects with market-related coefficients, this paper constructs a bivariate EGARCH model of dynamic conditional correlation coefficients. Using the correlation contagion test and Dungey et al.’s (2005 contagion test, we find contagion effects between the Vietnamese and four other stock markets, namely Japan, Singapore, China, and the US. Second, we show that the Japanese stock market causes stronger contagion risk in the Vietnamese stock market compared to the stock markets of China, Singapore, and the US. Finally, we show that the Chinese and US stock markets cause weaker contagion effects in the Vietnamese stock market because of stronger interdependence effects between the former two markets.

  13. The impact of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger impacts on involvement, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-06-01

    Although there is a general lack of empirical evidence that advertising influences gambling participation, the regulation of gambling advertising is hotly debated among academic researchers, treatment specialists, lobby groups, regulators, and policymakers. This study contributes to the ongoing debate by investigating perceived impacts of gambling advertising in a sample of gamblers drawn from the general population in Norway (n = 6,034). Three dimensions of advertising impacts were identified, representing perceived impacts on (a) gambling-related attitudes, interest, and behavior ("involvement"); (b) knowledge about gambling options and providers ("knowledge"); and (c) the degree to which people are aware of gambling advertising ("awareness"). Overall, impacts were strongest for the knowledge dimension, and, for all 3 dimensions, the impact increased with level of advertising exposure. Those identified as problem gamblers in the sample (n = 57) reported advertising impacts concerning involvement more than recreational gamblers, and this finding was not attributable to differences in advertising exposure. Additionally, younger gamblers reported stronger impacts on involvement and knowledge but were less likely to agree that they were aware of gambling advertising than older gamblers. Male gamblers were more likely than female gamblers to report stronger impacts on both involvement and knowledge. These findings are discussed with regard to existing research on gambling advertising as well as their implications for future research and policy-making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Increasing BMI is associated with reduced expression of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1 gene) in the human brain with a stronger association in African-Americans than Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Vendelbo; Olesen, Rasmus Hansen; Lauridsen, Jesper Krogh

    2016-01-01

    The efflux pump, p-glycoprotein, controls bioavailability and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds. In the blood-brain barrier, p-glycoprotein regulates the delivery of pharmaceutical substances to the brain, influencing efficacy and side effects for some drugs notably antipsychotics. Common sid...... online publication, 29 November 2016; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.74....

  15. Elevated myeloid-derived suppressor cells in pancreatic, esophageal and gastric cancer are an independent prognostic factor and are associated with significant elevation of the Th2 cytokine interleukin-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabitass, Rachel F; Annels, Nicola E; Stocken, Deborah D; Pandha, Hardev A; Middleton, Gary W

    2011-10-01

    We undertook a comprehensive analysis of circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and T regulatory cells (Tregs) in pancreatic, esophageal and gastric cancer patients and investigated whether MDSCs are an independent prognostic factor for survival. We evaluated a series of plasma cytokines and in particular re-evaluated the Th2 cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13). Peripheral blood was collected from 131 cancer patients (46 pancreatic, 60 esophageal and 25 gastric) and 54 healthy controls. PBMC were harvested with subsequent flow cytometric analysis of MDSC (HLADR(-) Lin1(low/-) CD33(+) CD11b(+)) and Treg (CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(low/-) FoxP3(+)) percentages. Plasma IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), IL-13, IL-17, G-CSF, IFN-γ, TNF-α and VEGF levels were analyzed by the Bio-Plex cytokine assay. Plasma arginase I levels were analyzed by ELISA. MDSCs and Tregs were statistically significantly elevated in pancreatic, esophageal and gastric cancer compared with controls, and MDSC numbers correlated with Treg levels. Increasing MDSC percentage was associated with increased risk of death, and in a multivariate analysis, MDSC level was an independent prognostic factor for survival. A unit increase in MDSC percentage was associated with a 22% increased risk of death (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.41). Arginase I levels were also statistically significantly elevated in upper gastrointestinal cancer patients compared with controls. There was Th2 skewing for cytokine production in all three diseases, and importantly there were significant elevations of the pivotal Th2 cytokine interleukin-13, an increase that correlated with MDSC levels.

  16. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  17. Bactericidal activity of LFchimera is stronger and less sensitive to ionic strength than its constituent lactoferricin and lactoferrampin peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolscher, Jan G M; Adão, Regina; Nazmi, Kamran; van den Keybus, Petra A M; van 't Hof, Wim; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V; Bastos, Margarida; Veerman, Enno C I

    2009-01-01

    The innate immunity factor lactoferrin harbours two antimicrobial moieties, lactoferricin and lactoferrampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain of the molecule. Most likely they cooperate in many of the beneficial activities of lactoferrin. To investigate whether chimerization of both peptides forms a functional unit we designed a chimerical structure containing lactoferricin amino acids 17-30 and lactoferrampin amino acids 265-284. The bactericidal activity of this LFchimera was found to be drastically stronger than that of the constituent peptides, as was demonstrated by the need for lower dose, shorter incubation time and less ionic strength dependency. Likewise, strongly enhanced interaction with negatively charged model membranes was found for the LFchimera relative to the constituent peptides. Thus, chimerization of the two antimicrobial peptides resembling their structural orientation in the native molecule strikingly improves their biological activity.

  18. Bilingual recognition memory: stronger performance but weaker levels-of-processing effects in the less fluent language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Gutiérrez, Marisela

    2012-04-01

    The effects of bilingual proficiency on recognition memory were examined in an experiment with Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants learned lists of words in English and Spanish under shallow- and deep-encoding conditions. Overall, hit rates were higher, discrimination greater, and response times shorter in the nondominant language, consistent with effects previously observed for lower frequency words. Levels-of-processing effects in hit rates, discrimination, and response time were stronger in the dominant language. Specifically, with shallow encoding, the advantage for the nondominant language was larger than with deep encoding. The results support the idea that memory performance in the nondominant language is impacted by both the greater demand for cognitive resources and the lower familiarity of the words.

  19. Strategic Factors Influencing National and Regional Systems of Innovation: A Case of Weaker NSI with Stronger RSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pir Roshanuddin Shah Rashdi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The issues of relationship between NSI ((National System of Innovation and RSI (Regional System of Innovation are not well reported with innovation policy research. That is, whether the NSI is the system on top of RSI, or the importance of regions make stronger NSIs. Therefore, it raises concern regarding development of strategic relationship between these two. For this, two cases ? Catalonia (Spain and N Ireland (the UK, have been selected based on theoretical sampling. Key economic indicators have been identified and have been quantitatively analyzed. The evidence suggests that strong NSI has positive influence on RSI. In addition to that, the concentration of knowledge and promotion of institutions may be strategically established and then needed resources may be injected to produce high quality human resources. There is, however, need for more comprehensive studies to be conducted in order to validate the results of this research

  20. Significant association between perceived HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV/AIDS care in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailay Abrha Gesesew

    Full Text Available Late presentation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV care is a major impediment for the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART outcomes. The role that stigma plays as a potential barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of HIV among people living with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is ambivalent. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding the association between perceived HIV related stigma and time to present for HIV/AIDS care.Quantitative studies conducted in English language between 2002 and 2016 that evaluated the association between HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV care were sought across four major databases. This review considered studies that included the following outcome: 'late HIV testing', 'late HIV diagnosis' and 'late presentation for HIV care after testing'. Data were extracted using a standardized Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI data extraction tool. Meta- analysis was undertaken using Revman-5 software. I2 and chi-square test were used to assess heterogeneity. Summary statistics were expressed as pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals and corresponding p-value.Ten studies from low- and middle- income countries met the search criteria, including six (6 and four (4 case control studies and cross-sectional studies respectively. The total sample size in the included studies was 3,788 participants. Half (5 of the studies reported a significant association between stigma and late presentation for HIV care. The meta-analytical association showed that people who perceived high HIV related stigma had two times more probability of late presentation for HIV care than who perceived low stigma (pooled odds ratio = 2.4; 95%CI: 1.6-3.6, I2 = 79%.High perceptions of HIV related stigma influenced timely presentation for HIV care. In order to avoid late HIV care presentation due the fear of stigma among patients, health professionals should play a key role in informing and counselling

  1. Significant association between perceived HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV/AIDS care in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Tesfay Gebremedhin, Amanuel; Demissie, Tariku Dejene; Kerie, Mirkuzie Woldie; Sudhakar, Morankar; Mwanri, Lillian

    2017-01-01

    Background Late presentation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care is a major impediment for the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes. The role that stigma plays as a potential barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of HIV among people living with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is ambivalent. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding the association between perceived HIV related stigma and time to present for HIV/AIDS care. Methods Quantitative studies conducted in English language between 2002 and 2016 that evaluated the association between HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV care were sought across four major databases. This review considered studies that included the following outcome: ‘late HIV testing’, ‘late HIV diagnosis’ and ‘late presentation for HIV care after testing’. Data were extracted using a standardized Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) data extraction tool. Meta- analysis was undertaken using Revman-5 software. I2 and chi-square test were used to assess heterogeneity. Summary statistics were expressed as pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals and corresponding p-value. Results Ten studies from low- and middle- income countries met the search criteria, including six (6) and four (4) case control studies and cross-sectional studies respectively. The total sample size in the included studies was 3,788 participants. Half (5) of the studies reported a significant association between stigma and late presentation for HIV care. The meta-analytical association showed that people who perceived high HIV related stigma had two times more probability of late presentation for HIV care than who perceived low stigma (pooled odds ratio = 2.4; 95%CI: 1.6–3.6, I2 = 79%). Conclusions High perceptions of HIV related stigma influenced timely presentation for HIV care. In order to avoid late HIV care presentation due the fear of stigma among patients, health professionals should

  2. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  3. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  4. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  5. The NOD2 p.Leu1007fsX1008 mutation (rs2066847 is a stronger predictor of the clinical course of Crohn's disease than the FOXO3A intron variant rs12212067.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Schnitzler

    Full Text Available Very recently, a sub-analysis of genome-wide association scans revealed that the non-coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs12212067 in the FOXO3A gene is associated with a milder course of Crohn's disease (CD (Cell 2013;155:57-69. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical value of the SNP rs12212067 in predicting the severity of CD by correlating CD patient genotype status with the most relevant complications of CD such as stenoses, fistulas, and CD-related surgery.We genotyped 550 CD patients for rs12212067 (FOXO3A and the three common CD-associated NOD2 mutations rs2066844, rs2066847, and rs2066847 and performed genotype-phenotype analyses.No significant phenotypic differences were found between the wild-type genotype TT of the FOXO3A SNP rs12212067 and the minor genotypes TG and GG independently from NOD2 variants. The allele frequency of the minor G allele was 12.7%. Age at diagnosis, disease duration, body mass index, surgery rate, stenoses, fistula, need for immunosuppressive therapy, and disease course were not significantly different. In contrast, the NOD2 mutant p.Leu1007fsX1008 (rs2066847 was highly associated with penetrating CD (p = 0.01, the development of fistulas (p = 0.01 and stenoses (p = 0.01, and ileal disease localization (p = 0.03. Importantly, the NOD2 SNP rs2066847 was a strong separator between an aggressive and a mild course of CD (p = 2.99×10(-5, while the FOXO3A SNP rs12212067 did not separate between mild and aggressive CD behavior in our cohort (p = 0.35. 96.2% of the homozygous NOD2 p.Leu1007fsX1008 carriers had an aggressive disease behavior compared to 69.3% of the patients with the NOD2 wild-type genotype (p = 0.007.In clinical practice, the NOD2 variant p.Leu1007fsX1008 (rs2066847, in particular in homozygous form, is a much stronger marker for a severe clinical phenotype than the FOXO3A rs12212067 SNP for a mild disease course on an individual patient level despite

  6. The NOD2 p.Leu1007fsX1008 mutation (rs2066847) is a stronger predictor of the clinical course of Crohn's disease than the FOXO3A intron variant rs12212067.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Fabian; Friedrich, Matthias; Wolf, Christiane; Angelberger, Marianne; Diegelmann, Julia; Olszak, Torsten; Beigel, Florian; Tillack, Cornelia; Stallhofer, Johannes; Göke, Burkhard; Glas, Jürgen; Lohse, Peter; Brand, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Very recently, a sub-analysis of genome-wide association scans revealed that the non-coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12212067 in the FOXO3A gene is associated with a milder course of Crohn's disease (CD) (Cell 2013;155:57-69). The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical value of the SNP rs12212067 in predicting the severity of CD by correlating CD patient genotype status with the most relevant complications of CD such as stenoses, fistulas, and CD-related surgery. We genotyped 550 CD patients for rs12212067 (FOXO3A) and the three common CD-associated NOD2 mutations rs2066844, rs2066847, and rs2066847 and performed genotype-phenotype analyses. No significant phenotypic differences were found between the wild-type genotype TT of the FOXO3A SNP rs12212067 and the minor genotypes TG and GG independently from NOD2 variants. The allele frequency of the minor G allele was 12.7%. Age at diagnosis, disease duration, body mass index, surgery rate, stenoses, fistula, need for immunosuppressive therapy, and disease course were not significantly different. In contrast, the NOD2 mutant p.Leu1007fsX1008 (rs2066847) was highly associated with penetrating CD (p = 0.01), the development of fistulas (p = 0.01) and stenoses (p = 0.01), and ileal disease localization (p = 0.03). Importantly, the NOD2 SNP rs2066847 was a strong separator between an aggressive and a mild course of CD (p = 2.99×10(-5)), while the FOXO3A SNP rs12212067 did not separate between mild and aggressive CD behavior in our cohort (p = 0.35). 96.2% of the homozygous NOD2 p.Leu1007fsX1008 carriers had an aggressive disease behavior compared to 69.3% of the patients with the NOD2 wild-type genotype (p = 0.007). In clinical practice, the NOD2 variant p.Leu1007fsX1008 (rs2066847), in particular in homozygous form, is a much stronger marker for a severe clinical phenotype than the FOXO3A rs12212067 SNP for a mild disease course on an individual patient level despite its

  7. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  8. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  9. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  10. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  11. Quality of life is significantly associated with survival in women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: An ancillary data analysis of the NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG-0218) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phippen, N T; Secord, A A; Wolf, S; Samsa, G; Davidson, B; Abernethy, A P; Cella, D; Havrilesky, L J; Burger, R A; Monk, B J; Leath, C A

    2017-10-01

    Evaluate association between baseline quality of life (QOL) and changes in QOL measured by FACT-O TOI with progression-free disease (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Patients enrolled in GOG-0218 with completed FACT-O TOI assessments at baseline and at least one follow-up assessment were eligible. Baseline FACT-O TOI scores were sorted by quartiles (Q1-4) and outcomes compared between Q1 and Q2-4 with log-rank statistic and multivariate Cox regression adjusting for age, stage, post-surgical residual disease size, and performance status (PS). Trends in FACT-O TOI scores from baseline to the latest follow-up assessment were evaluated for impact on intragroup (Q1 or Q2-4) outcome by log-rank analysis. Of 1152 eligible patients, 283 formed Q1 and 869 formed Q2-4. Mean baseline FACT-O TOI scores were 47.5 for Q1 vs. 74.7 for Q2-4 (P<0.001). Q1 compared to Q2-4 had worse median OS (37.5 vs. 45.6months, P=0.001) and worse median PFS (12.5 vs. 13.1months, P=0.096). Q2-4 patients had decreased risks of disease progression (HR 0.974, 95% CI 0.953-0.995, P=0.018), and death (HR 0.963, 95% CI 0.939-0.987, P=0.003) for each five-point increase in baseline FACT-O TOI. Improving versus worsening trends in FACT-O TOI scores were associated with longer median PFS (Q1: 12.7 vs. 8.6months, P=0.001; Q2-4: 16.7 vs. 11.1months, P<0.001) and median OS (Q1: 40.8 vs. 16months, P<0.001; Q2-4: 54.4 vs. 33.6months, P<0.001). Baseline FACT-O TOI scores were independently prognostic of PFS and OS while improving compared to worsening QOL was associated with significantly better PFS and OS in women with EOC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased fire frequency promotes stronger spatial genetic structure and natural selection at regional and local scales in Pinus halepensis Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Katharina B; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Navascués, Miguel; Burgarella, Concetta; Mosca, Elena; Lorenzo, Zaida; Zabal-Aguirre, Mario; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Verdú, Miguel; Pausas, Juli G; Heuertz, Myriam

    2017-04-01

    The recurrence of wildfires is predicted to increase due to global climate change, resulting in severe impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Recurrent fires can drive plant adaptation and reduce genetic diversity; however, the underlying population genetic processes have not been studied in detail. In this study, the neutral and adaptive evolutionary effects of contrasting fire regimes were examined in the keystone tree species Pinus halepensis Mill. (Aleppo pine), a fire-adapted conifer. The genetic diversity, demographic history and spatial genetic structure were assessed at local (within-population) and regional scales for populations exposed to different crown fire frequencies. Eight natural P. halepensis stands were sampled in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, five of them in a region exposed to frequent crown fires (HiFi) and three of them in an adjacent region with a low frequency of crown fires (LoFi). Samples were genotyped at nine neutral simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and at 251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from coding regions, some of them potentially important for fire adaptation. Fire regime had no effects on genetic diversity or demographic history. Three high-differentiation outlier SNPs were identified between HiFi and LoFi stands, suggesting fire-related selection at the regional scale. At the local scale, fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) was overall weak as expected for a wind-pollinated and wind-dispersed tree species. HiFi stands displayed a stronger SGS than LoFi stands at SNPs, which probably reflected the simultaneous post-fire recruitment of co-dispersed related seeds. SNPs with exceptionally strong SGS, a proxy for microenvironmental selection, were only reliably identified under the HiFi regime. An increasing fire frequency as predicted due to global change can promote increased SGS with stronger family structures and alter natural selection in P. halepensis and in plants with similar life history traits

  13. Clinical significance of combined determination of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and lipid-associated sialic acid (LSA) in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Yao Dengfu; Qiu Liwei; Wu Xinghua

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression and the diagnostic value of determining serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and lipid-associated sialic acid (LSA) in patients with lung cancer. Methods: The concentrations of NSE, TNF-α and LSA were measured in 78 patients with lung cancer and 32 patients with benign lung diseases as well as 109 controls by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and chemical assay respectively. Results: The levels of NSE (19.78 ± 12.10 ng/ml), TNF-α (135.64 ± 49.01 pg/ml) and LSA (106 ± 0.31 ng/ml) were significantly higher in patients with lung cancer than those in patients with benign lung diseases (NSE 7.56 ± 3.41 ng/ml, TNF-α 84.70 ± 24.89 pg/ml, LSA 0.78 ± 0.18 mg/ml) and controls (NSE 8.01 ± 2.81 ng/ml, TNF-α 71.25 ± 13.50 pg/ml, LSA 0.70 ± 0.13 ng/ml) (all p < 0.01). Conclusion: The present data suggest that the syntheses of NSE, TNF-α and LSA increase in patients with lung cancer and combined determination of NSE, TNF-α and LSA be helpful to diagnosis of lung cancer

  14. Ni2P Makes Application of the PtRu Catalyst Much Stronger in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfa; Feng, Ligang; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei

    2015-10-12

    PtRu is regarded as the best catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells, but the performance decay resulting from the loss of Ru seriously hinders commercial applications. Herein, we demonstrated that the presence of Ni2 P largely reduces Ru loss, which thus makes the application of PtRu much stronger in direct methanol fuel cells. Outstanding catalytic activity and stability were observed by cyclic voltammetry. Upon integrating the catalyst material into a practical direct methanol fuel cell, the highest maximum power density was achieved on the PtRu-Ni2P/C catalyst among the reference catalysts at different temperatures. A maximum power density of 69.9 mW cm(-2) at 30 °C was obtained on PtRu-Ni2P/C, which is even higher than the power density of the state-of-the-art commercial PtRu catalyst at 70 °C (63.1 mW cm(-2)). Moreover, decay in the performance resulting from Ru loss was greatly reduced owing to the presence of Ni2 P, which is indicative of very promising applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Nitrogen fertilization has a stronger effect on soil nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities than elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthrong, Sean T; Yeager, Chris M; Gallegos-Graves, Laverne; Steven, Blaire; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Jackson, Robert B; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2014-05-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is the primary supply of N to most ecosystems, yet there is considerable uncertainty about how N-fixing bacteria will respond to global change factors such as increasing atmospheric CO2 and N deposition. Using the nifH gene as a molecular marker, we studied how the community structure of N-fixing soil bacteria from temperate pine, aspen, and sweet gum stands and a brackish tidal marsh responded to multiyear elevated CO2 conditions. We also examined how N availability, specifically, N fertilization, interacted with elevated CO2 to affect these communities in the temperate pine forest. Based on data from Sanger sequencing and quantitative PCR, the soil nifH composition in the three forest systems was dominated by species in the Geobacteraceae and, to a lesser extent, Alphaproteobacteria. The N-fixing-bacterial-community structure was subtly altered after 10 or more years of elevated atmospheric CO2, and the observed shifts differed in each biome. In the pine forest, N fertilization had a stronger effect on nifH community structure than elevated CO2 and suppressed the diversity and abundance of N-fixing bacteria under elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions. These results indicate that N-fixing bacteria have complex, interacting responses that will be important for understanding ecosystem productivity in a changing climate.

  16. How the biotin–streptavidin interaction was made even stronger: investigation via crystallography and a chimaeric tetramer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Claire E.; Koner, Apurba L.; Lowe, Edward D.; Howarth, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between SA (streptavidin) and biotin is one of the strongest non-covalent interactions in Nature. SA is a widely used tool and a paradigm for protein–ligand interactions. We previously developed a SA mutant, termed Tr (traptavidin), possessing a 10-fold lower off-rate for biotin, with increased mechanical and thermal stability. In the present study, we determined the crystal structures of apo-Tr and biotin–Tr at 1.5 Å resolution. In apo-SA the loop (L3/4), near biotin's valeryl tail, is typically disordered and open, but closes upon biotin binding. In contrast, L3/4 was shut in both apo-Tr and biotin–Tr. The reduced flexibility of L3/4 and decreased conformational change on biotin binding provide an explanation for Tr's reduced biotin off- and on-rates. L3/4 includes Ser45, which forms a hydrogen bond to biotin consistently in Tr, but erratically in SA. Reduced breakage of the biotin–Ser45 hydrogen bond in Tr is likely to inhibit the initiating event in biotin's dissociation pathway. We generated a Tr with a single biotin-binding site rather than four, which showed a simi-larly low off-rate, demonstrating that Tr's low off-rate was governed by intrasubunit effects. Understanding the structural features of this tenacious interaction may assist the design of even stronger affinity tags and inhibitors. PMID:21241253

  17. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling modulates antiviral immune responses: ligand metabolism rather than chemical source is the stronger predictor of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boule, Lisbeth A; Burke, Catherine G; Jin, Guang-Bi; Lawrence, B Paige

    2018-01-29

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) offers a compelling target to modulate the immune system. AHR agonists alter adaptive immune responses, but the consequences differ across studies. We report here the comparison of four agents representing different sources of AHR ligands in mice infected with influenza A virus (IAV): TCDD, prototype exogenous AHR agonist; PCB126, pollutant with documented human exposure; ITE, novel pharmaceutical; and FICZ, degradation product of tryptophan. All four compounds diminished virus-specific IgM levels and increased the proportion of regulatory T cells. TCDD, PCB126 and ITE, but not FICZ, reduced virus-specific IgG levels and CD8 + T cell responses. Similarly, ITE, PCB126, and TCDD reduced Th1 and Tfh cells, whereas FICZ increased their frequency. In Cyp1a1-deficient mice, all compounds, including FICZ, reduced the response to IAV. Conditional Ahr knockout mice revealed that all four compounds require AHR within hematopoietic cells. Thus, differences in the immune response to IAV likely reflect variances in quality, magnitude, and duration of AHR signaling. This indicates that binding affinity and metabolism may be stronger predictors of immune effects than a compound's source of origin, and that harnessing AHR will require finding a balance between dampening immune-mediated pathologies and maintaining sufficient host defenses against infection.

  18. Which cue to ‘want’? Opioid stimulation of central amygdala makes goal-trackers show stronger goal-tracking, just as sign-trackers show stronger sign-tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFeliceantonio, Alexandra G.; Berridge, Kent C.

    2012-01-01

    Pavlovian cues that have been paired with reward can gain incentive salience. Drug addicts find drug cues motivationally attractive and binge eaters are attracted by food cues. But the level of incentive salience elicited by a cue re-encounter still varies across time and brain states. In an animal model, cues become attractive and ‘wanted’ in an ‘autoshaping’ paradigm, where different targets of incentive salience emerge for different individuals. Some individuals (sign-trackers) find a predictive discrete cue attractive while others find a reward contiguous and goal cue more attractive (location where reward arrives: goal-trackers). Here we assessed whether central amygdala mu opioid receptor stimulation enhances the phasic incentive salience of the goal-cue for goal-trackers during moments of predictive cue presence (expressed in both approach and consummatory behaviors to goal cue), just as it enhances the attractiveness of the predictive cue target for sign-trackers. Using detailed video analysis we measured the approaches, nibbles, sniffs, and bites directed at their preferred target for both sign-trackers and goal-trackers. We report that DAMGO microinjections in central amygdala made goal-trackers, like sign-trackers, show phasic increases in appetitive nibbles and sniffs directed at the goal-cue expressed selectively whenever the predictive cue was present. This indicates enhancement of incentive salience attributed by both goal trackers and sign-trackers, but attributed in different directions: each to their own target cue. For both phenotypes, amygdala opioid stimulation makes the individual’s prepotent cue into a stronger motivational magnet at phasic moments triggered by a CS that predicts the reward UCS. PMID:22391118

  19. Pre- and/or Intra-Operative Prescription of Diuretics, but Not Renin-Angiotensin-System Inhibitors, Is Significantly Associated with Acute Kidney Injury after Non-Cardiac Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Miho; Ogata, Ai; Hamano, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Pre- and/or intra-operative use of diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) constitutes a potentially modifiable risk factor for postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). It has been studied whether use of these drugs predicts AKI after cardiac surgery. The objective of this study was to examine whether administration of these agents was independently associated with AKI after non-cardiac surgery. This was a retrospective observational study. Inclusion criteria were adult patients (age ≥ 18) who underwent non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia from 2007 to 2009 at Kyoto Katsura Hospital. Exclusion criteria were urological surgery, missing creatinine values, and preoperative dialysis. The exposures of interest were pre- and/or intra-operative use of diuretics or ACE-I/ARB. Outcome variables were postoperative AKI as defined by the AKI Network (increase in creatinine ≥ 0.3 mg/dL or 150% within 48 hours, or urine output 6 hours). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted and adjusted for potential confounders. Propensity scores (PS) for receiving diuretics or ACE-I/ARB therapy were estimated and PS adjustment, PS matching, and inverse probability weighting were performed. There were 137 AKI cases (5.0%) among 2,725 subjects. After statistical adjustment for patient and surgical characteristics, odds (95% CI) of postoperative AKI were 2.07 (1.10-3.89) (p = 0.02) and 0.89 (0.56-1.42) (p = 0.63) in users of diuretics and ACE-I/ARB, respectively, compared with non-users. PS adjustment, PS matching, and inverse probability weighting yielded similar results. The effect size of diuretics was significantly greater in the patients with lower propensity for diuretic use (p for interaction diuretics, but not ACE-I/ARB, was independently associated with postoperative AKI after non-cardiac surgery, especially in patients with low propensity for diuretic use. It might be reasonable to withhold

  20. Mismatch negativity is a stronger indicator of functional outcomes than neurocognition or theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Sung, Kyongae; Lee, Kyong-Sang; Moon, Eunok; Kim, Chang-Gyu

    2014-01-03

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is known to be associated with neurocognition, social cognition, and functional outcomes. The present study explored the relationships of MMN with neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and healthy controls. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia, 21 first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 healthy controls were recruited. We examined symptom severity, neurocognition, theory of mind, functional outcomes, and MMN. MMN amplitudes decreased in order of patients with schizophrenia, then first-degree relatives, then healthy controls. MMN amplitude was significantly correlated with measures of neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcome measurements in patients with schizophrenia. However, the most powerful correlations were those between MMN in the frontal region and measures of functional outcomes. The power and frequency of the correlations were weaker in first-degree relatives and healthy controls than in patients with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that functional outcomes (relative to measures of neurocognition and theory of mind) constituted the most powerful predictor of MMN. Our results suggest that MMN reflects functional outcomes more efficiently than do measures of neurocognition and theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia. © 2013.

  1. Pasture v. standard dairy cream in high-fat diet-fed mice: improved metabolic outcomes and stronger intestinal barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Bérengère; Plaisancié, Pascale; Géloën, Alain; Estienne, Monique; Debard, Cyrille; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Daira, Patricia; Bodennec, Jacques; Cousin, Olivier; Vidal, Hubert; Laugerette, Fabienne; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2014-08-28

    Dairy products derived from the milk of cows fed in pastures are characterised by higher amounts of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid (ALA), and several studies have shown their ability to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, their specific metabolic effects compared with standard dairy in a high-fat diet (HFD) context remain largely unknown; this is what we determined in the present study with a focus on the metabolic and intestinal parameters. The experimental animals were fed for 12 weeks a HFD containing 20 % fat in the form of a pasture dairy cream (PDC) or a standard dairy cream (SDC). Samples of plasma, liver, white adipose tissue, duodenum, jejunum and colon were analysed. The PDC mice, despite a higher food intake, exhibited lower fat mass, plasma and hepatic TAG concentrations, and inflammation in the adipose tissue than the SDC mice. Furthermore, they exhibited a higher expression of hepatic PPARα mRNA and adipose tissue uncoupling protein 2 mRNA, suggesting an enhanced oxidative activity of the tissues. These results might be explained, in part, by the higher amounts of ALA in the PDC diet and in the liver and adipose tissue of the PDC mice. Moreover, the PDC diet was found to increase the proportions of two strategic cell populations involved in the protective function of the intestinal epithelium, namely Paneth and goblet cells in the small intestine and colon, compared with the SDC diet. In conclusion, a PDC HFD leads to improved metabolic outcomes and to a stronger gut barrier compared with a SDC HFD. This may be due, at least in part, to the protective mechanisms induced by specific lipids.

  2. What doesn't kill you might make you stronger: functional basis for variation in body armour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckhoven, Chris; Diedericks, Genevieve; Mouton, P le Fras N

    2015-09-01

    1. Predation has been proposed to be a selective agent in the evolution of morphological antipredator strategies in prey. Among vertebrates, one of the morphological traits that evolved multiple times is body armour, including carapaces, thickened keratinized scales and plates of dermal bone. 2. It has been generally assumed that body armour provides protection against a predatory attack; yet, few explicit tests of the hypothesis exist. Cordylidae, a relatively small family of southern African lizards, show considerable variation in the degree of body armour. Hence, this family provides an opportunity to test the hypothesis that body armour serves as protection against predators. 3. Experiments were conducted to test whether the bite forces of four species of mammalian predators were high enough to penetrate the skins of Karusasaurus polyzonus, Namazonurus peersi, Cordylus cordylus and Cordylus macropholis, as well as those of Ouroborus cataphractus individuals originating from three localities that differed in their predator diversity. Furthermore, histological techniques were used to test whether variation in skin toughness was associated with concomitant changes in the degree of epidermal (i.e. β-keratin) and dermal (i.e. osteoderm) armour. 4. The skin toughness values for four out of five cordylid lizards tested in this study were well below the bite forces of the mammalian predators. In contrast, the thick osteoderms in the dermis of O. cataphractus can withstand bites from several mongoose species. However, the significant variation in body armour that is present between the three populations of O. cataphractus does not seem to be related to predator diversity. 5. It is concluded that body armour can serve as protection against predation in O. cataphractus, but that alternative selection pressures, such as thermoregulation or predation by snakes, presumably underlie variation in defensive morphology in the other cordylid lizards. © 2015 The Authors. Journal

  3. Degradation of p53 by human Alphapapillomavirus E6 proteins shows a stronger correlation with phylogeny than oncogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiping Fu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV E6 induced p53 degradation is thought to be an essential activity by which high-risk human Alphapapillomaviruses (alpha-HPVs contribute to cervical cancer development. However, most of our understanding is derived from the comparison of HPV16 and HPV11. These two viruses are relatively distinct viruses, making the extrapolation of these results difficult. In the present study, we expand the tested strains (types to include members of all known HPV species groups within the Alphapapillomavirus genus.We report the biochemical activity of E6 proteins from 27 HPV types representing all alpha-HPV species groups to degrade p53 in human cells. Expression of E6 from all HPV types epidemiologically classified as group 1 carcinogens significantly reduced p53 levels. However, several types not associated with cancer (e.g., HPV53, HPV70 and HPV71 were equally active in degrading p53. HPV types within species groups alpha 5, 6, 7, 9 and 11 share a most recent common ancestor (MRCA and all contain E6 ORFs that degrade p53. A unique exception, HPV71 E6 ORF that degraded p53 was outside this clade and is one of the most prevalent HPV types infecting the cervix in a population-based study of 10,000 women. Alignment of E6 ORFs identified an amino acid site that was highly correlated with the biochemical ability to degrade p53. Alteration of this amino acid in HPV71 E6 abrogated its ability to degrade p53, while alteration of this site in HPV71-related HPV90 and HPV106 E6s enhanced their capacity to degrade p53.These data suggest that the alpha-HPV E6 proteins' ability to degrade p53 is an evolved phenotype inherited from a most recent common ancestor of the high-risk species that does not always segregate with carcinogenicity. In addition, we identified an amino-acid residue strongly correlated with viral p53 degrading potential.

  4. Clinical significance of the fabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodevski, A.; Lazarova-Tosovska, D.; Zhivadinovik, J.; Lazareska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: There is variable number of sesamoid bones in the human body; one of them is fabella, located in the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of fabella in the Macedonian population and to discuss about clinical importance of this bone. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined radiographs of 53 patients who had knee exams undertaken for a variety of clinical reasons, performed as a part of their medical treatment. Over a time span of six months, 53 patients (38 males and 15 females, age range 19-60 years, mean age of 36.7±12.3 years) were examined. Results: In seven (13.2%) patients of 53 analyzed reports, fabella was found in the lateral tendon of gastrocnemius muscle. We did not find a significant gender or side difference in the appearance of fabella. Conclusion: Although anatomic studies emphasized a lack of significance of the fabella, this bone has been associated with a spectrum of pathology affecting the knee as fabellar syndrome, perineal nerve injury and fracture. We should think of this sesamoid bone while performing diagnostic and surgical procedures

  5. ENIGMA-Evidence-based network for the interpretation of germline mutant alleles: An international initiative to evaluate risk and clinical significance associated with sequence variation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spurdle, Amanda B; Healey, Sue; Devereau, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    of researchers and clinicians will facilitate studies to assess their association with cancer predisposition. It was with this in mind that the ENIGMA consortium (www.enigmaconsortium.org) was initiated in 2009. The membership is both international and interdisciplinary, and currently includes more than 100...

  6. Association between reported diet and all-cause mortality. Twenty-one-year follow-up on 27,530 adult Seventh-Day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, H A; Phillips, R L; Snowdon, D A; Choi, W

    1984-05-01

    This report examines the association between mortality from all causes during a 21-year period and frequency of consumption of 28 specific foods among 27,530 adult California members of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church. Food consumption was measured at the beginning of the study (1960) by a self-administered questionnaire. Deaths were identified by computer-assisted matching of study subjects to the file of death certificates for all deaths that occurred in California during 1960-1980. All-cause mortality showed a significant negative association with green salad consumption and a significant positive association with consumption of eggs and meat. For green salad and eggs, the association was stronger for women; for meat, the association was stronger for men. All the observed associations were adjusted for age, sex, smoking history, history of major chronic disease, and age at initial exposure to the Adventist Church.

  7. Impact significance determination-Back to basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination is widely recognized as a vital and critical EIA activity. But impact significance related concepts are poorly understood. And the quality of approaches for impact significance determination in EIA practice remains highly variable. This article seeks to help establish a sound and practical conceptual foundation for formulating and evaluating impact significance determination approaches. It addresses the nature (what is impact significance?), the core characteristics (what are the major properties of significance determination?), the rationale (why are impact significance determinations necessary?), the procedural and substantive objectives (what do impact significance determinations seek to achieve?), and the process for making impact significance judgments (how is impact significance determination conducted?). By identifying fundamental attributes and key distinctions associated with impact significance determinations, a basis is provided for designing and evaluating impact significance determination procedures at both the regulatory and applied levels

  8. Patients with adrenal insufficiency hate their medication: concerns and stronger beliefs about the necessity of hydrocortisone intake are associated with more negative illness perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Andela, Cornelie D.; Pereira, Alberto M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Kaptein, Adrian A.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) require daily and life-long hydrocortisone substitution with risks of under- and overreplacement, the necessity to adjust the dose in stressful situations, and a lack of clinical and biochemical parameters to assess optimal dosing. The spectrum of medication

  9. Immune indexes of larks from desert and temperate regions show weak associations with life history but stronger links to environmental variation in microbial abundance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrocks, N.P.C.; Hegemann, A.; Matson, K.D.; Hine, K.; Jaquier, S.; Shobrak, M.; Williams, J.B.; Tinbergen, J.M.; Tieleman, B.I.

    2012-01-01

    Immune defense may vary as a result of trade-offs with other life-history traits or in parallel with variation in antigen levels in the environment. We studied lark species (Alaudidae) in the Arabian Desert and temperate Netherlands to test opposing predictions from these two hypotheses. Based on

  10. Immune Indexes of Larks from Desert and Temperate Regions Show Weak Associations with Life History but Stronger Links to Environmental Variation in Microbial Abundance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrocks, Nicholas P. C.; Hegemann, Arne; Matson, Kevin D.; Hine, Kathryn; Jaquier, Sophie; Shobrak, Mohammed; Williams, Joseph B.; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    2012-01-01

    Immune defense may vary as a result of trade-offs with other life-history traits or in parallel with variation in antigen levels in the environment. We studied lark species (Alaudidae) in the Arabian Desert and temperate Netherlands to test opposing predictions from these two hypotheses. Based on

  11. Making stronger causal inferences: Accounting for selection bias in associations between high performance work systems, leadership, and employee and customer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Joseph A; Pohler, Dionne M

    2018-05-17

    We develop competing hypotheses about the relationship between high performance work systems (HPWS) with employee and customer satisfaction. Drawing on 8 years of employee and customer survey data from a financial services firm, we used a recently developed empirical technique-covariate balanced propensity score (CBPS) weighting-to examine if the proposed relationships between HPWS and satisfaction outcomes can be explained by reverse causality, selection effects, or commonly omitted variables such as leadership behavior. The results provide support for leader behaviors as a primary driver of customer satisfaction, rather than HPWS, and also suggest that the problem of reverse causality requires additional attention in future human resource (HR) systems research. Model comparisons suggest that the estimates and conclusions vary across CBPS, meta-analytic, cross-sectional, and time-lagged models (with and without a lagged dependent variable as a control). We highlight the theoretical and methodological implications of the findings for HR systems research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The Middle Class Is Key to a Better-Educated Nation: A Stronger Middle Class Is Associated with Better Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madland, David; Bunker, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Education is key to America's economic success as technological change and global competition increase exponentially. Unfortunately, where once the nation was atop the world academically, today American students rank in the middle of the pack. Not surprisingly, business leaders and the American public are concerned about the quality of American…

  13. Adiposity in Children and CVD Risk: ApoB48 Has a Stronger Association With Central Fat Than Classic Lipid Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Michaelann S; Maximova, Katerina; Henderson, Mélanie; Levy, Emile; Paradis, Gilles; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Proctor, Spencer D

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerotic vascular disease begins in childhood and while progression is multifactorial, obesity in early life is an important risk factor for its development. To determine whether fasting apoB48 remnant lipoproteins (relative to classic lipid markers), is elevated with increasing central adiposity over time in a cohort of Canadian children with a family history of obesity. Data were drawn from the ongoing prospective cohort of 630 Caucasian families in Québec, Canada, recruited to assess determinants and effects of childhood obesity (Québec Adiposity and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth [QUALITY]cohort). Children who attended baseline and first followup clinic visits (n =570; age 9.6 y). Trunk fat mass was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Central fat mass index was calculated as CFMI = trunk fat mass/height(2) (kg/m(2)) and groups created (CFMI children who transitioned from lower- to moderate-CFMI groups (ΔapoB48 = 1.5 μg/mL). For every 1 kg/m(2) increase in central adiposity over the 2-y period, an increase in apoB48 was 14-fold greater among children with lower baseline CFMI, compared with higher CFMI. Increased fasting concentrations of apoB48 may be representative of changes in adiposity at lower levels of central fat (early periods of risk).

  14. Responding to the Challenge of Providing Stronger Research Base for Teacher Education: Research Discourses in the Norwegian National Research School for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østern, Anna-Lena

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this article is to shed light on how the research projects of 140 PhD candidates in the National Research School for Teacher Education in Norway (NAFOL) respond to the challenges faced by Norwegian teacher education regarding the demand for higher competence and a stronger research base. The concept of NAFOL…

  15. GxE Interactions Between FOXO Genotypes and Tea Drinking Significantly Affect Cognitive Disability at Advanced Ages in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Logistic regression analysis based on data from 822 Han Chinese oldest old aged 92+ demonstrated that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 and tea drinking at around age 60 or at present time were significantly associated with lower risk of cognitive disability...... at advanced ages. Associations between tea drinking and reduced cognitive disability were much stronger among carriers of the genotypes of FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 compared with noncarriers, and it was reconfirmed by analysis of three-way interactions across FOXO genotypes, tea drinking at around...... age 60, and at present time. Based on prior findings from animal and human cell models, we postulate that intake of tea compounds may activate FOXO gene expression, which in turn may positively affect cognitive function in the oldest old population. Our empirical findings imply that the health...

  16. Synchronicity in elevation range shifts among small mammal and vegetation over the last century is stronger for omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira Dos Santos, Maria Joao; Thorne, James; Moritz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    In mountain ecosystems, species can be said to respond synchronously to environmental change when the elevation ranges of vegetation types and their associated vertebrates expand or contract in the same direction. Conversely, the response is asynchronous when the elevation ranges of vegetation types

  17. Reorganization of a marine trophic network along an inshore-offshore gradient due to stronger pelagic-benthic coupling in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Dorothée; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Cachera, Marie; Villanueva, Maria Ching; Ernande, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Recent theoretical considerations have highlighted the importance of the pelagic-benthic coupling in marine food webs. In continental shelf seas, it was hypothesized that the trophic network structure may change along an inshore-offshore gradient due to weakening of the pelagic-benthic coupling from coastal to offshore areas. We tested this assumption empirically using the eastern English Channel (EEC) as a case study. We sampled organisms from particulate organic matter to predatory fishes and used baseline-corrected carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) to determine their trophic position. First, hierarchical clustering on δ13C and δ15N coupled to bootstrapping and estimates of the relative contribution of pelagic and benthic carbon sources to consumers' diet showed that, at mesoscale, the EEC food web forms a continuum of four trophic levels with trophic groups spread across a pelagic and a benthic trophic pathway. Second, based on the same methods, a discrete approach examined changes in the local food web structure across three depth strata in order to investigate the inshore-offshore gradient. It showed stronger pelagic-benthic coupling in shallow coastal areas mostly due to a reorganization of the upper consumers relative to the two trophic pathways, benthic carbon sources being available to pelagic consumers and, reciprocally, pelagic sources becoming accessible to benthic species. Third a continuous approach examined changes in the mean and variance of upper consumers' δ13C and δ15N with depth. It detected a significant decrease in δ13C variance and a significant increase in δ15N variance as depth increases. A theoretical two-source mixing model showed that an inshore-offshore decrease in the pelagic-benthic coupling was a sufficient condition to produce the δ13C variance pattern, thus supporting the conclusions of the discrete approach. These results suggest that environmental gradients such as the inshore-offshore one should

  18. Significance of high-intensity signals on cranial MRI T{sub 2} weighted image in diagnosis of age-associated dementia. From a viewpoint of reversibility of brain function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishiro, Masaki [St. Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-08-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether changes of EEG band profile in patients showing high-intensity signal (HIS) on cranial magnetic resonance images (MRI), who had however no vascular lesions on cranial CT, were similar to those in multi-infarct dementia (MID) or senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) patients and to determine the significance of HIS in the diagnosis of SDAT. Forty-two patients with dementia diagnosed according to DSM-III-R were divided into HIS (n=21), MID (n=13), and SDAT (n=8) based on CT and MRI findings. Multi-infarcted lesions were seen on cranial CT and HIS was seen on cranial MRI in MID patients. There were no abnormal lesions except brain atrophy on cranial CT and MRI in SDAT patients. Appearance rates (%) of the 2-18 c/s frequency bands using computerized quantitative EEG before and after administration of protirelin tartrate (TRH-T) were analyzed in the frontal, central, parietal and occipital areas of the brain. There were no significant differences in appearance rates of EEG frequency bands before administration of TRH-T in HIS, MID, and SDAT patients. A significant decrease in appearance rates of slow waves and a significant increase in appearance rates of {alpha} waves were observed after administration of TRH-T in the four areas in MID patients compared with those before administration. No significant differences in appearance rates of EEG frequency bands were observed after administration of TRH-T in the four areas in HIS and SDAT patients compared with those before administration. Changes of the EEG band profile in HIS patients were similar to those in SDAT patients. In the presence of appearance of HSI on cranial MRI T{sub 2} weighted images, the possibility of SDAT patients cannot be excluded. Therefore, SDAT should be diagnosed based on both clinical data and the absence of brain vascular lesions on cranial CT. Also, HIS on MRI T{sub 2}-weighted images is considered to reflect non-vascular lesions. (J.N.P.).

  19. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  20. Gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MR exams of human subjects are associated with significant increases in the DNA repair marker 53BP1, but not the damage marker γH2AX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S McDonald

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging is considered low risk, yet recent studies have raised a concern of potential damage to DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes. This prospective Institutional Review Board-approved study examined potential double-strand DNA damage by analyzing changes in the DNA damage and repair markers γH2AX and 53BP1 in patients who underwent a 1.5 T gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (MR exam. Sixty patients were enrolled (median age 55 years, 39 males. Patients with history of malignancy or who were receiving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or steroids were excluded. MR sequence data were recorded and blood samples obtained immediately before and after MR exposure. An automated immunofluorescence assay quantified γH2AX or 53BP1 foci number in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Changes in foci number were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Clinical and MR procedural characteristics were compared between patients who had a >10% increase in γH2AX or 53BP1 foci numbers and patients who did not. The number of γH2AX foci did not significantly change following cardiac MR (median foci per cell pre-MR = 0.11, post-MR = 0.11, p = .90, but the number of 53BP1 foci significantly increased following MR (median foci per cell pre-MR = 0.46, post-MR = 0.54, p = .0140. Clinical and MR characteristics did not differ significantly between patients who had at least a 10% increase in foci per cell and those who did not. We conclude that MR exposure leads to a small (median 25% increase in 53BP1 foci, however the clinical relevance of this increase is unknown and may be attributable to normal variation instead of MR exposure.

  1. The Gap of Self - States and Its Association to an Individual‟s Interaction and Emotional Bond to their Significant Relationships: A Correlational Study about Filipino Youth‟s Self - Discrepancy and Their Attachment Styl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae R. Galing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A youth is expected to experience difficulties due to the opposing desire to be free while still remaining dependent to family and other significant individuals in their lives. Filipino youth are known as being family - oriented and being submissive which is one of the factors that pounds the importance of what people around them utters. Thus, creating a gap or discrepancy between what they truly want and what other people expect them to do. When these internal battles began, significant external aspects such as social interaction can be compromised. These occurrences can be elucidated by using the two frameworks Self - Discrepancy Theory and Attachment Style. In this study, correlational research design and survey method were employed to 384 Filipino Youth from Makati whom are selected through convenience sampling. Results of the study showed that the respondents have positive image of themselves. Also, a big majority of the respondents were discerned to have high discrepancies between their self - states. In this study, it was also seen that the respondents were dismissive and were characterized to be independent, self - reliant, and gave low importance to relationships. Finally, findings of this study revealed a weak positive correlation between secure attachment s tyle towards the self - discrepancy of the respondents while weak negative correlation was found between the rest of the attachment styles towards the discrepancy among their self - states. With this, the researchers recommended stabilizing internal discrepanc ies and strengthening significant relationships as the two were seen as big factors in respondents’ social interaction and self - esteem.

  2. Associação de retardo neuromotor e cromossomo 1qh +: registro de um caso Significance of neuromotor retardation in association with chromosome 1qh+: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salin Moyses Jorge

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores registram um caso de retardo neuromotor em paciente com cromossomo 1qh+. A análise cromossômica do paciente e três familiares revelou igualmente em todos, aumento do braço longo do cromossomo n.° 1. Entretanto, é considerada a possibilidade de que o quadro clínico do paciente seja subordinado também a outros fatores, não genéticos.A case of neuromotor retardation in association with chromosome 1qh+ is reported. Chromosomes analysis of the patient and three relatives showed increased long arm of the n.° 1 chromosome, in all of them. However it is emphasized that the clinical feature could be secondary to various non genetics factors, also.

  3. Bedtime Blood Pressure Chronotherapy Significantly Improves Hypertension Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Fernández, José R; Mojón, Artemio; Crespo, Juan J; Ríos, María T; Smolensky, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    Consistent evidence of numerous studies substantiates the asleep blood pressure (BP) mean derived from ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) is both an independent and a stronger predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk than are daytime clinic BP measurements or the ABPM-determined awake or 24-hour BP means. Hence, cost-effective adequate control of sleep-time BP is of marked clinical relevance. Ingestion time, according to circadian rhythms, of hypertension medications of 6 different classes and their combinations significantly improves BP control, particularly sleep-time BP, and reduces adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High midday temperature stress has stronger effects on biomass than on photosynthesis: A mesocosm experiment on four tropical seagrass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rushingisha; Gullström, Martin; Mangora, Mwita M; Mtolera, Matern S P; Björk, Mats

    2018-05-01

    The effect of repeated midday temperature stress on the photosynthetic performance and biomass production of seagrass was studied in a mesocosm setup with four common tropical species, including Thalassia hemprichii , Cymodocea serrulata , Enhalus acoroides , and Thalassodendron ciliatum . To mimic natural conditions during low tides, the plants were exposed to temperature spikes of different maximal temperatures, that is, ambient (29-33°C), 34, 36, 40, and 45°C, during three midday hours for seven consecutive days. At temperatures of up to 36°C, all species could maintain full photosynthetic rates (measured as the electron transport rate, ETR) throughout the experiment without displaying any obvious photosynthetic stress responses (measured as declining maximal quantum yield, Fv/Fm). All species except T. ciliatum could also withstand 40°C, and only at 45°C did all species display significantly lower photosynthetic rates and declining Fv/Fm. Biomass estimation, however, revealed a different pattern, where significant losses of both above- and belowground seagrass biomass occurred in all species at both 40 and 45°C (except for C. serrulata in the 40°C treatment). Biomass losses were clearly higher in the shoots than in the belowground root-rhizome complex. The findings indicate that, although tropical seagrasses presently can cope with high midday temperature stress, a few degrees increase in maximum daily temperature could cause significant losses in seagrass biomass and productivity.

  5. Bioactive leptin is stronger related to parameters of fat mass and distribution than conventionally measured leptin: Findings from a longitudinal study in obese children participating in a lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklowitz, Petra; Rothermel, Juliane; Lass, Nina; Barth, Andre; Reinehr, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    This study analyzed the relationships between bioactive leptin, conventionally measured leptin, and parameters of fat mass and distribution in obese children before and after weight reduction. We determined bioactive leptin (bioLep), conventional measured leptin (conLep), weight, height, body fat based on skinfold measurements and bioimpedance analyses, waist circumference (wc), and pubertal stage in 88 obese children participating in a lifestyle intervention at baseline and one year later. We identified no child with homozygous or heterozygous status for bioinactive leptin mutations. The baseline associations between bioLep and BMI (r = 0.53), BMI-SDS (r = 0.48), body fat (bioimpedance: r = 0.61, skinfold thickness: r = 0.49), wc (r = 0.42), and waist to height ratio (whr) (r = 0.39) were stronger than the associations between conLep and BMI (r = 0.50), BMI-SDS (r = 0.44), body fat (bioimpedance: r = 0.57, skinfold thickness: r = 0.41), wc (r = 0.41), and whr (r = 0.37). The changes of bioLep were stronger related to changes of BMI-SDS (r = 0.54), body fat (bioimpedance r = 0.59, skinfold thickness: r = 0.37), wc (r = 0.22), and whr (r = 0.21) than the associations between changes of conLep and changes of BMI-SDS (r = 0.48), body fat (bioimpedance: r = 0.56, skinfold thickness: r = 0.43), wc (r = 0.20), and whr (r = 0.20). The same findings were observed in multiple linear regression analyses adjusted to multiple confounders. In contrast to changes of conLep (r = 0.22), the changes of bioLep during intervention were not related to weight regain after the end of intervention. BioLep concentrations did not differ between prepubertal girls and boys, but were higher in pubertal girls compared to pubertal boys (p = 0.031). Bioactive leptin was stronger related to fat mass and distribution compared to conventionally measured leptin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Detection of significant protein coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of proteins cannot be fully understood without taking into account the coevolutionary linkages entangling them. From a practical point of view, coevolution between protein families has been used as a way of detecting protein interactions and functional relationships from genomic information. The most common approach to inferring protein coevolution involves the quantification of phylogenetic tree similarity using a family of methodologies termed mirrortree. In spite of their success, a fundamental problem of these approaches is the lack of an adequate statistical framework to assess the significance of a given coevolutionary score (tree similarity). As a consequence, a number of ad hoc filters and arbitrary thresholds are required in an attempt to obtain a final set of confident coevolutionary signals. In this work, we developed a method for associating confidence estimators (P values) to the tree-similarity scores, using a null model specifically designed for the tree comparison problem. We show how this approach largely improves the quality and coverage (number of pairs that can be evaluated) of the detected coevolution in all the stages of the mirrortree workflow, independently of the starting genomic information. This not only leads to a better understanding of protein coevolution and its biological implications, but also to obtain a highly reliable and comprehensive network of predicted interactions, as well as information on the substructure of macromolecular complexes using only genomic information. The software and datasets used in this work are freely available at: http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/pMT/. pazos@cnb.csic.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Significance and outcome of nuclear anaplasia and mitotic index in prostatic adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kır, Gozde; Sarbay, Billur Cosan; Gumus, Eyup

    2016-10-01

    The Gleason grading system measures architectural differentiation and disregards nuclear atypia and the cell proliferation index. Several studies have reported that nuclear grade and mitotic index (MI) are prognostically useful. This study included 232 radical prostatectomy specimens. Nuclear anaplasia (NA) was determined on the basis of nucleomegali (at least 20µm); vesicular chromatin; eosinophilic macronucleoli, nuclear lobulation, and irregular thickened nuclear membranei. The proportion of area of NA was recorded in each tumor in 10% increments. The MI was defined as the number of mitotic figures in 10 consecutive high-power fields (HPF). In univariate analysis, significant differences included associations between biochemical prostate-specific antigen recurrence (BCR) and Gleason score, extraprostatic extension, positive surgical margin, the presence of high-pathologic stage, NA≥10% of tumor area, MI≥3/10 HPF, and preoperative prostate-specific antigen. In a stepwise Cox regression model, a positive surgical margin, the presence of a NA≥10% of tumor area, and a MI of≥3/10 HPF were independent predictors of BCR after radical prostatectomy. NA≥10% of tumor area appeared to have a stronger association with outcome than MI≥3/10 HPF, as still associated with BCR when Gleason score was in the model. The results of our study showed that, in addition to the conventional Gleason grading system, NA, and MI are useful prognostic parameters while evaluating long-term prognosis in prostatic adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Attention Effects on Neural Population Representations for Shape and Location Are Stronger in the Ventral than Dorsal Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We examined how attention causes neural population representations of shape and location to change in ventral stream (AIT) and dorsal stream (LIP). Monkeys performed two identical delayed-match-to-sample (DMTS) tasks, attending either to shape or location. In AIT, shapes were more discriminable when directing attention to shape rather than location, measured by an increase in mean distance between population response vectors. In LIP, attending to location rather than shape did not increase the discriminability of different stimulus locations. Even when factoring out the change in mean vector response distance, multidimensional scaling (MDS) still showed a significant task difference in AIT, but not LIP, indicating that beyond increasing discriminability, attention also causes a nonlinear warping of representation space in AIT. Despite single-cell attentional modulations in both areas, our data show that attentional modulations of population representations are weaker in LIP, likely due to a need to maintain veridical representations for visuomotor control. PMID:29876521

  9. Transition from a strong-yet-brittle to a stronger-and-ductile state by size reduction of metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dongchan; Greer, Julia R

    2010-03-01

    Amorphous metallic alloys, or metallic glasses, are lucrative engineering materials owing to their superior mechanical properties such as high strength and large elastic strain. However, their main drawback is their propensity for highly catastrophic failure through rapid shear banding, significantly undercutting their structural applications. Here, we show that when reduced to 100 nm, Zr-based metallic glass nanopillars attain ceramic-like strengths (2.25 GPa) and metal-like ductility (25%) simultaneously. We report separate and distinct critical sizes for maximum strength and for the brittle-to-ductile transition, thereby demonstrating that strength and ability to carry plasticity are decoupled at the nanoscale. A phenomenological model for size dependence and brittle-to-homogeneous deformation is provided.

  10. Water content differences have stronger effects than plant functional groups on soil bacteria in a steppe ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximei Zhang

    Full Text Available Many investigations across natural and artificial plant diversity gradients have reported that both soil physicochemical factors and plant community composition affect soil microbial communities. To test the effect of plant diversity loss on soil bacterial communities, we conducted a five-year plant functional group removal experiment in a steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia (China. We found that the number and composition type of plant functional groups had no effect on bacterial diversity and community composition, or on the relative abundance of major taxa. In contrast, bacterial community patterns were significantly structured by soil water content differences among plots. Our results support researches that suggest that water availability is the key factor structuring soil bacterial communities in this semi-arid ecosystem.

  11. Whole Tibetan Hull-Less Barley Exhibit Stronger Effect on Promoting Growth of Genus Bifidobacterium than Refined Barley In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lingxiao; Cao, Wenyan; Gao, Jie; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Huijuan; Sun, Baoguo; Yin, Meng

    2018-04-01

    The gut microbiota has recently become a new route for research at the intersection of diet and human health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whole Tibetan hull-less barley (WHB) and refined Tibetan hull-less barley (RHB) caused differentiation of the fecal microbiota in vitro. The microbiota-accessible ingredients in the 2 barley samples were studied using an in vitro enzymatic digestion procedure. After in vitro digestion, insoluble dietary fiber, phenolic compounds, proteins, and β-glucans were 93.2%, 103.4%. 18.8%, and 10.2% higher provided by WHB flour as compared with RHB flour based on the same mass amount. However, due to the significantly higher content of insoluble dietary fiber, WHB digesta had lower percentage contents of fast fermentable substrates including dietary fiber and starch as compared with RHB digesta. The results of Next-generation sequencing of the bacterial 16SrRNA gene showed that both WHB and RHB fermentation had significantly promoted the growth of Bifidobacterium and inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Dorea, Escherichia, Oscillopira, and Ruminococcus. Moreover, in response to WHB fermentation, the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium increased by 78.5% and 92.8% as compared with RHB and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOs). Both WHB and RHB are good sources of fermentable dietary fiber with the ability to yield high concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as compared to FOs. However, the higher fraction of soluble fiber in RHB digesta increase higher amounts of SCFA compared with WHB digesta. Our findings shed light on the complex interactions of whole cereals with gut microbiota and the possible impact on host health. Until now, only few reports have regarded the impact of in vitro digestion in components of whole grain with complex food matrix. Moreover, our findings shed light on the complex interactions of whole cereals with gut microbiota and the possible impact on host health. © 2018

  12. Enhanced stiffness of silk-like fibers by loop formation in the corona leads to stronger gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Wolf H; Domeradzka, Natalia E; Werten, Marc W T; Leermakers, Frans A M; de Vries, Renko J; de Wolf, Frits A; van der Gucht, Jasper

    2016-11-01

    We study the self-assembly of protein polymers consisting of a silk-like block flanked by two hydrophilic blocks, with a cysteine residue attached to the C-terminal end. The silk blocks self-assemble to form fibers while the hydrophilic blocks form a stabilizing corona. Entanglement of the fibers leads to the formation of hydrogels. Under oxidizing conditions the cysteine residues form disulfide bridges, effectively connecting two corona chains at their ends to form a loop. We find that this leads to a significant increase in the elastic modulus of the gels. Using atomic force microscopy, we show that this stiffening is due to an increase of the persistence length of the fibers. Self-consistent-field calculations indicate a slight decrease of the lateral pressure in the corona upon loop formation. We argue that this small decrease in the repulsive interactions affects the stacking of the silk-like blocks in the core, resulting in a more rigid fiber. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Development of Enriched Core Competencies for Health Services and Policy Research: Training for Stronger Career Readiness and Greater Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Stephen; Heritage, Melissa; Chudak, Amanda; Tamblyn, Robyn; McMahon, Meghan; Brown, Adalsteinn

    2018-03-11

    To develop an enriched set of core competencies for health services and policy research (HSPR) doctoral training that will help graduates maximize their impact across a range of academic and nonacademic work environments and roles. Data were obtained from multiple sources, including literature reviews, key informant interviews, stakeholder consultations, and Expert Working Group (EWG) meetings between January 2015 and March 2016. The study setting is Canada. The study used qualitative methods and an iterative development process with significant stakeholder engagement throughout. The literature reviews, key informant interviews, existing data on graduate career trajectories, and EWG deliberations informed the identification of career profiles for HSPR graduates and the competencies required to succeed in these roles. Stakeholder consultations were held to vet, refine, and validate the competencies. The EWG reached consensus on six sectors and eight primary roles in which HSPR doctoral graduates can bring value to employers and the health system. Additionally, 10 core competencies were identified that should be included or further emphasized in the training of HSPR doctoral students to increase their preparedness and potential for impact in a variety of roles within and outside of traditional academic workplaces. The results offer an expanded view of potential career paths for HSPR doctoral graduates and provide recommendations for an expanded set of core competencies that will better equip graduates to maximize their impact on the health system. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. Fine mapping of ZNF804A and genome-wide significant evidence for its involvement in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, H.J.; Norton, N.; Dwyer, S.; Moskvina, V.; Nikolov, I.; Carroll, L.; Georgieva, L.; Williams, N.M.; Morris, D.W.; Quinn, E.M.; Giegling, I.; Ikeda, M.; Wood, J.; Lencz, T.; Hultman, C.; Lichtenstein, P.; Thiselton, D.; Maher, B.S.; Malhotra, A.K.; Riley, B.; Kendler, K.S.; Gill, M.; Sullivan, P.; Sklar, P.; Purcell, S.; Nimgaonkar, V.L.; Kirov, G.; Holmans, P.; Corvin, A.; Rujescu, D.; Craddock, N.; Owen, M.J.; O'Donovan, M.C.; GROUP investigators, [No Value

    2011-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported evidence for association between rs1344706 within ZNF804A (encoding zinc-finger protein 804A) and schizophrenia (P = 1.61 x 10(-7)), and stronger evidence when the phenotype was broadened to include bipolar disorder (P = 9.96 x 10(-9)). In this

  15. Significance of Lockeia and associated trace fossils from the Bada ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the environmental conditions. ?Lophoctenium isp. .... The portion where the change in orientation occurs does not ..... suggestions in improving the manuscript. In addi- ... Contrasting behavioral and feeding strategies recorded by tidal-flat ...

  16. Genomewide association study on monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thomsen, H.; Campo, Ch.; Weinhold, N.; da Silva Filho, M.I.; Pour, L.; Gregora, E.; Vodička, Pavel; Vodičková, Ludmila; Hoffmann, P.; Nöthen, M.M.; Jöckel, K.H.; Langer, Ch.; Hájek, R.; Goldschmidt, H.; Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 1 (2017), s. 70-79 ISSN 0902-4441 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : germ line * low-risk genes * myeloma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.653, year: 2016

  17. Clinical significance of dental root canal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B P; Lilley, J D; Drucker, D B

    1996-01-01

    Previous work by this group has shown that a significant association exists between pain and the presence of either Prevotella or Peptostreptococcus spp. in dental root canals. The aim of this study was to examine a more extensive series of canals microbiologically, to determine whether any other particular endodontic symptoms or clinical signs showed specific associations with individual bacterial species. Seventy root canals were examined microbiologically and clinical data collected to investigate in detail such associations. Of the canals studied, 37 were associated with pain, 49 with tenderness to percussion, 23 with swelling, six with purulent exudate and 57 presented with wet root canals. Anaerobes were isolated from 70.3% of painful canals and from 29.7% of pain-free canals. Significant associations were found between (a) pain and either Prevotella spp. or peptostreptococci, both with P spp. (P Eubacterium spp. (P spp. or Pstr. micros, both with P spp. (each P Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella or Propionibacterium (each P < 0.05). It was concluded that several different endodontic clinical signs and symptoms are significantly associated with specific bacterial species.

  18. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  19. Faster-higher-stronger -- greener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Toronto Olympic Bid Committee is reported to have adopted a strong environmental orientation in its bid to bring the 2008 Olympic Games to Toronto. In a recent address, the President of the Committee outlined details of the bid's environmental component which emphasizes the role of sustainable development within the Olympics and the consequences of this orientation on the design, construction and operation of facilities. The Toronto Bid Committee has gained inspiration and momentum for its 'green bid' from the host city of the 2000 Olympic Games, Sidney, Australia, which has won widespread praise for its efforts to clean up Homebush Bay, a brownfield site long seen as a liability for the city. The Toronto Bid Committee is making itself accountable for: creating the healthiest possible conditions for the athletes, visitors and residents; designing for sustainability; protecting, restoring and enhancing human and natural habitats; conserving resources and minimizing the ecological impact of the Games; promoting innovative, technically proven Canadian environmental technology; and fostering environmental awareness and education. The Committee intends to make the environment a priority and not just an afterthought in the bidding process. It hopes to develop specific goals and where possible, quantifiable targets in non-polluting designs for all Olympic housing and sports facilities. Wherever possible renewable power such as wind, solar and fuel cells will be used, and cleaner fuels such as natural gas where green power is not a viable option

  20. A stronger perfume for LPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcox, C.K.

    1996-11-01

    The odorisation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is undertaken to improve the safe use and transport of this popular fuel. Effective LPG odorisation should enable leaks to be detected by any person with a normal sense of smell before gas concentrations reach a hazardous level. The objective is identical to that for odorising natural gas. However, the physical characteristics of propane and butane present particular difficulties. These do not occur with natural gas, which has a dynamic, flowing, simple-phase system. (author)

  1. A stronger perfume for LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willcox, C.K.

    1996-01-01

    The odorisation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is undertaken to improve the safe use and transport of this popular fuel. Effective LPG odorisation should enable leaks to be detected by any person with a normal sense of smell before gas concentrations reach a hazardous level. The objective is identical to that for odorising natural gas. However, the physical characteristics of propane and butane present particular difficulties. These do not occur with natural gas, which has a dynamic, flowing, simple-phase system. (author)

  2. Bad is stronger than good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumeister, R.F.; Bratslavsky, E.; Finkenauer, C.; Vohs, K.D.

    2001-01-01

    The greater power of bad events over good ones is found in everyday events, major life events (e.g., trauma), close relationship outcomes, social network patterns, interpersonal interactions, and learning processes. Bad emotions, bad parents, and bad feedback have more impact than good ones, and bad

  3. Working Longer Makes Students Stronger?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Abstract: Despite much discussion on the role of education policy on school and student performance, we know little about the effects of school spending at the margin on student cognitive achievement beyond the effects of class size. Thus this paper examines the effects of annual ninth grade...... classroom hours in literacy and maths on ninth grade (aged 16) student performance in writing and maths, respectively. Using population data for Denmark in 2003-2006, I exploit unique policy-induced variation in classroom hours.On average, the reform changed classroom hours by 2.2-3.3% in literacy and maths...

  4. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  5. Scope and Significance of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E.; Eckert, Elke D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the increasing prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in many industrialized societies, and their association with significant morbidity and mortality. Discusses the genetic risks for the development of anorexia nervosa, and treatment strategies. Of these, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, particularly those incorporating…

  6. Petrochemistry and geotectonic significance of enderbite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrochemistry and geotectonic significance of enderbite-charnockite association in the Pan-African Obudu plateau, southeastern Nigeria. VU Ukaegbu, FT Beka. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 43 (1) 2007: pp. 1-14. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  7. The polar 2e/12c bond in phenalenyl-azaphenalenyl hetero-dimers: Stronger stacking interaction and fascinating interlayer charge transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Rong-Lin; Li, Zhi-Ru, E-mail: hlxu@nenu.edu.cn, E-mail: lzr@jlu.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Xu, Hong-Liang, E-mail: hlxu@nenu.edu.cn, E-mail: lzr@jlu.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Material Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024 (China)

    2016-08-07

    An increasing number of chemists have focused on the two-electron/multicenter bond (2e/mc) that was first introduced to interpret the bonding mechanism of radical dimers. Herein, we report the polar two-electron/twelve center (2e/12c) bonding character in a series of phenalenyl-azaphenalenyl radical hetero-dimers. Interestingly, the bonding energy of weaker polar hetero-dimer (P-TAP) is dominated by the overlap of the two different singly occupied molecular orbital of radicals, while that of stronger polar hetero-dimer (P-HAP) is dominated by the electrostatic attraction. Results show that the difference between the electronegativity of the monomers plays a prominent role in the essential attribution of the polar 2e/12c bond. Correspondingly, a stronger stacking interaction in the hetero-dimer could be effectively achieved by increasing the difference of nitrogen atoms number between the monomers. It is worthy of note that an interesting interlayer charge transfer character is induced in the polar hetero-dimers, which is dependent on the difference between the electronegativity of the monomers. It is our expectation that the new knowledge about the bonding nature of radical hetero-dimers might provide important information for designing radical based functional materials with various applications.

  8. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of stat