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Sample records for significantly stimulated cell

  1. Defibrotide in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor significantly enhances the mobilization of primitive and committed peripheral blood progenitor cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo-Stella, Carmelo; Di Nicola, Massimo; Magni, Michele; Longoni, Paolo; Milanesi, Marco; Stucchi, Claudio; Cleris, Loredana; Formelli, Franca; Gianni, Massimo A

    2002-11-01

    Defibrotide is a polydeoxyribonucleotide, which significantly reduces the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. We investigated the activity of Defibrotide alone or in combination with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) to mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) in BALB/c mice. A 5-day treatment with Defibrotide alone (1-15 mg/mouse/day) had no effect on WBC counts, frequencies and absolute numbers of total circulating colony-forming cells (CFCs), i.e., granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units, erythroid burst-forming units, and multilineage colony-forming units. As compared with mock-injected mice, administration of rhG-CSF alone (5 micro g/mouse/day) for 5 days significantly (P Defibrotide (15 mg/mouse/day) and rhG-CSF significantly (P Defibrotide plus rhG-CSF resulted in a significant increase (P Defibrotide/rhG-CSF-mobilized mononuclear cells rescued 43% and 71% of recipient mice, respectively. Experiments of CFC homing performed in lethally irradiated or nonirradiated recipients showed that marrow homing of transplanted PBPCs was reduced by 3-fold in Defibrotide-treated animals as compared with mock-injected mice (P Defibrotide might be because of an effect on PBPC trafficking. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that Defibrotide synergizes with rhG-CSF and significantly increases the mobilization of a broad spectrum of PBPCs, including primitive and committed progenitor cells. These data might have relevant implications for autologous and allogeneic anticancer therapy in humans.

  2. Nanoscale Mechanical Stimulation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    H Nikukar

    2014-05-01

    We observed significant responses after 1 and 2-week stimulations in cell number, cell shapes and phenotypical markers. Microarray was performed for all groups. Cell count showed normal cell growth with stimulation. However, cell surface area, cell perimeter, and arboration after 1-week stimulation showed significant increases. Immunofluorescent studies have showed significant increase in osteocalcin production after stimulation. Conclusions: Nanoscale mechanical vibration showed significant changes in human mesenchymal stem cell behaviours. Cell morphology changed to become more polygonal and increased expression of the osteoblast markers were noted. These findings with gene regulation changes suggesting nanoscale mechanostimulation has stimulated osteoblastogenesis.  Keywords:  Mesenchymal, Nanoscale, Stem Cells.

  3. Toll-like receptor 6 and connective tissue growth factor are significantly upregulated in mitomycin-C-treated urothelial carcinoma cells under hydrostatic pressure stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Kuan; Chung, Chih-Ang; Cheng, Yu-Che; Huang, Chi-Jung; Chen, Wen-Yih; Ruaan, Ruoh-Chyu; Li, Chuan; Tsao, Chia-Wen; Hu, Wei-Wen; Chien, Chih-Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common histologic subtype of bladder cancer. The administration of mitomycin C (MMC) into the bladder after transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) is a common treatment strategy for preventing recurrence after surgery. We previously applied hydrostatic pressure combined with MMC in UC cells and found that hydrostatic pressure synergistically enhanced MMC-induced UC cell apoptosis through the Fas/FasL pathways. To understand the alteration of gene expressions in UC cells caused by hydrostatic pressure and MMC, oligonucleotide microarray was used to explore all the differentially expressed genes. After bioinformatics analysis and gene annotation, Toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) showed significant upregulation among altered genes, and their gene and protein expressions with each treatment of UC cells were validated by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Under treatment with MMC and hydrostatic pressure, UC cells showed increasing apoptosis using extrinsic pathways through upregulation of TLR6 and CTGF.

  4. Consecutive Acupuncture Stimulations Lead to Significantly Decreased Neural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, S.; Choe, I.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in combination with block design paradigms with consecutive acupuncture stimulations, has often been used to investigate the neural responses to acupuncture. In this study, we investigated whether previous acupuncture stimulations can affect

  5. Stimulating Sustainability in Multinational Companies: the Significance of Regional Headquarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas G. M. NACHBAGAUER

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, regional headquarters have gained practical importance and theoretical attention. Traditionally considered a mere transmission facility to manage complex organisations, advanced approaches, however, locate regional headquarters in a field of tension between hierarchical integration and strategic independence. Given the growing concern for global responsibility, stimulating sustainability also and particularly addresses regional headquarters. This conceptual article combines the call for sustainability with the upcoming importance of regional headquarters: which contributions can the regional headquarters of a multinational company deliver to stimulate the development of sustainable corporate strategy and operations? The main topics are the effects different versions of embedding regional headquarters into the corporate context have on opportunities to implement sustainability policies: Are there different chances for successful implementation depending on the strategic setup of the company? Does the distribution of competences matter? Which types of interaction between headquarters and branch are suitable to introduce sustainability sustainably? Is the mix of national contexts of headquarters and branch of importance? First results show that depending on the companywide strategy, and especially on the structure and distribution of competences, regional headquarters can play a significant role as trigger of sustainability. The literature favours strong involvement and large autonomy of both branches as well as regional headquarters for the development and management of sustainability. The parts of the company involved in a critical environment often are the starting point of sustainability policies.

  6. Stimulation of hair cells with ultraviolet light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh, Julien B.; Fabella, Brian A.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Hair bundles are specialized organelles that transduce mechanical inputs into electrical outputs. To activate hair cells, physiologists have resorted to mechanical methods of hair-bundle stimulation. Here we describe a new method of hair-bundle stimulation, irradiation with ultraviolet light. A hair bundle illuminated by ultraviolet light rapidly moves towards its tall edge, a motion typically associated with excitatory stimulation. The motion disappears upon tip-link rupture and is associated with the opening of mechanotransduction channels. Hair bundles can be induced to move sinusoidally with oscillatory modulation of the stimulation power. We discuss the implications of ultraviolet stimulation as a novel hair-bundle stimulus.

  7. Stimulating Sustainability in Multinational Companies: the Significance of Regional Headquarters

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas G. M. NACHBAGAUER

    2016-01-01

    Recently, regional headquarters have gained practical importance and theoretical attention. Traditionally considered a mere transmission facility to manage complex organisations, advanced approaches, however, locate regional headquarters in a field of tension between hierarchical integration and strategic independence. Given the growing concern for global responsibility, stimulating sustainability also and particularly addresses regional headquarters. This conceptual article combines the call...

  8. Stimulation of granulocytic cell iodination by pine cone antitumor substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unten, S.; Sakagami, H.; Konno, K.

    1989-01-01

    Antitumor substances (Fractions VI and VII) prepared from the NaOH extract of pine cone significantly stimulated the iodination (incorporation of radioactive iodine into an acid-insoluble fraction) of human peripheral blood adherent mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), and human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells. In contrast, these fractions did not significantly increase the iodination of nonadherent mononuclear cells, red blood cells, other human leukemic cell lines (U-937, THP-1, K-562), human diploid fibroblast (UT20Lu), or mouse cell lines (L-929, J774.1). Iodination of HL-60 cells, which were induced to differentiate by treatment with either retinoic acid or tumor necrosis factor, were stimulated less than untreated cells. The stimulation of iodination of both PMN and HL-60 cells required the continuous presence of these fractions and was almost completely abolished by the presence of myeloperoxidase inhibitors. The stimulation activity of these fractions was generally higher than that of various other immunopotentiators. Possible mechanisms of extract stimulation of myeloperoxidase-containing cell iodination are discussed

  9. Stimulated human fibroblast cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.P.; Gale, K.L.; Einspenner, M.; Greenstock, C.L.; Gentner, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for cloning cultured mammalian cells have supported the most universally-accepted method for measuring the induction of lethality by geno-toxicants such as ionizing radiation: the 'survival of colony-forming ability (CFA)' assay. Since most cultured human cell lines exhibit plating efficiency (i.e. the percentage of cells that are capable of reproductively surviving and dividing to form visible colonies) well below 100%, such assays are in essence 'survival of plating efficiency' assays, since they are referred to the plating (or cloning) efficiency of control (i.e. unirradiated) cells. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  10. Claustral single cell reactions to tooth pulp stimulation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P; Sikora, M; Frydrychowski, A; Słoniewski, P

    1983-01-01

    Single unit activity in the central region of the claustrum, evoked by electrical stimulation of tooth pulp or paws was studied on cats under chloralose anesthesia. The majority of cells responded in similar manner to stimulation of tooth pulp or paws, but there were cells with clear preference to a given type of stimulation. Latencies of reactions evoked by tooth pulp stimulation were significantly shorter than those for limb stimulation. In the former case latencies as short as 8 rns were observed. It is postulated that the central region of the claustrum receives a projection from the tooth pulp, and that in those cases with very short latency the projection is direct and does not involve the cerebral cortex.

  11. B-cell stimulating factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clevenger, W R; Conlon, P J; Eisenman, J R; Gillis, S; Grabstein, K H; Hopp, T P; March, C J; Mochizuki, D Y; Price, V L; Shanebeck, K D

    1987-10-05

    BSF-1 was derived from malignant cells and purified by use of various techniques, including adsorption, ion exchange chromatography and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. By these techniques, the BSF-1 was purified to homogenity. The high purification of the BSF-1 has made possible the sequencing of the amino acid residues at the N-terminal portion of its protein molecules. From the amino acid sequencing information, a radiolabelled oligonucleotide probe corresponding to portion of the amino acid sequence of the BSF-1 molecule was synthesized and then used to probe a cDNA library prepared from polyadenylated mRNA extracted from cell lines known to produce BSF-1. Through this procedure, a cDNA clone containing the BSF-1 gene was isolated, sequenced and mature BSF-1 expressed. The isolated cDNA clone was then radiolabelled and used as a large probe for screening cDNA libraries of other species of animals for homologous BSF-1 clones.

  12. Graphene electrodes for stimulation of neuronal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerbitzer, Berit; Nick, Christoph; Thielemann, Christiane; Krauss, Peter; Yadav, Sandeep; Schneider, Joerg J

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has the ability to improve the electrical interface between neuronal cells and electrodes used for recording and stimulation purposes. It provides a biocompatible coating for common electrode materials such as gold and improves the electrode properties. Graphene electrodes are also prepared on SiO 2 substrate to benefit from its optical properties like transparency. We perform electrochemical and Raman characterization of gold electrodes with graphene coating and compare them with graphene on SiO 2 substrate. It was found that the substrate plays an important role in the performance of graphene and show that graphene on SiO 2 substrate is a very promising material combination for stimulation electrodes. (paper)

  13. [gammadelta T cells stimulated by zoledronate kill osteosarcoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Chao; Cao, Zhen-Guo; Li, Zhao-Xu; Ye, Zhao-Ming

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the cytotoxicity of human γδT cells from PBMCs stimulated by zoledronate against osteosarcoma cell line HOS in vitro and in vivo and evaluate the relavent pathways. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)of healthy donors were stimulated by single dose zoledronate and cultured in the present of IL-2 for two weeks, analysising the percentage of γδT cells on a FACSCalibur cytometer.Study the cytotoxicity of γδT cells against the osteosarcoma line HOS using LDH release assay kit. Pre-treatment of γδT cells with anti-human γδTCR antibody, anti-human NKG2D antibody and concanamycin A to bolck the relavent pathways for evaluating the mechenisms of its cytotoxicity. In vivo, BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously osteosarcoma cell HOS for developing hypodermal tumors. And they were randomized into two groups: unteated group, γδT cell therapy group. Tumor volume and weight of the two groups were compared. After two weeks of culture, γδT cells from zoledronate-stimulated PBMCs could reach (95±3)%. When the E:T as 6:1, 12:1, 25:1, 50:1, the percentage of osteosarcoma cell HOS killed by γδT cells was 26.8%, 31.5%, 37.8%, 40.9%, respectively.When anti-huma γδTCR antibody, anti-human NKG2D antibody and concanamycin A blocked the relavent pathways, the percentage was 32.3%, 4.7%, 16.7% ( E:T as 25:1), respectively. In vivo, the tumor inhibition rate of the group of γδT cell therapy was 42.78%. γδT cells derived from PBMCs stimulated by zoledronate can acquired pure γδT cells. And they show strong cytoxicity against osteosarcoma cell line HOS in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Gene expression results in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes depend significantly on the choice of reference genes

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    Øvstebø Reidun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated monocytes is mainly studied by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR using GAPDH (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase or ACTB (beta-actin as reference gene for normalization. Expression of traditional reference genes has been shown to vary substantially under certain conditions leading to invalid results. To investigate whether traditional reference genes are stably expressed in LPS-stimulated monocytes or if RT-qPCR results are dependent on the choice of reference genes, we have assessed and evaluated gene expression stability of twelve candidate reference genes in this model system. Results Twelve candidate reference genes were quantified by RT-qPCR in LPS-stimulated, human monocytes and evaluated using the programs geNorm, Normfinder and BestKeeper. geNorm ranked PPIB (cyclophilin B, B2M (beta-2-microglobulin and PPIA (cyclophilin A as the best combination for gene expression normalization in LPS-stimulated monocytes. Normfinder suggested TBP (TATA-box binding protein and B2M as the best combination. Compared to these combinations, normalization using GAPDH alone resulted in significantly higher changes of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL10 (interleukin 10 expression. Moreover, a significant difference in TNF-α expression between monocytes stimulated with equimolar concentrations of LPS from N. meningitides and E. coli, respectively, was identified when using the suggested combinations of reference genes for normalization, but stayed unrecognized when employing a single reference gene, ACTB or GAPDH. Conclusions Gene expression levels in LPS-stimulated monocytes based on RT-qPCR results differ significantly when normalized to a single gene or a combination of stably expressed reference genes. Proper evaluation of reference gene stabiliy is therefore mandatory before reporting RT-qPCR results in LPS-stimulated monocytes.

  15. Investigation of in vitro bone cell adhesion and proliferation on Ti using direct current stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodhak, Subhadip; Bose, Susmita; Kinsel, William C.; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to establish an in vitro cell culture protocol to improve bone cell attachment and proliferation on Ti substrate using direct current stimulation. For this purpose, a custom made electrical stimulator was developed and a varying range of direct currents, from 5 to 25 μA, was used to study the current stimulation effect on bone cells cultured on conducting Ti samples in vitro. Cell–material interaction was studied for a maximum of 5 days by culturing with human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). The direct current was applied in every 8 h time interval and the duration of electrical stimulation was kept constant at 15 min for all cases. In vitro results showed that direct current stimulation significantly favored bone cell attachment and proliferation in comparison to nonstimulated Ti surface. Immunochemistry and confocal microscopy results confirmed that the cell adhesion was most pronounced on 25 μA direct current stimulated Ti surfaces as hFOB cells expressed higher vinculin protein with increasing amount of direct current. Furthermore, MTT assay results established that cells grew 30% higher in number under 25 μA electrical stimulation as compared to nonstimulated Ti surface after 5 days of culture period. In this work we have successfully established a simple and cost effective in vitro protocol offering easy and rapid analysis of bone cell–material interaction which can be used in promotion of bone cell attachment and growth on Ti substrate using direct current electrical stimulation in an in vitro model. - Highlights: ► D.C. stimulation was used to enhance in vitro bone cell adhesion and proliferation. ► Cells cultured on Ti were stimulated by using a custom made electrical stimulator. ► Optimization was performed by using a varying range of direct currents ∼ 5 to 25 μA. ► 25 μA stimulation was found most beneficial for promotion of cell adhesion/growth.

  16. UV stimulation of DNA-mediated transformation of human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Duin, M.; Westerveld, A.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation of dominant marker DNA with UV light (150 to 1,000 J/m2) was found to stimulate the transformation of human cells by this marker from two- to more than fourfold. This phenomenon is also displayed by xeroderma pigmentosum cells, which are deficient in the excision repair of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in the DNA. Also, exposure to UV of the transfected (xeroderma pigmentosum) cells enhanced the transfection efficiency. Removal of the pyrimidine dimers from the DNA by photoreactivating enzyme before transfection completely abolished the stimulatory effect, indicating that dimer lesions are mainly responsible for the observed enhancement. A similar stimulation of the transformation efficiency is exerted by 2-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene modification of the DNA. These findings suggest that lesions which are targets for the excision repair pathway induce the increase in transformation frequency. The stimulation was found to be independent of sequence homology between the irradiated DNA and the host chromosomal DNA. Therefore, the increase of the transformation frequency is not caused by a mechanism inducing homologous recombination between these two DNAs. UV treatment of DNA before transfection did not have a significant effect on the amount of DNA integrated into the xeroderma pigmentosum genome

  17. Radiolabeled blood cells: radiation dosimetry and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past few years blood cells labeled with In-111 have become increasingly useful in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. Indium-111 by the virtue of its physical characteristics and ability to bind to cell cytoplasmic components, provides an excellent cell tracer and thereby, allows investigators to monitor in vivo cell distribution by external imaging and help determine a course of regimen in treating life threatening diseases. Due to natural phenomena such as margination, blood pool, and reticuloendothelial cell activity, in the normal state, depending upon the cell type and the quality of cell preparations, 30%-50% of the administered radioactivity is immediately distributed in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Over a period of time the radioactivity in these organs slightly increases and decays with a physical half-life of In-111. The resulting radiation dose to these organs ranges between 1-25 rads/mCi In-111 administered. The authors have developed a new In-111 labeling technique which preserves platelet ultrastructure and shown that human lymphocytes labeled with In-111 in mixed leukocytes preparations a) are only 0.003% of the total -body lymphocytes population and b) are killed. The consequence if any may be considered insignificant, particularly because 5.6% metaphases from normal men and 6.5% metaphases from normal women in the US have at least one chromosome aberration. Calculations have shown that the risk of fatal hematological malignancy, over a 30 year period, in recipients of 100 million lymphocytes labeled with 100 μCi In-111 is 1/million patients studied. This risk is less than 0.025% of the 1981 spontaneous cancer patient rate in the country. 32 references, 10 tables

  18. Modeling cell-in-cell structure into its biological significance

    OpenAIRE

    He, M-f; Wang, S; Wang, Y; Wang, X-n

    2013-01-01

    Although cell-in-cell structure was noted 100 years ago, the molecular mechanisms of ?entering' and the destination of cell-in-cell remain largely unclear. It takes place among the same type of cells (homotypic cell-in-cell) or different types of cells (heterotypic cell-in-cell). Cell-in-cell formation affects both effector cells and their host cells in multiple aspects, while cell-in-cell death is under more intensive investigation. Given that cell-in-cell has an important role in maintainin...

  19. Physiological significance of polyploidization in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Shusil K; Westendorp, Bart; de Bruin, Alain

    2013-11-01

    Programmed polyploidization occurs in all mammalian species during development and aging in selected tissues, but the biological properties of polyploid cells remain obscure. Spontaneous polyploidization arises during stress and has been observed in a variety of pathological conditions, such as cancer and degenerative diseases. A major challenge in the field is to test the predicted functions of polyploidization in vivo. However, recent genetic mouse models with diminished polyploidization phenotypes represent novel, powerful tools to unravel the biological function of polyploidization. Contrary to a longstanding hypothesis, polyploidization appears to not be required for differentiation and has no obvious impact on proliferation. Instead, polyploidization leads to increased cell size and genetic diversity, which could promote better adaptation to chronic injury or stress. We discuss here the consequences of reducing polyploidization in mice and review which stress responses and molecular signals trigger polyploidization during development and disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stimulation of dendritic cells enhances immune response after photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Pawel; Castano, Ana P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the primary tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species that cause vascular shutdown and tumor cell necrosis and apoptosis. Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due to the acute inflammatory response, priming of the immune system to recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAA). The induction of specific CD8+ Tlymphocyte cells that recognize major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) restricted epitopes of TAAs is a highly desirable goal in cancer therapy. The PDT killed tumor cells may be phagocytosed by dendritic cells (DC) that then migrate to draining lymph nodes and prime naÃve T-cells that recognize TAA epitopes. This process is however, often sub-optimal, in part due to tumor-induced DC dysfunction. Instead of DC that can become mature and activated and have a potent antigen-presenting and immune stimulating phenotype, immature dendritic cells (iDC) are often found in tumors and are part of an immunosuppressive milieu including regulatory T-cells and immunosuppressive cytokines such as TGF-beta and IL10. We here report on the use of a potent DC activating agent, an oligonucleotide (ODN) that contains a non-methylated CpG motif and acts as an agonist of toll like receptor (TLR) 9. TLR activation is a danger signal to notify the immune system of the presence of invading pathogens. CpG-ODN (but not scrambled non-CpG ODN) increased bone-marrow DC activation after exposure to PDT-killed tumor cells, and significantly increased tumor response to PDT and mouse survival after peri-tumoral administration. CpG may be a valuable immunoadjuvant to PDT especially for tumors that produce DC dysfunction.

  1. Arginine vasopressin stimulates phosphoinositide turnover in an enriched rat Leydig cell preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.R.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1989-01-01

    An enriched rat Leydig cell preparation was preincubated with [C]arachidonic acid. Stimulation of the cells with arginine vasopressin (AVP) (1 µM) for 2 min caused a significant increase in labelled phosphatidic acid and a significant fall in radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidyl......An enriched rat Leydig cell preparation was preincubated with [C]arachidonic acid. Stimulation of the cells with arginine vasopressin (AVP) (1 µM) for 2 min caused a significant increase in labelled phosphatidic acid and a significant fall in radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol...

  2. G-quadruplexes Significantly Stimulate Pif1 Helicase-catalyzed Duplex DNA Unwinding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Na-Nv; Yang, Yan-Tao; Li, Hai-Hong; Li, Ming; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Xi, Xu-Guang

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved G-quadruplexes (G4s) are faithfully inherited and serve a variety of cellular functions such as telomere maintenance, gene regulation, DNA replication initiation, and epigenetic regulation. Different from the Watson-Crick base-pairing found in duplex DNA, G4s are formed via Hoogsteen base pairing and are very stable and compact DNA structures. Failure of untangling them in the cell impedes DNA-based transactions and leads to genome instability. Cells have evolved highly specific helicases to resolve G4 structures. We used a recombinant nuclear form of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1 to characterize Pif1-mediated DNA unwinding with a substrate mimicking an ongoing lagging strand synthesis stalled by G4s, which resembles a replication origin and a G4-structured flap in Okazaki fragment maturation. We find that the presence of G4 may greatly stimulate the Pif1 helicase to unwind duplex DNA. Further studies reveal that this stimulation results from G4-enhanced Pif1 dimerization, which is required for duplex DNA unwinding. This finding provides new insights into the properties and functions of G4s. We discuss the observed activation phenomenon in relation to the possible regulatory role of G4s in the rapid rescue of the stalled lagging strand synthesis by helping the replicator recognize and activate the replication origin as well as by quickly removing the G4-structured flap during Okazaki fragment maturation. PMID:25627683

  3. Electrical Stimulation Promotes Cardiac Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are an attractive source of cardiomyocytes for cardiac repair and regeneration. In this study, we aim to determine whether acute electrical stimulation of human iPSCs can promote their differentiation to cardiomyocytes. Methods. Human iPSCs were differentiated to cardiac cells by forming embryoid bodies (EBs for 5 days. EBs were then subjected to brief electrical stimulation and plated down for 14 days. Results. In iPS(Foreskin-2 cell line, brief electrical stimulation at 65 mV/mm or 200 mV/mm for 5 min significantly increased the percentage of beating EBs present by day 14 after plating. Acute electrical stimulation also significantly increased the cardiac gene expression of ACTC1, TNNT2, MYH7, and MYL7. However, the cardiogenic effect of electrical stimulation was not reproducible in another iPS cell line, CERA007c6. Beating EBs from control and electrically stimulated groups expressed various cardiac-specific transcription factors and contractile muscle markers. Beating EBs were also shown to cycle calcium and were responsive to the chronotropic agents, isoproterenol and carbamylcholine, in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that brief electrical stimulation can promote cardiac differentiation of human iPS cells. The cardiogenic effect of brief electrical stimulation is dependent on the cell line used.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide stimulates cell motile activity through LPA receptor-3 in liver epithelial WB-F344 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Ayano; Tanabe, Eriko; Inoue, Serina; Kitayoshi, Misaho; Okimoto, Souta; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Fukushima, Nobuyuki [Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi, E-mail: ttujiuch@life.kindai.ac.jp [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: •Hydrogen peroxide stimulates cell motility of WB-F344 cells. •LPA{sub 3} is induced by hydrogen peroxide in WB-F344 cells. •Cell motility by hydrogen peroxide is inhibited in LPA{sub 3} knockdown cells. •LPA signaling is involved in cell migration by hydrogen peroxide. -- Abstract: Hydrogen peroxide which is one of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediates a variety of biological responses, including cell proliferation and migration. In the present study, we investigated whether lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling is involved in cell motile activity stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. The rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide at 0.1 or 1 μM for 48 h. In cell motility assays, hydrogen peroxide treated cells showed significantly high cell motile activity, compared with untreated cells. To measure the expression levels of LPA receptor genes, quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis was performed. The expressions of LPA receptor-3 (Lpar3) in hydrogen peroxide treated cells were significantly higher than those in control cells, but not Lpar1 and Lpar2 genes. Next, to assess the effect of LPA{sub 3} on cell motile activity, the Lpar3 knockdown cells from WB-F344 cells were also treated with hydrogen peroxide. The cell motile activity of the knockdown cells was not stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, in liver cancer cells, hydrogen peroxide significantly activated cell motility of Lpar3-expressing cells, but not Lpar3-unexpressing cells. These results suggest that LPA signaling via LPA{sub 3} may be mainly involved in cell motile activity of WB-F344 cells stimulated by hydrogen peroxide.

  5. Stimulation of aortic smooth muscle cell mitogenesis by serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemecek, G.M.; Coughlin, S.R.; Handley, D.A.; Moskowitz, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Bovine aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro responded to 1 nM to 10 μM serotonin with increased incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into DNA. The mitogenic effect of serotonin was half-maximal at 80 nM and maximal above 1 μM. At a concentration of 1 μM, serotonin stimulated smooth muscle cell mitogenesis to the same extent as human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) at 12 ng/ml. Tryptamine was ≅ 1/10th as potent as serotonin as a mitogen for smooth muscle cells. Other indoles that are structurally related to serotonin (D- and L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, melatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptophol) and quipazine were inactive. The stimulatory effect of serotonin on smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis required prolonged (20-24 hr) exposure to the agonist and was attenuated in the presence of serotonin D receptor antagonists. When smooth muscle cells were incubated with submaximal concentrations of serotonin and PDGF, synergistic rather than additive mitogenic responses were observed. These data indicate that serotonin has a significant mitogenic effect on smooth muscle cells in vitro, which appears to be mediated by specific plasma membrane receptors

  6. Mycobacterial antigens stimulate rheumatoid mononuclear cells to cartilage proteoglycan depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, B.; Bijlsma, J. W.; Huber-Bruning, O.; van Roy, J. L.; den Otter, W.; van Eden, W.

    1990-01-01

    In a coculture with porcine articular cartilage explants unstimulated blood mononuclear cells (BMC) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but not from healthy controls, induced proteoglycan depletion of dead cartilage. Specific stimulation of the RA BMC with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT),

  7. Stimulation of adult oligodendrogenesis by myelin-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted Nielsen, Helle; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke

    2011-01-01

    of calretinergic associational/commissural fibers within the dentate gyrus. These results have implications for the perception of MS pathogenesis because they show that infiltrating myelin-specific T cells can stimulate oligodendrogenesis in the adult central nervous system....

  8. [IL-2 stimulated responses of CD3(+) CD56(+) NKT cells in pulmonary tuberculosis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chun-Yan; Wang, Zhao-Hua; Jiang, Li-Na; Peng, Mei-Yu; Wang, Jing; Li, Bai-Qing

    2010-09-01

    To observe the activation and proliferation characteristics of IL-2 stimulated CD3(+);CD56(+); NKT cells in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from PTB patients and normal subjects were stimulated with IL-2 and cultured for different time points. The CD69 expression on and amount of the CD3(+);CD56(+); NKT cells were detected by multi fluorescence staining and flow cytometry at different time of stimulation and culture. There was no significant difference in percentage of NKT cells between PTB patients and normal healthy controls before culture. When IL-2 was used to stimulate for 0 h, 8 h, 16 h, 40 h and 64 h, the expression of CD69 on NKT cells in normal controls and PTB patients increased significantly, but the CD69 expression level of NKT cells in PTB patients was significantly higher than that in normal persons(PNKT cells increased from (3.44+/-1.20)x10(4); to (323.23+/-75.98) x10(4); (PNKT cells increased from (5.57+/-5.16)x10(4); to (1475.05+/-868.98)x10(4); (PNKT cells in PTB patients present with high activation but low proliferation after stimulated by IL-2.

  9. Holographically generated structured illumination for cell stimulation in optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Felix; Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen; Torres, Maria Leilani; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Klapper, Simon; Busskamp, Volker

    2017-06-01

    In Optogenetics, cells, e.g. neurons or cardiac cells, are genetically altered to produce for example the lightsensitive protein Channelrhodopsin-2. Illuminating these cells induces action potentials or contractions and therefore allows to control electrical activity. Thus, light-induced cell stimulation can be used to gain insight to various biological processes. Many optogenetics studies, however, use only full field illumination and thus gain no local information about their specimen. But using modern spatial light modulators (SLM) in conjunction with computer-generated holograms (CGH), cells may be stimulated locally, thus enabling the research of the foundations of cell networks and cell communications. In our contribution, we present a digital holographic system for the patterned, spatially resolved stimulation of cell networks. We employ a fast ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon SLM to display CGH at up to 1.7 kHz. With an effective working distance of 33 mm, we achieve a focus of 10 μm at a positioning accuracy of the individual foci of about 8 μm. We utilized our setup for the optogenetic stimulation of clusters of cardiac cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells and were able to observe contractions correlated to both temporal frequency and spatial power distribution of the light incident on the cell clusters.

  10. Markers of stem cells in human ovarian granulosa cells: is there a clinical significance in ART?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varras Michail

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of gene expression of Oct-4 and DAZL, which are typical markers for stem cells, in human granulosa cells during ovarian stimulation in women with normal FSH levels undergoing IVF or ICSI and to discover any clinical significance of such expression in ART. Methods Twenty one women underwent ovulation induction for IVF or ICSI and ET with standard GnRH analogue-recombinant FSH protocol. Infertility causes were male and tubal factor. Cumulus–mature oocyte complexes were denuded separately and granulosa cells were analyzed for each patient separately using quantitative reverse-transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis for Oct-4 and DAZL gene expression with G6PD gene as internal standard. Results G6PD and Oct-4 mRNA was detected in the granulosa cells in 47.6% (10/21. The median of Oct-4 mRNA/G6PD mRNA was 1.75 with intra-quarteral range from 0.10 to 98.21. The OCT-4 mRNA expression was statistically significantly correlated with the number of oocytes retrieved; when the Oct-4 mRNA expression was higher, then more than six oocytes were retrieved (p=0.037, Wilcoxon rank-sum. No detection of DAZL mRNA was found in granulosa cells. There was no additional statistically significant correlation between the levels of Oct-4 expression and FSH basal levels or estradiol peak levels or dosage of FSH for ovulation induction. No association was found between the presence or absence of Oct-4 mRNA expression in granulosa cells and ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation. Also, no influence on pregnancy was observed between the presence or absence of Oct-4 mRNA expression in granulosa cells or to its expression levels accordingly. Conclusions Expression of OCT-4 mRNA, which is a typical stem cell marker and absence of expression of DAZL mRNA, which is a typical germ cell marker, suggest that a subpopulation of luteinized granulosa cells in healthy ovarian follicles (47

  11. Functional significance of erythropoietin in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Christudas; Johnson, David W; Vesey, David A; Gobe, Glenda C

    2013-01-01

    One of the molecules regulated by the transcription factor, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), is the hypoxia-responsive hematopoietic factor, erythropoietin (EPO). This may have relevance to the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), where mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene are major risk factors for the development of familial and sporadic RCC. VHL mutations up-regulate and stabilize HIF, which in turn activates many downstream molecules, including EPO, that are known to promote angiogenesis, drug resistance, proliferation and progression of solid tumours. HIFs typically respond to hypoxic cellular environment. While the hypoxic microenvironment plays a critical role in the development and progression of tumours in general, it is of special significance in the case of RCC because of the link between VHL, HIF and EPO. EPO and its receptor, EPOR, are expressed in many cancers, including RCC. This limits the use of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) to treat anaemia in cancer patients, because the rhEPO may be stimulatory to the cancer. EPO may also stimulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in RCC, and pathological EMT has a key role in cancer progression. In this mini review, we summarize the current knowledge of the role of EPO in RCC. The available data, either for or against the use of EPO in RCC patients, are equivocal and insufficient to draw a definitive conclusion

  12. A Novel In Vitro System for Comparative Analyses of Bone Cells and Bacteria under Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Josef Dauben

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation is a promising approach to enhance bone regeneration while having potential to inhibit bacterial growth. To investigate effects of alternating electric field stimulation on both human osteoblasts and bacteria, a novel in vitro system was designed. Electric field distribution was simulated numerically and proved by experimental validation. Cells were stimulated on Ti6Al4V electrodes and in short distance to electrodes. Bacterial growth was enumerated in supernatant and on the electrode surface and biofilm formation was quantified. Electrical stimulation modulated gene expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers in a voltage-dependent manner, resulting in significantly enhanced osteocalcin mRNA synthesis rate on electrodes after stimulation with 1.4VRMS. While collagen type I synthesis increased when stimulated with 0.2VRMS, it decreased after stimulation with 1.4VRMS. Only slight and infrequent influence on bacterial growth was observed following stimulations with 0.2VRMS and 1.4VRMS after 48 and 72 h, respectively. In summary this novel test system is applicable for extended in vitro studies concerning definition of appropriate stimulation parameters for bone cell growth and differentiation, bacterial growth suppression, and investigation of general effects of electrical stimulation.

  13. Changes in gene expression following growth stimulation of cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathans, D.; Lau, L.F.; Lee, S.J.; Linzer, D.I.H.

    1986-01-01

    To identify genes that may be part of a genetic program for the growth of mammalian cells. The authors are characterizing cDNA clones derived from mRNAs that appear at various times after stimulation of resting BALB/c 3T3 cells with serum or growth factors. cDNA libraries were prepared from polyA/sup +/ RNA from cells stimulated with serum for various periods of time, and the libraries were differentially screened with /sup 32/P-cDNA probes made from stimulated or resting cell mRNA. One cDNA library was prepared from cells that were stimulated with serum for 3 hrs in the presence of cycloheximide. The authors purpose in inhibiting protein synthesis was to limit new mRNAs to those that do not require de novo protein synthesis for their accumulation and to amplify mRNAs that are superinduced by serum in the absence of protein synthesis. Of approximately 50,000 recombinant phage plaques screened, 357 clones hybridized to probes derived from stimulated-cell RNA but not to probes from resting-cell RNA. Cross hybridization analysis showed that 4 RNA sequence families accounted for over 95% of the clones; other sequences were found only once

  14. KCl stimulation increases norepinephrine transporter function in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Prashant; Ordway, Gregory A

    2006-09-01

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) plays a pivotal role in terminating noradrenergic signaling and conserving norepinephrine (NE) through the process of re-uptake. Recent evidence suggests a close association between NE release and regulation of NET function. The present study evaluated the relationship between release and uptake, and the cellular mechanisms that govern these processes. KCl stimulation of PC12 cells robustly increased [3H]NE uptake via the NET and simultaneously increased [3H]NE release. KCl-stimulated increases in uptake and release were dependent on Ca2+. Treatment of cells with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or okadaic acid decreased [3H]NE uptake but did not block KCl-stimulated increases in [3H]NE uptake. In contrast, PMA increased [3H]NE release and augmented KCl-stimulated release, while okadaic acid had no effects on release. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated signaling cascades with KN93 (a Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor), or ML7 and ML9 (myosin light chain kinase inhibitors), reduced [3H]NE uptake and blocked KCl-stimulated increases in uptake. In contrast, KN93, ML7 and ML9 had no effect on KCl-stimulated [3H]NE release. KCl-stimulated increases in [3H]NE uptake were independent of transporter trafficking to the plasma membrane. While increases in both NE release and uptake mediated by KCl stimulation require Ca2+, different intracellular mechanisms mediate these two events.

  15. Retinal ganglion cells: mechanisms underlying depolarization block and differential responses to high frequency electrical stimulation of ON and OFF cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameneva, T.; Maturana, M. I.; Hadjinicolaou, A. E.; Cloherty, S. L.; Ibbotson, M. R.; Grayden, D. B.; Burkitt, A. N.; Meffin, H.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. ON and OFF retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are known to have non-monotonic responses to increasing amplitudes of high frequency (2 kHz) biphasic electrical stimulation. That is, an increase in stimulation amplitude causes an increase in the cell’s spike rate up to a peak value above which further increases in stimulation amplitude cause the cell to decrease its activity. The peak response for ON and OFF cells occurs at different stimulation amplitudes, which allows differential stimulation of these functional cell types. In this study, we investigate the mechanisms underlying the non-monotonic responses of ON and OFF brisk-transient RGCs and the mechanisms underlying their differential responses. Approach. Using in vitro patch-clamp recordings from rat RGCs, together with simulations of single and multiple compartment Hodgkin-Huxley models, we show that the non-monotonic response to increasing amplitudes of stimulation is due to depolarization block, a change in the membrane potential that prevents the cell from generating action potentials. Main results. We show that the onset for depolarization block depends on the amplitude and frequency of stimulation and reveal the biophysical mechanisms that lead to depolarization block during high frequency stimulation. Our results indicate that differences in transmembrane potassium conductance lead to shifts of the stimulus currents that generate peak spike rates, suggesting that the differential responses of ON and OFF cells may be due to differences in the expression of this current type. We also show that the length of the axon’s high sodium channel band (SOCB) affects non-monotonic responses and the stimulation amplitude that leads to the peak spike rate, suggesting that the length of the SOCB is shorter in ON cells. Significance. This may have important implications for stimulation strategies in visual prostheses.

  16. A King Bolete, Boletus edulis (Agaricomycetes), RNA Fraction Stimulates Proliferation and Cytotoxicity of Natural Killer Cells Against Myelogenous Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Nunes, Fernando Herminio Ferreira Milheiro; Sawa-Wejksza, Katarzyna; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate the crucial role of natural killer (NK) cells in the prevention of tumor growth and inhibition of their metastasis, which suggests the possibility of their use in cancer treatment. This therapeutic strategy required finding a selective NK cell stimulator that, upon administration, did not disturb organism homeostasis, unlike natural activators (interleukin-2 or interleukin-12). Because the majority of anticancer agents derived from Basidiomycetes are able to stimulate lymphocytes, we describe the influence of Boletus edulis RNA on a human NK cell line (NK92). Our studies showed that a B. edulis RNA fraction was not toxic against NK92 cells. Furthermore, the tested fraction significantly stimulated NK92 cell proliferation and their cytotoxicity against tumor cells. We demonstrate here, to our knowledge for the first time, that B. edulis RNA enhances NK cell activity and possesses immunomodulatory potential.

  17. Simultaneous bilateral stereotactic procedure for deep brain stimulation implants: a significant step for reducing operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Azevedo, Angelo; Angelos, Jairo Silva Dos; Martinez, Raquel Chacon Ruiz; Navarro, Jessie; Reis, Paul Rodrigo; Sepulveda, Miguel Ernesto San Martin; Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Ghilardi, Maria Gabriela Dos Santos; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Lopez, William Omar Contreras

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Currently, bilateral procedures involve 2 sequential implants in each of the hemispheres. The present report demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous bilateral procedures during the implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads. METHODS Fifty-seven patients with movement disorders underwent bilateral DBS implantation in the same study period. The authors compared the time required for the surgical implantation of deep brain electrodes in 2 randomly assigned groups. One group of 28 patients underwent traditional sequential electrode implantation, and the other 29 patients underwent simultaneous bilateral implantation. Clinical outcomes of the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who had undergone DBS implantation of the subthalamic nucleus using either of the 2 techniques were compared. RESULTS Overall, a reduction of 38.51% in total operating time for the simultaneous bilateral group (136.4 ± 20.93 minutes) as compared with that for the traditional consecutive approach (220.3 ± 27.58 minutes) was observed. Regarding clinical outcomes in the PD patients who underwent subthalamic nucleus DBS implantation, comparing the preoperative off-medication condition with the off-medication/on-stimulation condition 1 year after the surgery in both procedure groups, there was a mean 47.8% ± 9.5% improvement in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III) score in the simultaneous group, while the sequential group experienced 47.5% ± 15.8% improvement (p = 0.96). Moreover, a marked reduction in the levodopa-equivalent dose from preoperatively to postoperatively was similar in these 2 groups. The simultaneous bilateral procedure presented major advantages over the traditional sequential approach, with a shorter total operating time. CONCLUSIONS A simultaneous stereotactic approach significantly reduces the operation time in bilateral DBS procedures, resulting in decreased microrecording time, contributing to the optimization of functional

  18. Mechanical stimulation of bone cells using fluid flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huesa, C.; Bakker, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes several methods suitable for mechanically stimulating monolayers of bone cells by fluid shear stress (FSS) in vitro. Fluid flow is generated by pumping culture medium through two parallel plates, one of which contains a monolayer of cells. Methods for measuring nitric oxide

  19. Pomegranate inhibits neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis in IL-1β-stimulated SK-N-SH cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velagapudi, Ravikanth; Baco, Gina; Khela, Sunjeet; Okorji, Uchechukwu; Olajide, Olumayokun

    2016-06-01

    Pomegranate fruit, Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), and its constituents have been shown to inhibit inflammation. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of freeze-dried pomegranate (PWE) on PGE2 production in IL-1β-stimulated SK-N-SH cells. An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to measure prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production from supernatants of IL-1β-stimulated SK-N-SH cells. Expression of COX-2, phospho-IκB, and phospho-IKK proteins was evaluated, while NF-κB reporter gene assay was carried out in TNFα-stimulated HEK293 cells to determine the effect of PWE on NF-κB transactivation. Levels of BACE-1 and Aβ in SK-N-SH cells stimulated with IL-1β were measured with an in cell ELISA. PWE (25-200 μg/ml) dose dependently reduced COX-2-dependent PGE2 production in SK-N-SH cells stimulated with IL-1β. Phosphorylation of IκB and IKK was significantly (p pomegranate inhibits inflammation, as well as amyloidogenesis in IL-1β-stimulated SK-N-SH cells. We propose that pomegranate is a potential nutritional strategy in slowing the progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Deep Brain Stimulation Target Selection in an Advanced Parkinson's Disease Patient with Significant Tremor and Comorbid Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar S. Patel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Vignette: A 67-year-old female with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD, medically refractory tremor, and a history of significant depression presents for evaluation of deep brain stimulation (DBS candidacy.  Clinical Dilemma: Traditionally, stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN has been the preferred target for patients with significant PD tremor. However, STN stimulation is avoided in patients with a significant pre-surgical history of mood disorder.  Clinical Solution: Bilateral DBS of the globus pallidus interna led to significant short term improvement in PD motor symptoms, including significant tremor reduction.  Gap in Knowledge: There is insufficient evidence to support or refute clinicians' traditional preference for STN stimulation in treating refractory PD tremor. Similarly, the available evidence for risk of worsening depression and/or suicidality after STN DBS is mixed. Both questions require further clarification to guide patient and clinician decision-making.

  1. Significant plant growth stimulation by composted as opposed to untreated Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, Claudia; Messerschmidt, Nicole; Müller, Christoph; Steffens, Diedrich; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2013-04-01

    The application of production-fresh, untreated biochar does not always result in yield improvements, in particular in temperate or boreal soils. Therefore the use of biochar for soil C sequestration, although desirable from a global change mitigation point of view, may never be implemented without proven and economically feasible pathways for biochar effects in agriculture. To investigate earlier reports of the beneficial effects of composting biochar (e.g. Fischer & Glaser, 2012) we conducted a fully replicated (n=3, +/- biochar) large-scale composting study at the Delinat Institute in Arbaz, Switzerland. The materials were manures (bovine, horse and chicken), straw, stone meal and composting was performed with our without +20 vol.% of a woody biochar (German Charcoal GmbH). Interestingly, the rotting temperature was significantly higher in the biochar-compost while C and N were retained to a certain extent. To investigate the effect of composting ("ageing") on biochar effects, a completely randomized full-factorial pot study was carried out in the greenhouse using the pseudo-cereal Chenopodium quinoa. The three factors used in the study were (I) type of biochar addition ("aged", "fresh", or zero BC), (II) addition of compost and (III) low and high application rates of a full NPK-fertilizer (equivalent to 28 and 140 kg N ha-1, NPK + micronutrients) in several doses. The growth medium was a poor loamy sand. Biochars and compost were all added at a rate of 2% (w/w) to the soil. From the start there was a considerable difference between the growth of Quinoa with the fresh compared to the aged biochar. The fresh biochar produced the well-known reduction in plant growth compared to the unamended control. This reduction was alleviated to a certain extent by the addition of either compost and/or increased fertilization. In contrast the co-composted biochar always resulted in a highly significant stimulation of the Quinoa yield (roots, shoots, inflorescences). This

  2. Electroactive biocompatible materials for nerve cell stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mei; Liang, Youlong; Gui, Qingyuan; Liu, Yong; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, great efforts have been developed for neurobiologists and neurologists to restore nervous system functions. Recently much attention has been paid to electrical stimulation (ES) of the nervous system as a potential way to repair it. Various conductive biocompatible materials with good electrical conductivity, biocompatibility, and long-term ES or electrical stability have been developed as the substrates for ES. In this review, we summarized different types of materials developed in the purpose for ES of nervous system, including conducting polymers, carbon nanomaterials and composites from conducting polymer/carbon nanomaterials. The present review will give our perspective on the future research directions for further investigation on development of ES particularly on the nerve system. (topical review)

  3. Stimulation and support of haemopoietic stem cell proliferation by irradiated stroma cell colonies in bone marrow cell culture in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, K.J.; Izumi, Hiroko; Seto, Akira

    1981-01-01

    A culture system was established in which haemopoietic stem cells can undergo a recovery proliferation after a depletion of the stem cells, completely in vitro. To elucidate the source of the stimulatory factors, normal bone marrow cells were overlayed on top of the irradiated adherent 'stromal' cell colonies in the bone marrow cell culture. This stimulated the proliferation of haemopoietic stem cells in the cultured cells in suspension. The present results indicate that the stromal cells produce factors which stimulate stem cell proliferation. Whether the stimulation is evoked by direct cell-cell interactions or by humoral factors is as yet to be studied. (author)

  4. Stimulation of allogeneic lymphocytes by skin epidermal cells in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, S.; Sakai, A.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of skin epidermal cells to induce allogeneic lymphocytes into proliferation was examined in mixed skin cell-lymphocyte culture reaction (MSLR). The stimulatng capacity of skin cells was reduced significantly by trypsin digestion, although the damage was repaired by incubation at 37 C for 3 hr. The optimal concentration of mitomycin C for treatment of stimulating cells in the MSLR differed from that in mixed lymphocyte culture reaction (MLR). Irradiation rendered them three to four times more stimulatory than did mitomycin C. Removal of adherent cells from responding cells by passage through a nylon-wool column gave a substantial elevation of the MSLR. The lymphocytes cocultured with skin cells in the primary MSLR incorporated 3 H-thymidine, with the peak at the 6th day of culture. If the lymphocytes primed in the MSLR were restimulated with skin cells from the same stimulating strain, the primed lymphocytes responded promptly and in great magnitude

  5. Laser stimulation can activate autophagy in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue; Lan, Bei; Cao, Youjia; He, Hao

    2014-01-01

    For decades, lasers have been a daily tool in most biological research for fluorescent excitation by confocal or multiphoton microscopy. More than 20 years ago, cell photodamage caused by intense laser stimulation was noticed by generating reactive oxygen species, which was then thought as the main damage effect by photons. In this study, we show that laser stimulation can induce autophagy, an important cell lysosomal pathway responding to immune stimulation and starvation, without any biochemical treatment. Two different types of laser stimulations are found to be capable of activating autophagy: continuous scanning by continuous-wave visible lasers and a short-time flash of femtosecond laser irradiation. The autophagy generation is independent from wavelength, power, and scanning duration of the visible lasers. In contrast, the power of femtosecond laser is very critical to autophagy because the multiphoton excited Ca 2+ dominates autophagy signaling. In general, we show here the different mechanisms of autophagy generation by such laser stimulation, which correspond to confocal microscopy and cell surgery, respectively. Those results can help further understanding of photodamage and autophagy signaling.

  6. Laser stimulation can activate autophagy in HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue [Ultrafast Laser Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology (Ministry of Education), College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Lan, Bei; Cao, Youjia [Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); He, Hao, E-mail: haohe@tju.edu.cn [Ultrafast Laser Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology (Ministry of Education), College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Med-X Research Institute, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-10-27

    For decades, lasers have been a daily tool in most biological research for fluorescent excitation by confocal or multiphoton microscopy. More than 20 years ago, cell photodamage caused by intense laser stimulation was noticed by generating reactive oxygen species, which was then thought as the main damage effect by photons. In this study, we show that laser stimulation can induce autophagy, an important cell lysosomal pathway responding to immune stimulation and starvation, without any biochemical treatment. Two different types of laser stimulations are found to be capable of activating autophagy: continuous scanning by continuous-wave visible lasers and a short-time flash of femtosecond laser irradiation. The autophagy generation is independent from wavelength, power, and scanning duration of the visible lasers. In contrast, the power of femtosecond laser is very critical to autophagy because the multiphoton excited Ca{sup 2+} dominates autophagy signaling. In general, we show here the different mechanisms of autophagy generation by such laser stimulation, which correspond to confocal microscopy and cell surgery, respectively. Those results can help further understanding of photodamage and autophagy signaling.

  7. Promotion of cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis emergence caused by olfactory receptor stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenhaël Sanz

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs are expressed in the olfactory epithelium, where they detect odorants, but also in other tissues with additional functions. Some ORs are even overexpressed in tumor cells. In this study, we identified ORs expressed in enterochromaffin tumor cells by RT-PCR, showing that single cells can co-express several ORs. Some of the receptors identified were already reported in other tumors, but they are orphan (without known ligand, as it is the case for most of the hundreds of human ORs. Thus, genes coding for human ORs with known ligands were transfected into these cells, expressing functional heterologous ORs. The in vitro stimulation of these cells by the corresponding OR odorant agonists promoted cell invasion of collagen gels. Using LNCaP prostate cancer cells, the stimulation of the PSGR (Prostate Specific G protein-coupled Receptor, an endogenously overexpressed OR, by β-ionone, its odorant agonist, resulted in the same phenotypic change. We also showed the involvement of a PI3 kinase γ dependent signaling pathway in this promotion of tumor cell invasiveness triggered by OR stimulation. Finally, after subcutaneous inoculation of LNCaP cells into NSG immunodeficient mice, the in vivo stimulation of these cells by the PSGR agonist β-ionone significantly enhanced metastasis emergence and spreading.

  8. FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation in human granulosa cell tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Qiu, Xin; Fang, Lanlan; Leung, Peter C.K., E-mail: peter.leung@ubc.ca

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Activin A stimulates cell proliferation in KGN human granulosa cell tumor-derived cell line. •Cyclin D2 mediates activin A-induced KGN cell proliferation. •FOXL2 induces follistatin expression in KGN cells. •FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated KGN cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Human granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare, and their etiology remains largely unknown. Recently, the FOXL2 402C > G (C134W) mutation was found to be specifically expressed in human adult-type GCTs; however, its function in the development of human GCTs is not fully understood. Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, which has been shown to stimulate normal granulosa cell proliferation; however, little is known regarding the function of activins in human GCTs. In this study, we examined the effect of activin A on cell proliferation in the human GCT-derived cell line KGN. We show that activin A treatment stimulates KGN cell proliferation. Treatment with the activin type I receptor inhibitor SB431542 blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. In addition, our results show that cyclin D2 is induced by treatment with activin A and is involved in activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. Moreover, the activation of Smad signaling is required for activin A-induced cyclin D2 expression. Finally, we show that the overexpression of the wild-type FOXL2 but not the C134W mutant FOXL2 induced follistatin production. Treatment with exogenous follistatin blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation, and the overexpression of wild-type FOXL2 attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. These results suggest that FOXL2 may act as a tumor suppressor in human adult-type GCTs by inducing follistatin expression, which subsequently inhibits activin-stimulated cell proliferation.

  9. Low-frequency electrical stimulation induces the proliferation and differentiation of peripheral blood stem cells into Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xudong; Fu, Jianming; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Chengwen; Wang, Jing; Pan, Wenping

    2015-02-01

    Functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury remains a tough problem at present. Specifically, a type of glial cell exists in peripheral nerves that promotes axonal growth and myelin formation and secretes various active substances, such as neurotrophic factors, extracellular matrix and adherence factors. These substances have important significance for the survival, growth and regeneration of nerve fibers. Numerous recent studies have shown that electrical stimulation can increase the number of myelinated nerve fibers. However, whether electrical stimulation acts on neurons or Schwann cells has not been verified in vivo. This study investigates low-frequency electrical stimulation-induced proliferation and differentiation of peripheral blood stem cells into Schwann cells and explores possible mechanisms. Peripheral blood stem cells from Sprague-Dawley rats were primarily cultured. Cells in passage 3 were divided into 4 groups: a low-frequency electrical stimulation group (20 Hz, 100 μs, 3 V), a low-frequency electrical stimulation+PD98059 (blocking the extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] signaling pathway) group, a PD98059 group and a control group (no treatment). After induction, the cells were characterized. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide assay was employed to measure the absorbance values at 570 nm in the 4 groups. A Western blot assay was used to detect the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) in each group. No significant difference in cell viability was detected before induction. Peripheral blood stem cells from the 4 groups differentiated into Schwann cells. Phosphorylated ERK 1/2, cyclin D1 and CDK4 protein levels were highest in the low-frequency electrical stimulation group and lowest in the ERK blockage group. Phosphorylated ERK 1/2, cyclin D1 and CDK4 protein levels in the low-frequency electrical stimulation+ERK blockage group were lower than those in the low-frequency electrical

  10. ATF3 inhibits PPARγ-stimulated transactivation in adipocyte cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Min-Kyung; Jung, Myeong Ho, E-mail: jung0603@pusan.ac.kr

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • ATF3 inhibits PPARγ-stimulated transcriptional activation. • ATF3 interacts with PPARγ. • ATF3 suppresses p300-mediated transcriptional coactivation. • ATF3 decreases the binding of PPARγ and recruitment of p300 to PPRE. - Abstract: Previously, we reported that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) downregulates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPARγ) gene expression and inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Here, we investigated another role of ATF3 on the regulation of PPARγ activity. ATF3 inhibited PPARγ-stimulated transactivation of PPARγ responsive element (PPRE)-containing reporter or GAL4/PPARγ chimeric reporter. Thus, ATF3 effectively repressed rosiglitazone-stimulated expression of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2), PPARγ target gene, in 3T3-L1 cells. Coimmunoprecipitation and GST pulldown assay demonstrated that ATF3 interacted with PPARγ. Accordingly, ATF3 prevented PPARγ from binding to PPRE on the aP2 promoter. Furthermore, ATF3 suppressed p300-mediated transcriptional coactivation of PPRE-containing reporter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that overexpression of ATF3 blocked both binding of PPARγ and recruitment of p300 to PPRE on aP2 promoter induced by rosiglitazone treatment in 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that ATF3 interacts with PPARγ and represses PPARγ-mediated transactivation through suppression of p300-stimulated coactivation in 3T3-L1 cells, which may play a role in inhibition of adipocyte differentiation.

  11. Cell kinetic and radiosensitivity of PHA stimulated goat lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debuyst, B.; Rosenthal, M.; Leonard, A.

    1982-01-01

    The harlequin-staining method has been used to study the cell kinetic of goat peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin and to assess their radiosensitivity. At 48 h, the standardized culture time employed for human lymphocytes, 71% of the goat lymphocytes are in first mitosis, 23% are in second mitosis and 5% in third. Irradiation with 200 rads X-rays induces an average of 24,5 dicentric chromosomes per hundred cells in first mitosis [fr

  12. Effect of gabazine on sensory stimulation train evoked response in mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Yan-Hua; Jin, Wen-Zhe; Sun, Lei; Chu, Chun-Ping; Qiu, De-Lai

    2015-02-01

    Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) respond to sensory stimulation via climbing fiber and mossy fiber-granule cell pathways, and generate motor-related outputs according to internal rules of integration and computation. However, the dynamic properties of sensory information processed by PC in mouse cerebellar cortex are currently unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor A (GABA(A)) antagonist, gabazine, on the stimulation train on the simple spike firing of PCs by electrophysiological recordings method. Our data showed that the output of cerebellar PCs could be significantly affected by all pulses of the low-frequency (0.25 -2 Hz) sensory stimulation train, but only by the 1st and 2nd pulses of the high-frequency (≥ 4 Hz) sensory stimulation train. In the presence of gabazine (20 μM), each pulse of 1 Hz facial stimulation evoked simple spike firing in the PCs, but only the 1st and 2nd pulses of 4 Hz stimulation induced an increase in simple spike firing of the PCs. These results indicated that GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition did not significantly affect the frequency properties of sensory stimulation evoked responses in the mouse cerebellar PCs.

  13. Disappearance of statin following serum-stimulated cell cycle entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.; Lin, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Statin, a protein of 57,000 D, is present in the nuclei of quiescent of senescent fibroblasts, but is absent in their young replicating counterparts. Immunohistochemical survey of a variety of tissues demonstrates that the presence of statin is a marker for cells that are no longer involved in proliferation, i.e. those cells that are terminally differentiated. Statin expression was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy in serum-starved cultures whose replication had been reinitiated by raising the serum concentration from 0.5 to 10%. Prior to serum addition, more than 85% of the cells stained positively for statin. After stimulation with serum, the expression of statin disappeared rapidly within the first 12-14 h. On the other hand, and increase in the level of DNA synthesis, signifying entry into S phase, was observed initially at 18 h after serum stimulation, and reached maximal levels 6h later. Immunoprecipitation of statin derived from cells harvested at different intervals after serum stimulation revealed that the level of statin synthesis was reduced by 4 h and was hardly detectable at 8 h. These results demonstrate that (1) the synthesis of statin occurs primarily when cells are in a quiescent state, and declines rapidly when cells are induced to proliferate; (2) this decline precedes the transition from G1 to S phase

  14. Electrical stimulation of schwann cells promotes sustained increases in neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppes, Abigail N; Nordberg, Andrea L; Paolillo, Gina M; Goodsell, Nicole M; Darwish, Haley A; Zhang, Linxia; Thompson, Deanna M

    2014-02-01

    Endogenous electric fields are instructive during embryogenesis by acting to direct cell migration, and postnatally, they can promote axonal growth after injury (McCaig 1991, Al-Majed 2000). However, the mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. Application of an appropriate electrical stimulus may increase the rate and success of nerve repair by directly promoting axonal growth. Previously, DC electrical stimulation at 50 mV/mm (1 mA, 8 h duration) was shown to promote neurite outgrowth and a more pronounced effect was observed if both peripheral glia (Schwann cells) and neurons were co-stimulated. If electrical stimulation is delivered to an injury site, both the neurons and all resident non-neuronal cells [e.g., Schwann cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts] will be treated and this biophysical stimuli can influence axonal growth directly or indirectly via changes to the resident, non-neuronal cells. In this work, non-neuronal cells were electrically stimulated, and changes in morphology and neuro-supportive cells were evaluated. Schwann cell response (morphology and orientation) was examined after an 8 h stimulation over a range of DC fields (0-200 mV/mm, DC 1 mA), and changes in orientation were observed. Electrically prestimulating Schwann cells (50 mV/mm) promoted 30% more neurite outgrowth relative to co-stimulating both Schwann cells with neurons, suggesting that electrical stimulation modifies Schwann cell phenotype. Conditioned medium from the electrically prestimulated Schwann cells promoted a 20% increase in total neurite outgrowth and was sustained for 72 h poststimulation. An 11-fold increase in nerve growth factor but not brain-derived neurotrophic factor or glial-derived growth factor was found in the electrically prestimulated Schwann cell-conditioned medium. No significant changes in fibroblast or endothelial morphology and neuro-supportive behavior were observed poststimulation. Electrical stimulation is widely used in

  15. Prognostic significance of metallothionein in B-cell lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian Bjørn; Borup, Rehannah; Borregaard, Niels

    2006-01-01

    -cell (ABC) and 3 of 9 type-3 lesions. In contrast, MT mRNA was low to undetectable in 16 germinal center B-cell (GCB)-type DLBCLs. Only 1 of 15 patients with up-regulated MT mRNA achieved a sustained remission, suggesting that up-regulated MT mRNA constitutes a significant risk factor for treatment failure...

  16. Significance of apoptotic cell death after γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H.G.; Kim, I.H.; Ha, S.W.; Park, C.I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The objectives of this study are to investigate the significance of apoptotic death compared to total cell death after γ-ray irradiation in human Hand N cancer cell lines and to find out correlation between apoptosis and radiation sensitivity. Materials and Method: Head and neck cancer cell lines (PCI-1, PCI-13, and SNU-1066), leukemia cell line (CCRF-CEM), and fibroblast cell line (LM217) as a normal control were used for this study. Cells were irradiated using Cs-137 animal experiment irradiator. Total cell death was measured by clonogenic assay. Annexin-V staining was used to detect the fraction of apoptotic death. The resulting data was analyzed with two parameters, apoptotic index (AI) and apoptotic fraction(AF). AI is ratio of apoptotic cells to total cells, and AF is ration of apoptotic cell death to mutant frequencytion ex(Number of apoptotic cells) / (Number of total cells counted) AF = {(AI) / (1-survival fraction)} x 100 (%) Results. Surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) were 0.741, 0.544, 0.313, 0.302, and 0.100 for PCI-1, PCI-13, SNU-1066, CCRF-CEM, and LM217 cell lines, respectively. Apoptosis was detected in all cell lines. Apoptotic index reached peak value at 72 hours after irradiation in head and neck cancer cell lines, and that was at 24 hours in CCRF-CEM and LM217. Total cell death increased exponentially with increasing radiation dose from 0 Gy to 8 Gy, but the change was minimal in apoptotic index (Fig. 1.). Apoptotic fractions at 2 Gy were 46%, 48%, 46%, 24%, and 19% and at 6 Gy were 20%, 33%, 35%, 17%, and 20% for PCI-1, PCI-13, SNU-1066, CCRF-CEM, and LM217, respectively. The radioresistant cell lines showed more higher apoptotic fraction at 2 Gy (Table 1.), but there was not such correlation at 6 Gy. Conclusion: All cell lines used in this study showed apoptosis after irradiation, but time course of apoptosis was different from that of leukemia cell line and normal fibroblast cell line. Reproductive cell death was more important

  17. Local probing and stimulation of neuronal cells by optical manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojoc, Dan

    2014-09-01

    During development and in the adult brain, neurons continuously explore the environment searching for guidance cues, leading to the appropriate connections. Elucidating these mechanisms represents a gold goal in neurobiology. Here, I discuss our recent achievements developing new approaches to locally probe the growth cones and stimulate neuronal cell compartments with high spatial and temporal resolution. Optical tweezers force spectroscopy applied in conjunction with metabolic inhibitors reveals new properties of the cytoskeleton dynamics. On the other hand, using optically manipulated microvectors as functionalized beads or filled liposomes, we demonstrate focal stimulation of neurons by small number of signaling molecules.

  18. Non-cell-autonomous stimulation of stem cell proliferation following ablation of Tcf3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Fei; Merrill, Bradley J.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of cell intrinsic factors and extracellular signals determine whether mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) divide, self-renew, and differentiate. Here, we report a new interaction between cell intrinsic aspects of the canonical Wnt/Tcf/β-catenin signaling pathway and extracellular Lif/Jak/Stat3 stimulation that combines to promote self-renewal and proliferation of ESC. Mutant ESC lacking the Tcf3 transcriptional repressor continue to self-renew in the absence of exogenous Lif and through pharmacological inhibition of Lif/Jak/Stat3 signaling; however, proliferation rates of TCF3-/- ESC were significantly decreased by inhibiting Jak/Stat3 activity. Cell mixing experiments showed that stimulation of Stat3 phosphorylation in TCF3-/- ESC was mediated through secretion of paracrine acting factors, but did not involve elevated Lif or LifR transcription. The new interaction between Wnt and Lif/Jak/Stat3 signaling pathways has potential for new insights into the growth of tumors caused by aberrant activity of Wnt/Tcf/β-catenin signaling.

  19. Stimulation of GPR30 increases release of EMMPRIN-containing microvesicles in human uterine epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Lindsey A; Light, Mallory M; Mehrotra, Pavni; Nowak, Romana A

    2012-12-01

    Uterine remodeling is highly dependent on the glycosylated transmembrane protein extracellular matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inducer (EMMPRIN). Previous studies indicate estradiol can increase EMMPRIN expression in uterine cells and promote subsequent induction of MMP production. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) stimulation on EMMPRIN microvesicle release in the human uterine epithelial cell line hTERT-EEC (EECs). We examined EMMPRIN release by human EECs in response to GPR30 stimulation by microvesicle isolation, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. We employed a pharmacological approach using the GPR30-selective agonist G1 and the antagonist G15 to determine the receptor specificity of this response. We demonstrated GPR30 expression in EECs and release of EMMPRIN in microvesicles in response to stimulation of GPR30. G1, estradiol, and cholera toxin stimulated EMMPRIN release in microvesicles as detected by Western blot and immunocytochemistry, indicating that stimulation of GPR30 can induce EMMPRIN microvesicle release. These data indicate that EMMPRIN release in microvesicles can be mediated by stimulation of GPR30 in human EECs, suggesting that inappropriate stimulation or expression of this receptor may be significant in uterine pathology.

  20. Stimulation of the proliferation of hemopoietic stem cells in irradiated bone marrow cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, K.J.; Izumi, H.; Seto, A.

    1981-01-01

    Long-term hemopoiesis was established in bone marrow cell culture in vitro. This culture was shown to support the recovery proliferation of hemopoietic stem cells completely in vitro after irradiation. Hemopoietic stem cells were stimulated into proliferation in culture when normal bone marrow cells were overlayed on top of the irradiated adherent cell colonies. These results indicate that proliferation and differentiation of hemopoietic stem cells in vitro are also supported by stromahemopoietic cell interactions

  1. Biphasic electrical targeting plays a significant role in schwann cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Sook; Song, Yun Mi; Cho, Tae Hyung; Pan, Hui; Lee, Tae Hyung; Kim, Sung June; Hwang, Soon Jung

    2011-05-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) is a promising technique for axonal regeneration of peripheral nerve injuries. However, long-term, continuous ES in the form of biphasic electric current (BEC) to stimulate axonal regeneration has rarely been attempted and the effects of BEC on Schwann cells are unknown. We hypothesized that long-term, continuous ES would trigger the activation of Schwann cells, and we therefore investigated the effect of BEC on the functional differentiation of primary human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) into Schwann cells, as well as the activity of primary Schwann cells. Differentiation of hMSCs into Schwann cells was determined by coculture with rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cell line). We also investigated the in vivo effects of long-term ES (4 weeks) on axonal outgrowth of a severed sciatic nerve with a 7-mm gap after retraction of the nerve ends in rats by implanting an electronic device to serve as a neural conduit. PC12 cells cocultured with hMSCs electrically stimulated during culture in Schwann cell differentiation medium (Group I) had longer neurites and a greater percentage of PC12 cells were neurite-sprouting than when cocultured with hMSCs cultured in growth medium (control group) or unstimulated hMSCs in the same culture conditions as used for Group I (Group II). Group I cells showed significant upregulation of Schwann cell-related neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor compared to Group II cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. Primary Schwann cells responded to continuous BEC with increased proliferation and the induction of nerve growth factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor, similar to Group I cells, and in addition, induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was observed. Immunohistochemical investigation of sciatic nerve regenerates revealed that BEC increased axonal outgrowth significantly. These results demonstrate that BEC enhanced the functional activity of

  2. Influence of in vitro irradiation upon LIF production by ConA stimulated mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandru, G.; Veraguth, P.

    1981-01-01

    Leukocyte migration inhibitory factor (LIF) activity of culture supernatants of in vitro irradiated Concanavalin A (ConA) stimulated lymphocytes was tested by measuring granulocyte migration from clotted plasma droplets placed in flat bottom microplates. The specificity of inhibition was assured by pretreating the assay supernatants with anti-LIF antibodies which abrogated granulocyte migration inhibition but did not impair guinea pig Peritoneal Exudate Cells (PEC) migration inhibition. In vitro irradiation (150-1200 rads) of MNC cultures either before or after ConA stimulation did not impair lymphokine production and sometimes significantly improved the supernatants' LIF activity as compared with that of unirradiated cultures. The existence of radiosensitive suppressor cells regulating LIF production by ConA stimulated mononuclear cells is suggested

  3. Stimulation of proteoglycans by IGF I and II in microvessel and large vessel endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, R.S.; Dake, B.L.; Stueck, S.

    1987-01-01

    Endothelial cells were cultured from bovine capillaries and pulmonary arteries, and the effect of insulinlike growth factor (IGF) I and II (multiplication-stimulating activity) and insulin on the synthesis of proteoglycans was determined. IGF I and II stimulated 35 SO 4 incorporation into proteoglycans in a dose-dependent manner in both microvessel and pulmonary artery endothelial cells with maximum threefold increases. In pulmonary artery cells, the IGFs caused a general stimulation of all classes of glycosaminoglycan-containing proteoglycans. In microvessel endothelial cells, the IGFs appeared to preferentially increase heparan sulfate-containing proteoglycans. Insulin, at concentrations up to 10 -6 M, had no effect on the synthesis of proteoglycans in either microvessel or pulmonary arterial endothelial cells. Thus, the IGFs stimulate the synthesis of proteoglycans in both microvessel and large vessel endothelial cells, a property that is not mimicked by insulin. Because vascular endothelial cells are bathed by IGFs in vivo, such IGF-mediated functions are likely to be significant in both the normal physiology of vascular endothelium and in disease states such as diabetes mellitus

  4. Lyn kinase is activated following thrombopoietin stimulation of the megakaryocytic cell line B1647

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Valeria; Scappini, Barbara; Gozzini, Antonella

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: B1647 is a cell line derived from bone marrow cells of a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (M2) with a complete erythro-megakaryocytic phenotype and bears both k and p isoforms of c-mpl. Interestingly, spontaneous B1647 cell proliferation is significantly potentiated...... by thrombopoietin (TPO). DESIGN AND METHODS: We aimed to evaluate the proliferative signal transduction events following the activation of c-mpl and we stimulated B1647 cells with TPO 40 ng/mL for 3, 7, 15 and 30 minutes; cells were then lysed and whole lysates were immunoprecipitated with anti...

  5. In vitro activation of retinal cells: estimating location of stimulated cell by using a mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Ofer R.; Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Jensen, Ralph J.

    2005-03-01

    Activation of neurons at different depths within the retina and at various eccentricities from the stimulating electrode will presumably influence the visual percepts created by a retinal prosthesis. With an electrical prosthesis, neurons will be activated in relation to the stimulating charge that impacts their cell membranes. The common model used to predict charge density is Coulomb's law, also known as the square law. We propose a modified model that can be used to predict neuronal depth that takes into account: (1) finite dimensions related to the position and size of the stimulating and return electrodes and (2) two-dimensional displacements of neurons with respect to the electrodes, two factors that are not considered in the square law model. We tested our model by using in vitro physiological threshold data that we had obtained previously for eight OFF-center brisk-transient rabbit retinal ganglion cells. For our most spatially dense threshold data (25 µm increments up to 100 µm from the cell body), our model estimated the depth of one RGC to be 76 ± 76 µm versus 87 ± 62 µm (median: SD) for the square law model, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant. For the seven other RGCs for which we had obtained threshold data up to 800 µm from the cell body, the estimate of the RGC depth (using data obtained along the X axis) was 96 ± 74 versus 20 ± 20 µm for the square law and our modified model, respectively. Although this difference was not statistically significant (Student t-test: p = 0.12), our model provided median values much closer to the estimated depth of these RGCs (Gt25 µm). This more realistic estimate of cell depth predicted by our model is not unexpected in this latter data set because of the more spatially distributed threshold data points that were evaluated. Our model has theoretical advantages over the traditional square law model under certain conditions, especially when considering neurons that are

  6. Expression and significance of Axin2 in pancreatic cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Tao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the expression of Axin2 in pancreatic cancer cells, and to observe the influence of Axin2 on the proliferation, invasion, and migration of human pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1. MethodsQuantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the expression of Axin2 in pancreatic cancer cell lines with different invasive abilities (PANC-1, Mia PaCa-2, and BxPC-3 and immortalized normal pancreatic cells (H6C7. PANC-1 cells with low expression were transfected with over-expressed Axin2 plasmid by transient transfection. MTT assay, Transwell assay, and scratch assay were used to determine the proliferation, invasion, and migration of cells transfected with over-expressed Axin2. One-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups, and SNK-q test was used for comparison between any two groups. ResultsThe relative expression levels of Axin2 in PANC-1, BxPC-3, Mia PaCa-2, and H6C7 cells were 0.13±0.01, 0.42±0.05, 0.24±0.011, and 1.00±0.00, respectively, and PANC-1 cells had the lowest expression level of Axin2, with significant differences compared with the other cells (all P<0.05. When PANC-1 cells were transfected with over-expressed Axin2 plasmid, the cells in the over-expression group had a significant increase in the expression level of Axin2 compared with those in the blank group and the negative control group (both P<0.05. Compared with those in the non-transfection group and the blank group, PANC-1 cells in the over-expression group showed significant reductions in the proliferation, invasion, and migration abilities. ConclusionThe expression of Axin2 is down-regulated in pancreatic cancer cell lines and decreases with the increasing invasion ability, suggesting the role of tumor suppressor gene. High expression of Axin2 can reduce the proliferation, invasion, and migration abilities of PANC-1 cells.

  7. Control of cell behaviour through nanovibrational stimulation: nanokicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Shaun N.; Campsie, Paul; Childs, Peter G.; Madsen, Fiona; Donnelly, Hannah; Henriquez, Fiona L.; Mackay, William G.; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel; Tsimbouri, Monica P.; Williams, Craig; Dalby, Matthew J.; Reid, Stuart

    2018-05-01

    Mechanical signals are ubiquitous in our everyday life and the process of converting these mechanical signals into a biological signalling response is known as mechanotransduction. Our understanding of mechanotransduction, and its contribution to vital cellular responses, is a rapidly expanding field of research involving complex processes that are still not clearly understood. The use of mechanical vibration as a stimulus of mechanotransduction, including variation of frequency and amplitude, allows an alternative method to control specific cell behaviour without chemical stimulation (e.g. growth factors). Chemical-independent control of cell behaviour could be highly advantageous for fields including drug discovery and clinical tissue engineering. In this review, a novel technique is described based on nanoscale sinusoidal vibration. Using finite-element analysis in conjunction with laser interferometry, techniques that are used within the field of gravitational wave detection, optimization of apparatus design and calibration of vibration application have been performed. We further discuss the application of nanovibrational stimulation, or `nanokicking', to eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells including the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteoblast cell lineage. Mechanotransductive mechanisms are discussed including mediation through the Rho-A kinase signalling pathway. Optimization of this technique was first performed in two-dimensional culture using a simple vibration platform with an optimal frequency and amplitude of 1 kHz and 22 nm. A novel bioreactor was developed to scale up cell production, with recent research demonstrating that mesenchymal stem cell differentiation can be efficiently triggered in soft gel constructs. This important step provides first evidence that clinically relevant (three-dimensional) volumes of osteoblasts can be produced for the purpose of bone grafting, without complex scaffolds and/or chemical induction

  8. Cisplatin-mediated radiosensitization of non-small cell lung cancer cells is stimulated by ATM inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulany, Mahmoud; Mihatsch, Julia; Holler, Marina; Chaachouay, Hassan; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Cisplatin activates ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), a protein with roles in DNA repair, cell cycle progression and autophagy. We investigated the radiosensitizing effect of cisplatin with respect to its effect on ATM pathway activation. Material and methods: Non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC) cell lines (A549, H460) and human fibroblast (ATM-deficient AT5, ATM-proficient 1BR3) cells were used. The effects of cisplatin combined with irradiation on ATM pathway activity, clonogenicity, DNA double-strand break (DNA-DSB) repair and cell cycle progression were analyzed with Western blotting, colony formation and γ-H2AX foci assays as well as FACS analysis, respectively. Results: Cisplatin radiosensitized H460 cells, but not A549 cells. Radiosensitization of H460 cells was not due to impaired DNA-DSB repair, increased apoptosis or cell cycle dysregulation. The lack of radiosensitization demonstrated for A549 cells was associated with cisplatin-mediated stimulation of ATM (S1981) and AMPKα (T172) phosphorylation and autophagy. However, in both cell lines inhibition of ATM and autophagy by KU-55933 and chloroquine diphosphate (CQ) respectively resulted in a significant radiosensitization. Combined treatment with the AMPK inhibitor compound-C led to radiosensitization of A549 but not of H460 cells. As compared to the treatment with KU-55933 alone, radiosensitivity of A549 cells was markedly stimulated by the combination of KU-55933 and cisplatin. However, the combination of CQ and cisplatin did not modulate the pattern of radiation sensitivity of A549 or H460 cells. In accordance with the results that cisplatin via stimulation of ATM activity can abrogate its radiosensitizing effect, ATM deficient cells were significantly sensitized to ionizing radiation by cisplatin. Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that ATM targeting can potentiate cisplatin-induced radiosensitization

  9. Homeostatic 'bystander' proliferation of human peripheral blood B cells in response to polyclonal T-cell stimulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz, Aleksandra; Lisowska, Katarzyna A; Pietruczuk, Krzysztof; Frąckowiak, Joanna; Fulop, Tamas; Witkowski, Jacek M

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms of maintenance of adequate numbers of B lymphocytes and of protective levels of immunoglobulins in the absence of antigenic (re)stimulation remain not fully understood. Meanwhile, our results presented here show that both peripheral blood naive and memory B cells can be activated strongly and non-specifically (in a mitogen-like fashion) in 5-day in vitro cultures of anti-CD3- or concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy people. This polyclonal, bystander activation of the B cells includes multiple divisions of most of them (assessed here by the flow cytometric technique of dividing cell tracking) and significant antibody [immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG] secretion. Observed proliferation of the CD19(+) B cells depends on contact with stimulated T helper (Th) cells (via CD40-CD40L interaction) and on the response of B cells to secreted interleukins IL-5, IL-10 and IL-4, and is correlated with the levels of these Th-derived molecules, while it does not involve the ligation of the BCR/CD19 complex. We suggest that the effect might reflect the situation occurring in vivo as the homeostatic proliferation of otherwise non-stimulated, peripheral B lymphocytes, providing an always ready pool for efficient antibody production to any new (or cognate) antigen challenge. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Mitogen-stimulated phospholipid synthesis in normal and immune-deficient human B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, M.M.; Yokoyama, W.M.; Ashman, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Eight patients with common variable panhypogammaglobulinemia were shown in the in vitro Ig biosynthesis assay to have defective B cell responses to pokeweed mitogen (PWM). Phospholipid synthesis was assessed in the B cell plus monocyte fraction (MB) and irradiated T cells (T*) of patients and paired normal controls. Cell populations were studied separately and in the four possible combinations (1:1), with and without PWM, to reveal the effect of cell interactions. At 16 to 20 hr the mean stimulation index (SI) +/- standard error for MB cells alone was 1.01 +/- 0.02 for eight patients and 0.99 +/- 0.02 for the paired normals; the T* cell SI was 1.25 +/- 0.04 for patients and 1.28 +/- 0.05 for normals. Combinations of normal MB cells with normal T* cells showed significantly higher SI when compared with the combinations of normal MB cells with patient T* cells (p less than 0.005). However, the combination of patient MB cells with patient T* cells and the combination of patient MB cells with normal T* cells were not significantly different in SI (0.05 less than p less than 0.1). Isolation of patient and normal B cells, T* cells, and monocytes after the choline pulse showed that patient B cells gave a higher SI with normal T* help than with patient T* help. Of greatest interest is the finding that patient B cells that were defective in PWM-stimulated Ig production nevertheless showed a phospholipid synthesis response to PWM in the normal range, suggesting that the maturation defect in these B cells occurs later than the phospholipid synthesis acceleration step, or on a different pathway

  11. Post irradiative stimulation of the lipids synthesis in the cells of Anacystis nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groshev, V.V.; Tiflova, O.A.

    1982-01-01

    Ultraviolet and X-ray irradiations stimulate postradiation synthesis of fatty acids of lipids in cells of Anacystis nidulans. Stimulation degree is proportional to the radiation dose and time of postradiation incubation of cells

  12. Implementation of stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for single cell analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arco, Annalisa; Ferrara, Maria Antonietta; Indolfi, Maurizio; Tufano, Vitaliano; Sirleto, Luigi

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we present successfully realization of a nonlinear microscope, not purchasable in commerce, based on stimulated Raman scattering. It is obtained by the integration of a femtosecond SRS spectroscopic setup with an inverted research microscope equipped with a scanning unit. Taking account of strength of vibrational contrast of SRS, it provides label-free imaging of single cell analysis. Validation tests on images of polystyrene beads are reported to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. In order to test the microscope on biological structures, we report and discuss the label-free images of lipid droplets inside fixed adipocyte cells.

  13. Nootropic agents stimulate neurogenesis. Brain Cells, Inc.: WO2007104035.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    The application is in the field of adult neurogenesis, neural stem cells and cellular therapy. It aims to characterize the activity of nootropic agents on adult neurogenesis in vitro. Nootropic agents are substances improving cognitive and mental abilities. AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate) and nootropic agents were assessed for the potential to differentiate human neural progenitor and stem cells into neuronal cells in vitro. They were also tested for their behavioural activity on the novel object recognition task. AMPA, piracetam, FK-960 and SGS-111 induce and stimulate neuronal differentiation of human-derived neural progenitor and stem cells. SGS-111 increases the number of visits to the novel object. The neurogenic activity of piracetam and SGS-111 is mediated through AMPA receptor. The neurogenic activity of SGS-111 may contribute and play a role in its nootropic activity. These results suggest that nootropic agents may elicit some of their effects through their neurogenic activity. The application claims the use of nootropic agents for their neurogenic activity and for the treatment of neurological diseases, disorders and injuries, by stimulating or increasing the generation of neuronal cells in the adult brain.

  14. Bubble Jet agent release cartridge for chemical single cell stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangler, N; Welsche, M; Blazek, M; Blessing, M; Vervliet-Scheebaum, M; Reski, R; Müller, C; Reinecke, H; Steigert, J; Roth, G; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2013-02-01

    We present a new method for the distinct specific chemical stimulation of single cells and small cell clusters within their natural environment. By single-drop release of chemical agents with droplets in size of typical cell diameters (d agent release cartridge with integrated fluidic structures and integrated agent reservoirs are shown, tested, and compared in this publication. The single channel setup features a fluidic structure fabricated by anisotropic etching of silicon. To allow for simultaneous release of different agents even though maintaining the same device size, the second type comprises a double channel fluidic structure, fabricated by photolithographic patterning of TMMF. Dispensed droplet volumes are V = 15 pl and V = 10 pl for the silicon and the TMMF based setups, respectively. Utilizing the agent release cartridges, the application in biological assays was demonstrated by hormone-stimulated premature bud formation in Physcomitrella patens and the individual staining of one single L 929 cell within a confluent grown cell culture.

  15. Langerhans cells from human oral epithelium are more effective at stimulating allogeneic T cells in vitro than Langerhans cells from skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasséus, B; Jontell, M; Bergenholtz, G; Dahlgren, U I

    2004-06-01

    This report is focused on the functional capacity of Langerhans cells (LC) in the epithelium of skin and oral mucosa, which both meet different antigenic challenges. The capacity of LC from human oral and skin epithelium to provide co-stimulatory signals to T cells in vitro was compared. LC in a crude suspension of oral epithelial cells had a significantly enhanced T cell co-stimulatory capacity compared to skin epithelial cells. This applied both to cultures with concanavalin A (con-A)-stimulated syngeneic T cells and to a mixed epithelial cell lymphocyte reaction involving allogeneic T cells. The co-stimulatory capacity of oral and skin epithelial cells was reduced by >70% if monoclonal antibodies against HLA-DR, -DP and -DQ were added to the cultures with allogeneic T cells, indicating the involvement of HLA class II expressing LC. Immunohistochemistry revealed that 6% of the epithelial cells were CD1a + LC in sections from both oral and skin epithelium. Interleukin (IL)-8 production was higher in cultures of oral epithelial cells and con-A stimulated T cells than in corresponding cultures with skin epithelial cells as accessory cells. The results suggest that LC in human oral epithelium are more efficient at stimulating T cells than those of skin.

  16. Stimulation of Natural Killer T Cells by Glycolipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Anderson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer T (NKT cells are a subset of T cells that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the CD1d protein. The initial discovery of immunostimulatory glycolipids from a marine sponge and the T cells that respond to the compounds has led to extensive research by chemists and immunologists to understand how glycolipids are recognized, possible responses by NKT cells, and the structural features of glycolipids necessary for stimulatory activity. The presence of this cell type in humans and most mammals suggests that it plays critical roles in antigen recognition and the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. Both endogenous and exogenous natural antigens for NKT cells have been identified, and it is likely that glycolipid antigens remain to be discovered. Multiple series of structurally varied glycolipids have been synthesized and tested for stimulatory activity. The structural features of glycolipids necessary for NKT cell stimulation are moderately well understood, and designed compounds have proven to be much more potent antigens than their natural counterparts. Nevertheless, control over NKT cell responses by designed glycolipids has not been optimized, and further research will be required to fully reveal the therapeutic potential of this cell type.

  17. GABA signaling stimulates ?-cell-mediated ?-like cell neogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Napolitano, Tiziana; Avolio, Fabio; Vieira, Andhira; Ben-Othman, Nouha; Courtney, Monica; Gjernes, Elisabet; Hadzic, Biljana; Druelle, No?mie; Navarro Sanz, Sergi; Silvano, Serena; Mansouri, Ahmed; Collombat, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diabetes is a chronic and progressing disease, the number of patients increasing exponentially, especially in industrialized countries. Regenerating lost insulin-producing cells would represent a promising therapeutic alternative for most diabetic patients. To this end, using the mouse as a model, we reported that GABA, a food supplement, could induce insulin-producing beta-like cell neogenesis offering an attractive and innovative approach for diabetes therapeutics.

  18. Slight changes in the mechanical stimulation affects osteoblast- and osteoclast-like cells in co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadow-Romacker, Anke; Duda, Georg N; Bormann, Nicole; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Wildemann, Britt

    2013-12-01

    Osteoblast- and osteoclast-like cells are responsible for coordinated bone maintenance, illustrated by a balanced formation and resorption. Both parameters appear to be influenced by mechanical constrains acting on each of these cell types individually. We hypothesized that the interactions between both cell types are also influenced by mechanical stimulation. Co-cultures of osteoblast- and osteoclast-like cells were stimulated with 1,100 µstrain, 0.1 or 0.3 Hz for 1-5 min/day over 5 days. Two different setups depending on the differentiation of the osteoclast-like cells were used: i) differentiation assay for the fusion of pre-osteoclasts to osteoclasts, ii) resorption assay to determine the activity level of osteoclast-like cells. In the differentiation assay (co-culture of osteoblasts with unfused osteoclast precursor cells) the mechanical stimulation resulted in a significant decrease of collagen-1 and osteocalcin produced by osteoblast-like cells. Significantly more TRAP-iso5b was measured after stimulation for 3 min with 0.1 Hz, indicating enhanced osteoclastogenesis. In the resorption assay (co-culture of osteoblasts with fused osteoclasts) the stimulation for 3 min with 0.3 Hz significantly increased the resorption activity of osteoclasts measured by the pit formation and the collagen resorption. The same mechanical stimulation resulted in an increased collagen-1 production by the osteoblast-like cells. The ratio of RANKL/OPG was not different between the groups. These findings demonstrate that already small changes in duration or frequency of mechanical stimulation had significant consequences for the behavior of osteoblast- and osteoclast-like cells in co-culture, which partially depend on the differentiation status of the osteoclast-like cells.

  19. iTRAQ quantitative proteomics-based identification of cell adhesion as a dominant phenotypic modulation in thrombin-stimulated human aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huang-Joe; Chen, Sung-Fang; Lo, Wan-Yu

    2015-05-01

    The phenotypic changes in thrombin-stimulated endothelial cells include alterations in permeability, cell shape, vasomotor tone, leukocyte trafficking, migration, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Previous studies regarding the pleotropic effects of thrombin on the endothelium used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)-cells derived from fetal tissue that does not exist in adults. Only a few groups have used screening approaches such as microarrays to profile the global effects of thrombin on endothelial cells. Moreover, the proteomic changes of thrombin-stimulated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) have not been elucidated. HAECs were stimulated with 2 units/mL thrombin for 5h and their proteome was investigated using isobaric tags for the relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and the MetaCore(TM) software. A total of 627 (experiment A) and 622 proteins (experiment B) were quantified in the duplicated iTRAQ analyses. MetaCore(TM) pathway analysis identified cell adhesion as a dominant phenotype in thrombin-stimulated HAECs. Replicated iTRAQ data revealed that "Cell adhesion_Chemokines and adhesion," "Cell adhesion_Histamine H1 receptor signaling in the interruption of cell barrier integrity," and "Cell adhesion_Integrin-mediated cell adhesion and migration" were among the top 10 statistically significant pathways. The cell adhesion phenotype was verified by increased THP-1 adhesion to thrombin-stimulated HAECs. In addition, the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and SELE was significantly upregulated in thrombin-stimulated HAECs. Several regulatory pathways are altered in thrombin-stimulated HAECs, with cell adhesion being the dominant altered phenotype. Our findings show the feasibility of the iTRAQ technique for evaluating cellular responses to acute stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Near infrared laser stimulation of human neural stem cells into neurons on graphene nanomesh semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Omid; Ghaderi, Elham; Shirazian, Soheil A

    2015-02-01

    Reduced graphene oxide nanomeshes (rGONMs), as p-type semiconductors with band-gap energy of ∼ 1 eV, were developed and applied in near infrared (NIR) laser stimulation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) into neurons. The biocompatibility of the rGONMs in growth of hNSCs was found similar to that of the graphene oxide (GO) sheets. Proliferation of the hNSCs on the GONMs was assigned to the excess oxygen functional groups formed on edge defects of the GONMs, resulting in superhydrophilicity of the surface. Under NIR laser stimulation, the graphene layers (especially the rGONMs) exhibited significant cell differentiations, including more elongations of the cells and higher differentiation of neurons than glia. The higher hNSC differentiation on the rGONM than the reduced GO (rGO) was assigned to the stimulation effects of the low-energy photoexcited electrons injected from the rGONM semiconductors into the cells, while the high-energy photoelectrons of the rGO (as a zero band-gap semiconductor) could suppress the cell proliferation and/or even cause cell damages. Using conventional heating of the culture media up to ∼ 43 °C (the temperature typically reached under the laser irradiation), no significant differentiation was observed in dark. This further confirmed the role of photoelectrons in the hNSC differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of deuterium oxide and galvanic vestibular stimulation on visual cortical cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinis, S.; Landolt, J.P.; Weiss, D.S.; Money, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    The spontaneous and evoked unit activities of complex visual cortical cells were recorded from Brodmann's area 18 in immobilized, unanesthetized cats before, during, and after stimulation of the vestibular system. The vestibular system was stimulated by intravenous injection of deuterium oxide (D2O)--a noted nystagmogenic agent--or by direct galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth. Measures of the receptive-field areas, poststimulus time histograms, directional preferences, and the optimal speed of the light bar stimulating the cell were obtained before and after the application of D2O. Directional preferences were determined in a novel manner, using a method derived from a hierarchical clustering technique. Data were collected and analyzed from a) visual cortical cells in cats with intact labyrinths, b) visual cortical cells in cats following bilateral labrinthectomies, and c) nonvisual cortical cells in cats with intact labyrinths. The other cellular characteristics were also altered by the D2O. Galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth resembles, in its effects, the injection of D2O. In labyrinth-intact cats, the time course of area 18 spontaneous activity dramatically increased 30 min or more after D2O was administered. It peaked 2-3 h later and still had not returned to preinjection levels even 7 h after the D2O administration. In bilaterally labyrinthectomized cats, the spontaneous activity of the visual cells did not change following D2O administration. In nonvisual cells from labyrinth-intact cats, the spontaneous activity demonstrated a slight but significant decrease over time after D2O injection. In pilot studies, the cats were injected with D2O. Within 8-10 min afterward, signs of positional nystagmus commenced; and within 30 min, problems in maintaining balance were noted. This continued for 7-8 h before disappearing. In the labyrinthectomized animals, such effects were not observed

  2. Effects of deuterium oxide and galvanic vestibular stimulation on visual cortical cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinis, S.; Landolt, J.P.; Weiss, D.S.; Money, K.E.

    1984-03-01

    The spontaneous and evoked unit activities of complex visual cortical cells were recorded from Brodmann's area 18 in immobilized, unanesthetized cats before, during, and after stimulation of the vestibular system. The vestibular system was stimulated by intravenous injection of deuterium oxide (D2O)--a noted nystagmogenic agent--or by direct galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth. Measures of the receptive-field areas, poststimulus time histograms, directional preferences, and the optimal speed of the light bar stimulating the cell were obtained before and after the application of D2O. Directional preferences were determined in a novel manner, using a method derived from a hierarchical clustering technique. Data were collected and analyzed from a) visual cortical cells in cats with intact labyrinths, b) visual cortical cells in cats following bilateral labrinthectomies, and c) nonvisual cortical cells in cats with intact labyrinths. The other cellular characteristics were also altered by the D2O. Galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth resembles, in its effects, the injection of D2O. In labyrinth-intact cats, the time course of area 18 spontaneous activity dramatically increased 30 min or more after D2O was administered. It peaked 2-3 h later and still had not returned to preinjection levels even 7 h after the D2O administration. In bilaterally labyrinthectomized cats, the spontaneous activity of the visual cells did not change following D2O administration. In nonvisual cells from labyrinth-intact cats, the spontaneous activity demonstrated a slight but significant decrease over time after D2O injection. In pilot studies, the cats were injected with D2O. Within 8-10 min afterward, signs of positional nystagmus commenced; and within 30 min, problems in maintaining balance were noted. This continued for 7-8 h before disappearing. In the labyrinthectomized animals, such effects were not observed.

  3. Effects on proliferation and cell cycle of irradiated KG-1 cells stimulated by CM-CSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dehuang; Dong Bo; Wen Gengyun; Luo Qingliang; Mao Bingzhi

    2000-01-01

    In order to explore the variety of cell proliferation and cell cycle after exposure to ionizing radiation, the responses of irradiated KG-1 cells of the human myeloid leukemia stimulated by GM-CSF, the most common used cytokine in clinic, were investigated. The results showed that GM-CSF enhance KG-1 cells proliferation, reduce G0/G1 block, increase S phase and G2/M phase. The stimulation effects of the GM-CSF are more effective in irradiated group than in control group

  4. The Expression and Biological Significance of PD-L1 on Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng CHEN

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Tumor-associated PD-L1 expression was recently shown to promote T-cell apoptosis and proposed as a potential mechanism of immune evasion by tumors. On the basis of the ability of tumor-associated PD-L1 to mediate activated T-cell death, it is likely that manipulation of the PD-L1 pathway at defined time points during the development of the T-cell antitumor immune response can enhance the efficacy of T-cell-based immunotherapy. Here, the levels of expression of PD-L1 on lung cancer cell lines and its role in interaction of CTL and target cells was investigated. Methods Human PBMC derived DCs were loaded with apoptotic tumor cells and stimulated by CD40 mAb (5C11. Tumor specific CTL was generated in vitro by autologous T cells co-cultured with mature DCs. Expression of PD-L1 on lung cancer cell lines H1299 and A549 were analyzed by FCM. JAM assay was used to detect the cytolytic activity of CTL with or without blocking PD-L1 by PD-L1 mAb respectively. The concentrations of IFN-γ in supernatants from distinct groups were analyzed by ELISA. Results Tumor cells-loaded mature DCs could induce the generation of the tumor specific CTL. Expression of PD-L1 was low on A549 cell, but high on H1299 cell. Blockade of PD-L1 on A549 could not improve cytolytic effect of CTL on target cells and IFN-γ production, but fragmentation of H1299 cells and IFN-γ production were significantly enhanced by the combination of PD-L1 mAb and CTL. Conclusion Expression of PD-L1 on lung cancer cell line can decrease the cytolytic effect of CTL on target cells.

  5. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from normal rats stimulates DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Mason, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proliferation of alveolar type II cells after lung injury is important for the restoration of the alveolar epithelium. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) may represent an important source of growth factors for alveolar type II cells. To test this possibility, BALF fluid was collected from normal rats, concentrated 10-fold by Amicon filtration, and tested for its ability to stimulate DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. BALF induced a dose-dependent increase in type II cell DNA synthesis resulting in a 6-fold increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation. Similar doses also stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into rat lung fibroblasts by 6- to 8-fold. Removal of pulmonary surface active material by centrifugation did not significantly reduce the stimulatory activity of BALF for type II cells. The stimulation of type II cell DNA synthesis by BALF was reduced by 100% after heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min, and by approximately 80% after reduction with dithiothreitol, and after trypsin treatment. Dialysis of BALF against 1 N acetic acid resulted in a 27% reduction in stimulatory activity. The effect of BALF in promoting type II cell DNA synthesis was more pronounced when tested in the presence of serum, although serum itself has very little effect on type II cell DNA synthesis. When BALF was tested in combination with other substances that stimulate type II cell DNA synthesis (cholera toxin, insulin, epidermal growth factor, and acidic fibroblast growth factor), additive effects or greater were observed. When BALF was chromatographed over Sephadex G150, the activity eluted with an apparent molecular weight of 100 kDa

  6. Oxygen sensitivity of potassium- and angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone release by bovine adrenal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickner, R C; Raff, H

    1991-04-01

    Angiotensin II (AII) and extracellular K+, acting through different intracellular mechanisms, stimulate aldosterone release in a synergistic fashion. We have previously shown that decreases in oxygen (O2) within the physiological range inhibit AII, cyclic AMP (cAMP) and ACTH-stimulated aldosterone release. The present experiment evaluated the effect of various concentrations of O2 on K+-stimulated aldosterone release in the presence and absence of AII. Dispersed bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells were incubated with different concentrations of K+ (0.9-5.4 mmol/l) without and with AII (10 nmol/l) under different concentrations of O2 (0, 5 or 50%); 21% O2 (pO2 = 19.9 +/- 0.5 kPa,n = 9) was used as reference control for comparison. In all cases, increases in K+ stimulated aldosterone release, an effect augmented by AII. Under 0% O2 (pO2 = 8.1 +/- 0.3 kPa, n = 3) and 5% O2 (pO2 = 12.8 +/- 0.5 kPa, n = 3), aldosterone release stimulated by K+ or K+/AII was significantly inhibited compared with that under 21% O2. Conversely, under 50% O2 (pO2 = 36.3 +/- 2.5 kPa, n = 3), aldosterone release stimulated by K+ or K+/AII was significantly augmented. Cortisol secretion was not significantly affected by 5% or 50% O2 but was significantly decreased under 0% O2. The effect of O2 on K+/AII stimulation of aldosterone release, as well as previous experiments with cAMP, progesterone and ACTH, suggest a final common post-receptor oxygen-sensitive component of the aldosterone synthetic pathway. It is suggested that one or more enzymes in the aldosterone synthetic pathway is/are exquisitely sensitive to small changes in O2 within the physiological range.

  7. Significance of the neurotensin receptor Na+/H+-exchanger 1 axis in human pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, U.

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is characterized by early dissemination and rapid acquisition of drug resistance, resulting in dismal prognosis in patients. New targeted therapies failed to improve the low five-year survival rates. Characterization of neuropeptides as growth factors for pancreatic cancer cells stimulated interest in the development of suitable inhibitors. In particular, neurotensin (NT) stimulated proliferation of cancer cell lines, and the NT receptor 1 (NTR1) antagonist SR48692 was found to inhibit growth of tumor xenografts. However, clinical application of SR48692 in small cell lung cancer failed to yield significant responses. Nevertheless, expression of NTRs in more than 90% of pancreatic tumors points to an important role of the NT - NTR system in this tumor entity. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigation of the significance of NT - NTR signaling by use of BxPC-3, PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells and the NTR-positive HT-29 colon carcinoma cell line for comparison. Functional NTR1 that triggers release of intracellular Ca 2+ upon binding of the stable NT analog Lys 8 -Ψ-Lys 9 NT(8-13) was confirmed in all pancreatic cancer cell lines. The fraction of cells in S phase was increased in response to the NT analog and proliferation of the pancreatic cancer cells stimulated to a limited extent. In contrast to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), NTR1 expression was found to reach a maximum in confluent cultures of resting (G1/0 phase) BxPC-3 and PANC-1 cells. In addition, again unlike EGFR, expression of NTR1 proved to be dependent on extracellular pH with highest levels under acidic conditions. Accordingly, Lys 8 -Ψ-Lys 9 NT(8-13) induced marked intracellular alkalinization in BxPC-3, PANC-1 and a panel of colon cancer cell lines and slight acidification in MIA PaCa-2 cells under conditions that confine regulation of intracellular pH to the ubiquitously expressed Na + /H + exchanger 1 (NHE1). Similar results were obtained in

  8. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulates cell proliferation, proteoglycan synthesis and expression of growth factor-related genes in human nucleus pulposus cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Kobayashi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS stimulation has been shown to effect differentiation and activation of human chondrocytes. A study involving stimulation of rabbit disc cells with LIPUS revealed upregulation of cell proliferation and proteoglycan (PG synthesis. However, the effect of LIPUS on human nucleus pulposus cells has not been investigated. In the present study, therefore, we investigated whether LIPUS stimulation of a human nucleus pulposus cell line (HNPSV-1 exerted a positive effect on cellular activity. HNPSV-1 cells were encapsulated in 1.2% sodium alginate solution at 1x105 cells/ml and cultured at 10 beads/well in 6-well plates. The cells were stimulated for 20 min each day using a LIPUS generator, and the effects of LIPUS were evaluated by measuring DNA and PG synthesis. Furthermore, mRNA expression was analyzed by cDNA microarray using total RNA extracted from the cultured cells. Our study revealed no significant difference in cell proliferation between the control and the ultrasound treated groups. However, PG production was significantly upregulated in HNPSV cells stimulated at intensities of 15, 30, 60, and 120 mW/cm2 compared with the control. The results of cDNA array showed that LIPUS significantly stimulated the gene expression of growth factors and their receptors (BMP2, FGF7, TGFbetaR1 EGFRF1, VEGF. These findings suggest that LIPUS stimulation upregulates PG production in human nucleus pulposus cells by the enhancement of several matrix-related genes including growth factor-related genes. Safe and non-invasive stimulation using LIPUS may be a useful treatment for delaying the progression of disc degeneration.

  9. IL-29 Enhances CXCL10 Production in TNF-α-stimulated Human Oral Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Hosokawa, Ikuko; Shindo, Satoru; Ozaki, Kazumi; Matsuo, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    Interleukin-29 (IL-29) is a cytokine belonging to the Type III interferon family. It was recently detected in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients. However, the role of IL-29 in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of IL-29 on C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) production in human oral epithelial cells. We measured CXCL10 production in TR146 cells, which is a human oral epithelial cell line, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We used a Western blot analysis to detect IL-29 receptor expression and the phosphorylation levels of signal transduction molecules, including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and nuclear factor (NF)- κB p65, in the TR146 cells. The TR146 cells expressed the IL-29 receptor. IL-29 induced CXCL10 production in the TR146 cells. IL-29 significantly enhanced CXCL10 production in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated TR146 cells. The p38 MAPK, STAT3, and NF-κB pathways were found to be related to the IL-29-induced enhancement of CXCL10 production in TNF-α-stimulated TR146 cells. IL-29 promotes T helper 1-cell accumulation in periodontal lesions by inducing CXCL10 production in oral epithelial cells.

  10. CD147 stimulates hepatoma cells escaping from immune surveillance of T cells by interaction with Cyclophilin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yi-Xin; Wang, Shu-Jing; Fan, Jian-Hui; Sun, Shi-Jie; Li, Xia; Padhiar, Arshad Ahmed; Zhang, Jia-Ning

    2016-05-01

    T cells play an important role in tumor immune surveillance. CD147 is a member of immunoglobulin superfamily present on the surface of many tumor cells and mediates malignant cell behaviors. Cyclophilin A (CypA) is an intracellular protein promoting inflammation when released from cells. CypA is a natural ligand for CD147. In this study, CD147 specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) were transfected into murine hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa1-6 cells to assess the effects of CD147 on hepatoma cells escaping from immune surveillance of T cells. We found extracellular CypA stimulated cell proliferation through CD147 by activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Downregulation of CD147 expression on Hepa1-6 cells significantly suppressed tumor progression in vivo, and decreased cell viability when co-cultured with T cells in vitro. Importantly, knockdown of CD147 on Hepa1-6 cells resulted in significantly increased T cells chemotaxis induced by CypA both in vivo and in vitro. These findings provide novel mechanisms how tumor cells escaping from immune surveillance of T cells. We provide a potential therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting CD147 or CD147-CypA interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Key endothelial cell angiogenic mechanisms are stimulated by the circulating milieu in sickle cell disease and attenuated by hydroxyurea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Flavia C. M.; Traina, Fabiola; Almeida, Camila B.; Leonardo, Flavia C.; Franco-Penteado, Carla F.; Garrido, Vanessa T.; Colella, Marina P.; Soares, Raquel; Olalla-Saad, Sara T.; Costa, Fernando F.; Conran, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    As hypoxia-induced inflammatory angiogenesis may contribute to the manifestations of sickle cell disease, we compared the angiogenic molecular profiles of plasma from sickle cell disease individuals and correlated these with in vitro endothelial cell-mediated angiogenesis-stimulating activity and in vivo neovascularization. Bioplex demonstrated that plasma from patients with steady-state sickle cell anemia contained elevated concentrations of pro-angiogenic factors (angiopoietin-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-D and placental growth factor) and displayed potent pro-angiogenic activity, significantly increasing endothelial cell proliferation, migration and capillary-like structure formation. In vivo neovascularization of Matrigel plugs was significantly greater in sickle cell disease mice than in non-sickle cell disease mice, consistent with an up-regulation of angiogenesis in the disease. In plasma from patients with hemoglobin SC disease without proliferative retinopathy, anti-angiogenic endostatin and thrombospondin-2 were significantly elevated. In contrast, plasma from hemoglobin SC individuals with proliferative retinopathy had a pro-angiogenic profile and more significant effects on endothelial cell proliferation and capillary formation than plasma from patients without retinopathy. Hydroxyurea therapy was associated with significant reductions in plasma angiogenic factors and inhibition of endothelial cell-mediated angiogenic mechanisms and neovascularization. Thus, individuals with sickle cell anemia or hemoglobin SC disease with retinopathy present a highly angiogenic circulating milieu, capable of stimulating key endothelial cell-mediated angiogenic mechanisms. Combination anti-angiogenic therapy to prevent the progression of unregulated neovascularization and associated manifestations in sickle cell disease, such as pulmonary hypertension, may be indicated; furthermore, the

  12. Tachykinins stimulate a subset of mouse taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Grant

    Full Text Available The tachykinins substance P (SP and neurokinin A (NKA are present in nociceptive sensory fibers expressing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1. These fibers are found extensively in and around the taste buds of several species. Tachykinins are released from nociceptive fibers by irritants such as capsaicin, the active compound found in chili peppers commonly associated with the sensation of spiciness. Using real-time Ca(2+-imaging on isolated taste cells, it was observed that SP induces Ca(2+ -responses in a subset of taste cells at concentrations in the low nanomolar range. These responses were reversibly inhibited by blocking the SP receptor NK-1R. NKA also induced Ca(2+-responses in a subset of taste cells, but only at concentrations in the high nanomolar range. These responses were only partially inhibited by blocking the NKA receptor NK-2R, and were also inhibited by blocking NK-1R indicating that NKA is only active in taste cells at concentrations that activate both receptors. In addition, it was determined that tachykinin signaling in taste cells requires Ca(2+-release from endoplasmic reticulum stores. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed that mouse taste buds express NK-1R and NK-2R. Using Ca(2+-imaging and single cell RT-PCR, it was determined that the majority of tachykinin-responsive taste cells were Type I (Glial-like and umami-responsive Type II (Receptor cells. Importantly, stimulating NK-1R had an additive effect on Ca(2+ responses evoked by umami stimuli in Type II (Receptor cells. This data indicates that tachykinin release from nociceptive sensory fibers in and around taste buds may enhance umami and other taste modalities, providing a possible mechanism for the increased palatability of spicy foods.

  13. [Amplification of γδ T cells in PBMCs of healthy donors and osteosarcoma patients stimulated by zoledronate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-xu; Sun, Ling-ling; Cheng, Rui-lin; Sun, Zheng-wang; Ye, Zhao-ming

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the amplification and cytotoxicity of γδ T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy donors and osteosarcoma patients stimulated by zoledronate (Zol) and IL-2. PBMCs from healthy donors and osteosarcoma patients were stimulated with IL-2 and Zol+IL-2, respectively. After 14-day culture, the purity of γδ T cells was assessed by flow cytometry. The cytotoxicity of γδ T cells against target cells was analyzed using a standard lactate dehydrogenase release assay with γδ T lymphocyte-sensitive Daudi cells, γδ T lymphocyte-resistant Raji cells and human osteoblast cell line, hFOB, as the target cells. After 2-week culture ex vivo of PBMCs from healthy donors and osteosarcoma patients, compared with stimulation of IL-2, Zol+IL-2 significantly promoted the amplification of γδ T cells. In addition, γδ T cells showed the higher cytotoxicity against Daudi cells, but no cytotoxic effect on normal cells like hFOB. γδ T cells of high purity and high cytotoxicity can be obtained by the stimulation of Zol combined with IL-2 on PBMCs from healthy donors and osteosarcoma patients.

  14. Upregulating Nonneuronal Cholinergic Activity Decreases TNF Release from Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lv

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonneuronal cholinergic system plays a primary role in maintaining homeostasis. It has been proved that endogenous neuronal acetylcholine (ACh could play an anti-inflammatory role, and exogenous cholinergic agonists could weaken macrophages inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation through activation of α7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR. We assumed that nonneuronal cholinergic system existing in macrophages could modulate inflammation through autocrine ACh and expressed α7nAChR on the cells. Therefore, we explored whether LPS continuous stimulation could upregulate the nonneuronal cholinergic activity in macrophages and whether increasing autocrine ACh could decrease TNF release from the macrophages. The results showed that, in RAW264.7 cells incubated with LPS for 20 hours, the secretion of ACh was significantly decreased at 4 h and then gradually increased, accompanied with the enhancement of α7nAChR expression level. The release of TNF was greatly increased from RAW264.7 cells at 4 h and 8 h exposure to LPS; however, it was suppressed at 20 h. Upregulating choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression through ChAT gene transfection could enhance ACh secretion and reduce TNF release from the infected RAW264. 7cells. The results indicated that LPS stimulation could modulate the activity of nonneuronal cholinergic system of RAW264.7 cells. Enhancing autocrine ACh production could attenuate TNF release from RAW264.7 cells.

  15. Electric field stimulation through a substrate influences Schwann cell and extracellular matrix structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu T.; Wei, Claudia; Chow, Jacqueline K.; Nguy, Lindsey; Nguyen, Hieu K.; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Electric field (EF) stimulation has been used to cue cell growth for tissue engineering applications. In this study, we explore the electrical parameters and extracellular mechanisms that elicit changes in cell behavior when stimulated through the substrate. Approach. Rat Schwann cell morphology was compared when exposed to EF through the media or a conductive indium tin oxide substrate. Ionic and structural effects were then analyzed on Matrigel and collagen I, respectively. Main results. When stimulating through media, cells had greater alignment perpendicular to the EF with higher current densities (106 mA cm-2 at 245 mV mm-1), and reached maximum alignment within 8 h. Stimulation through the substrate with EF (up to 110 mV mm-1) did not affect Schwann cell orientation, however the EF caused extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings on substrates to peel away, suggesting EF can physically change the ECM. Applying alternating current (ac) 2-1000 Hz signals through the media or substrate both caused cells to flatten and protrude many processes, without preferential alignment. Matrigel exposed to a substrate EF of 10 mV mm-1 for 2 h had a greater calcium concentration near the cathode, but quickly dissipated when the EF was removed. Schwann cells seeded 7 d after gels were exposed to substrate EF still aligned perpendicular to the EF direction. Microscopy of collagen I exposed to substrate EF shows alignment and bundling of fibrils. Significance. These findings demonstrate EF exposure can control Schwann cell alignment and morphology, change ECM bulk/surface architecture, and align ECM structures.

  16. PI 3-kinase signalling in platelets: the significance of synergistic, autocrine stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selheim, F; Holmsen, H; Vassbotn, F S

    2000-03-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI 3Ks) play a key role in regulation of intracellular signalling and cellular function, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, chemotaxis, membrane trafficking and platelet activation. The PI 3Ks are grouped into three classes on the basis on their structure and in vitro substrate specificity. Class I are activated by a variety of agonists which mediate their effect through tyrosine kinase-linked or G-protein-linked receptors. In vivo class I PI 3Ks seem to preferentially phosphorylate the D3 hydroxyls of the inositol moiety of PtdIns(4,5)P2 to produce PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. However, class II PI 3Ks preferentially phosphorylate the D3 hydroxyl of PtdIns and PtdIns(4)P to produce PtdIns(3)P and PtdIns(3,4)P2, respectively. The late accumulation of PtdIns(3,4)P2 has been suggested to play an important role in irreversible platelet aggregation. In human platelets the class II PI 3K isoform HsC2-PI 3K is activated in an integrin alpha IIb beta 3 + fibrinogen-dependent manner. Class III PI 3Ks phosphorylate PtdIns to produce PtdIns(3)P, which play a crucial role in vesicular trafficking. Recent work has suggested that crosstalk between individual receptors and their downstream signal pathways play a central role in PI 3K signalling responses. In this review, we will concentrate on recent advances regarding the regulation of platelet PI 3Ks.

  17. Mechanically stimulated bone cells secrete paracrine factors that regulate osteoprogenitor recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Robert T.; O'Brien, Fergal J.; Hoey, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Bone formation requires the recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors. A potent stimulus driving this process is mechanical loading, yet the signalling mechanisms underpinning this are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the mechanically-stimulated osteocyte and osteoblast secretome in coordinating progenitor contributions to bone formation. Initially osteocytes (MLO-Y4) and osteoblasts (MC3T3) were mechanically stimulated for 24hrs and secreted factors within the conditioned media were collected and used to evaluate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and osteoblast recruitment, proliferation and osteogenesis. Paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteocytes significantly enhanced MSC migration, proliferation and osteogenesis and furthermore significantly increased osteoblast migration and proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteocytes. Secondly, paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteoblasts significantly enhanced MSC migration but surprisingly, in contrast to the osteocyte secretome, inhibited MSC proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteoblasts. A similar trend was observed in osteoblasts. This study provides new information on mechanically driven signalling mechanisms in bone and highlights a contrasting secretome between cells at different stages in the bone lineage, furthering our understanding of loading-induced bone formation and indirect biophysical regulation of osteoprogenitors. - Highlights: • Physically stimulated osteocytes secrete factors that regulate osteoprogenitors. • These factors enhance recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. • Physically stimulated osteoblasts secrete factors that also regulate progenitors. • These factors enhance recruitment but inhibit proliferation of osteoprogenitors. • This study highlights a contrasting

  18. Mechanically stimulated bone cells secrete paracrine factors that regulate osteoprogenitor recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Robert T. [Tissue Engineering Research Group, Dept. of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (Ireland); Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Advanced Materials and BioEngineering Research Centre (AMBER), Trinity College Dublin & Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (Ireland); Dept. of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick (Ireland); O' Brien, Fergal J. [Tissue Engineering Research Group, Dept. of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (Ireland); Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Advanced Materials and BioEngineering Research Centre (AMBER), Trinity College Dublin & Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (Ireland); Hoey, David A., E-mail: david.hoey@ul.ie [Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Dept. of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick (Ireland); The Centre for Applied Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Limerick (Ireland); Materials & Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2015-03-27

    Bone formation requires the recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors. A potent stimulus driving this process is mechanical loading, yet the signalling mechanisms underpinning this are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the mechanically-stimulated osteocyte and osteoblast secretome in coordinating progenitor contributions to bone formation. Initially osteocytes (MLO-Y4) and osteoblasts (MC3T3) were mechanically stimulated for 24hrs and secreted factors within the conditioned media were collected and used to evaluate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and osteoblast recruitment, proliferation and osteogenesis. Paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteocytes significantly enhanced MSC migration, proliferation and osteogenesis and furthermore significantly increased osteoblast migration and proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteocytes. Secondly, paracrine factors secreted by mechanically stimulated osteoblasts significantly enhanced MSC migration but surprisingly, in contrast to the osteocyte secretome, inhibited MSC proliferation when compared to factors secreted by statically cultured osteoblasts. A similar trend was observed in osteoblasts. This study provides new information on mechanically driven signalling mechanisms in bone and highlights a contrasting secretome between cells at different stages in the bone lineage, furthering our understanding of loading-induced bone formation and indirect biophysical regulation of osteoprogenitors. - Highlights: • Physically stimulated osteocytes secrete factors that regulate osteoprogenitors. • These factors enhance recruitment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. • Physically stimulated osteoblasts secrete factors that also regulate progenitors. • These factors enhance recruitment but inhibit proliferation of osteoprogenitors. • This study highlights a contrasting

  19. Curcumin prevents human dendritic cell response to immune stimulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, Shawna A.; Montpetit, Alison J.; Lockey, R.F.; Mohapatra, Shyam S.

    2008-01-01

    Curcumin, a compound found in the Indian spice turmeric, has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, though the mechanism remains unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs) are important to generating an immune response and the effect of curcumin on human DCs has not been explored. The role curcumin in the DC response to bacterial and viral infection was investigated in vitro using LPS and Poly I:C as models of infection. CD14 + monocytes, isolated from human peripheral blood, were cultured in GM-CSF- and IL-4-supplemented medium to generate immature DCs. Cultures were incubated with curcumin, stimulated with LPS or Poly I:C and functional assays were performed. Curcumin prevents DCs from responding to immunostimulants and inducing CD4 + T cell proliferation by blocking maturation marker, cytokine and chemokine expression and reducing both migration and endocytosis. These data suggest a therapeutic role for curcumin as an immune suppressant

  20. Significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance on ThinPrep papanicolaou smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltabbakh, G H; Lipman, J N; Mount, S L; Morgan, A

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors predictive of dysplasia among women seen in a gynecologic oncology service with the cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) on Papanicolaou smears obtained by the ThinPrep method. Patients with ASCUS ThinPrep Papanicolaou smears seen at the Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Vermont, between 1997 and 1999 were identified. The cytologic smears were reviewed and subtyped into reactive or suggestive of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). The charts of these patients were reviewed and the following information was abstracted: age, gravidity, parity, menopausal status, use of hormonal replacement therapy, smoking, history of pelvic cancer, history of radiation therapy, history of abnormal Papanicolaou smear and its treatment, history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and follow-up information including results of repeat Papanicolaou smears, colposcopy, and biopsies. The prevalence of dysplasia was calculated. The demographic features of women with ASCUS, reactive, were compared with those with ASCUS, SIL, using a two-sample t test, chi(2), and Fisher's exact test. Risk factors predictive of dysplasia were calculated using the odds ratio and the 95% confidence interval. P ASCUS on ThinPrep Papanicolaou smear were identified; 63 patients had ASCUS, reactive, and 63 patients had ASCUS, SIL. The demographic features of both groups were similar. The overall prevalence of dysplasia was 15.9% and was significantly higher among women with ASCUS, SIL, than among women with ASCUS, reactive (25.4% versus 6.4%, P = 0.003). The type of ASCUS cytology (reactive versus SIL), smoking, and history of HPV were significant risk factors for dysplasia (P = 0.003, 0.037, and 0. 042, respectively). The prevalence of dysplasia among women seen in a gynecologic oncology service with ASCUS cytology on ThinPrep Papanicolaou smears is 15.9%. Women with ASCUS favor

  1. Neurite outgrowth is significantly increased by the simultaneous presentation of Schwann cells and moderate exogenous electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppes, Abigail N.; Seggio, Angela M.; Thompson, Deanna M.

    2011-08-01

    Axonal extension is influenced by a variety of external guidance cues; therefore, the development and optimization of a multi-faceted approach is probably necessary to address the intricacy of functional regeneration following nerve injury. In this study, primary dissociated neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and Schwann cells were examined in response to an 8 h dc electrical stimulation (0-100 mV mm-1). Stimulated samples were then fixed immediately, immunostained, imaged and analyzed to determine Schwann cell orientation and characterize neurite outgrowth relative to electric field strength and direction. Results indicate that Schwann cells are viable following electrical stimulation with 10-100 mV mm-1, and retain a normal morphology relative to unstimulated cells; however, no directional bias is observed. Neurite outgrowth was significantly enhanced by twofold following exposure to either a 50 mV mm-1 electric field (EF) or co-culture with unstimulated Schwann cells by comparison to neurons cultured alone. Neurite outgrowth was further increased in the presence of simultaneously applied cues (Schwann cells + 50 mV mm-1 dc EF), exhibiting a 3.2-fold increase over unstimulated control neurons, and a 1.2-fold increase over either neurons cultured with unstimulated Schwann cells or the electrical stimulus alone. These results indicate that dc electric stimulation in combination with Schwann cells may provide synergistic guidance cues for improved axonal growth relevant to nerve injuries in the peripheral nervous system.

  2. Catechins activate muscle stem cells by Myf5 induction and stimulate muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A Rum; Kim, Kyung Min; Byun, Mi Ran; Hwang, Jun-Ha; Park, Jung Il; Oh, Ho Taek; Kim, Hyo Kyeong; Jeong, Mi Gyeong; Hwang, Eun Sook; Hong, Jeong-Ho

    2017-07-22

    Muscle weakness is one of the most common symptoms in aged individuals and increases risk of mortality. Thus, maintenance of muscle mass is important for inhibiting aging. In this study, we investigated the effect of catechins, polyphenol compounds in green tea, on muscle regeneration. We found that (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) activate satellite cells by induction of Myf5 transcription factors. For satellite cell activation, Akt kinase was significantly induced after ECG treatment and ECG-induced satellite cell activation was blocked in the presence of Akt inhibitor. ECG also promotes myogenic differentiation through the induction of myogenic markers, including Myogenin and Muscle creatine kinase (MCK), in satellite and C2C12 myoblast cells. Finally, EGCG administration to mice significantly increased muscle fiber size for regeneration. Taken together, the results suggest that catechins stimulate muscle stem cell activation and differentiation for muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Id1 expression promotes peripheral CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation and survival upon TCR activation without co-stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chen; Jin, Rong [Department of Immunology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing (China); Wang, Hong-Cheng [Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Tang, Hui; Liu, Yuan-Feng; Qian, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Xiu-Yuan; Ge, Qing [Department of Immunology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing (China); Sun, Xiao-Hong, E-mail: sunx@omrf.org [Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Zhang, Yu, E-mail: zhangyu007@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing (China)

    2013-06-21

    Highlights: •Id1 expression enables naïve T cell proliferation without anti-CD28 co-stimulation. •Id1 expression facilitates T cells survival when stimulated with anti-CD3. •Elevation of IL-2 production by Id1 contributes increased proliferation and survival. •Id1 potentiates NF-κB activation by anti-CD3 stimulation. -- Abstract: Although the role of E proteins in the thymocyte development is well documented, much less is known about their function in peripheral T cells. Here we demonstrated that CD4 promoter-driven transgenic expression of Id1, a naturally occurring dominant-negative inhibitor of E proteins, can substitute for the co-stimulatory signal delivered by CD28 to facilitate the proliferation and survival of naïve CD4{sup +} cells upon anti-CD3 stimulation. We next discovered that IL-2 production and NF-κB activity after anti-CD3 stimulation were significantly elevated in Id1-expressing cells, which may be, at least in part, responsible for the augmentation of their proliferation and survival. Taken together, results from this study suggest an important role of E and Id proteins in peripheral T cell activation. The ability of Id proteins to by-pass co-stimulatory signals to enable T cell activation has significant implications in regulating T cell immunity.

  4. Suppression of DHT-induced paracrine stimulation of endothelial cell growth by estrogens via prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Juan; Zhao, Yuan; Li, Jinghe; Weng, Chunyan; Cai, Jingjing; Yang, Kan; Yuan, Hong; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne; Zhu, Yuan-Shan

    2013-07-01

    Androgen modulation of angiogenesis in prostate cancer may be not directly mediated by androgen receptor (AR) as AR is not detected in the prostatic endothelial cells. We examined the paracrine stimulation of cell proliferation by prostate tumor cells and its modulation by androgen and estrogens in a murine endothelial cell line (MEC) that does not express AR. Tumor cell conditioned media (TCM) collected from LAPC-4 or LNCaP prostatic tumor cells produced a time- and concentration-dependent induction of cell growth in MECs, which was parallel to the VEGF concentration in the TCM. This TCM-induced cell growth in MECs was enhanced by the treatment of prostatic tumor cells with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Both the TCM-stimulation and DHT-enhancement effects in MECs were completely blocked by SU5416, a specific VEGF receptor antagonist. Co-administration of 17α-estradiol or 17β-estradiol with DHT in prostatic tumor cells completely inhibited the DHT-enhancement effect while treatment with DHT, 17α-estradiol or 17β-estradiol did not produce any significant direct effect in MECs. Moreover, administration of 17α-estradiol or 17β-estradiol in xenograft animals with LAPC-4 or LNCaP prostate tumor significantly decreased the microvessel number in the tumor tissues. Our study indicated that prostate tumor cells regulate endothelial cell growth through a paracrine mechanism, which is mainly mediated by VEGF; and DHT is able to modulate endothelial cell growth via tumor cells, which is inhibited by 17α-estradiol and 17β-estradiol. Thus, both17α-estradiol and 17β-estradiol are potential agents for anti-angiogenesis therapy in androgen-responsive prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. IL-8 and MCP Gene Expression and Production by LPS-Stimulated Human Corneal Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni M. Shtein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine time course of effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS on production of interleukin-8 (IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP by cultured human corneal stromal cells. Methods. Human corneal stromal cells were harvested from donor corneal specimens, and fourth to sixth passaged cells were used. Cell cultures were stimulated with LPS for 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours. Northern blot analysis of IL-8 and MCP gene expression and ELISA for IL-8 and MCP secretion were performed. ELISA results were analyzed for statistical significance using two-tailed Student's t-test. Results. Northern blot analysis demonstrated significantly increased IL-8 and MCP gene expression after 4 and 8 hours of exposure to LPS. ELISA for secreted IL-8 and MCP demonstrated statistically significant increases (P<0.05 after corneal stromal cell stimulation with LPS. Conclusions. This paper suggests that human corneal stromal cells may participate in corneal inflammation by secreting potent leukocyte chemotactic and activating proteins in a time-dependent manner when exposed to LPS.

  6. IL-15 STIMULATED NATURAL KILLER CELLS CLEAR HIV-1 INFECTED CELLS FOLLOWING LATENCY REVERSAL EX VIVO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Carolina; Abad-Fernandez, Maria; Tuyishime, Marina; Pollara, Justin J; Ferrari, Guido; Soriano-Sarabia, Natalia; Margolis, David M

    2018-03-28

    Current efforts towards HIV eradication include approaches to augment immune recognition and elimination of persistently infected cells following latency reversal. Natural killer (NK) cells, the main effectors of the innate immune system, recognize and clear targets using different mechanisms than CD8 + T cells, offering an alternative or complementary approach for HIV clearance strategies. We assessed the impact of IL-15 treatment on NK cell function and the potential of stimulated NK cells to clear the HIV reservoir. We measured NK cell receptor expression, antibody-dependent cell-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), cytotoxicity, IFN-γ production and antiviral activity in autologous HIV replication systems. All NK cell functions were uniformly improved by IL-15, and more importantly, IL-15-treated NK cells were able to clear latently HIV infected cells after exposure to vorinostat, a clinically relevant latency reversing agent. We also demonstrate that NK cells from HIV infected individuals aviremic on antiretroviral therapy can be efficiently stimulated with IL-15. Our work opens a promising line of investigation towards future immunotherapies to clear persistent HIV infection using NK cells. IMPORTANCE In the search for an HIV cure, strategies to enhance immune function to allow recognition and clearance of HIV infected cells following latency reversal are being evaluated. Natural killer (NK) cells possess characteristics that can be exploited for immunotherapy against persistent HIV infection. We demonstrate that NK cells from HIV-positive donors can be strongly stimulated with IL-15, improving their antiviral and cytotoxic potential, and more importantly, clearing HIV infected cells after latency reversal with a clinically relevant drug. Our results encourage further investigation to design NK cell-based immunotherapies to achieve HIV eradication. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Inhibition of insulin-stimulated hydrogen peroxide production prevents stimulation of sodium transport in A6 cell monolayers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markadieu, N.Y.G.; Crutzen, R.; Boom, A.; Erneux, C.; Beauwens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin-stimulated sodium transport across A6 cell (derived from amphibian distal nephron) monolayers involves the activation of a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase. We previously demonstrated that exogenous addition of H2O2 to the incubation medium of A6 cell monolayers provokes an increase in PI

  8. T cell cytokine responses to stimulation with Ureaplasma parvum in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Yael D; Lee-Pullen, Tracey F; Nathan, Elizabeth A; Watts, Rory; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Payne, Matthew S; Ireland, Demelza J

    2016-08-01

    Ureaplasma spp. are a common vaginal microorganism causally linked to inflammation-driven preterm birth (PTB). The nature of the immune response to Ureaplasma spp. may influence PTB risk. This study sought to define maternal T cell cytokine responses to in vitro stimulation with Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 (UpSV3) in vaginally colonised (UP+) and non-colonised (UP-) pregnant women. Whole blood flow cytometry demonstrated an increase (p=0.027) in the baseline frequency of IFNγ-positive CD3(+)CD4(-)(CD8(+)) T cells in UP+ women. UpSV3 stimulation resulted in a significant and specific increase (p=0.001) in the frequency of IFNγ-positive CD3(+)CD4(-)(CD8(+)) T cells, regardless of vaginal colonisation status. UpSV3 stimulation also increased the frequency of IFNγ-positive CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells, particularly in the UP+ group (p=0.003). This is the first published study to examine T cell responses to Ureaplasma spp. Future appropriately-powered studies are needed to assess whether insufficient priming or a loss of tolerance to Ureaplasma spp. is occurring in UP+ women at risk of PTB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of electrical stimulation on cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Maria R; Palee, Siripong; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2018-03-01

    The application of exogenous electrical stimulation (ES) to cells in order to manipulate cell apoptosis and proliferation has been widely investigated as a possible method of treatment in a number of diseases. Alteration of the transmembrane potential of cells via ES can affect various intracellular signaling pathways which are involved in the regulation of cellular function. Controversially, several types of ES have proved to be effective in both inhibiting or inducing apoptosis, as well as increasing proliferation. However, the mechanisms through which ES achieves this remain fairly unclear. The aim of this review was to comprehensively summarize current findings from in vitro and in vivo studies on the effects of different types of ES on cell apoptosis and proliferation, highlighting the possible mechanisms through which ES induced these effects and define the optimum parameters at which ES can be used. Through this we hope to provide a greater insight into how future studies can most effectively use ES at the clinical trial stage. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Nanostructured Polyaniline Coating on ITO Glass Promotes the Neurite Outgrowth of PC 12 Cells by Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Huang, Qianwei; Wang, Jin-Ye

    2015-11-10

    A conducting polymer polyaniline (PANI) with nanostructure was synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. The effect of electrical stimulation on the proliferation and the length of neurites of PC 12 cells was investigated. The dynamic protein adsorption on PANI and ITO surfaces in a cell culture medium was also compared with and without electrical stimulation. The adsorbed proteins were characterized using SDS-PAGE. A PANI coating on ITO surface was shown with 30-50 nm spherical nanostructure. The number of PC 12 cells was significantly greater on the PANI/ITO surface than on ITO and plate surfaces after cell seeding for 24 and 36 h. This result confirmed that the PANI coating is nontoxic to PC 12 cells. The electrical stimulation for 1, 2, and 4 h significantly enhanced the cell numbers for both PANI and ITO conducting surfaces. Moreover, the application of electrical stimulation also improved the neurite outgrowth of PC 12 cells, and the number of PC 12 cells with longer neurite lengths increased obviously under electrical stimulation for the PANI surface. From the mechanism, the adsorption of DMEM proteins was found to be enhanced by electrical stimulation for both PANI/ITO and ITO surfaces. A new band 2 (around 37 kDa) was observed from the collected adsorbed proteins when PC 12 cells were cultured on these surfaces, and culturing PC 12 cells also seemed to increase the amount of band 1 (around 90 kDa). When immersing PANI/ITO and ITO surfaces in a DMEM medium without a cell culture, the number of band 3 (around 70 kDa) and band 4 (around 45 kDa) proteins decreased compared to that of PC 12 cell cultured surfaces. These results are valuable for the design and improvement of the material performance for neural regeneration.

  11. Inosine Released from Dying or Dead Cells Stimulates Cell Proliferation via Adenosine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionMany antitumor therapies induce apoptotic cell death in order to cause tumor regression. Paradoxically, apoptotic cells are also known to promote wound healing, cell proliferation, and tumor cell repopulation in multicellular organisms. We aimed to characterize the nature of the regenerative signals concentrated in the micromilieu of dead and dying cells.MethodsCultures of viable melanoma B16F10 cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS in the presence of dead and dying cells, their supernatants (SNs, or purified agonists and antagonists were used to evaluate the stimulation of proliferation. Viable cell quantification was performed by either flow cytometry of harvested cells or by crystal violet staining of adherent cells. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry of cell SNs were deployed to identify the nature of growth-promoting factors. Coimplantation of living cells in the presence of SNs collected from dead and dying cells and specific agonists was used to evaluate tumor growth in vivo.ResultsThe stimulation of proliferation of few surviving cells by bystander dead cells was confirmed for melanoma cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary FLS. We found that small soluble molecules present in the protein-free fraction of SNs of dead and dying cells were responsible for the promotion of proliferation. The nucleoside inosine released by dead and dying cells acting via adenosine receptors was identified as putative inducer of proliferation of surviving tumor cells after irradiation and heat treatment.ConclusionInosine released by dead and dying cells mediates tumor cell proliferation via purinergic receptors. Therapeutic strategies surmounting this pathway may help to reduce the rate of recurrence after radio- and chemotherapy.

  12. Role of Piezo Channels in Ultrasound-stimulated Dental Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qianhua; Cooper, Paul R; Walmsley, A Damien; Scheven, Ben A

    2017-07-01

    Piezo1 and Piezo2 are mechanosensitive membrane ion channels. We hypothesized that Piezo proteins may play a role in transducing ultrasound-associated mechanical signals and activate downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling processes in dental cells. In this study, the expression and role of Piezo channels were investigated in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) after treatment with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). Cell proliferation was evaluated by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Western blots were used to analyze the proliferating cell nuclear antigen as well as the transcription factors c-fos and c-jun. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting were used to determine the activation of MAPK after LIPUS treatment. Ruthenium red (RR), a Piezo ion channel blocker, was applied to determine the functional role of Piezo proteins in LIPUS-stimulated cell proliferation and MAPK signaling. Western blotting showed the presence of Piezo1 and Piezo2 in both dental cell types. LIPUS treatment significantly increased the level of the Piezo proteins in DPSCs after 24 hours; however, no significant effects were observed in PDLSCs. Treatment with RR significantly inhibited LIPUS-stimulated DPSC proliferation but not PDLSC proliferation. Extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) 1/2 MAPK was consistently activated in DPSCs over a 24-hour time period after LIPUS exposure, whereas phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase MAPK were mainly increased in PDLSCs. RR affected MAPK signaling in both dental cell types with its most prominent effects on ERK1/2/MAPK phosphorylation levels; the significant inhibition of LIPUS-induced stimulation of ERK1/2 activation in DPSCs by RR suggests that stimulation of DPSC proliferation by LIPUS involves Piezo-mediated regulation of ERK1/2 MAPK signaling. This study for the first time supports the role of Piezo ion channels in

  13. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor stimulated by Helicobacter pylori increases proliferation of gastric epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Harry Hua-Xiang; Lam, Shiu Kum; Chan, Annie O.O.; Lin, Marie Chia Mi; Kung, Hsiang Fu; Ogura, Keiji; Berg, Douglas E.; Wong, Benjamin C. Y.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is associated with increased gastric inflammatory and epithelial expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and gastric epithelial cell proliferation. This study aimed at determining whether H pylori directly stimulates release of MIF in monocytes, whether the cag pathogenicity island (PAI) is involved for this function, and whether MIF stimulated by H pylori increases gastric epithelial cell proliferation in vitro. METHODS: A cytotoxic wild-type H pylori strain (TN2)and its three isogenic mutants (TN2△cag, TN2△cagA and TN2△cagE) were co-cultured with cells of a human monocyte cell line, THP-1, for 24 h at different organism/cell ratios. MIF in the supernatants was measured by an ELISA. Cells of a human gastric cancer cell line, MKN45, were then co-cultured with the supernatants, with and without monoclonal anti-MIF antibody for 24 h. The cells were further incubated for 12 h after addition of 3H-thymidine, and the levels of incorporation of 3H-thymidine were measured with a liquid scintillation counter. RESULTS: The wild-type strain and the isogenic mutants, TN2△cagA and TN2△cagE, increased MIF release at organism/cell ratios of 200/1 and 400/1, but not at the ratios of 50/1 and 100/1. However, the mutant TN2△cag did not increase the release of MIF at any of the four ratios. 3H-thymidine readings for MKN-45 cells were significantly increased with supernatants derived from the wild-type strain and the mutants TN2△cagA and TN2△cagE, but not from the mutant TN2△cag. Moreover, in the presence of monoclonal anti-MIF antibody, the stimulatory effects of the wild-type strain on cell proliferation disappeared. CONCLUSION: H pylori stimulates MIF release in monocytes, likely through its cag PAI, but not related to cagA or cagE. H pylori-stimulated monocyte culture supernatant increases gastric cell proliferation, which is blocked by anti-MIF antibody, suggesting that MIF plays an important role in H

  14. Adrenomedullin stimulates cyclic AMP production in the airway epithelial cells of guinea-pigs and in the human epithelial cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kawaguchi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of adrenomedullin (AM on airway epithelial cells. Primary cultures of guinea-pig tracheal epithelial cells and the human bronchiolar epithelial cell line NCI-H441 were used. Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and stable end-products of nitric oxide were assayed. Adrenomedullin (10−6 mol/L stimulated cAMP production in guinea-pig epithelial cells. Indomethacin (10−5 mol/L significantly decreased the basal level of intracellular cAMP in guinea-pig epithelial cells, but not in NCI-H441 cells. However, AM did not stimulate production of PGE2, a major product that can increase cAMP formation. In the case of NCI-H441 cells, AM (10−8 – 10−6 mol/L did not significantly affect intracellular cGMP levels or nitrite content in conditioned medium. Adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP each stimulated cAMP production in NCI-H441 cells, but AM-stimulated cAMP production was antagonized by the CGRP fragment CGRP8–37. These findings suggest that AM stimulates cAMP production and functionally competes with CGRP for binding sites in airway epithelial cells, at least in human epithelial cells, but that it does not stimulate the release of PGE2 and nitric oxide. Though cyclooxygenase products contribute to some extent to cAMP formation in guinea-pigs, AM independently stimulates intracellular cAMP formation in airway epithelial cells.

  15. Stimulation of cytolytic T lymphocytes by azaguanine-resistant mouse tumor cells in selective hat medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snick, J. van; Uyttenhove, C.; Pel, A. van; Boon, T.

    1981-01-01

    Primed syngeneic or umprimed allogeneic mouse spleen cells were stimulated with azaguanine-resistant P815 tumor cells that were killed by the addition of aminopterin to the stimulation medium. The recovery of lymphocytes and their cytolytic activity and specificity were similar to those obtained after stimulation with irradiated cells. This method conveniently replaces the inactivation of stimulatory cells by irradiation or mitomycin treatment. Moreover, it has the advantage of inactivating not only the stimulatory cells but also the tumor cells that often contaminate the spleens of tumor-bearing animals, provided these animals have been inoculated with azaguanine-resistant tumor cell mutants. (Auth.)

  16. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Sang Doo; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Cho, Kyung-Hyun; Zabel, Brian A.; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ► SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ► SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-κB signaling. ► HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ► The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis

  17. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ha Young, E-mail: hayoung@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Doo [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Suk-Hwan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon Hyuk [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Hyun [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Zabel, Brian A. [Palo Alto Institute for Research and Education, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Bae, Yoe-Sik, E-mail: yoesik@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ► SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ► SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-κB signaling. ► HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ► The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis.

  18. Ethanol exerts dual effects on calcium homeostasis in CCK-8-stimulated mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sánchez, Marcela; del Castillo-Vaquero, Angel; Salido, Ginés M; González, Antonio

    2009-10-30

    A significant percentage of patients with pancreatitis often presents a history of excessive alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, the patho-physiological effect of ethanol on pancreatitis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we have investigated the early effects of acute ethanol exposure on CCK-8-evoked Ca2+ signals in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Changes in [Ca2+]i and ROS production were analyzed employing fluorescence techniques after loading cells with fura-2 or CM-H2DCFDA, respectively. Ethanol, in the concentration range from 1 to 50 mM, evoked an oscillatory pattern in [Ca2+]i. In addition, ethanol evoked reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) production. Stimulation of cells with 1 nM or 20 pM CCK-8, respectively led to a transient change and oscillations in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of ethanol a transformation of 20 pM CCK-8-evoked physiological oscillations into a single transient increase in [Ca2+]i in the majority of cells was observed. Whereas, in response to 1 nM CCK-8, the total Ca2+ mobilization was significantly increased by ethanol pre-treatment. Preincubation of cells with 1 mM 4-MP, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, or 10 microM of the antioxidant cinnamtannin B-1, reverted the effect of ethanol on total Ca2+ mobilization evoked by 1 nM CCK-8. Cinnamtannin B-1 blocked ethanol-evoked ROS production. ethanol may lead, either directly or through ROS generation, to an over stimulation of pancreatic acinar cells in response to CCK-8, resulting in a higher Ca2+ mobilization compared to normal conditions. The actions of ethanol on CCK-8-stimulation of cells create a situation potentially leading to Ca2+ overload, which is a common pathological precursor that mediates pancreatitis.

  19. Ethanol exerts dual effects on calcium homeostasis in CCK-8-stimulated mouse pancreatic acinar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salido Ginés M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant percentage of patients with pancreatitis often presents a history of excessive alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, the patho-physiological effect of ethanol on pancreatitis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we have investigated the early effects of acute ethanol exposure on CCK-8-evoked Ca2+ signals in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Changes in [Ca2+]i and ROS production were analyzed employing fluorescence techniques after loading cells with fura-2 or CM-H2DCFDA, respectively. Results Ethanol, in the concentration range from 1 to 50 mM, evoked an oscillatory pattern in [Ca2+]i. In addition, ethanol evoked reactive oxygen species generation (ROS production. Stimulation of cells with 1 nM or 20 pM CCK-8, respectively led to a transient change and oscillations in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of ethanol a transformation of 20 pM CCK-8-evoked physiological oscillations into a single transient increase in [Ca2+]i in the majority of cells was observed. Whereas, in response to 1 nM CCK-8, the total Ca2+ mobilization was significantly increased by ethanol pre-treatment. Preincubation of cells with 1 mM 4-MP, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, or 10 μM of the antioxidant cinnamtannin B-1, reverted the effect of ethanol on total Ca2+ mobilization evoked by 1 nM CCK-8. Cinnamtannin B-1 blocked ethanol-evoked ROS production. Conclusion ethanol may lead, either directly or through ROS generation, to an over stimulation of pancreatic acinar cells in response to CCK-8, resulting in a higher Ca2+ mobilization compared to normal conditions. The actions of ethanol on CCK-8-stimulation of cells create a situation potentially leading to Ca2+ overload, which is a common pathological precursor that mediates pancreatitis.

  20. In vitro effect of direct current electrical stimulation on rat mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahba Mobini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Electrical stimulation (ES has been successfully used to treat bone defects clinically. Recently, both cellular and molecular approaches have demonstrated that ES can change cell behavior such as migration, proliferation and differentiation. Methods In the present study we exposed rat bone marrow- (BM- and adipose tissue- (AT- derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs to direct current electrical stimulation (DC ES and assessed temporal changes in osteogenic differentiation. We applied 100 mV/mm of DC ES for 1 h per day for three, seven and 14 days to cells cultivated in osteogenic differentiation medium and assessed viability and calcium deposition at the different time points. In addition, expression of osteogenic genes, Runx2, Osteopontin, and Col1A2 was assessed in BM- and AT-derived MSCs at the different time points. Results Results showed that ES changed osteogenic gene expression patterns in both BM- and AT-MSCs, and these changes differed between the two groups. In BM-MSCs, ES caused a significant increase in mRNA levels of Runx2, Osteopontin and Col1A2 at day 7, while in AT-MSCs, the increase in Runx2 and Osteopontin expression were observed after 14 days of ES. Discussion This study shows that rat bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived stem cells react differently to electrical stimuli, an observation that could be important for application of electrical stimulation in tissue engineering.

  1. The water channel aquaporin-1 contributes to renin cell recruitment during chronic stimulation of renin production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinning, Anne Robdrup; Jensen, Boye L; Schweda, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Processing and release of secretory granules involve water movement across granule membranes. It was hypothesized that the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) contributes directly to recruitment of renin-positive cells in the afferent arteriole. AQP1(-/-) and (+/+) mice were fed a low NaCl diet (LS...... to baseline with no difference between genotypes. Plasma nitrite/nitrate concentration was unaffected by genotype and LS-ACEI. In AQP1(-/-) mice, the number of afferent arterioles with recruitment was significantly lower compared to (+/+) after LS-ACEI. It is concluded that aquaporin-1 is not necessary...... for acutely stimulated renin secretion in vivo and from isolated perfused kidney, whereas recruitment of renin-positive cells in response to chronic stimulation is attenuated or delayed in AQP1(-/-) mice....

  2. Melanogenesis stimulation in murine B16 melanoma cells by Kava (Piper methysticum) rhizome extract and kavalactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Hirata, Noriko; Kawaguchi, Yoshiko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Takata, Takanobu; Oyama, Masayoshi; Iinuma, Munekazu; Kubo, Michinori

    2006-04-01

    Melanogenesis stimulation activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts obtained from several different parts of five Piper species, namely Piper longum, P. kadsura, P. methysticum, P. betle, and P. cubeba, were examined by using cultured murine B16 melanoma cells. Among them, the extract of P. methysticum rhizome (Kava) showed potent stimulatory effect on melanogenesis as well as P. nigrum leaf extract. Activity-guided fractionation of Kava extract led to the isolation of two active kavalactones, yangonin (2) and 7,8-epoxyyangonin (5), along with three inactive kavalactones, 5,6-dehydrokawain (1), (+)-kawain (3) and (+)-methysticin (4), and a glucosylsterol, daucosterin (6). 7,8-Epoxyyangonin (5) showed a significant stimulatory effect on melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. Yangonin (2) exhibited a weak melanogenesis stimulation activity.

  3. [Inhibitory effect of kaempferol on inflammatory response of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human mast cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun-jiang; Wang, Hu; Li, Li; Sui, He-huan; Huang, Jia-jun

    2015-06-01

    This study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of kaempferol on inflammatory response of lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-stimulated HMC-1 mast cells. The cytotoxicity of kaempferol to HMC-1 mast cells were analyzed by using MTT assay and then the administration concentrations of kaempferol were established. Histamine, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α were measured using ELISA assay in activated HMC-1 mast cells after incubation with various concentrations of kaempferol (10, 20 and 40 µmol.L-1). Western blot was used to test the protein expression of p-IKKβ, IκBα, p-IκBα and nucleus NF-κB of LPS-induced HMC-1 mast cells after incubation with different concentrations of kaempferol. The optimal concentrations of kaempferol were defined as the range from 5 µmol.L-1 to 40 µmol.L-1. Kaempferol significantly decreased the release of histamine, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α of activated HMC-1 mast cells (Pkaempferol, the protein expression of p-IKKβ, p-IKBa and nucleus NF-κB (p65) markedly reduced in LPS-stimulated HMC-1 mast cells (Pkaempferol markedly inhibit mast cell-mediated inflammatory response. At the same time, kaempferol can inhibit the activation of IKKβ, block the phosphorylation of IκBα, prevent NF-KB entering into the nucleus, and then decrease the release of inflammatory mediators.

  4. Stimulation of phosphatidylcholine breakdown and diacylglycerol production by growth factors in Swiss-3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, B D; Morris, J D; Hall, A

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a number of growth factors on phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) turnover in Swiss-3T3 cells was studied. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), bombesin, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vasopressin rapidly stimulated PtdCho hydrolysis, diacylglycerol (DAG) production, and PtdCho synthesis. Insulin and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) stimulated PtdCho synthesis, but not its breakdown, whereas epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bradykinin were without effect. Stimulation of PtdCho hydrolysis by the above ligands resulted in increased production of phosphocholine and DAG (due to phospholipase C activity) and significant amounts of choline, suggesting activation of a phospholipase D as well. CDP-choline and glycerophosphocholine levels were unchanged. Down-regulation of protein kinase C with PMA (400 nM, 40 h) abolished the stimulation of PtdCho hydrolysis and PtdCho synthesis by PMA, bombesin, PDGF and vasopressin, but not the stimulation of PtdCho synthesis by insulin and PGF2 alpha. PtdCho hydrolysis therefore occurs predominantly by activation of protein kinase C (either by PMA or PtdIns hydrolysis) leading to elevation of DAG levels derived from non-PtdIns(4,5)P2 sources. PtdCho synthesis occurs by both a protein kinase C-dependent pathway (stimulated by PMA, PDGF, bombesin and vasopressin) and a protein kinase C-independent pathway (stimulated by insulin and PGF2 alpha). DAG production from PtdCho hydrolysis is not the primary signal to activate protein kinase C, but may contribute to long-term activation of this kinase. PMID:2690829

  5. The Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Induces Conversion of Effector T Cells into Treg Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH has an important role in modulating immunity and homeostasis. The production of IFN-γ by effector T cells is suppressed by α-MSH, while TGF-β production is promoted in the same cells. Such α-MSH-treated T cells have immune regulatory activity and suppress hypersensitivity, autoimmune diseases, and graft rejection. Previous characterizations of the α-MSH-induced Treg cells showed that the cells are CD4+ T cells expressing the same levels of CD25 as effector T cells. Therefore, we further analyzed the α-MSH-induced Treg cells for expression of effector and regulatory T-cell markers. Also, we examined the potential for α-MSH-induced Treg cells to be from the effector T-cell population. We found that the α-MSH-induced Treg cells are CD25+  CD4+ T cells that share similar surface markers as effector T cells, except that they express on their surface LAP. Also, the α-MSH treatment augments FoxP3 message in the effector T cells, and α-MSH induction of regulatory activity was limited to the effector CD25+ T-cell population. Therefore, α-MSH converts effector T cells into Treg cells, which suppress immunity targeting specific antigens and tissues.

  6. Mechanism of the melanogenesis stimulation activity of (-)-cubebin in murine B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Noriko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Ohguchi, Kenji; Akao, Yukihiro; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2007-07-15

    (-)-Cubebin showed a melanogenesis stimulation activity in a concentration-dependent manner in murine B16 melanoma cells without any significant effects on cell proliferation. Tyrosinase activity was increased at 24-72 h after addition of cubebin to B16 cells, and then intracellular melanin amount was increased at 48-96 h after the treatment. The expression levels of tyrosinase were time-dependently enhanced after the treatment with cubebin. At the same time, the expression levels of tyrosinase mRNA were also increased after addition of cubebin. Furthermore Western blot analysis revealed that cubebin elevated the level of phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). SB203580, a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, completely blocked cubebin-induced expression of tyrosinase mRNA in B16 cells. These results suggested that cubebin increased melanogenesis in B16 cells through the enhancement of tyrosinase expression mediated by activation of p38 MAPK.

  7. Significance of myofibroblasts in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thode, Christenze; Jørgensen, Trine G.; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    -smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblast that often represent the majority of tumor stromal cells. Their production of growth factors chemokines and extracellular matrix facilitates tumor growth. Myofibroblast have been demonstrated in close to 50% of oral squamous cell carcinomas. In this review, we...... highlight the histological distribution of myofibroblast in oral squamous cell and the myofibroblast relation to tumor growth on prognosis....

  8. Gamma-radiation-induced chromosal aberration in human lymphocytes: dose-rate effects in stimulated and non-stimulated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liniecki, J.; Bajerska, A.; Wyszynska, K.; Cisowska, B.

    1977-01-01

    Stimulated and non-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes were irradiated acutely and chronically, over 24 h. Dose-effect relationships for dicentric chromosomes were established and various models were fitted to the data. At prolonged irradiations, the yield decreased in basic agreement with the linear-quadratic model of aberration induction. Dose-protraction experiments on PHA + and PHA - lymphocytes, irradiated under various conditions of oxygenation and suspension (culture medium, whole blood) showed that the rejoining time increased from about 3 h in non-stimulated cells to about 10 h after PHA stimulation, and that this retarded rejoining was most likely due to blastic transformation itself and not to other conditions of irradiation

  9. Gamma radiation induced chromosal aberration in human lymphocytes: dose-rate effects in stimulated and non-stimulated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liniecki, J; Bajerska, A; Wyszynska, K [School of Medicine, Lodz (Poland). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology. Medical Research Center; Cisowska, B [Copernicus Municipal Hospital, Lodz (Poland). Oncology Center. Radiotherapy Dept.

    1977-05-01

    Stimulated and non-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes were irradiated acutely and chronically, over 24 h. Dose-effect relationships for dicentric chromosomes were established and various models were fitted to the data. At prolonged irradiations, the yield decreased in basic agreement with the linear-quadratic model of aberration induction. Dose-protraction experiments on PHA/sup +/ and PHA/sup -/ lymphocytes, irradiated under various conditions of oxygenation and suspension (culture medium, whole blood) showed that the rejoining time increased from about 3 h in non-stimulated cells to about 10 h after PHA stimulation, and that this retarded rejoining was most likely due to blastic transformation itself and not to other conditions of irradiation.

  10. Schwann cell response on polypyrrole substrates upon electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forciniti, Leandro; Ybarra, Jose; Zaman, Muhammad H; Schmidt, Christine E

    2014-06-01

    Current injury models suggest that Schwann cell (SC) migration and guidance are necessary for successful regeneration and synaptic reconnection after peripheral nerve injury. The ability of conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) to exhibit chemical, contact and electrical stimuli for cells has led to much interest in their use for neural conduits. Despite this interest, there has been very little research on the effect that electrical stimulation (ES) using PPy has on SC behavior. Here we investigate the mechanism by which SCs interact with PPy in the presence of an electric field. Additionally, we explored the effect that the adsorption of different serum proteins on PPy upon the application of an electric field has on SC migration. The results indicate an increase in average displacement of the SC with ES, resulting in a net anodic migration. Moreover, indirect effects of protein adsorption due to the oxidation of the film upon the application of ES were shown to have a larger effect on migration speed than on migration directionality. These results suggest that SC migration speed is governed by an integrin- or receptor-mediated mechanism, whereas SC migration directionality is governed by electrically mediated phenomena. These data will prove invaluable in optimizing conducting polymers for their different biomedical applications such as nerve repair. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ghrelin stimulates angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells: Implications beyond GH release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Aihua; Cheng Guangli; Zhu Genghui; Tarnawski, Andrzej S.

    2007-01-01

    Ghrelin, a peptide hormone isolated from the stomach, releases growth hormone and stimulates appetite. Ghrelin is also expressed in pancreas, kidneys, cardiovascular system and in endothelial cells. The precise role of ghrelin in endothelial cell functions remains unknown. We examined the expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR1) mRNAs and proteins in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and determined whether ghrelin affects in these cells proliferation, migration and in vitro angiogenesis; and whether MAPK/ERK2 signaling is important for the latter action. We found that ghrelin and GHSR1 are constitutively expressed in HMVEC. Treatment of HMVEC with exogenous ghrelin significantly increased in these cells proliferation, migration, in vitro angiogenesis and ERK2 phosphorylation. MEK/ERK2 inhibitor, PD 98059 abolished ghrelin-induced in vitro angiogenesis. This is First demonstration that ghrelin and its receptor are expressed in human microvascular endothelial cells and that ghrelin stimulates HMVEC proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis through activation of ERK2 signaling

  12. Chitosan drives anti-inflammatory macrophage polarisation and pro-inflammatory dendritic cell stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC share the same precursor and play key roles in immunity. Modulation of their behaviour to achieve an optimal host response towards an implanted device is still a challenge. Here we compare the differentiation process and polarisation of these related cell populations and show that they exhibit different responses to chitosan (Ch, with human monocyte-derived macrophages polarising towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype while their DC counterparts display pro-inflammatory features. Macrophages and DC, whose interactions with biomaterials are frequently analysed using fully differentiated cells, were cultured directly on Ch films, rather than exposed to the polymer after complete differentiation. Ch was the sole stimulating factor and activated both macrophages and DC, without leading to significant T cell proliferation. After 10 d on Ch, macrophages significantly down-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory markers, CD86 and MHCII. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly TNF-α, decreased with time for cells cultured on Ch, while anti-inflammatory IL-10 and TGF-β1, significantly increased. Altogether, these results suggest an M2c polarisation. Also, macrophage matrix metalloproteinase activity was augmented and cell motility was stimulated by Ch. Conversely, DC significantly enhanced CD86 expression, reduced IL-10 secretion and increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. Our findings indicate that cells with a common precursor may display different responses, when challenged by the same biomaterial. Moreover, they help to further comprehend macrophage/DC interactions with Ch and the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signals associated with implant biomaterials. We propose that an overall pro-inflammatory reaction may hide the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, likely relevant for tissue repair/regeneration.

  13. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells secrete endocannabinoids that stimulate in vitro hematopoietic stem cell migration effectively comparable to beta-adrenergic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Sevil; Aerts-Kaya, Fatima; Köprü, Çağla Zübeyde; Nemutlu, Emirhan; Kuşkonmaz, Barış; Karaosmanoğlu, Beren; Taşkıran, Ekim Zihni; Altun, Belgin; Uçkan Çetinkaya, Duygu; Korkusuz, Petek

    2018-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a well-known hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-mobilizing agent used in both allogeneic and autologous transplantation. However, a proportion of patients or healthy donors fail to mobilize a sufficient number of cells. New mobilization agents are therefore needed. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous lipid mediators generated in the brain and peripheral tissues and activate the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. We suggest that eCBs may act as mobilizers of HSCs from the bone marrow (BM) under stress conditions as beta-adrenergic receptors (Adrβ). This study demonstrates that BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) and the peripheral blood (PB) and BM microenvironment contain AEA and 2-AG. 2-AG levels are significantly higher in PB of the G-CSF-treated group compared with BM plasma. BM mononuclear cells (MNCs) and CD34 + HSCs express CB1, CB2, and Adrβ subtypes. CD34 + HSCs had higher CB1 and CB2 receptor expression in G-CSF-untreated and G-CSF-treated groups compared with MSCs. MNCs but not MSCs expressed CB1 and CB2 receptors based on qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. AEA- and 2-AG-stimulated HSC migration was blocked by eCB receptor antagonists in an in vitro migration assay. In conclusion, components of the eCB system and their interaction with Adrβ subtypes were demonstrated on HSCs and MSCs of G-CSF-treated and G-CSF-untreated healthy donors in vitro, revealing that eCBs might be potential candidates to enhance or facilitate G-CSF-mediated HSC migration under stress conditions in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2018 ISEH – Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. TLR-Stimulated Eosinophils Mediate Recruitment and Activation of NK Cells In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, S M; Sutummaporn, K; Häggtoft, W L; Worrall, A P; Rizzo, M; Braniste, V; Höglund, P; Kadri, N; Chambers, B J

    2017-06-01

    Eosinophils like many myeloid innate immune cells can provide cytokines and chemokines for the activation of other immune cells upon TLR stimulation. When TLR-stimulated eosinophils were inoculated i.p. into wild-type mice, and NK cells were rapidly recruited and exhibited antitumour cytotoxicity. However, when mice depleted of CD11c + cells were used, a marked decrease in the number of recruited NK cells was observed. We postulated that CpG or LPS from the injected eosinophils could be transferred to host cells, which in turn could recruit NK cells. However, by inoculating mice deficient in TLR4 or TLR9 with LPS or CpG-stimulated eosinophils respectively, NK cell recruitment was still observed alongside cytotoxicity and IFNγ production. CpG stimulation of eosinophils produced the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12 and the chemokine CXCL10, which are important for NK cell activation and recruitment in vivo. To demonstrate the importance of CXCL10 in NK cell recruitment, we found that CpG-stimulated eosinophils pretreated with the gut microbial metabolite butyrate had reduced expression and production of CXCL10 and IL-12 and concomitantly were poor at recruitment of NK cells and inducing IFNγ in NK cells. Therefore, eosinophils like other innate immune cells of myeloid origin can conceivably stimulate NK cell activity. In addition, products of the gut microbiota can be potential inhibitors of NK cell. © 2017 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  15. Endothelial cells stimulate growth of normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells in 3D culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson Magnus K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial-stromal interaction provides regulatory signals that maintain correct histoarchitecture and homeostasis in the normal breast and facilitates tumor progression in breast cancer. However, research on the regulatory role of the endothelial component in the normal and malignant breast gland has largely been neglected. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of endothelial cells on growth and differentiation of human breast epithelial cells in a three-dimensional (3D co-culture assay. Methods Breast luminal and myoepithelial cells and endothelial cells were isolated from reduction mammoplasties. Primary cells and established normal and malignant breast cell lines were embedded in reconstituted basement membrane in direct co-culture with endothelial cells and by separation of Transwell filters. Morphogenic and phenotypic profiles of co-cultures was evaluated by phase contrast microscopy, immunostaining and confocal microscopy. Results In co-culture, endothelial cells stimulate proliferation of both luminal- and myoepithelial cells. Furthermore, endothelial cells induce a subpopulation of luminal epithelial cells to form large acini/ducts with a large and clear lumen. Endothelial cells also stimulate growth and cloning efficiency of normal and malignant breast epithelial cell lines. Transwell and gradient co-culture studies show that endothelial derived effects are mediated - at least partially - by soluble factors. Conclusion Breast endothelial cells - beside their role in transporting nutrients and oxygen to tissues - are vital component of the epithelial microenvironment in the breast and provide proliferative signals to the normal and malignant breast epithelium. These growth promoting effects of endothelial cells should be taken into consideration in breast cancer biology.

  16. Aloin Inhibits Interleukin (IL)-1β-Stimulated IL-8 Production in KB Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hee Sam; Song, Yu Ri; Kim, Seyeon; Heo, Jun-Young; Chung, Hae-Young; Chung, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β, which is elevated in oral diseases including gingivitis, stimulates epithelial cells to produce IL-8 and perpetuate inflammatory responses. This study investigates stimulatory effects of salivary IL-1β in IL-8 production and determines if aloin inhibits IL-1β-stimulated IL-8 production in epithelial cells. Saliva was collected from volunteers to determine IL-1β and IL-8 levels. Samples from volunteers were divided into two groups: those with low and those with high IL-1β levels. KB cells were stimulated with IL-1β or saliva with or without IL-1 receptor agonist or specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. IL-8 production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MAPK protein expression involved in IL-1β-induced IL-8 secretion was detected by Western blot. KB cells were pretreated with aloin, and its effect on IL-1β-induced IL-8 production was examined by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Saliva with high IL-1β strongly stimulated IL-8 production in KB cells, and IL-1 receptor agonist significantly inhibited IL-8 production. Low IL-1β-containing saliva did not increase IL-8 production. IL-1β treatment of KB cells induced activation of MAPK signaling molecules as well as nuclear factor-kappa B. IL-1β-induced IL-8 production was decreased by p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor treatment. Aloin pretreatment inhibited IL-1β-induced IL-8 production in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited activation of the p38 and ERK signaling pathway. Finally, aloin pretreatment also inhibited saliva-induced IL-8 production. Results indicated that IL-1β in saliva stimulates epithelial cells to produce IL-8 and that aloin effectively inhibits salivary IL-1β-induced IL-8 production by mitigating the p38 and ERK pathway. Therefore, aloin may be a good candidate for modulating oral inflammatory diseases.

  17. Reduction of the radiogenic tumor incidence by stimulation with lyophilized fetal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bause, R.; Gros, C.J.; Landsberger, A.; Renner, H.; Klinikum Nuernberg

    1983-01-01

    The effect of an immunization treatment with lyophilized xenogenic fetal cells was studied in 7 months old, female albino rats (strain Wistar). The tumor incidence was measured after a sublethal whole-body irradiation with 600 cGy. Furthermore, the spleen of the individual animals was histologically examined. 3,5 to 6 months after a whole-body irradiation with 600 cGy, the tumor incidence was 55%. The tumors found were tubular adenocarcinomas of the thyroid gland. A significant reduction of the tumor incidence can be achieved by an immunostimulation with xenogenic, lyophilized, fetal cells (connective tissue and bone marrow, respectively) administered twice, namely eight days before and four days after the whole-body irradiation. The tumor incidence measured after 3,5 months was 10% and 15%, respectively, and after 6 months 15% and 25%, respectively. No significant tumor protection is achieved, however, by a single stimulation before whole-body irradiation and by a stimulation performed one or two times after whole-body irradiation. Histologic examinations of the spleen show in the immunostimulized animals a strong regeneration of the immune system with a significantly increased number of follicles and a significant increase of lumphocytes in the red pulp. The authors stress the possible clinical importance for radio-oncology of an immunostimulation with lyophilized, xenogenic, fetal cells. (orig.) [de

  18. Aging increases cell-to-cell transcriptional variability upon immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Jimenez, Celia Pilar; Eling, Nils; Chen, Hung-Chang; Vallejos, Catalina A; Kolodziejczyk, Aleksandra A; Connor, Frances; Stojic, Lovorka; Rayner, Timothy F; Stubbington, Michael J T; Teichmann, Sarah A; de la Roche, Maike; Marioni, John C; Odom, Duncan T

    2017-03-31

    Aging is characterized by progressive loss of physiological and cellular functions, but the molecular basis of this decline remains unclear. We explored how aging affects transcriptional dynamics using single-cell RNA sequencing of unstimulated and stimulated naïve and effector memory CD4 + T cells from young and old mice from two divergent species. In young animals, immunological activation drives a conserved transcriptomic switch, resulting in tightly controlled gene expression characterized by a strong up-regulation of a core activation program, coupled with a decrease in cell-to-cell variability. Aging perturbed the activation of this core program and increased expression heterogeneity across populations of cells in both species. These discoveries suggest that increased cell-to-cell transcriptional variability will be a hallmark feature of aging across most, if not all, mammalian tissues. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Functional dichotomy between NKG2D and CD28-mediated co-stimulation in human CD8+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalakannan Rajasekaran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Both CD28 and NKG2D can function as co-stimulatory receptors in human CD8+ T cells. However, their independent functional contributions in distinct CD8+ T cell subsets are not well understood. In this study, CD8+ T cells in human peripheral blood- and lung-derived lymphocytes were analyzed for CD28 and NKG2D expression and function. We found a higher level of CD28 expression in PBMC-derived naïve (CD45RA+CD27+ and memory (CD45RA-CD27+ CD8+ T cells (CD28Hi, while its expression was significantly lower in effector (CD45RA+CD27- CD8+ T cells (CD28Lo. Irrespective of the differences in the CD28 levels, NKG2D expression was comparable in all three CD8+ T cell subsets. CD28 and NKG2D expressions followed similar patterns in human lung-resident GILGFVFTL/HLA-A2-pentamer positive CD8+ T cells. Co-stimulation of CD28Lo effector T cells via NKG2D significantly increased IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. On the contrary, irrespective of its comparable levels, NKG2D-mediated co-stimulation failed to augment IFN-γ and TNF-α production in CD28Hi naïve/memory T cells. Additionally, CD28-mediated co-stimulation was obligatory for IL-2 generation and thereby its production was limited only to the CD28Hi naïve/memory subsets. MICA, a ligand for NKG2D was abundantly expressed in the tracheal epithelial cells, validating the use of NKG2D as the major co-stimulatory receptor by tissue-resident CD8+ effector T cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that NKG2D may provide an expanded level of co-stimulation to tissue-residing effector CD8+ T cells. Thus, incorporation of co-stimulation via NKG2D in addition to CD28 is essential to activate tumor or tissue-infiltrating effector CD8+ T cells. However, boosting a recall immune response via memory CD8+ T cells or vaccination to stimulate naïve CD8+ T cells would require CD28-mediated co-stimulation.

  20. Human trophoblast-derived hydrogen sulfide stimulates placental artery endothelial cell angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong-Bao; Feng, Lin; Hodges, Jennifer K; Lechuga, Thomas J; Zhang, Honghai

    2017-09-01

    Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S), mainly synthesized by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH), has been implicated in regulating placental angiogenesis; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. This study was to test a hypothesis that trophoblasts synthesize H2S to promote placental angiogenesis. Human choriocarcinoma-derived BeWo cells expressed both CBS and CTH proteins, while the first trimester villous trophoblast-originated HTR-8/SVneo cells expressed CTH protein only. The H2S producing ability of BeWo cells was significantly inhibited by either inhibitors of CBS (carboxymethyl hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride, CHH) or CTH (β-cyano-L-alanine, BCA) and that in HTR-8/SVneo cells was inhibited by CHH only. H2S donors stimulated cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in ovine placental artery endothelial cells (oFPAECs) as effectively as vascular endothelial growth factor. Co-culture with BeWo and HTR-8/SVneo cells stimulated oFPAEC migration, which was inhibited by CHH or BCA in BeWo but CHH only in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Primary human villous trophoblasts (HVT) were more potent than trophoblast cell lines in stimulating oFPAEC migration that was inhibited by CHH and CHH/BCA combination in accordance with its H2S synthesizing activity linked to CBS and CTH expression patterns. H2S donors activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), v-AKT murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), and extracellular signal-activated kinase 1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1, MAPK3/1) in oFPAECs. H2S donor-induced NOS3 activation was blocked by AKT1 but not MAPK3/1 inhibition. In keeping with our previous studies showing a crucial role of AKT1, MAPK3/1, and NOS3/NO in placental angiogenesis, these data show that trophoblast-derived endogenous H2S stimulates placental angiogenesis, involving activation of AKT1, NOS3/NO, and MAPK3/1. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study

  1. Exosomes from Cardiomyocyte Progenitor Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stimulate Angiogenesis Via EMMPRIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijsen, Krijn R; Maring, Janita A; Chamuleau, Steven A J; Verhage, Vera; Mol, Emma A; Deddens, Janine C; Metz, Corina H G; Lodder, Kirsten; van Eeuwijk, Esther C M; van Dommelen, Susan M; Doevendans, Pieter A; Smits, Anke M; Goumans, Marie-José; Sluijter, Joost P G

    2016-10-01

    To date, cellular transplantation therapy has not yet fulfilled its high expectations for cardiac repair. A major limiting factor is lack of long-term engraftment of the transplanted cells. Interestingly, transplanted cells can positively affect their environment via secreted paracrine factors, among which are extracellular vesicles, including exosomes: small bi-lipid-layered vesicles containing proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs. An exosome-based therapy will therefore relay a plethora of effects, without some of the limiting factors of cell therapy. Since cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) induce vessel formation and are frequently investigated for cardiac-related therapies, the pro-angiogenic properties of CMPC and MSC-derived exosome-like vesicles are investigated. Both cell types secrete exosome-like vesicles, which are efficiently taken up by endothelial cells. Endothelial cell migration and vessel formation are stimulated by these exosomes in in vitro models, mediated via ERK/Akt-signaling. Additionally, these exosomes stimulated blood vessel formation into matrigel plugs. Analysis of pro-angiogenic factors revealed high levels of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN). Knockdown of EMMPRIN on CMPCs leads to a diminished pro-angiogenic effect, both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, CMPC and MSC exosomes have powerful pro-angiogenic effects, and this effect is largely mediated via the presence of EMMPRIN on exosomes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Mast Cell Proteases 6 and 7 Stimulate Angiogenesis by Inducing Endothelial Cells to Release Angiogenic Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devandir Antonio de Souza Junior

    Full Text Available Mast cell proteases are thought to be involved with tumor progression and neo-vascularization. However, their exact role is still unclear. The present study was undertaken to further elucidate the function of specific subtypes of recombinant mouse mast cell proteases (rmMCP-6 and 7 in neo-vascularization. SVEC4-10 cells were cultured on Geltrex® with either rmMCP-6 or 7 and tube formation was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the capacity of these proteases to induce the release of angiogenic factors and pro and anti-angiogenic proteins was analyzed. Both rmMCP-6 and 7 were able to stimulate tube formation. Scanning electron microscopy showed that incubation with the proteases induced SVEC4-10 cells to invade the gel matrix. However, the expression and activity of metalloproteases were not altered by incubation with the mast cell proteases. Furthermore, rmMCP-6 and rmMCP-7 were able to induce the differential release of angiogenic factors from the SVEC4-10 cells. rmMCP-7 was more efficient in stimulating tube formation and release of angiogenic factors than rmMCP-6. These results suggest that the subtypes of proteases released by mast cells may influence endothelial cells during in vivo neo-vascularization.

  3. Renin release from permeabilized juxtaglomerular cells is stimulated by chloride but not by low calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Skøtt, O

    1994-01-01

    of chloride channels followed by a drop in the intracellular chloride concentration. The stimulation caused by the high calcium concentration may be a toxic effect or may be due to stimulation of the fusion between granules and cell membrane in a way analogous to other secretory cells....

  4. Homeobox A7 stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation by up-regulating estrogen receptor-alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •HOXA7 regulates MCF7 cell proliferation. •HOXA7 up-regulates ERα expression. •HOXA7 mediates estrogen-induced MCF7 cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common hormone-dependent malignancy in women. Homeobox (HOX) transcription factors regulate many cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been reported to be associated with human reproductive cancers. Estradiol (E2) and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta, are known to play critical roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. However, an understanding of the potential relationship between HOXA7 and ER in breast cancer cells is limited. In this study, our results demonstrate that knockdown of HOXA7 in MCF7 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and ERα expression. In addition, HOXA7 knockdown attenuated E2-induced cell proliferation as well as progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The stimulatory effects of E2 on cell proliferation and PR expression were abolished by co-treatment with ICI 182780, a selective ERα antagonist. In contrast, overexpression of HOXA7 significantly stimulated cell proliferation and ERα expression. Moreover, E2-induced cell proliferation, as well as PR expression, was enhanced by the overexpression of HOXA7. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of HOXA7 affected the ER-beta levels. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating breast cancer cell proliferation via regulation of ERα expression. This finding contributes to our understanding of the role HOXA7 plays in regulating the proliferation of ER-positive cancer cells

  5. Homeobox A7 stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation by up-regulating estrogen receptor-alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4H4 (Canada); Cheng, Jung-Chien [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4H4 (Canada); Huang, He-Feng, E-mail: huanghefg@hotmail.com [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Leung, Peter C.K., E-mail: peter.leung@ubc.ca [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4H4 (Canada)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •HOXA7 regulates MCF7 cell proliferation. •HOXA7 up-regulates ERα expression. •HOXA7 mediates estrogen-induced MCF7 cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common hormone-dependent malignancy in women. Homeobox (HOX) transcription factors regulate many cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been reported to be associated with human reproductive cancers. Estradiol (E2) and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta, are known to play critical roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. However, an understanding of the potential relationship between HOXA7 and ER in breast cancer cells is limited. In this study, our results demonstrate that knockdown of HOXA7 in MCF7 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and ERα expression. In addition, HOXA7 knockdown attenuated E2-induced cell proliferation as well as progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The stimulatory effects of E2 on cell proliferation and PR expression were abolished by co-treatment with ICI 182780, a selective ERα antagonist. In contrast, overexpression of HOXA7 significantly stimulated cell proliferation and ERα expression. Moreover, E2-induced cell proliferation, as well as PR expression, was enhanced by the overexpression of HOXA7. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of HOXA7 affected the ER-beta levels. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating breast cancer cell proliferation via regulation of ERα expression. This finding contributes to our understanding of the role HOXA7 plays in regulating the proliferation of ER-positive cancer cells.

  6. Hypergravity As a Tool for Cell Stimulation: Implications in Biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genchi, Giada G.; Rocca, Antonella; Marino, Attilio; Grillone, Agostina; Mattoli, Virgilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Gravity deeply influences numerous biological events in living organisms. Variations in gravity values induce adaptive reactions that have been shown to play important roles, for instance in cell survival, growth, and spatial organization. In this paper, we summarize effects of gravity values higher than that one experienced by cells and tissues on Earth, i.e., hypergravity, with particular attention to the nervous and the musculoskeletal systems. Besides the biological consequences that hypergravity induces in the living matter, we will discuss the possibility of exploiting this augmented force in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, and thus hypergravity significance as a new therapeutic approach both in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Hypergravity As a Tool for Cell Stimulation: Implications in Biomedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genchi, Giada G. [Center for Micro-BioRobotics @SSSA, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pisa (Italy); Rocca, Antonella; Marino, Attilio; Grillone, Agostina [Center for Micro-BioRobotics @SSSA, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pisa (Italy); BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Mattoli, Virgilio [Center for Micro-BioRobotics @SSSA, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pisa (Italy); Ciofani, Gianni, E-mail: giada.genchi@iit.it [Center for Micro-BioRobotics @SSSA, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pisa (Italy); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2016-08-19

    Gravity deeply influences numerous biological events in living organisms. Variations in gravity values induce adaptive reactions that have been shown to play important roles, for instance in cell survival, growth, and spatial organization. In this paper, we summarize effects of gravity values higher than that one experienced by cells and tissues on Earth, i.e., hypergravity, with particular attention to the nervous and the musculoskeletal systems. Besides the biological consequences that hypergravity induces in the living matter, we will discuss the possibility of exploiting this augmented force in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, and thus hypergravity significance as a new therapeutic approach both in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Cell Adhesion Molecules and Ubiquitination—Functions and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homrich, Mirka; Gotthard, Ingo; Wobst, Hilke; Diestel, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily represent the biggest group of cell adhesion molecules. They have been analyzed since approximately 40 years ago and most of them have been shown to play a role in tumor progression and in the nervous system. All members of the Ig superfamily are intensively posttranslationally modified. However, many aspects of their cellular functions are not yet known. Since a few years ago it is known that some of the Ig superfamily members are modified by ubiquitin. Ubiquitination has classically been described as a proteasomal degradation signal but during the last years it became obvious that it can regulate many other processes including internalization of cell surface molecules and lysosomal sorting. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the ubiquitination of cell adhesion molecules of the Ig superfamily and to discuss its potential physiological roles in tumorigenesis and in the nervous system. PMID:26703751

  9. Cytogenetic 'rogue' cells: Their frequency, origin, and evolutionary significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awa, A.A.; Neel, J.V.

    1986-07-01

    Among 102,170 cultured lymphocytes obtained from 9,818 Hiroshima Japanese aged 9 to 37 years and scored for chromosomal abnormalities, 24 cells exhibiting an extreme degree of damage were encountered. The damage consists of multiple dicentric and even tricentric chromosomes, as well as numerous fragments, many with the appearance of 'double minutes'. The occurrence of these cells was not correlated with parental exposure to the atomic bomb, age, sex, year, or season. The distribution of chromosomal abnormalities by individual was nonrandom. Such cells were originally described in South American Indians, and have also been recorded in United States and United Kingdom inhabitants; this appears to be a worldwide phenomenon. Their cause remains unknown, nor is it known whether they occur in other somatic and also germ-line cells. Should the latter be the case, and should the least damaged of these cells occasionally successfully complete mitosis and meiosis, the possible role of such cells in oncogenesis and evolution must be considered. (author)

  10. Cytogenetic 'rogue' cells: Their frequency, origin, and evolutionary significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awa, A A; Neel, J V [Department of Genetics, University of Michigan Medical School (United States)

    1986-07-15

    Among 102,170 cultured lymphocytes obtained from 9,818 Hiroshima Japanese aged 9 to 37 years and scored for chromosomal abnormalities, 24 cells exhibiting an extreme degree of damage were encountered. The damage consists of multiple dicentric and even tricentric chromosomes, as well as numerous fragments, many with the appearance of 'double minutes'. The occurrence of these cells was not correlated with parental exposure to the atomic bomb, age, sex, year, or season. The distribution of chromosomal abnormalities by individual was nonrandom. Such cells were originally described in South American Indians, and have also been recorded in United States and United Kingdom inhabitants; this appears to be a worldwide phenomenon. Their cause remains unknown, nor is it known whether they occur in other somatic and also germ-line cells. Should the latter be the case, and should the least damaged of these cells occasionally successfully complete mitosis and meiosis, the possible role of such cells in oncogenesis and evolution must be considered. (author)

  11. Accumulation of cytolytic CD8{sup +} T cells in B16-melanoma and proliferation of mature T cells in TIS21-knockout mice after T cell receptor stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Min Sook [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Min-Yeong [Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, The Graduate School, Ajou University (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Daeho [Department of Microbiology, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwon-do 210-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Allen E. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kye Yong [Department of Pathology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun [Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, In Kyoung [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    In vivo and in vitro effects of TIS21 gene on the mature T cell activation and antitumor activities were explored by employing MO5 melanoma orthograft and splenocytes isolated from the TIS21-knockout (KO) mice. Proliferation and survival of mature T cells were significantly increased in the KO than the wild type (WT) cells, indicating that TIS21 inhibits the rate of mature T cell proliferation and its survival. In MO5 melanoma orthograft model, the KO mice recruited much more CD8{sup +} T cells into the tumors at around day 14 after tumor cell injection along with reduced tumor volumes compared with the WT. The increased frequency of granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in splenocytes of the KO mice compared with the WT may account for antitumor-immunity of TIS21 gene in the melanoma orthograft. In contrast, reduced frequencies of CD107a{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in the splenocytes of KO mice may affect the loss of CD8{sup +} T cell infiltration in the orthograft at around day 19. These results indicate that TIS21 exhibits antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in mature T cells, and differentially affects the frequencies of granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T-cells and CD107a{sup +} CD8{sup +} T-cells, thus transiently regulating in vivo anti-tumor immunity. - Highlights: • Constitutive expression of TIS21 in splenocytes and upregulation by TCR stimulation. • Proliferation of mature T-cells in spleen of TIS21KO mice after TCR stimulation. • Inhibition of cell death in mature T-cells of TIS21KO mice compared with the wild type. • Inhibition of melanoma growth in TIS21KO mice and CD8{sup +} T cell infiltration in tumor. • Reduction of CD 107{sup +}CD8{sup +} T cells, but increased granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in TIS21KO mice.

  12. Electrical stimulation as a biomimicry tool for regulating muscle cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadian, Samad; Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Kaji, Hirokazu; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need to understand muscle cell behaviors and to engineer muscle tissues to replace defective tissues in the body. Despite a long history of the clinical use of electric fields for muscle tissues in vivo, electrical stimulation (ES) has recently gained significant attention as a powerful tool for regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro. ES aims to mimic the electrical environment of electroactive muscle cells (e.g., cardiac or skeletal muscle cells) by helping to regulate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. As a result, it can be used to enhance the alignment and differentiation of skeletal or cardiac muscle cells and to aid in engineering of functional muscle tissues. Additionally, ES can be used to control and monitor force generation and electrophysiological activity of muscle tissues for bio-actuation and drug-screening applications in a simple, high-throughput, and reproducible manner. In this review paper, we briefly describe the importance of ES in regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro, as well as the major challenges and prospective potential associated with ES in the context of muscle tissue engineering.

  13. Biphasic electrical currents stimulation promotes both proliferation and differentiation of fetal neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-A Chang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-chemical methods to differentiate stem cells has attracted researchers from multiple disciplines, including the engineering and the biomedical fields. No doubt, growth factor based methods are still the most dominant of achieving some level of proliferation and differentiation control--however, chemical based methods are still limited by the quality, source, and amount of the utilized reagents. Well-defined non-chemical methods to differentiate stem cells allow stem cell scientists to control stem cell biology by precisely administering the pre-defined parameters, whether they are structural cues, substrate stiffness, or in the form of current flow. We have developed a culture system that allows normal stem cell growth and the option of applying continuous and defined levels of electric current to alter the cell biology of growing cells. This biphasic current stimulator chip employing ITO electrodes generates both positive and negative currents in the same culture chamber without affecting surface chemistry. We found that biphasic electrical currents (BECs significantly increased the proliferation of fetal neural stem cells (NSCs. Furthermore, BECs also promoted the differentiation of fetal NSCs into neuronal cells, as assessed using immunocytochemistry. Our results clearly show that BECs promote both the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of fetal NSCs. It may apply to the development of strategies that employ NSCs in the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  14. Human prostatic cancer cells, PC3, elaborate mitogenic activity which selectively stimulates human bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkel, V.S.; Mohan, S.; Herring, S.J.; Baylink, D.J.; Linkhart, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Prostatic cancer typically produces osteoblastic metastases which are not attended by marrow fibrosis. In the present study we sought to test the hypothesis that prostatic cancer cells produce factor(s) which act selectively on human osteoblasts. Such a paracrine mechanism would explain the observed increase in osteoblasts, unaccompanied by an increase in marrow fibroblasts. To test this hypothesis we investigated the mitogenic activity released by the human prostatic tumor cell line, PC3. PC3 cells have been reported previously to produce mitogenic activity for cells that was relatively specific for rat osteoblasts compared to rat fibroblasts. However, the effects of this activity on human cells has not been examined previously. PC3-conditioned medium (CM) (5-50 micrograms CM protein/ml) stimulated human osteoblast proliferation by 200-950% yet did not stimulate human fibroblast proliferation ([3H]thymidine incorporation). PC3 CM also increased cell numbers in human osteoblast but not fibroblast cell cultures. To determine whether the osteoblast-specific mitogenic activity could be attributed to known bone growth factors, specific assays for these growth factors were performed. PC3 CM contained 10 pg insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, less than 2 pg IGF II, 54 pg basic fibroblast growth factor, and 16 pg transforming growth factor beta/microgram CM protein. None of these growth factors alone or in combination could account for the observed osteoblast-specific PC3 cell-derived mitogenic activity. Furthermore, when 5 micrograms/ml PC3 CM was tested in combination with maximally effective concentrations of either basic fibroblast growth factor, IGF I, IGF II, or transforming growth factor beta, it produced an additive effect suggesting that PC3 CM stimulates osteoblast proliferation by a mechanism independent of these bone mitogens

  15. Atypical squamous and glandular cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and AGUS) of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, M; Vecchione, A

    2000-01-01

    ASCUS (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance) and AGUS (Atypical Glandular Cells of Undetermined Significance), or AGCUS, are two acronyms introduced in 1988 by The Bethesda System (TBS) for reporting borderline cytological changes in cervical cytology. ASCUS and AGUS categories should be subclassified. Five ASCUS subgroups were proposed: 1) ASCUS due to processing defects, 2) with "mature" cytoplasm, 3) in post-menopausal women (a--in the setting of atrophy and b--with estrogen stimulation), 4) atypical metaplasia, and 5) ASCUS with keratinized cytoplasm. AGUS subgroups may be subcategorized in endometrial or endocervical on the basis of origin. Endocervical AGUS should be further qualified, but the analysis of atypical glandular cells may be really difficult and the conclusive diagnosis is frequently "AGUS not otherwise specified". The subclassification of ASCUS and AGUS is useful for an appropriate clinical management, but pertinent patient information (such as age, date of last menstrual period, mechanical therapies, tamoxifen therapy, and others) is needed to avoid an overdiagnosis and consequently an overtreatment. In fact various subgroups require different clinical management. Therefore, an effective communication between cytopathologists and referring physicians is essential in the analysis of squamous and glandular atypias.

  16. Receptor stimulated formation of inositol phosphates in cultures of bovine adrenal medullary cells: the effects of bradykinin, bombesin and neurotensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, S J; Marley, P D; Livett, B G

    1990-04-01

    The ability of a number of drugs and neuropeptides to stimulate phosphoinositide metabolism in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells has been assessed. Low concentrations (10 nM) of angiotensin II, bradykinin, histamine, arginine-vasopressin, and bombesin, and high (10 microM) concentrations of oxytocin, prostaglandins E1, and E2, beta-endorphin, and neurotensin stimulated significant accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates in adrenal medullary cells preloaded with [3H)]inositol. Bradykinin stimulated a significant response at concentration as low as 10pM, with an EC50 of approximately 0.5 nM. The response was markedly inhibited by the bradykinin B2 antagonist [Thi5,8,D-Phe7] bradykinin but not the B1 antagonist [Des-Arg9,Leu8] bradykinin. Higher concentrations of bombesin and neurotensin were required to elicit a response (10 nM and 10 microM respectively). The bombesin response was sensitive to inhibition by the bombesin antagonist [D-Arg1,D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9Leu11]-substance P. In contrast, the neurotensin response was not reduced by the NT1 antagonist [D-Trp11]-neurotensin. These results indicate there are a number of agents that can stimulate phosphatidylinositide hydrolysis in the adrenal medullary cells by acting on different classes of receptors. Such a range of diverse agonists that stimulate inositol phosphate formation will facilitate further analysis of the phosphatidylinositide breakdown in chromaffin cell function.

  17. Nanosecond laser pulse stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons and model cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmaier, Alexander; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Günter

    2014-04-01

    Optical stimulation of the inner ear has recently attracted attention, suggesting a higher frequency resolution compared to electrical cochlear implants due to its high spatial stimulation selectivity. Although the feasibility of the effect is shown in multiple in vivo experiments, the stimulation mechanism remains open to discussion. Here we investigate in single-cell measurements the reaction of spiral ganglion neurons and model cells to irradiation with a nanosecond-pulsed laser beam over a broad wavelength range from 420 nm up to 1950 nm using the patch clamp technique. Cell reactions were wavelength- and pulse-energy-dependent but too small to elicit action potentials in the investigated spiral ganglion neurons. As the applied radiant exposure was much higher than the reported threshold for in vivo experiments in the same laser regime, we conclude that in a stimulation paradigm with nanosecond-pulses, direct neuronal stimulation is not the main cause of optical cochlea stimulation.

  18. Melanogenesis stimulation in murine b16 melanoma cells by umberiferae plant extracts and their coumarin constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Hirata, Noriko; Kawaguchi, Yoshiko; Yamazaki, Miho; Naruto, Shunsuke; Shibano, Makio; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Baba, Kimiye; Kubo, Michinori

    2005-07-01

    Melanogenesis stimulation activities of seven ethanolic extracts obtained from Umbelliferae plants used as Chinese crude drugs, namely the roots of Angelica dahurica BENTH. et HOOK., A. biserrata SHEN et YUAN, Notopterygium incisum TING, Heracleum lanatum MICHX., and H. candicans WALL., and the fruits of Cinidium monnieri (L.) CUSSON and C. formosanum YABE, were examined by using cultured murine B16 melanoma cells. Among them, the extract (5, 25 microg/ml) of H. lanatum showed a potent stimulatory effect on melanogenesis with significant enhancement of cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The melanogenesis stimulatory effects of sixteen coumarins (1-16) isolated from the seven Umbelliferae crude drugs were also examined. Among them, linear-furocoumarins [psoralen (1), xanthotoxin (2), bergapten (3), and isopimpinellin (4)] and angular-furocoumarin [sphondin (13)] exhibited potent melanogenesis stimulation activity. From the view point of structure-activity relationships, it may be assumed that a linear-furocoumarin ring having a hydrogen and/or methoxyl group at 5 and 8 positions such as 1, 2, 3 and 4 was preferable for the melanogenesis stimulation activity. The introduction of a prenyl group into the furocoumarin ring was disadvantageous. Coumarin derivatives having a simple coumarin ring were inactive.

  19. Low-power laser irradiation did not stimulate breast cancer cells following ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C. R.; Camargo, C. F. M.; Cabral, F. V.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Cancer has become a public health problem worldwide. Radiotherapy may be a treatment to a number of types of cancer, frequently using gamma-radiation with sources such as 137Cs and 60Co, with varying doses, dose rates, and exposure times to obtain a better as a stimulant for cell proliferation and tissue healing process. However, its effects on cancer cells are not yet well elucidated. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of the LPL on breast cancer cultures after ionizing radiation. The breast cancer-MDA-MB-231 cells were gamma irradiated by a 60Co source, with dose of 2.5 Gy. After 24h, cells were submitted to LPL irradiation using a red laser emitting at λ= 660 nm, with output power of 40 mW and exposure time of 30 s and 60 s. The plates were uniformly irradiated, with energy of 1.2 J and 2.4 J, respectively. Cell viability was analyzed using the exclusion method with trypan blue. Our results show that breast cancer cells submitted to LPL after ionizing radiation remained 95 % viable. No statistically significant differences were observed between laser and control untreated cells, (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that LPL did not influenced cancer cells viability.

  20. The role of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor in breast cancer and directing breast cancer cell behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise K Reaves

    Full Text Available The claudin-low molecular subtype of breast cancer is of particular interest for clinically the majority of these tumors are poor prognosis, triple negative, invasive ductal carcinomas. Claudin-low tumors are characterized by cancer stem cell-like features and low expression of cell junction and adhesion proteins. Herein, we sought to define the role of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR in breast cancer and cancer cell behavior as LSR was recently correlated with tumor-initiating features. We show that LSR was expressed in epithelium, endothelium, and stromal cells within the healthy breast tissue, as well as in tumor epithelium. In primary breast tumor bioposies, LSR expression was significantly correlated with invasive ductal carcinomas compared to invasive lobular carcinomas, as well as ERα positive tumors and breast cancer cell lines. LSR levels were significantly reduced in claudin-low breast cancer cell lines and functional studies illustrated that re-introduction of LSR into a claudin-low cell line suppressed the EMT phenotype and reduced individual cell migration. However, our data suggest that LSR may promote collective cell migration. Re-introduction of LSR in claudin-low breast cancer cell lines reestablished tight junction protein expression and correlated with transepithelial electrical resistance, thereby reverting claudin-low lines to other intrinsic molecular subtypes. Moreover, overexpression of LSR altered gene expression of pathways involved in transformation and tumorigenesis as well as enhanced proliferation and survival in anchorage independent conditions, highlighting that reestablishment of LSR signaling promotes aggressive/tumor initiating cell behaviors. Collectively, these data highlight a direct role for LSR in driving aggressive breast cancer behavior.

  1. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation facilitates osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    Full Text Available Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs possess stem cell properties, which play a key role in periodontal regeneration. Physical stimulation at appropriate intensities such as low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS enhances cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesechymal stem cells. However, the impacts of LIPUS on osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs in vitro and its molecular mechanism are unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of LIPUS on osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs. HPDLCs were isolated from premolars of adolescents for orthodontic reasons, and exposed to LIPUS at different intensities to determine an optimal LIPUS treatment dosage. Dynamic changes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities in the cultured cells and supernatants, and osteocalcin production in the supernatants after treatment were analyzed. Runx2 and integrin β1 mRNA levels were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis after LIPUS stimulation. Blocking antibody against integrinβ1 was used to assess the effects of integrinβ1 inhibitor on LIPUS-induced ALP activity, osteocalcin production as well as calcium deposition. Our data showed that LIPUS at the intensity of 90 mW/cm2 with 20 min/day was more effective. The ALP activities in lysates and supernatants of LIPUS-treated cells started to increase at days 3 and 7, respectively, and peaked at day 11. LIPUS treatment significantly augmented the production of osteocalcin after day 5. LIPUS caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of Runx2 and integrin β1, while a significant decline when the integrinβ1 inhibitor was used. Moreover, ALP activity, osteocalcin production as well as calcium nodules of cells treated with both daily LIPUS stimulation and integrinβ1 antibody were less than those in the LIPUS-treated group. In conclusion, LIPUS promotes osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs, which is associated with upregulation of Runx2 and

  2. NK cells of the oldest seniors represent constant and resistant to stimulation high expression of cellular protective proteins SIRT1 and HSP70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszubowska, Lucyna; Foerster, Jerzy; Kaczor, Jan Jacek; Schetz, Daria; Ślebioda, Tomasz Jerzy; Kmieć, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    Natural killer cells (NK cells) are cytotoxic lymphocytes of innate immunity that reveal some immunoregulatory properties, however, their role in the process of ageing is not completely understood. The study aimed to analyze the expression of proteins involved in cellular stress response: sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in human NK cells with reference to the process of ageing. Non-stimulated and stimulated with IL-2, LPS or PMA with ionomycin cells originated from peripheral blood samples of: seniors aged over 85 ('the oldest'; n  = 25; 88.5 ± 0.5 years, mean ± SEM), seniors aged under 85 ('the old'; n  = 30; 75.6 ± 0.9 years) and the young ( n  = 31; 20.9 ± 0.3 years). The relationships between the levels of expression of cellular protective proteins in the studied population were also analyzed. The concentrations of carbonyl groups and 8-isoprostanes, markers of oxidative stress, in both stimulated and non-stimulated cultured NK cells were measured to assess the level of the oxidative stress in the cells. The oldest seniors varied from the other age groups by significantly higher expression of SIRT1 and HSP70 both in non-stimulated and stimulated NK cells. These cells also appeared to be resistant to further stimulations with IL-2, LPS or PMA with ionomycin. Highly positive correlations between SIRT1 and intracellular HSP70 in both stimulated and non-stimulated NK cells were observed. SOD2 presented low expression in non-stimulated cells, whereas its sensitivity to stimulation increased with age of donors. High positive correlations between SOD2 and surface HSP70 were observed. We found that the markers of oxidative stress in NK cells did not change with ageing. The oldest seniors revealed well developed adaptive stress response in NK cells with increased, constant levels of SIRT1 and intracellular HSP70. They presented also very high positive correlations between

  3. The synergistic effect on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells by diode laser-treated stimulating human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Wu, Yu-Tin; Hsu, Tuan-Ti; Chen, Yi-Wen; Shie, Ming-You

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in determining the biostimulation of bone regeneration, in either new bone or blood vessel formation. Human umbilical cord cells (HUVECs) are important effector cells in angiogenesis and are indispensable for osteogenesis and for their heterogeneity and plasticity. However, there are very few studies about the effects of HUVECs on diode laser-stimulated/regulated osteogenesis. In this study, we used diode laser as a model biostimulation to examine the role of HUVECs on laser-stimulated osteogenesis. Several bone formation-related proteins were also significantly up-regulated by the diode laser stimulation, indicating that HUVECs may participate in diode laser-stimulated osteogenesis. Interestingly, when human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured with HUVECs were diode laser-treated, the osteogenesis differentiation of the hMSCs was significantly promoted, indicating the important role of HUVECs in diode laser-enhanced osteogenesis. Adequately activated HUVECs are vital for the success of diode laser-stimulated hard-tissue regeneration. These findings provided valuable insights into the mechanism of diode laser-stimulated osteogenic differentiation, and a strategy to optimize the evaluation system for the in vitro osteogenesis capacity of laser treatment in periodontal repair. (letter)

  4. The synergistic effect on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells by diode laser-treated stimulating human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Hsu, Tuan-Ti; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Wu, Yu-Tin; Chen, Yi-Wen; Shie, Ming-You

    2016-02-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in determining the biostimulation of bone regeneration, in either new bone or blood vessel formation. Human umbilical cord cells (HUVECs) are important effector cells in angiogenesis and are indispensable for osteogenesis and for their heterogeneity and plasticity. However, there are very few studies about the effects of HUVECs on diode laser-stimulated/regulated osteogenesis. In this study, we used diode laser as a model biostimulation to examine the role of HUVECs on laser-stimulated osteogenesis. Several bone formation-related proteins were also significantly up-regulated by the diode laser stimulation, indicating that HUVECs may participate in diode laser-stimulated osteogenesis. Interestingly, when human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured with HUVECs were diode laser-treated, the osteogenesis differentiation of the hMSCs was significantly promoted, indicating the important role of HUVECs in diode laser-enhanced osteogenesis. Adequately activated HUVECs are vital for the success of diode laser-stimulated hard-tissue regeneration. These findings provided valuable insights into the mechanism of diode laser-stimulated osteogenic differentiation, and a strategy to optimize the evaluation system for the in vitro osteogenesis capacity of laser treatment in periodontal repair.

  5. Significant bacteriuria in children with sickle cell anaemia in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) may result in long term morbidity and mortality due to chronic renal dysfunction. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of significant bacteriuria among children with SCA and to determine their antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of isolates.

  6. Conditioned medium of dental pulp cells stimulated by Chinese propolis show neuroprotection and neurite extension in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Daichi; Inden, Masatoshi; Sekine, Shin-Ichiro; Tamaoki, Naritaka; Iida, Kazuki; Naito, Eiji; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Hozumi, Isao

    2015-03-04

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of Chinese propolis on the expression level of neurotrophic factors in dental pulp cells (DPCs). We also investigated that the effects of the conditioned medium (CM) of DPCs stimulated by the propolis against oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and on neurite extensions in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. To investigate the effect of the propolis on the levels of neurotrophic factors in DPCs, we performed a qRT-PCR experiment. As results, NGF, but not BDNF and NT-3, in DPCs was significantly elevated by the propolis in a concentration-dependent manner. H2O2-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by the treatment with the CM of DPCs. In addition, the treatment with the propolis-stimulated CM of DPCs had a more protective effect than that with the CM of DPCs. We also examine the effect of the propolis-stimulated CM of DPCs against a tunicamycin-induced ER stress. The treatment with the propolis-stimulated CM as well as the CM of DPCs significantly inhibited tunicamycin-induced cell death. Moreover, the treatment with the propolis-stimulated CM of DPCs significantly induced neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells than that with the CM of DPCs. These results suggest that the CM of DPCs as well as DPCs will be an efficient source of new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and that the propolis promote the advantage of the CM of DPCs via producing neurotrophic factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acetylcholine release by human colon cancer cells mediates autocrine stimulation of cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kunrong; Samimi, Roxana; Xie, Guofeng; Shant, Jasleen; Drachenberg, Cinthia; Wade, Mark; Davis, Richard J; Nomikos, George; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2008-09-01

    Most colon cancers overexpress M3 muscarinic receptors (M3R), and post-M3R signaling stimulates human colon cancer cell proliferation. Acetylcholine (ACh), a muscarinic receptor ligand traditionally regarded as a neurotransmitter, may be produced by nonneuronal cells. We hypothesized that ACh release by human colon cancer cells results in autocrine stimulation of proliferation. H508 human colon cancer cells, which have robust M3R expression, were used to examine effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and choline transport inhibitors on cell proliferation. A nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist (atropine), a selective M3R antagonist (p-fluorohexahydro-sila-difenidol hydrochloride), and a choline transport inhibitor (hemicholinum-3) all inhibited unstimulated H508 colon cancer cell proliferation by approximately 40% (P<0.005). In contrast, two acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (eserine-hemisulfate and bis-9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine) increased proliferation by 2.5- and 2-fold, respectively (P<0.005). By using quantitative real-time PCR, expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a critical enzyme for ACh synthesis, was identified in H508, WiDr, and Caco-2 colon cancer cells. By using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, released ACh was detected in H508 and Caco-2 cell culture media. Immunohistochemistry in surgical specimens revealed weak or no cytoplasmic staining for ChAT in normal colon enterocytes (n=25) whereas half of colon cancer specimens (n=24) exhibited moderate to strong staining (P<0.005). We conclude that ACh is an autocrine growth factor in colon cancer. Mechanisms that regulate colon epithelial cell production and release of ACh warrant further investigation.

  8. Osteogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells by CO2 laser-treatment stimulating macrophages via BMP2 signalling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-01-01

    Immune reactions play an important role in determining the biostimulation of bone formation, either in new bone formation or inflammatory fibrous tissue encapsulation. Macrophage cell, the important effector cells in the immune reaction, which are indispensable for osteogenesis and their heterogeneity and plasticity, render macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. However, there are very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteogenesis. In this study, we used CO 2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of macrophage cells on the CO 2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was also significantly up regulated by the CO 2 laser stimulation, indicating that macrophage may participate in the CO 2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Interestingly, when laser treatment macrophage-conditioned medium were applied to human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs), the osteogenesis differentiation of hPDLs was significantly enhanced, indicating the important role of macrophages in CO 2 laser-induced osteogenesis. These findings provided valuable insights into the mechanism of CO 2 laser-stimulated osteogenic differentiation, and a strategy to optimize the evaluation system for the in vitro osteogenesis capacity of laser treatment. (paper)

  9. LTB4 stimulates growth of human pancreatic cancer cells via MAPK and PI-3 kinase pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, W.-G.; Ding, X.-Z.; Talamonti, Mark S.; Bell, Richard H.; Adrian, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    We have previously shown the importance of LTB4 in human pancreatic cancer. LTB4 receptor antagonists block growth and induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we investigated the effect of LTB4 on proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells and the mechanisms involved. LTB4 stimulated DNA synthesis and proliferation of both PANC-1 and AsPC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells, as measured by thymidine incorporation and cell number. LTB4 stimulated rapid and transient activation of MEK and ERK1/2 kinases. The MEK inhibitors, PD98059 and U0126, blocked LTB4-stimulated ERK1/2 activation and cell proliferation. LTB4 also stimulated phosphorylation of p38 MAPK; however, the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, failed to block LTB4-stimulated growth. The activity of JNK/SAPK was not affected by LTB4 treatment. Phosphorylation of Akt was also induced by LTB4 and this effect was blocked by the PI-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin, which also partially blocked LTB4-stimulated cell proliferation. In conclusion, LTB4 stimulates proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells through MEK/ERK and PI-3 kinase/Akt pathways, while p38 MPAK and JNK/SAPK are not involved

  10. Serum Copper Level Significantly Influences Platelet Count, Lymphocyte Count and Mean Cell Hemoglobin in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okocha Chide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Changes in serum micro nutrients levels affect a number of critically important metabolic processes; these could potentially influence blood counts and ultimately disease presentation in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA. Objectives To evaluate the influence of serum micro-nutrients levels; zinc, copper, selenium and magnesium on blood counts in steady state SCA patients. Methods A cross sectional study that involved 28 steady state adult SCA subjects. Seven milliliters (mls of blood was collected; 3 mls was for hemoglobin electrophoresis and full blood count determination while 4 mls was for measurement of serum micro nutrients levels, by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Correlation between serum micro-nutrient levels and blood counts was done by the Pearson’s linear regression. Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review board and each participant gave informed consent. All data was analyzed by SPSS software version 20. Results There was a significant correlation between serum copper levels and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, platelet and lymphocyte counts (r = 0.418; P = 0.02, r = -0.376; P = 0.04 and r = -0.383; P = 0.04, respectively. There were no significant correlations between serum levels of other micro nutrients (selenium, zinc and magnesium and blood counts. Conclusions Copper influences blood count in SCA patients probably by inducing red cell haemolysis, oxidant tissue damage and stimulating the immune system.

  11. Ebola virus-like particles produced in insect cells exhibit dendritic cell stimulating activity and induce neutralizing antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Ling; Lin Jianguo; Sun Yuliang; Bennouna, Soumaya; Lo, Michael; Wu Qingyang; Bu Zhigao; Pulendran, Bali; Compans, Richard W.; Yang Chinglai

    2006-01-01

    Recombinant baculoviruses (rBV) expressing Ebola virus VP40 (rBV-VP40) or GP (rBV-GP) proteins were generated. Infection of Sf9 insect cells by rBV-VP40 led to assembly and budding of filamentous particles from the cell surface as shown by electron microscopy. Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced by coinfection of Sf9 cells with rBV-VP40 and rBV-GP, and incorporation of Ebola GP into VLPs was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Recombinant baculovirus infection of insect cells yielded high levels of VLPs, which were shown to stimulate cytokine secretion from human dendritic cells similar to VLPs produced in mammalian cells. The immunogenicity of Ebola VLPs produced in insect cells was evaluated by immunization of mice. Analysis of antibody responses showed that most of the GP-specific antibodies were of the IgG2a subtype, while no significant level of IgG1 subtype antibodies specific for GP was induced, indicating the induction of a Th1-biased immune response. Furthermore, sera from Ebola VLP immunized mice were able to block infection by Ebola GP pseudotyped HIV virus in a single round infection assay, indicating that a neutralizing antibody against the Ebola GP protein was induced. These results show that production of Ebola VLPs in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses represents a promising approach for vaccine development against Ebola virus infection

  12. Acrolein stimulates eicosanoid release from bovine airway epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doupnik, C.A.; Leikauf, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    Injury to the airway mucosa after exposure to environmental irritants is associated with pulmonary inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To better understand the relationships between mediator release and airway epithelial cell injury during irritant exposures, we studied the effects of acrolein, a low-molecular-weight aldehyde found in cigarette smoke, on arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured bovine tracheal epithelial cells. Confluent airway epithelial cell monolayers, prelabeled with [3H]arachidonic acid, released significant levels of 3H activity when exposed (20 min) to 100 microM acrolein. [3H]arachidonic acid products were resolved using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Under control conditions the released 3H activity coeluted predominantly with the cyclooxygenase product, prostaglandin (PG) E2. After exposure to acrolein, significant peaks in 3H activity coeluted with the lipoxygenase products 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and 15-HETE, as well as with PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. Dose-response relationships for acrolein-induced release of immunoreactive PGF2 alpha and PGE2 from unlabeled epithelial monolayers demonstrated 30 microM acrolein as the threshold dose, with 100 microM acrolein inducing nearly a fivefold increase in both PGF2 alpha and PGE2. Cellular viability after exposure to 100 microM acrolein, determined by released lactate dehydrogenase activity, was not affected until exposure periods were greater than or equal to 2 h. These results implicate the airway epithelial cell as a possible source of eicosanoids after exposure to acrolein

  13. Cancer drug troglitazone stimulates the growth and response of renal cells to hypoxia inducible factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taub, Mary, E-mail: biochtau@buffalo.edu

    2016-03-11

    Troglitazone has been used to suppress the growth of a number of tumors through apoptosis and autophagy. However, previous in vitro studies have employed very high concentrations of troglitazone (≥10{sup −5} M) in order to elicit growth inhibitory effects. In this report, when employing lower concentrations of troglitazone in defined medium, troglitazone was observed to stimulate the growth of primary renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells. Rosiglitazone, like troglitazone, is a thiazolidinedione (TZD) that is known to activate Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Υ (PPARΥ). Notably, rosiglitazone also stimulates RPT cell growth, as does Υ-linolenic acids, another PPARΥ agonist. The PPARΥ antagonist GW9662 inhibited the growth stimulatory effect of troglitazone. In addition, troglitazone stimulated transcription by a PPAR Response Element/Luciferase construct. These results are consistent with the involvement of PPARΥ as a mediator of the growth stimulatory effect of troglitazone. In a number of tumor cells, the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is increased, promoting the expression of HIF inducible genes, and vascularization. Troglitazone was observed to stimulate transcription by a HIF/luciferase construct. These observations indicate that troglitazone not only promotes growth, also the survival of RPT cells under conditions of hypoxia. - Highlights: • Troglitazone and rosiglitazone stimulate renal proximal tubule cell growth. • Troglitazone and linolenic acid stimulate growth via PPARϒ. • Linolenic acid stimulates growth in the presence of fatty acid free serum albumin. • Rosiglitazone stimulates transcription by a HRE luciferase construct.

  14. Cancer drug troglitazone stimulates the growth and response of renal cells to hypoxia inducible factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taub, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Troglitazone has been used to suppress the growth of a number of tumors through apoptosis and autophagy. However, previous in vitro studies have employed very high concentrations of troglitazone (≥10"−"5 M) in order to elicit growth inhibitory effects. In this report, when employing lower concentrations of troglitazone in defined medium, troglitazone was observed to stimulate the growth of primary renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells. Rosiglitazone, like troglitazone, is a thiazolidinedione (TZD) that is known to activate Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Υ (PPARΥ). Notably, rosiglitazone also stimulates RPT cell growth, as does Υ-linolenic acids, another PPARΥ agonist. The PPARΥ antagonist GW9662 inhibited the growth stimulatory effect of troglitazone. In addition, troglitazone stimulated transcription by a PPAR Response Element/Luciferase construct. These results are consistent with the involvement of PPARΥ as a mediator of the growth stimulatory effect of troglitazone. In a number of tumor cells, the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is increased, promoting the expression of HIF inducible genes, and vascularization. Troglitazone was observed to stimulate transcription by a HIF/luciferase construct. These observations indicate that troglitazone not only promotes growth, also the survival of RPT cells under conditions of hypoxia. - Highlights: • Troglitazone and rosiglitazone stimulate renal proximal tubule cell growth. • Troglitazone and linolenic acid stimulate growth via PPARϒ. • Linolenic acid stimulates growth in the presence of fatty acid free serum albumin. • Rosiglitazone stimulates transcription by a HRE luciferase construct.

  15. Sulfonated polyaniline-based organic electrodes for controlled electrical stimulation of human osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yong; Yang, Yanyin; Poojari, Yadagiri; Liu, Yidong; Wu, Jen-Chieh; Hansford, Derek J; Epstein, Arthur J

    2013-06-10

    Electrically conducting polymers (CPs) were found to stimulate various cell types such as neurons, osteoblasts, and fibroblasts in both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, to our knowledge, no studies have been reported on the utility of CPs in stimulation of cancer or tumor cells in the literature. Here we report a facile fabrication method of self-doped sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN)-based interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) for controlled electrical stimulation of human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells. Increased degree of sulfonation was found to increase the SPAN conductivity, which in turn improved the cell attachment and cell growth without electrical stimulation. However, an enhanced cell growth was observed under controlled electrical (AC) stimulation at low applied voltage and frequency (≤800 mV and ≤1 kHz). The cell growth reached a maximum threshold at an applied voltage or frequency and beyond which pronounced cell death was observed. We believe that these organic electrodes may find utility in electrical stimulation of cancer or tumor cells for therapy and research and may also provide an alternative to the conventional metal-based electrodes.

  16. Changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network during early period of ibrutinib therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients: the significant decrease in T regulatory cells number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhorecka, Monika; Goracy, Aneta; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Kowal, Malgorzata; Ibanez, Blanca; Jankowska-Lecka, Olga; Macheta, Arkadiusz; Nowaczynska, Aleksandra; Drab-Urbanek, Elzbieta; Chocholska, Sylwia; Jawniak, Dariusz; Hus, Marek

    2017-05-23

    B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation signal plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and kinase inhibitors directed toward the BCR pathway are now the promising anti-leukemic drugs. Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, demonstrates promising clinical activity in CLL. It is reported that ibrutinib, additionally to directly targeting leukemic cells, also inhibits the interactions of these cells with T cells, macrophages and accessory cells. Assessment of these mechanisms is important because of their non -direct anti-leukemic effects and to identify possible side effects connected with long-term drug administration.The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo effects of ibrutinib on T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL. The analysis was performed on a group of 19 patients during first month of ibrutinib therapy. The standard multicolor flow cytometry and cytometric bead array methods were used for assessment of T-cell subsets and cytokines/chemokines, respectively.The data obtained indicates that Ibrutinib treatment results in changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL patients. Particularly, a significant reduction of T regulatory cells in peripheral blood was observed. By targeting these populations of T cells Ibrutinib can stimulate rejection of tumor cells by the immune system.

  17. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; Ruiz, Concepción; Milia, Egle; Lorenzo, María Luisa; Jimenez, Brigida; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Rivas, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63) proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11–16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+)-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin) did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18–22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9–13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis) in adulthood and the elderly. PMID:26930190

  18. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; Ruiz, Concepción; Milia, Egle; Lorenzo, María Luisa; Jimenez, Brigida; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Rivas, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63) proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11-16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+)-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin) did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18-22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9-13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis) in adulthood and the elderly.

  19. Effects of Electromagnetic Stimulation on Cell Density and Neural Markers in Murine Enteric Cell Cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon-Rodriguez, A.; Belkind-Gerson, J.; Serrano-Luna, G.; Canedo-Dorantes, L.

    2008-01-01

    Availability of adult stem cells from several organs like bone marrow, umbilical cord blood or peripheral blood has become a powerful therapeutic tool for many chronic diseases. Potential of adult stem cells for regeneration extents to other tissues among them the nervous system. However two obstacles should be resolved before such cells could be currently applied in clinical practice: a) slow growth rate and b) ability to form enough dense colonies in order to populate a specific injury or cellular deficiency. Many approaches have been explored as genetic differentiation programs, growth factors, and supplemented culture media, among others. Electromagnetic field stimulation of differentiation, proliferation, migration, and particularly on neurogenesis is little known. Since the biological effects of ELF-EMF are well documented, we hypothesize ELF-EMF could affect growth and maturation of stem cells derived of enteric tissue

  20. Protection of Dentate Hilar Cells from Prolonged Stimulation by Intracellular Calcium Chelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Schwartzkroin, Philip A.

    1989-10-01

    Prolonged afferent stimulation of the rat dentate gyrus in vivo leads to degeneration only of those cells that lack immunoreactivity for the calcium binding proteins parvalbumin and calbindin. In order to test the hypothesis that calcium binding proteins protect against the effects of prolonged stimulation, intracellular recordings were made in hippocampal slices from cells that lack immunoreactivity for calcium binding proteins. Calcium binding protein--negative cells showed electrophysiological signs of deterioration during prolonged stimulation; cells containing calcium binding protein did not. When neurons without calcium binding proteins were impaled with microelectrodes containing the calcium chelator BAPTA, and BAPTA was allowed to diffuse into the cells, these cells showed no deterioration. These results indicate that, in a complex tissue of the central nervous system, an activity-induced increase in intracellular calcium can trigger processes leading to cell deterioration, and that increasing the calcium binding capacity of a cell decreases its vulnerability to damage.

  1. Effect of irradiation on human T-cell proliferation: low dose irradiation stimulates mitogen-induced proliferation and function of the suppressor/cytotoxic T-cell subset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualde, N.; Goodwin, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Unfractionated human T cells exposed to 10-50 rad of X irradiation incorporated less [ 3 H]thymidine than nonirradiated T cells when subsequently cultured with PHA or Con A. The cytotoxic/suppressor T-cell subset, isolated as either OKT8(+) or OKT4(-) cells, demonstrated significantly enhanced [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation in PHA- or Con A-stimulated cultures after exposure to 10-50 rad, compared to unirradiated cells, while the proliferation of the OKT4(+) helper/inducer subset was inhibited by low dose irradiation. It has been previously reported that approximately 30% of the cytotoxic/suppressor subset also stains with OKM1. When the cytotoxic/suppressor subset was further subdivided into OKT4(-), OKM1(+), and OKT4(-), OKM1(-) cells, proliferation of the OKT4(-), OKM1(+) population was inhibited by exposure to 25 rad while proliferation of the OKT4(-), OKM1(-) population was stimulated. The increase in proliferation of the cytotoxic/suppressor T-cell subset after low dose irradiation is paralleled by an increase in suppressor activity of these cells. T cells exposed to 25 rad and then cultured with Con A for 48 hr caused greater inhibition of IgG production when added to fresh autologous lymphocytes stimulated by pokeweed mitogen than did unirradiated cells. Thus, low dose irradiation enhances both the proliferation and function of the human suppressor T-cell subset

  2. Th17-cells in atopic dermatitis stimulate orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, K; Yamaguchi, M; Asano, M; Fujita, S; Kobayashi, R; Kasai, K

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how atopic dermatitis (AD) contributes to root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Atopic dermatitis model mice and wild-type mice were subjected to an excessive orthodontic force (OF) to induce movement of the upper first molars. The expression levels of the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), IL-17, IL-6, and RANKL proteins were determined in the periodontal ligament (PDL) by an immunohistochemical analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the compression force on co-cultures of CD4(+) cells from AD patients or healthy individuals and human PDL cells were investigated with regard to the levels of secretion and mRNA expression of IL-17, IL-6, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin. The immunoreactivities for TRAP, IL-17, IL-6, and RANKL in the AD group were found to be significantly increased. The double immunofluorescence analysis for IL-17/CD4 detected immunoreaction. The secretion of IL-17, IL-6, and RANKL, and the mRNA levels of IL-6 and RANKL in the AD patients were increased compared with those in healthy individuals. Th17 cells may therefore be associated with the deterioration of root resorption of AD mice, and may explain why AD patients are more susceptible to root resorption than healthy individuals when an excessive OF is applied. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. TNFRSF14 aberrations in follicular lymphoma increase clinically significant allogeneic T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, Eleni; Okosun, Jessica; Besley, Caroline; Iqbal, Sameena; Matthews, Janet; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Gribben, John G; Davies, Jeffrey K

    2016-07-07

    Donor T-cell immune responses can eradicate lymphomas after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), but can also damage healthy tissues resulting in harmful graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Next-generation sequencing has recently identified many new genetic lesions in follicular lymphoma (FL). One such gene, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 14 (TNFRSF14), abnormal in 40% of FL patients, encodes the herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) which limits T-cell activation via ligation of the B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator. As lymphoma B cells can act as antigen-presenting cells, we hypothesized that TNFRSF14 aberrations that reduce HVEM expression could alter the capacity of FL B cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell responses and impact the outcome of AHSCT. In an in vitro model of alloreactivity, human lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had reduced HVEM expression and greater alloantigen-presenting capacity than wild-type lymphoma B cells. The increased immune-stimulatory capacity of lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had clinical relevance, associating with higher incidence of acute GVHD in patients undergoing AHSCT. FL patients with TNFRSF14 aberrations may benefit from more aggressive immunosuppression to reduce harmful GVHD after transplantation. Importantly, this study is the first to demonstrate the impact of an acquired genetic lesion on the capacity of tumor cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell immune responses which may have wider consequences for adoptive immunotherapy strategies. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  4. Cell membrane disruption stimulates cAMP and Ca2+ signaling to potentiate cell membrane resealing in neighboring cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuru Togo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of cellular plasma membranes is a common event in many animal tissues, and the membranes are usually rapidly resealed. Moreover, repeated membrane disruptions within a single cell reseal faster than the initial wound in a protein kinase A (PKA- and protein kinase C (PKC-dependent manner. In addition to wounded cells, recent studies have demonstrated that wounding of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells potentiates membrane resealing in neighboring cells in the short-term by purinergic signaling, and in the long-term by nitric oxide/protein kinase G signaling. In the present study, real-time imaging showed that cell membrane disruption stimulated cAMP synthesis and Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores by purinergic signaling in neighboring MDCK cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PKA and PKC suppressed the ATP-mediated short-term potentiation of membrane resealing in neighboring cells. These results suggest that cell membrane disruption stimulates PKA and PKC via purinergic signaling to potentiate cell membrane resealing in neighboring MDCK cells.

  5. Interleukin-15 stimulates natural killer cell-mediated killing of both human pancreatic cancer and stellate cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Audenaerde, Jonas R.M.; De Waele, Jorrit; Marcq, Elly; Van Loenhout, Jinthe; Lion, Eva; Van den Bergh, Johan M.J.; Jesenofsky, Ralf; Masamune, Atsushi; Roeyen, Geert; Pauwels, Patrick; Lardon, Filip; Peeters, Marc; Smits, Evelien L.J.

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the 4th leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries with a 5-year survival rate below 5%. One of the hallmarks of this cancer is the strong desmoplastic reaction within the tumor microenvironment (TME), orchestrated by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSC). This results in a functional and mechanical shield which causes resistance to conventional therapies. Aiming to overcome this resistance by tackling the stromal shield, we assessed for the first time the capacity of IL-15 stimulated natural killer (NK) cells to kill PSC and pancreatic cancer cells (PCC). The potency of IL-15 to promote NK cell-mediated killing was evaluated phenotypically and functionally. In addition, NK cell and immune checkpoint ligands on PSC were charted. We demonstrate that IL-15 activated NK cells kill both PCC and PSC lines (range 9-35% and 20-50%, respectively) in a contact-dependent manner and significantly higher as compared to resting NK cells. Improved killing of these pancreatic cell lines is, at least partly, dependent on IL-15 induced upregulation of TIM-3 and NKG2D. Furthermore, we confirm significant killing of primary PSC by IL-15 activated NK cells in an ex vivo autologous system. Screening for potential targets for immunotherapeutic strategies, we demonstrate surface expression of both inhibitory (PD-L1, PD-L2) and activating (MICA/B, ULBPs and Galectin-9) ligands on primary PSC. These data underscore the therapeutic potential of IL-15 to promote NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity as a treatment of pancreatic cancer and provide promising future targets to tackle remaining PSC. PMID:28915646

  6. Electrical stimulation induces calcium-dependent release of NGF from cultured Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghui; Ye, Zhengxu; Hu, Xueyu; Lu, Lei; Luo, Zhuojing

    2010-04-01

    Production of nerve growth factor (NGF) from Schwann cells (SCs) progressively declines in the distal stump, if axonal regeneration is staggered across the suture site after peripheral nerve injuries. This may be an important factor limiting the outcome of nerve injury repair. Thus far, extensive efforts are devoted to modulating NGF production in cultured SCs, but little has been achieved. In the present in vitro study, electrical stimulation (ES) was attempted to stimulate cultured SCs to release NGF. Our data showed that ES was capable of enhancing NGF release from cultured SCs. An electrical field (1 Hz, 5 V/cm) caused a 4.1-fold increase in NGF release from cultured SCs. The ES-induced NGF release is calcium dependent. Depletion of extracellular or/and intracellular calcium partially/ completely abolished the ES-induced NGF release. Further pharmacological interventions showed that ES induces calcium influx through T-type voltage-gated calcium channels and mobilizes calcium from 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate-sensitive stores and caffeine/ryanodine-sensitive stores, both of which contributed to the enhanced NGF release induced by ES. In addition, a calcium-triggered exocytosis mechanism was involved in the ES-induced NGF release from cultured SCs. These findings show the feasibility of using ES in stimulating SCs to release NGF, which holds great potential in promoting nerve regeneration by enhancing survival and outgrowth of damaged nerves, and is of great significance in nerve injury repair and neuronal tissue engineering.

  7. Gold nanoparticle-mediated laser stimulation induces a complex stress response in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsmeier, Sonja; Heeger, Patrick; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Kalies, Stefan; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo; Heinemann, Dag

    2018-04-25

    Stimulation of neuronal cells generally resorts to electric signals. Recent advances in laser-based stimulation methods could present an alternative with superior spatiotemporal resolution. The avoidance of electronic crosstalk makes these methods attractive for in vivo therapeutic application. In particular, nano-mediators, such as gold nanoparticles, can be used to transfer the energy from a laser pulse to the cell membrane and subsequently activate excitable cells. Although the underlying mechanisms of neuronal activation have been widely unraveled, the overall effect on the targeted cell is not understood. Little is known about the physiological and pathophysiological impact of a laser pulse targeted onto nanoabsorbers on the cell membrane. Here, we analyzed the reaction of the neuronal murine cell line Neuro-2A and murine primary cortical neurons to gold nanoparticle mediated laser stimulation. Our study reveals a severe, complex and cell-type independent stress response after laser irradiation, emphasizing the need for a thorough assessment of this approach's efficacy and safety.

  8. External stimulation strength controls actin response dynamics in Dictyostelium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Fang; Westendorf, Christian; Tarantola, Marco; Zykov, Vladimir; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Beta, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Self-sustained oscillation and the resonance frequency of the cytoskeletal actin polymerization/depolymerization have recently been observed in Dictyostelium, a model system for studying chemotaxis. Here we report that the resonance frequency is not constant but rather varies with the strength of external stimuli. To understand the underlying mechanism, we analyzed the polymerization and depolymerization time at different levels of external stimulation. We found that polymerization time is independent of external stimuli but the depolymerization time is prolonged as the stimulation increases. These observations can be successfully reproduced in the frame work of our time delayed differential equation model.

  9. The morphological and molecular changes of brain cells exposed to direct current electric field stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Simon J; Lagacé, Marie; St-Amour, Isabelle; Arsenault, Dany; Cisbani, Giulia; Chabrat, Audrey; Fecteau, Shirley; Lévesque, Martin; Cicchetti, Francesca

    2014-12-07

    The application of low-intensity direct current electric fields has been experimentally used in the clinic to treat a number of brain disorders, predominantly using transcranial direct current stimulation approaches. However, the cellular and molecular changes induced by such treatment remain largely unknown. Here, we tested various intensities of direct current electric fields (0, 25, 50, and 100V/m) in a well-controlled in vitro environment in order to investigate the responses of neurons, microglia, and astrocytes to this type of stimulation. This included morphological assessments of the cells, viability, as well as shape and fiber outgrowth relative to the orientation of the direct current electric field. We also undertook enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western immunoblotting to identify which molecular pathways were affected by direct current electric fields. In response to direct current electric field, neurons developed an elongated cell body shape with neurite outgrowth that was associated with a significant increase in growth associated protein-43. Fetal midbrain dopaminergic explants grown in a collagen gel matrix also showed a reorientation of their neurites towards the cathode. BV2 microglial cells adopted distinct morphological changes with an increase in cyclooxygenase-2 expression, but these were dependent on whether they had already been activated with lipopolysaccharide. Finally, astrocytes displayed elongated cell bodies with cellular filopodia that were oriented perpendicularly to the direct current electric field. We show that cells of the central nervous system can respond to direct current electric fields both in terms of their morphological shape and molecular expression of certain proteins, and this in turn can help us to begin understand the mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits of direct current electric field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  10. The role of CD27-CD70-mediated T cell co-stimulation in vasculogenesis, arteriogenesis and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, K H; Aref, Z; Peters, H A B; Welten, S P; Nossent, A Y; Jukema, J W; Hamming, J F; Arens, R; de Vries, M R; Quax, P H A

    2018-06-01

    T cells have a distinctive role in neovascularization, which consists of arteriogenesis and angiogenesis under pathological conditions and vasculogenesis under physiological conditions. However, the role of co-stimulation in T cell activation in neovascularization has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to investigate the role T cell co-stimulation and inhibition in angiogenesis, arteriogenesis and vasculogenesis. Hind limb ischemia was induced by double ligation of the left femoral artery in mice and blood flow recovery was measured with Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging in control, CD70 -/- , CD80/86 -/- , CD70/80/86 -/- and CTLA4 +/- mice. Blood flow recovery was significantly impaired in mice lacking CD70 compared to control mice, but was similar in CD80/86 -/- , CTLA4 +/- and control mice. Mice lacking CD70 showed impaired vasculogenesis, since the number of pre-existing collaterals was reduced as observed in the pia mater compared to control mice. In vitro an impaired capability of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) to activate T cells was observed in VSMC lacking CD70. Furthermore, CD70 -/- , CD80/86 -/- and CD70/80/86 -/- mice showed reduced angiogenesis in the soleus muscle 10 days after ligation. Arteriogenesis was also decreased in CD70 -/- compared to control mice 10 and 28 days after surgery. The present study is the first to describe an important role for T cell activation via co-stimulation in angiogenesis, arteriogenesis and vasculogenesis, where the CD27-CD70 T cell co-stimulation pathway appears to be the most important co-stimulation pathway in pre-existing collateral formation and post-ischemic blood flow recovery, by arteriogenesis and angiogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Endogenous pyrogen production by human blood monocytes stimulated by staphylococcal cell wall components.

    OpenAIRE

    Oken, M M; Peterson, P K; Wilkinson, B J

    1981-01-01

    To determine the properties of Staphylococcus aureus contributing to its pyrogenicity, we compared, in human monocytes, endogenous pyrogen production stimulated by heat-killed S. aureus with that stimulated by purified S. aureus cell walls or by particulate peptidoglycan prepared from the same strain. Peptidoglycan, but not the purified cell wall preparation, was found comparable to S. aureus as an endogenous pyrogen stimulus. This finding was associated with a more effective monocyte phagocy...

  12. Prolactin-stimulated mitogenesis in the Nb2 rat lymphoma cell: Lack of protoporphyrin IX effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrish, K.E.; Putnam, C.W.; Laird, H.E. II (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Pharmacological characterization of the Nb2 cell peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) was determined using selected 1,4-benzodiazepines, PK 11195, and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) to compete for specific ({sup 3}H) Ro5-4864 binding. These data suggest that PPIX possesses an affinity for the Nb2 cell PBR. We have previously reported that the peripheral benzodiazepine ligands, Ro5-4864 and PK 11195, modulate prolactin-stimulated mitogenesis in the Nb2 cell. In contrast, PPIX, a putative endogenous ligand for the PBR had no effect on prolactin-stimulated mitogenesis in the Nb2 cell over the concentration range from 10{sup {minus}15} M to 10{sup {minus}6} M. Taken together these data show that PPIX has an affinity for the Nb2 cell PBR but does not modulate prolactin-stimulated mitogenesis at concentrations which should bind to the Nb2 cell PBR.

  13. Norepinephrine stimulates mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells after limb ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Jiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: During several pathological processes such as cancer progression, thermal injury, wound healing and hindlimb ischemia, the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs mobilization was enhanced with an increase of sympathetic nerve activity and norepinephrine (NE secretion, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the effects of NE on EPCs has less been investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: EPCs from BMs, peripheral circulation and spleens, the VEGF concentration in BM, skeletal muscle, peripheral circulation and spleen and angiogenesis in ischemic gastrocnemius were quantified in mice with hindlimbs ischemia. Systemic treatment of NE significantly increased EPCs number in BM, peripheral circulation and spleen, VEGF concentration in BM and skeletal muscle and angiogenesis in ischemic gastrocnemius in mice with hind limb ischemia, but did not affair VEGF concentration in peripheral circulation and spleen. EPCs isolated from healthy adults were cultured with NE in vitro to evaluate proliferation potential, migration capacity and phosphorylations of Akt and eNOS signal moleculars. Treatment of NE induced a significant increase in number of EPCs in the S-phase in a dose-dependent manner, as well as migrative activity of EPCs in vitro (p<0.05. The co-treatment of Phentolamine, I127, LY294002 and L-NAME with NE blocked the effects of NE on EPCs proliferation and migration. Treatment with NE significantly increased phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS of EPCs. Addition of phentolamine and I127 attenuated the activation of Akt/eNOS pathway, but metoprolol could not. Pretreatment of mice with either Phentolamine or I127 significantly attenuated the effects of NE on EPCs in vivo, VEGF concentration in BM, skeletal muscle and angiogenesis in ischemic gastrocnemius, but Metoprolol did not. CONCLUSION: These results unravel that sympathetic nervous system regulate EPCs mobilization and their pro-angiogenic capacity via α adrenoceptor

  14. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase attenuates hepatocellular carcinoma cell adhesion stimulated by adipokine resistin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chen-Chieh; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chao, Jian-Kang; Lai, Yi-Liang; Chang, Wei-En; Hsu, Wen-Hsiu; Kuo, Wu-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Resistin, adipocyte-secreting adipokine, may play critical role in modulating cancer pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistin on HCC adhesion to the endothelium, and the mechanism underlying these resistin effects. Human SK-Hep1 cells were used to study the effect of resistin on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expressions as well as NF-κB activation, and hence cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, was used to determine the regulatory role of AMPK on HCC adhesion to the endothelium in regard to the resistin effects. Treatment with resistin increased the adhesion of SK-Hep1 cells to HUVECs and concomitantly induced NF-κB activation, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions in SK-Hep1 cells. Using specific blocking antibodies and siRNAs, we found that resistin-induced SK-Hep1 cell adhesion to HUVECs was through NF-κB-regulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions. Moreover, treatment with AICAR demonstrated that AMPK activation in SK-Hep1 cells significantly attenuates the resistin effect on SK-Hep1 cell adhesion to HUVECs. These results clarify the role of resistin in inducing HCC adhesion to the endothelium and demonstrate the inhibitory effect of AMPK activation under the resistin stimulation. Our findings provide a notion that resistin play an important role to promote HCC metastasis and implicate AMPK may be a therapeutic target to against HCC metastasis

  15. Copper ions stimulate the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells via oxygen stress in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, San-qing; Zhu, Hui-yun; Lin, Jian-guo; Su, Tang-feng; Liu, Yan; Luo, Xiao-ping

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the effect of copper ions on the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the role of oxidative stress in this process in order to gain insight into the mechanism of hepatic fibrosis in Wilson's disease. LX-2 cells, a cell line of human HSCs, were cultured in vitro and treated with different agents including copper sulfate, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) for different time. The proliferation of LX-2 cells was measured by non-radioactive cell proliferation assay. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β subunit (PDGFβR), ELISA to determine the level of glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), dichlorofluorescein assay to measure the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid hydroperoxide assay to quantify the level of lipid peroxide (LPO). The results showed that copper sulfate over a certain concentration range could promote the proliferation of LX-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The effect was most manifest when LX-2 cells were treated with copper sulfate at a concentration of 100 μmol/L for 24 h. Additionally, copper sulfate could dose-dependently increase the levels of ROS and LPO, and decrease the ratio of GSH/GSSG in LX-2 cells. The copper-induced increase in mRNA and protein expression of PDGFβR was significantly inhibited in LX-2 cells pre-treated with NAC, a precursor of GSH, and this phenomenon could be reversed by the intervention of BSO, an inhibitor of NAC. It was concluded that copper ions may directly stimulate the proliferation of HSCs via oxidative stress. Anti-oxidative stress therapies may help suppress the copper-induced activation and proliferation of HSCs.

  16. Hibiscus syriacus Extract from an Established Cell Culture Stimulates Skin Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Martino, O; Tito, A; De Lucia, A; Cimmino, A; Cicotti, F; Apone, F; Colucci, G; Calabrò, V

    2017-01-01

    Higher plants are the source of a wide array of bioactive compounds that support skin integrity and health. Hibiscus syriacus , family Malvaceae, is a plant of Chinese origin known for its antipyretic, anthelmintic, and antifungal properties. The aim of this study was to assess the healing and hydration properties of H. syriacus ethanolic extract (HSEE). We established a cell culture from Hibiscus syriacus leaves and obtained an ethanol soluble extract from cultured cells. The properties of the extract were tested by gene expression and functional analyses on human fibroblast, keratinocytes, and skin explants. HSEE treatment increased the healing potential of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Specifically, HSEE significantly stimulated fibronectin and collagen synthesis by 16 and 60%, respectively, while fibroblasts contractility was enhanced by 30%. These results were confirmed on skin explants, where HSEE accelerated the wound healing activity in terms of epithelium formation and fibronectin production. Moreover, HSEE increased the expression of genes involved in skin hydration and homeostasis. Specifically, aquaporin 3 and filaggrin genes were enhanced by 20 and 58%, respectively. Our data show that HSEE contains compounds capable of stimulating expression of biomarkers relevant to skin regeneration and hydration thereby counteracting molecular pathways leading to skin damage and aging.

  17. Hibiscus syriacus Extract from an Established Cell Culture Stimulates Skin Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. di Martino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants are the source of a wide array of bioactive compounds that support skin integrity and health. Hibiscus syriacus, family Malvaceae, is a plant of Chinese origin known for its antipyretic, anthelmintic, and antifungal properties. The aim of this study was to assess the healing and hydration properties of H. syriacus ethanolic extract (HSEE. We established a cell culture from Hibiscus syriacus leaves and obtained an ethanol soluble extract from cultured cells. The properties of the extract were tested by gene expression and functional analyses on human fibroblast, keratinocytes, and skin explants. HSEE treatment increased the healing potential of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Specifically, HSEE significantly stimulated fibronectin and collagen synthesis by 16 and 60%, respectively, while fibroblasts contractility was enhanced by 30%. These results were confirmed on skin explants, where HSEE accelerated the wound healing activity in terms of epithelium formation and fibronectin production. Moreover, HSEE increased the expression of genes involved in skin hydration and homeostasis. Specifically, aquaporin 3 and filaggrin genes were enhanced by 20 and 58%, respectively. Our data show that HSEE contains compounds capable of stimulating expression of biomarkers relevant to skin regeneration and hydration thereby counteracting molecular pathways leading to skin damage and aging.

  18. Bone marrow-derived cells and biophysical stimulation for talar osteochondral lesions: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadossi, Matteo; Buda, Roberto Emanuele; Ramponi, Laura; Sambri, Andrea; Natali, Simone; Giannini, Sandro

    2014-10-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT) frequently occur after ankle sprains in young patients participating in sports activities. These injuries may lead to chronic pain, joint swelling, and finally osteoarthritis, therefore, surgical repair is frequently needed. A collagen scaffold seeded with bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) harvested from patient's iliac crest and implanted into the OLT through a single arthroscopic procedure has been recently proposed as an effective treatment option. Nevertheless, BMDCs, embedded in an inflammatory environment, tend to differentiate toward a fibroblast phenotype with a consequential loss of mechanical characteristics. Biophysical stimulation with pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has been shown to promote anabolic chondrocyte activity, stimulate proteoglycan synthesis, and reduce the release of the most relevant pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of PEMFs on clinical outcome in patients who underwent BMDCs transplantation for OLT. Thirty patients affected by grade III and IV Outerbridge OLT underwent BMDCs transplantation. After surgery, patients were randomly assigned to either experimental group (PEMFs 4 hours per day for 60 days starting within 3 days after operation) or control group. Clinical outcome was evaluated with (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society) AOFAS score, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Significantly higher AOFAS score was recorded in the experimental group both at 6 or 12 months follow-up. At 60 days and 6 and 12 months follow-up, significant lower pain was observed in the experimental group. No significant difference was found in SF-36 between groups. A superior clinical outcome was found in the experimental group with more than 10 points higher AOFAS score at final follow-up. Biophysical stimulation started soon after surgery aided patient recovery leading to pain control and a better clinical outcome

  19. Pathological significance and prognostic roles of densities of CD57+ cells, CD68+ cells, and mast cells, and their ratios in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hiromi; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Mochizuki, Yasushi; Yasuda, Takuji; Nakamura, Yuichiro; Araki, Kyohei; Sagara, Yuji; Matsuo, Tomohiro; Ohba, Kojiro; Sakai, Hideki

    2018-05-19

    The immune system is closely associated with malignant behavior in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Therefore, understanding the pathological roles of immune cells in tumor stroma is essential to discuss the pathological characteristics of RCC. In this study, the clinical significance of densities of CD57+ cells, CD68+ cells, and mast cells, and their ratios were investigated in patients with clear cell RCC. The densities of CD57+, CD68+, and mast cells were evaluated by immunohistochemical techniques in 179 patients. Proliferation index (PI), apoptotic index (AI), and microvessel density (MVD) were evaluated by using anti-Ki-67, anti-cleaved caspase-3, and anti-CD31 antibodies, respectively. The density of CD57+ cell was negatively correlated with grade, pT stage, and metastasis, although densities of CD68+ cell and mast cell were positively correlated. Ratios of CD68+ cell/CD57+ cell and mast cell/CD57+ cell were significantly correlated with grade, pT stage, and metastasis. Survival analyses showed that the CD68+ cell/CD57+ cell ratio was a significant predictor for cause-specific survival by multi-variate analyses (hazard ratio=1.41, 95% confidential interval=1.03-1.93, P=.031), and was significantly correlated with PI, AI, and MVD (r=.47; P <. 001, r=-.31, P<.001, and r=.40, P<.001, respectively). In conclusion, CD57+ cell, CD68+ cell, and mast cell played important roles in malignancy in clear cell RCC. The CD68+ cell/CD57+ cell ratio was strongly correlated with pathological features and prognosis in these patients because this ratio reflected the status of cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. AMP-activated kinase mediates adipose stem cell-stimulated neuritogenesis of PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B; Luan, Z; Wei, X; He, Y; Wei, G; Johnstone, B H; Farlow, M; Du, Y

    2011-05-05

    Adipose tissue stroma contains a population of mesenchymal stem cells, which support repair of damaged tissues through the protective effects of secreted trophic factors. Neurotrophic factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF) have been identified in media collected from cultured adipose-derived stem cells (ASC). We previously demonstrated that administration of cell-free ASC conditioned medium (ASC-CM) at 24 h after injury reduced lesion volume and promoted functional recovery in a rat model of neonatal brain hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. The timing of administration well after the peak in neural cell apoptosis in the affected region suggests that regeneration of lost neurons is promoted by factors in ASC-CM. In this study, we determined which of the factors in ASC-CM could induce neurogenesis by testing the ability of the mixture, either whole or after inactivating specific components, to stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro using the neurogenic cell line PC12. Neuritogenesis in PC12 cells treated with ASC-CM was observed at a level comparable to that observed with purified recombinant NGF. It was observed that NGF in ASC-CM was mainly responsible for inducing PC12 cell neuritogenesis. Interestingly, both ASC-CM and NGF induced PC12 cell neuritogenesis through activation of the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) pathway which is the central protein involved in controlling many critical functions in response to changes in the cellular energy status. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of AMPK activity greatly reduced neuritogenesis in PC12 cells. These results suggest that, in addition to possessing neuroprotective properties, ASC-CM mediates repair of damaged tissues through inducing neuronal differentiation via NGF-induced AMPK activation. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exosomes released from breast cancer carcinomas stimulate cell movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinari A Harris

    Full Text Available For metastasis to occur cells must communicate with to their local environment to initiate growth and invasion. Exosomes have emerged as an important mediator of cell-to-cell signalling through the transfer of molecules such as mRNAs, microRNAs, and proteins between cells. Exosomes have been proposed to act as regulators of cancer progression. Here, we study the effect of exosomes on cell migration, an important step in metastasis. We performed cell migration assays, endocytosis assays, and exosome proteomic profiling on exosomes released from three breast cancer cell lines that model progressive stages of metastasis. Results from these experiments suggest: (1 exosomes promote cell migration and (2 the signal is stronger from exosomes isolated from cells with higher metastatic potentials; (3 exosomes are endocytosed at the same rate regardless of the cell type; (4 exosomes released from cells show differential enrichment of proteins with unique protein signatures of both identity and abundance. We conclude that breast cancer cells of increasing metastatic potential secrete exosomes with distinct protein signatures that proportionally increase cell movement and suggest that released exosomes could play an active role in metastasis.

  2. Sensitivity of cultured lymphocytes from patients with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome to ultraviolet light and phytohemagglutinin stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, P.; Celotti, L.; Furlan, D.; Pattarello, I.; Peserico, A.

    1990-01-01

    DNA repair and replication after in vitro UV irradiation were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes from 6 patients with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) and from a group of control donors. DNA repair synthesis (UDS) was measured in unstimulated lymphocytes by incubation with 3H-TdR in the presence of hydroxyurea for 3 and 6 h after UV irradiation (6-48 J/m2). DNA replication was measured in PHA-stimulated lymphocytes, UV-irradiated or mock-irradiated, by incubation with 3H-TdR for 24 h. The effect of the mitogen was followed during 5 days after stimulation by determining the incorporation of 3H-TdR, the increase of cell number, and the mitotic index. NBCCS and control lymphocytes showed equal sensitivity to UV light in terms of UDS and reduced response to PHA. On the contrary, the mitotic index and the number of cells in stimulated cultures were significantly lower in the affected subjects. These data suggest an altered progression along the cell cycle, which could be characteristic of stimulated NBCCS lymphocytes

  3. Pro-inflammatory stimulation of meniscus cells increases production of matrix metalloproteinases and additional catabolic factors involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Austin V.; Loeser, Richard F.; Vanderman, Kadie S.; Long, David L.; Clark, Stephanie C.; Ferguson, Cristin M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Meniscus injury increases the risk of osteoarthritis; however, the biologic mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that pro-inflammatory stimulation of meniscus would increase production of matrix-degrading enzymes, cytokines and chemokines which cause joint tissue destruction and could contribute to osteoarthritis development. Design Meniscus and cartilage tissue from healthy tissue donors and total knee arthroplasties was cultured. Primary cell cultures were stimulated with pro-inflammatory factors [IL-1β, IL-6, or fibronectin fragments (FnF)] and cellular responses were analyzed by real-time PCR, protein arrays and immunoblots. To determine if NF-κB was required for MMP production, meniscus cultures were treated with inflammatory factors with and without the NF-κB inhibitor, hypoestoxide. Results Normal and osteoarthritic meniscus cells increased their MMP secretion in response to stimulation, but specific patterns emerged that were unique to each stimulus with the greatest number of MMPs expressed in response to FnF. Meniscus collagen and connective tissue growth factor gene expression was reduced. Expression of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6), chemokines (IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2, CSF1) and components of the NF-κB and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family were significantly increased. Cytokine and chemokine protein production was also increased by stimulation. When primary cell cultures were treated with hypoestoxide in conjunction with pro-inflammatory stimulation, p65 activation was reduced as were MMP-1 and MMP-3 production. Conclusions Pro-inflammatory stimulation of meniscus cells increased matrix metalloproteinase production and catabolic gene expression. The meniscus could have an active biologic role in osteoarthritis development following joint injury through increased production of cytokines, chemokines, and matrix-degrading enzymes. PMID:24315792

  4. Stimulation of DNA synthesis in cultured rat alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Robinson, P.C.; Mason, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Restoration of the alveolar epithelium after injury is thought to be dependent on the proliferation of alveolar type II cells. To understand the factors that may be involved in promoting type II cell proliferation in vivo, we determined the effect of potential mitogens and culture substrata on DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. Type II cells cultured in basal medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) exhibited essentially no DNA synthesis. Factors that stimulated 3 H-thymidine incorporation included cholera toxin, epidermal growth factor, and rat serum. The greatest degree of stimulation was achieved by plating type II cells on an extracellular matrix prepared from bovine corneal endothelial cells and then by culturing the pneumocytes in medium containing rat serum, cholera toxin, insulin, and epidermal growth factor. Under conditions of stimulation of 3 H-thymidine incorporation there was an increased DNA content per culture dish but no increase in cell number. The ability of various culture conditions to promote DNA synthesis in type II cells was verified by autoradiography. Type II cells were identified by the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, which were visualized by tannic acid staining before autoradiography. These results demonstrate the importance of soluble factors and culture substratum in stimulating DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture

  5. A drug target that stimulates development of healthy stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have overcome a major impediment to the development of effective stem cell therapies by studying mice that lack CD47, a protein found on the surface of both healthy and cancer cells. They discovered that cells obtained from the lungs of CD47-de

  6. Allergen-stimulated T lymphocytes from allergic patients induce vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression and IL-6 production by endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delneste, Y; Jeannin, P; Gosset, P; Lassalle, P; Cardot, E; Tillie-Leblond, I; Joseph, M; Pestel, J; Tonnel, A B

    1995-01-01

    Adhesion of inflammatory cells to endothelium is a critical step for their transvascular migration to inflammatory sites. To evaluate the relationship between T lymphocytes (TL) and vascular endothelium, supernatants from allergen-stimulated TL obtained from patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) versus healthy subjects were added to endothelial cell (EC) cultures. TL were stimulated by autologous-activated antigen-presenting cells (APC) previously fixed in paraformaldehyde to prevent monokine secretion. Two parameters were measured: the expression of adhesion molecule and the production of IL-6. Related allergen-stimulated TL supernatants from allergic patients induced an increase of VCAM-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression when supernatants of the control groups (TL exposed to an unrelated allergen or not stimulated or TL obtained from healthy subjects) did not. E-selectin expression was not modulated whatever the supernatant added to EC culture. IL-6 production by EC was significantly enhanced after activation with related allergen-stimulated TL supernatants from allergics compared with control supernatants. Induction of VCAM-1 expression was inhibited by adding neutralizing antibodies against IL-4, whereas IL-6 production and ICAM-1 expression were inhibited by anti-interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) antibodies. Enhanced production of IL-4 and IFN-gamma was detected in related allergen-stimulated TL supernatants from allergic subjects compared with the different supernatants. These data suggest that allergen-specific TL present in the peripheral blood of allergic patients are of Th1 and Th2 subtypes. Their stimulation in allergic patients may lead to the activation of endothelial cells and thereby participate in leucocyte recruitment towards the inflammatory site. PMID:7542574

  7. Folic Acid supplementation stimulates notch signaling and cell proliferation in embryonic neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Huang, Guo-Wei; Zhang, Xu-Mei; Ren, Da-Lin; X Wilson, John

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigated the effect of folic acid supplementation on the Notch signaling pathway and cell proliferation in rat embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs). The NSCs were isolated from E14-16 rat brain and grown as neurospheres in serum-free suspension culture. Individual cultures were assigned to one of 3 treatment groups that differed according to the concentration of folic acid in the medium: Control (baseline folic acid concentration of 4 mg/l), low folic acid supplementation (4 mg/l above baseline, Folate-L) and high folic acid supplementation (40 mg/l above baseline, Folate-H). NSCs were identified by their expression of immunoreactive nestin and proliferating cells by incorporation of 5'bromo-2'deoxyuridine. Cell proliferation was also assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Notch signaling was analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot analyses of the expression of Notch1 and hairy and enhancer of split 5 (Hes5). Supplementation of NSCs with folic acid increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of Notch1 and Hes5. Folic acid supplementation also stimulated NSC proliferation dose-dependently. Embryonic NSCs respond to folic acid supplementation with increased Notch signaling and cell proliferation. This mechanism may mediate the effects of folic acid supplementation on neurogenesis in the embryonic nervous system.

  8. Increased cell motility and invasion upon knockdown of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR in SW780 bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ørntoft Torben F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms underlying the malignant development in bladder cancer are still not well understood. Lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR has previously been found to be upregulated by P53. Furthermore, we have previously found LSR to be differentially expressed in bladder cancer. Here we investigated the role of LSR in bladder cancer. Methods A time course siRNA knock down experiment was performed to investigate the functional role of LSR in SW780 bladder cancer cells. Since LSR was previously shown to be regulated by P53, siRNA against TP53 was included in the experimental setup. We used Affymetrix GeneChips for measuring gene expression changes and we used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to investigate the relationship among differentially expressed genes upon siRNA knockdown. Results By Ingenuity Pathway analysis of the microarray data from the different timepoints we identified six gene networks containing genes mainly related to the functional categories "cancer", "cell death", and "cellular movement". We determined that genes annotated to the functional category "cellular movement" including "invasion" and "cell motility" were highly significantly overrepresented. A matrigel assay showed that 24 h after transfection the invasion capacity was significantly increased 3-fold (p Conclusion We conclude that LSR may impair bladder cancer cells from gaining invasive properties.

  9. Stimulation of LDL receptor activity in Hep-G2 cells by a serum factor(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsworth, J.L.; Brown, C.; Cooper, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    The regulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity in the human hepatoma cell line Hep-G2 by serum components was examined. Incubation of dense monolayers of Hep-G2 cells with fresh medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FM) produced a time-dependent increase in LDL receptor activity. Uptake and degradation of 125I-LDL was stimulated two- to four-fold, as compared with that of Hep-G2 cells cultured in the same media in which they had been grown to confluence (CM); the maximal 125I-LDL uptake plus degradation increased from 0.2 microgram/mg cell protein/4 h to 0.8 microgram/mg cell protein/4 h. In addition, a two-fold increase in cell surface binding of 125I-LDL to Hep-G2 cells was observed when binding was measured at 4 degrees C. There was no change in the apparent Kd. The stimulation of LDL receptor activity was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by the addition of cholesterol, as LDL, to the cell medium. In contrast to the stimulation of LDL receptor activity, FM did not affect the uptake or degradation of 125I-asialoorosomucoid. Addition of FM increased the protein content per dish, and DNA synthesis was stimulated approximately five-fold, as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA; however, the cell number did not change. Cellular cholesterol biosynthesis was also stimulated by FM; [14C]acetate incorporation into unesterified and esterified cholesterol was increased approximately five-fold. Incubation of Hep-G2 cells with high-density lipoproteins (200 micrograms protein/ml) or albumin (8.0 mg/ml) in the absence of the serum factor did not significantly increase the total processed 125I-LDL. Stimulation of LDL receptor activity was dependent on a heat-stable, nondialyzable serum component that eluted in the inclusion volume of a Sephadex G-75 column

  10. Gold nanoparticle-mediated laser stimulation causes a complex stress signal in neuronal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsmeier, Sonja; Heeger, Patrick; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Kalies, Stefan; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo; Heinemann, Dag

    2017-07-01

    Gold nanoparticle mediated laser stimulation of neuronal cells allows for cell activation on a single-cell level. It could therefore be considered an alternative to classical electric neurostimulation. The physiological impact of this new approach has not been intensively studied so far. Here, we investigate the targeted cell's reaction to a laser stimulus based on its calcium response. A complex cellular reaction involving multiple sources has been revealed.

  11. Pancreatic Fibroblasts Stimulate the Motility of Pancreatic Cancer Cells through IGF1/IGF1R Signaling under Hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Hirakawa

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is characterized by its hypovascularity, with an extremely poor prognosis because of its highly invasive nature. PDAC proliferates with abundant stromal cells, suggesting that its invasive activity might be controlled by intercellular interactions between cancer cells and fibroblasts. Using four PDAC cell lines and two pancreas cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs, the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1 and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R was evaluated by RT-PCR, FACScan, western blot, or ELISA. Correlation between IGF1R and the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9 was examined by immunohistochemical staining of 120 pancreatic specimens. The effects of CAFs, IGF1, and IGF1R inhibitors on the motility of cancer cells were examined by wound-healing assay or invasion assay under normoxia (20% O2 and hypoxia (1% O2. IGF1R expression was significantly higher in RWP-1, MiaPaCa-2, and OCUP-AT cells than in Panc-1 cells. Hypoxia increased the expression level of IGF1R in RWP-1, MiaPaCa-2, and OCUP-AT cells. CA9 expression was correlated with IGF1R expression in pancreatic specimens. CAFs produced IGF1 under hypoxia, but PDAC cells did not. A conditioned medium from CAFs, which expressed αSMA, stimulated the migration and invasion ability of MiaPaCa-2, RWP-1, and OCUP-AT cells. The motility of all PDAC cells was greater under hypoxia than under normoxia. The motility-stimulating ability of CAFs was decreased by IGF1R inhibitors. These findings might suggest that pancreas CAFs stimulate the invasion activity of PDAC cells through paracrine IGF1/IGF1R signaling, especially under hypoxia. Therefore the targeting of IGF1R signaling might represent a promising therapeutic approach in IGF1R-dependent PDAC.

  12. Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from Marshmallow roots (Althea officinalis L.): cellular internalisation and stimulation of cell physiology of human epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Alexandra; Zippel, Janina; Hellenbrand, Nils; Pappai, Dirk; Possemeyer, Cathleen; Hensel, Andreas

    2010-01-08

    Aqueous extracts from the roots of Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) are widely used for treatment of irritated mucosa. The clinical proven effects are related to the presence of bioadhesive and mucilaginous polysaccharides from the rhamnogalacturonan type, leading to the physical formation of mucin-like on top of the irritated tissues. No data are available if the extracts or the polysaccharides from these extract exert an active influence on mucosal or connective tissue cells, in order to initiated changes in cell physiology, useful for better tissue regeneration. In vitro investigations of aqueous A. officinalis extract AE and raw polysaccharides (RPS) on epithelial KB cells and primary dermal human fibroblasts (pNHF) using WST1 vitality test and BrdU proliferation ELISA. Gene expression analysis by microarray from KB cells. Internalisation studies of polysaccharides were performed by laser scanning microscopy. AE (1, 10 microg/mL) had stimulating effect on cell viability and proliferation of epithelial KB cells. RPS (1, 10 microg/mL) stimulated cell vitality of epithelial cells significantly without triggering the cells into higher proliferation status. Neither AE nor RPS had any effect on fibroblasts. FITC-labeled RPS was shown to be internalised into epithelial cells, but not into fibroblasts. FITC-RPS was shown to form bioadhesive layers on the cell surface of dermal fibroblasts. Microarray analysis indicated an up-regulation of genes related to cell adhesion proteins, growth regulators, extracellular matrix, cytokine release and apoptosis. Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from the roots of A. officinalis are effective stimulators of cell physiology of epithelial cells which can prove the traditional use of Marshmallow preparations for treatment of irritated mucous membranes within tissue regeneration. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Waddlia chondrophila infects and multiplies in ovine trophoblast cells stimulating an inflammatory immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wheelhouse

    Full Text Available Waddlia chondrophila (W. chondrophila is an emerging abortifacient organism which has been identified in the placentae of humans and cattle. The organism is a member of the order Chlamydiales, and shares many similarities at the genome level and in growth studies with other well-characterised zoonotic chlamydial abortifacients, such as Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus. This study investigates the growth of the organism and its effects upon pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a ruminant placental cell line which we have previously utilised in a model of C. abortus pathogenicity.Using qPCR, fluorescent immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, we characterised the infection and growth of W. chondrophila within the ovine trophoblast AH-1 cell line. Inclusions were visible from 6 h post-infection (p.i. and exponential growth of the organism could be observed over a 60 h time-course, with significant levels of host cell lysis being observed only after 36 h p.i. Expression of CXCL8, TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-1β were determined 24 h p.i. A statistically significant response in the expression of CXCL8, TNF-α and IL-1β could be observed following active infection with W. chondrophila. However a significant increase in IL-1β expression was also observed following the exposure of cells to UV-killed organisms, indicating the stimulation of multiple innate recognition pathways.W. chondrophila infects and grows in the ruminant trophoblast AH-1 cell line exhibiting a complete chlamydial replicative cycle. Infection of the trophoblasts resulted in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner similar to that observed with C. abortus in previous studies, suggesting similarities in the pathogenesis of infection between the two organisms.

  14. Waddlia chondrophila infects and multiplies in ovine trophoblast cells stimulating an inflammatory immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelhouse, Nick; Coyle, Christopher; Barlow, Peter G; Mitchell, Stephen; Greub, Gilbert; Baszler, Tim; Rae, Mick T; Longbottom, David

    2014-01-01

    Waddlia chondrophila (W. chondrophila) is an emerging abortifacient organism which has been identified in the placentae of humans and cattle. The organism is a member of the order Chlamydiales, and shares many similarities at the genome level and in growth studies with other well-characterised zoonotic chlamydial abortifacients, such as Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus). This study investigates the growth of the organism and its effects upon pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a ruminant placental cell line which we have previously utilised in a model of C. abortus pathogenicity. Using qPCR, fluorescent immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, we characterised the infection and growth of W. chondrophila within the ovine trophoblast AH-1 cell line. Inclusions were visible from 6 h post-infection (p.i.) and exponential growth of the organism could be observed over a 60 h time-course, with significant levels of host cell lysis being observed only after 36 h p.i. Expression of CXCL8, TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-1β were determined 24 h p.i. A statistically significant response in the expression of CXCL8, TNF-α and IL-1β could be observed following active infection with W. chondrophila. However a significant increase in IL-1β expression was also observed following the exposure of cells to UV-killed organisms, indicating the stimulation of multiple innate recognition pathways. W. chondrophila infects and grows in the ruminant trophoblast AH-1 cell line exhibiting a complete chlamydial replicative cycle. Infection of the trophoblasts resulted in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner similar to that observed with C. abortus in previous studies, suggesting similarities in the pathogenesis of infection between the two organisms.

  15. Optical visualisation of thermogenesis in stimulated single-cell brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriszt, Rókus; Arai, Satoshi; Itoh, Hideki; Lee, Michelle H; Goralczyk, Anna G; Ang, Xiu Min; Cypess, Aaron M; White, Andrew P; Shamsi, Farnaz; Xue, Ruidan; Lee, Jung Yeol; Lee, Sung-Chan; Hou, Yanyan; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Lane, E Birgitte; Chang, Young-Tae; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Suzuki, Madoka; Raghunath, Michael

    2017-05-03

    The identification of brown adipose deposits in adults has led to significant interest in targeting this metabolically active tissue for treatment of obesity and diabetes. Improved methods for the direct measurement of heat production as the signature function of brown adipocytes (BAs), particularly at the single cell level, would be of substantial benefit to these ongoing efforts. Here, we report the first application of a small molecule-type thermosensitive fluorescent dye, ERthermAC, to monitor thermogenesis in BAs derived from murine brown fat precursors and in human brown fat cells differentiated from human neck brown preadipocytes. ERthermAC accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum of BAs and displayed a marked change in fluorescence intensity in response to adrenergic stimulation of cells, which corresponded to temperature change. ERthermAC fluorescence intensity profiles were congruent with mitochondrial depolarisation events visualised by the JC-1 probe. Moreover, the averaged fluorescence intensity changes across a population of cells correlated well with dynamic changes such as thermal power, oxygen consumption, and extracellular acidification rates. These findings suggest ERthermAC as a promising new tool for studying thermogenic function in brown adipocytes of both murine and human origins.

  16. RhoA-Rho kinase and platelet-activating factor stimulation of ovine foetal pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, L S; Austin, M; Lazaro, M; Andrews, M A; Lustina, J; Raj, J U; Ibe, B O

    2013-10-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMC). We studied effects of Rho kinase on PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation in an attempt to understand the role of RhoA/Rho kinase on PAF-induced ovine foetal pulmonary vascular remodelling. Our hypothesis is that PAF acts through Rho kinase, as one of its downstream signals, to induce arterial (SMC-PA) and venous (SMC-PV) cell proliferation in the hypoxic lung environment of the foetus, in utero. Rho kinase and MAPK effects on PAF receptor (PAFR)-mediated cell population expansion, and PAFR expression, were studied by DNA synthesis, western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Effects of constructs T19N and G14V on PAF-induced cell proliferation were also investigated. Hypoxia increased PVSMC proliferation and Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 and Fasudil (HA-1077) as well as MAPK inhibitors PD 98059 and SB 203580 attenuated PAF stimulation of cell proliferation. RhoA T19N and G14V stimulated cell proliferation, but co-incubation with PAF did not affect proliferative effects of the constructs. PAFR protein expression was significantly downregulated in both cell types by both Y-27632 and HA-1077, with comparable profiles. Also, cells treated with Y-27632 had less PAF receptor fluorescence with significant disruption of cell morphology. Our results show that Rho kinase non-specifically modulated PAFR-mediated responses by a translational modification of PAFR protein, and suggest that, in vivo, activation of Rho kinase by PAF may be a further pathway to sustain PAFR-mediated PVSMC proliferation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Ultraviolet radiation stimulates the release of arachidonic acid from mammalian cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leo, V.A.; Hanson, D.; Weinstein, I.B.; Harber, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    C3H 10T1/2 cells in culture were prelabelled with [ 3 H]arachidonic acid and exposed to UVB radiation. Almost immediately after irradiation cells released labelled arachidonate metabolites into media in a dose dependent manner. This release was inhibited by removing calcium ions from the system and by the addition of dexamethasone and parabromophenacyl bromide to the system. This suggests that the UVB stimulated release of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids is, in part, mediated by a phospholipase A 2 enzyme system. Thin layer chromatographic examination of media extracts revealed a dose dependent UVB stimulation of prostaglandin production by cultured cells. (author)

  18. Drp1 guarding of the mitochondrial network is important for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Florian; Schultz, Julia; Waterstradt, Rica; Baltrusch, Simone, E-mail: simone.baltrusch@med.uni-rostock.de

    2016-06-10

    Mitochondria form a tubular network in mammalian cells, and the mitochondrial life cycle is determined by fission, fusion and autophagy. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) has a pivotal role in these processes because it alone is able to constrict mitochondria. However, the regulation and function of Drp1 have been shown to vary between cell types. Mitochondrial morphology affects mitochondrial metabolism and function. In pancreatic beta cells mitochondrial metabolism is a key component of the glucose-induced cascade of insulin secretion. The goal of the present study was to investigate the action of Drp1 in pancreatic beta cells. For this purpose Drp1 was down-regulated by means of shDrp1 in insulin-secreting INS1 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. In INS1 cells reduced Drp1 expression resulted in diminished expression of proteins regulating mitochondrial fusion, namely mitofusin 1 and 2, and optic atrophy protein 1. Diminished mitochondrial dynamics can therefore be assumed. After down-regulation of Drp1 in INS1 cells and spread mouse islets the initially homogenous mitochondrial network characterised by a moderate level of interconnections shifted towards high heterogeneity with elongated, clustered and looped mitochondria. These morphological changes were found to correlate directly with functional alterations. Mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP generation were significantly reduced in INS1 cells after Drp1down-regulation. Finally, a significant loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was demonstrated in INS1 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. In conclusion, Drp1 expression is important in pancreatic beta cells to maintain the regulation of insulin secretion. -- Highlights: •Down-regulation of Drp1 in INS1 cells reduces mitochondrial fusion protein expression. •Mitochondrial membrane potential in INS1 cells is diminished after Drp1 down-regulation. •Mitochondria become elongated after down-regulation of Drp1 in beta cells. •Down-regulation of

  19. Stem cell factor stimulates chicken osteoclast activity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van't Hof, R. J.; von Lindern, M.; Nijweide, P. J.; Beug, H.

    1997-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) is a polypeptide growth factor active on multiple cell types, mainly of hematopoietic origin. We studied the effects of avian SCF on the differentiation of chicken osteoclasts from their putative progenitors as well as on the bone-resorbing activity of terminally

  20. Mapping organelle motion reveals a vesicular conveyor belt spatially replenishing secretory vesicles in stimulated chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maucort, Guillaume; Kasula, Ravikiran; Papadopulos, Andreas; Nieminen, Timo A; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Meunier, Frederic A

    2014-01-01

    How neurosecretory cells spatially adjust their secretory vesicle pools to replenish those that have fused and released their hormonal content is currently unknown. Here we designed a novel set of image analyses to map the probability of tracked organelles undergoing a specific type of movement (free, caged or directed). We then applied our analysis to time-lapse z-stack confocal imaging of secretory vesicles from bovine Chromaffin cells to map the global changes in vesicle motion and directionality occurring upon secretagogue stimulation. We report a defined region abutting the cortical actin network that actively transports secretory vesicles and is dissipated by actin and microtubule depolymerizing drugs. The directionality of this "conveyor belt" towards the cell surface is activated by stimulation. Actin and microtubule networks therefore cooperatively probe the microenvironment to transport secretory vesicles to the periphery, providing a mechanism whereby cells globally adjust their vesicle pools in response to secretagogue stimulation.

  1. Activation of PPARd and RXRa stimulates fatty acid oxidatin and insulin secretion inpancreatic beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Michael; Ravnskjær, Kim; Frigerio, Francesca

    as a central effector of unsaturated fatty acids in pancreatic ß-cells. Interestingly, activation of PPARd increases basal as well as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of INS-1E cells. This increase is further potentiated by RXR agonists. This observation suggests that PPARd may mediate some of the positive......ACTIVATION OF PPARd AND RXRa STIMULATES FATTY ACID OXIDATION AND INSULIN SECRETION IN PANCREATIC b-CELLS Michael Boergesen1, Kim Ravnskjaer2, Francesca Frigerio3, Allan E. Karlsen4, Pierre Maechler3 and Susanne Mandrup1 1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern...... of genes as PPARd specific agonists and stimulates ß-oxidation. Importantly, oleate-induction of gene expression and ß-oxidation in INS-1E cells is abolished by knock-down of PPARd using adenoviral transfer of shRNA. Thus, PPARd appears to be a central regulator of fatty acid metabolism as well...

  2. In vitro stimulation of rabbit T lymphocytes by cells expressing herpes simplex antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, A K; Ling, N R; Nash, A A; Bachan, A; Wildy, P

    1982-04-01

    Lymphocyte stimulation responses to herpes antigens were studied using virus-infected X-irradiated cells. Rabbits were immunized with herpes simplex virus type 1 (strain HFEM) grown in RK 13 cells. For in vitro stimulation assay BHK21 cells were X-irradiated (15 000 rad) and infected with a high m.o.i. of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant (N102) of HFEM strain at the non-permissive temperature (38.5 degrees C) of virus. Virus antigens were expressed on the infected cells and there was no leakage of infectious virus into the medium at 38.5 degrees C. T lymphocytes from rabbits immunized with herpes simplex virus were specifically activated by herpesvirus-infected X-irradiated cells; lymph node cells from rabbits immunized with RK13 cells and from non-immune rabbits showed no proliferative response.

  3. Stimulation of cell proliferation by histamine H2 receptors in dimethylhdrazine-induced adenocarcinomata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1978-03-01

    Cell proliferation in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic carcinomata was stimulated by histamine and by the histamine H2 receptor agonist dimaprit and inhibited by the histamine H2 receptor antagonists Metiamide and Cimetidine but not by the histamine H1 receptor antagonist Mepyramine. In contrast histamine had no effect on colonic crypt cell proliferation in normal or dimethylhydrazine-treated rats.

  4. UV-stimulation of DNA-mediated transformation of human cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Duin (Mark); A. Westerveld (Andries); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractIrradiation of dominant marker DNA with UV light (150 to 1,000 J/m2) was found to stimulate the transformation of human cells by this marker from two- to more than fourfold. This phenomenon is also displayed by xeroderma pigmentosum cells (complementation groups A and F), which are

  5. Src Kinase becomes preferentially associated with the VEGFR, KDR/Flk-1, following VEGF stimulation of vascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jing

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, Src, has been found to play a crucial role in VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor – dependent vascular permeability involved in angiogenesis. The two main VEGFRs present on vascular endothelial cells are KDR/Flk-1 (kinase insert domain-containing receptor/fetal liver kinase-1 and Flt-1 (Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1. However, to date, it has not been determined which VEGF receptor (VEGFR is involved in binding to and activating Src kinase following VEGF stimulation of the receptors. Results In this report, we demonstrate that Src preferentially associates with KDR/Flk-1 rather than Flt-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, and that VEGF stimulation resulted in an increase of Src activity associated with activated KDR/Flk-1. These findings were determined through immunoprecipitation-kinase experiments and coimmunoprecipitation studies, and were further confirmed by GST-pull-down assays and Far Western studies. However, Fyn and Yes, unlike Src, were found to associate preferentially with Flt-1. Conclusions Thus, Src preferentially associates with KDR/Flk-1, rather than with Flt-1, upon VEGF stimulation in endothelial cells. Our findings further highlight the potential significance of upregulated KDR/Flk-1-associated Src activity in the process of angiogenesis, and help to elucidate more clearly the specific roles and mechanisms involving Src family tyrosine kinase in VEGF-stimulated signal transduction events.

  6. Aspergillus fumigatus Cell Wall α-(1,3)-Glucan Stimulates Regulatory T-Cell Polarization by Inducing PD-L1 Expression on Human Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Karnam, Anupama; Fontaine, Thierry; Beauvais, Anne; Das, Mrinmoy; Hegde, Pushpa; Prakhar, Praveen; Holla, Sahana; Balaji, Kithiganahalli N; Kaveri, Srini V; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2017-12-05

    Human dendritic cell (DC) response to α-(1,3)-glucan polysaccharide of Aspergillus fumigatus and ensuing CD4+ T-cell polarization are poorly characterized. α-(1,3)-Glucan was isolated from A. fumigatus conidia and mycelia cell wall. For the analysis of polarization, DCs and autologous naive CD4+ T cells were cocultured. Phenotype of immune cells was analyzed by flow cytometry, and cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blocking antibodies were used to dissect the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in regulating α-(1,3)-glucan-mediated DC activation and T-cell responses. DCs from TLR2-deficient mice were additionally used to consolidate the findings. α-(1,3)-Glucan induced the maturation of DCs and was dependent in part on TLR2. "α-(1,3)-Glucan-educated" DCs stimulated the activation of naive T cells and polarized a subset of these cells into CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Mechanistically, Treg stimulation by α-(1,3)-glucan was dependent on the PD-L1 pathway that negatively regulated interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secretion. Short α-(1,3)-oligosaccharides lacked the capacity to induce maturation of DCs but significantly blocked α-(1,3)-glucan-induced Treg polarization. PD-L1 dictates the balance between Treg and IFN-γ responses induced by α-(1,3)-glucan. Our data provide a rationale for the exploitation of immunotherapeutic approaches that target PD-1-PD-L1 to enhance protective immune responses to A. fumigatus infections. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Increased androgen levels in rats impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdong; Wang, Xiaping; Zhu, Yunxia; Chen, Fang; Sun, Yujie; Han, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Although insulin resistance is recognized to contribute to the reproductive and metabolic phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), pancreatic beta cell dysfunction plays an essential role in the progression from PCOS to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the role of insulin secretory abnormalities in PCOS has received little attention. In addition, the precise changes in beta cells and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we therefore attempted to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in beta cell alterations in a rat model of PCOS. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured in islets isolated from DHT-treated and control rats. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ATP production, and mitochondrial copy number were assayed to evaluate mitochondrial function. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is significantly decreased in islets from DHT-treated rats. On the other hand, significant reductions are observed in the expression levels of several key genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and in mitochondrial OCR and ATP production in DHT-treated rat islets. Meanwhile, we found that androgens can directly impair beta cell function by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro in an androgen receptor dependent manner. For the first time, our study demonstrates that increased androgens in female rats can impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion partly through disruption of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function. This work has significance for hyperandrogenic women with PCOS: excess activation of the androgen receptor by androgens may provoke beta cell dysfunction via mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Bilayer Construct Controls Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Differentiation into Endothelial Cells and Pericytes without Growth Factor Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A Bilayer Construct Controls Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Differentiation into Endothelial Cells and Pericytes Without Growth Factor Stimulation...Ph.D.3 This work describes the differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) in a composite hy- drogel for use as a vascularized...tissue from a single population of ASC. This work underscores the importance of the extracellular matrix in controlling stem cell phenotype. It is our

  9. Targeting of follicle stimulating hormone peptide-conjugated dendrimers to ovarian cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Dimple A.; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Bugno, Jason; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Hong, Seungpyo; Burdette, Joanna E.

    2014-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Current treatment modalities include a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, which often lead to loss of fertility in premenopausal women and a myriad of systemic side effects. To address these issues, we have designed poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers to selectively target the follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), which is overexpressed by tumorigenic ovarian cancer cells but not by immature primordial follicles and other non-tumorigenic cells. Fluorescein-labeled generation 5 (G5) PAMAM dendrimers were conjugated with the binding peptide domain of FSH (FSH33) that has a high affinity to FSHR. The targeted dendrimers exhibited high receptor selectivity to FSHR-expressing OVCAR-3 cells, resulting in significant uptake and downregulation of an anti-apoptotic protein survivin, while showing minimal interactions with SKOV-3 cells that do not express FSHR. The selectivity of the FSH33-targeted dendrimers was further validated in 3D organ cultures of normal mouse ovaries. Immunostaining of the conjugates revealed their selective binding and uptake by ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) cells that express FSHR, while sparing the immature primordial follicles. In addition, an in vivo study monitoring tissue accumulation following a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the conjugates showed significantly higher accumulation of FSH33-targeted dendrimers in the ovary and oviduct compared to the non-targeted conjugates. These proof-of-concept findings highlight the potential of these FSH33-targeted dendrimers to serve as a delivery platform for anti-ovarian cancer drugs, while reducing their systemic side effects by preventing nonspecific uptake by the primordial follicles.Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Current treatment modalities include a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, which often lead to loss of fertility in premenopausal women and a myriad of systemic side

  10. Mechanical Stimulation Protocols of Human Derived Cells in Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozoee, Baktash; Mafi, Pouya; Mafi, Reza; Khan, Wasim S

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation is a key factor in articular cartilage generation and maintenance. Bioreactor systems have been designed and built in order to deliver specific types of mechanical stimulation. The focus has been twofold, applying a type of preconditioning in order to stimulate cell differentiation, and to simulate in vivo conditions in order to gain further insight into how cells respond to different stimulatory patterns. Due to the complex forces at work within joints, it is difficult to simulate mechanical conditions using a bioreactor. The aim of this review is to gain a deeper understanding of the complexities of mechanical stimulation protocols by comparing those employed in bioreactors in the context of tissue engineering for articular cartilage, and to consider their effects on cultured cells. Allied and Complementary Medicine 1985 to 2016, Ovid MEDLINE[R] 1946 to 2016, and Embase 1974 to 2016 were searched using key terms. Results were subject to inclusion and exclusion criteria, key findings summarised into a table and subsequently discussed. Based on this review it is overwhelmingly clear that mechanical stimulation leads to increased chondrogenic properties in the context of bioreactor articular cartilage tissue engineering using human cells. However, given the variability and lack of controlled factors between research articles, results are difficult to compare, and a standardised method of evaluating stimulation protocols proved challenging. With improved standardisation in mechanical stimulation protocol reporting, bioreactor design and building processes, along with a better understanding of joint behaviours, we hope to perform a meta-analysis on stimulation protocols and methods. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Tumor cell-released TLR4 ligands stimulate Gr-1+CD11b+F4/80+ cells to induce apoptosis of activated T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Yan; Sun, Ling-Cong; Wei, Jing-Jing; Li, Dong; Yuan, Ye; Yan, Bin; Liang, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Hui-Fen; Xu, Yong; Li, Bo; Song, Chuan-Wang; Liao, Sheng-Jun; Lei, Zhang; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Feng, Zuo-Hua

    2010-09-01

    Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells play important roles in tumor development and have a negative effect on tumor immunotherapy. So far, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of their immunosuppressive phenotype by classical and alternative macrophage activation stimuli are not well elucidated. In this study, we found that molecules from necrotic tumor cells (NTC-Ms) stimulated Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells to induce apoptosis of activated T cells but not nonstimulated T cells. The apoptosis-inducing capacity was determined by higher expression levels of arginase I and IL-10 relative to those of NO synthase 2 and IL-12 in Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells, which were induced by NTC-Ms through TLR4 signaling. The apoptosis-inducing capacity of NTC-Ms-stimulated Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells could be enhanced by IL-10. IFN-gamma may reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells only if their response to IFN-gamma was not attenuated. However, the potential of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells to express IL-12 in response to IFN-gamma could be attenuated by tumor, partially due to the existence of active STAT3 in Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and NTC-Ms from tumor. In this situation, IFN-gamma could not effectively reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells. Tumor immunotherapy with 4-1BBL/soluble programmed death-1 may significantly reduce, but not abolish the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells in local microenvironment. Blockade of TLR4 signaling could further reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and enhance the suppressive effect of 4-1BBL/soluble form of programmed death-1 on tumor growth. These findings indicate the relationship of distinct signaling pathways with apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and emphasize the importance of blocking TLR4 signaling to prevent the induction of T cell apoptosis by Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells.

  12. Stimulated-healing of proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latsuzbaia, R.; Negro, E.; Koper, G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Platinum nanoparticles, which are used as catalysts in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), tend to degrade after long-term operation. We discriminate the following mechanisms of the degradation: poisoning, migration and coalescence, dissolution, and electrochemical Ostwald ripening. There

  13. RhoA–Rho kinase and Platelet Activating Factor Stimulation of Ovine Fetal Pulmonary Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Lissette S.; Austin, Monique; Lazaro, Mariecon; Andrews, Mari Ashley; Lustina, Jennessee; Raj, J. Usha; Ibe, Basil O.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) is produced by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle Cells (PVSMC). We studied effect of Rho kinase on PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation in an attempt to understand a role for RhoA/Rho kinase on PAF-induced ovine fetal pulmonary vascular remodeling. Our hypothesis is that PAF acts through Rho kinase, as one of its downstream signaling, to induce arterial (SMC-PA) and venous (SMC-PV) growth in the hypoxic lung environment of the fetus in utero. Materials and methods Rho kinase and MAPK effects on PAF receptor (PAFR)-mediated cell growth and PAFR expression were studied by DNA synthesis, Western and immunocytochemistry. Effects of constructs T19N and G14V on PAF-induced cell proliferation was also studied. Results Hypoxia increased PVSMC proliferation and the Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 and Fasudil (HA-1077) as well as MAPK inhibitors PD 98059 and SB 203580 attenuated PAF stimulation of cell proliferation. RhoA T19N and G14V stimulated cell proliferation, but co-incubation with PAF did not affect proliferative effects of the constructs. PAFR protein expression was significantly down-regulated in both cell types by both Y-27632 and HA-1077 with comparable profiles. Also cells treated with Y-27632 showed less PAF receptor fluorescence with significant disruption of the cell morphology. Conclusions Our results show that Rho kinase nonspecifically modulates PAFR-mediated responses via a translational modification of PAFR protein and suggest that, in vivo, activation of Rho kinase by PAF may be one other pathway to sustain PAFR-mediated PVSMC growth. PMID:24033386

  14. MeHG Stimulates Antiapoptotic Signaling in Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    regions but most cause damage by inducing cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. In the developing brain, the dominant type of neuronal cell death...expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl2 family members occurs. The shift is due, in part, to thyroid hormone signaling. Hypothyroid rats display increased...2006) Increased pro-nerve growth factor and p75 neurotrophin receptor levels in developing hypothyroid rat cerebral cortex are associated with

  15. Dynamic properties of sensory stimulation evoked responses in mouse cerebellar granule cell layer and molecular layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Guang-Jian; Sun, Lei; Chu, Chun-Ping; Qiu, De-Lai

    2015-01-12

    Sensory information coming from climbing fiber and mossy fiber-granule cell pathways, generates motor-related outputs according to internal rules of integration and computation in the cerebellar cortex. However, the dynamic properties of sensory information processing in mouse cerebellar cortex are less understood. Here, we studied the dynamic properties of sensory stimulation-evoked responses in the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) and molecular layer (ML) by electrophysiological recordings method. Our data showed that air-puff stimulation (5-10 ms in duration) of the ipsilateral whisker pad evoked single-peak responses in the GCL and ML; whereas a duration of stimulation ≥30 ms in GCL and ≥60 ms in ML, evoked double-peak responses that corresponded with stimulation-on and -off responses via mossy fiber pathway. The highest frequency of stimulation train for evoking GCL responses was 33 Hz. In contrast, the highest frequency of stimulation train for evoking ML responses was 4 Hz. These results indicate that the cerebellar granule cells transfer the high-fidelity sensory information from mossy fibers, which is cut-off by molecular layer interneurons (MLIs). Our results suggest that the MLIs network acts as a low-pass filter during the processing of high-frequency sensory information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Immunobiology of T cell responses to Mls-locus-disparate stimulator cells. III. Helper and cytolytic functions of cloned, Mls-reactive T cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.E.; Tite, J.P.; Janeway, C.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Mls-specific T cell clones derived by limiting dilution were tested for cytotoxic activity in a lectin-dependent 51 Cr-release assay. All the T cell clones tested were cytotoxic in such an assay in apparent contrast to previous reports (1, 2). However, only those target cells sensitive to cytolysis by other L3T4a + cytolytic T cells (3) were killed by Mls-specific T cell clones in short term 51 Cr-release assays, possibly explaining this discrepancy. All the T cell clones tested were L3T4a + ,Lyt-2 - and stimulated B cells from Mls strains of mice to proliferate and secrete immunoglobulin. Furthermore, lysis of innocent bystander targets was observed when the T cells were stimulated with Mls-disparate stimulator cells. These results are consistent with those obtained with L3T4a - T cells specific for protein antigen:self Ia and that express cytotoxic potential (3)

  17. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of human adult stem cells in the mammalian brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlea L Kremer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The burden of stroke on the community is growing, and therefore, so is the need for a therapy to overcome the disability following stroke. Cellular-based therapies are being actively investigated at a pre-clinical and clinical level. Studies have reported the beneficial effects of exogenous stem cell implantation, however, these benefits are also associated with limited survival of implanted stem cells. This exploratory study investigated the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS as a complementary therapy to increase stem cell survival following implantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC in the rodent cortex. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetised and injected with 6x105 DPSC or control media via an intracranial injection, and then received real TMS (TMS0.2Hz or sham TMS (TMSsham every 2nd day beginning on day 3 post DPSC injection for 2 weeks. Brain sections were analysed for the survival, migration and differentiation characteristics of the implanted cells. Results: In animals treated with DPSC and TMS0.2Hz there were significantly less implanted DPSC and those that survived remained in the original cerebral hemisphere compared to animals that received TMSsham. The surviving implanted DPSC in TMS0.2Hz were also found to express the apoptotic marker Caspase-3. Conclusions: We suggest that TMS at this intensity may cause an increase in glutamate levels, which promotes an unfavourable environment for stem cell implantation, proliferation and differentiation. It should be noted that only one paradigm of TMS was tested as this was conducted as an exploratory study, and further TMS paradigms should be investigated in the future.

  18. EMMPRIN is secreted by human uterine epithelial cells in microvesicles and stimulates metalloproteinase production by human uterine fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braundmeier, A G; Dayger, C A; Mehrotra, P; Belton, R J; Nowak, R A

    2012-12-01

    Endometrial remodeling is a physiological process involved in the gynecological disease, endometriosis. Tissue remodeling is directed by uterine fibroblast production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Several MMPs are regulated directly by the protein extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and also by proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)1-α/β. We hypothesized that human uterine epithelial cells (HESs) secrete intact EMMPRIN to stimulate MMPs. Microvesicles from HES cell-conditioned medium (CM) expressed intact EMMPRIN protein. Treatment of HES cells with estradiol or phorbyl 12-myristate-13-acetate increased the release of EMMPRIN-containing microvesicles. The HES CM stimulated MMP-1, -2, and -3 messenger RNA levels in human uterine fibroblasts (HUFs) and EMMPRIN immunodepletion from HES-cell concentrated CM reduced MMP stimulation (P EMMPRIN, in response to ovarian hormones, proinflammatory cytokines as well as activation of protein kinase C.

  19. Encapsulated cell device approach for combined electrical stimulation and neurotrophic treatment of the deaf cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konerding, W S; Janssen, H; Hubka, P; Tornøe, J; Mistrik, P; Wahlberg, L; Lenarz, T; Kral, A; Scheper, V

    2017-07-01

    Profound hearing impairment can be overcome by electrical stimulation (ES) of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) via a cochlear implant (CI). Thus, SGN survival is critical for CI efficacy. Application of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been shown to reduce SGN degeneration following deafness. We tested a novel method for local, continuous GDNF-delivery in combination with ES via a CI. The encapsulated cell (EC) device contained a human ARPE-19 cell-line, genetically engineered for secretion of GDNF. In vitro, GDNF delivery was stable during ES delivered via a CI. In the chronic in vivo part, cats were systemically deafened and unilaterally implanted into the scala tympani with a CI and an EC device, which they wore for six months. The implantation of control devices (same cell-line not producing GDNF) had no negative effect on SGN survival. GDNF application without ES led to an unexpected reduction in SGN survival, however, the combination of GDNF with initial, short-term ES resulted in a significant protection of SGNs. A tight fibrous tissue formation in the scala tympani of the GDNF-only group is thought to be responsible for the increased SGN degeneration, due to mechanisms related to an aggravated foreign body response. Furthermore, the fibrotic encapsulation of the EC device led to cell death or cessation of GDNF release within the EC device during the six months in vivo. In both in vitro and in vivo, fibrosis was reduced by CI stimulation, enabling the neuroprotective effect of the combined treatment. Thus, fibrous tissue growth limits treatment possibilities with an EC device. For a stable and successful long-term neurotrophic treatment of the SGN via EC devices in human CI users, it would be necessary to make changes in the treatment approach (provision of anti-inflammatories), the EC device surface (reduced cell adhesion) and the ES (initiation prior to fibrosis formation). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Epicatechin stimulates mitochondrial activity and selectively sensitizes cancer cells to radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam A Elbaz

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for solid tumors including pancreatic cancer, but the effectiveness of treatment is limited by radiation resistance. Resistance to chemotherapy or radiotherapy is associated with reduced mitochondrial respiration and drugs that stimulate mitochondrial respiration may decrease radiation resistance. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of (--epicatechin to stimulate mitochondrial respiration in cancer cells and to selectively sensitize cancer cells to radiation. We investigated the natural compound (--epicatechin for effects on mitochondrial respiration and radiation resistance of pancreatic and glioblastoma cancer cells using a Clark type oxygen electrode, clonogenic survival assays, and Western blot analyses. (--Epicatechin stimulated mitochondrial respiration and oxygen consumption in Panc-1 cells. Human normal fibroblasts were not affected. (--Epicatechin sensitized Panc-1, U87, and MIA PaCa-2 cells with an average radiation enhancement factor (REF of 1.7, 1.5, and 1.2, respectively. (--Epicatechin did not sensitize normal fibroblast cells to ionizing radiation with a REF of 0.9, suggesting cancer cell selectivity. (--Epicatechin enhanced Chk2 phosphorylation and p21 induction when combined with radiation in cancer, but not normal, cells. Taken together, (--epicatechin radiosensitized cancer cells, but not normal cells, and may be a promising candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment when combined with radiation.

  1. Stimulation with Concanavalin-A Induces IL-17 Production by Canine Peripheral T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle G. Ritt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of canine IL-17-producing cells are incompletely understood. Expression of mRNA encoding orthologs of IL-17 and the IL-17 receptor has been documented in tissues from dogs with arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and lymphoma; however, no associations have been found between IL-17 gene expression and disease phenotype in these conditions. Robust assessment of the role of IL-17-producing cells in dogs will require measuring the frequency of these cells in health and disease in balance with other lymphocyte subsets. The aim of this study was to confirm that the T-cell IL-17 response in dogs is evolutionarily conserved. Canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with Concanavalin A with or without polarizing cytokines. We used a canine specific IL-17 ELISA and flow cytometry to identify IL-17-producing T cells. Accumulation of intracellular IL-17 was observed in stimulated CD4 and CD8 T cells. The addition of pro-inflammatory cytokines appeared to enhance polarization of canine CD4 T cells to the Th17 phenotype. Conversely, the addition of IL-2 in the presence of TGF-β resulted in expansion of Treg cells. We conclude that canine IL-17-producing cells behave similarly to those from humans and mice when stimulated with mitogens and polarized with pro-inflammatory or immune regulatory cytokines.

  2. Neuropeptide substance P stimulates the formation of osteoclasts via synovial fibroblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matayoshi, Takaaki; Goto, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Eiji; Takano, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of neuropeptide substance P (Sp) on the formation of osteoclasts via synovial fibroblastic cells. Synovial fibroblastic cells derived from rat knee joint expressed the Sp receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK 1 -R). The addition of Sp stimulated the proliferation of synovial fibroblastic cells and this effect was inhibited by Sp or NK 1 -R antagonists. Increased expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (Rankle) in synovial fibroblastic cells after the addition of Sp was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining. Osteoprotegerin expression in synovial fibroblastic cells was decreased after incubation with SP. In co-cultures of synovial fibroblastic cells and rat peripheral blood monocytes, SP stimulated osteoclastogenesis. These results suggest that SP in the joint cavity may cause both hypertrophy of the synovium and induction of increased osteoclast formation through the increased expression of RANKL in the synovium

  3. Angiogenic factors stimulate growth of adult neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Androutsellis-Theotokis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to grow a uniform cell type from the adult central nervous system (CNS is valuable for developing cell therapies and new strategies for drug discovery. The adult mammalian brain is a source of neural stem cells (NSC found in both neurogenic and non-neurogenic zones but difficulties in culturing these hinders their use as research tools.Here we show that NSCs can be efficiently grown in adherent cell cultures when angiogenic signals are included in the medium. These signals include both anti-angiogenic factors (the soluble form of the Notch receptor ligand, Dll4 and pro-angiogenic factors (the Tie-2 receptor ligand, Angiopoietin 2. These treatments support the self renewal state of cultured NSCs and expression of the transcription factor Hes3, which also identifies the cancer stem cell population in human tumors. In an organotypic slice model, angiogenic factors maintain vascular structure and increase the density of dopamine neuron processes.We demonstrate new properties of adult NSCs and a method to generate efficient adult NSC cultures from various central nervous system areas. These findings will help establish cellular models relevant to cancer and regeneration.

  4. Stimulated human mast cells secrete mitochondrial components that have autocrine and paracrine inflammatory actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodi Zhang

    Full Text Available Mast cells are hematopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that participate in acquired and innate immunity, as well as in inflammation through release of many chemokines and cytokines, especially in response to the pro-inflammatory peptide substance P (SP. Inflammation is critical in the pathogenesis of many diseases, but the trigger(s is often unknown. We investigated if mast cell stimulation leads to secretion of mitochondrial components and whether these could elicit autocrine and/or paracrine inflammatory effects. Here we show that human LAD2 mast cells stimulated by IgE/anti-IgE or by the SP led to secretion of mitochondrial particles, mitochondrial (mt mtDNA and ATP without cell death. Mitochondria purified from LAD2 cells and, when mitochondria added to mast cells trigger degranulation and release of histamine, PGD(2, IL-8, TNF, and IL-1β. This stimulatory effect is partially inhibited by an ATP receptor antagonist and by DNAse. These results suggest that the mitochondrial protein fraction may also contribute. Purified mitochondria also stimulate IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF release from cultured human keratinocytes, and VEGF release from primary human microvascular endothelial cells. In order to investigate if mitochondrial components could be secreted in vivo, we injected rats intraperiotoneally (ip with compound 48/80, which mimicks the action of SP. Peritoneal mast cells degranulated and mitochondrial particles were documented by transimission electron microscopy outside the cells. We also wished to investigate if mitochondrial components secreted locally could reach the systemic circulation. Administration ip of mtDNA isolated from LAD2 cells in rats was detected in their serum within 4 hr, indicating that extravascular mtDNA could enter the systemic circulation. Secretion of mitochondrial components from stimulated live mast cells may act as "autopathogens" contributing to the pathogenesis of inflammatory

  5. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation of peripheral-blood lymphocytes and stem cell take

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astaldi, G [Blood Research Foundation Center, Tortona, Italy; Karanovic, D; Vettori, P P; Karanovic, J; Piletic, O

    1974-01-01

    The effect of PHA-stimulation of peripheral-blood lymphocytes on the spleen-colony formation in irradiated rats was examined. 25-day old Wistar rats underwent total-body irradiation (600 R), and they were used as recipients. On the other hand, 2 and /sup 1///sub 2/ month old untreated Wistar rats were used as donors of peripheral-blood lymphocytes, which were obtained by sedimentation with Dextraven from defibrinated blood. Four rat lots were used. The 1st one did not receive irradiation, and was kept as ''blank control.'' The 2nd one was just irradiated and kept as ''radiated control.'' The 3rd and the 4th rat lots of the series were irradiated, but the former lot was injected i.v. with 5 x 10/sup 7/ peripheral-blood untreated lymphocytes, whereas the fourth lot was injected i.v. with the same amount of lymphocytes, which were previously incubated in vitro for 24 hrs with PHA-M (Difco). The results showed that the PHA-incubation of transplanted peripheral-blood lymphocytes significantly increases the number and size of the macroscopic spleen colonies, in relationship to the colonies which occurs after transplantation of untreated lymphocytes. Histo-cytological observation clearly showed that the colonies formed after injection of mitogen-pretreated peripheral-blood lymphocytes were predominantly of erythroid type and, then, of non-differentiated cells. Only a few of them were of a mixed type, consisting of both undifferentiated cells and erythroid cells.

  6. Critical role of the FERM domain in Pyk2 stimulated glioma cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, Christopher A.; Tran, Nhan L.; Dooley, Andrea; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Rohl, Carole; Kloss, Jean; Yang, Zhongbo; McDonough, Wendy; Craig, David; Berens, Michael E.; Loftus, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The strong tendency of malignant glioma cells to invade locally into surrounding normal brain precludes effective surgical resection, reduces the efficacy of radiotherapy, and is associated with increased resistance to chemotherapy regimens. We report that the N-terminal FERM domain of Pyk2 regulates its promigratory function. A 3-dimensional model of the Pyk2 FERM domain was generated and mutagenesis studies identified residues essential for Pyk2 promigratory function. Model-based targeted mutations within the FERM domain decreased Pyk2 phosphorylation and reduced the capacity of Pyk2 to stimulate glioma cell migration but did not significantly alter the intracellular distribution of Pyk2. Expression of autonomous Pyk2 FERM domain fragments containing analogous mutations exhibited reduced capacity to inhibit glioma cell migration and Pyk2 phosphorylation relative to expression of an autonomous wild type FERM domain fragment. These results indicate that the FERM domain plays an important role in regulating the functional competency of Pyk2 as a promigratory factor in glioma

  7. Pericytes Stimulate Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Differentiation during CNS Remyelination

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    Alerie Guzman De La Fuente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the neurovascular niche in CNS myelin regeneration is incompletely understood. Here, we show that, upon demyelination, CNS-resident pericytes (PCs proliferate, and parenchymal non-vessel-associated PC-like cells (PLCs rapidly develop. During remyelination, mature oligodendrocytes were found in close proximity to PCs. In Pdgfbret/ret mice, which have reduced PC numbers, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC differentiation was delayed, although remyelination proceeded to completion. PC-conditioned medium accelerated and enhanced OPC differentiation in vitro and increased the rate of remyelination in an ex vivo cerebellar slice model of demyelination. We identified Lama2 as a PC-derived factor that promotes OPC differentiation. Thus, the functional role of PCs is not restricted to vascular homeostasis but includes the modulation of adult CNS progenitor cells involved in regeneration.

  8. Neuromelanin is an immune stimulator for dendritic cells in vitro

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    Oberländer Uwe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease (PD is characterized at the cellular level by a destruction of neuromelanin (NM-containing dopaminergic cells and a profound reduction in striatal dopamine. It has been shown recently that anti-melanin antibodies are increased in sera of Parkinson patients, suggesting that NM may act as an autoantigen. In this study we tested whether NM is being recognized by dendritic cells (DCs, the major cell type for inducing T- and B-cell responses in vivo. This recognition of NM by DCs is a prerequisite to trigger an adaptive autoimmune response directed against NM-associated structures. Results Murine DCs were treated with NM of substantia nigra (SN from human subjects or with synthetic dopamine melanin (DAM. DCs effectively phagocytized NM and subsequently developed a mature phenotype (CD86high/MHCIIhigh. NM-activated DCs secreted the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. In addition, they potently triggered T cell proliferation in a mixed lymphocyte reaction, showing that DC activation was functional to induce a primary T cell response. In contrast, DAM, which lacks the protein and lipid components of NM but mimics the dopamine-melanin backbone of NM, had only very little effect on DC phenotype and function. Conclusions NM is recognized by DCs in vitro and triggers their maturation. If operative in vivo, this would allow the DC-mediated transport and presentation of SN antigens to the adaptive immune system, leading to autoimmmunity in susceptible individuals. Our data provide a rationale for an autoimmune-based pathomechanism of PD with NM as the initial trigger.

  9. Restoration of lymphocyte proliferation and CTL generation by murine rIL-2 after treatment of allogeneic stimulator cells by ultraviolet B irradiation, heat, or paraformaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flye, M.W.; Yu, S.

    1991-01-01

    Following a 5-day mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC), C3H/HeJ (H-2k) splenocytes stimulated with DBA/2 (H-2d) gamma-irradiated splenocytes (2000 rads) are specifically cytotoxic in a 4-hr 51 Cr-release assay to P815 (H-2d) target cells (62 +/- 2% cytolysis) but not to third-party EL4 (H-2b). However, when the DBA/2 stimulator cells were treated with heat inactivation (45 degree C for 1 hr), fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde (15 min), or irradiated with ultraviolet-B light (10(4) J/M2), no cell proliferation or cytolytic activity developed in the MLCs. The levels of IL-1, IL-2, and IL-6 from the supernatants of MLC using stimulators undergoing either of the three treatments were markedly decreased compared with that from gamma-irradiated stimulators. Both cell proliferation and specific cytolysis were restored in a dose-dependent fashion by the addition of murine rIL-2 to the MLCs. If the stimulator cells were first activated with 5 micrograms/ml pokeweed mitogen or lipopolysaccharide for 2 days, the subsequent treatment with heat, paraformaldehyde, or UV-B did not significantly affect the development of cytolysis (54-70% cytolysis). Suppressor cells were not detected when cells from the nonresponsive MLCs (2.5 x 10(6) cells) were added to an MLC freshly prepared with gamma-irradiated stimulator cells, or were injected intraperitoneally (50 x 10(6) cells) into naive mice 2 days before recovery and in vitro sensitization of splenocytes. Therefore, modification of the stimulating alloantigen can prevent the release of cytokines that function as an essential second signal in the development of the proliferative response and subsequent cytolysis. The cytokine found to be essential for restoration of this response is IL-2

  10. Progesterone-specific stimulation of triglyceride biosynthesis in a breast cancer cell line (T-47D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, S.M.; Chatterton, R.T. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the lactogenic response of human mammary cancer cell lines to hormones in vitro. Progesterone was found to stimulate the incorporation of 14C from [14C]acetate into triglycerides (TG) and to promote accumulation of TG with a fatty acid composition similar to that of human milk fat in T-47D cells. Lipid droplets were observed in larger numbers without concomitant accumulation of casein granules in cells incubated with progesterone, but secretion of lipid into the medium did not occur. An effect of progesterone on TG accumulation was detectable after 12 hr and was maximal at 72 hr. Increasing doses of progesterone (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) caused a progressive increase in TG accumulation. The presence of cortisol and/or prolactin did not alter TG formation nor the dose response of the cells to progesterone. The growth rate of T-47D cells was not altered by the presence of progesterone in the medium. Neither of the human mammary cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HBL-100, nor the human fibroblast cell lines, 28 and 857, responded to progesterone. The data indicate that, while the normally lactogenic hormones do not stimulate milk product biosynthesis in the cell lines tested, progesterone specifically stimulated synthesis and accumulation of TG in the T-47D cells

  11. A novel lumazine synthase molecule from Brucella significantly promotes the immune-stimulation effects of antigenic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Z Q; Wang, J Y

    2015-10-27

    Brucella, an intracellular parasite that infects some livestock and humans, can damage or destroy the reproductive system of livestock. The syndrome is referred to as brucellosis and often occurs in pastoral areas; it is contagious from livestock to humans. In this study, the intact Brucella suis outer membrane protein 31 (omp31) gene was cloned, recombinantly expressed, and examined as a subunit vaccine candidate. The intact Brucella lumazine synthase (bls) gene was cloned and recombinantly expressed to study polymerization function in vitro. Non-reducing gel electrophoresis showed that rBs-BLS existed in different forms in vitro, including as a dimer and a pentamer. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay result showed that rOmp31 protein could induce production of an antibody in rabbits. However, the rOmp31-BLS fusion protein could elicit a much higher antibody titer in rabbits; this construct involved fusion of the Omp31 molecule with the BLS molecule. Our results indicate that Omp31 is involved in immune stimulation, while BLS has a polymerizing function based on rOmp31-BLS fusion protein immunogenicity. These data suggest that Omp31 is an ideal subunit vaccine candidate and that the BLS molecule is a favorable transport vector for antigenic proteins.

  12. T Cell Subset and Stimulation Strength-Dependent Modulation of T Cell Activation by Kv1.3 Blockers.

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    Wai-Ping Fung-Leung

    Full Text Available Kv1.3 is a voltage-gated potassium channel expressed on T cells that plays an important role in T cell activation. Previous studies have shown that blocking Kv1.3 channels in human T cells during activation results in reduced calcium entry, cytokine production, and proliferation. The aim of the present study was to further explore the effects of Kv1.3 blockers on the response of different human T cell subsets under various stimulation conditions. Our studies show that, unlike the immune suppressor cyclosporine A, the inhibitory effect of Kv1.3 blockers was partial and stimulation strength dependent, with reduced inhibitory efficacy on T cells under strengthened anti-CD3/CD28 stimulations. T cell responses to allergens including house dust mites and ragweed were partially reduced by Kv1.3 blockers. The effect of Kv1.3 inhibition was dependent on T cell subsets, with stronger effects on CCR7- effector memory compared to CCR7+ central memory CD4 T cells. Calcium entry studies also revealed a population of CD4 T cells resistant to Kv1.3 blockade. Activation of CD4 T cells was accompanied with an increase in Kv1.3 currents but Kv1.3 transcripts were found to be reduced, suggesting a posttranscriptional mechanism in the regulation of Kv1.3 activities. In summary, Kv1.3 blockers inhibit T cell activation in a manner that is highly dependent on the T cell identity and stimulation strength, These findings suggest that Kv1.3 blockers inhibit T cells in a unique, conditional manner, further refining our understanding of the therapeutic potential of Kv1.3 blockers.

  13. Natural Killer Dendritic Cells Enhance Immune Responses Elicited by α-Galactosylceramide-Stimulated Natural Killer T Cells

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    Sung Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer dendritic cells (NKDCs possess potent anti-tumor activity, but the cellular effect of NKDC interactions with other innate immune cells is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the interaction of NKDCs and natural killer T (NKT cells is required for the anti-tumor immune responses that are elicited by α-galactosylceramide (α-GC in mice. The rapid and strong expression of interferon-γ by NKDCs after α-GC stimulation was dependent on NKT cells. Various NK and DC molecular markers and cytotoxic molecules were up-regulated following α-GC administration. This up-regulation could improve NKDC presentation of tumor antigens and increase cytotoxicity against tumor cells. NKDCs were required for the stimulation of DCs, NK cells, and NKT cells. The strong anti-tumor immune responses elicited by α-GC may be due to the down-regulation of regulatory T cells. Furthermore, the depletion of NKDCs dampened the tumor clearance mediated by α-GC-stimulated NKT cells in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that complex interactions of innate immune cells might be required to achieve optimal anti-tumor immune responses during the early stages of tumorigenesis.

  14. Significance of a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance for Papanicolaou smears in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, J T; Wang, H H

    2001-04-25

    The current study was conducted to determine the significance of a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The reports for all Papanicolaou (Pap) smears viewed in the study institution's cytology laboratory over a 6-month period were reviewed. Women were divided into premenopausal (age ages 46-54 years), and postmenopausal (age > or = 55 years) categories. Slide review and 2-year follow-up were obtained for selected cases diagnosed as ASCUS. ASCUS cases among the perimenopausal women were compared with an age-matched control group. The total number of abnormal Pap smears in the premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal categories were 770 (6.8%), 104 (4.3%), and 67 (2.9%), with 482, 83, and 41 diagnoses of ASCUS, respectively. The ratio of ASCUS to squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) was 2.2 overall and 1.9, 7.5, and 4.1, respectively, for each group (P ASCUS cases appeared to have a higher percentage of nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio increase and nuclear membrane irregularities compared with the other categories (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively) and the perimenopausal group was found to have more ASCUS in metaplastic cells (P = 0.03). In perimenopausal women, slides diagnosed as ASCUS demonstrated more air-drying artifact than the control group (P = 0.004) but had less obvious atrophy (P = 0.01). Despite a decreased abnormality rate with increasing age, the results of the current study show that the perimenopausal and postmenopausal groups appear to have elevated ASCUS-to-SIL ratios. ASCUS appears to have a particularly low positive predictive value for SIL in perimenopausal women, and therefore most likely is overcalled in this age group. This may be attributable in part to air-drying artifact and subtle atrophic changes.

  15. PDGF stimulation of Mueller cell proliferation: Contributions of c-JNK and the PI3K/Akt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sang Woong; Chung, Eun Jee; Jung, Sun-Ah; Lee, Joon H.

    2009-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has a critical role in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) as a chemoattractant and mitogen for retinal pigment epithelial cells and retinal glial cells. Here, we investigated the potential effects of PDGF on the proliferation of Mueller cells and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. PDGF induced Mueller cell proliferation and increased phosphorylation of the PDGF receptor (PDGFR), as shown by an MTT assay and immunoprecipitation analyses. Both effects were blocked by JNJ, a PDGFR-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor. PDGF also stimulated phosphorylation of c-JNK and Akt. PDGF-induced Mueller cell proliferation was significantly reduced by pre-treatment with SP600125 and LY294002, inhibitors of c-JNK and Akt phosphorylation, respectively. Our findings collectively indicate that PDGF-stimulated Mueller cell proliferation occurs via activation of the c-JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These data provide useful information in establishing the role of Mueller cells in the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

  16. Proteinase-activated receptor 4 stimulation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki Hiromasa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs; PAR1–4 that can be activated by serine proteinases such as thrombin and neutrophil catepsin G are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases including fibrosis. Among these PARs, especially PAR4, a newly identified subtype, is highly expressed in the lung. Here, we examined whether PAR4 stimulation plays a role in the formation of fibrotic response in the lung, through alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT which contributes to the increase in myofibroblast population. Methods EMT was assessed by measuring the changes in each specific cell markers, E-cadherin for epithelial cell, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA for myofibroblast, using primary cultured mouse alveolar epithelial cells and human lung carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial cell line (A549 cells. Results Stimulation of PAR with thrombin (1 U/ml or a synthetic PAR4 agonist peptide (AYPGKF-NH2, 100 μM for 72 h induced morphological changes from cobblestone-like structure to elongated shape in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells and A549 cells. In immunocytochemical analyses of these cells, such PAR4 stimulation decreased E-cadherin-like immunoreactivity and increased α-SMA-like immunoreactivity, as observed with a typical EMT-inducer, tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β. Western blot analyses of PAR4-stimulated A549 cells also showed similar changes in expression of these EMT-related marker proteins. Such PAR4-mediated changes were attenuated by inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR kinase and Src. PAR4-mediated morphological changes in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells were reduced in the presence of these inhibitors. PAR4 stimulation increased tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR or tyrosine phosphorylated Src level in A549 cells, and the former response being inhibited by Src inhibitor. Conclusion PAR4 stimulation of alveolar epithelial cells induced epithelial

  17. Enhancement of organ regeneration in animal models by a stem cell-stimulating plant mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, István; Tibold, Antal; Halmosi, Róbert; Bartha, Eva; Koltai, Katalin; Orsós, Zsuzsanna; Bujdosó, László; Ember, István

    2010-06-01

    Adult stem cells play an important role in the regeneration of damaged organs. Attempts have already been made to enhance stem cell production by cytokines, in order to increase the improvement of cardiac functions after myocardial infarction. In our present study we investigated the possibility whether instead of cytokine injection dietary stimulation of stem cell production accelerates the organ regeneration in animals. A dietary supplement, Olimpiq StemXCell (Crystal Institute Ltd., Eger, Hungary), containing plant extracts (previously proved to increase the number of circulating CD34(+) cells) was consumed in human equivalent doses by the experimental animals. In the first experiment carbon tetrachloride was applied to CBA/Ca mice, to induce liver damage, and liver weights between StemXCell-fed and control animals were compared 10 days after the treatment. In the second model experimental diabetes was induced in F344 rats by alloxan. Blood sugar levels were measured for 5 weeks in the control and StemXCell-fed groups. The third part of the study investigated the effect of StemXCell on cardiac functions. Eight weeks after causing a myocardial infarction in Wistar rats by isoproterenol, left ventricular ejection fraction was determined as a functional parameter of myocardial regeneration. In all three animal models StemXCell consumption statistically significantly improved the organ regeneration (relative liver weights, 4.78 +/-0.06 g/100 g vs. 4.97 +/- 0.07 g/100 g; blood sugar levels at week 5, 16 +/- 1.30 mmol/L vs. 10.2 +/- 0.92 mmol/L; ejection fraction, 57.5 +/- 2.23 vs. 68.2 +/- 4.94; controls vs. treated animals, respectively). Our study confirms the hypothesis that dietary enhancement of stem cell production may protect against organ injuries and helps in the regeneration.

  18. Interleukin 6 protects pancreatic β cells from apoptosis by stimulation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemann, Amelia K; Blumer, Joseph; Marasco, Michelle R; Battiola, Therese J; Umhoefer, Heidi M; Han, Jee Young; Lamming, Dudley W; Davis, Dawn Belt

    2017-09-01

    IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with complex roles in inflammation and metabolic disease. The role of IL-6 as a pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine is still unclear. Within the pancreatic islet, IL-6 stimulates secretion of the prosurvival incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) by α cells and acts directly on β cells to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro Uncovering physiologic mechanisms promoting β-cell survival under conditions of inflammation and stress can identify important pathways for diabetes prevention and treatment. Given the established role of GLP-1 in promoting β-cell survival, we hypothesized that IL-6 may also directly protect β cells from apoptosis. Herein, we show that IL-6 robustly activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a transcription factor that is involved in autophagy. IL-6 stimulates LC3 conversion and autophagosome formation in cultured β cells. In vivo IL-6 infusion stimulates a robust increase in lysosomes in the pancreas that is restricted to the islet. Autophagy is critical for β-cell homeostasis, particularly under conditions of stress and increased insulin demand. The stimulation of autophagy by IL-6 is regulated via multiple complementary mechanisms including inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and activation of Akt, ultimately leading to increases in autophagy enzyme production. Pretreatment with IL-6 renders β cells resistant to apoptosis induced by proinflammatory cytokines, and inhibition of autophagy with chloroquine prevents the ability of IL-6 to protect from apoptosis. Importantly, we find that IL-6 can activate STAT3 and the autophagy enzyme GABARAPL1 in human islets. We also see evidence of decreased IL-6 pathway signaling in islets from donors with type 2 diabetes. On the basis of our results, we propose direct stimulation of autophagy as a novel mechanism for IL-6-mediated protection of β cells from stress-induced apoptosis.-Linnemann, A. K

  19. Co-culture with human synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibits inflammatory activity and increases cell proliferation of sodium nitroprusside-stimulated chondrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jae-Sung; Jung, Yeon-Hwa; Cho, Mi-Young; Yeo, Jee Eun; Choi, Yun-Jin; Kim, Yong Il; Koh, Yong-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-culture of hSDMSCs with SNP-stimulated chondrocytes improves anti-inflammation. • Co-culture system produces IGF-1. • Co-culture system suppresses inflammatory genes expression. • Co-culture system improves cell proliferation. • Exogenous IGF-1 inhibits inflammatory activity in SNP-stimulated chondrocytes. - Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are primarily chronic inflammatory diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into cells of the mesodermal lineage, and to regulate immunomodulatory activity. Specifically, MSCs have been shown to secrete insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). The purpose of the present study was to examine the inhibitory effects on inflammatory activity from a co-culture of human synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hSDMSCs) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-stimulated chondrocytes. First, chondrocytes were treated with SNP to generate an in vitro model of RA or OA. Next, the co-culture of hSDMSCs with SNP-stimulated chondrocytes reduced inflammatory cytokine secretion, inhibited expression of inflammation activity-related genes, generated IGF-1 secretion, and increased the chondrocyte proliferation rate. To evaluate the effect of IGF-1 on inhibition of inflammation, chondrocytes pre-treated with IGF-1 were treated with SNP, and then the production of inflammatory cytokines was analyzed. Treatment with IGF-1 was shown to significantly reduce inflammatory cytokine secretion in SNP-stimulated chondrocytes. Our results suggest that hSDMSCs offer a new strategy to promote cell-based cartilage regeneration in RA or OA

  20. Co-culture with human synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibits inflammatory activity and increases cell proliferation of sodium nitroprusside-stimulated chondrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jae-Sung; Jung, Yeon-Hwa; Cho, Mi-Young; Yeo, Jee Eun; Choi, Yun-Jin; Kim, Yong Il; Koh, Yong-Gon, E-mail: yonseranglab@daum.net

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • Co-culture of hSDMSCs with SNP-stimulated chondrocytes improves anti-inflammation. • Co-culture system produces IGF-1. • Co-culture system suppresses inflammatory genes expression. • Co-culture system improves cell proliferation. • Exogenous IGF-1 inhibits inflammatory activity in SNP-stimulated chondrocytes. - Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are primarily chronic inflammatory diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into cells of the mesodermal lineage, and to regulate immunomodulatory activity. Specifically, MSCs have been shown to secrete insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). The purpose of the present study was to examine the inhibitory effects on inflammatory activity from a co-culture of human synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hSDMSCs) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-stimulated chondrocytes. First, chondrocytes were treated with SNP to generate an in vitro model of RA or OA. Next, the co-culture of hSDMSCs with SNP-stimulated chondrocytes reduced inflammatory cytokine secretion, inhibited expression of inflammation activity-related genes, generated IGF-1 secretion, and increased the chondrocyte proliferation rate. To evaluate the effect of IGF-1 on inhibition of inflammation, chondrocytes pre-treated with IGF-1 were treated with SNP, and then the production of inflammatory cytokines was analyzed. Treatment with IGF-1 was shown to significantly reduce inflammatory cytokine secretion in SNP-stimulated chondrocytes. Our results suggest that hSDMSCs offer a new strategy to promote cell-based cartilage regeneration in RA or OA.

  1. Baculovirus IE2 Stimulates the Expression of Heat Shock Proteins in Insect and Mammalian Cells to Facilitate Its Proper Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Hsuan; Wei, Sung-Chan; Lo, Huei-Ru; Chao, Yu-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Baculoviruses have gained popularity as pest control agents and for protein production in insect systems. These viruses are also becoming popular for gene expression, tissue engineering and gene therapy in mammalian systems. Baculovirus infection triggers a heat shock response, and this response is crucial for its successful infection of host insect cells. However, the viral protein(s) or factor(s) that trigger this response are not yet clear. Previously, we revealed that IE2-an early gene product of the baculovirus-could form unique nuclear bodies for the strong trans-activation of various promoters in mammalian cells. Here, we purified IE2 nuclear bodies from Vero E6 cells and investigated the associated proteins by using mass spectrometry. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were found to be one of the major IE2-associated proteins. Our experiments show that HSPs are greatly induced by IE2 and are crucial for the trans-activation function of IE2. Interestingly, blocking both heat shock protein expression and the proteasome pathway preserved the IE2 protein and its nuclear body structure, and revived its function. These observations reveal that HSPs do not function directly to assist the formation of the nuclear body structure, but may rather protect IE2 from proteasome degradation. Aside from functional studies in mammalian cells, we also show that HSPs were stimulated and required to determine IE2 protein levels, in insect cells infected with baculovirus. Upon inhibiting the expression of heat shock proteins, baculovirus IE2 was substantially suppressed, resulting in a significantly suppressed viral titer. Thus, we demonstrate a unique feature in that IE2 can function in both insect and non-host mammalian cells to stimulate HSPs, which may be associated with IE2 stabilization and lead to the protection of the its strong gene activation function in mammalian cells. On the other hand, during viral infection in insect cells, IE2 could also strongly stimulate HSPs and

  2. Regulation of intracellular calcium in resting and stimulated rat basophilic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    Intracellular calcium regulation was studied in a cell line of mast cells, the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells with the purpose of determining (1) The properties of the plasma membrane calcium permeability pathway and (2) The role of intracellular calcium stores. The first set of experiments showed that depolarization did not induce calcium entry or secretion in resting cells and did inhibit antigen-stimulated calcium uptake and secretion. In the second set of experiments the ionic basis of antigen-induced depolarization was studied using the fluorescent potential-sensitive probe bis-oxonol. The properties of the calcium entry pathway were more consistent with a calcium channel than a calcium transport mechanism such as Na:Ca exchange. The third set of experiments examined the effects of the proton ionophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) on RBL cells. CCCP inhibited antigen-stimulated 45 Ca uptake and secretion by depolarizing the plasma membrane

  3. Prokaryotic adenylate cyclase toxin stimulates anterior pituitary cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, M.J.; Evans, W.S.; Rogol, A.D.; Weiss, A.A.; Thorner, M.O.; Orth, D.N.; Nicholson, W.E.; Yasumoto, T.; Hewlett, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis synthesis a variety of virulence factors including a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (AC) toxin. Treatment of anterior pituitary cells with this AC toxin resulted in an increase in cellular cAMP levels that was associated with accelerated exocytosis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The kinetics of release of these hormones, however, were markedly different; GH and prolactin were rapidly released, while LH and ACTH secretion was more gradually elevated. Neither dopamine agonists nor somatostatin changes the ability of AC toxin to generate cAMP (up to 2 h). Low concentrations of AC toxin amplified the secretory response to hypophysiotrophic hormones. The authors conclude that bacterial AC toxin can rapidly elevate cAMP levels in anterior pituitary cells and that it is the response that explains the subsequent acceleration of hormone release

  4. Combination of retinal pigment epithelium cell-conditioned medium and photoreceptor outer segments stimulate mesenchymal stem cell differentiation toward a functional retinal pigment epithelium cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Zhang, Jing; Ao, Mingxin; Li, Ying; Zhang, Chun; Xu, Yonggen; Li, Xuemin; Wang, Wei

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are capable of retinal tissue-specific differentiation but not retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell-specific differentiation. Photoreceptor outer segments (POS) contribute to RPE development and maturation. However, there has been no standard culture system that fosters the differentiation of BMMSCs into mature RPE cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated if the soluble factors from RPE cells and POS could differentiate BMMSCs into cells having a phenotype characteristic of RPE cells. Rat BMMSCs were separately co-cultured with RPE cells, or they were exposed to either control medium, RPE cell-conditioned medium (RPECM), POS, or a combination of RPECM and POS (RPECM-POS). After 7 days, the cells were analyzed for morphology and the expression of RPE markers (cytokeratin 8, CRALBP, and RPE65) to assess the RPE differentiation. Significantly higher pigment accumulation and increased protein expression of the three markers were seen in cells cultured in RPECM-POS than in other treated cultures. Furthermore, the RPECM-POS-treated cultures displayed ultrastructural features typical of RPE cells, expressed RPE cell functional proteins, and had the capability to phagocytose POS. Together, theses results suggest the combination of RPECM and POS stimulate BMMSCs differentiation toward a functional RPE phenotype. Our results provide the foundation for a new route to RPE regenerative therapy involving BMMSCs. Future work isolating the active agent in RPECM and POS would be useful in therapies for RPE diseases or in developing appropriately pre-differentiated BMMSCs for tissue-engineered RPE reconstruction. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. BCR ligation induced by IgM stimulation results in gene expression and functional changes only in IgV H unmutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, Anna; Chiaretti, Sabina; Tavolaro, Simona; Maggio, Roberta; Peragine, Nadia; Citarella, Franca; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Santangelo, Simona; Marinelli, Marilisa; De Propris, Maria Stefania; Messina, Monica; Mauro, Francesca Romana; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Foà, Robert

    2008-08-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients exhibit a variable clinical course. To investigate the association between clinicobiologic features and responsiveness of CLL cells to anti-IgM stimulation, we evaluated gene expression changes and modifications in cell-cycle distribution, proliferation, and apoptosis of IgV(H) mutated (M) and unmutated (UM) samples upon BCR cross-linking. Unsupervised analysis highlighted a different response profile to BCR stimulation between UM and M samples. Supervised analysis identified several genes modulated exclusively in the UM cases upon BCR cross-linking. Functional gene groups, including signal transduction, transcription, cell-cycle regulation, and cytoskeleton organization, were up-regulated upon stimulation in UM cases. Cell-cycle and proliferation analyses confirmed that IgM cross-linking induced a significant progression into the G(1) phase and a moderate increase of proliferative activity exclusively in UM patients. Moreover, we observed only a small reduction in the percentage of subG(0/1) cells, without changes in apoptosis, in UM cases; contrariwise, a significant increase of apoptotic levels was observed in stimulated cells from M cases. These results document that a differential genotypic and functional response to BCR ligation between IgV(H) M and UM cases is operational in CLL, indicating that response to antigenic stimulation plays a pivotal role in disease progression.

  6. TNF-α promotes cell survival through stimulation of K+ channel and NFκB activity in corneal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ling; Reinach, Peter; Lu, Luo

    2005-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in various cell types induces either cell death or mitogenesis through different signaling pathways. In the present study, we determined in human corneal epithelial cells how TNF-α also promotes cell survival. Human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells were cultured in DMEM/F-12 medium containing 10% FBS. TNF-α stimulation induced activation of a voltage-gated K + channel detected by measuring single channel activity using patch clamp techniques. The effect of TNF-α on downstream events included NFκB nuclear translocation and increases in DNA binding activities, but did not elicit ERK, JNK, or p38 limb signaling activation. TNF-α induced increases in p21 expression resulting in partial cell cycle attenuation in the G 1 phase. Cell cycle progression was also mapped by flow cytometer analysis. Blockade of TNF-α-induced K + channel activity effectively prevented NFκB nuclear translocation and binding to DNA, diminishing the cell-survival protective effect of TNF-α. In conclusion, TNF-α promotes survival of HCE cells through sequential stimulation of K + channel and NFκB activities. This response to TNF-α is dependent on stimulating K + channel activity because following suppression of K + channel activity TNF-α failed to activate NFκB nuclear translocation and binding to nuclear DNA

  7. No significant effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) found on simple motor reaction time comparing 15 different simulation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared Cooney; Carter, Olivia; Forte, Jason D

    2016-10-01

    Research exploring the behavioral impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over M1 has produced homogenous results. The most common explanations to address this homogeneity concerns the differential impact of varied tDCS parameters (such as stimulation intensity or electrode montage). To explore this, we systematically examined the effects of 15 different tDCS protocols on a well-elucidated neurobehavioral system: simple visual motor reaction time (smRT). For the initial phase of this study, 150 healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of 5 experimental groups (2mA anodal, 2mA cathodal, 1mA anodal, 1mA cathodal, or sham) across 3 different conditions (orbitofrontal, bilateral, or extracephalic reference electrode location). The active electrode was always placed over M1 and tDCS lasted for 20min. Starting ~5min prior to stimulation and running continuously for ~30min, participants were repeatedly presented with a visual cue centered on a computer monitor and asked to press a response button as quickly as possible at stimulus onset (stimuli number: 100 pre-, 400 during-, and 100-post stimulation - interstimulus interval: 1-3s). Ex-gaussian distribution curves, miss, and error rates were determined for each normalized batch of 100 RTs and compared using a two-way ANOVA. As the largest group differences were seen with 2mA anodal (compared to sham) stimulation using an orbitofrontal montage, an additional 60 healthy participants were recruited to further test for significance in this condition. No significant impact of tDCS was seen on any parameter of smRT distribution, error rate, or miss rate, regardless of polarity, stimulation intensity, electrode montage, or stimulation-to-task relationship. Our results suggest that tDCS over M1 might not have a predictable or reliable effect on short duration smRT. Our results raise interesting questions regarding the mechanisms by which tDCS might modulate more complex motor behaviors. Additional

  8. Cell Morphological Change and Caspase-3 Protein Expression on Epithelial Cells under Stimulation of Oral Bacterium Streptococcus sanguinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryani Hutomo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral commensal bacterium Streptococcus sanguinis may find in periodontal lesions, deep seated infection, and infective endocarditis that are usually dominated by anaerobes. This bacterium caused cell death on some cells but host responses to this species remained unclear. Objective: This study was aimed to detect cell morphologica change and role of caspase-3 in cell death mechanism induced by S. sanguinis. Methods: HeLa cells as representative model for oral epithelial cells were exposed to 107 cells/ml bacteria for 48 h. Morphological change was observed microscopically after hematoxyline-eosin staining. Expression of active caspase-3 was examined by immunocytochemical analysis after cell stimulation for 36 and 48 h with wild type supragingival S. sanguinis. Doxorubicin (0.5625 μg/ml was used as positive control for caspase-3 activation. Results: The results showed cell shrinkage of bacterial-treated cells; and active caspase-3 molecules were detected after 36 and 48 hours cell stimulation. Conclusion: This study would suggest cell shrinkage and caspase-3-dependent apoptotic cell death induced by S. sanguinis.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v22i1.375

  9. Hepatocyte growth factor secreted by ovarian cancer cells stimulates peritoneal implantation via the mesothelial-mesenchymal transition of the peritoneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Michihiko; Ono, Yoshihiro J; Kanemura, Masanori; Tanaka, Tomohito; Hayashi, Masami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2015-11-01

    A current working model for the metastatic process of ovarian carcinoma suggests that cancer cells are shed from the ovarian tumor into the peritoneal cavity and attach to the layer of mesothelial cells that line the inner surface of the peritoneum, and several studies suggest that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plays an important role in the dissemination of ovarian cancer. Our objectives were to evaluate the HGF expression of ovarian cancer using clinical data and assess the effect of HGF secreted from human ovarian cancer cells to human mesothelial cells. HGF expression was immunohistochemically evaluated in 165 epithelial ovarian cancer patients arranged as tissue microarrays. HGF expression in four ovarian cancer cell lines was evaluated by using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of ovarian cancer cell derived HGF to the human mesothelial cells was assessed by using morphologic analysis, Western blotting and cell invasion assay. The effect of HGF on ovarian cancer metastasis was assessed by using in vivo experimental model. The clinical data showed a significantly high correlation between the HGF expression and the cancer stage. The in vivo and in vitro experimental models revealed that HGF secreted by ovarian cancer cells induces the mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stimulates the invasion of mesothelial cells. Furthermore, manipulating the HGF activity affected the degree of dissemination and ascite formation. We demonstrated that HGF secreted by ovarian cancer cells plays an important role in cancer peritoneal implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics and stimulation potential with BMP-2 and BMP-7 of tenocyte-like cells isolated from the rotator cuff of female donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franka Klatte-Schulz

    Full Text Available Tendon bone healing of the rotator cuff is often associated with non-healing or recurrent defects, which seems to be influenced by the patient's age and sex. The present study aims to examine cellular biological characteristics of tenocyte-like cells that may contribute to this impaired rotator cuff healing. Moreover, a therapeutic approach using growth factors could possibly stimulate tendon bone healing. Therefore, our second aim was to identify patient groups who would particularly benefit from growth factor stimulation. Tenocyte-like cells isolated from supraspinatus tendons of female donors younger and older than 65 years of age were characterized with respect to different cellular biological parameters, such as cell density, cell count, marker expression, collagen-I protein synthesis, and stem cell potential. Furthermore, cells of the donor groups were stimulated with BMP-2 and BMP-7 (200 and 1000 ng/ml in 3D-culture and analyzed for cell count, marker expression and collagen-I protein synthesis. Female donors older than 65 years of age showed significantly decreased cell count and collagen-I protein synthesis compared to cells from donors younger than 65 years. Cellular biological parameters including cell count, collagen-I and -III expression, and collagen-I protein synthesis of cells from both donor groups were stimulated with BMP-2 and BMP-7. The cells from donors older than 65 years revealed a decreased stimulation potential for cell count compared to the younger group. Cells from female donors older than 65 years of age showed inferior cellular biological characteristics. This may be one reason for a weaker healing potential observed in older female patients and should be taken into consideration for tendon bone healing of the rotator cuff.

  11. TIMP-1 stimulates proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells and Ras effector pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Takemi; Akahane, Manabu; Shah, Amy; Thorgeirsson, Unnur P.

    2004-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is a multifunctional protein, which is found in most tissues and body fluids. Here, we demonstrated that recombinant TIMP-1 but not the synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, GM6001, stimulated proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMC) in a dose-dependent manner. The mitogenic effect was associated with activation of Ras, increased phosphorylation of ERK, and stimulation of cyclin D1 expression. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway was also involved since the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, abolished the TIMP-1-mediated growth stimulation. These data suggest that TIMP-1 activates Ras, which then turns on the ERK and PI3K signaling pathways to promote cell cycle progression of the AoSMC

  12. Induction of autocrine factor inhibiting cell motility from murine B16-BL6 melanoma cells by alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, J; Ayukawa, K; Ogasawara, M; Watanabe, H; Saiki, I

    1999-03-15

    We have previously reported that neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) successfully inhibited Matrigel invasion and haptotactic migration of B16-BL6 melanoma cells towards both fibronectin and laminin without affecting their growth. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory mechanism of tumor cell motility by alpha-MSH. Alpha-MSH significantly blocked the autocrine motility factor (AMF)-enhanced cell motility. However, alpha-MSH did neither prevent the secretion of AMF from B16-BL6 cells nor alter the expression level of AMF receptor (gp78). On the other hand, alpha-MSH induced the secretion of the motility inhibitory factor(s) from B16-BL6 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The induction of the motility inhibitor(s) was proportional to increasing levels of intracellular cAMP induced by alpha-MSH as well as forskolin, and the activity was abolished by an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA). The motility-inhibiting activity in conditioned medium (CM) from alpha-MSH-treated B16-BL6 cells was found to have a m.w. below 3 kDa after fractionation. This activity was abolished by boiling but insensitive to trypsin. The treatment of tumor cells with cycloheximide reduced the activity in alpha-MSH-stimulated CM. Our results suggest that alpha-MSH inhibited the motility of B16-BL6 cells through induction of autocrine factor(s).

  13. Alternating current electrical stimulation enhanced chemotherapy: a novel strategy to bypass multidrug resistance in tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janigro, Damir; Perju, Catalin; Fazio, Vincent; Hallene, Kerri; Dini, Gabriele; Agarwal, Mukesh K; Cucullo, Luca

    2006-01-01

    Tumor burden can be pharmacologically controlled by inhibiting cell division and by direct, specific toxicity to the cancerous tissue. Unfortunately, tumors often develop intrinsic pharmacoresistance mediated by specialized drug extrusion mechanisms such as P-glycoprotein. As a consequence, malignant cells may become insensitive to various anti-cancer drugs. Recent studies have shown that low intensity very low frequency electrical stimulation by alternating current (AC) reduces the proliferation of different tumor cell lines by a mechanism affecting potassium channels while at intermediate frequencies interfere with cytoskeletal mechanisms of cell division. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that permeability of several MDR1 over-expressing tumor cell lines to the chemotherapic agent doxorubicin is enhanced by low frequency, low intensity AC stimulation. We grew human and rodent cells (C6, HT-1080, H-1299, SKOV-3 and PC-3) which over-expressed MDR1 in 24-well Petri dishes equipped with an array of stainless steel electrodes connected to a computer via a programmable I/O board. We used a dedicated program to generate and monitor the electrical stimulation protocol. Parallel cultures were exposed for 3 hours to increasing concentrations (1, 2, 4, and 8 μM) of doxorubicin following stimulation to 50 Hz AC (7.5 μA) or MDR1 inhibitor XR9576. Cell viability was assessed by determination of adenylate kinase (AK) release. The relationship between MDR1 expression and the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin as well as the cellular distribution of MDR1 was investigated by computerized image analysis immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. By the use of a variety of tumor cell lines, we show that low frequency, low intensity AC stimulation enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy. This effect was due to an altered expression of intrinsic cellular drug resistance mechanisms. Immunohistochemical, Western blot and fluorescence analysis revealed

  14. Mobility of tethering factor EEA1 on endosomes is decreased upon stimulation of EGF receptor endocytosis in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosheverova, Vera V.; Kamentseva, Rimma S.; Gonchar, Ilya V.; Kharchenko, Marianna V.; Kornilova, Elena S.

    2016-01-01

    Tethering factor EEA1, mediating homotypic fusion of early endosomes, was shown to be localized in membrane-bound state both in serum-deprived and stimulated for EGF receptor endocytosis cells. However, it is not known whether dynamics behavior of EEA1 is affected by EGF stimulation. We investigated EEA1 cytosol-to-membrane exchange rate in interphase HeLa cells by FRAP analysis. The data obtained fitted two-states binding model, with the bulk of membrane-associated EEA1 protein represented by the mobile fraction both in serum-starved and EGF-stimulated cells. Fast recovery state had similar half-times in the two cases: about 1.6 s and 2.8 s, respectively. However, the recovery half-time of slowly cycled EEA1 fraction significantly increased in EGF-stimulated comparing to serum-starved cells (from 21 to 99 s). We suppose that the retardation of EEA1 fluorescence recovery upon EGF-stimulation may be due to the increase of activated Rab5 on endosomal membranes, the growth of the number of tethering events between EEA1-positive vesicles and their clustering. - Highlights: • EEA1 mobility was compared in serum-starved and EGF-stimulated interphase HeLa cells. • FRAP analysis revealed fast and slow components of EEA1 recovery in both cases. • Stimulation of EGFR endocytosis did not affect fast EEA1 turnover. • EGF stimulation significantly increased half-time of slowly exchanged EEA1 fraction.

  15. Mobility of tethering factor EEA1 on endosomes is decreased upon stimulation of EGF receptor endocytosis in HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosheverova, Vera V., E-mail: kosheverova_vera@incras.ru [Institute of Cytology of RAS, 4, Tikhoretsky Ave, St. Petersburg, 194064 (Russian Federation); Kamentseva, Rimma S., E-mail: rkamentseva@yandex.ru [Institute of Cytology of RAS, 4, Tikhoretsky Ave, St. Petersburg, 194064 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg State University, 7-9, Universitetskaya nab, St. Petersburg, 199034 (Russian Federation); Gonchar, Ilya V., E-mail: ample@mail.ru [Institute of Cytology of RAS, 4, Tikhoretsky Ave, St. Petersburg, 194064 (Russian Federation); Kharchenko, Marianna V., E-mail: mariannakharchenko@gmail.com [Institute of Cytology of RAS, 4, Tikhoretsky Ave, St. Petersburg, 194064 (Russian Federation); Kornilova, Elena S., E-mail: lenkor@mail.cytspb.rssi.ru [Institute of Cytology of RAS, 4, Tikhoretsky Ave, St. Petersburg, 194064 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg State University, 7-9, Universitetskaya nab, St. Petersburg, 199034 (Russian Federation); Department of Medical Physics, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, 29, Polytechnicheskaya, St.Petersburg, 195251 (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-22

    Tethering factor EEA1, mediating homotypic fusion of early endosomes, was shown to be localized in membrane-bound state both in serum-deprived and stimulated for EGF receptor endocytosis cells. However, it is not known whether dynamics behavior of EEA1 is affected by EGF stimulation. We investigated EEA1 cytosol-to-membrane exchange rate in interphase HeLa cells by FRAP analysis. The data obtained fitted two-states binding model, with the bulk of membrane-associated EEA1 protein represented by the mobile fraction both in serum-starved and EGF-stimulated cells. Fast recovery state had similar half-times in the two cases: about 1.6 s and 2.8 s, respectively. However, the recovery half-time of slowly cycled EEA1 fraction significantly increased in EGF-stimulated comparing to serum-starved cells (from 21 to 99 s). We suppose that the retardation of EEA1 fluorescence recovery upon EGF-stimulation may be due to the increase of activated Rab5 on endosomal membranes, the growth of the number of tethering events between EEA1-positive vesicles and their clustering. - Highlights: • EEA1 mobility was compared in serum-starved and EGF-stimulated interphase HeLa cells. • FRAP analysis revealed fast and slow components of EEA1 recovery in both cases. • Stimulation of EGFR endocytosis did not affect fast EEA1 turnover. • EGF stimulation significantly increased half-time of slowly exchanged EEA1 fraction.

  16. Lauric Acid Stimulates Ketone Body Production in the KT-5 Astrocyte Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Yudai; Takagi, Tetsuo; Inai, Makoto; Nishimura, Shuhei; Urashima, Shogo; Honda, Kazumitsu; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Terada, Shin

    2016-08-01

    Coconut oil has recently attracted considerable attention as a potential Alzheimer's disease therapy because it contains large amounts of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and its consumption is thought to stimulate hepatic ketogenesis, supplying an alternative energy source for brains with impaired glucose metabolism. In this study, we first reevaluated the responses of plasma ketone bodies to oral administration of coconut oil to rats. We found that the coconut oil-induced increase in plasma ketone body concentration was negligible and did not significantly differ from that observed after high-oleic sunflower oil administration. In contrast, the administration of coconut oil substantially increased the plasma free fatty acid concentration and lauric acid content, which is the major MCFA in coconut oil. Next, to elucidate whether lauric acid can activate ketogenesis in astrocytes with the capacity to generate ketone bodies from fatty acids, we treated the KT-5 astrocyte cell line with 50 and 100 μM lauric acid for 4 h. The lauric acid treatments increased the total ketone body concentration in the cell culture supernatant to a greater extent than oleic acid, suggesting that lauric acid can directly and potently activate ketogenesis in KT-5 astrocytes. These results suggest that coconut oil intake may improve brain health by directly activating ketogenesis in astrocytes and thereby by providing fuel to neighboring neurons.

  17. Electrical stimulation drives chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells in the absence of exogenous growth factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuck Joon; Lee, Gyu Seok; Chun, Honggu

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) is known to guide the development and regeneration of many tissues. However, although preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated superior effects of ES on cartilage repair, the effects of ES on chondrogenesis remain elusive. Since mesenchyme stem cells (MSCs) have high therapeutic potential for cartilage regeneration, we investigated the actions of ES during chondrogenesis of MSCs. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that ES enhances expression levels of chondrogenic markers, such as type II collagen, aggrecan, and Sox9, and decreases type I collagen levels, thereby inducing differentiation of MSCs into hyaline chondrogenic cells without the addition of exogenous growth factors. ES also induced MSC condensation and subsequent chondrogenesis by driving Ca2+/ATP oscillations, which are known to be essential for prechondrogenic condensation. In subsequent experiments, the effects of ES on ATP oscillations and chondrogenesis were dependent on extracellular ATP signaling via P2X4 receptors, and ES induced significant increases in TGF-β1 and BMP2 expression. However, the inhibition of TGF-β signaling blocked ES-driven condensation, whereas the inhibition of BMP signaling did not, indicating that TGF-β signaling but not BMP signaling mediates ES-driven condensation. These findings may contribute to the development of electrotherapeutic strategies for cartilage repair using MSCs. PMID:28004813

  18. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Accelerates Human Endothelial Progenitor Cell-Stimulated Cutaneous Wound Healing and Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Wook; Kwon, Yang Woo; Park, Gyu Tae; Do, Eun Kyoung; Yoon, Jung Won; Kim, Seung-Chul; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Jae Ho

    2018-05-26

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a powerful vasodilating peptide secreted by cardiac muscle cells, and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been reported to stimulate cutaneous wound healing by mediating angiogenesis. To determine whether ANP can promote the EPC-mediated repair of injured tissues, we examined the effects of ANP on the angiogenic properties of EPCs and on cutaneous wound healing. In vitro, ANP treatment enhanced the migration, proliferation, and endothelial tube-forming abilities of EPCs. Furthermore, small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of natriuretic peptide receptor-1, which is a receptor for ANP, abrogated ANP-induced migration, tube formation, and proliferation of EPCs. In a murine cutaneous wound model, administration of either ANP or EPCs had no significant effect on cutaneous wound healing or angiogenesis in vivo, whereas the co-administration of ANP and EPCs synergistically potentiated wound healing and angiogenesis. In addition, ANP promoted the survival and incorporation of transplanted EPCs into newly formed blood vessels in wounds. These results suggest ANP accelerates EPC-mediated cutaneous wound healing by promoting the angiogenic properties and survival of transplanted EPCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the Wound Healing Society.

  19. Genetic Regulation of Bone and Cells by Electromagnetic Stimulation Fields and Uses Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Shackelford, Linda C. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    The present invention provides methods to modify the genetic regulation of mammalian tissue, bone, cells or any combination thereof by preferential activation, up-regulation and/or down-regulation. The method comprises steps of tuning the predetermined profiles of one or more time-varying stimulation fields by manipulating the B-Field magnitude, rising slew rate, rise time, falling slew rate, fall time, frequency, wavelength, and duty cycle, and exposing mammalian cells or tissues to one or more tuned time-varying stimulation fields with predetermined profiles. Examples of mammalian cells or tissues are chondrocytes, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts, nucleus pulposus, associated tissue, or any combination. The resulted modification on gene regulation of these cells, tissues or bones may promote the retention, repair of and reduction of compromised mammalian cartilage, bone, and associated tissue.

  20. Dynamical mechanisms for sensitive response of aperiodic firing cells to external stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yong; Xu Jianxue; Hu Sanjue; Kang Yanmei; Yang Hongjun; Duan Yubin

    2004-01-01

    An interesting phenomenon that aperiodic firing neurons have a higher sensitivity to drugs than periodic firing neurons have been reported for the chronically compressed dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats. In this study, the dynamical mechanisms for such a phenomenon are uncovered from the viewpoint of dynamical systems theory. We use the Rose-Hindmarsh neuron model to illustrate our opinions. Periodic orbit theory is introduced to characterize the dynamical behavior of aperiodic firing neurons. It is considered that bifurcations, crises and sensitive dependence of chaotic motions on control parameters can be the underlying mechanisms. And then, a similar analysis is applied to the modified Chay model describing the firing behavior of pancreatic beta cells. The same dynamical mechanisms can be obtained underlying that aperiodic firing cells are more sensitive to external stimulation than periodic firing ones. As a result, we conjecture that sensitive response of aperiodic firing cells to external stimulation is a universal property of excitable cells

  1. The neuropeptide neuromedin U stimulates innate lymphoid cells and type 2 inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Christoph S N; Mahlakõiv, Tanel; Moeller, Jesper B

    2017-01-01

    The type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 have important roles in stimulating innate and adaptive immune responses that are required for resistance to helminth infection, promotion of allergic inflammation, metabolic homeostasis and tissue repair. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells......-localize with cholinergic neurons that express the neuropeptide neuromedin U (NMU). In contrast to other haematopoietic cells, ILC2s selectively express the NMU receptor 1 (NMUR1). In vitro stimulation of ILC2s with NMU induced rapid cell activation, proliferation, and secretion of the type 2 cytokines IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13...... that was dependent on cell-intrinsic expression of NMUR1 and Gαq protein. In vivo administration of NMU triggered potent type 2 cytokine responses characterized by ILC2 activation, proliferation and eosinophil recruitment that was associated with accelerated expulsion of the gastrointestinal nematode Nippostrongylus...

  2. Stimulation of interleukin-6 production of periodontal ligament cells by Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, N; Shibata, Y; Kamino, Y; Matsuda, U; Hayakawa, M; Oikawa, T; Takiguchi, H; Izumi, H; Abiko, Y

    1994-12-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is a multifunctional cytokine, has important roles in acute and chronic inflammation and may also be implicated in bone resorption. We examined the IL-6 production in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells which were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from several oral inflammatory pathogens. The LPS from Porphyromonas endodontalis, which was isolated from infected root canals and radicular cyst fluids, was more potent than the LPS from any other periodontal organisms examined. P. endodontalis LPS stimulated IL-6 release from PDL cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Northern blot hybridization analysis revealed that the IL-6 mRNA level in PDL cells was increased by P. endodontalis LPS. These results suggest that stimulation of the IL-6 release of PDL cells by P. endodontalis LPS may have a role in the progression of inflammation and alveolar bone resorption in periodontal and periapical diseases.

  3. Potential Application of Electrical Stimulation in Stem Cell-Based Treatment against Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deafness is a common human disease, which is mainly caused by irreversible damage to hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs in the mammalian cochlea. At present, replacement of damaged or missing hair cells and SGNs by stem cell transplantation therapy is an effective treatment. However, the survival rate of stem cell transplantation is low, with uncontrollable differentiation hindering its application. Most researchers have focused on biochemical factors to regulate the growth and differentiation of stem cells, whereas little study has been performed using physical factors. This review intends to illustrate the current problems in stem cell-based treatment against deafness and to introduce electric field stimulation as a physical factor to regulate stem cell behavior and facilitate stem cell therapy to treat hearing loss in the future.

  4. Detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigens and interleukin-2 beta receptor molecules on mitogen- and antigen-stimulated lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, J; Dobbelaere, D; Griffin, J F; Buchan, G

    1993-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2R) and proliferating cell nuclear antigens (PCNA) were compared for their usefulness as markers of lymphocyte activation. Heterologous polyclonal (anti-bovine IL-2R) and monoclonal (anti-human PCNA) antibodies were used to detect the expression of these molecules on activated deer lymphocytes. Both molecules were co-expressed on blast cells which had been activated with mitogen [concanavalin A (Con A)]. There was detectable up-regulation of IL-2R expression in response to antigen [Mycobacterium bovis-derived purified protein derivative (PPD)] stimulation while PCNA expression mimicked lymphocyte transformation (LT) reactivity. PCNA expression was found to more accurately reflect both antigen- and mitogen-activated lymphocyte activation, as estimated by LT activity. The expression of PCNA was used to identify antigen reactive cells from animals exposed to M. bovis. A very low percentage (1.1 +/- 0.4%) of peripheral blood lymphocytes from non-infected animals could be stimulated to express PCNA by in vitro culture with antigen (PPD). Within the infected group both diseased and healthy, 'in-contact', animals expressed significantly higher levels of PCNA upon antigen stimulation. PMID:8104884

  5. Arginine-vasopressin stimulates the formation of phosphatidic acid in rat Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.R.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1987-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) stimulated the formation of labelled phosphatidic acid (PA) in [C]arachidonic acid-prelabelled rat Leydig cells. After addition of 10 M AVP [C]arachidonoylphosphatidic acid reached a maximum within 2 min. The increase was dose-dependent (10-10 M). No change in labelling...

  6. From cell to bedside: some pathophysiologic considerations about the cardiac stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, O.

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial cell pathophysiology is presented as related to possible modification by electrical stimulation of the myocardium. The objective is a diagnostic and therapeutic clinical application such as is seen with bradyarrhythmias and tachyarrhythmias. In addition, the E C is an essential tool during catheter ablation procedures

  7. Rapid desensitization of adrenaline- and neuropeptide Y-stimulated Ca2+ mobilization in HEL-cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    1. Desensitization of Gs-coupled receptors, the beta 2-adrenoceptor for example, involves rapid and slower components but little is known regarding the existence of rapid desensitization of Gi-coupled receptors and its possible mechanisms. In HEL-cells stimulation of alpha 2A-adrenoceptors by

  8. B-cell lymphoma 6 protein stimulates oncogenicity of human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiang; Kong, Xiang-jun; Xu, Xiao-chun; Lobie, Peter E; Zhu, Tao; Wu, Zheng-sheng; Liu, Xue; Yan, Hong; He, Yin-huan; Ye, Shan; Cheng, Xing-wang; Zhu, Gui-lu; Wu, Wen-yong; Wang, Xiao-nan

    2014-01-01

    B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) protein, an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger transcription factor, showed to be highly expressed in various human cancers in addition to malignancies in the lymphoid system. This study investigated the role of BCL6 expression in breast cancer and its clinical significance in breast cancer patients. Expression of BCL6 protein was assessed using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in 127 breast cancer patients and 50 patients with breast benign disease as well as in breast cell lines. Expression of BCL6 was restored or knocked down in two breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and T47D) using BCL6 cDNA and siRNA, respectively. The phenotypic change of these breast cancer cell lines was assessed using cell viability MTT, Transwell invasion, colony formation, and flow cytometry assays and in a xenograft mice model. Luciferase reporter gene, immunoblot, and qRT-PCR were used to investigate the molecular events after manipulated BCL6 expression in breast cancer cells. BCL6 protein was highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines and tissue specimens and expression of BCL6 protein was associated with disease progression and poor survival of breast cancer patients. In vitro, the forced expression of BCL6 results in increased proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration, invasion and survival of breast cancer cell lines, whereas knockdown of BCL6 expression reduced these oncogenic properties of breast cancer cells. Moreover, forced expression of BCL6 increased tumor growth and invasiveness in a nude mouse xenograft model. At the gene level, BCL6 was a target gene of miR-339-5p. Expression of BCL6 induced expression of CXCR4 and cyclinD1 proteins. The current study demonstrated the oncogenic property of BCL6 in breast cancer and further study could target BCL6 as a novel potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer

  9. JMJD2A attenuation affects cell cycle and tumourigenic inflammatory gene regulation in lipopolysaccharide stimulated neuroectodermal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Amitabh, E-mail: amitabhdas.kn@gmail.com [Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Jin Choul, E-mail: jincchai@gmail.com [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyoung Hwa, E-mail: khjung2@gmail.com [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Das, Nando Dulal, E-mail: nando.hu@gmail.com [Clinical Research Centre, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon 400-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung Chul, E-mail: gujiju11@gmail.com [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Seek, E-mail: yslee@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyemyung, E-mail: hseo@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Young Gyu, E-mail: ygchai@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    JMJD2A is a lysine trimethyl-specific histone demethylase that is highly expressed in a variety of tumours. The role of JMJD2A in tumour progression remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to identify JMJD2A-regulated genes and understand the function of JMJD2A in p53-null neuroectodermal stem cells (p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs). We determined the effect of LPS as a model of inflammation in p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs and investigated whether the epigenetic modifier JMJD2A alter the expression of tumourigenic inflammatory genes. Global gene expression was measured in JMJD2A knockdown (kd) p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs and in LPS-stimulated JMJD2A-kd p53{sup −/−} NE-4C cells. JMJD2A attenuation significantly down-regulated genes were Cdca2, Ccnd2, Ccnd1, Crebbp, IL6rα, and Stat3 related with cell cycle, proliferation, and inflammatory-disease responses. Importantly, some tumour-suppressor genes including Dapk3, Timp2 and TFPI were significantly up-regulated but were not affected by silencing of the JMJD2B. Furthermore, we confirmed the attenuation of JMJD2A also down-regulated Cdca2, Ccnd2, Crebbp, and Rest in primary NSCs isolated from the forebrains of E15 embryos of C57/BL6J mice with effective p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α). Transcription factor (TF) motif analysis revealed known binding patterns for CDC5, MYC, and CREB, as well as three novel motifs in JMJD2A-regulated genes. IPA established molecular networks. The molecular network signatures and functional gene-expression profiling data from this study warrants further investigation as an effective therapeutic target, and studies to elucidate the molecular mechanism of JMJD2A-kd-dependent effects in neuroectodermal stem cells should be performed. - Highlights: • Significant up-regulation of epigenetic modifier JMJD2A mRNA upon LPS treatment. • Inhibition of JMJD2A attenuated key inflammatory and tumourigenic genes. • Establishing IPA based functional genomics in JMJD2A-attenuated p53{sup

  10. Relative ultraviolet radiation sensitivity of certain functions of polyoma virus. Stimulation of cell DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, Yves; Imbert, Jean; Planche, Jacqueline; Meyer, Georges.

    1977-01-01

    Peritoneal Mouse macrophages were used to study the stimulation of cell DNA synthesis by polyoma virus. Using ultraviolet-irradiated polyoma virus, it was possible to show a difference between the inactivation of infectivity and of induction of DNA synthesis. By statistical analysis of these two phenomena it was found that 39% of the viral genome is necessary for the induction of cell DNA synthesis [fr

  11. Mechanical Coupling of Smooth Muscle Cells Using Microengineered Substrates and Local Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Craig; Hunter, David; Tung, Leslie; Chen, Christopher; Reich, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Mechanical stresses directly affect many cellular processes, including signal transduction, growth, differentiation, and survival. Cells can themselves generate such stresses by activating myosin to contract the actin cytoskeleton, which in turn can regulate both cell-substrate and cell-cell interactions. We are studying mechanical forces at cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions using arrays of selectively patterned flexible PDMS microposts combined with the ability to apply local chemical stimulation. Micropipette ``spritzing'', a laminar flow technique, uses glass micropipettes mounted on a microscope stage to deliver drugs to controlled regions within a cellular construct while cell traction forces are recorded via the micropost array. The pipettes are controlled by micromanipulators allowing for rapid and precise movement across the array and the ability to treat multiple constructs within a sample. This technique allows for observing the propagation of a chemically induced mechanical stimulus through cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions. We have used this system to administer the acto-myosin inhibitors Blebbistatin and Y-27632 to single cells and observed the subsequent decrease in cell traction forces. Experiments using trypsin-EDTA have shown this system to be capable of single cell manipulation through removal of one cell within a pair configuration while leaving the other cell unaffected. This project is supported in part by NIH grant HL090747

  12. Clinical significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in detecting preinvasive cervical lesions in post- menopausal Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmak, Aytekin; Guzel, Ali Irfan; Ozgu, Emre; Oz, Murat; Akbay, Serap; Erkaya, Salim; Gungor, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in PAP test in post-menopausal women and compare with reproductive age women. A total of 367 patients who referred to our gynecologic oncology clinic were included to the study between September 2012 and August 2013. Data for 164 post-menopausal (group 1) and 203 pre-menopausal (group 2) women with ASCUS cytology were evaluated retrospectively. Immediate colposcopy and endocervical curettage was performed for both groups and conization for all women with a result suggestive of CIN2-3. Histopathological results and demographic features of patients were compared between the two groups. Mean age of the patients was 54.6±6.5 years in group 1 and 38±6.6 years in group 2. Some 14 (8.5%) of post- menopausal women and 36 (17.7%) of pre-menopausal women were current smokers (p=011). Totals of 38 (23.2%) post-menopausal and 64 (31.5%) pre-menopausal women were assessed for HPV-DNA. High risk HPV was detected in 7 (4.3%) and 21 (10.3%), respectively (p=0.029). Final histopathological results recorded were normal cervix, low grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN 1), and high grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN2-3). In group 1 results were 84.8%, 12.2% and 1.8%, respectively, and in group 2 were 71.9%, 23.2% and 4.9%. There were no cases of micro invasive or invasive cervical carcinoma in either group. Two cases were detected as endometrial carcinoma in the menopausal group (1.2%). In current study we found that preinvasive lesions were statistically significantly higher in pre-menopausal women than post- menopausal women with ASCUS. Cervicitis was more common in menopausal women. Therefore, we think that in case of ASCUS in a post-menopausal woman there is no need for radical management.

  13. The Choroid Plexus Functions as a Niche for T-Cell Stimulation Within the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Strominger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The choroid plexus (CP compartment in the ventricles of the brain comprises fenestrated vasculature and, therefore, it is permeable to blood-borne mediators of inflammation. Here, we explored whether T-cell activation in the CP plays a role in regulating central nervous system (CNS inflammation. We show that CD4 T cells injected into the lateral ventricles adhere to the CP, transmigrate across its epithelium, and undergo antigen-specific activation and proliferation. This process is enhanced following peripheral immune stimulation and significantly impacts the immune signaling induced by the CP. Ex vivo studies demonstrate that T-cell harboring the CP through its apical surface is a chemokine- and adhesion molecule-dependent process. We suggest that, within the CNS, the CP serves an immunological niche, which rapidly responds to peripheral inflammation and, thereby, promotes two-way T-cell trafficking that impact adaptive immunity in the CNS.

  14. Preferential Th1 cytokine profile of phosphoantigen-stimulated human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, Margaret R

    2010-01-01

    Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells recognise pyrophosphate-based antigens (phosphoantigens) and have multiple functions in innate and adaptive immunity, including a unique ability to activate other cells of the immune system. We used flow cytometry and ELISA to define the early cytokine profiles of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells stimulated in vitro with isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2 enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP) in the absence and presence of IL-2 and IL-15. We show that fresh Vγ9Vδ2 T cells produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) within 4 hours of stimulation with phosphoantigen, but neither IL-10, IL-13, nor IL-17 was detectable up to 72 hours under these conditions. Cytokine production was not influenced by expression or lack, thereof, of CD4 or CD8. Addition of IL-2 or IL-15 caused expansion of IFN-γ-producing Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, but did not enhance IFN-γ secretion after 24-72 hours. Thus, phosphoantigen-stimulated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have potential as Th1-biasing adjuvants for immunotherapy.

  15. Preferential Th1 Cytokine Profile of Phosphoantigen-Stimulated Human Vγ9Vδ2 T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R. Dunne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells recognise pyrophosphate-based antigens (phosphoantigens and have multiple functions in innate and adaptive immunity, including a unique ability to activate other cells of the immune system. We used flow cytometry and ELISA to define the early cytokine profiles of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells stimulated in vitro with isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP and (E-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2 enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP in the absence and presence of IL-2 and IL-15. We show that fresh Vγ9Vδ2 T cells produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α within 4 hours of stimulation with phosphoantigen, but neither IL-10, IL-13, nor IL-17 was detectable up to 72 hours under these conditions. Cytokine production was not influenced by expression or lack, thereof, of CD4 or CD8. Addition of IL-2 or IL-15 caused expansion of IFN-γ-producing Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, but did not enhance IFN-γ secretion after 24–72 hours. Thus, phosphoantigen-stimulated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have potential as Th1-biasing adjuvants for immunotherapy.

  16. IL-27 Modulates Chemokine Production in TNF-α -Stimulated Human Oral Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Hosokawa, Ikuko; Ozaki, Kazumi; Matsuo, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a cytokine which belongs to the IL-12 family. However, the role of IL-27 in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease is uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of IL-27 on chemokine production in TNF-α-stimulated human oral epithelial cells (TR146). We measured chemokine production in TR146 by ELISA. We used western blot analysis to detect the phosphorylation levels of signal transduction molecules, including STAT1 and STAT3 in TR146. We used inhibitors to examine the role of STAT1 and STAT3 activation. IL-27 increased CXCR3 ligands production in TNF-α-stimulated TR146. Meanwhile, IL-27 suppressed IL-8 and CCL20 production induced by TNF-α. STAT1 phosphorylation level in IL-27 and TNF-α-stimulated TR146 was enhanced in comparison to TNF-α-stimulated TR146. STAT3 phosphorylation level in IL-27-treated TR146 did not change by TNF-α. Both STAT1 inhibitor and STAT3 inhibitor decreased CXCR3 ligands production. STAT1 inhibitor overrode the inhibitory effect of IL-27 on IL-8 and CCL20 production in TNF-α-stimulated TR146. Meanwhile, STAT3 inhibitor did not modulate IL-8 and CCL20 production. IL-27 might control leukocyte migration in periodontal lesion by modulating chemokine production from epithelial cells. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Minoxidil Promotes Hair Growth through Stimulation of Growth Factor Release from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahyun Choi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Minoxidil directly promotes hair growth via the stimulation of dermal papilla (DP and epithelial cells. Alternatively, there is little evidence for indirect promotion of hair growth via stimulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs. We investigated whether minoxidil stimulates ASCs and if increased growth factor secretion by ASCs facilitates minoxidil-induced hair growth. Telogen-to-anagen induction was examined in mice. Cultured DP cells and vibrissae hair follicle organ cultures were used to further examine the underlying mechanisms. Subcutaneous injection of minoxidil-treated ASCs accelerated telogen-to-anagen transition in mice, and increased hair weight at day 14 post-injection. Minoxidil did not alter ASC proliferation, but increased migration and tube formation. Minoxidil also increased the secretion of growth factors from ASCs, including chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF, and platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C. Minoxidil increased extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and concomitant upregulation of PD-ECGF and PDGF-C mRNA levels were attenuated by an ERK inhibitor. Subcutaneous injection of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C enhanced anagen induction in mice, and both CXCL1 and PDGF-C increased hair length in ex vivo organ culture. Treatment with CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C also increased the proliferation index in DP cells. Finally, topical application of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C with 2% minoxidil enhanced anagen induction when compared to minoxidil alone. Minoxidil stimulates ASC motility and increases paracrine growth factor signaling. Minoxidil-stimulated secretion of growth factors by ASCs may enhance hair growth by promoting DP proliferation. Therefore, minoxidil can be used as an ASC preconditioning agent for hair regeneration.

  18. Minoxidil Promotes Hair Growth through Stimulation of Growth Factor Release from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nahyun; Shin, Soyoung; Song, Sun U.; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2018-01-01

    Minoxidil directly promotes hair growth via the stimulation of dermal papilla (DP) and epithelial cells. Alternatively, there is little evidence for indirect promotion of hair growth via stimulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). We investigated whether minoxidil stimulates ASCs and if increased growth factor secretion by ASCs facilitates minoxidil-induced hair growth. Telogen-to-anagen induction was examined in mice. Cultured DP cells and vibrissae hair follicle organ cultures were used to further examine the underlying mechanisms. Subcutaneous injection of minoxidil-treated ASCs accelerated telogen-to-anagen transition in mice, and increased hair weight at day 14 post-injection. Minoxidil did not alter ASC proliferation, but increased migration and tube formation. Minoxidil also increased the secretion of growth factors from ASCs, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF), and platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C). Minoxidil increased extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, and concomitant upregulation of PD-ECGF and PDGF-C mRNA levels were attenuated by an ERK inhibitor. Subcutaneous injection of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C enhanced anagen induction in mice, and both CXCL1 and PDGF-C increased hair length in ex vivo organ culture. Treatment with CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C also increased the proliferation index in DP cells. Finally, topical application of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C with 2% minoxidil enhanced anagen induction when compared to minoxidil alone. Minoxidil stimulates ASC motility and increases paracrine growth factor signaling. Minoxidil-stimulated secretion of growth factors by ASCs may enhance hair growth by promoting DP proliferation. Therefore, minoxidil can be used as an ASC preconditioning agent for hair regeneration. PMID:29495622

  19. Mixed Signals: Co-Stimulation in Invariant Natural Killer T Cell-Mediated Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah C. Shissler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells are an integral component of the immune system and play an important role in antitumor immunity. Upon activation, iNKT cells can directly kill malignant cells as well as rapidly produce cytokines that stimulate other immune cells, making them a front line defense against tumorigenesis. Unfortunately, iNKT cell number and activity are reduced in multiple cancer types. This anergy is often associated with upregulation of co-inhibitory markers such as programmed death-1. Similar to conventional T cells, iNKT cells are influenced by the conditions of their activation. Conventional T cells receive signals through the following three types of receptors: (1 T cell receptor (TCR, (2 co-stimulation molecules, and (3 cytokine receptors. Unlike conventional T cells, which recognize peptide antigen presented by MHC class I or II, the TCRs of iNKT cells recognize lipid antigen in the context of the antigen presentation molecule CD1d (Signal 1. Co-stimulatory molecules can positively and negatively influence iNKT cell activation and function and skew the immune response (Signal 2. This study will review the background of iNKT cells and their co-stimulatory requirements for general function and in antitumor immunity. We will explore the impact of monoclonal antibody administration for both blocking inhibitory pathways and engaging stimulatory pathways on iNKT cell-mediated antitumor immunity. This review will highlight the incorporation of co-stimulatory molecules in antitumor dendritic cell vaccine strategies. The use of co-stimulatory intracellular signaling domains in chimeric antigen receptor-iNKT therapy will be assessed. Finally, we will explore the influence of innate-like receptors and modification of immunosuppressive cytokines (Signal 3 on cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Calmodulin protects cells from death under normal growth conditions and mitogenic starvation but plays a mediating role in cell death upon B-cell receptor stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmalzigaug, R; Ye, Q; Berchtold, M W

    2001-01-01

    stimulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR), the resting Ca2+ levels remain elevated after the initial transient in CaMII-/- cells. Despite higher Ca2+ resting levels, the CaMII-/- cells are partially protected from BCR induced apoptosis indicating that CaM plays a dual role in apoptotic processes....

  1. Production of inositol trisphosphates upon α-adrenergic stimulation in BC3H-1 muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambler, S.K.; Thompson, B.; Brown, J.H.; Taylor, P.

    1986-01-01

    Activation of α 1 -adrenergic receptors in BC3H-1 muscle cells rapidly mobilizes intracellular and results in a paradoxically slower accumulation of inositol trisphosphate. A possible explanation for this discrepancy may be provided by the recent findings of Irvine et al. of additional Ins P3 isomers besides the Ca ++ -mobilizing isomer, Ins 1,4,5-P3. They have eluted and separated the inositol phosphates of BC3H-1 cells with an NH 4 + x HCO 2 - /H 3 PO 4 gradient on a Whatman Partisil 10SAX column using Hewlett-Packard HPLC. Commercial [ 3 H]Ins 1,4,5-P3 and [ 3 H]inositol phosphates from carbachol-stimulated parotid glands were used as standards. Little or no Ins 1,3,4-P3 could be detected in control or phenylephrine-treated BC3H-1 cells. Ins 1,4,5-P3 followed the pattern of agonist stimulation observed previously. As a positive control, Ins P3 isomers were also measured in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Muscarinic stimulation of 1321N1 cells results in both the rapid accumulation of Ins P3 and Ca ++ mobilization. There is no detectable basal Ins 1,3,4-P3, but carbachol stimulates a rapid production of this compound in 1321N1 cells. Agonist activation also results in a rapid increase in Ins 1,4,5-P3 above basal values. These studies indicate that Ins 1,3,4-P3 does not contribute to the InsP3 signal in BC3H-1 cells and multiple mechanisms may exist for the coupling of receptors to PI turnover

  2. Regeneration of Achilles' tendon: the role of dynamic stimulation for enhanced cell proliferation and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongman; Guarino, Vincenzo; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi; Tae, Giyoong; Kim, Young Ha; Jung, Youngmee; Kim, Sang-Heon; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2010-01-01

    The tissue engineering of tendon was studied using highly elastic poly(L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) (PLCL) scaffolds and focusing on the effect of dynamic tensile stimulation. Tenocytes from rabbit Achilles tendon were seeded (1.0 x 10(6) cells/scaffold) onto porous PLCL scaffolds and cultured for periods of 2 weeks and 4 weeks. This was performed in a static system and also in a bioreactor equipped with tensile modulation which mimicked the environmental surroundings of tendons with respect to tensile extension. The degradation of the polymeric scaffolds during the culture was relatively slow. However, there was an indication that cells accelerated the degradation of PLCL scaffolds. The scaffold/cell adducts from the static culture exhibited inferior strength (at 2 weeks 350 kPa, 4 weeks 300 kPa) compared to the control without cells (at 2 weeks 460 kPa, 4 weeks 340 kPa), indicating that the cells contributed to the enhanced degradation. On the contrary, the corresponding values of the adducts from the dynamic culture (at 2 weeks 430 kPa, 4 weeks 370 kPa) were similar to, or higher than, those from the control. This could be explained by the increased quantity of cells and neo-tissues in the case of dynamic culture compensating for the loss in tensile strength. Compared with static and dynamic culture conditions, mechanical stimulation played a crucial role in the regeneration of tendon tissue. In the case of the dynamic culture system, cell proliferation was enhanced and secretion of collagen type I was increased, as evidenced by DNA assay and histological and immunofluorescence analysis. Thus, tendon regeneration, indicated by improved mechanical and biological properties, was demonstrated, confirming the effect of mechanical stimulation. It could be concluded that the dynamic tensile stimulation appeared to be an essential factor in tendon/ligament tissue engineering, and that elastic PLCL co-polymers could be very beneficial in this process.

  3. Lysophosphatidic acid stimulates thrombomodulin lectin-like domain shedding in human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hualin; Lin ChiIou; Huang Yuanli; Chen, Pin-Shern; Kuo, Cheng-Hsiang; Chen, Mei-Shing; Wu, G.C.-C.; Shi, G.-Y.; Yang, H.-Y.; Lee Hsinyu

    2008-01-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an anticoagulant glycoprotein highly expressed on endothelial cell surfaces. Increased levels of soluble TM in circulation have been widely accepted as an indicator of endothelial damage or dysfunction. Previous studies indicated that various proinflammatory factors stimulate TM shedding in various cell types such as smooth muscle cells and epithelial cells. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator present in biological fluids during endothelial damage or injury. In the present study, we first observed that LPA triggered TM shedding in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By Cyflow analysis, we showed that the LPA-induced accessibility of antibodies to the endothelial growth factor (EGF)-like domain of TM is independent of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), while LPA-induced TM lectin-like domain shedding is MMP-dependent. Furthermore, a stable cell line expressing TM without its lectin-like domain exhibited a higher cell proliferation rate than a stable cell line expressing full-length TM. These results imply that LPA induces TM lectin-like domain shedding, which might contribute to the exposure of its EGF-like domain for EGF receptor (EGFR) binding, thereby stimulating subsequent cell proliferation. Based on our findings, we propose a novel mechanism for the exposure of TM EGF-like domain, which possibly mediates LPA-induced EGFR transactivation

  4. Reduced Seminal Concentration of CD45pos Cells after Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Treatment in Selected Patients with Idiopathic Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita A. Condorelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the conventional sperm parameters and the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells (pan-leukocyte marker of infertile patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT. The patients were arbitrarily divided into three groups treated with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone FSH: α (Group A = 20 patients, recombinant FSH-β (Group B = 20 patients, and highly purified human FSH (Group C = 14 patients. All treated groups achieved a similar improvement of the main sperm parameters (density, progressive motility, and morphology, but only the increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology was significant compared to the baseline in all three examined groups. Moreover, all groups had a significant reduction of the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells and of the percentage of immature germ cells. Before and after the treatment, the concentration of CD45pos cells showed a positive linear correlation with the percentage of immature germ cells and a negative correlation with the percentage of spermatozoa with regular morphology. These results demonstrate that treatment with FSH is effective in patients with idiopathic OAT and that there are no significant differences between the different preparations. The novelty of this study is in the significant reduction of the concentration of CD45pos cells observed after the treatment.

  5. Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz stimulates intestinal epithelial cell migration through a polyamine dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hou-Pan; Li, Ru-Liu; Zhou, Chi; Cai, Xiong; Huang, Hui-Yong

    2015-01-15

    decrease of cellular polyamines levels, Rho mRNAs and proteins expression, non-muscle myosin II protein formation and distribution, thereby inhibiting IEC-6 cell migration. AMK not only reversed the inhibitory effects of DFMO on the polyamines content, Rho mRNAs and proteins expression, non-muscle myosin II protein formation and distribution, but also restored cell migration to control levels. The results obtained from this study revealed that AMK significantly stimulates the migration of IEC-6 cells through a polyamine dependent mechanism, which could accelerate the healing of intestinal injury. These findings suggest the potential value of AMK in curing intestinal diseases characterized by injury and ineffective repair of the intestinal mucosa in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of Mesenchymal Derived Stem Cells in Stimulating Dormant Tumor Cells to Proliferate and Form Clinical Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Clinical Metastases PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jeffrey Green CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Geneva Foundation Tacoma, WA 98402 REPORT DATE: July 2017 TYPE...2016 - 14 June 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Mesenchymal-Derived Stem Cells in Stimulating Dormant Tumor Cells to Proliferate and Form Clinical ...and/or select agents. Nothing to report. 6. PRODUCTS: • publications, conference papers, and presentations ; Jennifer Zhu submitted an abstract and will

  7. Role of Mesenchymal-Derived Stem Cells in Stimulating Dormant Tumor Cells to Proliferate and Form Clinical Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Clinical Metastases PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Rosandra Kaplan CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Geneva Foundation Tacoma, WA 98402 REPORT DATE: July 2017...2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Mesenchymal-Derived Stem Cells in Stimulating Dormant Tumor Cells to Proliferate and Form Clinical Metastases 5a...PRODUCTS:  publications, conference papers, and presentations ; Jennifer Zhu submitted an abstract and will present this work at the Annual

  8. Attempt to stimulate cell division in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with weak ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quickenden, T.I.; Matich, A.J.; Pung, S.H.; Tilbury, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid cultures of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were irradiated with weak light having irradiances ranging from ca. 1 X 10(2) to 5 X 10(9) photons cm-2 s-1 and at wavelengths ranging from 200 to 700 nm. When particular care was taken to control the temperature of the cultures and the flow rate of oxygen, no evidence was obtained for stimulation of either yeast growth or division by the incident light. These results do not support the claims of early workers that very low intensity uv light can stimulate cell division in living organisms

  9. Lysyl Oxidase Plays a Critical Role in Endothelial Cell Stimulation to Drive Tumor Angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Ann-Marie; Bird, Demelza; Welti, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Identification of key molecules that drive angiogenesis is critical for the development of new modalities for the prevention of solid tumor progression. Using multiple models of colorectal cancer, we show that activity of the extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) is essential...... for stimulating endothelial cells in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. We show that LOX activates Akt through platelet-derived growth factor receptor ß (PDGFRß) stimulation, resulting in increased VEGF expression. LOX-driven angiogenesis can be abrogated through targeting LOX directly or using inhibitors of PDGFRß...

  10. Electrical stimulation enhances cell migration and integrative repair in the meniscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoning; Arkonac, Derya E.; Chao, Pen-hsiu Grace; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Electrical signals have been applied towards the repair of articular tissues in the laboratory and clinical settings for over seventy years. We focus on healing of the meniscus, a tissue essential to knee function with limited innate repair potential, which has been largely unexplored in the context of electrical stimulation. Here we demonstrate for the first time that electrical stimulation enhances meniscus cell migration and integrative tissue repair. We optimize pulsatile direct current electrical stimulation parameters on cells at the micro-scale, and apply these to healing of full-thickness defects in explants at the macro-scale. We report increased expression of the adenosine A2b receptor in meniscus cells after stimulation at the micro- and macro-scale, and propose a role for A2bR in meniscus electrotransduction. Taken together, these findings advance our understanding of the effects of electrical signals and their mechanisms of action, and contribute to developing electrotherapeutic strategies for meniscus repair. PMID:24419206

  11. Pretreating mesenchymal stem cells with electrical stimulation causes sustained long-lasting pro-osteogenic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eischen-Loges

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Electrical stimulation (ES has a long history of successful use in the clinical treatment of refractory, non-healing bone fractures and has recently been proposed as an adjunct to bone tissue-engineering treatments to optimize their therapeutic potential. This idea emerged from ES’s demonstrated positive effects on stem cell migration, proliferation, differentiation and adherence to scaffolds, all cell behaviors recognized to be advantageous in Bone Tissue Engineering (BTE. In previous in vitro experiments we demonstrated that direct current ES, administered daily, accelerates Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC osteogenic differentiation. In the present study, we sought to define the optimal ES regimen for maximizing this pro-osteogenic effect. Methods Rat bone marrow-derived MSC were exposed to 100 mV/mm, 1 hr/day for three, seven, and 14 days, then osteogenic differentiation was assessed at Day 14 of culture by measuring collagen production, calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic marker gene expression. Results We found that exposing MSC to ES for three days had minimal effect, while seven and 14 days resulted in increased osteogenic differentiation, as indicated by significant increases in collagen and calcium deposits, and expression of osteogenic marker genes Col1a1, Osteopontin, Osterix and Calmodulin. We also found that cells treated with ES for seven days, maintained this pro-osteogenic activity long (for at least seven days after discontinuing ES exposure. Discussion This study showed that while three days of ES is insufficient to solicit pro-osteogenic effects, seven and 14 days significantly increases osteogenic differentiation. Importantly, we found that cells treated with ES for only seven days, maintained this pro-osteogenic activity long after discontinuing ES exposure. This sustained positive osteogenic effect is likely due to the enhanced expression of RunX2 and Calmodulin we observed. This

  12. CP-25 Attenuates the Activation of CD4+ T Cells Stimulated with Immunoglobulin D in Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Jing; Chen, Heng-Shi; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Dong, Jin; Dong, Xiao-Jie; Dai, Xing; Huang, Qiong; Wei, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have shown that the level of immunoglobulin D (IgD) is often elevated in patients with autoimmune diseases. The possible roles of IgD on the function of human T cell activation are still unclear. Paeoniflorin-6'- O -benzene sulfonate (code: CP-25), the chemistry structural modifications of paeoniflorin, was a novel drug of anti-inflammation and immunomodulation. The aims of this study were to determine if human CD4 + T cells could be activated by IgD via the IgD receptor (IgDR)-Lck pathway and whether the novel compound CP-25 could affect the activation of T cells by regulating Lck. Human CD4 + T cells were purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells using microbeads. T cell viability and proliferation were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 and CFSE Cell Proliferation Kit. Cytokines secreted by T cells were assessed with the Quantibody Human Inflammation Array. The binding affinity and expression of IgDR on T cells were detected by flow cytometry, and protein expression of IgDR, Lck, and P-Lck were analyzed by western blot. IgD was shown to bind to IgDR on CD4 + T cells in a concentration-dependent manner and stimulate the activation and proliferation of these cells by enhancing phosphorylation of the activating tyrosine residue of Lck (Tyr 394 ). CP-25 inhibited the IgD-stimulated activation and proliferation of CD4 + T cells, as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines; it was thus suggested that this process might be related to the downregulation of Lck (Tyr 394 ) phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that IgD amplifies the activation of CD4 + T cells, which could be mediated by Lck phosphorylation. Further, CP-25, via its ability to modulate Lck, is a novel potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of human autoimmune diseases.

  13. Effect of soluble factors derived from oral cancer cells on the production of interferon-γ from peripheral blood mononuclear cells following stimulation with OK-432.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Go; Sasai, Akiko; Uchida, Daisuke; Tamatani, Tetsuya; Nagai, Hirokazu; Miyamoto, Youji

    2013-08-01

    The streptococcal antitumor agent OK-432 is commonly used as an immunopotentiator for immunotherapy in various types of malignant tumors including oral cancer. It has been demonstrated that OK-432 elicits an antitumor effect by stimulating immunocompetent cells, thereby inducing multiple cytokines including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12. Serum concentrations of IFN-γ in patients with oral cancer were examined 24 h after administration of OK-432. Serum concentrations of IFN-γ in patients with advanced cancer were significantly lower than those in patients with early cancer. These results suggested that some soluble factors produced by cancer cells may inhibit IFN-γ production with OK-432. Thus, in the present study, an in vitro simulation model was established for the immune status of patients with oral cancer by adding conditioned medium (CM) derived from oral cancer cell lines into a culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from a healthy volunteer. We investigated whether soluble factors derived from oral cancer cells affected IFN-γ production from PBMCs following stimulation with OK-432. PBMCs stimulated with OK-432 produced a large amount of IFN-γ; however, both IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity from PBMCs induced by OK-432 were inhibited by the addition of CM in a dose-dependent manner. In order to examine these inhibitory effects against IFN-γ production, the contribution of inhibitory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β and vascular endothelial growth factor was investigated. However, neutralization of these inhibitory cytokines did not recover IFN-γ production inhibited by CM. These results indicated that unknown molecules may inhibit IFN-γ production from PBMCs following stimulation with OK-432.

  14. Follicle stimulating hormone increases spermatogonial stem cell colonization during in vitro co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narenji Sani, Reza; Tajik, Parviz; Yousefi, Mohammad Hassan; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Qasemi-Panahi, Babak; Shafiei, Shiva; Ahmadi Hamedani, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The complex process of spermatogenesis is regulated by various factors. Studies on spermatogonial stem cells (SCCs) have provided very important tool to improve herd genetic and different field. 0.2 to 0.3 percent of total cells of seminiferous tubules is consist of spermatogonial stem cells. To investigate and biomanipulation of these cells, proliferation and viability rate of cells should be increased in vitro, at first. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) has been suggested to play a determinant role in the survival of germ cells in addition to increasing spermatogonial proliferation. In this study, the in vitro effects of FSH on spermatogonial cell colony formation were investigated. Sertoli and spermatogonial cells were isolated from 3-5 months old calves. The identity of the Sertoli cells and spermatogonial stem cells were confirmed through immunocytochemistry and colony morphology, respectively. Co-cultured Sertoli and spermatogonial cells were treated with FSH in different dose of 10, 20 and 40 IU mL(-1) FSH, before colony assay. Results indicated that, FSH increased in vitro colonization of spermatogonial cells in comparison with control group. In conclusion, using FSH provided proper bovine spermatogonial stem cell culture medium for in vitro study of these cells.

  15. Androgen and FSH synergistically stimulate lipoprotein degradation and utilization by ovary granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, J.R.; Nakamura, K.; Schmit, V.; Weinstein, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    Androgen can directly modulate the induction of steroidogenic enzymes by FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) in ovary granulosa cells. In studies of its mechanism of action, the authors examined the androgen effect on granulosa cell interaction with lipoproteins, the physiologic source of cholesterol. After granulosa cells were cultured for 48 hours with and without androgen and/or FSH, the cells were incubated for 24 hours with 125 I-lipoproteins [human high density lipoprotein (HDL), rat HDL, or human low density lipoprotein (LDL)]. The media were then analyzed for lipoprotein protein coat degradation products (mainly 125 I-monoiodotyrosine) and progestin [mainly 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone (20 alpha-DHP)]. In the absence of FSH and androgen, 2 X 10(5) granulosa cells degraded basal levels of all three lipoproteins, but produced no measurable 20 alpha-DHP. The addition of 10(-7) M androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) had no effect on lipoprotein protein degradation or 20 alpha-DHP production. FSH alone stimulated lipoprotein protein degradation by 50 to 300% while the addition of androgen synergistically augmented the FSH-stimulated 20 alpha-DHP production as well as protein coat degradation of all three lipoproteins. DHT and T were both effective, indicating that androgens themselves, and not estrogen products, were responsible for the effect on lipoprotein protein degradation and 20 alpha-DHP production

  16. Stimulation of epithelial cell matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, -9, -13) and interleukin-8 secretion by fusobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursoy, U K; Könönen, E; Uitto, V-J

    2008-10-01

    Bacterial pathogens involved in periodontal diseases exert their destructive effects primarily by stimulating the host cells to increase their secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This study aimed to determine the epithelial cell matrix metalloproteinase and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion upon exposure to fusobacteria. Eight different oral and non-oral Fusobacterium strains were incubated with HaCaT epithelial cells. Gelatin zymography and Western blot analysis were performed to detect collagenase 3 (MMP-13), gelatinase A (MMP-2), gelatinase B (MMP-9), and IL-8 secretion by epithelial cells. All Fusobacterium strains, especially Fusobacterium necrophorum ATCC 25286, Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586, and Fusobacterium varium ATCC 51644, increased MMP-9 and MMP-13 secretion. Fusobacterium simiae ATCC 33568, and to a lesser extent F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum, increased epithelial MMP-2 secretion. F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum also increased IL-8 secretion. F. varium ATCC 27725, a strain that only weakly stimulated MMP production, strongly increased the IL-8 production, suggesting that their expression is differently regulated. We conclude that the pathogenic potential of fusobacteria may partly result from their ability to stimulate secretion of MMP-9, MMP-13, and IL-8 from epithelial cells.

  17. Prostaglandin E(2) stimulates glutamate receptor-dependent astrocyte neuromodulation in cultured hippocampal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzgiri, R P; Araque, A; Haydon, P G

    1999-11-05

    Recent Ca(2+) imaging studies in cell culture and in situ have shown that Ca(2+) elevations in astrocytes stimulate glutamate release and increase neuronal Ca(2+) levels, and that this astrocyte-neuron signaling can be stimulated by prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). We investigated the electrophysiological consequences of the PGE(2)-mediated astrocyte-neuron signaling using whole-cell recordings on cultured rat hippocampal cells. Focal application of PGE(2) to astrocytes evoked a Ca(2+) elevation in the stimulated cell by mobilizing internal Ca(2+) stores, which further propagated as a Ca(2+) wave to neighboring astrocytes. Whole-cell recordings from neurons revealed that PGE(2) evoked a slow inward current in neurons adjacent to astrocytes. This neuronal response required the presence of an astrocyte Ca(2+) wave and was mediated through both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptors. Taken together with previous studies, these data demonstrate that PGE(2)-evoked Ca(2+) elevations in astrocyte cause the release of glutamate which activates neuronal ionotropic receptors. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation of peripheral-blood lymphocytes and stem cell take

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astaldi, G. (Blood Research Foundation Center, Tortona, Italy); Karanovic, D.; Vettori, P.P.; Karanovic, J.; Piletic, O.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of PHA-stimulation of peripheral-blood lymphocytes on the spleen-colony formation in irradiated rats was examined. 25-day old Wistar rats underwent total-body irradiation (600 R), and they were used as recipients. On the other hand, 2 and /sup 1///sub 2/ month old untreated Wistar rats were used as donors of peripheral-blood lymphocytes, which were obtained by sedimentation with Dextraven from defibrinated blood. Four rat lots were used. The 1st one did not receive irradiation, and was kept as ''blank control.'' The 2nd one was just irradiated and kept as ''radiated control.'' The 3rd and the 4th rat lots of the series were irradiated, but the former lot was injected i.v. with 5 x 10/sup 7/ peripheral-blood untreated lymphocytes, whereas the fourth lot was injected i.v. with the same amount of lymphocytes, which were previously incubated in vitro for 24 hrs with PHA-M (Difco). The results showed that the PHA-incubation of transplanted peripheral-blood lymphocytes significantly increases the number and size of the macroscopic spleen colonies, in relationship to the colonies which occurs after transplantation of untreated lymphocytes. Histo-cytological observation clearly showed that the colonies formed after injection of mitogen-pretreated peripheral-blood lymphocytes were predominantly of erythroid type and, then, of non-differentiated cells. Only a few of them were of a mixed type, consisting of both undifferentiated cells and erythroid cells.

  19. Trophic significance of solitary cells of the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa depends on cell type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Koski, Marja

    2006-01-01

    With the use of five different isolates of Phaeocystis globosa solitary cells from the North Sea, we conducted experiments to reveal whether grazing and development of the nauplii of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis varies in response to the cell type. Two P. globosa strains representing n...

  20. Stimulation of Hepatoma Cell Invasiveness and Metastatic Potential by Proteins Secreted From Irradiated Nonparenchymal Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Leyuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Zhiming [Department of Medical Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Gao Yabo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Lingyan [Experimental Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether factors secreted by irradiated liver nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) may influence invasiveness and/or metastatic potential of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and to elucidate a possible mechanism for such effect. Methods and Materials: Primary rat NPCs were cultured and divided into irradiated (10-Gy X-ray) and nonirradiated groups. Forty-eight hours after irradiation, conditioned medium from irradiated (SR) or nonirradiated (SnonR) cultures were collected and added to sublethally irradiated cultures of the hepatoma McA-RH7777 cell line. Then, hepatoma cells were continuously passaged for eight generations (RH10Gy-SR and RH10Gy-SnonR). The invasiveness and metastatic potential of McA-RH7777, RH10Gy-SnonR, and RH10Gy-SR cells were evaluated using an in vitro gelatinous protein (Matrigel) invasion and an in vivo metastasis assay. In addition, SR and SnonR were tested using rat cytokine antibody arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In vitro gelatinous protein invasion assay indicated that the numbers of invading cells was significantly higher in RH10Gy-SR (40 {+-} 4.74) than in RH10Gy-SnonR (30.6 {+-} 3.85) cells, and lowest in McA-RH7777 (11.4 {+-} 3.56) cells. The same pattern was observed in vivo in a lung metastasis assay, as evaluated by number of metastatic lung nodules seen with RH10Gy-SR (28.83 {+-} 5.38), RH10Gy-SnonR (22.17 {+-} 4.26), and McA-RH7777 (8.3 {+-} 3.8) cells. Rat cytokine antibody arrays and ELISA demonstrated that metastasis-promoting cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6), circulating growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor), and metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were upregulated in SR compared with SnonR. Conclusions: Radiation can increase invasiveness and metastatic potential of sublethally irradiated hepatoma cells, and soluble mediators released from irradiated NPCs promote this potential. Increased secretion of

  1. Highly efficient local delivery of endothelial progenitor cells significantly potentiates angiogenesis and full-thickness wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggui; Wang, Qingqing; Gao, Wendong; Zhang, Zengjie; Lou, Yiting; Jin, Haiming; Chen, Xiaofeng; Lei, Bo; Xu, Huazi; Mao, Cong

    2018-03-15

    Wound therapy with a rapid healing performance remains a critical clinical challenge. Cellular delivery is considered to be a promising approach to improve the efficiency of healing, yet problems such as compromised cell viability and functionality arise due to the inefficient delivery. Here, we report the efficient delivery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) with a bioactive nanofibrous scaffold (composed of collagen and polycaprolactone and bioactive glass nanoparticles, CPB) for enhancing wound healing. Under the stimulation of CPB nanofibrous system, the viability and angiogenic ability of EPCs were significantly enhanced through the activation of Hif-1α/VEGF/SDF-1α signaling. In vivo, CPB/EPC constructs significantly enhanced the formation of high-density blood vessels by greatly upregulating the expressions of Hif-1α, VEGF, and SDF-1α. Moreover, owing to the increased local delivery of cells and fast neovascularization within the wound site, cell proliferative activity, granulation tissue formation, and collagen synthesis and deposition were greatly promoted by CPB/EPC constructs resulting in rapid re-epithelialization and regeneration of skin appendages. As a result, the synergistic enhancement of wound healing was observed from CPB/EPC constructs, which suggests the highly efficient delivery of EPCs. CPB/EPC constructs may become highly competitive cell-based therapeutic products for efficient impaired wound healing application. This study may also provide a novel strategy to develop bioactive cell therapy constructs for angiogenesis-related regenerative medicine. This paper reported a highly efficient local delivery of EPCs using bioactive glass-based CPB nanofibrous scaffold for enhancing angiogenesis and wound regeneration. In vitro study showed that CPB can promote the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of EPCs through upregulation of the Hif-1α/VEGF/SDF-1α signaling pathway, indicating that the bioactivity and angiogenic ability of

  2. Isolation and characterization of portal branch ligation-stimulated Hmga2-positive bipotent hepatic progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Tagawa, Yoh-ichi; Tamai, Miho; Motoyama, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Shinichiro; Soeda, Junpei; Nakata, Takenari; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hepatic progenitor cells were isolated from the portal branch-ligated liver of mice. → Portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic progenitor cells (PBLHCs) express Hmga2. → PBLHCs have bidirectional differentiation capability in vitro. -- Abstract: Hepatic stem/progenitor cells are one of several cell sources that show promise for restoration of liver mass and function. Although hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), including oval cells, are induced by administration of certain hepatotoxins in experimental animals, such a strategy would be inappropriate in a clinical setting. Here, we investigated the possibility of isolating HPCs in a portal branch-ligated liver model without administration of any chemical agents. A non-parenchymal cell fraction was prepared from the portal branch-ligated or non-ligated lobe, and seeded onto plates coated with laminin. Most of the cells died, but a small number were able to proliferate. These proliferating cells were cloned as portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic cells (PBLHCs) by the limiting dilution method. The PBLHCs expressed cytokeratin19, albumin, and Hmga2. The PBLHCs exhibited metabolic functions such as detoxification of ammonium ions and synthesis of urea on Matrigel-coated plates in the presence of oncostatin M. In Matrigel mixed with type I collagen, the PBLHCs became rearranged into cystic and tubular structures. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the presence of Hmga2-positive cells around the interlobular bile ducts in the portal branch-ligated liver lobes. In conclusion, successful isolation of bipotent hepatic progenitor cell clones, PBLHCs, from the portal branch-ligated liver lobes of mice provides the possibility of future clinical application of portal vein ligation to induce hepatic progenitor cells.

  3. Synchronized Firings in Retinal Ganglion Cells in Response to Natural Stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ying-Ying; Xiao Lei; Liu Wen-Zhong; Gong Hai-Qing; Liang Pei-Ji

    2011-01-01

    The response of synchronously firing groups of population retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to natural movies (NMs) and pseudo-random white-noise checker-board flickering (CB, as control) are investigated using an information-theoretic algorithm. The main results are: (1) the population RGCs tend to fire in synchrony far more frequently than expected by chance during both NM and CB stimulation; (2) more synchronous groups could be formed and each group contains more neurons under NM than CB stimulation; (3) the individual neurons also participate in more groups and have more distinct partners in NM than CB stimulation. All these results suggest that the synchronized firings in RGCs are more extensive and diverse, which may account for more effective information processing in representing the natural visual environment. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  4. Significance of adipose tissue-derived stem cells regulate CD4+ T cell immune in the treatment of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-lin XIE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs are genetically engineered seed cells with immunomodulatory effects, widely used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This article focuses on the immunomodulatory effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells on CD4+ T cell subsets, including T helper cell (Th 1, 2, 17 and regulatory T cell (Treg, and its clinical significance in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.005

  5. Luteinizing hormone-stimulated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide system and its role in progesterone production in human luteinized granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Jeong; Choi, Bum-Chae; Song, Sang-Jin; Lee, Dong-Sik; Roh, Jaesook; Chun, Sang-Young

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the gonadotropin regulation of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and PACAP type I receptor (PAC(1)-R) expression, and its role in progesterone production in the human luteinized granulosa cells. The stimulation of both PACAP and PAC(1)-R mRNA levels by LH was detected using a competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PACAP transcript was stimulated by LH reaching maximum levels at 12 hours in a dose dependent manner. LH treatment also stimulated PAC(1)-R mRNA levels within 24 hours. Addition of PACAP-38 (10(-7) M) as well as LH significantly stimulated progesterone production during 48 hours culture. Furthermore, co-treatment with PACAP antagonist partially inhibited LH-stimulated progesterone production. Treatment with vasoactive intestinal peptide, however, did not affect progesterone production. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that LH causes a transient stimulation of PACAP and PAC(1)-R expression and that PACAP stimulates progesterone production in the human luteinized granulosa cells, suggesting a possible role of PACAP as a local ovarian regulator in luteinization.

  6. Follicle stimulating hormone increases spermatogonial stem cell colonization during in vitro co - culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Narenji Sani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The complex process of spermatogenesis is regulated by various factors. Studies onspermatogonial stem cells(SCCshave provided very important tool to improve herd geneticand different field. 0.2 to 0.3 percent of total cells of seminiferous tubules is consist ofspermatogonial stem cells. To investigate and biomanipulation of these cells, proliferationand viability rate of cells should be increasedin vitro, at first. Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH has been suggested to play a determinant role in the survival of germ cells in additionto increasing spermatogonial proliferation. In this study, thein vitroeffects ofFSHonspermatogonial cell colony formation were investigated. Sertoli and spermatogonial cellswere isolated from 3-5 months old calves. The identity of theSertoli cells and spermatogonialstem cells were confirmed through immunocytochemistry and colony morphology,respectively. Co-cultured Sertoli and spermatogonial cells were treatedwithFSHin differentdose of10, 20 and 40 IU mL-1FSH, before colony assay.Results indicated that,FSHincreasedin vitrocolonization of spermatogonial cells in comparison with control group. In conclusion,usingFSHprovided proper bovine spermatogonial stem cell culture medium forin vitrostudy of these cells.

  7. Matrix metalloproteases as maestros for the dual role of LPS- and IL-10-stimulated macrophages in cancer cell behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Ana P.; Pinto, Marta L.; Pinto, Ana T.; Pinto, Marta T.; Monteiro, Cátia; Oliveira, Marta I.; Santos, Susana G.; Relvas, João B.; Seruca, Raquel; Mantovani, Alberto; Mareel, Marc; Barbosa, Mário A.; Oliveira, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions established between macrophages and cancer cells are largely dependent on instructions from the tumour microenvironment. Macrophages may differentiate into populations with distinct inflammatory profiles, but knowledge on their role on cancer cell activities is still very scarce. In this work, we investigated the influence of pro-inflammatory (LPS-stimulated) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10-stimulated) macrophages on gastric and colorectal cancer cell invasion, motility/migration, angiogenesis and proteolysis, and the associated molecular mechanisms. Following exposure of gastric and colon cancer cell lines to LPS- and IL-10-stimulated human macrophages, either by indirect contact or conditioned media, we analyzed the effect of the different macrophage populations on cancer cell invasion, migration, motility and phosphorylation status of EGFR and several interacting partners. Cancer-cell induced angiogenesis upon the influence of conditioned media from both macrophage populations was assessed using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay. MMP activities were evaluated by gelatin zymograhy. Our results show that IL-10-stimulated macrophages are more efficient in promoting in vitro cancer cell invasion and migration. In addition, soluble factors produced by these macrophages enhanced in vivo cancer cell-induced angiogenesis, as opposed to their LPS-stimulated counterparts. We further demonstrate that differences in the ability of these macrophage populations to stimulate invasion or angiogenesis cannot be explained by the EGFR-mediated signalling, since both LPS- and IL-10-stimulated macrophages similarly induce the phosphorylation of cancer cell EGFR, c-Src, Akt, ERK1/2, and p38. Interestingly, both populations exert distinct proteolytic activities, being the IL-10-stimulated macrophages the most efficient in inducing matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activities. Using a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, we demonstrated that proteolysis was

  8. Proliferation-stimulating effect of colony stimulating factor 2 on porcine trophectoderm cells is mediated by activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooyoung Jeong

    Full Text Available Colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2, also known as granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, facilitates mammalian embryonic development and implantation. However, biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of action of porcine endometrial CSF2 in peri-implantation events have not been elucidated. The aim of present study was to determine changes in cellular activities induced by CSFs and to access CSF2-induced intracellular signaling in porcine primary trophectoderm (pTr cells. Differences in expression of CSF2 mRNA in endometrium from cyclic and pregnant gilts were evaluated. Endometrial CSF2 mRNA expression increases during the peri-implantation period, Days 10 to 14 of pregnancy, as compared to the estrous cycle. pTr cells obtained in Day 12 of pregnancy were cultured in the presence or absence of CSF2 (20 ng/ml and LY294002 (20 µM, U0126 (20 µM, rapamycin (20 nM, and SB203580 (20 µM. CSF2 in pTr cell culture medium at 20 ng/ml significantly induced phosphorylation of AKT1, ERK1/2, MTOR, p70RSK and RPS6 protein, but not STAT3 protein. Also, the PI3K specific inhibitor (LY294002 abolished CSF2-induced increases in p-ERK1/2 and p-MTOR proteins, as well as CSF2-induced phosphorylation of AKT1. Changes in proliferation and migration of pTr cells in response to CSF2 were examined in dose- and time-response experiments. CSF2 significantly stimulated pTr cell proliferation and, U0126, rapamycin and LY294002 blocked this CSF2-induced proliferation of pTr cells. Collectively, during the peri-implantation phase of pregnancy in pigs, endometrial CSF2 stimulates proliferation of trophectoderm cells by activation of the PI3K-and ERK1/2 MAPK-dependent MTOR signal transduction cascades.

  9. Bone marrow stromal cells spontaneously produce Flt3-ligand: influence of ionizing radiations and cytokine stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertho, Jean Marc; Demarquay, Christelle; Mouiseddine, Moubarak; Douenat, Noémie; Stefani, Johanna; Prat, Marie; Paquet, François

    2008-08-01

    To define the ability of human bone marrow (BM) stromal cells to produce fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3)-ligand (FL), and the effect of irradiation, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) or tumour growth factor beta (TGFbeta) on FL production. Primary BM stromal cell cultures were irradiated at 2-10 Gy or were stimulated with TNFalpha or TGFbeta1. The presence of FL was tested in culture supernatants and in cell lysate. The presence of a membrane-bound form of FL and the level of gene expression were also tested. Primary BM stromal cells spontaneously released FL. This production was increased by TNFalpha but not by TGFbeta1 or by irradiation. Chemical induction of osteoblastic differentiation from BM stromal cells also induced an increase in FL release. Our results suggest that the observed increase in FL concentration after in vivo irradiation is an indirect effect. The possible implication of BM stromal cells in these mechanisms is discussed.

  10. TRPV2 mediates adrenomedullin stimulation of prostate and urothelial cancer cell adhesion, migration and invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Oulidi

    Full Text Available Adrenomedullin (AM is a 52-amino acid peptide initially isolated from human pheochromocytoma. AM is expressed in a variety of malignant tissues and cancer cell lines and was shown to be a mitogenic factor capable of stimulating growth of several cancer cell types. In addition, AM is a survival factor for certain cancer cells. Some data suggest that AM might be involved in the progression cancer metastasis via angiogenesis and cell migration and invasion control. The Transient Receptor Potential channel TRPV2 is known to promote in prostate cancer cell migration and invasive phenotype and is correlated with the stage and grade of bladder cancer. In this work we show that AM induces prostate and urothelial cancer cell migration and invasion through TRPV2 translocation to plasma membrane and the subsequent increase in resting calcium level.

  11. PAMPs and DAMPs stimulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro in a fibroblast cell-line from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Ossum, CarlobG.; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    The recognition of PAMPs by immune cells relies on conserved PRRs such as TLRs, NLRs and RLRs leading to activation of NFκB signalling pathways. These receptors are activated upon stimulation by different ligands such as bacterial or viral components. The binding of ligands to the receptors...... in this evolutionary lineage of the bony fishes. The expression of TLR-3 and -9 receptors were significantly up-regulated following physical damage of muscle tissue as well as in stimulated fibroblasts, where LPS induced both TLR-3 and -9, supernatant from sonicated cells only TLR-9 while debris caused no induction...

  12. Curcumin suppresses growth of mesothelioma cells in vitro and in vivo, in part, by stimulating apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Rishi, Arun K; Wu, Wenjuan; Polin, Lisa; Sharma, Sunita; Levi, Edi; Albelda, Steven; Pass, Harvey I; Wali, Anil

    2011-11-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive, asbestos-related malignancy of the thoracic pleura. Although, platinum-based agents are the first line of therapy, there is an urgent need for second-line therapies to treat the drug-resistant MPM. Cell cycle as well as apoptosis pathways are frequently altered in MPM and thus remain attractive targets for intervention strategies. Curcumin, the major component in the spice turmeric, alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutics has been under investigation for a number of cancers. In this study, we investigated the biological and molecular responses of MPM cells to curcumin treatments and the mechanisms involved. Flow-cytometric analyses coupled with western immunoblotting and gene-array analyses were conducted to determine mechanisms of curcumin-dependent growth suppression of human (H2373, H2452, H2461, and H226) and murine (AB12) MPM cells. Curcumin inhibited MPM cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner while pretreatment of MPM cells with curcumin enhanced cisplatin efficacy. Curcumin activated the stress-activated p38 kinase, caspases 9 and 3, caused elevated levels of proapoptotic proteins Bax, stimulated PARP cleavage, and apoptosis. In addition, curcumin treatments stimulated expression of novel transducers of cell growth suppression such as CARP-1, XAF1, and SULF1 proteins. Oral administration of curcumin inhibited growth of murine MPM cell-derived tumors in vivo in part by stimulating apoptosis. Thus, curcumin targets cell cycle and promotes apoptosis to suppress MPM growth in vitro and in vivo. Our studies provide a proof-of-principle rationale for further in-depth analysis of MPM growth suppression mechanisms and their future exploitation in effective management of resistant MPM.

  13. Modulation of cultured porcine granulosa cell responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone and epidermal growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Ovarian follicular development is dependent upon the coordinated growth and differentiation of the granulosa cells which line the follicle. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) induces granulosa cell differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates granulosa cell proliferation in vitro. The interaction of these two effectors upon selected parameters of growth and differentiation was examined in monolayer cultures of porcine granulose cells. Analysis of the EGF receptor by /sup 125/I-EGF binding revealed that the receptor was of high affinity with an apparent dissociation constant of 4-6 x 10/sup -10/ M. The average number of receptors per cell varied with the state of differentiation both in vivo and in vitro; highly differentiated cells bound two-fold less /sup 125/I-EGF and this effect was at least partially induced by FSH in vitro. EGF receptor function was examined by assessing EGF effects on cell number and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. EGF stimulated thymidine incorporation in both serum-free and serum-supplemented culture, but only in serum-supplemented conditions was cell number increased. EGF receptor function was inversely related to the state of differentiation and was attenuated by FSH. The FSH receptor was examined by /sup 125/I-FSH binding. EGF increased FSH receptor number, and lowered the affinity of the receptor. The function of these receptors was assessed by /sup 125/I-hCG binding and progesterone radioimmunoassay. If EGF was present continuously in the cultures. FSH receptor function was attenuated regardless of FSH receptor number. A preliminary effort to examine the mechanism of this interaction was performed by analyzing hormonally controlled protein synthesis with /sup 35/S-methionine labeling, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. FSH promoted the expression of a 27,000 dalton protein. This effect was attenuated by EGF.

  14. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. ► Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. ► Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers – this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre-treatment with anti-MMP1 antibody. This study contributes to understanding

  15. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jraufman@medicine.umaryland.edu [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  16. Ex Vivo Assay of Electrical Stimulation to Rat Sciatic Nerves: Cell Behaviors and Growth Factor Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhiyong; Bondarenko, Olexandr; Wang, Dingkun; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Zhang, Ze

    2016-06-01

    Neurite outgrowth and axon regeneration are known to benefit from electrical stimulation. However, how neuritis and their surroundings react to electrical field is difficult to replicate by monolayer cell culture. In this work freshly harvested rat sciatic nerves were cultured and exposed to two types of electrical field, after which time the nerve tissues were immunohistologically stained and the expression of neurotrophic factors and cytokines were evaluated. ELISA assay was used to confirm the production of specific proteins. All cell populations survived the 48 h culture with little necrosis. Electrical stimulation was found to accelerate Wallerian degeneration and help Schwann cells to switch into migratory phenotype. Inductive electrical stimulation was shown to upregulate the secretion of multiple neurotrophic factors. Cellular distribution in nerve tissue was altered upon the application of an electrical field. This work thus presents an ex vivo model to study denervated axon in well controlled electrical field, bridging monolayer cell culture and animal experiment. It also demonstrated the critical role of electrical field distribution in regulating cellular activities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Questiomycin A stimulates sorafenib-induced cell death via suppression of glucose-regulated protein 78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machihara, Kayo; Tanaka, Hidenori; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Ichiro; Namba, Takushi

    2017-10-07

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult cancers to treat owing to the lack of effective chemotherapeutic methods. Sorafenib, the first-line and only available treatment for HCC, extends patient overall survival by several months, with a response rate below 10%. Thus, the identification of an agent that enhances the anticancer effect of sorafenib is critical for the development of therapeutic options for HCC. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is one of the methods of sorafenib-induced cell death. Here we report that questiomycin A suppresses expression of GRP78, a cell-protective ER chaperone protein. Analysis of the molecular mechanisms of questiomycin A revealed that this compound stimulated GRP78 protein degradation in an ER stress response-independent manner. Cotreatment with sorafenib and questiomycin A suppressed GRP78 protein expression, which is essential for the stimulation of sorafenib-induced cell death. Moreover, our in vivo study demonstrated that the coadministration of sorafenib and questiomycin A suppressed tumor formation in HCC-induced xenograft models. These results suggest that cotreatment with sorafenib and questiomycin A is a novel therapeutic strategy for HCC by enhancing sorafenib-dependent ER stress-induced cell death, and downregulation of GRP78 is a new target for the stimulation of the therapeutic effects of sorafenib in HCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuroprotective activity of Leontice leontopetalum extract against H2O2-stimulated oxidative stress in PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sahranavard*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Neuronal toxicity can be induced by oxidative stress via free radicals production. In recent years, great interest has been expressed to the traditional and herbal medicines. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the neuroprotective activity of Leontice leontopetalum methanol extract against H2O2-stimulated oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Methods: The plantLeontice leontopetalum was selected based on the ethnobotanical approach, which is used traditionally for the treatment of diseases related to inflammation and pain in Turkmen Sahra, Iran. Cytotoxicity of different concentrations of the methanol extract against PC12 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Then PC12 cells were exposed to H2O2 in the presence or absence of the extract. In the next step, the total protein concentration was measured via Bradford assay and cyclooxygenase inhibition was determined by a screening assay kit. Nitrite accumulated in culture medium of supernatant was measured by Griess reaction. Results: Our results indicated that the methanol extract of Leontice leontopetalum significantly inhibited cyclooxygenase activity in the presence of H2O2; however, it was not able to inhibit nitric oxide generation in the stimulated PC12 cells. Conclusion: The results suggested that Leontice leontopetalum may be useful in reducing risk of neurodegenerative related diseases such as Alzheimer Disease.

  19. Hyposmotic stimulation-induced nitric oxide production in outer hair cells of the guinea pig cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda-Nakazawa, Hiroko; Harada, Narinobu; Shen, Jing; Kubo, Nobuo; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Yamashita, Toshio

    2007-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production during hyposmotic stimulation in outer hair cells (OHCs) of the guinea pig cochlea was investigated using the NO sensitive dye DAF-2. Simultaneous measurement of the cell length and NO production showed rapid hyposmotic-induced cell swelling to precede NO production in OHCs. Hyposmotic stimulation failed to induce NO production in the Ca2+-free solution. L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor and gadolinium, a stretch-activated channel blocker inhibited the hyposmotic stimulation-induced NO production whereas suramin, a P2 receptor antagonist did not. S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), a NO donor inhibited the hyposmotic stimulation-induced increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) while L-NAME enhanced it. 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3a]quinoxalin-1-one, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase and KT5823, an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) mimicked effects of L-NAME on the Ca2+ response. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an osmo- and mechanosensitive channel was expressed in the OHCs by means of immunohistochemistry. 4alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, a TRPV4 synthetic activator, induced NO production in OHCs. These results suggest that hyposmotic stimulation can induce NO production by the [Ca2+]i increase, which is presumably mediated by the activation of TRPV4 in OHCs. NO conversely inhibits the Ca2+ response via the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway by a feedback mechanism.

  20. TACTILE STIMULATION EVOKES LONG-LASTING POTENTIATION OF PURKINJE CELL DISCHARGE IN VIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan eKanchipuram

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the cerebellar network, a precise relationship between plasticity and neuronal discharge has been predicted. However, the potential generation of persistent changes in PC spike discharge as a consequence of plasticity following natural stimulation patterns has not been clearly determined. Here we show that facial tactile stimuli organized in theta-patterns can induce stereotyped NMDA and GABA-A receptor-dependent changes in Purkinje cell (PCs and molecular layer interneuron (MLIs firing: invariably, all PCs showed a long-lasting increase (spike-related potentiation or SR-P and MLIs a long-lasting decrease (spike-related suppression or SR-S in baseline activity and spike response probability. These observations suggests that natural sensory stimulation engages multiple long-term plastic changes that are distributed along the mossy fiber – parallel fiber pathway and operate synergistically to potentiate spike generation in PCs. In contrast, theta-pattern electrical stimulation of PFs indistinctly induced SR-P and SR-S both in PCs and MLIs, suggesting that natural sensory stimulation preordinates plasticity upstream of the PF-PC synapse. All these effects occurred in the absence of complex spike changes, supporting the theoretical prediction that Purkinje cell activity is potentiated when the mossy fiber - parallel fiber system is activated in the absence of conjunctive climbing fiber activity.

  1. Salmonella Typhimurium type III secretion effectors stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent M Bruno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of conserved bacterial products by innate immune receptors leads to inflammatory responses that control pathogen spread but that can also result in pathology. Intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to bacterial products and therefore must prevent signaling through innate immune receptors to avoid pathology. However, enteric pathogens are able to stimulate intestinal inflammation. We show here that the enteric pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium can stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells by mechanisms that do not involve receptors of the innate immune system. Instead, S. Typhimurium stimulates these responses by delivering through its type III secretion system the bacterial effector proteins SopE, SopE2, and SopB, which in a redundant fashion stimulate Rho-family GTPases leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and NF-kappaB signaling. These observations have implications for the understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella Typhimurium induces intestinal inflammation as well as other intestinal inflammatory pathologies.

  2. DNA methyltransferase mediates dose-dependent stimulation of neural stem cell proliferation by folate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Yu, Min; Luo, Suhui; Liu, Huan; Gao, Yuxia; Wilson, John X; Huang, Guowei

    2013-07-01

    The proliferative response of neural stem cells (NSCs) to folate may play a critical role in the development, function and repair of the central nervous system. It is important to determine the dose-dependent effects of folate in NSC cultures that are potential sources of transplantable cells for therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. To determine the optimal concentration and mechanism of action of folate for stimulation of NSC proliferation in vitro, NSCs were exposed to folic acid or 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) (0-200 μmol/L) for 24, 48 or 72 h. Immunocytochemistry and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay showed that the optimal concentration of folic acid for NSC proliferation was 20-40 μmol/L. Stimulation of NSC proliferation by folic acid was associated with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activation and was attenuated by the DNMT inhibitor zebularine, which implies that folate dose-dependently stimulates NSC proliferation through a DNMT-dependent mechanism. Based on these new findings and previously published evidence, we have identified a mechanism by which folate stimulates NSC growth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrical stimulation promotes nerve cell differentiation on polypyrrole/poly (2-methoxy-5 aniline sulfonic acid) composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Gilmore, Kerry J; Moulton, Simon E; Wallace, Gordon G

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate for the first time the potential biomedical applications of novel polypyrrole (PPy) composites incorporating a large polyelectrolyte dopant, poly (2-methoxy-5 aniline sulfonic acid) (PMAS). The physical and electrochemical properties were characterized. The PPy/PMAS composites were found to be smooth and hydrophilic and have low electrical impedance. We demonstrate that PPy/PMAS supports nerve cell (PC12) differentiation, and that clinically relevant 250 Hz biphasic current pulses delivered via PPy/PMAS films significantly promote nerve cell differentiation in the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF). The capacity of PPy/PMAS composites to support and enhance nerve cell differentiation via electrical stimulation renders them valuable for medical implants for neurological applications.

  4. Chronic inflammation-elicited liver progenitor cell conversion to liver cancer stem cell with clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Cheng; Xiang, Dai-Min; Qu, Le; Sun, Wen; Lu, Xin-Yuan; Zhou, Teng-Fei; Chen, Shu-Zhen; Ning, Bei-Fang; Cheng, Zhuo; Xia, Ming-Yang; Shen, Wei-Feng; Yang, Wen; Wen, Wen; Lee, Terence Kin Wah; Cong, Wen-Ming; Wang, Hong-Yang; Ding, Jin

    2017-12-01

    The substantial heterogeneity and hierarchical organization in liver cancer support the theory of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs). However, the relationship between chronic hepatic inflammation and LCSC generation remains obscure. Here, we observed a close correlation between aggravated inflammation and liver progenitor cell (LPC) propagation in the cirrhotic liver of rats exposed to diethylnitrosamine. LPCs isolated from the rat cirrhotic liver initiated subcutaneous liver cancers in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice, suggesting the malignant transformation of LPCs toward LCSCs. Interestingly, depletion of Kupffer cells in vivo attenuated the LCSC properties of transformed LPCs and suppressed cytokeratin 19/Oval cell 6-positive tumor occurrence. Conversely, LPCs cocultured with macrophages exhibited enhanced LCSC properties. We further demonstrated that macrophage-secreted tumor necrosis factor-α triggered chromosomal instability in LPCs through the deregulation of ubiquitin D and checkpoint kinase 2 and enhanced the self-renewal of LPCs through the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1/Src/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway, which synergistically contributed to the conversion of LPCs to LCSCs. Clinical investigation revealed that cytokeratin 19/Oval cell 6-positive liver cancer patients displayed a worse prognosis and exhibited superior response to sorafenib treatment. Our results not only clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammation-mediated LCSC generation but also provide a molecular classification for the individualized treatment of liver cancer. (Hepatology 2017;66:1934-1951). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  5. Electrical Stimulation Elicit Neural Stem Cells Activation:New Perspectives in CNS Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratrel eHuang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are enthusiastically concerned about neural stem cell (NSC therapy in a wide array of diseases, including stroke, neurodegenerative disease, spinal cord injury (SCI and depression. Although enormous evidences have demonstrated that neurobehavioral improvement may benefit from NSC-supporting regeneration in animal models, approaches to endogenous and transplanted NSCs are blocked by hurdles of migration, proliferation, maturation and integration of NSCs. Electrical stimulation (ES may be a selective nondrug approach for mobilizing NSCs in the central nervous system (CNS. This technique is suitable for clinic application, because it is well established and its potential complications are manageable. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the emerging positive role of different electrical cues in regulating NSC biology in vitro and in vivo, as well as biomaterial-based and chemical stimulation of NSCs. In the future, ES combined with stem cell therapy or other cues probably becomes an approach for promoting brain repair.

  6. Mechanical stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells: Implications for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Niamh; Alini, Mauro; Stoddart, Martin J

    2018-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a load-bearing tissue playing a crucial mechanical role in diarthrodial joints, facilitating joint articulation, and minimizing wear. The significance of biomechanical stimuli in the development of cartilage and maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype in adult tissues has been well documented. Furthermore, dysregulated loading is associated with cartilage pathology highlighting the importance of mechanical cues in cartilage homeostasis. The repair of damaged articular cartilage resulting from trauma or degenerative joint disease poses a major challenge due to a low intrinsic capacity of cartilage for self-renewal, attributable to its avascular nature. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered a promising cell type for cartilage replacement strategies due to their chondrogenic differentiation potential. Chondrogenesis of MSCs is influenced not only by biological factors but also by the environment itself, and various efforts to date have focused on harnessing biomechanics to enhance chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. Furthermore, recapitulating mechanical cues associated with cartilage development and homeostasis in vivo, may facilitate the development of a cellular phenotype resembling native articular cartilage. The goal of this review is to summarize current literature examining the effect of mechanical cues on cartilage homeostasis, disease, and MSC chondrogenesis. The role of biological factors produced by MSCs in response to mechanical loading will also be examined. An in-depth understanding of the impact of mechanical stimulation on the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs in terms of endogenous bioactive factor production and signaling pathways involved, may identify therapeutic targets and facilitate the development of more robust strategies for cartilage replacement using MSCs. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:52-63, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research

  7. Interleukin-8 stimulates progesterone production via the MEK pathway in ovarian theca cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Imamura, Eri; Magata, Fumie; Murayama, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Akio

    2013-02-01

    Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a chemoattractant associated with ovulation in the mammalian ovary. This chemokine is also involved in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils. Using bovine tissue, we examined the possible role of IL-8 in steroid production by theca cells of the large ovarian follicles. IL-8 promoted progesterone production and stimulated StAR expression in cultured theca cells. The inhibitor of p38 did not disturb the P4 production and StAR expression in IL-8-treated theca cells. On the other hand, the inhibitor of MEK disturbed the P4 production and expression of StAR in theca cells treated with IL-8. These results suggest that IL-8 is associated with progesterone production in bovine theca cells via the MEK pathway.

  8. Identification of IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ T cells following PMA stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K; Bruunsgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of T cells with phorbol esters, such as phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), induces downregulation of CD4, making unambiguous identification of this subset difficult. In this study, the kinetics of intracellular expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and downmodulation of surface CD4...... were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after PMA stimulation. The number of IFN-gamma-producing cells increased within a 4-h period while the fluorescence intensity of the CD4(+) cell population decreased, and the two phenomena were correlated (n = 9; p = 0.01). Our data suggest...... that intracellular staining of CD4 together with cytokine staining will make identification of CD4(+) cells possible and facilitate the procedure of intracellular staining of cytokines....

  9. Enhancement of cell-cell contact by a nonmitogenic lectin increases blastogenic response and IL-2 release by mitogen-stimulated mouse thymocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, J; Marti, J; Dornand, J; Bonnafous, J C; Mani, J C

    1986-03-01

    We have examined the influence of peanut agglutinin (PNA), a lectin which agglutinates but does not stimulate mouse thymocytes, on the responsiveness of these cells to concanavalin A (Con A) or galactose oxidase stimulation. Binding low amounts of PNA on unseparated mouse thymocytes pretreated with neuraminidase highly enhances the mitogenic response and the level of interleukin 2 release in the culture medium upon Con A stimulation. We have shown that PNA present on the cell surface acts as a crosslinking agent which favors intercellular binding between accessory cells (macrophages) and thymocytes, leading through this enhanced cooperation by cell-cell contact to an enhanced blastogenic response.

  10. Intra-myocardial injection of both growth factors and heart derived Sca-1+/CD31- cells attenuates post-MI LV remodeling more than does cell transplantation alone: neither intervention enhances functionally significant cardiomyocyte regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF are two potent cell survival and regenerative factors in response to myocardial injury (MI. We hypothesized that simultaneous delivery of IGF+HGF combined with Sca-1+/CD31- cells would improve the outcome of transplantation therapy in response to the altered hostile microenvironment post MI. One million adenovirus nuclear LacZ-labeled Sca-1+/CD31- cells were injected into the peri-infarction area after left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD ligation in mice. Recombinant mouse IGF-1+HGF was added to the cell suspension prior to the injection. The left ventricular (LV function was assessed by echocardiography 4 weeks after the transplantation. The cell engraftment, differentiation and cardiomyocyte regeneration were evaluated by histological analysis. Sca-1+/CD31- cells formed viable grafts and improved LV ejection fraction (EF (Control, 54.5+/-2.4; MI, 17.6+/-3.1; Cell, 28.2+/-4.2, n = 9, P<0.01. IGF+HGF significantly enhanced the benefits of cell transplantation as evidenced by increased EF (38.8+/-2.2; n = 9, P<0.01 and attenuated adverse structural remodeling. Furthermore, IGF+HGF supplementation increased the cell engraftment rate, promoted the transplanted cell survival, enhanced angiogenesis, and minimally stimulated endogenous cardiomyocyte regeneration in vivo. The in vitro experiments showed that IGF+HGF treatment stimulated Sca-1+/CD31- cell proliferation and inhibited serum free medium induced apoptosis. Supperarray profiling of Sca-1+/CD31- cells revealed that Sca-1+/CD31- cells highly expressed various trophic factor mRNAs and IGF+HGF treatment altered the mRNAs expression patterns of these cells. These data indicate that IGF-1+HGF could serve as an adjuvant to cell transplantation for myocardial repair by stimulating donor cell and endogenous cardiac stem cell survival, regeneration and promoting angiogenesis.

  11. Expression of HIWI in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is significantly associated with poorer prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Wei; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Qi; Fan, Qingxia; Shou, Chengcao; Wang, Junsheng; Giercksky, Karl-Erik; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2009-01-01

    HIWI, the human homologue of Piwi family, is present in CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells and germ cells, but not in well-differentiated cell populations, indicating that HIWI may play an impotent role in determining or maintaining stemness of these cells. That HIWI expression has been detected in several type tumours may suggest its association with clinical outcome in cancer patients. With the methods of real-time PCR, western blot, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the expression of HIWI in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450 has been characterized. Then, we investigated HIWI expression in a series of 153 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and explored its association with clinicopathological features. The expression of HIWI was observed in tumour cell nuclei or/and cytoplasm in 137 (89.5%) cases, 16 (10.5%) cases were negative in both nuclei and cytoplasm. 86 (56.2%) were strongly positive in cytoplasm, while 49 (32.0%) were strongly positive in nuclei. The expression level of HIWI in cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells was significantly associated with histological grade (P = 0.011), T stage (P = 0.035), and clinic outcome (P < 0.001), while there was no correlation between the nuclear HIWI expression and clinicopathological features. The expression of HIWI in the cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells is significantly associated with higher histological grade, clinical stage and poorer clinical outcome, indicating its possible involvement in cancer development

  12. Expression of HIWI in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is significantly associated with poorer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou Chengcao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIWI, the human homologue of Piwi family, is present in CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and germ cells, but not in well-differentiated cell populations, indicating that HIWI may play an impotent role in determining or maintaining stemness of these cells. That HIWI expression has been detected in several type tumours may suggest its association with clinical outcome in cancer patients. Methods With the methods of real-time PCR, western blot, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the expression of HIWI in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450 has been characterized. Then, we investigated HIWI expression in a series of 153 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and explored its association with clinicopathological features. Results The expression of HIWI was observed in tumour cell nuclei or/and cytoplasm in 137 (89.5% cases, 16 (10.5% cases were negative in both nuclei and cytoplasm. 86 (56.2% were strongly positive in cytoplasm, while 49 (32.0% were strongly positive in nuclei. The expression level of HIWI in cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells was significantly associated with histological grade (P = 0.011, T stage (P = 0.035, and clinic outcome (P Conclusion The expression of HIWI in the cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells is significantly associated with higher histological grade, clinical stage and poorer clinical outcome, indicating its possible involvement in cancer development.

  13. Superoxide generation is diminished during glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1E cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Petr; Hlavatá, Lydie; Špaček, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 275, Suppl.1 (2008), s. 310-310 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /33./ and IUBMB Conference /11./. 28.06.2008-03.07.2008, Athens] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7917; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * superoxide production * glucose-stimulated insulin secretion * INS-1E cells Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  14. Electrical stimulation drives chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells in the absence of exogenous growth factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hyuck Joon Kwon; Gyu Seok Lee; Honggu Chun

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) is known to guide the development and regeneration of many tissues. However, although preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated superior effects of ES on cartilage repair, the effects of ES on chondrogenesis remain elusive. Since mesenchyme stem cells (MSCs) have high therapeutic potential for cartilage regeneration, we investigated the actions of ES during chondrogenesis of MSCs. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that ES enhances expression levels...

  15. Sphingosine kinase-1 is a hypoxia-regulated gene that stimulates migration of human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalm, Stephanie; Doell, Frauke; Roemer, Isolde; Bubnova, Svetlana; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Huwiler, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Sphingosine kinases (SK) catalyze the production of sphingosine-1-phosphate which in turn regulates cell responses such as proliferation and migration. Here, we show that exposure of the human endothelial cell line EA.hy 926 to hypoxia stimulates a increased SK-1, but not SK-2, mRNA, protein expression, and activity. This effect was due to stimulated SK-1 promoter activity which contains two putative hypoxia-inducible factor-responsive-elements (HRE). By deletion of one of the two HREs, hypoxia-induced promoter activation was abrogated. Furthermore, hypoxia upregulated the expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α, and both contributed to SK-1 gene transcription as shown by selective depletion of HIF-1α or HIF-2α by siRNA. The hypoxia-stimulated SK-1 upregulation was functionally coupled to increased migration since the selective depletion of SK-1, but not of SK-2, by siRNAs abolished the migratory response. In summary, these data show that hypoxia upregulates SK-1 activity and results in an accelerated migratory capacity of endothelial cells. SK-1 may thus serve as an attractive therapeutic target to treat diseases associated with increased endothelial migration and angiogenesis such as cancer growth and progression

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor A-stimulated signaling from endosomes in primary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Smith, Gina A; Odell, Adam F; Latham, Antony M; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Harrison, Michael A; Tomlinson, Darren C; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2014-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is a multifunctional cytokine that stimulates blood vessel sprouting, vascular repair, and regeneration. VEGF-A binds to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGFRs) and stimulates intracellular signaling leading to changes in vascular physiology. An important aspect of this phenomenon is the spatiotemporal coordination of VEGFR trafficking and intracellular signaling to ensure that VEGFR residence in different organelles is linked to downstream cellular outputs. Here, we describe a series of assays to evaluate the effects of VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling from intracellular compartments such as the endosome-lysosome system. These assays include the initial isolation and characterization of primary human endothelial cells, performing reverse genetics for analyzing protein function; methods used to study receptor trafficking, signaling, and proteolysis; and assays used to measure changes in cell migration, proliferation, and tubulogenesis. Each of these assays has been exemplified with studies performed in our laboratories. In conclusion, we describe necessary techniques for studying the role of VEGF-A in endothelial cell function. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of bionic electrical stimulation on the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes in the presence myocardial cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-na ZHENG

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of electrical stimulation on the differentiation of embryonic stem cells(ESCs into cardiomyocytes in the presence of myocardial cells in vitro.Methods ESCs and neonate rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured.These cells of primary culture were divided into 5 groups according to whether or not electric stimulation was given and the presence of cardiomyocytes: control group,stimulation group,cardiomyocytes group,stimulation+ cardiomyocyte conditioned medium group,and stimulation+cardiomyocytes group.Expression of troponin T(cTnT in the differentiated cells from ESCs was examined by immunofluoresence on the 5th,7th and 14th day.Results In the group co-cultured with myocardial cell and electrical stimulation,the differentiating ratio of cardiomyocytes derived from ESCs and expressing cTnT was 40.00%±2.39%,and it was higher than that in control group(2.00%±1.60%,stimulation group(3.00%±2.00%,cardiomyocytes group(28.70%±4.06%,stimulation+cardiomyocyte conditioned medium group(17.10%±2.23%,P < 0.05.Conclusion Bionic electric stimulation promotes the differentiation of ESCs into cardiomyocyte in a microenvironment consisting of myocardial cells.

  18. Acute insulin resistance stimulates and insulin sensitization attenuates vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cersosimo, Eugenio; Xu, Xiaojing; Upala, Sikarin; Triplitt, Curtis; Musi, Nicolas

    2014-08-01

    Differential activation/deactivation of insulin signaling, PI-3K and MAP-K pathways by high glucose and palmitate, with/out the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone (PIO), have been previously shown in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To determine the biological impact of these molecular changes, we examined VSMC migration and proliferation ("M"&"P") patterns in similar conditions. VSMCs from healthy human coronary arteries were incubated in growth medium and "M"&"P" were analyzed after exposure to high glucose (25 mmol/L) ± palmitate (200 μmol/L) and ± PIO (8 μmol/L) for 5 h. "M"&"P" were assessed by: (1) polycarbonate membrane barrier with chemo-attractants and extended cell protrusions quantified by optical density (OD595 nm); (2) % change in radius area (2D Assay) using inverted microscopy images; and (3) cell viability assay expressed as cell absorbance (ABS) in media. "M" in 25 mmol/L glucose media increased by ~25% from baseline and % change in radius area rose from ~20% to ~30%. The addition of PIO was accompanied by a significant decrease in "M" from 0.25 ± 0.02 to 0.19 ± 0.02; a comparable decline from 0.25 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.02 was also seen with 25 mmol/L of glucose +200 μmol/L of palmitate. When PIO was coincubated with high glucose plus palmitate there was a 50% reduction in % change in radius. A ~10% increase in ABS, reflecting augmented "P" in media with 25 mmol/L glucose versus control was documented. The addition of PIO reduced ABS from 0.208 ± 0.03 to 0.183 ± 0.06. Both high glucose and palmitate showed ABS of ~0.140 ± 0.02, which decreased with PIO to ~0.120 ± 0.02, indicating "P" was reduced. These results confirm that high glucose and palmitate stimulate VSMCs migration and proliferation in vitro, which is attenuated by coincubation with the insulin sensitizer PIO. Although, we cannot ascertain whether these functional changes are coincident with the activation/deactivation of signal molecules, our findings are consistent with the

  19. Thrombin stimulates albumin transcytosis in lung microvascular endothelial cells via activation of acid sphingomyelinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Wittenberg, Claudia; Lee, Warren L; Reppien, Eike; Goldenberg, Neil M; Lindner, Karsten; Gao, Yizhuo; Winoto-Morbach, Supandi; Drab, Marek; Mühlfeld, Christian; Dombrowsky, Heike; Ochs, Matthias; Schütze, Stefan; Uhlig, Stefan

    2016-04-15

    Transcellular albumin transport occurs via caveolae that are abundant in lung microvascular endothelial cells. Stimulation of albumin transcytosis by proinflammatory mediators may contribute to alveolar protein leak in lung injury, yet the regulation of albumin transport and its underlying molecular mechanisms are so far incompletely understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that thrombin may stimulate transcellular albumin transport across lung microvascular endothelial cells in an acid-sphingomyelinase dependent manner. Thrombin increased the transport of fluorescently labeled albumin across confluent human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC-L) monolayers to an extent that markedly exceeds the rate of passive diffusion. Thrombin activated acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) and increased ceramide production in HMVEC-L, but not in bovine pulmonary artery cells, which showed little albumin transport in response to thrombin. Thrombin increased total caveolin-1 (cav-1) content in both whole cell lysates and lipid rafts from HMVEC-L, and this effect was blocked by inhibition of ASM or de novo protein biosynthesis. Thrombin-induced uptake of albumin into lung microvascular endothelial cells was confirmed in isolated-perfused lungs by real-time fluorescence imaging and electron microscopy of gold-labeled albumin. Inhibition of ASM attenuated thrombin-induced albumin transport both in confluent HMVEC-L and in intact lungs, whereas HMVEC-L treatment with exogenous ASM increased albumin transport and enriched lipid rafts in cav-1. Our findings indicate that thrombin stimulates transcellular albumin transport in an acid sphingomyelinase-dependent manner by inducing de novo synthesis of cav-1 and its recruitment to membrane lipid rafts. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibition delays recurrence of glioblastoma after radiation by altering myeloid cell recruitment and polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Jason H.; Hirai, Takahisa; Deng, Lei; Chernikova, Sophia B.; Urata, Kimiko; West, Brian L.; Brown, J. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma (GBM) may initially respond to treatment with ionizing radiation (IR), but the prognosis remains extremely poor because the tumors invariably recur. Using animal models, we previously showed that inhibiting stromal cell–derived factor 1 signaling can prevent or delay GBM recurrence by blocking IR-induced recruitment of myeloid cells, specifically monocytes that give rise to tumor-associated macrophages. The present study was aimed at determining if inhibiting colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) signaling could be used as an alternative strategy to target pro-tumorigenic myeloid cells recruited to irradiated GBM. Methods To inhibit CSF-1 signaling in myeloid cells, we used PLX3397, a small molecule that potently inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R). Combined IR and PLX3397 therapy was compared with IR alone using 2 different human GBM intracranial xenograft models. Results GBM xenografts treated with IR upregulated CSF-1R ligand expression and increased the number of CD11b+ myeloid-derived cells in the tumors. Treatment with PLX3397 both depleted CD11b+ cells and potentiated the response of the intracranial tumors to IR. Median survival was significantly longer for mice receiving combined therapy versus IR alone. Analysis of myeloid cell differentiation markers indicated that CSF-1R inhibition prevented IR-recruited monocyte cells from differentiating into immunosuppressive, pro-angiogenic tumor-associated macrophages. Conclusion CSF-1R inhibition may be a promising strategy to improve GBM response to radiotherapy. PMID:26538619

  1. A chemically inert drug can stimulate T cells in vitro by their T cell receptor in non-sensitised individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, Olivier B.; Strasser, Ingrid; Naisbitt, Dean J.; Cerny, Andreas; Pichler, Werner J.

    2004-01-01

    Drugs can interact with T cell receptors (TCR) after binding to peptide-MHC structures. This binding may involve the formation of a stable, covalent bond between a chemically reactive drug and MHC or the peptide embedded within. Alternatively, if the drug is chemically inert, the binding may be non-covalent and readily reversible. Both types of drug presentation account for a substantial number of adverse side effects to drugs. Presently no tests are available to predict the ability of chemically inert drugs to stimulate an immune response. Here we present data on the successful induction of a primary T cell immune response in vitro against a chemically inert drug using blood from healthy individuals, previously not exposed to the drug. Blood lymphocytes were stimulated by the chemically inert drug sulfamethoxazole and the protein-reactive drug-metabolite sulfamethoxazole-nitroso in the presence of IL-2. 9/10 individuals reacted in response to sulfamethoxazole-nitroso, but only three reacted to the chemically inert compound sulfamethoxazole. Drug reactive T cells could be detected after 14-35 days of cell culture by drug-specific proliferation or cytotoxicity, which was MHC-restricted. These cells were CD4, CD8 positive or CD4/CD8 double positive and T cell clones generated secreted Th0 type cytokines. Drug interaction lead to down-regulation of specific TCR. These data confirm the ability of chemically inert drugs to stimulate certain T cells by their TCR and may provide the opportunity to screen new drugs for their ability to interact with TCRs

  2. Calcium-independent phosphatidylinositol response in gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-stimulated pituitary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Naor, Z; Molcho, J; Zakut, H; Yavin, E

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, gonadoliberin) on phospholipid metabolism in cultured rat pituitary cells. The cells were incubated with [32P]Pi to label endogenous phospholipids (10-60 min) and then stimulated with GnRH for up to 60 min. Cellular phospholipids were separated by two-dimensional t.l.c. and the radioactivity was determined. Phosphatidylinositol (PI), a minor constituent of cellular phospholipids (7.7%), was the major labelled phospholipi...

  3. Clinical-grade generation of peptide-stimulated CMV/EBV-specific T cells from G-CSF mobilized stem cell grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Regina; Aigner, Michael; Moi, Stephanie; Schaffer, Stefanie; Gottmann, Anja; Maas, Stefanie; Zimmermann, Robert; Zingsem, Jürgen; Strobel, Julian; Mackensen, Andreas; Mautner, Josef; Moosmann, Andreas; Gerbitz, Armin

    2018-05-09

    A major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aSCT) is the reactivation of herpesviruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Both viruses cause significant mortality and compromise quality of life after aSCT. Preventive transfer of virus-specific T cells can suppress reactivation by re-establishing functional antiviral immune responses in immunocompromised hosts. We have developed a good manufacturing practice protocol to generate CMV/EBV-peptide-stimulated T cells from leukapheresis products of G-CSF mobilized and non-mobilized donors. Our procedure selectively expands virus-specific CD8+ und CD4+ T cells over 9 days using a generic pool of 34 CMV and EBV peptides that represent well-defined dominant T-cell epitopes with various HLA restrictions. For HLA class I, this set of peptides covers at least 80% of the European population. CMV/EBV-specific T cells were successfully expanded from leukapheresis material of both G-CSF mobilized and non-mobilized donors. The protocol allows administration shortly after stem cell transplantation (d30+), storage over liquid nitrogen for iterated applications, and protection of the stem cell donor by avoiding a second leukapheresis. Our protocol allows for rapid and cost-efficient production of T cells for early transfusion after aSCT as a preventive approach. It is currently evaluated in a phase I/IIa clinical trial.

  4. Expression and Clinicopathological Significance of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Huaijun; Cao, Ming; Ren, Kunlun; Sun, Ningbo; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Qiang; Zang, Qi; Jiang, Zhongmin

    2017-01-01

    The Polycomb group genes are a general class of regulators that are responsible for maintaining homeotic gene expression throughout cell division. Polycomb group expression plays an important role in oncogenesis of several types of human cancer. Melanoma nuclear protein 18 and B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 are key Polycomb group proteins. Studies have shown that melanoma nuclear protein 18 is a potential tumor suppression, and B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 is overexpressed in several human malignancies. However, the roles of melanoma nuclear protein 18 and B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma are still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of melanoma nuclear protein 18 and B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 in 89 esophageal cancer tissues and paired normal mucosal tissues using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. We found that the expression of melanoma nuclear protein 18 in the carcinoma tissues was significantly lower than that in the noncancerous mucosal tissues ( P .05). B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 expression was strongly correlated with the degree of differentiation, clinical stage, and lymph node metastasis ( P .05). Moreover, there was a negative correlation between melanoma nuclear protein 18 and B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 expressions in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma ( P < .05). Our study suggests that melanoma nuclear protein 18 and B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 may play a crucial role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Melanoma nuclear protein 18 or B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 may be a potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Angiopoietin 2 stimulates TIE2-expressing monocytes to suppress T cell activation and to promote regulatory T cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffelt, Seth B; Chen, Yung-Yi; Muthana, Munitta; Welford, Abigail F; Tal, Andrea O; Scholz, Alexander; Plate, Karl H; Reiss, Yvonne; Murdoch, Craig; De Palma, Michele; Lewis, Claire E

    2011-04-01

    Angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) is a proangiogenic cytokine whose expression is often upregulated by endothelial cells in tumors. Expression of its receptor, TIE2, defines a highly proangiogenic subpopulation of myeloid cells in circulation and tumors called TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs). Genetic depletion of TEMs markedly reduces tumor angiogenesis in various tumor models, emphasizing their essential role in driving tumor progression. Previously, we demonstrated that ANGPT2 augments the expression of various proangiogenic genes, the potent immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10, and a chemokine for regulatory T cells (Tregs), CCL17 by TEMs in vitro. We now show that TEMs also express higher levels of IL-10 than TIE2(-) macrophages in tumors and that ANGPT2-stimulated release of IL-10 by TEMs suppresses T cell proliferation, increases the ratio of CD4(+) T cells to CD8(+) T cells, and promotes the expansion of CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) Tregs. Furthermore, syngeneic murine tumors expressing high levels of ANGPT2 contained not only high numbers of TEMs but also increased numbers of Tregs, whereas genetic depletion of tumor TEMs resulted in a marked reduction in the frequency of Tregs in tumors. Taken together, our data suggest that ANGPT2-stimulated TEMs represent a novel, potent immunosuppressive force in tumors.

  6. Secretagogue stimulation of neurosecretory cells elicits filopodial extensions uncovering new functional release sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopulos, Andreas; Martin, Sally; Tomatis, Vanesa M; Gormal, Rachel S; Meunier, Frederic A

    2013-12-04

    Regulated exocytosis in neurosecretory cells relies on the timely fusion of secretory granules (SGs) with the plasma membrane. Secretagogue stimulation leads to an enlargement of the cell footprint (surface area in contact with the coverslip), an effect previously attributed to exocytic fusion of SGs with the plasma membrane. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we reveal the formation of filopodia-like structures in bovine chromaffin and PC12 cells driving the footprint expansion, suggesting the involvement of cortical actin network remodeling in this process. Using exocytosis-incompetent PC12 cells, we demonstrate that footprint enlargement is largely independent of SG fusion, suggesting that vesicular exocytic fusion plays a relatively minor role in filopodial expansion. The footprint periphery, including filopodia, undergoes extensive F-actin remodeling, an effect abolished by the actomyosin inhibitors cytochalasin D and blebbistatin. Imaging of both Lifeact-GFP and the SG marker protein neuropeptide Y-mCherry reveals that SGs actively translocate along newly forming actin tracks before undergoing fusion. Together, these data demonstrate that neurosecretory cells regulate the number of SGs undergoing exocytosis during sustained stimulation by controlling vesicular mobilization and translocation to the plasma membrane through actin remodeling. Such remodeling facilitates the de novo formation of fusion sites.

  7. Geniposide regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion possibly through controlling glucose metabolism in INS-1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Liu

    Full Text Available Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS is essential to the control of metabolic fuel homeostasis. The impairment of GSIS is a key element of β-cell failure and one of causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Although the KATP channel-dependent mechanism of GSIS has been broadly accepted for several decades, it does not fully describe the effects of glucose on insulin secretion. Emerging evidence has suggested that other mechanisms are involved. The present study demonstrated that geniposide enhanced GSIS in response to the stimulation of low or moderately high concentrations of glucose, and promoted glucose uptake and intracellular ATP levels in INS-1 cells. However, in the presence of a high concentration of glucose, geniposide exerted a contrary role on both GSIS and glucose uptake and metabolism. Furthermore, geniposide improved the impairment of GSIS in INS-1 cells challenged with a high concentration of glucose. Further experiments showed that geniposide modulated pyruvate carboxylase expression and the production of intermediates of glucose metabolism. The data collectively suggest that geniposide has potential to prevent or improve the impairment of insulin secretion in β-cells challenged with high concentrations of glucose, likely through pyruvate carboxylase mediated glucose metabolism in β-cells.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells as therapeutic target of biophysical stimulation for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Marco; Sansone, Valerio; d'Agostino, Maria Cristina; Romeo, Pietro; Perucca Orfei, Carlotta; de Girolamo, Laura

    2016-12-16

    Musculoskeletal disorders are regarded as a major cause of worldwide morbidity and disability, and they result in huge costs for national health care systems. Traditional therapies frequently turned out to be poorly effective in treating bone, cartilage, and tendon disorders or joint degeneration. As a consequence, the development of novel biological therapies that can treat more effectively these conditions should be the highest priority in regenerative medicine. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent one of the most promising tools in musculoskeletal tissue regenerative medicine, thanks to their proliferation and differentiation potential and their immunomodulatory and trophic ability. Indeed, MSC-based approaches have been proposed for the treatment of almost all orthopedic conditions, starting from different cell sources, alone or in combination with scaffolds and growth factors, and in one-step or two-step procedures. While all these approaches would require cell harvesting and transplantation, the possibility to stimulate the endogenous MSCs to enhance their tissue homeostasis activity represents a less-invasive and cost-effective therapeutic strategy. Nowadays, the role of tissue-specific resident stem cells as possible therapeutic target in degenerative pathologies is underinvestigated. Biophysical stimulations, and in particular extracorporeal shock waves treatment and pulsed electromagnetic fields, are able to induce proliferation and support differentiation of MSCs from different origins and affect their paracrine production of growth factors and cytokines. The present review reports the attempts to exploit the resident stem cell potential in musculoskeletal pathologies, highlighting the role of MSCs as therapeutic target of currently applied biophysical treatments.

  9. VEGF-mediated angiogenesis stimulates neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the premature brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jinqiao; Sha, Bin; Zhou, Wenhao; Yang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of angiogenesis on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the premature brain. We observed the changes in neurogenesis that followed the stimulation and inhibition of angiogenesis by altering vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a 3-day-old rat model. VEGF expression was overexpressed by adenovirus transfection and down-regulated by siRNA interference. Using immunofluorescence assays, Western blot analysis, and real-time PCR methods, we observed angiogenesis and the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the number of vWF-positive areas peaked at day 7, and they were highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at every time point. The number of neural stem cells, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the subventricular zone gradually increased over time in the VEGF up-regulation group. Among the three groups, the number of these cells was highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at the same time point. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR confirmed these results. These data suggest that angiogenesis may stimulate the proliferation of neural stem cells and differentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the premature brain.

  10. Rupatadine inhibits inflammatory mediator release from human laboratory of allergic diseases 2 cultured mast cells stimulated by platelet-activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevizos, Michail; Karagkouni, Anna; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Sismanopoulos, Nikolaos; Makris, Michael; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2013-12-01

    Mast cells are involved in allergy and inflammation by the secretion of multiple mediators, including histamine, cytokines, and platelet-activating factor (PAF), in response to different triggers, including emotional stress. PAF has been associated with allergic inflammation, but there are no clinically available PAF inhibitors. To investigate whether PAF could stimulate human mast cell mediator release and whether rupatadine (RUP), a dual histamine-1 and PAF receptor antagonist, could inhibit the effect of PAF on human mast cells. Laboratory of allergic diseases 2 cultured mast cells were stimulated with PAF (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 μmol/L) and substance P (1 μmol/L) with or without pretreatment with RUP (2.5 and 25 μmol/L), which was added 10 minutes before stimulation. Release of β-hexosaminidase was measured in supernatant fluid by spectrophotoscopy, and histamine, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PAF stimulated a statistically significant release of histamine, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor (0.001-0.1 μmol/L) that was comparable to that stimulated by substance P. Pretreatment with RUP (25 μmol/L) for 10 minutes inhibited this effect. In contrast, pretreatment of laboratory of allergic diseases 2 cells with diphenhydramine (25 μmol/L) did not inhibit mediator release, suggesting that the effect of RUP was not due to its antihistaminic effect. PAF stimulates human mast cell release of proinflammatory mediators that is inhibited by RUP. This action endows RUP with additional properties in treating allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Oleic acid stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 release from enteroendocrine cells by modulating cell respiration and glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Rosmarie; Langhans, Wolfgang; Mansouri, Abdelhak

    2016-03-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a potent satiating and incretin hormone released by enteroendocrine L-cells in response to eating. Dietary fat, in particular monounsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid (OA), potently stimulates GLP-1 secretion from L-cells. It is, however, unclear whether the intracellular metabolic handling of OA is involved in this effect. First we determined the optimal medium for the bioenergetics measurements. Then we examined the effect of OA on the metabolism of the immortalized enteroendocrine GLUTag cell model and assessed GLP-1 release in parallel. We measured oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate in response to OA and to different metabolic inhibitors with the Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer. OA increased cellular respiration and potently stimulated GLP-1 release. The fatty acid oxidation inhibitor etomoxir did neither reduce OA-induced respiration nor affect the OA-induced GLP-1 release. In contrast, inhibition of the respiratory chain or of downstream steps of aerobic glycolysis reduced the OA-induced GLP-1 release, and an inhibition of the first step of glycolysis by addition of 2-deoxy-d-glucose even abolished it. These findings indicate that an indirect stimulation of glycolysis is crucial for the OA-induced release of GLP-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced Dendritic Cell-Mediated Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cell Responses: IFN-Gamma Aids TLR Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ching Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic maturation and T cell stimulation are two functional attributes of DCs critical for immune induction. The combination of antigens, including those from cancer, with Toll-like receptor (TLR ligands induces far superior cellular immune responses compared to antigen alone. In this study, IFN-gamma treatment of bone marrow-derived DC, followed by incubation with the TLR2, TLR4, or TLR9 agonists, enhanced DC activation compared to TLR ligation alone. Most notably, the upregulation of CD40 with LPS stimulation and CD86 with CpG stimulation was observed in in vitro cultures. Similarly, IFN-gamma coinjected with TLR ligands was able to promote DC activation in vivo, with DCs migrating from the site of immunization to the popliteal lymph nodes demonstrating increased expression of CD80 and CD86. The heightened DC activation translated to a drastic increase in T cell stimulatory capacity in both antigen independent and antigen dependent fashions. This is the first time that IFN-gamma has been shown to have a combined effect with TLR ligation to enhance DC activation and function. The results demonstrate the novel use of IFN-gamma together with TLR agonists to enhance antigen-specific T cell responses, for applications in the development of enhanced vaccines and drug targets against diseases including cancer.

  13. [Macrophage colony stimulating factor enhances non-small cell lung cancer invasion and metastasis by promoting macrophage M2 polarization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y J; Yang, L; Wang, L P; Zhang, Y

    2017-06-23

    Objective: To investigate the key cytokine which polarizes M2 macrophages and promotes invasion and metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: After co-culture with A549 cells in vitro, the proportion of CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 macrophages in monocytes and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) levels in culture supernatant were detected by flow cytometry, ELISA assay and real-time qPCR, respectively. The effects of CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 macrophages on invasion of A549 cells and angiogenesis of HUVEC cells were measured by transwell assay and tubule formation assay, respectively. The clinical and prognostic significance of M-CSF expression in NSCLC was further analyzed. Results: The percentage of CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 macrophages in monocytes and the concentration of M-CSF in the supernatant followed by co-culture was (12.03±0.46)% and (299.80±73.76)pg/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in control group [(2.80±1.04)% and (43.07±11.22)pg/ml, respectively, P macrophages in vitro . M2 macrophages enhanced the invasion of A549 cells (66 cells/field vs. 26 cells/field) and the angiogenesis of HUVEC cells (22 tubes/field vs. 8 tubes/field). The mRNA expression of M-CSF in stage Ⅰ-Ⅱ patients (16.23±4.83) was significantly lower than that in stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ (53.84±16.08; P macrophages, which can further promote the metastasis and angiogenesis of NSCLC. M-CSF could be used as a potential therapeutic target of NSCLC.

  14. IRS-1: essential for insulin- and IL-4-stimulated mitogenesis in hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L M; Myers, M G; Sun, X J; Aaronson, S A; White, M; Pierce, J H

    1993-09-17

    Although several interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent cell lines proliferate in response to IL-4 or insulin, the 32D line does not. Insulin and IL-4 sensitivity was restored to 32D cells by expression of IRS-1, the principal substrate of the insulin receptor. Although 32D cells possessed receptors for both factors, they lacked the IRS-1--related protein, 4PS, which becomes phosphorylated by tyrosine in insulin- or IL-4--responsive lines after stimulation. These results indicate that factors that bind unrelated receptors can use similar mitogenic signaling pathways in hematopoietic cells and that 4PS and IRS-1 are functionally similar proteins that are essential for insulin- and IL-4--induced proliferation.

  15. Xenopus laevis Retinal Ganglion Cell Dendritic Arbors Develop Independently of Visual Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lom

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly formed neurons must locate their appropriate target cells and then form synaptic connections with these targets in order to establish a functional nervous system. In the vertebrate retina, retinal ganglion cell (RGC dendrites extend from the cell body and form synapses with nearby amacrine and bipolar cells. RGC axons, however, exit the retina and synapse with the dendrites of midbrain neurons in the optic tectum. We examined how visual stimulation influenced Xenopus RGC dendritic arborization. Neuronal activity is known to be an important factor in shaping dendritic and axonal arborization. Thus, we reared tadpoles in dark and light environments then used rhodamine dextran retrograde labeling to identify RGCs in the retina. When we compared RGC dendritic arbors from tadpoles reared in dark and light environments, we found no morphological differences, suggesting that physiological visual activity did not contribute to the morphological development of Xenopus RGC dendritic arbors.

  16. Prostaglandin production by melanocytic cells and the effect of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, Anna; Estdale, Sian E; Tsatmali, Marina; Herrero, Daniel Pascual; Thody, Anthony J

    2004-07-16

    Prostaglandins are potent mediators of the inflammatory response and are also involved in cancer development. In this study, we show that human melanocytes and FM55 melanoma cells express cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and -2) and thus have the capability to produce prostaglandins. The FM55 cells produced predominantly PGE2 and PGF2alpha, whereas the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line produced mainly PGE2. The anti-inflammatory peptide, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), reduced prostaglandin production in FM55 and HaCaT cells and reversed the effect of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha in the former. These results indicate that melanocytes produce prostaglandins and that alpha-MSH, by inhibiting this response, may play an important role in regulating inflammatory responses in the skin.

  17. Photoelectrical stimulation of neuronal cells by an organic semiconductor-electrolyte Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdullaeva, Oliya S.; Schulz, Matthias; Balzer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    As a step toward the realization of neuroprosthetics for vision restoration, we follow an electrophysiological patch-clamp approach to study the fundamental photoelectrical stimulation mechanism of neuronal model cells by an organic semiconductor–electrolyte interface. Our photoactive layer...... consisting of an anilino-squaraine donor blended with a fullerene acceptor is supporting the growth of the neuronal model cell line (N2A cells) without an adhesion layer on it and is not impairing cell viability. The transient photocurrent signal upon illumination from the semiconductor–electrolyte layer....... Furthermore, we characterize the morphology of the semiconductor–electrolyte interface by atomic force microscopy and study the stability of the interface in dark and under illuminated conditions....

  18. Clinical Significance of Immuno phenotypic Markers in Pediatric T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIDHOM, I.; SHAABAN, Kh.; SOLIMAN, S.; HAMDY, N.; YASSIN, D.; SALEM, Sh.; HASSANEIN, H.; MANSOUR, M.T.; EZZAT, S.; EL-ANWAR, W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cell-marker profiling has led to conflicting conclusions about its prognostic significance in T-ALL. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of the expression of CD34, CD10 and myeloid associated antigens (CD13/ CD33) in childhood T-ALL and to relate their presence to initial clinical and biologic features and early response to therapy. Patients and Methods: This study included 67 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed T-ALL recruited from the Children's Cancer Hospital in Egypt during the time period from July 2007 to June 2008. Immuno phenotypic markers and minimal residual disease (MRD) were studied by five-color flow cytometry. Results: The frequency of CD34 was 34.9%, CD10 33.3%, while CD13/CD33 was 18.8%. No significant association was encountered between CD34, CD10 or myeloid antigen positivity and the presenting clinical features as age, sex, TLC and CNS leukemia. Only CD10+ expression had significant association with initial CNS involvement (p=0.039). CD34 and CD13/CD33 expression was significantly associated with T-cell maturation stages (p<0.05). No relationship was observed for age, TLC, gender, NCI risk or CNS involvement with early response to therapy illustrated by BM as well as MRD day 15 and day 42. CD34+, CD13/CD33+ and early T-cell stage had high MRD levels on day 15 that was statistically highly significant (p<0.01), but CD10+ had statistically significant lower MRD level on day 15 (p=0.049). However, only CD34 retained its significance at an MRD cut-off level of 0.01%. Conclusion: CD34, CD10, CD13/CD33 expression, as well as T-cell maturation stages, may have prognostic significance in pediatric T-ALL as they have a significant impact on early clearance of leukemic cells detected by MRD day 15.

  19. A versatile automated platform for micro-scale cell stimulation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Anupama; Jebrail, Mais J; Kim, Hanyoup; Patel, Kamlesh D; Branda, Steven S

    2013-08-06

    Study of cells in culture (in vitro analysis) has provided important insight into complex biological systems. Conventional methods and equipment for in vitro analysis are well suited to study of large numbers of cells (≥ 10(5)) in milliliter-scale volumes (≥ 0.1 ml). However, there are many instances in which it is necessary or desirable to scale down culture size to reduce consumption of the cells of interest and/or reagents required for their culture, stimulation, or processing. Unfortunately, conventional approaches do not support precise and reproducible manipulation of micro-scale cultures, and the microfluidics-based automated systems currently available are too complex and specialized for routine use by most laboratories. To address this problem, we have developed a simple and versatile technology platform for automated culture, stimulation, and recovery of small populations of cells (100-2,000 cells) in micro-scale volumes (1-20 μl). The platform consists of a set of fibronectin-coated microcapillaries ("cell perfusion chambers"), within which micro-scale cultures are established, maintained, and stimulated; a digital microfluidics (DMF) device outfitted with "transfer" microcapillaries ("central hub"), which routes cells and reagents to and from the perfusion chambers; a high-precision syringe pump, which powers transport of materials between the perfusion chambers and the central hub; and an electronic interface that provides control over transport of materials, which is coordinated and automated via pre-determined scripts. As an example, we used the platform to facilitate study of transcriptional responses elicited in immune cells upon challenge with bacteria. Use of the platform enabled us to reduce consumption of cells and reagents, minimize experiment-to-experiment variability, and re-direct hands-on labor. Given the advantages that it confers, as well as its accessibility and versatility, our platform should find use in a wide variety of

  20. Stimulation of prostaglandin E2 production by phorbol esters and epidermal growth factor in porcine thyroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, K.; Hiraiwa, M.; Emoto, T.; Akimoto, K.; Takaoka, T.; Shimoda, S.I.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of phorbol esters and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on prostaglandin E 2 production by cultured porcine thyroid cells were examined. Both phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and EGF stimulated prostaglandin E 2 production by the cells in dose related fashion. PMA stimulated prostaglandin E 2 production over fifty-fold with the dose of 10 -7 M compared with control. EGF (10 -7 M) also stimulated it about ten-fold. The ED 50 values of PMA and EGF were respectively around 1 x 10 -9 M and 5 x 10 -10 M. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), however, did not stimulate prostaglandin E 2 production from 1 to 24-h incubation. The release of radioactivity from [ 3 H]-arachidonic acid prelabeled cells was also stimulated by PMA and EGF, but not by TSH. These results indicate that both PMA and EGF are potent stimulators of prostaglandin E 2 production, associated with the activity to stimulate arachidonic acid release in porcine thyroid cells. 36 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  1. Cell proliferation and death in the irradiated pituitary gland and its modification by growth stimulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yaping; Hendry, Jolyon H.; Morris, Ian D.; Davis, Julian R.E.; Beardwell, Colin G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to show whether the rate of expression of radiation injury in the rat pituitary gland could be accelerated by the use of growth stimulants. Methods and Materials: Rat pituitary glands were irradiated in situ with a range of single doses up to 20 Gy. The rats were then given subcutaneous slow-release implants containing 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) and sulpiride (S) to stimulate lactotroph proliferation. Two sequential cycles were used, each consisting of stimulation (3 weeks) and withdrawal (2 weeks). Measurements were made of gland weight; BrdU-labeled, giant, and apoptotic cells; lactotrophs; as well as pituitary prolactin content, in response to exogenous thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH). Results: The two cycles of stimulation/withdrawal resulted in marked changes in gland weight, BrdU-labeling index, and serum prolactin (PRL) levels in unirradiated rats. The proportion of immunopositive growth-hormone-producing (GH) cells increased after irradiation. Radiation inhibited the hypertrophic response to E 2 + S and also inhibited increases in BrdU-labeling index and serum PRL levels. Also, giant lactotrophs were observed in the irradiated pituitaries. However, they were not seen in the unirradiated rats or in the irradiated rats treated with E 2 + S. TRH promoted PRL secretion in the unirradiated rat. In contrast, TRH inhibited PRL secretion in the irradiated rat and in all treatment groups receiving E 2 + S. Apoptosis was induced by irradiation and was substantially increased in lactotrophs and in other cell types by withdrawal of the E 2 and S stimulus, although the highest observed incidence was only 7 per 10,000 cells. Conclusion: Both irradiation and E 2 + S treatment removed the hypothalamic control of PRL secretion, which reveals this important inhibitory action of TRH upon PRL secretion. This suggests that it is not suitable as a dynamic test of pituitary PRL reserves in such abnormal situations, where there may also be damage to

  2. Expression and clinical significance of PIWIL2 in hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y J; Xiong, X F; Wen, S Q; Tian, L; Cheng, W L; Qi, Y Q

    2015-06-26

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between PIWI-like protein 2 (PIWIL2) and clinicopathological charac-teristics and prognosis after radical resection. To accomplish this, we analyzed PIWIL2 expression in hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues and cell lines. PIWIL2 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 41 hilar cholangiocarcinoma samples and 10 control tissues. Western blotting and immunocytofluorescence were used to investigate PIWIL2 expression in the cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939 and the bile duct epithelial cell line HIBEpic. Univariate and multivariate surviv-al analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method for hilar cholangiocarcinoma patients who underwent radical resection. PIWIL2 expression was significantly higher in the hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues and QBC939 cells than in control tissues and HIBEpic cells, respectively (P hilar cholangiocarcinoma (P hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  3. Regenerative capacity of old muscle stem cells declines without significant accumulation of DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Cousin

    Full Text Available The performance of adult stem cells is crucial for tissue homeostasis but their regenerative capacity declines with age, leading to failure of multiple organs. In skeletal muscle this failure is manifested by the loss of functional tissue, the accumulation of fibrosis, and reduced satellite cell-mediated myogenesis in response to injury. While recent studies have shown that changes in the composition of the satellite cell niche are at least in part responsible for the impaired function observed with aging, little is known about the effects of aging on the intrinsic properties of satellite cells. For instance, their ability to repair DNA damage and the effects of a potential accumulation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs on their regenerative performance remain unclear. This work demonstrates that old muscle stem cells display no significant accumulation of DNA DSBs when compared to those of young, as assayed after cell isolation and in tissue sections, either in uninjured muscle or at multiple time points after injury. Additionally, there is no significant difference in the expression of DNA DSB repair proteins or globally assayed DNA damage response genes, suggesting that not only DNA DSBs, but also other types of DNA damage, do not significantly mark aged muscle stem cells. Satellite cells from DNA DSB-repair-deficient SCID mice do have an unsurprisingly higher level of innate DNA DSBs and a weakened recovery from gamma-radiation-induced DNA damage. Interestingly, they are as myogenic in vitro and in vivo as satellite cells from young wild type mice, suggesting that the inefficiency in DNA DSB repair does not directly correlate with the ability to regenerate muscle after injury. Overall, our findings suggest that a DNA DSB-repair deficiency is unlikely to be a key factor in the decline in muscle regeneration observed upon aging.

  4. Epalrestat increases glutathione, thioredoxin, and heme oxygenase-1 by stimulating Nrf2 pathway in endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Yama

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epalrestat (EPS is the only aldose reductase inhibitor that is currently available for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Recently, we found that EPS at near-plasma concentration increases the intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH in rat Schwann cells. GSH plays a crucial role in protecting endothelial cells from oxidative stress, thereby preventing vascular diseases. Here we show that EPS increases GSH levels in not only Schwann cells but also endothelial cells. Treatment of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs, an in vitro model of the vascular endothelium, with EPS caused a dramatic increase in intracellular GSH levels. This was concomitant with the up-regulation of glutamate cysteine ligase, an enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in de novo GSH synthesis. Moreover, EPS stimulated the expression of thioredoxin and heme oxygenase-1, which have important redox regulatory functions in endothelial cells. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a key transcription factor that regulates the expression of antioxidant genes. EPS increased nuclear Nrf2 levels in BAECs. Nrf2 knockdown by siRNA suppressed the EPS-induced glutamate cysteine ligase, thioredoxin-1, and heme oxygenase-1 expression. Interestingly, LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, abolished the EPS-stimulated GSH synthesis, suggesting that the kinase is associated with Nrf2 activation induced by EPS. Furthermore, EPS reduced the cytotoxicity induced by H2O2 and tert-butylhydroperoxide, indicating that EPS plays a role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Taken together, the results provide evidence that EPS exerts new beneficial effects on endothelial cells by increasing GSH, thioredoxin, and heme oxygenase-1 levels through the activation of Nrf2. We suggest that EPS has the potential to prevent several vascular diseases caused by oxidative stress.

  5. Atrial granular cells of the snail Achatina fulica release proteins into hemolymph after stimulation of the heart nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabelnikov, Sergej V; Bystrova, Olga A; Ivanov, Vadim A; Margulis, Boris A; Martynova, Marina

    2009-10-01

    The atrium of the gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica receives rich innervation and contains numerous granular cells (GCs). We studied the atrial innervation and discovered that axon profiles typical in appearance of peptidergic neurons form close unspecialized membrane contacts with GCs. Then, we investigated, at both morphological and biochemical levels, the effect of electrical stimulation of the heart nerve on GCs of Achatina heart perfused in situ. The ultrastructural study demonstrated changes in granule morphology consistent with secretion. These events included alteration of granule content, intracellular granule fusion and formation of complex degranulation channels, within which the granule matrix solubilized. It was shown that electrical stimulation resulted in a significant increase of the total protein concentration in the perfusate. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE analysis of the perfusate revealed three new proteins with molecular masses of 16, 22, and 57 kDa. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies against the 16 kDa protein were obtained; the whole-mount immunofluorescence technique revealed the presence of this protein in the granules of atrial GCs. In GCs of the stimulated atrium, a progressive loss of their granular content was observed. The results suggest that the central nervous system can modulate the secretory activity of the atrial GCs through non-synaptic pathways.

  6. Immunogenic Cell Death Induced by Ginsenoside Rg3: Significance in Dendritic Cell-based Anti-tumor Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Keum-Joo; Choi, Ki Ryung; Lee, Seog Jae; Lee, Hyunah

    2016-02-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide; therefore there is a need to discover new therapeutic modules with improved efficacy and safety. Immune-(cell) therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intractable cancers. The effectiveness of certain chemotherapeutics in inducing immunogenic tumor cell death thus promoting cancer eradication has been reported. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a ginseng saponin that has antitumor and immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we treated tumor cells with Rg3 to verify the significance of inducing immunogenic tumor cell death in antitumor therapy, especially in DC-based immunotherapy. Rg3 killed the both immunogenic (B16F10 melanoma cells) and non-immunogenic (LLC: Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells) tumor cells by inducing apoptosis. Surface expression of immunogenic death markers including calreticulin and heat shock proteins and the transcription of relevant genes were increased in the Rg3-dying tumor. Increased calreticulin expression was directly related to the uptake of dying tumor cells by dendritic cells (DCs): the proportion of CRT(+) CD11c(+) cells was increased in the Rg3-treated group. Interestingly, tumor cells dying by immunogenic cell death secreted IFN-γ, an effector molecule for antitumor activity in T cells. Along with the Rg3-induced suppression of pro-angiogenic (TNF-α) and immunosuppressive cytokine (TGF-β) secretion, IFN-γ production from the Rg3-treated tumor cells may also indicate Rg3 as an effective anticancer immunotherapeutic strategy. The data clearly suggests that Rg3-induced immunogenic tumor cell death due its cytotoxic effect and its ability to induce DC function. This indicates that Rg3 may be an effective immunotherapeutic strategy.

  7. The stimulation of EL-4 cells to produce interleukin-2 and its potential use in immunocytotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasek, W.; Steer, S.; Clothier, R.; Balls, M.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of EL-4 thymoma cells to produce interleukin-2 (IL-2) following exposure to phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and Concanavalin A (Con A) has been studied in vitro using medium containing either 10% or 1% fetal calf serum (FCS). The potent stimulatory effect of PMA on IL-2 production by EL-4 cells has been confirmed by measuring 3H-thymidine incorporation by the IL-2-dependent T cell line, CTLL-2, in the presence of conditioned medium (CM) from stimulated cultures. EL-4 cells produced several times more IL-2 when cultured in medium containing 10% FCS than when only 1% FCS was present. Added together, PMA and Con A acted synergistically in some EL-4 cell cultures. The ability of E:-4 cells to produce IL-2 was maintained after further incubation without stimulants. CM with IL-2 activity from stimulated EL-4 cells could prove useful in immunotoxicity testing

  8. Sodium butyrate stimulates cellular recovery from UV damage in xeroderma pigmentosum cells belonging to complementation group F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishigori, Chikako; Takebe, Hiraku

    1987-01-01

    Possible stimulation of the DNA repair capacity by sodium butyrate in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells was investigated. XP cells belonging to the complementation group F showed considerable stimulation of DNA repair by sodium butyrate in terms of both the amount of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and the colony-forming ability after UV irradiation. UDS in XP cells belonging to the complementation group A was not enhanced, while normal cells showed slight enhancement, but less than that of XP F cells. In XP A, XP C, and normal cells, sodium butyrate treatment enhanced the killing effect of UV irradiation. The residual repair capacity in XP F cells appeared to be stimulated by sodium butyrate. (author)

  9. Tissue-engineered cartilage: the crossroads of biomaterials, cells and stimulating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Nandana; Devi, Dipali; Mandal, Biman B

    2015-02-01

    Damage to cartilage represents one of the most challenging tasks of musculoskeletal therapeutics due to its limited propensity for healing and regenerative capabilities. Lack of current treatments to restore cartilage tissue function has prompted research in this rapidly emerging field of tissue regeneration of functional cartilage tissue substitutes. The development of cartilaginous tissue largely depends on the combination of appropriate biomaterials, cell source, and stimulating factors. Over the years, various biomaterials have been utilized for cartilage repair, but outcomes are far from achieving native cartilage architecture and function. This highlights the need for exploration of suitable biomaterials and stimulating factors for cartilage regeneration. With these perspectives, we aim to present an overview of cartilage tissue engineering with recent progress, development, and major steps taken toward the generation of functional cartilage tissue. In this review, we have discussed the advances and problems in tissue engineering of cartilage with strong emphasis on the utilization of natural polymeric biomaterials, various cell sources, and stimulating factors such as biophysical stimuli, mechanical stimuli, dynamic culture, and growth factors used so far in cartilage regeneration. Finally, we have focused on clinical trials, recent innovations, and future prospects related to cartilage engineering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Fluvoxamine stimulates oligodendrogenesis of cultured neural stem cells and attenuates inflammation and demyelination in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareghani, Majid; Zibara, Kazem; Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Dokoohaki, Shima; Sadeghi, Hossein; Aryanpour, Roya; Ghanbari, Amir

    2017-07-07

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) require medications controlling severity of the pathology and depression, affecting more than half of the patients. In this study, the effect of antidepressant drug fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Nanomolar concentrations of fluvoxamine significantly increased cell viability and proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) through increasing mRNA expression of Notch1, Hes1 and Ki-67, and protein levels of NICD. Also, physiological concentrations of fluvoxamine were optimal for NSC differentiation toward oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and neurons. In addition, fluvoxamine attenuated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) severity, a rat MS model, by significantly decreasing its clinical scores. Moreover, fluvoxamine treated EAE rats showed a decrease in IFN-γ serum levels and an increase in IL-4, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines respectively, compared to untreated EAE rats. Furthermore, immune cell infiltration and demyelination plaque significantly decreased in spinal cords of fluvoxamine-treated rats, which was accompanied by an increase in protein expression of MBP and GFAP positive cells and a decrease in lactate serum levels, a new biomarker of MS progression. In summary, besides its antidepressant activity, fluvoxamine stimulates proliferation and differentiation of NSCs particularly toward oligodendrocytes, a producer of CNS myelin.

  11. Activated human neonatal CD8+ T cells are subject to immunomodulation by direct TLR2 or TLR5 stimulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarron, Mark

    2012-02-01

    In conditions of optimal priming, the neonate possesses competency to mount quantitatively adult-like responses. Vaccine formulations containing sufficiently potent adjuvants may overcome the neonate\\'s natural tendency for immunosuppression and provoke a similarly robust immune response. TLR expression on T cells represents the possibility of directly enhancing T cell immunity. We examined the ex vivo responsiveness of highly purified human cord blood-derived CD8(+) T cells to direct TLR ligation by a repertoire of TLR agonists. In concert with TCR stimulation, only Pam(3)Cys (palmitoyl-3-Cys-Ser-(Lys)(4)) and flagellin monomers significantly enhanced proliferation, CD25(+) expression, IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and intracellular granzyme B expression. TLR2 and TLR5 mRNA was detected in the CD8(+) T cells. Blocking studies confirmed that the increase in IFN-gamma production was by the direct triggering of surface TLR2 or TLR5. The simultaneous exposure of CD8(+) T cells to both TLR agonists had an additive effect on IFN-gamma production. These data suggest that a combination of the two TLR ligands would be a potent T cell adjuvant. This may represent a new approach to TLR agonist-based adjuvant design for future human neonatal vaccination strategies requiring a CD8(+) component.

  12. Significance of neo-angiogenesis and immuno-surveillance cells in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juma O. Alkhabuli

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neo-angiogenesis is an essential process in physiological and pathological conditions. However, it is a complex process. Several studies demonstrated that intra-tumoural microvessel number is a significant predictor of metastasis and clinical outcome in many tumours, including oral malignancies. The immuno-surveillance cells, mast cells and eosinophils are implicated in the biological behaviour of tumours. Nevertheless, their function in tissues is uncertain. Mast cells are involved in homeostatic regulation of blood vessels as well as host defence. In some malignancies, high mast cell density has been found to correlate with favourable prognosis. However, others reported unfavourable associations. Tumour associated tissue eosinophilia is a well-known phenomena. It has been associated with good and poor prognosis. However, the role of eosinophils in tumours remains controversial. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the prognostic value of microvessel, mast cell and eosinophil densities in the context of clinico-pathological parameters and survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.Materials and Methods: Anti-CD105 and anti-tryptase monoclonal antibodies were utilized to highlight and count microvessels and mast cells respectively in 81 cases of tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Eosinophils were demonstrated using carbol chromotrope histochemical stain. The densities were counted per mm2 and correlated with patients’ outcome and other clinico-pathological parameters using non-parametric tests and student’s t-test. Clinically, the cases were divided into 4 main groups depending on survival time, lymph-node or distant metastasis.Results: The 5 year survival was significantly lower in patients with a low mast cell density than those with a high density (p=0.006, Kruskal-Wallis test. The survival group-A demonstrated significantly higher mast cell and microvessel numbers than group-D (p=0.007, student’s t

  13. Stimulating effect of low dose radiation expression of G-CSF receptors in bone marrow cells in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Honglai; Liu Shuzheng; Zhang Ming

    1993-01-01

    The expression of G-CSF receptors in bone marrow cells (BMC) was studied by using 125 I labelled G-CSF ( 1 '2 5 I-G-CSF). The results showed that the reaction equilibrium of 125 I-G-CSF bound to BMC at 37 degree C was reached in 60 minutes, the maximum binding (Bmax) to 3 x 10 6 BMC being 15.1 pmol, the dissociation constant (Kd) being 78.6 pmol, and the estimated number of G-CSF receptors per cell being about 3100. The number of G-CSF receptors in BMC in mice 48 hours after whole body exposure to doses of 50, 75 and 100 mGy X-rays increased significantly to 161%, 169% and 342% of controls, respectively. The results suggested that the expression of G-CSF receptors in BMC was enhanced markedly following low dose radiation, which would lead to stimulation of BMC proliferation

  14. Proliferation of Prostate Stromal Cell Induced by Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Epithelial Cell Stimulated With Trichomonas vaginalis via Crosstalk With Mast Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Su; Han, Ik-Hwan; Sim, Seobo; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2016-11-01

    Chronic inflammation has a role in the pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. Mast cells have been detected in chronic inflammatory infiltrate of the prostate, and it is possible that the interaction between prostate epithelial cells and Trichomonas vaginalis influences the activity of mast cells in the prostate stroma. Activated mast cells might influence the biological functions of nearby tissues and cells. In this study, we investigated whether mast cells reacted with the culture supernatant of BPH epithelial cells infected with T. vaginalis may induce the proliferation of prostate stromal cells. To measure the proliferation of prostate stromal cells in response to chronic inflammation caused by the infection of BPH-1 cells with T. vaginalis, the CCK-8 assay and wound healing assay were used. ELISAs, quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to measure the production and expression of inflammatory cytokine and cytokine receptor. BPH-1 cells incubated with live trichomonads produced increased levels of CCL2, IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL8, and induced the migration of mast cells and monocytes. When the culture supernatant of BPH-1 cells stimulated with trichomonads (TCM) was added to mast cells, they became activated, as confirmed by release of β-hexosaminidase and CXCL8. Prostate stromal cells incubated with the culture supernatant of mast cells activated with TCM (M-TCM) proliferated and expressed increased levels of CXCL8, CCL2, and the cytokine receptors CXCR1 and CCR2. Blocking the chemokine receptors reduced the proliferation of stromal cells and also decreased the production of CXCL8 and CCL2. Moreover, the expression of FGF2, cyclin D1, and Bcl-2 was increased in the proliferated stromal cells stimulated with M-TCM. Additionally, the M-TCM-treated stromal cells were more invasive than control cells. The inflammatory mediators released by BPH epithelial cells in response to infection by

  15. Transcranial magnetic stimulation promotes the proliferation of dopaminergic neuronal cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiaojing; Luo, Jie; Rastogi, Priyam; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Jiles, David C.; Fellow, IEEE

    2018-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a safe and non-invasive treatment for neurological disorders. TMS has been approved as a treatment for major depressive disorders by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2008. Due to the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction, a time-varying magnetic field induces an electric field in the conductive tissues in the brain, TMS has the ability to activate neurons in vivo. However, the effects of the magnetic fields on neurons in cell culture have not been investigated adequately. The magnetic fields affect the neurons when the potential across the neuronal membrane exceeds the threshold which in turn causes an action potential. Based on these theories, we investigated the effects of the magnetic fields generated by a monophasic stimulator with a 70 mm double coil on rat dopaminergic neuronal cell lines (N27). The directions of the magnetic fields in each coil of the double coil oppose each other. The effects of changing the direction of the magnetic field on N27 neurons was also investigated. The results of the experiments showed that both of the fields perpendicular to the coil surface promoted the proliferation of N27 dopaminergic neurons. In order to investigate the gene expression and protein expression affected by TMS, quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) was used. Here we report changes in glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in dopaminergic neuronal cells (N27) after TMS treatment.

  16. Transcranial magnetic stimulation promotes the proliferation of dopaminergic neuronal cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Zhong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a safe and non-invasive treatment for neurological disorders. TMS has been approved as a treatment for major depressive disorders by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA in 2008. Due to the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction, a time-varying magnetic field induces an electric field in the conductive tissues in the brain, TMS has the ability to activate neurons in vivo. However, the effects of the magnetic fields on neurons in cell culture have not been investigated adequately. The magnetic fields affect the neurons when the potential across the neuronal membrane exceeds the threshold which in turn causes an action potential. Based on these theories, we investigated the effects of the magnetic fields generated by a monophasic stimulator with a 70 mm double coil on rat dopaminergic neuronal cell lines (N27. The directions of the magnetic fields in each coil of the double coil oppose each other. The effects of changing the direction of the magnetic field on N27 neurons was also investigated. The results of the experiments showed that both of the fields perpendicular to the coil surface promoted the proliferation of N27 dopaminergic neurons. In order to investigate the gene expression and protein expression affected by TMS, quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR was used. Here we report changes in glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF in dopaminergic neuronal cells (N27 after TMS treatment.

  17. Immune complexes stimulate CCR7-dependent dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatworthy, Menna R.; Aronin, Caren E. Petrie; Mathews, Rebeccah J.; Morgan, Nicole; Smith, Kenneth G.C.; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies are critical for defence against a variety of microbes but may also be pathogenic in some autoimmune diseases. Many effector functions of antibody are mediated by Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), which are found on most immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are important antigen presenting cells and play a central role in inducing antigen-specific tolerance or immunity1,2. Following antigen acquisition in peripheral tissues, DCs migrate to draining lymph nodes via lymphatics to present antigen to T cells. In this study we demonstrate that FcγR engagement by IgG immune complexes (IC) stimulates DC migration from peripheral tissues to the paracortex of draining lymph nodes. In vitro, IC-stimulated murine and human DCs showed enhanced directional migration in a CCL19 gradient and increased CCR7 expression. Using intravital two-photon microscopy, we observed that local administration of IC resulted in dermal DC mobilisation. We confirmed that dermal DC migration to lymph nodes was CCR7-dependent and increased in the absence of the inhibitory receptor, FcγRIIb. These observations have relevance to autoimmunity, because autoantibody-containing serum from mice and humans with SLE also increased dermal DC migration to lymph nodes in vivo, suggesting that this process may occur in lupus, potentially driving the inappropriate localisation of autoantigen-bearing DCs. PMID:25384086

  18. Endogenous pyrogen production by human blood monocytes stimulated by staphylococcal cell wall components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oken, M M; Peterson, P K; Wilkinson, B J

    1981-01-01

    To determine the properties of Staphylococcus aureus contributing to its pyrogenicity, we compared, in human monocytes, endogenous pyrogen production stimulated by heat-killed S. aureus with that stimulated by purified S. aureus cell walls or by particulate peptidoglycan prepared from the same strain. Peptidoglycan, but not the purified cell wall preparation, was found comparable to S. aureus as an endogenous pyrogen stimulus. This finding was associated with a more effective monocyte phagocytosis of S. aureus and peptidoglycan as compared with that of purified cell walls. Lysostaphin digestion of peptidoglycan markedly reduced its pyrogenicity. To test whether the chemical composition of the ingested particles is important, latex particles were tested as possible stimuli for monocyte endogenous pyrogen release. Although 40 to 68% of monocytes ingested latex particles during the first hour, there was no evidence of endogenous pyrogen activity in the supernatant even when supernatants equivalent to 5.2 X 10(6) monocytes were tested. This study demonstrates that the pyrogenic moiety of the S. aureus cell wall resides in the peptidoglycan component. Phagocytosis is not in itself a pyrogenic stimulus, but rather serves as an effective mechanism to bring about contact between the chemical stimulus and the monocyte.

  19. How Does Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Influence Glial Cells in the Central Nervous System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is widely used in the clinic, and while it has a direct effect on neuronal excitability, the beneficial effects experienced by patients are likely to include the indirect activation of other cell types. Research conducted over the past two decades has made it increasingly clear that a population of non-neuronal cells, collectively known as glia, respond to and facilitate neuronal signalling. Each glial cell type has the ability to respond to electrical activity directly or indirectly, making them likely cellular effectors of TMS. TMS has been shown to enhance adult neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation, but the effect on cell survival and differentiation is less certain. Furthermore there is limited information regarding the response of astrocytes and microglia to TMS, and a complete paucity of data relating to the response of oligodendrocyte-lineage cells to this treatment. However, due to the critical and yet multifaceted role of glial cells in the CNS, the influence that TMS has on glial cells is certainly an area that warrants careful examination.

  20. Cell type-specific suppression of mechanosensitive genes by audible sound stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumeta, Masahiro; Takahashi, Daiji; Takeyasu, Kunio; Yoshimura, Shige H

    2018-01-01

    Audible sound is a ubiquitous environmental factor in nature that transmits oscillatory compressional pressure through the substances. To investigate the property of the sound as a mechanical stimulus for cells, an experimental system was set up using 94.0 dB sound which transmits approximately 10 mPa pressure to the cultured cells. Based on research on mechanotransduction and ultrasound effects on cells, gene responses to the audible sound stimulation were analyzed by varying several sound parameters: frequency, wave form, composition, and exposure time. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed a distinct suppressive effect for several mechanosensitive and ultrasound-sensitive genes that were triggered by sounds. The effect was clearly observed in a wave form- and pressure level-specific manner, rather than the frequency, and persisted for several hours. At least two mechanisms are likely to be involved in this sound response: transcriptional control and RNA degradation. ST2 stromal cells and C2C12 myoblasts exhibited a robust response, whereas NIH3T3 cells were partially and NB2a neuroblastoma cells were completely insensitive, suggesting a cell type-specific response to sound. These findings reveal a cell-level systematic response to audible sound and uncover novel relationships between life and sound.

  1. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilizes functional endothelial progenitor cells in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Tiffany M; Paul, Jonathan D; Hill, Jonathan M; Thompson, Michael; Benjamin, Moshe; Rodrigo, Maria; McCoy, J Philip; Read, Elizabeth J; Khuu, Hanh M; Leitman, Susan F; Finkel, Toren; Cannon, Richard O

    2005-02-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) that may repair vascular injury are reduced in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We reasoned that EPC number and function may be increased by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) used to mobilize hematopoietic progenitor cells in healthy donors. Sixteen CAD patients had reduced CD34(+)/CD133(+) (0.0224+/-0.0063% versus 0.121+/-0.038% mononuclear cells [MNCs], P<0.01) and CD133(+)/VEGFR-2(+) cells, consistent with EPC phenotype (0.00033+/-0.00015% versus 0.0017+/-0.0006% MNCs, P<0.01), compared with 7 healthy controls. Patients also had fewer clusters of cells in culture, with out-growth consistent with mature endothelial phenotype (2+/-1/well) compared with 16 healthy subjects at high risk (13+/-4/well, P<0.05) or 14 at low risk (22+/-3/well, P<0.001) for CAD. G-CSF 10 microg/kg per day for 5 days increased CD34(+)/CD133(+) cells from 0.5+/-0.2/microL to 59.5+/-10.6/microL and CD133(+)/ VEGFR-2(+) cells from 0.007+/-0.004/microL to 1.9+/-0.6/microL (both P<0.001). Also increased were CD133(+) cells that coexpressed the homing receptor CXCR4 (30.4+/-8.3/microL, P<0.05). Endothelial cell-forming clusters in 10 patients increased to 27+/-9/well after treatment (P<0.05), with a decline to 9+/-4/well at 2 weeks (P=0.06). Despite reduced EPCs compared with healthy controls, patients with CAD respond to G-CSF with increases in EPC number and homing receptor expression in the circulation and endothelial out-growth in culture. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are reduced in coronary artery disease. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (CSF) administered to patients increased: (1) CD133+/VEGFR-2+ cells consistent with EPC phenotype; (2) CD133+ cells coexpressing the chemokine receptor CXCR4, important for homing of EPCs to ischemic tissue; and (3) endothelial cell-forming clusters in culture. Whether EPCs mobilized into the circulation will be useful for the purpose of initiating vascular growth and myocyte repair

  2. c-myb stimulates cell growth by regulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF-binding protein-3 in K562 leukemia cells

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    Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Sun-Young; Arunachalam, Sankarganesh [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Pyoung-Han [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ho-Keun [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Sang-Yun [Department of Alternative Therapy, School of Alternative Medicine and Health Science, Jeonju University, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dae-Yeol, E-mail: leedy@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-17

    c-myb plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, and is highly expressed in immature hematopoietic cells. The human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell K562, highly expresses IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR, and IGF-induced cellular proliferation is mediated by IGF-IR. To characterize the impact of c-myb on the IGF-IGFBP-3 axis in leukemia cells, we overexpressed c-myb using an adenovirus gene transfer system in K562 cells. The overexpression of c-myb induced cell proliferation, compared to control, and c-myb induced cell growth was inhibited by anti-IGF-IR antibodies. c-myb overexpression resulted in a significant increase in the expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF-IR, and a decrease in IGFBP-3 expression. By contrast, disruption of c-myb function by DN-myb overexpression resulted in significant reduction of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR, and elevation of IGFBP-3 expression. In addition, exogenous IGFBP-3 inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells, and c-myb induced cell growth was blocked by IGFBP-3 overexpression in a dose-dependent manner. The growth-promoting effects of c-myb were mediated through two major intracellular signaling pathways, Akt and Erk. Activation of Akt and Erk by c-myb was completely blocked by IGF-IR and IGFBP-3 antibodies. These findings suggest that c-myb stimulates cell growth, in part, by regulating expression of the components of IGF-IGFBP axis in K562 cells. In addition, disruption of c-myb function by DN-myb may provide a useful strategy for treatment of leukemia.

  3. c-myb stimulates cell growth by regulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF-binding protein-3 in K562 leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Sun-Young; Arunachalam, Sankarganesh; Hwang, Pyoung-Han; Yi, Ho-Keun; Nam, Sang-Yun; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2009-01-01

    c-myb plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, and is highly expressed in immature hematopoietic cells. The human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell K562, highly expresses IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR, and IGF-induced cellular proliferation is mediated by IGF-IR. To characterize the impact of c-myb on the IGF-IGFBP-3 axis in leukemia cells, we overexpressed c-myb using an adenovirus gene transfer system in K562 cells. The overexpression of c-myb induced cell proliferation, compared to control, and c-myb induced cell growth was inhibited by anti-IGF-IR antibodies. c-myb overexpression resulted in a significant increase in the expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF-IR, and a decrease in IGFBP-3 expression. By contrast, disruption of c-myb function by DN-myb overexpression resulted in significant reduction of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR, and elevation of IGFBP-3 expression. In addition, exogenous IGFBP-3 inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells, and c-myb induced cell growth was blocked by IGFBP-3 overexpression in a dose-dependent manner. The growth-promoting effects of c-myb were mediated through two major intracellular signaling pathways, Akt and Erk. Activation of Akt and Erk by c-myb was completely blocked by IGF-IR and IGFBP-3 antibodies. These findings suggest that c-myb stimulates cell growth, in part, by regulating expression of the components of IGF-IGFBP axis in K562 cells. In addition, disruption of c-myb function by DN-myb may provide a useful strategy for treatment of leukemia.

  4. The design, calibration, and use of a water microjet for stimulating hair cell sensory hair bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J C; Szymko, Y M

    1989-11-01

    The design, calibration, and use of a noninvasive, noncontact device for stimulating hair cell hair bundles in vitro are described. This device employed a piezoelectric crystal, driven at high frequencies, to generate sinusoidal pressure in a contained fluid volume. The pressure was propagated to the tip of a glass micropipette and the oscillating water jet stimulus produced at the tip was used to stimulate sensory hair bundles. The movements of glass microbeads, caught in the oscillating pressure field of the water jet, provided a means of calibrating this stimulus. The linearity of the jet, its waveform and frequency response, the influence of pipette shape and tip diameter, as well as models to explain the operation of the water jet, are described. The use of this stimulus for measuring hair bundle micromechanics at high frequencies is then demonstrated.

  5. Characteristics of cells producing stimulator for the proliferation of colony forming unit-spleen (CFU-S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Manaf Ali; Wright, E.G.; Riches, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of stimulator for haemopoietic stem cell (CFU-S) proliferation in regenerating bone marrow was assayed by incubating the conditioned medium (CM) prepared from bone marrow with quiescent CFU-S from normal bone marrow. The percentage of CFU-S normal bone marrow in DNA synthesis increased more than 30 percent after incubating with CM of 4.5 Gy regenerating bone marrow. Stimulator was also present in bone marrow of mice at 9.0 Gy whole body X-irradiation. However the conditioned medium prepared from regenerating bone marrow without Fc and Ia-2k cells failed to increase the percentage of CFU-S in DNA synthesis. On the other hand, elimination of Thy 1.2 positive cells with complement cytolysis did not affect the ability of regenerating bone marrow to produce stimulator. These observations suggest that the stimulator producing cells are radio-resistant, Thy 1.2 negative, Fc and Ia-2k positive

  6. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Stimulates the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species through Interactions with Cell Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Taeko; Mori, Ryota; Hirayama, Misaki; Sagawa, Yuki; Shimizu, Kenji; Okano, Yuri; Masaki, Hitoshi

    2016-12-01

    Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a representative anionic surfactant, is well-known to induce rough skin following single or multiple topical applications. The mechanism by which SLS induces rough skin is thought to result from the disruption of skin moisture function consisting of NMF and epidermal lipids. However, a recent study demonstrated that topically applied SLS easily penetrates into the living cell layers of the epidermis, which suggests that physiological alterations of keratinocytes might cause the SLS-induced rough skin. This study was conducted to clarify the effects of SLS on keratinocytes to demonstrate the contribution of SLS to the induction of rough skin. In addition, the potentials of other widely used anionic surfactants to induce rough skin were evaluated. HaCaT keratinocytes treated with SLS had increased levels of intracellular ROS and IL-1α secretion. Application of SLS on the surface of a reconstructed epidermal equivalent also showed the increased generation of ROS. Further, SLS-treated cells showed an increase of intracellular calpain activity associated with the increase of intracellular Ca 2+ concentration. The increase of intracellular ROS was abolished by the addition of BAPTA-AM, a specific chelator of Ca 2+ . In addition, IL-1α also stimulated ROS generation by HaCaT keratinocytes. An ESR spin-labeling study demonstrated that SLS increased the fluidity of membranes of liposomes and cells. Together, those results indicate that SLS initially interacts with cell membranes, which results in the elevation of intracellular Ca 2+ influx. Ca 2+ stimulates the secretion of IL-1α due to the activation of calpain, and also increases ROS generation. IL-1α also stimulates ROS generation by HaCaT keratinocytes. We conclude from these results that the elevation of intracellular ROS levels is one of the causes of SLS-induced rough skin. Finally, among the other anionic surfactants tested, sodium lauryl phosphate has less potential to induce rough

  7. Implications of the Endothelial Cell Response in Glioblastoma to Stimulation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tansy Y.

    Heightened angiogenesis is both the pathophysiologic hallmark and the potential cause of therapy resistance for glioblastoma (GBM), a deadly brain tumor. It is thought that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play important roles in neovascularization and tumor progression. We postulated that MSCs protect ECs against radiotherapy, which subsequently enhances tumor angiogenesis, and promotes GBM tumor recurrence following therapy. We therefore sought to establish the in-vitro endothelial cell response to stimulation by MSC condition media and ionizing radiation (IR) treatment. We established the gene expression profiles of endothelial cells in response to IR, MSCs and the combination of both. Within the same gene profiles, we identified a unique gene signature that was highly predictive of response to Bevacizumab for GBM patients. We also demonstrated that MSC increased the viability of ECs in response to IR. Protein analysis in ECs suggested MSC-mediated cell cycle arrest as a mechanism for radio-resistance in ECs.

  8. Histophilus somni Stimulates Expression of Antiviral Proteins and Inhibits BRSV Replication in Bovine Respiratory Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lin

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV followed by Histophilus somni causes more severe bovine respiratory disease and a more permeable alveolar barrier in vitro than either agent alone. However, microarray analysis revealed the treatment of bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2 epithelial cells with H. somni concentrated culture supernatant (CCS stimulated up-regulation of four antiviral protein genes as compared with BRSV infection or dual treatment. This suggested that inhibition of viral infection, rather than synergy, may occur if the bacterial infection occurred before the viral infection. Viperin (or radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2--RSAD2 and ISG15 (IFN-stimulated gene 15--ubiquitin-like modifier were most up-regulated. CCS dose and time course for up-regulation of viperin protein levels were determined in treated bovine turbinate (BT upper respiratory cells and BAT2 lower respiratory cells by Western blotting. Treatment of BAT2 cells with H. somni culture supernatant before BRSV infection dramatically reduced viral replication as determined by qRT PCR, supporting the hypothesis that the bacterial infection may inhibit viral infection. Studies of the role of the two known H. somni cytotoxins showed that viperin protein expression was induced by endotoxin (lipooligosaccharide but not by IbpA, which mediates alveolar permeability and H. somni invasion. A naturally occurring IbpA negative asymptomatic carrier strain of H. somni (129Pt does not cause BAT2 cell retraction or permeability of alveolar cell monolayers, so lacks virulence in vitro. To investigate initial steps of pathogenesis, we showed that strain 129Pt attached to BT cells and induced a strong viperin response in vitro. Thus colonization of the bovine upper respiratory tract with an asymptomatic carrier strain lacking virulence may decrease viral infection and the subsequent enhancement of bacterial respiratory infection in vivo.

  9. Mechanisms of transcriptional regulation and prognostic significance of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hairu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM is implicated in the prognosis of multiple cancers with low level expression associated with metastasis and early death in breast cancer. Despite this significance, mechanisms that regulate ALCAM gene expression and ALCAM's role in adhesion of pre-metastatic circulating tumor cells have not been defined. We studied ALCAM expression in 20 tumor cell lines by real-time PCR, western blot and immunochemistry. Epigenetic alterations of the ALCAM promoter were assessed using methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing. ALCAM's role in adhesion of tumor cells to the vascular wall was studied in isolated perfused lungs. Results A common site for transcription initiation of the ALCAM gene was identified and the ALCAM promoter sequenced. The promoter contains multiple cis-active elements including a functional p65 NF-κB motif, and it harbors an extensive array of CpG residues highly methylated exclusively in ALCAM-negative tumor cells. These CpG residues were modestly demethylated after 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Restoration of high-level ALCAM expression using an ALCAM cDNA increased clustering of MDA-MB-435 tumor cells perfused through the pulmonary vasculature of ventilated rat lungs. Anti-ALCAM antibodies reduced the number of intravascular tumor cell clusters. Conclusion Our data suggests that loss of ALCAM expression, due in part to DNA methylation of extensive segments of the promoter, significantly impairs the ability of circulating tumor cells to adhere to each other, and may therefore promote metastasis. These findings offer insight into the mechanisms for down-regulation of ALCAM gene expression in tumor cells, and for the positive prognostic value of high-level ALCAM in breast cancer.

  10. Platelet-rich plasma stimulated by pulse electric fields: Platelet activation, procoagulant markers, growth factor release and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelinger, A L; Torres, A S; Caiafa, A; Morton, C A; Berny-Lang, M A; Gerrits, A J; Carmichael, S L; Neculaes, V B; Michelson, A D

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic use of activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been explored for wound healing, hemostasis and antimicrobial wound applications. Pulse electric field (PEF) stimulation may provide more consistent platelet activation and avoid complications associated with the addition of bovine thrombin, the current state of the art ex vivo activator of therapeutic PRP. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of PEF, bovine thrombin and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) to activate human PRP, release growth factors and induce cell proliferation in vitro. Human PRP was prepared in the Harvest SmartPreP2 System and treated with vehicle, PEF, bovine thrombin, TRAP or Triton X-100. Platelet activation and procoagulant markers and microparticle generation were measured by flow cytometry. Released growth factors were measured by ELISA. The releasates were tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture. PEF produced more platelet-derived microparticles, P-selectin-positive particles and procoagulant annexin V-positive particles than bovine thrombin or TRAP. These differences were associated with higher levels of released epidermal growth factor after PEF than after bovine thrombin or TRAP but similar levels of platelet-derived, vascular-endothelial, and basic fibroblast growth factors, and platelet factor 4. Supernatant from PEF-treated platelets significantly increased cell proliferation compared to plasma. In conclusion, PEF treatment of fresh PRP results in generation of microparticles, exposure of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, differential release of growth factors compared to bovine thrombin and TRAP and significant cell proliferation. These results, together with PEF's inherent advantages, suggest that PEF may be a superior alternative to bovine thrombin activation of PRP for therapeutic applications.

  11. Diabetic Ephrin-B2-Stimulated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Enhance Poststroke Recovery in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Hilal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials of cell therapy in stroke favor autologous cell transplantation. To date, feasibility studies have used bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, but harvesting bone marrow cells is invasive thus complicating bedside treatment. We investigated the therapeutic potential of peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (PB-MNC harvested from diabetic patients and stimulated by ephrin-B2 (PB-MNC+ (500,000 cells, injected intravenously 18–24 hours after induced cerebral ischemia in mice. Infarct volume, neurological deficit, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and inflammation were investigated as were the potential mechanisms of PB-MNC+ cells in poststroke neurorepair. At D3, infarct volume was reduced by 60% and 49% compared to unstimulated PB-MNC and PBS-treated mice, respectively. Compared to PBS, injection of PB-MNC+ increased cell proliferation in the peri-infarct area and the subventricular zone, decreased microglia/macrophage cell density, and upregulated TGF-β expression. At D14, microvessel density was decreased and functional recovery was enhanced compared to PBS-treated mice, whereas plasma levels of BDNF, a major regulator of neuroplasticity, were increased in mice treated with PB-MNC+ compared to the other two groups. Cell transcriptional analysis showed that ephrin-B2 induced phenotype switching of PB-MNC by upregulating genes controlling cell proliferation, inflammation, and angiogenesis, as confirmed by adhesion and Matrigel assays. Conclusions. This feasibility study suggests that PB-MNC+ transplantation poststroke could be a promising approach but warrants further investigation. If confirmed, this rapid, noninvasive bedside cell therapy strategy could be applied to stroke patients at the acute phase.

  12. Diabetic Ephrin-B2-Stimulated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Enhance Poststroke Recovery in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Rose; Poittevin, Marine; Pasteur-Rousseau, Adrien; Cogo, Adrien; Mangin, Gabrielle; Chevauché, Marie; Ziat, Yasmine; Vilar, José; Launay, Jean-Marie; Gautier, Jean-François; Broquères-You, Dong; Levy, Bernard I; Merkulova-Rainon, Tatyana; Kubis, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    Clinical trials of cell therapy in stroke favor autologous cell transplantation. To date, feasibility studies have used bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, but harvesting bone marrow cells is invasive thus complicating bedside treatment. We investigated the therapeutic potential of peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (PB-MNC) harvested from diabetic patients and stimulated by ephrin-B2 (PB-MNC+) (500,000 cells), injected intravenously 18-24 hours after induced cerebral ischemia in mice. Infarct volume, neurological deficit, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and inflammation were investigated as were the potential mechanisms of PB-MNC+ cells in poststroke neurorepair. At D3, infarct volume was reduced by 60% and 49% compared to unstimulated PB-MNC and PBS-treated mice, respectively. Compared to PBS, injection of PB-MNC+ increased cell proliferation in the peri-infarct area and the subventricular zone, decreased microglia/macrophage cell density, and upregulated TGF- β expression. At D14, microvessel density was decreased and functional recovery was enhanced compared to PBS-treated mice, whereas plasma levels of BDNF, a major regulator of neuroplasticity, were increased in mice treated with PB-MNC+ compared to the other two groups. Cell transcriptional analysis showed that ephrin-B2 induced phenotype switching of PB-MNC by upregulating genes controlling cell proliferation, inflammation, and angiogenesis, as confirmed by adhesion and Matrigel assays. Conclusions . This feasibility study suggests that PB-MNC+ transplantation poststroke could be a promising approach but warrants further investigation. If confirmed, this rapid, noninvasive bedside cell therapy strategy could be applied to stroke patients at the acute phase.

  13. Bulk enrichment of transplantable hemopoietic stem cell subsets from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploemacher, R.E.; Brons, R.H.; Leenen, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE) in combination with density flotation centrifugation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting on wheat-germ agglutinin-FITC(WGA)-binding cells within the light-scatter ''blast window'' were used consecutively to enrich pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) in bulk from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse spleen. The medium-to-strong WGA + ve fraction contained 3.10(6) cells isolated from 3-4 X 10(9) spleen cells, with an average of 126% day-12 CFU-S and 65% day-8 CFU-S as calculated on the basis of their seeding fraction, suggesting that virtually all cells represented in vivo macroscopic colony formers. In view of the large differences reported elsewhere between stem cell subsets differing in reconstitutive capacity and secondary stem cell generation ability, we also studied various isolated cell fractions with respect to spleen colony formation, radioprotective ability, and spleen- and marrow- repopulating ability. Day-8 and day-12 CFU-S copurified when isolated by CCE. Cells from a fraction with high affinity for WGA were most highly enriched for their radioprotective ability (RPA) and their ability to repopulate the cellularity of the spleen and femur of irradiated recipients. This fraction contained virtually pure day-12 CFU-S. However, the ability to generate secondary day-12 CFU-S and CFU-GM in irradiated organs was enriched most in the medium WGA + ve cell fraction. MRA and SRA, according to the latter criteria, could therefore be partly separated from day-12 CFU-S and RPA on the basis of affinity for WGA. The data strongly suggest that at least part of all day-12 CFU-S have a high potential to proliferate and differentiate into mature progeny, but a relatively low self-renewal ability, and may therefore not be representative of the genuine stem cell

  14. The pathological significance of Notch1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryoji; Nagata, Masashi; Nakayama, Hideki; Niimori-Kita, Kanako; Hassan, Wael; Tanaka, Takuji; Shinohara, Masanori; Ito, Takaaki

    2013-10-01

    Notch signaling has been reported to be involved in several types of malignant tumors; however, the role and activation mechanism of Notch signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pathological significance of Notch signaling and its activation mechanism in the development and progression of OSCC. In this study, we showed that the expression of Notch1 and intracellular Notch domain (NICD) are upregulated in OSCCs. In addition, Notch1 and NICD were found to be characteristically localized at the invasive tumor front. TNF-α, a major inflammatory cytokine, significantly activated Notch signaling in vitro. In a clinicopathological analysis, Notch1 expression correlated with both the T-stage and the clinical stage. Furthermore, loss of Notch1 expression correlated with the inhibition of cell proliferation and TNF-α-dependent invasiveness in an OSCC cell line. In addition, γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) prevented cell proliferation and TNF-α-dependent invasion of OSCC cells in vitro. These results indicate that altered expression of Notch1 is associated with increased cancer progression and that Notch1 regulates the steps involved in cell metastasis in OSCC. Moreover, inactivating Notch signaling with GSI could therefore be a useful approach for treating patients with OSCC.

  15. Significance of Nuclear Accumulation of Foxo3a in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.-F.; Fang, F.-M.; Lu, C.-H.; Lu, M.-S.; Chen, W.-C.; Lee, K.-D.; Lin, P.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the value of Foxo3a in predicting the response to neoadjuvant treatment of, and prognosis for, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining was performed in a retrospective series of 60 biopsied esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and the correlation between nuclear accumulation of Foxo3a and clinicopathologic features was analyzed, including patient survival. In addition, in vitro biologic changes, radiosensitivity, and in vivo tumorigenicity of esophageal carcinoma cells after experimental manipulation of Foxo3a expression levels were determined. Results: Clinical findings point to a significant correlation between the nuclear accumulation of Foxo3a and the survival rate of esophageal cancer patients. In addition, Foxo3a is a significant predictor for the response to neoadjuvant therapy. In cell culture, irradiation and oxidative stress seemed to result in nuclear accumulation of Foxo3a. Down-regulation of Foxo3a significantly decreased radiosensitivity but had no obvious effect on tumor growth, as measured by a clonogenic assay in vitro and growth delay in vivo. Conclusions: Nuclear accumulation of Foxo3a in tumor cells was correlated with increased radiosensitivity and with improved patient survival. Thus, it is suggested that Foxo3a may be a potential marker for esophageal cancer

  16. Gene Expression Programs in Response to Hypoxia: Cell Type Specificity and Prognostic Significance in Human Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inadequate oxygen (hypoxia triggers a multifaceted cellular response that has important roles in normal physiology and in many human diseases. A transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF, plays a central role in the hypoxia response; its activity is regulated by the oxygen-dependent degradation of the HIF-1alpha protein. Despite the ubiquity and importance of hypoxia responses, little is known about the variation in the global transcriptional response to hypoxia among different cell types or how this variation might relate to tissue- and cell-specific diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed the temporal changes in global transcript levels in response to hypoxia in primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, breast epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells with DNA microarrays. The extent of the transcriptional response to hypoxia was greatest in the renal tubule cells. This heightened response was associated with a uniquely high level of HIF-1alpha RNA in renal cells, and it could be diminished by reducing HIF-1alpha expression via RNA interference. A gene-expression signature of the hypoxia response, derived from our studies of cultured mammary and renal tubular epithelial cells, showed coordinated variation in several human cancers, and was a strong predictor of clinical outcomes in breast and ovarian cancers. In an analysis of a large, published gene-expression dataset from breast cancers, we found that the prognostic information in the hypoxia signature was virtually independent of that provided by the previously reported wound signature and more predictive of outcomes than any of the clinical parameters in current use. CONCLUSIONS: The transcriptional response to hypoxia varies among human cells. Some of this variation is traceable to variation in expression of the HIF1A gene. A gene-expression signature of the cellular response to hypoxia is associated with a significantly poorer prognosis

  17. Clinicopathological significance of c-MYC in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yu; Niu, Xiangdong; Cai, Hui; Yang, Xiaojun; Ma, Haizhong; Ma, Shixun; Zhang, Yupeng; Chen, Yifeng

    2017-07-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors. The oncogene c-MYC is thought to be important in the initiation, promotion, and therapy resistance of cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathologic roles of c-MYC in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissue. This study is aimed at discovering and analyzing c-MYC expression in a series of human esophageal tissues. A total of 95 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma samples were analyzed by the western blotting and immunohistochemistry techniques. Then, correlation of c-MYC expression with clinicopathological features of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was statistically analyzed. In most esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases, the c-MYC expression was positive in tumor tissues. The positive rate of c-MYC expression in tumor tissues was 61.05%, obviously higher than the adjacent normal tissues (8.42%, 8/92) and atypical hyperplasia tissues (19.75%, 16/95). There was a statistical difference among adjacent normal tissues, atypical hyperplasia tissues, and tumor tissues. Overexpression of the c-MYC was detected in 61.05% (58/95) esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, which was significantly correlated with the degree of differentiation (p = 0.004). The positive rate of c-MYC expression was 40.0% in well-differentiated esophageal tissues, with a significantly statistical difference (p = 0.004). The positive rate of c-MYC was 41.5% in T1 + T2 esophageal tissues and 74.1% in T3 + T4 esophageal tissues, with a significantly statistical difference (p = 0.001). The positive rate of c-MYC was 45.0% in I + II esophageal tissues and 72.2% in III + IV esophageal tissues, with a significantly statistical difference (p = 0.011). The c-MYC expression strongly correlated with clinical staging (p = 0.011), differentiation degree (p = 0.004), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.003), and invasion depth (p = 0.001) of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The c-MYC was

  18. Relationship of colony-stimulating activity to apparent kill of human colony-forming cells by irradiation and hydroxyurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxmeyer, H.E.; Galbraith, P.R.; Baker, F.L.

    1976-01-01

    Suspensions of human bone marrow cells were subjected to 137 Cs irradiation in vitro and then cultured in semisolid agar medium. Cultures of irradiated cells were stimulated with colony-stimulating activity (CSA) of different potencies, and it was found that the amount of stimulation applied to cultures influenced the apparent kill of colony-forming cells (CFC). It was also found that the effects of irradiation on colony formation were not confined to CFC kill since medium conditioned by cells during irradiation exhibited stimulatory and inhibitory properties after treatment by 600 and 1000 rads, respectively. Studies in which irradiated cells were pretreated with hydroxyurea indicated that CFC in the DNA synthetic phase of the cell cycle were particularly sensitive to low doses of irradiation. The proliferative capacity of CFC surviving 1000 rads was undiminished as judged by their ability to form large colonies. Estimates of CFC kill by hydroxyurea were also affected by the level of CSA

  19. Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces boulardii Induce Distinct Levels of Dendritic Cell Cytokine Secretion and Significantly Different T Cell Responses In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida M Smith

    Full Text Available Interactions between members of the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system can significantly impact human health, and in this context, fungi and food-related yeasts are known to influence intestinal inflammation through direct interactions with specialized immune cells in vivo. The aim of the present study was to characterize the immune modulating properties of the food-related yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in terms of adaptive immune responses indicating inflammation versus tolerance and to explore the mechanisms behind the observed responses. Benchmarking against a Saccharomyces boulardii strain with probiotic effects documented in clinical trials, we evaluated the ability of K. marxianus to modulate human dendritic cell (DC function in vitro. Further, we assessed yeast induced DC modulation of naive T cells toward effector responses dominated by secretion of IFNγ and IL-17 versus induction of a Treg response characterized by robust IL-10 secretion. In addition, we blocked relevant DC surface receptors and investigated the stimulating properties of β-glucan containing yeast cell wall extracts. K. marxianus and S. boulardii induced distinct levels of DC cytokine secretion, primarily driven by Dectin-1 recognition of β-glucan components in their cell walls. Upon co-incubation of yeast exposed DCs and naive T cells, S. boulardii induced a potent IFNγ response indicating TH1 mobilization. In contrast, K. marxianus induced a response dominated by Foxp3+ Treg cells, a characteristic that may benefit human health in conditions characterized by excessive inflammation and positions K. marxianus as a strong candidate for further development as a novel yeast probiotic.

  20. Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces boulardii Induce Distinct Levels of Dendritic Cell Cytokine Secretion and Significantly Different T Cell Responses In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ida M; Baker, Adam; Christensen, Jeffrey E; Boekhout, Teun; Frøkiær, Hanne; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between members of the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system can significantly impact human health, and in this context, fungi and food-related yeasts are known to influence intestinal inflammation through direct interactions with specialized immune cells in vivo. The aim of the present study was to characterize the immune modulating properties of the food-related yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in terms of adaptive immune responses indicating inflammation versus tolerance and to explore the mechanisms behind the observed responses. Benchmarking against a Saccharomyces boulardii strain with probiotic effects documented in clinical trials, we evaluated the ability of K. marxianus to modulate human dendritic cell (DC) function in vitro. Further, we assessed yeast induced DC modulation of naive T cells toward effector responses dominated by secretion of IFNγ and IL-17 versus induction of a Treg response characterized by robust IL-10 secretion. In addition, we blocked relevant DC surface receptors and investigated the stimulating properties of β-glucan containing yeast cell wall extracts. K. marxianus and S. boulardii induced distinct levels of DC cytokine secretion, primarily driven by Dectin-1 recognition of β-glucan components in their cell walls. Upon co-incubation of yeast exposed DCs and naive T cells, S. boulardii induced a potent IFNγ response indicating TH1 mobilization. In contrast, K. marxianus induced a response dominated by Foxp3+ Treg cells, a characteristic that may benefit human health in conditions characterized by excessive inflammation and positions K. marxianus as a strong candidate for further development as a novel yeast probiotic.

  1. Demonstrating the benefits of fuel cells: further significant progress towards commercialisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1995-01-01

    The fourteenth Fuel Cell Seminar held in San Diego, California in 1994 is reported. The phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is the closest to widespread commercialization. PAFC cogeneration plants have to be shown to compare favourable in reliability with current mature natural gas-fuelled engine and turbine technologies. Although highly efficient, further development is necessary to produce cost effective generators. Progress is being made on proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stationary power plants, too, which may prove to be cost effective. In view of its lower operating temperature, at below 100[sup o]C compared with about 200[sup o]C for the PAFC, the principal use of the PEMFC has been identified as powering vehicles. Fuel cells have significant environmental advantages but further capital cost reductions are necessary if they are to compete with established technologies. (UK)

  2. Data on clinical significance of GAS2 in colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chao Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2 was cloned and found to be upregulated in the feces of recurrent CRC patients. This overexpressed GAS2 induced different patterns of gene expressions in CRC cells. Briefly, one cell proliferation marker, Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67, was upregulated in the cells with overexpressed GAS2, “Correlation between proliferation markers: PCNA, Ki-67, MCM-2 and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in colorectal cancer” [1]. Whereas, the expression of another cell proliferation marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, changed insignificantly [1]. In addition, the mRNA level of one cyclin involving in both cell cycle G1/S and G2/M transitions was also not affected by GAS2 overexpression, “Cdc20 and Cks direct the spindle checkpoint-independent destruction of cyclin A” [2]. The experimental design and procedures in this article can be helpful for understanding the molecular significance of GAS2 in SW480 and SW620 CRC cells.

  3. Significant association of inflammation grade with the number of Langerhans cells in odontogenic keratocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Han Chang

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: A significant association of inflammation grade with the number of LCs in OKCs is found. The paucity of finding LCs in the lining epithelia of OKCs without inflammation indicates the loss of immunosurveillance ability against the OKC lining epithelial cells; this can explain why OKCs have aggressive clinical behavior, a great growth potential, and a high recurrence rate.

  4. L-carnitine significantly decreased aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, Halimeh; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Javanmardi, Sara

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to divide continuously and tissue regeneration potential during the transplantation. Aging and loss of cell survival, is one of the main problems in cell therapy. Since the production of free radicals in the aging process is effective, the use of antioxidant compounds can help in scavenging free radicals and prevent the aging of cells. The aim of this study is evaluate the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on proliferation and aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rADSC). rADSCs were isolated from inguinal region of 5 male Rattus rats. Oil red-O, alizarin red-S and toluidine blue staining were performed to evaluate the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of rADSCs, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis was done for investigating the cell surface markers. The methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method was used to determine the cell proliferation of rADSCs following exposure to different concentrations of LC. rADSCs aging was evaluated by beta-galactosidase staining. The results showed significant proliferation of rADSCs 48 h after treatment with concentrations of 0.2 mM LC. In addition, in the presence of 0.2 mM LC, rADSCs appeared to be growing faster than control group and 0.2 mM LC supplementation could significantly decrease the population doubling time and aging of rADSCs. It seems that LC would be a good antioxidant to improve lifespan of rADSCs due to the decrease in aging.

  5. NKT cells mediate the recruitment of neutrophils by stimulating epithelial chemokine secretion during colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Enyu; Liu, Ronghua; Lu, Zhou; Liu, Jiajing; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Dan; Chu, Yiwei

    2016-05-27

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a kind of inflammatory bowel diseases characterized by chronic inflammation and ulcer in colon, and UC patients have increased risk of getting colorectal cancer. NKT cells are cells that express both NK cell markers and semi-invariant CD1d-restricted TCRs, can regulate immune responses via secreting a variety of cytokines upon activation. In our research, we found that the NKT cell-deficient CD1d(-/-) mice had relieved colitis in the DSS-induced colitis model. Further investigations revealed that the colon of CD1d(-/-) mice expressed less neutrophil-attracting chemokine CXCL 1, 2 and 3, and had decreased neutrophil infiltration. Infiltrated neutrophils also produced less reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TNF-α, indicating they may cause less epithelial damage. In addition, colitis-associated colorectal cancer was also relieved in CD1d(-/-) mice. During colitis, NKT cells strongly expressed TNF-α, which could stimulate CXCL 1, 2, 3 expressions by the epithelium. In conclusion, NKT cells can regulate colitis via the NKT cell-epithelium-neutrophil axis. Targeting this mechanism may help to improve the therapy of UC and prevent colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.