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Sample records for significantly reduces side

  1. Statistical Significance and Effect Size: Two Sides of a Coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xitao

    This paper suggests that statistical significance testing and effect size are two sides of the same coin; they complement each other, but do not substitute for one another. Good research practice requires that both should be taken into consideration to make sound quantitative decisions. A Monte Carlo simulation experiment was conducted, and a…

  2. Sucralfate significantly reduces ciprofloxacin concentrations in serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrelts, J C; Godley, P J; Peterie, J D; Gerlach, E H; Yakshe, C C

    1990-01-01

    The effect of sucralfate on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in eight healthy subjects utilizing a randomized, crossover design. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h was reduced from 8.8 to 1.1 micrograms.h/ml by sucralfate (P less than 0.005). Similarly, the maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in serum was reduced from 2.0 to 0.2 micrograms/ml (P less than 0.005). We conclude that concurrent ingestion of sucralfate significantly reduces the concentr...

  3. Quilting after mastectomy significantly reduces seroma formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduce or prevent seroma formation among mastectomy patients ... of this prospective study is to evaluate the effect of surgical quilting ... Seroma was more common in smokers (p=0.003) and was not decreased by the .... explain its aetiology.

  4. Individual-motivational factors in the acceptability of demand-side and supply-side measures to reduce carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poortinga, Wouter; Spence, Alexa; Demski, Christina; Pidgeon, Nick F.

    2012-01-01

    As more than a third of all carbon dioxide emissions in the UK are generated by the domestic sector, individuals need to make drastic changes to their current lifestyle in order to play their part in climate change mitigation. Not only do they need to change their personal behaviour, they also have to accept new low-carbon technologies in order to decarbonise the energy they are using. This study uses an adapted version of the Value–Belief-Norm (VBN) model () to examine individual-motivational factors in the acceptability of demand-side and supply-side strategies to reduce carbon emissions. The study found that environmental identity, climate change concern, and personal norms are all significantly associated with the acceptability of both demand-side measures and supply-side technologies. While personal values were also important, their associations were mediated by more specific factors. Overall, the adapted VBN model was better able to explain the acceptability of low-carbon behaviours than of low-carbon energy-supply technologies. Concern about energy security appeared to be of limited importance. It was negatively associated with the willingness to engage in low-carbon behaviours, suggesting that a shift in focus towards energy security issues may not necessarily help a transition to a low-carbon society. - Highlights: ► An adapted VBN model is proposed to study environmentally significant behaviour.► Environmental identity is important for both demand-side and supply-side measures.► Energy security concern is of limited importance to support for supply-side measures.► Energy security concern reduces the willingness to engage in low-carbon behaviours.

  5. Brief Exposure to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Side-Effect Symptoms in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, R Eric; Goodfellow, Linda

    2016-01-01

    No study has tested the effectiveness of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions to reduce persistent nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to determine if CBT could reduce nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients with HIV on ART. Men ages 40 to 56 years on ART (n = 18) at a suburban HIV clinic were randomly assigned to a control group or the CBT intervention. Usual adherence education and side-effect management were provided to both groups. Symptoms, health perception, medication adherence, and side-effect-reducing medication use were measured at four time points over 3 months. Participants in the intervention group rated usual fatigue and worst fatigue at 60 days, and nausea duration at 90 days significantly lower than controls (p < .05). Brief CBT training may reduce fatigue and nausea in patients with HIV undergoing ART. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The efficacy of hyoscine hydrobromide in reducing side-effects induced during immersion in virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, E C; Ramsey, A D

    1996-03-01

    Regan and Price (1994) investigated the frequency of occurrence and severity of side-effects of using an immersion virtual reality system in 150 subjects: 61% of the subjects reported symptoms of malaise at some point during a 20-min immersion and 10-min post-immersion period. This paper describes a double-blind placebo-controlled study that investigated whether 300 microgram of hyoscine/scopolamine hydrobromide administered to subjects prior to immersion in virtual reality was effective in reducing side-effects experienced during immersion. It was hypothesized that the hyoscine hydrobromide would cause a significant reduction in reported symptoms. We administered 300 micrograms of hyoscine hydrobromide to 19 subjects, and 20 subjects were administered a placebo compound 40 min prior to a 20-min immersion in VR. Data on malaise were collected using a simulator sickness questionnaire and a malaise scale. A 2 x 2 Chi-square analysis comparing the numbers of subjects reporting no symptoms on the malaise scale with those reporting some symptoms in the placebo and hyoscine conditions showed the differences between the two groups to be statistically significant at the 0.01 level (Chi-square = 7.392 with 1 df, p = 0.007). This difference was clearly in the direction of fewer symptoms being reported in the hyoscine condition. The results of the study showed that the hyoscine was effective in reducing symptoms that are commonly observed during immersion in virtual reality.

  7. Supply shortage forecast in Ontario: The significance of demand-side management (DSM); its tools and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, S.

    2004-01-01

    Aspects of the recent report by the Ontario Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force and Independent Market Operator which forecasts acute power supply shortages in Ontario, are discussed. Immediate action is recommended to avert the problem. The principal recommendation concerns the adoption of Demand Side Management as a tool to reduce the widening gap between supply and demand, citing supply shortage, imports, high prices, deregulated market and environmental concerns as the driving forces which push for the adoption of DSM. It is claimed that DSM, through its tools such as Demand/Load Response Programs and Time-of-Use rates has the capacity to create the necessary balance between supply and demand more efficiently, and in a more timely fashion than supply side management. The demand for adoption of DSM is justified on the basis of a careful examination of the magnitude and significance of each of the driving forces affecting the electricity supply in Ontario, as well as the benefits and techniques of DSM designed to manage power shortages. Energy Conservation and Efficiency and Demand/Load Response Programs are discussed as the principal DSM techniques, while Dynamic/Real Time Pricing, Time-of-Use Rates, Automated /Smart Metering, Web-based/Communication Systems, Reliability-based Programs, Market/Price-based programs, and Types of Load Control are described as the principal tools used by DSM. DSM program approaches and strategies are also reviewed, along with a brief list of successful examples of DSM applications. 3 figs

  8. Supply shortage forecast in Ontario: The significance of demand-side management (DSM); its tools and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, S.

    2004-06-01

    Aspects of the recent report by the Ontario Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force and Independent Market Operator which forecasts acute power supply shortages in Ontario, are discussed. Immediate action is recommended to avert the problem. The principal recommendation concerns the adoption of Demand Side Management as a tool to reduce the widening gap between supply and demand, citing supply shortage, imports, high prices, deregulated market and environmental concerns as the driving forces which push for the adoption of DSM. It is claimed that DSM, through its tools such as Demand/Load Response Programs and Time-of-Use rates has the capacity to create the necessary balance between supply and demand more efficiently, and in a more timely fashion than supply side management. The demand for adoption of DSM is justified on the basis of a careful examination of the magnitude and significance of each of the driving forces affecting the electricity supply in Ontario, as well as the benefits and techniques of DSM designed to manage power shortages. Energy Conservation and Efficiency and Demand/Load Response Programs are discussed as the principal DSM techniques, while Dynamic/Real Time Pricing, Time-of-Use Rates, Automated /Smart Metering, Web-based/Communication Systems, Reliability-based Programs, Market/Price-based programs, and Types of Load Control are described as the principal tools used by DSM. DSM program approaches and strategies are also reviewed, along with a brief list of successful examples of DSM applications. 3 figs.

  9. Reduced-dose abdominopelvic CT using hybrid iterative reconstruction in suspected left-sided colonic diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laqmani, Azien; Dulz, Simon; Behzadi, Cyrus; Schmidt-Holtz, Jakob; Wassenberg, Felicia; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Center Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Sehner, Susanne [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nagel, Hans-Dieter [Scientific and Application-oriented Studies and Consulting in Radiology (SASCRAD), Buchholz (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    To assess the effect of hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and filtered back projection (FBP) on abdominopelvic CT with reduced-dose (RD-APCT) in the evaluation of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis (ALCD). Twenty-five consecutive patients with suspected ALCD who underwent RD-APCT (mean CTDIvol 11.2 ± 4.2 mGy) were enrolled in this study. Raw data were reconstructed using FBP and two increasing HIR levels, L4 and L6. Two radiologists assessed image quality, image noise and reviewer confidence in interpreting findings of ALCD, including wall thickening, pericolic fat inflammation, pericolic abscess, and contained or free extraluminal air. Objective image noise (OIN) was measured. OIN was reduced up to 54 % with HIR compared to FBP. Subjective image quality of HIR images was superior to FBP; subjective image noise was reduced. The detection rate of extraluminal air was higher with HIR L6. Reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings of ALCD significantly improved with application of HIR. RD-APCT with HIR offers superior image quality and lower image noise compared to FBP, allowing a high level of reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings in ALCD. HIR facilitates detection of ALCD findings that may be missed with the FBP algorithm. (orig.)

  10. Human factors study of driver assistance systems to reduce lane departures and side collision accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the human factors issues related to the implementation of lane departure warning systems (LDWS) to reduce side collision and run-off-road crashes for heavy trucks. Lane departures can be either intentional (e.g., to pass anoth...

  11. Are sexual side effects of prolactin-raising antipsychotics reducible to serum prolactin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Bosch, Rob; Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Sytema, Sjoerd; van Os, Jim

    Objective: To assess the degree to which sexual side effects (SSE) are associated with prolactin-raising antipsychotics, and to what degree such SSE are reducible to serum prolactin levels. Method: A large sample (n = 264) of patients treated for 6 weeks with protactin-raising and prolactin-sparing

  12. Proton Minibeam Radiation Therapy Reduces Side Effects in an In Vivo Mouse Ear Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girst, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.girst@unibw.de [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Greubel, Christoph; Reindl, Judith [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Siebenwirth, Christian [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Zlobinskaya, Olga [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Walsh, Dietrich W.M. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Ilicic, Katarina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel [Research Unit Analytical Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Oberschleißheim (Germany); and others

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy is a novel approach to minimize normal tissue damage in the entrance channel by spatial fractionation while keeping tumor control through a homogeneous tumor dose using beam widening with an increasing track length. In the present study, the dose distributions for homogeneous broad beam and minibeam irradiation sessions were simulated. Also, in an animal study, acute normal tissue side effects of proton minibeam irradiation were compared with homogeneous irradiation in a tumor-free mouse ear model to account for the complex effects on the immune system and vasculature in an in vivo normal tissue model. Methods and Materials: At the ion microprobe SNAKE, 20-MeV protons were administered to the central part (7.2 × 7.2 mm{sup 2}) of the ear of BALB/c mice, using either a homogeneous field with a dose of 60 Gy or 16 minibeams with a nominal 6000 Gy (4 × 4 minibeams, size 0.18 × 0.18 mm{sup 2}, with a distance of 1.8 mm). The same average dose was used over the irradiated area. Results: No ear swelling or other skin reactions were observed at any point after minibeam irradiation. In contrast, significant ear swelling (up to fourfold), erythema, and desquamation developed in homogeneously irradiated ears 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation. Hair loss and the disappearance of sebaceous glands were only detected in the homogeneously irradiated fields. Conclusions: These results show that proton minibeam radiation therapy results in reduced adverse effects compared with conventional homogeneous broad-beam irradiation and, therefore, might have the potential to decrease the incidence of side effects resulting from clinical proton and/or heavy ion therapy.

  13. The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corrina A

    2014-10-01

    Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these 'meat' alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Next-generation nozzle check valve significantly reduces operating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roorda, O. [SMX International, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Check valves perform an important function in preventing reverse flow and protecting plant and mechanical equipment. However, the variety of different types of valves and extreme differences in performance even within one type can change maintenance requirements and life cycle costs, amounting to millions of dollars over the typical 15-year design life of piping components. A next-generation non-slam nozzle check valve which prevents return flow has greatly reduced operating costs by protecting the mechanical equipment in a piping system. This article described the check valve varieties such as the swing check valve, a dual-plate check valve, and nozzle check valves. Advancements in optimized design of a non-slam nozzle check valve were also discussed, with particular reference to computer flow modelling such as computational fluid dynamics; computer stress modelling such as finite element analysis; and flow testing (using rapid prototype development and flow loop testing), both to improve dynamic performance and reduce hydraulic losses. The benefits of maximized dynamic performance and minimized pressure loss from the new designed valve were also outlined. It was concluded that this latest non-slam nozzle check valve design has potential applications in natural gas, liquefied natural gas, and oil pipelines, including subsea applications, as well as refineries, and petrochemical plants among others, and is suitable for horizontal and vertical installation. The result of this next-generation nozzle check valve design is not only superior performance, and effective protection of mechanical equipment but also minimized life cycle costs. 1 fig.

  15. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekis, Nejc [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mc Entee, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mcentee@ucd.i [School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin 4 (Ireland); Stegnar, Peter [Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p {<=} 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p {<=} 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p {<=} 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p {<=} 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p {<=} 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p {<=} 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  16. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekis, Nejc; Mc Entee, Mark F.; Stegnar, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p ≤ 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p ≤ 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p ≤ 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p ≤ 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p ≤ 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p ≤ 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  17. Conjugation of diisocyanate side chains to dimethacrylate reduces polymerization shrinkage and increases the hardness of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Yih-Dean; Lee, Bor-Shiunn; Lin, Chun-Pin; Tseng, Wan-Yu

    2014-04-01

    Polymerization shrinkage is one of the main causes of dental restoration failure. This study tried to conjugate two diisocyanate side chains to dimethacrylate resins in order to reduce polymerization shrinkage and increase the hardness of composite resins. Diisocyanate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and bisphenol A dimethacrylate were reacted in different ratios to form urethane-modified new resin matrices, and then mixed with 50 wt.% silica fillers. The viscosities of matrices, polymerization shrinkage, surface hardness, and degrees of conversion of experimental composite resins were then evaluated and compared with a non-modified control group. The viscosities of resin matrices increased with increasing diisocyanate side chain density. Polymerization shrinkage and degree of conversion, however, decreased with increasing diisocyanate side chain density. The surface hardness of all diisocyanate-modified groups was equal to or significantly higher than that of the control group. Conjugation of diisocyanate side chains to dimethacrylate represents an effective means of reducing polymerization shrinkage and increasing the surface hardness of dental composite resins. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Conjugation of diisocyanate side chains to dimethacrylate reduces polymerization shrinkage and increases the hardness of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Dean Jan

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Conjugation of diisocyanate side chains to dimethacrylate represents an effective means of reducing polymerization shrinkage and increasing the surface hardness of dental composite resins.

  19. Configuring the Mesh Size, Side Taper and Wing Depth of Penaeid Trawls to Reduce Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Matt K.; Sterling, David J.; Millar, Russell B.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of reducing mesh size while concomitantly varying the side taper and wing depth of a generic penaeid-trawl body were investigated to improve engineering performance and minimize bycatch. Five trawl bodies (with the same codends) were tested across various environmental (e.g. depth and current) and biological (e.g. species and sizes) conditions. The first trawl body comprised 41-mm mesh and represented conventional designs (termed the ‘41 long deep-wing'), while the remaining trawl bodies were made from 32-mm mesh and differed only in their side tapers, and therefore length (i.e. 1N3B or ‘long’ and ∼28o to the tow direction vs 1N5B or ‘short’ and ∼35o) and wing depths (‘deep’–97 T vs ‘shallow’–60 T). There were incremental drag reductions (and therefore fuel savings – by up to 18 and 12% per h and ha trawled) associated with reducing twine area via either modification, and subsequently minimizing otter-board area in attempts to standardize spread. Side taper and wing depth had interactive and varied effects on species selectivity, but compared to the conventional 41 long deep-wing trawl, the 32 short shallow-wing trawl (i.e. the least twine area) reduced the total bycatch by 57% (attributed to more fish swimming forward and escaping). In most cases, all small-meshed trawls also caught more smaller school prawns Metapenaeus macleayi but to decrease this effect it should be possible to increase mesh size slightly, while still maintaining the above engineering benefits and species selectivity. The results support precisely optimizing mesh size as a precursor to any other anterior penaeid-trawl modifications designed to improve environmental performance. PMID:24911786

  20. Chitosan Oligosaccharide Reduces Propofol Requirements and Propofol-Related Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Propofol is one of the main sedatives but its negative side effects limit its clinical application. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS, a kind of natural product with anti-pain and anti-inflammatory activities, may be a potential adjuvant to propofol use. A total of 94 patients receiving surgeries were evenly and randomly assigned to two groups: 10 mg/kg COS oral administration and/or placebo oral administration before being injected with propofol. The target-controlled infusion of propofol was adjusted to maintain the values of the bispectral index at 50. All patients’ pain was evaluated on a four-point scale and side effects were investigated. To explore the molecular mechanism for the functions of COS in propofol use, a mouse pain model was established. The activities of Nav1.7 were analyzed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG cells. The results showed that the patients receiving COS pretreatment were likely to require less propofol than the patients pretreated with placebo for maintaining an anesthetic situation (p < 0.05. The degrees of injection pain were lower in a COS-pretreated group than in a propofol-pretreated group. The side effects were also more reduced in a COS-treated group than in a placebo-pretreated group. COS reduced the activity of Nav1.7 and its inhibitory function was lost when Nav1.7 was silenced (p > 0.05. COS improved propofol performance by affecting Nav1.7 activity. Thus, COS is a potential adjuvant to propofol use in surgical anesthesia.

  1. Does sucralfate reduce early side effects of pelvic radiation? A double-blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellamans, Karin; Lievens, Yolande; Lambin, Philippe; Van den Weyngaert, Danielle; Van den Bogaert, Walter; Scalliet, Pierre; Hutsebaut, Liesbeth; Haustermans, Karin

    2002-11-01

    STUDY AND METHODS: A double-blind placebo-controlled study randomized 108 patients to investigate the effect of sucralfate on gastrointestinal side effects of pelvic radiation. Overall, pelvic radiation with the administered doses and fields and performed according to nowadays technical standards, was well tolerated. Comparison of the mean scores and the peak reactions for radiotherapy discomfort, diarrhoea and number of stools per day in the 80 evaluable patients showed no statistically significant difference between sucralfate and placebo. Based on these results, the use of sucralfate can not be recommended as standard practice.

  2. Does sucralfate reduce early side effects of pelvic radiation? A double-blind randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellamans, Karin; Lievens, Yolande; Lambin, Philippe; Van den Weyngaert, Danielle; Van den Bogaert, Walter; Scalliet, Pierre; Hutsebaut, Liesbeth; Haustermans, Karin

    2002-01-01

    Study and methods: A double-blind placebo-controlled study randomized 108 patients to investigate the effect of sucralfate on gastrointestinal side effects of pelvic radiation. Results: Overall, pelvic radiation with the administered doses and fields and performed according to nowadays technical standards, was well tolerated. Comparison of the mean scores and the peak reactions for radiotherapy discomfort, diarrhoea and number of stools per day in the 80 evaluable patients showed no statistically significant difference between sucralfate and placebo. Conclusion: Based on these results, the use of sucralfate can not be recommended as standard practice

  3. Stem cells as anticancer drug carrier to reduce the chemotherapy side effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hamideh; Al-Arag, Siham; Middendorp, Elodie; Gergley, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frederic

    2017-02-01

    Chemotherapy used for cancer treatment, due to the lack of specificity of drugs, is associated to various damaging side effects that have severe impact on patients' quality of life. Over the past 30 years, increasing efforts have been placed on optimizing chemotherapy dosing with the main goal of increasing antitumor efficacy while reducing drug-associated toxicity. A novel research shows that stem cells may act as a reservoir for the anticancer agent, which will subsequently release some of the drug's metabolites, or even the drug in its original form, in vicinity of the cancer cells. These cells may play a dual role in controlling drug toxicity depending on their capacity to uptake and release the chemotherapeutic drug. In our study, we show that Dental Pulp Stem Cells DPSCs are able to rapidly uptake Paclitaxel PTX, and to release it in the culture medium in a time-dependent manner. This resulting conditioned culture medium is to be transferred to breast cancer cells, the MCF-7. By applying Confocal Raman Microscopy, the anticancer drug uptake by the MCF-7 was measured. Surprisingly, the cancer cells -without any direct contact with PTX- showed a drug uptake. This proves that the stem cells carried and delivered the anticancer drug without its modification. It could be a revolution in chemotherapy to avoid the drug's side effects and increase its efficacy.

  4. Great hammerhead sharks swim on their side to reduce transport costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Nicholas L; Iosilevskii, Gil; Barnett, Adam; Fischer, Chris; Graham, Rachel T; Gleiss, Adrian C; Watanabe, Yuuki Y

    2016-07-26

    Animals exhibit various physiological and behavioural strategies for minimizing travel costs. Fins of aquatic animals play key roles in efficient travel and, for sharks, the functions of dorsal and pectoral fins are considered well divided: the former assists propulsion and generates lateral hydrodynamic forces during turns and the latter generates vertical forces that offset sharks' negative buoyancy. Here we show that great hammerhead sharks drastically reconfigure the function of these structures, using an exaggerated dorsal fin to generate lift by swimming rolled on their side. Tagged wild sharks spend up to 90% of time swimming at roll angles between 50° and 75°, and hydrodynamic modelling shows that doing so reduces drag-and in turn, the cost of transport-by around 10% compared with traditional upright swimming. Employment of such a strongly selected feature for such a unique purpose raises interesting questions about evolutionary pathways to hydrodynamic adaptations, and our perception of form and function.

  5. Reducing Side-Sweep Accidents with Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamini Bulumulle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Side-sweep accidents are one of the major causes of loss of life and property damage on highways. This type of accident is caused by a driver initiating a lane change while another vehicle is blocking the road in the target lane. In this article, we are trying to quantify the degree to which different implementations of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication could reduce the occurrence of such accidents. We present the design of a simulator that takes into account common sources of lack of driver awareness such as blind-spots and lack of attention. Then, we study the impact of both traditional, non-technological communication means such as turning signals as well as unidirectional and bidirectional V2V communications.

  6. Yoga-Based Rehabilitation Program in Reducing Physical and Emotional Side Effects in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Alopecia; Anxiety; Breast Carcinoma; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Colorectal Carcinoma; Depression; Fatigue; Lung Carcinoma; Nausea and Vomiting; Pain; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Sleep Disorder; Weight Change

  7. Fiber-Based, Double-Sided, Reduced Graphene Oxide Films for Efficient Solar Vapor Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ankang; Ming, Xin; Fu, Yang; Wang, Gang; Wang, Xianbao

    2017-09-06

    Solar vapor generation is a promising and whole new branch of photothermal conversion for harvesting solar energy. Various materials and devices for solar thermal conversion were successively produced and reported for higher solar energy utilization in the past few years. Herein, a compact device of reduced graphene oxides (rGO) and paper fibers was designed and assembled for efficient solar steam generation under light illumination, and it consists of water supply pipelines (WSP), a thermal insulator (TI) and a double-sided absorbing film (DSF). Heat localization is enabled by the black DSF due to its broad absorption of sunlight. More importantly, the heat transfer, from the hot DSF to the cold base fluid (water), was suppressed by TI with a low thermal conductivity. Meanwhile, bulk water was continuously transported to the DSF by WSP through TI, which was driven by the surface energy and surface tension based on the capillary effect. The effects of reduction degrees of rGO on the photothermal conversion were explored, and the evaporation efficiency reached 89.2% under one sun with 60 mg rGO. This new microdevice provided a basic technical support for distillation, desalination, sewage treatment, and related technologies.

  8. Use of sedative drugs at reducing the side effects of voiding cystourethrography in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Alizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imaging of the kidneys and urinary tract has a significant and critical role for diagnosis of genitourinary system diseases. Although technological progress goes toward less invasive approaches, some of the current methods are still invasive and annoying. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG is the best and most accurate method for diagnosis and grading of vesicoureteral reflux. VCUG is a distressful procedure that gives serious anxiety and pain in a large proportion of children and fear for parents; therefore, using effective sedative drugs with the least side effects is necessary and should be considered. Materials and Methods: In this review article, importance and efficacy of different drugs before catheterization VCUG be compared in the base of literature survey on EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane source. Results: We found that the treatment should be based on nonpharmacological and pharmacological methods; nonpharmacological treatment includes the psychological preparation before procedures as a safety precaution with little or no risk modality, as well as reassuring support. The presence of parents during painful procedures cannot alleviate children distress. Pharmacological methods include oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg and intranasal use (0.2 mg/kg that had been used 10 min before the procedure can effect on anterograde amnesia and sedation without considerable effect on accuracy and grade of reflux. Nitric oxide has a shorter recovery time versus midazolam but has a potential risk for deep sedation and may interfere with the child's voiding phase. Conclusion: In summary, oral midazolam of 0.5–0.6 mg/kg or 0.2 mg/kg intranasal is acceptable drug that can be used before VCUG.

  9. Potential of Demand Side Management to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with the Operation of Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. G. Cooper

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the potential reduction in the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the operation of Air Source Heat Pump which could be achieved by using demand side management. In order to achieve significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, it is widely envisioned that electrification of the heating sector will need to be combined with decarbonisation of the electrical supply. By influencing the times at when electric heat pumps operate such that they coincide more with electricity generation which has a low marginal carbon emissions factor, it has been suggested that these emissions could be reduced further. In order to investigate this possibility, models of the UK electrical grid based on scenarios for 2020 to 2050 have been combined with a dynamic model of an air source heat pump unit and thermal models of a population of dwellings. The performance and carbon dioxide emissions associated with the heat pumps are compared both with and without demand side management interventions intended to give preference to operation when the marginal emissions factor of the electricity being generated is low. It is found that these interventions are unlikely to be effective at achieving further reductions in emissions. A reduction of around 3% was observed in scenarios based around 2035 but in other scenarios the reduction was insignificant. In the scenarios with high wind generation (2050, the DSM scheme considered here tends to improve thermal comfort (with minimal increases in emissions rather than achieving a decrease in emissions. The reasons for this are discussed and further recommendations are made.

  10. Sodium-Reduced Meat and Poultry Products Contain a Significant Amount of Potassium from Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Arti Sharma; Goldstein, Marc B; Arcand, JoAnne; Cho, France; L'Abbé, Mary R; Darling, Pauline B

    2018-05-01

    counterparts (mean difference [95% CI]: 486 [334-638]; Padditives appearing on the product label ingredient list, did not significantly differ between the two groups. Potassium additives are frequently added to sodium-reduced MPPs in amounts that significantly contribute to the potassium load for patients with impaired renal handling of potassium caused by chronic kidney disease and certain medications. Patients requiring potassium restriction should be counseled to be cautious regarding the potassium content of sodium-reduced MPPs and encouraged to make food choices accordingly. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitrogen side-dress as a strategy to reduce defoliation demages at different growth stages of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sangoi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen can mitigate damages caused by leaf area reduction due to its influence on cell division. This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the efficiency of side-dressing different rates of nitrogen as a management strategy to maize stem defoliation at different growth stages. The experiment was set in Lages, during the 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 growing seasons. The experimental design was a randomized block with split plots. Three defoliation times were tested in the main plot: eight expanded leaves (V8, fifteen expanded leaves (V15 and tasseling (VT, plus a control without defoliation. Four nitrogen rates were assessed in the split-plots: 0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha-1 of N. Nitrogen was side-dressed at the defoliation day of each growth stage and at V8 in the control. Defoliations performed at V8 did not reduce grain yield, in comparison to the control, regardless of N rate. Side-dressing N rates at V15 increased grain yield, mitigating damages caused by defoliation. Defoliation carried out at VT promoted great grain yield reduction that could not be alleviated with subsequent nitrogen fertilization. The success of nitrogen side-dress as a strategy to minimize maize grain yield losses caused by defoliation depends on the growth stage leaf area reduction occurs.

  12. With God on our side: Religious primes reduce the envisioned physical formidability of a menacing adversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Colin; Fessler, Daniel M T; Pollack, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The imagined support of benevolent supernatural agents attenuates anxiety and risk perception. Here, we extend these findings to judgments of the threat posed by a potentially violent adversary. Conceptual representations of bodily size and strength summarize factors that determine the relative threat posed by foes. The proximity of allies moderates the envisioned physical formidability of adversaries, suggesting that cues of access to supernatural allies will reduce the envisioned physical formidability of a threatening target. Across two studies, subtle cues of both supernatural and earthly social support reduced the envisioned physical formidability of a violent criminal. These manipulations had no effect on the perceived likelihood of encountering non-conflictual physical danger, raising the possibility that imagined supernatural support leads participants to view themselves not as shielded from encountering perilous situations, but as protected should perils arise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A pilot weight reduction program over one year significantly reduced DNA strand breaks in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Wagner

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: A sustainable lifestyle change under supervision including physical activity and diet quality over a period of one year was not only responsible to reduce body weight and BMI but also led to significant reduction in all parameters of the comet assay. These results underline the importance of body weight reduction and highlight the positive changes in DNA stability.

  14. The significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme activities: clinical, biochemical and radiological associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordekar, S R; Guthrie, P; Bonham, J R; Olpin, S E; Hargreaves, I; Baxter, P S

    2006-03-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are an important group of neurometabolic disorders in children with varied clinical presentations and diagnosis that can be difficult to confirm. To report the significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme (RCE) activity in muscle biopsy samples from children. Retrospective odds ratio was used to compare clinical and biochemical features, DNA studies, neuroimaging, and muscle biopsies in 18 children with and 48 without reduced RCE activity. Children with reduced RCE activity were significantly more likely to have consanguineous parents, to present with acute encephalopathy and lactic acidaemia and/or within the first year of life; to have an axonal neuropathy, CSF lactate >4 mmol/l; and/or to have signal change in the basal ganglia. There were positive associations with a maternal family history of possible mitochondrial cytopathy; a presentation with failure to thrive and lactic acidaemia, ragged red fibres, reduced fibroblast fatty acid oxidation and with an abnormal allopurinol loading test. There was no association with ophthalmic abnormalities, deafness, epilepsy or myopathy. The association of these clinical, biochemical and radiological features with reduced RCE activity suggests a possible causative link.

  15. The Role of Sport in Reducing Racism and Its Relation to Social Acceptance in the Movie the Blind Side

    OpenAIRE

    Siwi, Galih Ratna

    2013-01-01

    Film is the example of literary works which reflects the social issues that occur in a society. The writer is interested to analyze the social issue in The Blind Side. In this case, the writer intends to examine the role of sport in reducing racism that occur to an African American who lives in Tennessee, The United States of America. It also concerns his existence in the Whie American society in which its people have different skin colors. The writer uses two elements to analyze this thesis....

  16. Right Sided Colon Cancer as a Distinct Histopathological Subtype with Reduced Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Ulrich; Stögbauer, Fabian; Späth, Christoph; Haller, Bernhard; Wilhelm, Dirk; Friess, Helmut; Bader, Franz G

    2016-01-01

    Recent data suggest that tumors of the right and left colon should be distinguished as they differ in clinical and molecular characteristics. A total of 1,319 patients who underwent surgical resection for colon cancer (CC) were investigated. Tumors between the ileocecal valve and the hepatic flexure were classified as right CC (RCC), tumors between the splenic flexure and the rectum as left CC (LCC). RCC revealed a higher cause-specific mortality risk (hazard ratio 1.36, 95% CI 1.10-1.68, p = 0.005) and lower 5-year cause-specific (RCC 64.9%, 95% CI 60.4-69.4, LCC 70.7%, 95% CI 67.2-74.2, p = 0.032) and disease-free (RCC 56.0%, 95% CI 51.5-60.5, LCC 59.9%, 95% CI 56.2-63.6, p = 0.025) survival rates. RCCs were more often microsatellite instable (RCC 37.2%, LCC 13.0%, p clinical, histopathological and molecular genetic features and can be considered as distinct entities. The reduced prognosis of RCC may be caused by higher rates of microsatellite instability, KRAS and BRAF mutations. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Introduction of a methoxymethyl side chain into p-phenylenediamine attenuates its sensitizing potency and reduces the risk of allergy induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, Carsten, E-mail: goebel.c.1@pg.com [The Procter and Gamble Co., Central Product Safety and Communications, Darmstadt (Germany); Troutman, John [The Procter and Gamble Co., Central Product Safety, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hennen, Jenny [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Trier University, Trier (Germany); Rothe, Helga; Schlatter, Harald [The Procter and Gamble Co., Central Product Safety and Communications, Darmstadt (Germany); Gerberick, G. Frank [The Procter and Gamble Co., Central Product Safety, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Blömeke, Brunhilde [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Trier University, Trier (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    The strong sensitizing potencies of the most important primary intermediates of oxidative hair dyes, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and p-toluylenediamine (PTD, i.e. 2-methyl-PPD) are well established. They are considered as the key sensitizers in hair dye allergic contact dermatitis. While modification of their molecular structure is expected to alter their sensitizing properties, it may also impair their color performance. With introduction of a methoxymethyl side chain we found the primary intermediate 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD) with excellent hair coloring performance but significantly reduced sensitizing properties compared to PPD and PTD: In vitro, ME-PPD showed an attenuated innate immune response when analyzed for its protein reactivity and dendritic cell activation potential. In vivo, the effective concentration of ME-PPD necessary to induce an immune response 3-fold above vehicle control (EC3 value) in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) was 4.3%, indicating a moderate skin sensitizing potency compared to values of 0.1 and 0.17% for PPD and PTD, respectively. Finally, assessing the skin sensitizing potency of ME-PPD under consumer hair dye usage conditions through a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) indicated an allergy induction risk negligible compared to PPD or PTD. - Highlights: • Methoxymethyl side chain in p-phenylenediamine reduces its strong skin sensitizing properties. • Reduced protein reactivity and dendritic cell activation. • Reduced skin sensitizing potency in local lymph node assay (LLNA). • Negligible allergy induction risk under hair dye usage conditions.

  18. Introduction of a methoxymethyl side chain into p-phenylenediamine attenuates its sensitizing potency and reduces the risk of allergy induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, Carsten; Troutman, John; Hennen, Jenny; Rothe, Helga; Schlatter, Harald; Gerberick, G. Frank; Blömeke, Brunhilde

    2014-01-01

    The strong sensitizing potencies of the most important primary intermediates of oxidative hair dyes, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and p-toluylenediamine (PTD, i.e. 2-methyl-PPD) are well established. They are considered as the key sensitizers in hair dye allergic contact dermatitis. While modification of their molecular structure is expected to alter their sensitizing properties, it may also impair their color performance. With introduction of a methoxymethyl side chain we found the primary intermediate 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD) with excellent hair coloring performance but significantly reduced sensitizing properties compared to PPD and PTD: In vitro, ME-PPD showed an attenuated innate immune response when analyzed for its protein reactivity and dendritic cell activation potential. In vivo, the effective concentration of ME-PPD necessary to induce an immune response 3-fold above vehicle control (EC3 value) in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) was 4.3%, indicating a moderate skin sensitizing potency compared to values of 0.1 and 0.17% for PPD and PTD, respectively. Finally, assessing the skin sensitizing potency of ME-PPD under consumer hair dye usage conditions through a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) indicated an allergy induction risk negligible compared to PPD or PTD. - Highlights: • Methoxymethyl side chain in p-phenylenediamine reduces its strong skin sensitizing properties. • Reduced protein reactivity and dendritic cell activation. • Reduced skin sensitizing potency in local lymph node assay (LLNA). • Negligible allergy induction risk under hair dye usage conditions

  19. Male circumcision significantly reduces prevalence and load of genital anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy M; Hungate, Bruce A; Tobian, Aaron A R; Serwadda, David; Ravel, Jacques; Lester, Richard; Kigozi, Godfrey; Aziz, Maliha; Galiwango, Ronald M; Nalugoda, Fred; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L; Wawer, Maria J; Keim, Paul; Gray, Ronald H; Price, Lance B

    2013-04-16

    Male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV transmission. Hypothesized mechanisms for this protective effect include decreased HIV target cell recruitment and activation due to changes in the penis microbiome. We compared the coronal sulcus microbiota of men from a group of uncircumcised controls (n = 77) and from a circumcised intervention group (n = 79) at enrollment and year 1 follow-up in a randomized circumcision trial in Rakai, Uganda. We characterized microbiota using16S rRNA gene-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) and pyrosequencing, log response ratio (LRR), Bayesian classification, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), and permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PerMANOVA). At baseline, men in both study arms had comparable coronal sulcus microbiota; however, by year 1, circumcision decreased the total bacterial load and reduced microbiota biodiversity. Specifically, the prevalence and absolute abundance of 12 anaerobic bacterial taxa decreased significantly in the circumcised men. While aerobic bacterial taxa also increased postcircumcision, these gains were minor. The reduction in anaerobes may partly account for the effects of circumcision on reduced HIV acquisition. The bacterial changes identified in this study may play an important role in the HIV risk reduction conferred by male circumcision. Decreasing the load of specific anaerobes could reduce HIV target cell recruitment to the foreskin. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the benefits of male circumcision could help to identify new intervention strategies for decreasing HIV transmission, applicable to populations with high HIV prevalence where male circumcision is culturally less acceptable.

  20. A chimpanzee recognizes synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Beran, Michael J; Owren, Michael J

    2011-07-26

    A long-standing debate concerns whether humans are specialized for speech perception, which some researchers argue is demonstrated by the ability to understand synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content. We tested a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) that recognizes 128 spoken words, asking whether she could understand such speech. Three experiments presented 48 individual words, with the animal selecting a corresponding visuographic symbol from among four alternatives. Experiment 1 tested spectrally reduced, noise-vocoded (NV) synthesis, originally developed to simulate input received by human cochlear-implant users. Experiment 2 tested "impossibly unspeechlike" sine-wave (SW) synthesis, which reduces speech to just three moving tones. Although receiving only intermittent and noncontingent reward, the chimpanzee performed well above chance level, including when hearing synthetic versions for the first time. Recognition of SW words was least accurate but improved in experiment 3 when natural words in the same session were rewarded. The chimpanzee was more accurate with NV than SW versions, as were 32 human participants hearing these items. The chimpanzee's ability to spontaneously recognize acoustically reduced synthetic words suggests that experience rather than specialization is critical for speech-perception capabilities that some have suggested are uniquely human. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Potent corticosteroid cream (mometasone furoate) significantly reduces acute radiation dermatitis: results from a double-blind, randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Aasa; Lindman, Henrik; Swartling, Carl; Berne, Berit; Bergh, Jonas

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy, and may necessitate interruption of the therapy. There is a substantial lack of evidence-based treatments for this condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mometasone furoate cream (MMF) on radiation dermatitis in a prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Material and methods: The study comprised 49 patients with node-negative breast cancer. They were operated on with sector resection and scheduled for postoperative radiotherapy using photons with identical radiation qualities and dosage to the breast parenchyma. The patients were randomized to receive either MMF or emollient cream. The cream was applied on the irradiated skin twice a week from the start of radiotherapy until the 12th fraction (24 Gy) and thereafter once daily until 3 weeks after completion of radiation. Both groups additionally received non-blinded emollient cream daily. The intensity of the acute radiation dermatitis was evaluated on a weekly basis regarding erythema and pigmentation, using a reflectance spectrophotometer together with visual scoring of the skin reactions. Results: MMF in combination with emollient cream treatment significantly decreased acute radiation dermatitis (P=0.0033) compared with emollient cream alone. There was no significant difference in pigmentation between the two groups. Conclusions: Adding MMF, a potent topical corticosteroid, to an emollient cream is statistically significantly more effective than emollient cream alone in reducing acute radiation dermatitis

  2. Defibrillator charging before rhythm analysis significantly reduces hands-off time during resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. K.; Folkestad, L.; Brabrand, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to reduce hands-off time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation as increased hands-off time leads to higher mortality. METHODS: The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2005 and ERC 2010 guidelines were compared with an alternative sequence (ALT). Pulseless ventricular...... physicians were included. All had prior experience in advanced life support. Chest compressions were shorter interrupted using ALT (mean, 6.7 vs 13.0 seconds). Analyzing data for ventricular tachycardia scenarios only, hands-off time was shorter using ALT (mean, 7.1 vs 18.2 seconds). In ERC 2010 vs ALT, 12...... physicians were included. Two physicians had not prior experience in advanced life support. Hands-off time was reduced using ALT (mean, 3.9 vs 5.6 seconds). Looking solely at ventricular tachycardia scenarios, hands-off time was shortened using ALT (mean, 4.5 vs 7.6 seconds). No significant reduction...

  3. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand; Brault, Christophe; Bruze, Magnus; Eudes, Hervé; Gadras, Catherine; Signoret, Anne-Cécile J; Mose, Kristian F; Müller, Boris P; Toulemonde, Bernard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-02-01

    Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control subjects. In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less allergic contact dermatitis in previously oak moss-sensitized individuals, suggesting that new oak moss is less allergenic to non-sensitized individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Biosynthesis and incorporation of side-chain-truncated lignin monomers to reduce lignin polymerization and enhance saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, Aymerick; George, Anthe; Mukerjee, Purba; Kim, Jin S; Pollet, Brigitte; Benke, Peter I; Yang, Fan; Mitra, Prajakta; Sun, Lan; Cetinkol, Ozgül P; Chabout, Salem; Mouille, Grégory; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Balzergue, Sandrine; Singh, Seema; Holmes, Bradley M; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D; Simmons, Blake A; Lapierre, Catherine; Ralph, John; Loqué, Dominique

    2012-06-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is utilized as a renewable feedstock in various agro-industrial activities. Lignin is an aromatic, hydrophobic and mildly branched polymer integrally associated with polysaccharides within the biomass, which negatively affects their extraction and hydrolysis during industrial processing. Engineering the monomer composition of lignins offers an attractive option towards new lignins with reduced recalcitrance. The presented work describes a new strategy developed in Arabidopsis for the overproduction of rare lignin monomers to reduce lignin polymerization degree (DP). Biosynthesis of these 'DP reducers' is achieved by expressing a bacterial hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA hydratase-lyase (HCHL) in lignifying tissues of Arabidopsis inflorescence stems. HCHL cleaves the propanoid side-chain of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA lignin precursors to produce the corresponding hydroxybenzaldehydes so that plant stems expressing HCHL accumulate in their cell wall higher amounts of hydroxybenzaldehyde and hydroxybenzoate derivatives. Engineered plants with intermediate HCHL activity levels show no reduction in total lignin, sugar content or biomass yield compared with wild-type plants. However, cell wall characterization of extract-free stems by thioacidolysis and by 2D-NMR revealed an increased amount of unusual C₆C₁ lignin monomers most likely linked with lignin as end-groups. Moreover the analysis of lignin isolated from these plants using size-exclusion chromatography revealed a reduced molecular weight. Furthermore, these engineered lines show saccharification improvement of pretreated stem cell walls. Therefore, we conclude that enhancing the biosynthesis and incorporation of C₆C₁ monomers ('DP reducers') into lignin polymers represents a promising strategy to reduce lignin DP and to decrease cell wall recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied

  5. Four-phonon scattering significantly reduces intrinsic thermal conductivity of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tianli; Lindsay, Lucas; Ruan, Xiulin

    2017-10-01

    For decades, the three-phonon scattering process has been considered to govern thermal transport in solids, while the role of higher-order four-phonon scattering has been persistently unclear and so ignored. However, recent quantitative calculations of three-phonon scattering have often shown a significant overestimation of thermal conductivity as compared to experimental values. In this Rapid Communication we show that four-phonon scattering is generally important in solids and can remedy such discrepancies. For silicon and diamond, the predicted thermal conductivity is reduced by 30% at 1000 K after including four-phonon scattering, bringing predictions in excellent agreement with measurements. For the projected ultrahigh-thermal conductivity material, zinc-blende BAs, a competitor of diamond as a heat sink material, four-phonon scattering is found to be strikingly strong as three-phonon processes have an extremely limited phase space for scattering. The four-phonon scattering reduces the predicted thermal conductivity from 2200 to 1400 W/m K at room temperature. The reduction at 1000 K is 60%. We also find that optical phonon scattering rates are largely affected, being important in applications such as phonon bottlenecks in equilibrating electronic excitations. Recognizing that four-phonon scattering is expensive to calculate, in the end we provide some guidelines on how to quickly assess the significance of four-phonon scattering, based on energy surface anharmonicity and the scattering phase space. Our work clears the decades-long fundamental question of the significance of higher-order scattering, and points out ways to improve thermoelectrics, thermal barrier coatings, nuclear materials, and radiative heat transfer.

  6. Clinical Significance of Lymph Node Metastasis in the Mesentery of the Terminal Ileum in Patients With Right-sided Colon Tumors at Different Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung Il; Kim, Duck-Woo; Shin, Eun; Kim, Myung Jo; Son, Il Tae; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2018-06-01

    There are limited reports on peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in patients with right-sided colon cancer, and little is known about their clinical significance. This study aimed to examine the role of tumor location in the prevalence and clinical significance of peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in patients with right-sided colon cancer. This is a retrospective study from a prospective cohort database. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. Patients with right-sided colon cancer treated with radical surgery in a hospital between May 2006 and September 2016 were included. The frequency of peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in the study cohort and the role of tumor location and the clinical characteristics of patients with peri-ileal lymph node metastasis were determined. We examined 752 cases with right-sided colon cancer including 82 cecal, 554 ascending colon, and 116 hepatic flexure cancer. Twenty patients (2.7%) had peri-ileal lymph node metastasis. The incidence of metastasis to peri-ileal lymph nodes was 7.3% (6/82) in patients with cecal cancer, 2.2% (12/554) in patients with ascending colon cancer, and 1.7% (2/116) in patients with hepatic flexure cancer. Three patients had stage III cancer and 17 had stage IV. All 3 patients with positive peri-ileal lymph nodes and stage III cancer had cecal tumors. In contrast, all patients with ascending colon or hepatic flexure cancer and positive peri-ileal lymph nodes had stage IV cancer. The results were limited by the retrospective design of the study and the small number of patients with peri-ileal lymph node metastasis. Peri-ileal lymph node metastasis was rare even in right-sided colon cancer and occurred mainly in stage IV. However, it occurred in some patients with locally advanced cecal cancer. These results suggest that optimal resection of the mesentery of the terminal ileum might have clinical benefit, especially in curative surgery for cecal cancer. See Video Abstract at http

  7. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  8. Nano-CL-20/HMX Cocrystal Explosive for Significantly Reduced Mechanical Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwei An

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying method was used to prepare cocrystals of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX. Raw materials and cocrystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Impact and friction sensitivity of cocrystals were tested and analyzed. Results show that, after preparation by spray drying method, microparticles were spherical in shape and 0.5–5 µm in size. Particles formed aggregates of numerous tiny plate-like cocrystals, whereas CL-20/HMX cocrystals had thicknesses of below 100 nm. Cocrystals were formed by C–H⋯O bonding between –NO2 (CL-20 and –CH2– (HMX. Nanococrystal explosives exhibited drop height of 47.3 cm, and friction demonstrated explosion probability of 64%. Compared with raw HMX, cocrystals displayed significantly reduced mechanical sensitivity.

  9. Full Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibition Combined with Partial Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibition: Augmented and Sustained Antinociceptive Effects with Reduced Cannabimimetic Side Effects in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Kinsey, Steven G; Liu, Qing-Song; Hruba, Lenka; McMahon, Lance R; Grim, Travis W; Merritt, Christina R; Wise, Laura E; Abdullah, Rehab A; Selley, Dana E; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H

    2015-08-01

    Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary hydrolytic enzymes for the respective endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), produces antinociception but with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Although selective inhibitors of either enzyme often show partial efficacy in various nociceptive models, their combined blockade elicits augmented antinociceptive effects, but side effects emerge. Moreover, complete and prolonged MAGL blockade leads to cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor functional tolerance, which represents another challenge in this potential therapeutic strategy. Therefore, the present study tested whether full FAAH inhibition combined with partial MAGL inhibition would produce sustained antinociceptive effects with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Accordingly, we tested a high dose of the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (N-​3-​pyridinyl-​4-​[[3-​[[5-​(trifluoromethyl)-​2-​pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-​1-​piperidinecarboxamide; 10 mg/kg) given in combination with a low dose of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 [4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate] (4 mg/kg) in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. This combination of inhibitors elicited profound increases in brain AEA levels (>10-fold) but only 2- to 3-fold increases in brain 2-AG levels. This combination produced significantly greater antinociceptive effects than single enzyme inhibition and did not elicit common cannabimimetic effects (e.g., catalepsy, hypomotility, hypothermia, and substitution for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in the drug-discrimination assay), although these side effects emerged with high-dose JZL184 (i.e., 100 mg/kg). Finally, repeated administration of this combination did not lead to tolerance to its antiallodynic actions in the carrageenan assay or CB1 receptor functional tolerance. Thus, full FAAH inhibition

  10. Implementation of standardized follow-up care significantly reduces peritonitis in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Alicia M; Richardson, Troy; Lawlor, John; Stuart, Jayne; Newland, Jason; McAfee, Nancy; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-06-01

    The Standardizing Care to improve Outcomes in Pediatric End stage renal disease (SCOPE) Collaborative aims to reduce peritonitis rates in pediatric chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by increasing implementation of standardized care practices. To assess this, monthly care bundle compliance and annualized monthly peritonitis rates were evaluated from 24 SCOPE centers that were participating at collaborative launch and that provided peritonitis rates for the 13 months prior to launch. Changes in bundle compliance were assessed using either a logistic regression model or a generalized linear mixed model. Changes in average annualized peritonitis rates over time were illustrated using the latter model. In the first 36 months of the collaborative, 644 patients with 7977 follow-up encounters were included. The likelihood of compliance with follow-up care practices increased significantly (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.10, 1.19). Mean monthly peritonitis rates significantly decreased from 0.63 episodes per patient year (95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.92) prelaunch to 0.42 (95% confidence interval 0.31, 0.57) at 36 months postlaunch. A sensitivity analysis confirmed that as mean follow-up compliance increased, peritonitis rates decreased, reaching statistical significance at 80% at which point the prelaunch rate was 42% higher than the rate in the months following achievement of 80% compliance. In its first 3 years, the SCOPE Collaborative has increased the implementation of standardized follow-up care and demonstrated a significant reduction in average monthly peritonitis rates. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly reduces xerostomia compared with conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braam, Petra M.; Terhaard, Chris H.J. M.D.; Roesink, Judith M.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a severe complication after radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer, as the salivary glands are in close proximity with the primary tumor. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) offers theoretical advantages for normal tissue sparing. A Phase II study was conducted to determine the value of IMRT for salivary output preservation compared with conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 56 patients with oropharyngeal cancer were prospectively evaluated. Of these, 30 patients were treated with IMRT and 26 with CRT. Stimulated parotid salivary flow was measured before, 6 weeks, and 6 months after treatment. A complication was defined as a stimulated parotid flow rate <25% of the preradiotherapy flow rate. Results: The mean dose to the parotid glands was 48.1 Gy (SD 14 Gy) for CRT and 33.7 Gy (SD 10 Gy) for IMRT (p < 0.005). The mean parotid flow ratio 6 weeks and 6 months after treatment was respectively 41% and 64% for IMRT and respectively 11% and 18% for CRT. As a result, 6 weeks after treatment, the number of parotid flow complications was significantly lower after IMRT (55%) than after CRT (87%) (p = 0.002). The number of complications 6 months after treatment was 56% for IMRT and 81% for CRT (p = 0.04). Conclusions: IMRT significantly reduces the number of parotid flow complications for patients with oropharyngeal cancer

  12. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui; Alotaibi, Hamad S.; Sun, Haiding; Lin, Ronghui; Guo, Wenzhe; Torres-Castanedo, Carlos G.; Liu, Kaikai; Galan, Sergio V.; Li, Xiaohang

    2018-01-01

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  13. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui

    2018-02-23

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  14. Phosphate conversion coating reduces the degradation rate and suppresses side effects of metallic magnesium implants in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Tavares, Ana; Evertz, Florian; Kieke, Marc; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Eifler, Rainer; Weizbauer, Andreas; Willbold, Elmar; Jürgen Maier, Hans; Glasmacher, Birgit; Behrens, Peter; Hauser, Hansjörg; Mueller, Peter P

    2017-08-01

    Magnesium alloys have promising mechanical and biological properties for the development of degradable implants. However, rapid implant corrosion and gas accumulations in tissue impede clinical applications. With time, the implant degradation rate is reduced by a highly biocompatible, phosphate-containing corrosion layer. To circumvent initial side effects after implantation it was attempted to develop a simple in vitro procedure to generate a similarly protective phosphate corrosion layer. To this end magnesium samples were pre-incubated in phosphate solutions. The resulting coating was well adherent during routine handling procedures. It completely suppressed the initial burst of corrosion and it reduced the average in vitro magnesium degradation rate over 56 days almost two-fold. In a small animal model phosphate coatings on magnesium implants were highly biocompatible and abrogated the appearance of gas cavities in the tissue. After implantation, the phosphate coating was replaced by a layer with an elemental composition that was highly similar to the corrosion layer that had formed on plain magnesium implants. The data demonstrate that a simple pre-treatment could improve clinically relevant properties of magnesium-based implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1622-1635, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Using lytic bacteriophages to eliminate or significantly reduce contamination of food by foodborne bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Bacteriophages (also called 'phages') are viruses that kill bacteria. They are arguably the oldest (3 billion years old, by some estimates) and most ubiquitous (total number estimated to be 10(30) -10(32) ) known organisms on Earth. Phages play a key role in maintaining microbial balance in every ecosystem where bacteria exist, and they are part of the normal microflora of all fresh, unprocessed foods. Interest in various practical applications of bacteriophages has been gaining momentum recently, with perhaps the most attention focused on using them to improve food safety. That approach, called 'phage biocontrol', typically includes three main types of applications: (i) using phages to treat domesticated livestock in order to reduce their intestinal colonization with, and shedding of, specific bacterial pathogens; (ii) treatments for decontaminating inanimate surfaces in food-processing facilities and other food establishments, so that foods processed on those surfaces are not cross-contaminated with the targeted pathogens; and (iii) post-harvest treatments involving direct applications of phages onto the harvested foods. This mini-review primarily focuses on the last type of intervention, which has been gaining the most momentum recently. Indeed, the results of recent studies dealing with improving food safety, and several recent regulatory approvals of various commercial phage preparations developed for post-harvest food safety applications, strongly support the idea that lytic phages may provide a safe, environmentally-friendly, and effective approach for significantly reducing contamination of various foods with foodborne bacterial pathogens. However, some important technical and nontechnical problems may need to be addressed before phage biocontrol protocols can become an integral part of routine food safety intervention strategies implemented by food industries in the USA. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Pharmacological kynurenine 3-monooxygenase enzyme inhibition significantly reduces neuropathic pain in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewska, Ewelina; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the involvement of the kynurenine pathway in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, but the role of this system in neuropathic pain requires further extensive research. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the role of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (Kmo), an enzyme that is important in this pathway, in a rat model of neuropathy after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. For the first time, we demonstrated that the injury-induced increase in the Kmo mRNA levels in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was reduced by chronic administration of the microglial inhibitor minocycline and that this effect paralleled a decrease in the intensity of neuropathy. Further, minocycline administration alleviated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of Kmo mRNA expression in microglial cell cultures. Moreover, we demonstrated that not only indirect inhibition of Kmo using minocycline but also direct inhibition using Kmo inhibitors (Ro61-6048 and JM6) decreased neuropathic pain intensity on the third and the seventh days after CCI. Chronic Ro61-6048 administration diminished the protein levels of IBA-1, IL-6, IL-1beta and NOS2 in the spinal cord and/or the DRG. Both Kmo inhibitors potentiated the analgesic properties of morphine. In summary, our data suggest that in neuropathic pain model, inhibiting Kmo function significantly reduces pain symptoms and enhances the effectiveness of morphine. The results of our studies show that the kynurenine pathway is an important mediator of neuropathic pain pathology and indicate that Kmo represents a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intriguing model significantly reduces boarding of psychiatric patients, need for inpatient hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As new approaches to the care of psychiatric emergencies emerge, one solution is gaining particular traction. Under the Alameda model, which has been put into practice in Alameda County, CA, patients who are brought to regional EDs with emergency psychiatric issues are quickly transferred to a designated emergency psychiatric facility as soon as they are medically stabilized. This alleviates boarding problems in area EDs while also quickly connecting patients with specialized care. With data in hand on the model's effectiveness, developers believe the approach could alleviate boarding problems in other communities as well. The model is funded by through a billing code established by California's Medicaid program for crisis stabilization services. Currently, only 22% of the patients brought to the emergency psychiatric facility ultimately need to be hospitalized; the other 78% are able to go home or to an alternative situation. In a 30-day study of the model, involving five community hospitals in Alameda County, CA, researchers found that ED boarding times were as much as 80% lower than comparable ED averages, and that patients were stabilized at least 75% of the time, significantly reducing the need for inpatient hospitalization.

  18. Significantly reduced hypoxemic events in morbidly obese patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: Predictors and practice effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gouda Goudra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing anesthesia for gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy procedures in morbidly obese patients is a challenge for a variety of reasons. The negative impact of obesity on the respiratory system combined with a need to share the upper airway and necessity to preserve the spontaneous ventilation, together add to difficulties. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with a body mass index (BMI >40 kg/m 2 that underwent out-patient GI endoscopy between September 2010 and February 2011. Patient data was analyzed for procedure, airway management technique as well as hypoxemic and cardiovascular events. Results: A total of 119 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our innovative airway management technique resulted in a lower rate of intraoperative hypoxemic events compared with any published data available. Frequency of desaturation episodes showed statistically significant relation to previous history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. These desaturation episodes were found to be statistically independent of increasing BMI of patients. Conclusion: Pre-operative history of OSA irrespective of associated BMI values can be potentially used as a predictor of intra-procedural desaturation. With suitable modification of anesthesia technique, it is possible to reduce the incidence of adverse respiratory events in morbidly obese patients undergoing GI endoscopy procedures, thereby avoiding the need for endotracheal intubation.

  19. Significantly reduced hypoxemic events in morbidly obese patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: Predictors and practice effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudra, Basavana Gouda; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Penugonda, Lakshmi C; Speck, Rebecca M; Sinha, Ashish C

    2014-01-01

    Providing anesthesia for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy procedures in morbidly obese patients is a challenge for a variety of reasons. The negative impact of obesity on the respiratory system combined with a need to share the upper airway and necessity to preserve the spontaneous ventilation, together add to difficulties. This retrospective cohort study included patients with a body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m(2) that underwent out-patient GI endoscopy between September 2010 and February 2011. Patient data was analyzed for procedure, airway management technique as well as hypoxemic and cardiovascular events. A total of 119 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our innovative airway management technique resulted in a lower rate of intraoperative hypoxemic events compared with any published data available. Frequency of desaturation episodes showed statistically significant relation to previous history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These desaturation episodes were found to be statistically independent of increasing BMI of patients. Pre-operative history of OSA irrespective of associated BMI values can be potentially used as a predictor of intra-procedural desaturation. With suitable modification of anesthesia technique, it is possible to reduce the incidence of adverse respiratory events in morbidly obese patients undergoing GI endoscopy procedures, thereby avoiding the need for endotracheal intubation.

  20. The small-molecule TNF-alpha modulator, UTL-5g, reduces side effects induced by cisplatin and enhances the therapeutic effect of cisplatin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, JiaJiu; Chen, Ben; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Lee, An-Rong; Media, Joseph; Valeriote, Frederick A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated a small-molecule modulator of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), UTL-5g (also referred to as GBL-5g), as a potential chemoprotective agent against cisplatin-induced side effects including nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and hematotoxicity. Pretreatment of UTL-5g i.p. in BDF1 mice reduced the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine induced by cisplatin treatment. The levels of both aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in these animals were also reduced by UTL-5g. Pretreatment of UTL-5g did not significantly affect the number of white blood cells (WBC) under current experimental conditions, yet it markedly increased blood platelet counts by more than threefold. Therapeutic assessment in SCID mice inoculated with human HCT-15 tumor cells showed that UTL-5g did not attenuate the anti-tumor effect of cisplatin but increased the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin. The LD50 of UTL-5g was determined to be > 2,000 mg/kg by an acute toxicity study. In summary, our studies showed that 1) UTL-5g significantly reduces nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by cisplatin in mice, presumably by lowering the levels of TNF-alpha, 2) UTL-5g markedly increased blood platelet counts in mice and 3) UTL-5g treatment increased the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin against HCT-15 cells inoculated in SCID mice.

  1. Environmental program with operational cases to reduce risk to the marine environment significantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.T.; Forde, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper Amoco Norway Oil Company's environmental program is detailed, followed by example operational programs and achievements aimed to minimize environmental risks to the marine environment at Valhall platform. With a corporate goal to be a leader in protecting the environment, the appropriate strategies and policies that form the basis of the environmental management system are incorporated in the quality assurance programs. Also, included in the program are necessary organizational structures, responsibilities of environmental affairs and line organization personnel, compliance procedures and a waste task force obliged to implement operations improvements. An internal environmental audit system has been initiated, in addition to corporate level audits, which, when communicated to the line organization closes the environmental management loop through experience feed back. Environmental projects underway are significantly decreasing the extent and/or risk of pollution from offshore activities. The cradle to grave responsibility is assumed with waste separated offshore and onshore followed by disposal in audited sites. A $5 MM program is underway to control produced oily solids and reduce oil in produced water aiming to less than 20 ppm. When oil-based mud is used in deeper hole sections, drill solids disposed at sea average less than 60 g oil/kg dry cuttings using appropriate shaker screens, and a washing/centrifuge system to remove fines. Certain oily liquid wastes are being injected down hole whereas previously they were burned using a mud burner. Finally, a program is underway with a goal to eliminate sea discharge of oil on cuttings through injection disposal of oily wastes, drilling with alternative muds such as a cationic water base mud, and/or proper onshore disposal of oily wastes

  2. Simultaneous bilateral stereotactic procedure for deep brain stimulation implants: a significant step for reducing operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Azevedo, Angelo; Angelos, Jairo Silva Dos; Martinez, Raquel Chacon Ruiz; Navarro, Jessie; Reis, Paul Rodrigo; Sepulveda, Miguel Ernesto San Martin; Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Ghilardi, Maria Gabriela Dos Santos; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Lopez, William Omar Contreras

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Currently, bilateral procedures involve 2 sequential implants in each of the hemispheres. The present report demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous bilateral procedures during the implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads. METHODS Fifty-seven patients with movement disorders underwent bilateral DBS implantation in the same study period. The authors compared the time required for the surgical implantation of deep brain electrodes in 2 randomly assigned groups. One group of 28 patients underwent traditional sequential electrode implantation, and the other 29 patients underwent simultaneous bilateral implantation. Clinical outcomes of the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who had undergone DBS implantation of the subthalamic nucleus using either of the 2 techniques were compared. RESULTS Overall, a reduction of 38.51% in total operating time for the simultaneous bilateral group (136.4 ± 20.93 minutes) as compared with that for the traditional consecutive approach (220.3 ± 27.58 minutes) was observed. Regarding clinical outcomes in the PD patients who underwent subthalamic nucleus DBS implantation, comparing the preoperative off-medication condition with the off-medication/on-stimulation condition 1 year after the surgery in both procedure groups, there was a mean 47.8% ± 9.5% improvement in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III) score in the simultaneous group, while the sequential group experienced 47.5% ± 15.8% improvement (p = 0.96). Moreover, a marked reduction in the levodopa-equivalent dose from preoperatively to postoperatively was similar in these 2 groups. The simultaneous bilateral procedure presented major advantages over the traditional sequential approach, with a shorter total operating time. CONCLUSIONS A simultaneous stereotactic approach significantly reduces the operation time in bilateral DBS procedures, resulting in decreased microrecording time, contributing to the optimization of functional

  3. Pneumoperitoneum induced ischemia-reperfusion injury of the peritoneum-Preconditioning may reduce the negative side-effects caused by carbon-dioxide pneumoperitoneum-Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Tünde Gyöngyvér; Takács, Ildikó; Nagy, Tibor; Jancsó, Gábor; Kondor, Ariella; Pótó, László; Vereczkei, András

    2018-04-13

    Laparoscopy is more beneficial than the conventional open technique, however the pneumoperitoneum created may have an ischemic side effect. Our aim was to evaluate the protective effects of preconditioning during laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC). 30 patients were randomized into 2 groups: I. PreC (preconditioning: 5 min. inflation, 5 min. deflation, followed by conventional LC), II: LC (conventional LC). Blood samples were taken before hospitalization (C = control), before surgery, after anaesthesia (B.S.), after surgery (A.S.) and 24 hours after the procedure (24 h). Measured parameters were: malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), sulfhydril groups (-SH), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), length of hospitalization and pain (VAS = visual analogue scale). Compared to the BS levels, no significant changes were detected in SOD's activity and MDA levels. GSH concentrations were significantly increased in the PreC group after operation. SH-, MPO, CAT and liver function enzymes were not significantly different. Hospitalization was shorter in the PreC group. Based on the VAS score patients had less pain in the PreC group. Significant differences concerning PreC group were found in GSH values. In the PreC group pain decreased by 2-2.5 units following the procedure, 24 h after surgery, and hospitalisation was also significantly shorter. In our pilot study the potential protective effect of preconditioning could be defined.

  4. Soil nitrate reducing processes drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, M.; Morley, N.; Baggs, E.M.; Daniell, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium\\ud (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for\\ud the loss of nitrate (NO−\\ud 3 ) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O).\\ud A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and\\ud moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms\\ud responsible for the ...

  5. Pegasus project. DLC coating and low viscosity oil reduce energy losses significantly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerwald, Dave; Jacobs, Ruud [Hauzer Techno Coating (Netherlands). Tribological Coatings

    2012-03-15

    Pegasus, the flying horse from Greek mythology, is a suitable name for the research project initiated by a German automotive OEM with participation of Hauzer Techno Coating and several automotive suppliers. It will enable future automotive vehicles to reduce fuel consumption without losing power. The project described in this article focuses on the rear differential, because reducing friction here can contribute considerably to efficiency improvement of the whole vehicle. Surfaces, coating and oil viscosity have been investigated and interesting conclusions have been reached. (orig.)

  6. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...

  7. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Daniell, Tim J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3−) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N2O production from soils. PMID:23264770

  8. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Eleanore Giles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3-¬ and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O. A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub cm areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location and potential for N2O production from soils.

  9. Soil nitrate reducing processes - drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Daniell, Tim J

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate ([Formula: see text]) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N(2)O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O(2) concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N(2)O production from soils.

  10. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  11. The Evolution of Polymer Composition during PHA Accumulation: The Significance of Reducing Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Montano-Herrera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic investigation into monomer development during mixed culture Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA accumulation involving concurrent active biomass growth and polymer storage. A series of mixed culture PHA accumulation experiments, using several different substrate-feeding strategies, was carried out. The feedstock comprised volatile fatty acids, which were applied as single carbon sources, as mixtures, or in series, using a fed-batch feed-on-demand controlled bioprocess. A dynamic trend in active biomass growth as well as polymer composition was observed. The observations were consistent over replicate accumulations. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA was used to investigate metabolic activity through time. It was concluded that carbon flux, and consequently copolymer composition, could be linked with how reducing equivalents are generated.

  12. Significantly reduced c-axis thermal diffusivity of graphene-based papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meng; Xie, Yangsu; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jingchao; Wang, Xinwei

    2018-06-01

    Owing to their very high thermal conductivity as well as large surface-to-volume ratio, graphene-based films/papers have been proposed as promising candidates of lightweight thermal interface materials and lateral heat spreaders. In this work, we study the cross-plane (c-axis) thermal conductivity (k c ) and diffusivity (α c ) of two typical graphene-based papers, which are partially reduced graphene paper (PRGP) and graphene oxide paper (GOP), and compare their thermal properties with highly-reduced graphene paper and graphite. The determined α c of PRGP varies from (1.02 ± 0.09) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 295 K to (2.31 ± 0.18) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 12 K. This low α c is mainly attributed to the strong phonon scattering at the grain boundaries and defect centers due to the small grain sizes and high-level defects. For GOP, α c varies from (1.52 ± 0.05) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 295 K to (2.28 ± 0.08) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 12.5 K. The cross-plane thermal transport of GOP is attributed to the high density of functional groups between carbon layers which provide weak thermal transport tunnels across the layers in the absence of direct energy coupling among layers. This work sheds light on the understanding and optimizing of nanostructure of graphene-based paper-like materials for desired thermal performance.

  13. Technological significances to reduce the material problems. Feasibility of heat flux reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Shimada, Michiya.

    1994-01-01

    For a divertor plate in a fusion power reactor, a high temperature coolant must be used for heat removal to keep thermal efficiency high. It makes the temperature and thermal stress of wall materials higher than the design limits. Issues of the coolant itself, e.g. burnout of high temperature water, will also become a serious problem. Sputtering erosion of the surface material will be a great concern of its lifetime. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the heat and particle loads to the divertor plate technologically. The feasibility of some technological methods of heat reduction, such as separatrix sweeping, is discussed. As one of the most promising ideas, the methods of radiative cooling of the divertor plasma are summarized based on the recent results of large tokamaks. The feasibility of remote radiative cooling and gas divertor is discussed. The ideas are considered in recent design studies of tokamak power reactors and experimental reactors. By way of example, conceptual designs of divertor plate for the steady state tokamak power reactor are described. (author)

  14. Thrombolysis significantly reduces transient myocardial ischaemia following first acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate whether thrombolysis affects residual myocardial ischaemia, we prospectively performed a predischarge maximal exercise test and early out-of-hospital ambulatory ST segment monitoring in 123 consecutive men surviving a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Seventy......-four patients fulfilled our criteria for thrombolysis, but only the last 35 patients included received thrombolytic therapy. As thrombolysis was not available in our Department at the start of the study, the first 39 patients included were conservatively treated (controls). No significant differences...... in baseline clinical characteristics were found between the two groups. In-hospital atrial fibrillation and digoxin therapy was more prevalent in controls (P less than 0.05). During exercise, thrombolysed patients reached a higher maximal work capacity compared with controls: 160 +/- 41 vs 139 +/- 34 W (P...

  15. Selenium Supplementation Significantly Reduces Thyroid Autoantibody Levels in Patients with Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichman, Johanna Eva Märta; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium supplementation may decrease circulating thyroid autoantibodies in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), but the available trials are heterogenous. This study expands and critically reappraises the knowledge on this topic. METHODS: A literature search identified...... 3366 records. Controlled trials in adults (≥18 years of age) with AIT, comparing selenium with or without levothyroxine (LT4), versus placebo and/or LT4, were eligible. Assessed outcomes were serum thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) autoantibody levels, and immunomodulatory effects...... and LT4-untreated. Heterogeneity was estimated using I(2), and quality of evidence was assessed per outcome, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. RESULTS: In LT4-treated populations, the selenium group had significantly lower TPOAb levels after...

  16. A case of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma which was significantly reduced in size by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azakami, Kiyoshi; Nishida, Kouji; Tanikawa, Ken

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization classified gastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) into three types: NET grade (G) 1, NET G2 and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). NECs are associated with a very poor prognosis. The patient was an 84-year-old female who was initially diagnosed by gastrointestinal endoscope with type 3 advanced gastric cancer with stenosis of the gastric cardia. Her overall status and performance status did not allow for operations or intensive chemotherapy. Palliative radiotherapy was performed and resulted in a significant reduction in the size of the tumor as well as the improvement of the obstructive symptoms. She died 9 months after radiotherapy. An autopsy provided a definitive diagnosis of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma, and the effectiveness of radiotherapy was pathologically-confirmed. Palliative radiotherapy may be a useful treatment option for providing symptom relief, especially for old patients with unresectable advanced gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma. (author)

  17. Ad libitum Mediterranean and Low Fat Diets both Significantly Reduce Hepatic Steatosis: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, Catherine; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Sherriff, Jill L; Ching, Helena L; Jeffrey, Garry P; Buckley, Rachel F; Tibballs, Jonathan; MacQuillan, Gerry C; Garas, George; Adams, Leon A

    2018-05-05

    Although diet induced weight loss is first-line treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), long-term maintenance is difficult. The optimal diet for either improvement in NAFLD or associated cardio-metabolic risk factors regardless of weight loss, is unknown. We examined the effect of two ad libitum isocaloric diets [Mediterranean (MD) or Low Fat (LF)] on hepatic steatosis and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Subjects with NAFLD were randomized to a 12-week blinded dietary intervention (MD vs LF). Hepatic steatosis was determined via magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). From a total of 56 subjects enrolled, 49 subjects completed the intervention and 48 were included for analysis. During the intervention, subjects on the MD had significantly higher total and monounsaturated fat but lower carbohydrate and sodium intakes compared to LF subjects (pfat reduction between the groups (p=0.32), with mean (SD) relative reductions of 25.0% (±25.3%) in LF and 32.4% (±25.5%) in MD. Liver enzymes also improved significantly in both groups. Weight loss was minimal and not different between groups [-1.6 (±2.1)kg in LF vs -2.1 (±2.5)kg in MD, (p=0.52)]. Within-group improvements in the Framingham risk score, total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, and HbA1c were observed in the MD (all pvs. 64%, p=0.048). Ad libitum low fat and Mediterranean diets both improve hepatic steatosis to a similar degree. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Social networking strategies that aim to reduce obesity have achieved significant although modest results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Harling, Leanne; Kerr, Karen; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues to escalate. Obesity accounts for an increasing proportion of the international socioeconomic burden of noncommunicable disease. Online social networking services provide an effective medium through which information may be exchanged between obese and overweight patients and their health care providers, potentially contributing to superior weight-loss outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of these services in modifying body mass index (BMI). Our analysis of twelve studies found that interventions using social networking services produced a modest but significant 0.64 percent reduction in BMI from baseline for the 941 people who participated in the studies' interventions. We recommend that social networking services that target obesity should be the subject of further clinical trials. Additionally, we recommend that policy makers adopt reforms that promote the use of anti-obesity social networking services, facilitate multistakeholder partnerships in such services, and create a supportive environment to confront obesity and its associated noncommunicable diseases. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. Targeting Heparin to Collagen within Extracellular Matrix Significantly Reduces Thrombogenicity and Improves Endothelialization of Decellularized Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Suen, Rachel; Wertheim, Jason A; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2016-12-12

    Thrombosis within small-diameter vascular grafts limits the development of bioartificial, engineered vascular conduits, especially those derived from extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we describe an easy-to-implement strategy to chemically modify vascular ECM by covalently linking a collagen binding peptide (CBP) to heparin to form a heparin derivative (CBP-heparin) that selectively binds a subset of collagens. Modification of ECM with CBP-heparin leads to increased deposition of functional heparin (by ∼7.2-fold measured by glycosaminoglycan composition) and a corresponding reduction in platelet binding (>70%) and whole blood clotting (>80%) onto the ECM. Furthermore, addition of CBP-heparin to the ECM stabilizes long-term endothelial cell attachment to the lumen of ECM-derived vascular conduits, potentially through recruitment of heparin-binding growth factors that ultimately improve the durability of endothelialization in vitro. Overall, our findings provide a simple yet effective method to increase deposition of functional heparin on the surface of ECM-based vascular grafts and thereby minimize thrombogenicity of decellularized tissue, overcoming a significant challenge in tissue engineering of bioartificial vessels and vascularized organs.

  20. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS Reduces Antibiotics Dose and Prevents Antibiotics-Caused Side Effects in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS Patients with Spinal Fusion Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are always considered for surgical site infection (SSI in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS surgery. However, the use of antibiotics often causes the antibiotic resistance of pathogens and side effects. Thus, it is necessary to explore natural products as drug candidates. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS has anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria functions. The effects of COS on surgical infection in AIS surgery were investigated. A total of 312 AIS patients were evenly and randomly assigned into control group (CG, each patient took one-gram alternative Azithromycin/Erythromycin/Cloxacillin/Aztreonam/Ceftazidime or combined daily, experiment group (EG, each patient took 20 mg COS and half-dose antibiotics daily, and placebo group (PG, each patient took 20 mg placebo and half-dose antibiotics daily. The average follow-up was one month, and infection severity and side effects were analyzed. The effects of COS on isolated pathogens were analyzed. SSI rates were 2%, 3% and 8% for spine wounds and 1%, 2% and 7% for iliac wound in CG, EG and PG (p < 0.05, respectively. COS reduces the side effects caused by antibiotics (p < 0.05. COS improved biochemical indexes and reduced the levels of interleukin (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha. COS reduced the antibiotics dose and antibiotics-caused side effects in AIS patients with spinal fusion surgery by improving antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. COS should be developed as potential adjuvant for antibiotics therapies.

  1. [Reducing of unwanted side effects of modified fluid gelatin by promethazine: controlled clinical trial with orthopaedic patints (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöning, B; Koch, H

    1981-01-01

    In order to determine the undesirable side effects of standard commercially available plasma substitutes, 450 stationary patients covering 5 age groups were randomly allocated to various methods of pre-medication and 3 batches of modified fluid gelatin (Neo-Plasmagel). The incidence of allergoid and anaphylactoid reactions depended on the pre-medication (p less than 0.025). Atosil proved to be an strong histamine blocker: the incidence of reactions between the control and the promethazine group was p less than 0.005. Seen as a whole reactions among females were greater than with males (p less than 0.025). No relationship could be determined statistically between the different batches and the incidence of side-effects. -The prophylactic use of Neo-Plasmagel in orthopaedic patients is therefore dependent on a sufficient blockade of histamine receptors.

  2. Thyroid function appears to be significantly reduced in Space-borne MDS mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco; Curcio, Francesco; Fontanini, Elisabetta; Perrella, Giuseppina; Spelat, Renza; Zambito, Anna Maria; Damaskopoulou, Eleni; Peverini, Manola; Albi, Elisabetta

    It is known that prolonged space flights induced changes in human cardiovascular, muscu-loskeletal and nervous systems whose function is regulated by the thyroid gland but, until now, no data were reported about thyroid damage during space missions. We have demonstrated in vitro that, during space missions (Italian Soyuz Mission "ENEIDE" in 2005, Shuttle STS-120 "ESPERIA" in 2007), thyroid in vitro cultured cells did not respond to thyroid stimulating hor-mone (TSH) treatment; they appeared healthy and alive, despite their being in a pro-apopotic state characterised by a variation of sphingomyelin metabolism and consequent increase in ce-ramide content. The insensitivity to TSH was largely due to a rearrangement of specific cell membrane microdomains, acting as platforms for TSH-receptor (TEXUS-44 mission in 2008). To study if these effects were present also in vivo, as part of the Mouse Drawer System (MDS) Tissue Sharing Program, we performed experiments in mice maintained onboard the Interna-tional Space Station during the long-duration (90 days) exploration mission STS-129. After return to earth, the thyroids isolated from the 3 animals were in part immediately frozen to study the morphological modification in space and in part immediately used to study the effect of TSH treatment. For this purpose small fragments of tissue were treated with 10-7 or 10-8 M TSH for 1 hour by using untreated fragments as controls. Then the fragments were fixed with absolute ethanol for 10 min at room temperature and centrifuged for 20 min. at 3000 x g. The supernatants were used for cAMP analysis whereas the pellet were used for protein amount determination and for immunoblotting analysis of TSH-receptor, sphingomyelinase and sphingomyelin-synthase. The results showed a modification of the thyroid structure and also the values of cAMP production after treatment with 10-7 M TSH for 1 hour were significantly lower than those obtained in Earth's gravity. The treatment with TSH

  3. Dose-Volume Constraints to Reduce Rectal Side Effects From Prostate Radiotherapy: Evidence From MRC RT01 Trial ISRCTN 47772397

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliford, Sarah L.; Foo, Kerwyn; Morgan, Rachel C.; Aird, Edwin G.; Bidmead, A. Margaret; Critchley, Helen; Evans, Philip M. D.Phil.; Gianolini, Stefano; Mayles, W. Philip; Moore, A. Rollo; Sanchez-Nieto, Beatriz; Partridge, Mike; Sydes, Matthew R. C.Stat; Webb, Steve; Dearnaley, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer is effective but dose limited because of the proximity of normal tissues. Comprehensive dose-volume analysis of the incidence of clinically relevant late rectal toxicities could indicate how the dose to the rectum should be constrained. Previous emphasis has been on constraining the mid-to-high dose range (≥50 Gy). Evidence is emerging that lower doses could also be important. Methods and Materials: Data from a large multicenter randomized trial were used to investigate the correlation between seven clinically relevant rectal toxicity endpoints (including patient- and clinician-reported outcomes) and an absolute 5% increase in the volume of rectum receiving the specified doses. The results were quantified using odds ratios. Rectal dose-volume constraints were applied retrospectively to investigate the association of constraints with the incidence of late rectal toxicity. Results: A statistically significant dose-volume response was observed for six of the seven endpoints for at least one of the dose levels tested in the range of 30-70 Gy. Statistically significant reductions in the incidence of these late rectal toxicities were observed for the group of patients whose treatment plans met specific proposed dose-volume constraints. The incidence of moderate/severe toxicity (any endpoint) decreased incrementally for patients whose treatment plans met increasing numbers of dose-volume constraints from the set of V30≤80%, V40≤65%, V50≤55%, V60≤40%, V65≤30%, V70≤15%, and V75≤3%. Conclusion: Considering the entire dose distribution to the rectum by applying dose-volume constraints such as those tested here in the present will reduce the incidence of late rectal toxicity.

  4. Nitrogen side-dress as a strategy to reduce defoliation demages at different growth stages of maize

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Sangoi; Gilmar José Picoli Junior; Vitor Paulo Vargas; Jefferson Vieira; Amauri Schmitt; Sérgio Roberto Zoldan; Eduardo Siega; Giovani Carniel

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen can mitigate damages caused by leaf area reduction due to its influence on cell division. This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the efficiency of side-dressing different rates of nitrogen as a management strategy to maize stem defoliation at different growth stages. The experiment was set in Lages, during the 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 growing seasons. The experimental design was a randomized block with split plots. Three defoliation times were tested in the main plot: eight expa...

  5. Significance of surface functionalization of Gold Nanorods for reduced effect on IgG stability and minimization of cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, Sruthi Ann; Rajiv, Sundaramoorthy [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Chakravarty, Sujay [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam, Node, Kokilamedu (India); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2017-02-01

    side effect of AuNRs by modifying capping. • Polymer-coated AuNRs safe for in vitro assays, but hamper protein functioning. • PEG-AuNRs reduced toxicity to lymphocyte cells and lesser effect on IgG. • Highlights importance of neutral PEGylated particles for theranostic applications.

  6. Significance of surface functionalization of Gold Nanorods for reduced effect on IgG stability and minimization of cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Sruthi Ann; Rajiv, Sundaramoorthy; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-01-01

    side effect of AuNRs by modifying capping. • Polymer-coated AuNRs safe for in vitro assays, but hamper protein functioning. • PEG-AuNRs reduced toxicity to lymphocyte cells and lesser effect on IgG. • Highlights importance of neutral PEGylated particles for theranostic applications.

  7. In vivo evaluation on the effects of HemoHIM in promoting anticancer activities and reducing the side-effects of anticancer drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran; Ju, Eun Jin; Cho, Eun Hee

    2009-07-15

    In this project, we aimed to obtain the preclinical in vivo evaluation data for the development of the herbal composition (HemoHIM) as the auxiliary agent for the anticancer treatment that can reduce the side-effects of anticancer drugs and enhance their anticancer activities. Firstly, in vitro studies showed that HemoHIM did not show any effects on the tumor cell growth inhibition by 2 anticancer drugs (cisplatin, 5-FU), which indicated that at least HemoHIM does not exert any adverse effects on the activities of anticancer drugs. Next, the in vivo studies with mice implanted with tumor cells(B16F0, LLC1) showed that HemoHIM partially enhanced the anticancer activities of drugs (cisplatin, 5-FU), and improved endogenous anticancer immune activities. Furthermore, in the same animal models, HemoHIM effectively reduced the side-effects of anticancer drugs (liver and renal toxicities by cisplatin, immune and hematopoietic disorders by 5-FU). These results collectively showed that HemoHIM can enhance the activities of anticancer drugs and reduce their side-effects in vitro and in vivo and HemoHIM does not exert any adverse effects on the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The results of this project can be utilized as the basic preclinical data for the development and approval of HemoHIM as the auxiliary agent for the anticancer treatment

  8. In vivo evaluation on the effects of HemoHIM in promoting anticancer activities and reducing the side-effects of anticancer drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran; Ju, Eun Jin; Cho, Eun Hee

    2009-07-01

    In this project, we aimed to obtain the preclinical in vivo evaluation data for the development of the herbal composition (HemoHIM) as the auxiliary agent for the anticancer treatment that can reduce the side-effects of anticancer drugs and enhance their anticancer activities. Firstly, in vitro studies showed that HemoHIM did not show any effects on the tumor cell growth inhibition by 2 anticancer drugs (cisplatin, 5-FU), which indicated that at least HemoHIM does not exert any adverse effects on the activities of anticancer drugs. Next, the in vivo studies with mice implanted with tumor cells(B16F0, LLC1) showed that HemoHIM partially enhanced the anticancer activities of drugs (cisplatin, 5-FU), and improved endogenous anticancer immune activities. Furthermore, in the same animal models, HemoHIM effectively reduced the side-effects of anticancer drugs (liver and renal toxicities by cisplatin, immune and hematopoietic disorders by 5-FU). These results collectively showed that HemoHIM can enhance the activities of anticancer drugs and reduce their side-effects in vitro and in vivo and HemoHIM does not exert any adverse effects on the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The results of this project can be utilized as the basic preclinical data for the development and approval of HemoHIM as the auxiliary agent for the anticancer treatment

  9. Contributions of a disulfide bond and a reduced cysteine side chain to the intrinsic activity of the high-density lipoprotein receptor SR-BI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Lau, Thomas Y; Carr, Steven A; Krieger, Monty

    2012-12-18

    The high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), binds HDL and mediates selective cholesteryl ester uptake. SR-BI's structure and mechanism are poorly understood. We used mass spectrometry to assign the two disulfide bonds in SR-BI that connect cysteines within the conserved Cys(321)-Pro(322)-Cys(323) (CPC) motif and connect Cys(280) to Cys(334). We used site-specific mutagenesis to evaluate the contributions of the CPC motif and the side chain of extracellular Cys(384) to HDL binding and lipid uptake. The effects of CPC mutations on activity were context-dependent. Full wild-type (WT) activity required Pro(322) and Cys(323) only when Cys(321) was present. Reduced intrinsic activities were observed for CXC and CPX, but not XXC, XPX, or XXX mutants (X ≠ WT residue). Apparently, a free thiol side chain at position 321 that cannot form an intra-CPC disulfide bond with Cys(323) is deleterious, perhaps because of aberrant disulfide bond formation. Pro(322) may stabilize an otherwise strained CPC disulfide bond, thus supporting WT activity, but this disulfide bond is not absolutely required for normal activity. C(384)X (X = S, T, L, Y, G, or A) mutants exhibited altered activities that varied with the side chain's size: larger side chains phenocopied WT SR-BI treated with its thiosemicarbazone inhibitor BLT-1 (enhanced binding, weakened uptake); smaller side chains produced almost inverse effects (increased uptake:binding ratio). C(384)X mutants were BLT-1-resistant, supporting the proposal that Cys(384)'s thiol interacts with BLT-1. We discuss the implications of our findings on the functions of the extracellular loop cysteines in SR-BI and compare our results to those presented by other laboratories.

  10. Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side effects are problems that occur when cancer treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Learn about side effects caused by cancer treatment. Know what signs and symptoms to call your doctor about. Learn about treatments for side effects.

  11. Biosynthesis and incorporation of side-chain-truncated lignin monomers to reduce lignin polymerization and enhance saccharification

    OpenAIRE

    Eudes, Aymerick; George, Anthe; Mukerjee, Purba; Kim, J.S.; Pollet, B.; Bnke, P.I.; Persil Çetinkol, Özgül

    2012-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is utilized as a renewable feedstock in various agro-industrial activities. Lignin is an aromatic, hydrophobic and mildly branched polymer integrally associated with polysaccharides within the biomass, which negatively affects their extraction and hydrolysis during industrial processing. Engineering the monomer composition of lignins offers an attractive option towards new lignins with reduced recalcitrance. The presented work describes a new strategy developed in Arab...

  12. Interaction between FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Based on the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality...... at advanced ages. Such significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p =0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p =0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers...... of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably...

  13. A Recombinant Multi-Stage Vaccine against Paratuberculosis Significantly Reduces Bacterial Level in Tissues without Interference in Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, C.

    , PPDj-specific IFN-γ responses or positive PPDa or PPDb skin tests developed in vaccinees. Antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses were developed against FET11 antigens, however. At necropsy 8 or 12 months of age, relative Map burden was determined in a number of gut tissues by quantitative IS900...... PCR and revealed significantly reduced levels of Map and reduced histopathology. Diagnostic tests for antibody responses and cell-mediated immune responses, used as surrogates of infection, corroborated the observed vaccine efficacy: Five of seven non‐vaccinated calves seroconverted in ID Screen......-γ assay responses from 40 to 52 weeks compared to non-vaccinated calves. These results indicate the FET11 vaccine can be used to accelerate eradication of paratuberculosis while surveillance or test-and-manage control programs for tuberculosis and Johne’s disease remain in place. Funded by EMIDA ERA...

  14. Minibeam Therapy With Protons and Light Ions: Physical Feasibility and Potential to Reduce Radiation Side Effects and to Facilitate Hypofractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham, E-mail: avraham.dilmanian@stonybrook.edu [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Neurology, and Radiology, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Eley, John G. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Despite several advantages of proton therapy over megavoltage x-ray therapy, its lack of proximal tissue sparing is a concern. The method presented here adds proximal tissue sparing to protons and light ions by turning their uniform incident beams into arrays of parallel, small, or thin (0.3-mm) pencil or planar minibeams, which are known to spare tissues. As these minibeams penetrate the tissues, they gradually broaden and merge with each other to produce a solid beam. Methods and Materials: Broadening of 0.3-mm-diameter, 109-MeV proton pencil minibeams was measured using a stack of radiochromic films with plastic spacers. Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the broadening in water of minibeams of protons and several light ions and the dose from neutron generated by collimator. Results: A central parameter was tissue depth, where the beam full width at half maximum (FWHM) reached 0.7 mm, beyond which tissue sparing decreases. This depth was 22 mm for 109-MeV protons in a film stack. It was also found by simulations in water to be 23.5 mm for 109 MeV proton pencil minibeams and 26 mm for 116 MeV proton planar minibeams. For light ions, all with 10 cm range in water, that depth increased with particle size; specifically it was 51 mm for Li-7 ions. The ∼2.7% photon equivalent neutron skin dose from the collimator was reduced 7-fold by introducing a gap between the collimator and the skin. Conclusions: Proton minibeams can be implemented at existing particle therapy centers. Because they spare the shallow tissues, they could augment the efficacy of proton therapy and light particle therapy, particularly in treating tumors that benefit from sparing of proximal tissues such as pediatric brain tumors. They should also allow hypofractionated treatment of all tumors by allowing the use of higher incident doses with less concern about proximal tissue damage.

  15. Lime and Phosphate Amendment Can Significantly Reduce Uptake of Cd and Pb by Field-Grown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongbo Xiao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soils are suffering from increasing heavy metal pollution, among which, paddy soil polluted by heavy metals is frequently reported and has elicited great public concern. In this study, we carried out field experiments on paddy soil around a Pb-Zn mine to study amelioration effects of four soil amendments on uptake of Cd and Pb by rice, and to make recommendations for paddy soil heavy metal remediation, particularly for combined pollution of Cd and Pb. The results showed that all the four treatments can significantly reduce the Cd and Pb content in the late rice grain compared with the early rice, among which, the combination amendment of lime and phosphate had the best remediation effects where rice grain Cd content was reduced by 85% and 61%, respectively, for the late rice and the early rice, and by 30% in the late rice grain for Pb. The high reduction effects under the Ca + P treatment might be attributed to increase of soil pH from 5.5 to 6.7. We also found that influence of the Ca + P treatment on rice production was insignificant, while the available Cd and Pb content in soil was reduced by 16.5% and 11.7%, respectively.

  16. Reduced bone mineral density is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Dennis T; Kotyk, John J; Armamento-Villareal, Reina C; Kenguva, Venkata; Seaman, Pamela; Shahar, Allon; Wald, Michael J; Kleerekoper, Michael; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-02-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces bone quantity but not bone quality in rodents. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of CR with adequate intake of vitamin and minerals on bone quantity and quality in middle-aged lean individuals. In this study, we evaluated body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and serum markers of bone turnover and inflammation in 32 volunteers who had been eating a CR diet (approximately 35% less calories than controls) for an average of 6.8 ± 5.2 years (mean age 52.7 ± 10.3 years) and 32 age- and sex-matched sedentary controls eating Western diets (WD). In a subgroup of 10 CR and 10 WD volunteers, we also measured trabecular bone (TB) microarchitecture of the distal radius using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the CR volunteers had significantly lower body mass index than the WD volunteers (18.9 ± 1.2 vs. 26.5 ± 2.2 kg m(-2) ; P = 0.0001). BMD of the lumbar spine (0.870 ± 0.11 vs. 1.138 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) and hip (0.806 ± 0.12 vs. 1.047 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) was also lower in the CR than in the WD group. Serum C-terminal telopeptide and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase concentration were similar between groups, while serum C-reactive protein (0.19 ± 0.26 vs. 1.46 ± 1.56 mg L(-1) , P = 0.0001) was lower in the CR group. Trabecular bone microarchitecture parameters such as the erosion index (0.916 ± 0.087 vs. 0.877 ± 0.088; P = 0.739) and surface-to-curve ratio (10.3 ± 1.4 vs. 12.1 ± 2.1, P = 0.440) were not significantly different between groups. These findings suggest that markedly reduced BMD is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in middle-aged men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

  17. Smoking cessation programmes in radon affected areas: can they make a significant contribution to reducing radon-induced lung cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Timson, K.; Shield, G.; Rogers, S.; Phillips, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic radon levels in parts of the UK are sufficiently high to increase the risk of lung cancer in the occupants. Public health campaigns in Northamptonshire, a designated radon affected area with 6.3% of homes having average radon levels over the UK action level of 200 Bq m -3 , have encouraged householders to test for radon and then to carry out remediation in their homes, but have been only partially successful. Only 40% of Northamptonshire houses have been tested, and only 15% of householders finding raised levels proceed to remediate. Of those who did remediate, only 9% smoked, compared to a countywide average of 28.8%. This is unfortunate, since radon and smoking combine to place the individual at higher risk by a factor of around 4, and suggests that current strategies to reduce domestic radon exposure are not reaching those most at risk. During 2004-5, the NHS Stop Smoking Services in Northamptonshire assisted 2,808 smokers to quit to the 4-week stage, with some 30% of 4-week quitters remaining quitters at 1 year. We consider whether smoking cessation campaigns make significant contributions to radon risk reduction on their own, by assessing individual occupants' risk of developing lung cancer from knowledge of their age, gender, and smoking habits, together with he radon level in their house. The results demonstrate that smoking cessation programmes have significant added value in radon affected areas, and contribute a greater health benefit than reducing radon levels in the smokers' homes, whilst they remain smokers. Additionally, results are presented from a questionnaire-based survey of quitters, addressing their reasons for seeking help in quitting smoking, and whether knowledge of radon risks influenced this decision. The impact of these findings on future public health campaigns to reduce the impact of radon and smoking are discussed. (author)

  18. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  19. Significant Association between Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Uranium-Reducing Microbial Communities as Revealed by a Combined Massively Parallel Sequencing-Indicator Species Approach▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Jardine, Philip M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Marsh, Terence L.; Tiedje, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared. PMID:20729318

  20. Significant association between sulfate-reducing bacteria and uranium-reducing microbial communities as revealed by a combined massively parallel sequencing-indicator species approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K; Jardine, Philip M; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S; Marsh, Terence L; Tiedje, James M

    2010-10-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared.

  1. Reducing Eating Disorder Onset in a Very High Risk Sample with Significant Comorbid Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. Barr; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated on-line eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. Method 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or non-clinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or wait-list control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Results ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = 0.28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% versus 42%, p = 0.025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% versus 57%, NNT = 4). Conclusions An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. PMID:26795936

  2. Reducing eating disorder onset in a very high risk sample with significant comorbid depression: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C Barr; Kass, Andrea E; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-05-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated online eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or nonclinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or waitlist control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = .28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% vs. 42%, p = .025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% vs. 57%, NNT = 4). An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Reduced frontal and occipital lobe asymmetry on the CT-scans of schizophrenic patients. Its specificity and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Schneider, T.; Greve, B.; Klieser, E.; Bogerts, B.

    1995-01-01

    Frontal and occipital lobe widths were determined in the computed tomographic (CT) scans of 135 schizophrenic patients, 158 neuro psychiatrically healthy and 102 psychiatric control subjects, including patients with affective psychosis, neurosis and schizoaffective psychosis. Most healthy right-handed subjects demonstrate a relative enlargement of the right frontal as well as left occipital lobe compared to the opposite hemisphere. These normal frontal and occipital lobe asymmetries were selectively reduced in schizophrenics (f.: 5%, p < .0005; o.: 3%, p < .05), irrespective of the pathophysiological subgroup. Schizophrenic neuroleptic non-responders revealed a significant reduction of frontal lobe asymmetry (3%, p < .05), while no correlation between BPRS-sub scores and disturbed cerebral laterality could be detected. In sum the present study demonstrates the disturbed cerebral lateralisation in schizophrenic patients supporting the hypothesis of interrupted early brain development in schizophrenia. (author)

  4. Walking with a four wheeled walker (rollator) significantly reduces EMG lower-limb muscle activity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suica, Zorica; Romkes, Jacqueline; Tal, Amir; Maguire, Clare

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the immediate effect of four-wheeled- walker(rollator)walking on lower-limb muscle activity and trunk-sway in healthy subjects. In this cross-sectional design electromyographic (EMG) data was collected in six lower-limb muscle groups and trunk-sway was measured as peak-to-peak angular displacement of the centre-of-mass (level L2/3) in the sagittal and frontal-planes using the SwayStar balance system. 19 subjects walked at self-selected speed firstly without a rollator then in randomised order 1. with rollator 2. with rollator with increased weight-bearing. Rollator-walking caused statistically significant reductions in EMG activity in lower-limb muscle groups and effect-sizes were medium to large. Increased weight-bearing increased the effect. Trunk-sway in the sagittal and frontal-planes showed no statistically significant difference between conditions. Rollator-walking reduces lower-limb muscle activity but trunk-sway remains unchanged as stability is likely gained through forces generated by the upper-limbs. Short-term stability is gained but the long-term effect is unclear and requires investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi, E-mail: thashimo@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Iwanaka, Nobumasa [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Higashida, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192 (Japan); Taguchi, Sadayoshi [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  6. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Taguchi, Sadayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O 2 for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  7. A pilot study: Horticulture-related activities significantly reduce stress levels and salivary cortisol concentration of maladjusted elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Oh, Wook; Jang, Ja Soon; Lee, Ju Young

    2018-04-01

    The effects of three horticulture-related activities (HRAs), including floral arranging, planting, and flower pressing were compared to see if they influenced changes on a stress scale and on salivary cortisol concentrations (SCC) in maladjusted elementary school children. Twenty maladjusted elementary school children were randomly assigned either to an experimental or control group. The control group carried out individual favorite indoor activities under the supervision of a teacher. Simultaneously, the ten children in the experimental group participated in a HRA program consisting of flower arrangement (FA), planting (P), and flower pressing (PF) activities, in which the other ten children in the control group did not take part. During nine sessions, the activities were completed as follows: FA-FA-FA, P-P-P, and PF-PF-PF; each session lasted 40 min and took place once a week. For the quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol, saliva was collected from the experimental group one week before the HRAs and immediately after the activities for 9 consecutive weeks at the same time each session. In the experimental group, stress scores of interpersonal relationship, school life, personal problems, and home life decreased after the HRAs by 1.3, 1.8, 4.2, and 1.3 points, respectively. In particular, the stress score of school life was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In addition, from the investigation of the SCCs for the children before and after repeating HRAs three times, it was found that flower arrangement, planting, and flower pressing activities reduced the SCCs by ≥37% compared to the SCCs prior to taking part in the HRAs. These results indicate that HRAs are associated with a reduction in the stress levels of maladjusted elementary school children. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Cerebral Embolic Protection During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Significantly Reduces Death and Stroke Compared With Unprotected Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Julia; Gonska, Birgid; Otto, Markus; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Wöhrle, Jochen

    2017-11-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cerebral embolic protection on stroke-free survival in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Imaging data on cerebral embolic protection devices have demonstrated a significant reduction in number and volume of cerebral lesions. A total of 802 consecutive patients were enrolled. The Sentinel cerebral embolic protection device (Claret Medical Inc., Santa Rosa, California) was used in 34.9% (n = 280) of consecutive patients. In 65.1% (n = 522) of patients TAVR was performed in the identical setting except without cerebral embolic protection. Neurological follow-up was done within 7 days post-procedure. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality or all-stroke according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria within 7 days. Propensity score matching was performed to account for possible confounders. Both filters of the device were successfully positioned in 280 of 305 (91.8%) consecutive patients. With use of cerebral embolic protection rate of disabling and nondisabling stroke was significantly reduced from 4.6% to 1.4% (p = 0.03; odds ratio: 0.29, 95% confidence interval: 0.10 to 0.93) in the propensity-matched population (n = 560). The primary endpoint occurred significantly less frequently, with 2.1% (n = 6 of 280) in the protected group compared with 6.8% (n = 19 of 280) in the control group (p = 0.01; odds ratio: 0.30; 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.77). In multivariable analysis Society of Thoracic Surgeons score for mortality (p = 0.02) and TAVR without protection (p = 0.02) were independent predictors for the primary endpoint. In patients undergoing TAVR use of a cerebral embolic protection device demonstrated a significant higher rate of stroke-free survival compared with unprotected TAVR. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dermal application of nitric oxide releasing acidified nitrite-containing liniments significantly reduces blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opländer, Christian; Volkmar, Christine M; Paunel-Görgülü, Adnana; Fritsch, Thomas; van Faassen, Ernst E; Mürtz, Manfred; Grieb, Gerrit; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Hemmrich, Karsten; Windolf, Joachim; Suschek, Christoph V

    2012-02-15

    Vascular ischemic diseases, hypertension, and other systemic hemodynamic and vascular disorders may be the result of impaired bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). NO but also its active derivates like nitrite or nitroso compounds are important effector and signal molecules with vasodilating properties. Our previous findings point to a therapeutical potential of cutaneous administration of NO in the treatment of systemic hemodynamic disorders. Unfortunately, no reliable data are available on the mechanisms, kinetics and biological responses of dermal application of nitric oxide in humans in vivo. The aim of the study was to close this gap and to explore the therapeutical potential of dermal nitric oxide application. We characterized with human skin in vitro and in vivo the capacity of NO, applied in a NO-releasing acidified form of nitrite-containing liniments, to penetrate the epidermis and to influence local as well as systemic hemodynamic parameters. We found that dermal application of NO led to a very rapid and significant transepidermal translocation of NO into the underlying tissue. Depending on the size of treated skin area, this translocation manifests itself through a significant systemic increase of the NO derivates nitrite and nitroso compounds, respectively. In parallel, this translocation was accompanied by an increased systemic vasodilatation and blood flow as well as reduced blood pressure. We here give evidence that in humans dermal application of NO has a therapeutic potential for systemic hemodynamic disorders that might arise from local or systemic insufficient availability of NO or its bio-active NO derivates, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Significant change of local atomic configurations at surface of reduced activation Eurofer steels induced by hydrogenation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greculeasa, S.G.; Palade, P.; Schinteie, G. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, A.; Stanciu, A. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Lungu, G.A. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Porosnicu, C.; Lungu, C.P. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, V., E-mail: kuncser@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Engineering of Eurofer slab properties by hydrogenation treatments. • Hydrogenation modifies significantly the local atomic configurations at the surface. • Hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the very surface. • Approaching binomial atomic distribution by hydrogenation in the next surface 100 nm. - Abstract: Reduced-activation steels such as Eurofer alloys are candidates for supporting plasma facing components in tokamak-like nuclear fusion reactors. In order to investigate the impact of hydrogen/deuterium insertion in their crystalline lattice, annealing treatments in hydrogen atmosphere have been applied on Eurofer slabs. The resulting samples have been analyzed with respect to local structure and atomic configuration both before and after successive annealing treatments, by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The corroborated data point out for a bcc type structure of the non-hydrogenated alloy, with an average alloy composition approaching Fe{sub 0.9}Cr{sub 0.1} along a depth of about 100 nm. EDS elemental maps do not indicate surface inhomogeneities in concentration whereas the Mössbauer spectra prove significant deviations from a homogeneous alloying. The hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the surface layer and decreases their oxidation, with considerable influence on the surface properties of the steel. The hydrogenation treatment is therefore proposed as a potential alternative for a convenient engineering of the surface of different Fe-Cr based alloys.

  11. Optical trapping of nanoparticles with significantly reduced laser powers by using counter-propagating beams (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenglong; LeBrun, Thomas W.

    2015-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNP) have wide applications ranging from nanoscale heating to cancer therapy and biological sensing. Optical trapping of GNPs as small as 18 nm has been successfully achieved with laser power as high as 855 mW, but such high powers can damage trapped particles (particularly biological systems) as well heat the fluid, thereby destabilizing the trap. In this article, we show that counter propagating beams (CPB) can successfully trap GNP with laser powers reduced by a factor of 50 compared to that with a single beam. The trapping position of a GNP inside a counter-propagating trap can be easily modulated by either changing the relative power or position of the two beams. Furthermore, we find that under our conditions while a single-beam most stably traps a single particle, the counter-propagating beam can more easily trap multiple particles. This (CPB) trap is compatible with the feedback control system we recently demonstrated to increase the trapping lifetimes of nanoparticles by more than an order of magnitude. Thus, we believe that the future development of advanced trapping techniques combining counter-propagating traps together with control systems should significantly extend the capabilities of optical manipulation of nanoparticles for prototyping and testing 3D nanodevices and bio-sensing.

  12. New scanning technique using Adaptive Statistical lterative Reconstruction (ASIR) significantly reduced the radiation dose of cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550mA (450–600) vs. 650mA (500–711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P<0.001. There was 27% effective radiation dose reduction in the ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29mSv (2.84–6.02) vs. 5.84mSv (3.88–8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P<0.001. Although ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93±10.22 vs. 37.63±18.79 (mean ±standard deviation), respectively, P<001), it did not affect the signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio or the diagnostic quality of CCTA. Application of ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality.

  13. New scanning technique using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) significantly reduced the radiation dose of cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus

    2013-06-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550 mA (450-600) vs. 650 mA (500-711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29 mSv (2.84-6.02) vs. 5.84 mSv (3.88-8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93 ± 10.22 vs. 37.63 ± 18.79 (mean ± standard deviation), respectively, P ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  14. Secukinumab Significantly Reduces Psoriasis-Related Work Impairment and Indirect Costs Compared With Ustekinumab and Etanercept in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R B; Halliday, A; Graham, C N; Gilloteau, I; Miles, L; McBride, D

    2018-05-30

    Psoriasis causes work productivity impairment that increases with disease severity. Whether differential treatment efficacy translates into differential indirect cost savings is unknown. To assess work hours lost and indirect costs associated with secukinumab versus ustekinumab and etanercept in the United Kingdom (UK). This was a post hoc analysis of work impairment data collected in the CLEAR study (secukinumab vs. ustekinumab) and applied to the FIXTURE study (secukinumab vs. etanercept). Weighted weekly and annual average indirect costs per patient per treatment were calculated from (1) overall work impairment derived from Work Productivity and Activity Impairment data collected in CLEAR at 16 and 52 weeks by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) response level; (2) weekly/annual work productivity loss by PASI response level; (3) weekly and annual indirect costs by PASI response level, based on hours of work productivity loss; and (4) weighted average indirect costs for each treatment. In the primary analysis, work impairment data for employed patients in CLEAR at Week 16 were used to compare secukinumab and ustekinumab. Secondary analyses were conducted at different timepoints and with patient cohorts, including FIXTURE. In CLEAR, 452 patients (67%) were employed at baseline. At Week 16, percentages of weekly work impairment/mean hours lost decreased with higher PASI: PASI hours; PASI 50-74: 13.3%/4.45 hours; PASI 75-89: 6.4%/2.14 hours; PASI ≥90: 4.9%/1.65 hours. Weighted mean weekly/annual work hours lost were significantly lower for secukinumab than ustekinumab (1.96/102.51 vs. 2.40/125.12; P=0.0006). Results were consistent for secukinumab versus etanercept (2.29/119.67 vs. 3.59/187.17; Ρreduced work impairment and associated indirect costs of psoriasis compared with ustekinumab and etanercept at Week 16 through 52 in the UK. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Voluntary Deep Inspiration Breath-hold Reduces the Heart Dose Without Compromising the Target Volume Coverage During Radiotherapy for Left-sided Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammadi, Noora; Caparrotti, Palmira; Naim, Carole; Hayes, Jillian; Rebecca Benson, Katherine; Vasic, Ana; Al-Abdulla, Hissa; Hammoud, Rabih; Divakar, Saju; Petric, Primoz

    2018-03-01

    During radiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer, parts of the heart are irradiated, which may lead to late toxicity. We report on the experience of single institution with cardiac-sparing radiotherapy using voluntary deep inspiration breath hold (V-DIBH) and compare its dosimetric outcome with free breathing (FB) technique. Left-sided breast cancer patients, treated at our department with postoperative radiotherapy of breast/chest wall +/- regional lymph nodes between May 2015 and January 2017, were considered for inclusion. FB-computed tomography (CT) was obtained and dose-planning performed. Cases with cardiac V25Gy ≥ 5% or risk factors for heart disease were coached for V-DIBH. Compliant patients were included. They underwent additional CT in V-DIBH for planning, followed by V-DIBH radiotherapy. Dose volume histogram parameters for heart, lung and optimized planning target volume (OPTV) were compared between FB and BH. Treatment setup shifts and systematic and random errors for V-DIBH technique were compared with FB historic control. Sixty-three patients were considered for V-DIBH. Nine (14.3%) were non-compliant at coaching, leaving 54 cases for analysis. When compared with FB, V-DIBH resulted in a significant reduction of mean cardiac dose from 6.1 +/- 2.5 to 3.2 +/- 1.4 Gy (p FB and V-DIBH, respectively (p FB- and V-DIBH-derived mean lung dose (11.3 +/- 3.2 vs. 10.6 +/- 2.6 Gy), lung V20Gy (20.5 +/- 7 vs. 19.5 +/- 5.1 Gy) and V95% for the OPTV (95.6 +/- 4.1 vs. 95.2 +/- 6.3%) were non-significant. V-DIBH-derived mean shifts for initial patient setup were ≤ 2.7 mm. Random and systematic errors were ≤ 2.1 mm. These results did not differ significantly from historic FB controls. When compared with FB, V-DIBH demonstrated high setup accuracy and enabled significant reduction of cardiac doses without compromising the target volume coverage. Differences in lung doses were non-significant.

  16. Oxidation of naturally reduced uranium in aquifer sediments by dissolved oxygen and its potential significance to uranium plume persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. A.; Smith, R. L.; Bohlke, J. K.; Jemison, N.; Xiang, H.; Repert, D. A.; Yuan, X.; Williams, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of naturally reduced zones is common in alluvial aquifers in the western U.S.A. due to the burial of woody debris in flood plains. Such reduced zones are usually heterogeneously dispersed in these aquifers and characterized by high concentrations of organic carbon, reduced mineral phases, and reduced forms of metals, including uranium(IV). The persistence of high concentrations of dissolved uranium(VI) at uranium-contaminated aquifers on the Colorado Plateau has been attributed to slow oxidation of insoluble uranium(IV) mineral phases found in association with these reducing zones, although there is little understanding of the relative importance of various potential oxidants. Four field experiments were conducted within an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO, wherein groundwater associated with the naturally reduced zones was pumped into a gas-impermeable tank, mixed with a conservative tracer (Br-), bubbled with a gas phase composed of 97% O2 and 3% CO2, and then returned to the subsurface in the same well from which it was withdrawn. Within minutes of re-injection of the oxygenated groundwater, dissolved uranium(VI) concentrations increased from less than 1 μM to greater than 2.5 μM, demonstrating that oxygen can be an important oxidant for uranium in such field systems if supplied to the naturally reduced zones. Dissolved Fe(II) concentrations decreased to the detection limit, but increases in sulfate could not be detected due to high background concentrations. Changes in nitrogen species concentrations were variable. The results contrast with other laboratory and field results in which oxygen was introduced to systems containing high concentrations of mackinawite (FeS), rather than the more crystalline iron sulfides found in aged, naturally reduced zones. The flux of oxygen to the naturally reduced zones in the alluvial aquifers occurs mainly through interactions between groundwater and gas phases at the water table

  17. Vaccination of pigs two weeks before infection significantly reduces transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eble, P.L.; Bouma, A.; Bruin, de M.G.M.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van F.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Dekker, A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether and at what time interval could vaccination reduce transmission of foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV) among pigs. Reduction of virus transmission by vaccination was determined experimentally. Transmission of FMDV was studied in three groups of

  18. ClusterSignificance: A bioconductor package facilitating statistical analysis of class cluster separations in dimensionality reduced data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serviss, Jason T.; Gådin, Jesper R.; Eriksson, Per

    2017-01-01

    , e.g. genes in a specific pathway, alone can separate samples into these established classes. Despite this, the evaluation of class separations is often subjective and performed via visualization. Here we present the ClusterSignificance package; a set of tools designed to assess the statistical...... significance of class separations downstream of dimensionality reduction algorithms. In addition, we demonstrate the design and utility of the ClusterSignificance package and utilize it to determine the importance of long non-coding RNA expression in the identity of multiple hematological malignancies....

  19. A novel multi-stage subunit vaccine against paratuberculosis induces significant immunity and reduces bacterial burden in tissues (P4304)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Riber, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Effective control of paratuberculosis is hindered by lack of a vaccine preventing infection, transmission and without diagnostic interference with tuberculosis. We have developed a novel multi-stage recombinant subunit vaccine in which a fusion of four early expressed MAP antigens is combined...... characterized by a significant containment of bacterial burden in gut tissues compared to non-vaccinated animals. There was no cross-reaction with bovine tuberculosis in vaccinated animals. This novel multi-stage vaccine has the potential to become a marker vaccine for paratuberculosis....

  20. Reduced expression of circRNA hsa_circ_0003159 in gastric cancer and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mengqian; Chen, Ruoyu; Li, Tianwen; Xiao, Bingxiu

    2018-03-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play a crucial role in the occurrence of several diseases including cancers. However, little is known about circRNAs' diagnostic values for gastric cancer, one of the worldwide most common diseases of mortality. The hsa_circ_0003159 levels in 108 paired gastric cancer tissues and adjacent non-tumorous tissues from surgical patients with gastric cancer were first detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, the relationships between hsa_circ_0003159 expression levels in gastric cancer tissues and the clinicopathological factors of patients with gastric cancer were analyzed. Finally, its diagnostic value was evaluated through the receiver operating characteristic curve. Compared with paired adjacent non-tumorous tissues, hsa_circ_0003159 expression was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues. What is more, we found that hsa_circ_0003159 expression levels were significantly negatively associated with gender, distal metastasis, and tumor-node-metastasis stage. All of the results suggest that hsa_circ_0003159 may be a potential cancer marker of patients with gastric cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation and resistance exercise significantly reduce abdominal adiposity in healthy elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Moon, Jordan R; Hoffman, Jay R

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 12-weeks of HMB ingestion and resistance training (RT) on abdominal adiposity were examined in 48 men (66-78 yrs). All participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: no-training placebo (NT-PL), HMB only (NT-HMB), RT with PL (RT-PL), or HMB with RT (RT-HMB). DXA was used to estimate abdominal fat mass (AFM) by placing the region of interest over the L1-L4 region of the spine. Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA, with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons. Baseline AFM values were used as the covariate. The ANCOVA indicated a significant difference (p = 0.013) between group means for the adjusted posttest AFM values (mean (kg) ± SE: NT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.06; NT-HMB = 2.59 ± 0.61; RT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.62; RT-HMB = 2.34 ± 0.61). The pairwise comparisons indicated that AFM following the intervention period in the RT-HMB group was significantly less than NT-PL (p = 0.013), NT-HMB (p = 0.011), and RT-PL (p = 0.010). These data suggested that HMB in combination with 12 weeks of RT decreased AFM in elderly men. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Wind Erosion Caused by Land Use Changes Significantly Reduces Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Carbon Sequestration Potentials in Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Chi, Y. G.; Wang, J.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Wind erosion exerts a fundamental influence on the biotic and abiotic processes associated with ecosystem carbon (C) cycle. However, how wind erosion under different land use scenarios will affect ecosystem C balance and its capacity for future C sequestration are poorly quantified. Here, we established an experiment in a temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia, and simulated different intensity of land uses: control, 50% of aboveground vegetation removal (50R), 100% vegetation removal (100R) and tillage (TI). We monitored lateral and vertical carbon flux components and soil characteristics from 2013 to 2016. Our study reveals three key findings relating to the driving factors, the magnitude and consequence of wind erosion on ecosystem C balance: (1) Frequency of heavy wind exerts a fundamental control over the severity of soil erosion, and its interaction with precipitation and vegetation characteristics explained 69% variation in erosion intensity. (2) With increases in land use intensity, the lateral C flux induced by wind erosion increased rapidly, equivalent to 33%, 86%, 111% and 183% of the net ecosystem exchange of the control site under control, 50R, 100R and TI sites, respectively. (3) After three years' treatment, erosion induced decrease in fine fractions led to 31%, 43%, 85% of permanent loss of C sequestration potential in the surface 5cm soil for 50R, 100R and TI sites. Overall, our study demonstrates that lateral C flux associated with wind erosion is too large to be ignored. The loss of C-enriched fine particles not only reduces current ecosystem C content, but also results in irreversible loss of future soil C sequestration potential. The dynamic soil characteristics need be considered when projecting future ecosystem C balance in aeolian landscape. We also propose that to maintain the sustainability of grassland ecosystems, land managers should focus on implementing appropriate land use rather than rely on subsequent managements on degraded soils.

  3. Postoperative Stiffness Requiring Manipulation Under Anesthesia Is Significantly Reduced After Simultaneous Versus Staged Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, John P; Monazzam, Shafagh; Miles, Troy; Danielsen, Beate; White, Richard H

    2017-12-20

    adjust for relevant risk factors, the 90-day odds ratio (OR) of undergoing manipulation after simultaneous bilateral TKA was significantly lower than that for unilateral TKA (OR = 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.86) and staged bilateral TKA (OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.90). Similarly, at 180 days, the odds of undergoing manipulation were significantly lower after simultaneous bilateral TKA than after both unilateral TKA (OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.84) and staged bilateral TKA (OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.93). The frequency of manipulation was significantly associated with younger age, fewer comorbidities, black race, and the absence of obesity. Although the ORs were small (close to 1), simultaneous bilateral TKA had a significantly decreased rate of stiffness requiring manipulation under anesthesia at 90 days and 180 days after knee replacement compared with that after staged bilateral TKA and unilateral TKA. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. [Intra-Articular Application of Tranexamic Acid Significantly Reduces Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirement in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lošťák, J; Gallo, J; Špička, J; Langová, K

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of topical application of tranexamic acid (TXA, Exacyl) on the amount of post-operative blood loss, and blood transfusion requirement in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Attention was paid to early complications potentially associated with TXA administration, such as haematoma, wound exudate, or knee swelling. In addition, the economic benefit of TXA treatment was also taken into account. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 238 patients (85 men and 153 women) who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at our department between January 2013 and November 2015. A group of 119 patients (41 men and 78 women) received intraarticular TXA injections according to the treatment protocol (TXA group). A control group matched in basic characteristics to the TXA group also consisted of 119 patients. The average age in the TXA group was 69.8 years, and the most frequent indication for TKA surgery was primary knee osteoarthritis (81.5%). In each patient, post-operative volume of blood lost from drains and total blood loss including hidden blood loss were recorded, as well as post-operative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. On discharge of each patient from hospital, the size and site of a haematoma; wound exudate, if present after post-operative day 4; joint swelling; range of motion and early revision surgery, if performed, were evaluated. Requirements of analgesic drugs after surgery were also recorded. RESULTS In the TXA group, blood losses from drains were significantly lower than in the control group (456.7 ± 270.8 vs 640.5 ±448.2; p = 0.004). The median value for blood losses from drains was lower by 22% and the average value for total blood loss, including hidden losses, was also lower than in the control group (762.4 ± 345.2 ml vs 995.5 ± 457.3 ml). The difference in the total amount of blood loss between the two groups was significant (p = 0

  5. Weight loss significantly reduces serum lipocalin-2 levels in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiou, Ekaterini; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Katsikis, Ilias; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Kalaitzakis, Emmanuil; Delkos, Dimitrios; Vosnakis, Christos; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Serum lipocalin-2 levels are elevated in obese patients. We assessed serum lipocalin-2 levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the effects of weight loss or metformin on these levels. Forty-seven overweight/obese patients with PCOS [body mass index (BMI) >27 kg/m(2)] were instructed to follow a low-calorie diet, to exercise and were given orlistat or sibutramine for 6 months. Twenty-five normal weight patients with PCOS (BMI weight and 25 overweight/obese healthy female volunteers comprised the control groups. Serum lipocalin-2 levels did not differ between overweight/obese patients with PCOS and overweight/obese controls (p = 0.258), or between normal weight patients with PCOS and normal weight controls (p = 0.878). Lipocalin-2 levels were higher in overweight/obese patients with PCOS than in normal weight patients with PCOS (p weight loss resulted in a fall in lipocalin-2 levels (p weight patients with PCOS, treatment with metformin did not affect lipocalin-2 levels (p = 0.484). In conclusion, PCOS per se is not associated with elevated lipocalin-2 levels. Weight loss induces a significant reduction in lipocalin-2 levels in overweight/obese patients with PCOS.

  6. Overexpression of the steroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage in the ventral tegmental area increases 3α,5α-THP and reduces long-term operant ethanol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason B; Werner, David F; Maldonado-Devincci, Antoniette M; Leonard, Maggie N; Fisher, Kristen R; O'Buckley, Todd K; Porcu, Patrizia; McCown, Thomas J; Besheer, Joyce; Hodge, Clyde W; Morrow, A Leslie

    2014-04-23

    Neuroactive steroids are endogenous neuromodulators capable of altering neuronal activity and behavior. In rodents, systemic administration of endogenous or synthetic neuroactive steroids reduces ethanol self-administration. We hypothesized this effect arises from actions within mesolimbic brain regions that we targeted by viral gene delivery. Cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) converts cholesterol to pregnenolone, the rate-limiting enzymatic reaction in neurosteroidogenesis. Therefore, we constructed a recombinant adeno-associated serotype 2 viral vector (rAAV2), which drives P450scc expression and neuroactive steroid synthesis. The P450scc-expressing vector (rAAV2-P450scc) or control GFP-expressing vector (rAAV2-GFP) were injected bilaterally into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or nucleus accumbens (NAc) of alcohol preferring (P) rats trained to self-administer ethanol. P450scc overexpression in the VTA significantly reduced ethanol self-administration by 20% over the 3 week test period. P450scc overexpression in the NAc, however, did not alter ethanol self-administration. Locomotor activity was unaltered by vector administration to either region. P450scc overexpression produced a 36% increase in (3α,5α)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP, allopregnanolone)-positive cells in the VTA, but did not increase 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity in NAc. These results suggest that P450scc overexpression and the resultant increase of 3α,5α-THP-positive cells in the VTA reduces ethanol reinforcement. 3α,5α-THP is localized to neurons in the VTA, including tyrosine hydroxylase neurons, but not astrocytes. Overall, the results demonstrate that using gene delivery to modulate neuroactive steroids shows promise for examining the neuronal mechanisms of moderate ethanol drinking, which could be extended to other behavioral paradigms and neuropsychiatric pathology.

  7. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS) Reduces Antibiotics Dose and Prevents Antibiotics-Caused Side Effects in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) Patients with Spinal Fusion Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Xu, Jinyu; Zhou, Haohan; Dong, Rongpeng; Kang, Mingyang; Zhao, Jianwu

    2017-03-14

    Antibiotics are always considered for surgical site infection (SSI) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. However, the use of antibiotics often causes the antibiotic resistance of pathogens and side effects. Thus, it is necessary to explore natural products as drug candidates. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS) has anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria functions. The effects of COS on surgical infection in AIS surgery were investigated. A total of 312 AIS patients were evenly and randomly assigned into control group (CG, each patient took one-gram alternative Azithromycin/Erythromycin/Cloxacillin/Aztreonam/Ceftazidime or combined daily), experiment group (EG, each patient took 20 mg COS and half-dose antibiotics daily), and placebo group (PG, each patient took 20 mg placebo and half-dose antibiotics daily). The average follow-up was one month, and infection severity and side effects were analyzed. The effects of COS on isolated pathogens were analyzed. SSI rates were 2%, 3% and 8% for spine wounds and 1%, 2% and 7% for iliac wound in CG, EG and PG ( p antibiotics ( p antibiotics dose and antibiotics-caused side effects in AIS patients with spinal fusion surgery by improving antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. COS should be developed as potential adjuvant for antibiotics therapies.

  8. From meatless Mondays to meatless Sundays: motivations for meat reduction among vegetarians and semi-vegetarians who mildly or significantly reduce their meat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2014-01-01

    This study explores vegetarians' and semi-vegetarians' motives for reducing their meat intake. Participants are categorized as vegetarians (remove all meat from their diet); semi-vegetarians (significantly reduce meat intake: at least three days a week); or light semi-vegetarians (mildly reduce meat intake: once or twice a week). Most differences appear between vegetarians and both groups of semi-vegetarians. Animal-rights and ecological concerns, together with taste preferences, predict vegetarianism, while an increase in health motives increases the odds of being semi-vegetarian. Even within each group, subgroups with different motives appear, and it is recommended that future researchers pay more attention to these differences.

  9. Empty virions in AAV8 vector preparations reduce transduction efficiency and may cause total viral particle dose-limiting side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Empty virions are inadvertent by-products of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV packaging process, resulting in vector lots with mixtures of full and empty virions at variable ratios. Impact of empty virions on the efficiency and side effects of rAAV transduction has not been well characterized. Here, we generated partially and completely empty AAV8 virions, fully packaged rAAV8 lots, and mixtures of empty and fully packaged virions with variable ratios of empty virions. The aforementioned dosing formulations of rAAV8 expressing either cellular (EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein or nuclear-targeted (n LacZ or secreted (human α1-antitrypsin (hA1AT reporter genes were intravenously injected into two different mouse strains, followed by analyses of transgene expressions and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels at different time points. We found that addition of empty particles to the fixed doses of rAAV8 preparations repressed liver transduction up to 64% (serum hA1AT and 44% (nLacZ in C57BL/6 mice, respectively. The similar trend in inhibiting EGFP expression together with concurrent elevations of serum ALT levels were observed in the BALB/c mice, indicating that empty particles may also exacerbate side effects of rAAV8 EGFP transduction. Our results suggest that removal of empty particles from rAAV preparations may improve efficacy and safety of AAV in clinical applications.

  10. Oxidized amino acid residues in the vicinity of Q(A and Pheo(D1 of the photosystem II reaction center: putative generation sites of reducing-side reactive oxygen species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie K Frankel

    Full Text Available Under a variety of stress conditions, Photosystem II produces reactive oxygen species on both the reducing and oxidizing sides of the photosystem. A number of different sites including the Mn4O5Ca cluster, P680, PheoD1, QA, QB and cytochrome b559 have been hypothesized to produce reactive oxygen species in the photosystem. In this communication using Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry we have identified several residues on the D1 and D2 proteins from spinach which are oxidatively modified and in close proximity to QA (D1 residues (239F, (241Q, (242E and the D2 residues (238P, (239T, (242E and (247M and PheoD1 (D1 residues (130E, (133L and (135F. These residues may be associated with reactive oxygen species exit pathways located on the reducing side of the photosystem, and their modification may indicate that both QA and PheoD1 are sources of reactive oxygen species on the reducing side of Photosystem II.

  11. SU-F-T-204: A Preliminary Approach of Reducing Contralateral Breast and Heart Dose in Left Sided Whole Breast Cancer Patients Utilizing Proton Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M; Algan, O; Jin, H; Ahmad, S; Hossain, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the plan quality and feasibility of a hybrid plan utilizing proton and photon fields for superior coverage in the internal mammary (IM) and supraclavicular (S/C) regions while minimizing heart and contralateral breast dose for the left-sided whole breast cancer patient treatment. Methods: This preliminary study carried out on single left-sided intact breast patient involved IM and S/C nodes. The IM and S/C node fields of the 5-Field 3DCRT photon-electron base plan were replaced by two proton fields. These two along with two Field-in-Field tangential photon fields were optimized for comparable dose coverage. The treatment plans were done using Eclipse TPS for the total dose of 46Gy in 23 fractions with 95% of the prescription dose covering 95% of the RTOG PTV. The 3DCRT photon-electron and 4-Field photon-proton hybrid plans were compared for the PTV dose coverage as well as dose to OARs. Results: The overall RTOG PTV coverage for proton-hybrid and 3DCRT plan was comparable (95% of prescription dose covers 95% PTV volume). In proton-hybrid plan, 99% of IM volume received 100% dose whereas in 3DCRT only 77% received 100% dose. For S/C regions, 97% and 77% volume received 100% prescription dose in proton-hybrid and 3DCRT plans, respectively. The heart mean dose, V3Gy(%), and V5Gy(%) was 2.2Gy, 14.4%, 9.8% for proton-hybrid vs. 4.20 Gy, 21.5%, and 39% for 3DCRT plan, respectively. The maximum dose to the contralateral breast was 39.75Gy for proton-hybrid while 56.87Gy for 3DCRT plan. The mean total lung dose, V20Gy(%), and V30Gy(%) was 5.68Gy, 11.3%, 10.5% for proton-hybrid vs. 5.90Gy, 9.8%, 7.2% for 3DCRT, respectively. Conclusion: The protonhybrid plan can offer better dose coverage to the involved lymphatic tissues while lower doses to the heart and contralateral breast. More treatment plans are currently in progress before being implemented clinically.

  12. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  13. Human Tubal-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Associated with Low Level Laser Therapy Significantly Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very debilitating disease, with a very high prevalence worldwide, which results in a expressive economic and social burden. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches to treat these patients are of unquestionable relevance. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs is an innovative and yet accessible approach for pulmonary acute and chronic diseases, mainly due to its important immunoregulatory, anti-fibrogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic. Besides, the use of adjuvant therapies, whose aim is to boost or synergize with their function should be tested. Low level laser (LLL therapy is a relatively new and promising approach, with very low cost, no invasiveness and no side effects. Here, we aimed to study the effectiveness of human tube derived MSCs (htMSCs cell therapy associated with a 30mW/3J-660 nm LLL irradiation in experimental cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 75 days (twice a day and all experiments were performed on day 76. Experimental groups receive htMSCS either intraperitoneally or intranasally and/or LLL irradiation either alone or in association. We show that co-therapy greatly reduces lung inflammation, lowering the cellular infiltrate and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and KC, which were followed by decreased mucus production, collagen accumulation and tissue damage. These findings seemed to be secondary to the reduction of both NF-κB and NF-AT activation in lung tissues with a concomitant increase in IL-10. In summary, our data suggests that the concomitant use of MSCs + LLLT may be a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD.

  14. EFFECT OF SHOULDER SIDE PACK ON DYNAMIC POSTURAL STABILITY IN YOUNG HEALTHY FEMALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas ELsayed Mohamed Abutaleb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Control of balance is a complex motor skill that involves integration of sensory inputs and the planning and execution of flexible movement patterns. Carrying side packs is famous in our society especially shoulder side packs. Most students carry shoulder side packs and they don't care about the way to carry them to be more balanced. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of carrying shoulder side pack on dynamic postural stability and to determine the best way of carrying a shoulder side pack either on the dominant side or non-dominant side that doesn’t affect dynamic postural stability in young healthy female. Methods: Sixty female volunteers aged from 18 to 25 years old participated in the study. Biodex balance system was used to measure the dynamic postural stability in three different occasions (without carrying a shoulder side pack, with carrying a shoulder side pack on the dominant side, and on the non-dominant side with a rest period in between. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc test were used to compare dynamic posture balance without carrying and during carrying a shoulder side pack on dominant and non-dominant sides. Analysis revealed that overall, anteroposterior and mediolateral stability indexes reduced significantly (P<0.0001 when carrying shoulder side pack on dominant side in comparison with when carrying shoulder side pack on non-dominant side and without carrying bag. Conclusion: It was concluded that carrying a shoulder side pack on the non-dominant side didn't disturb the postural stability when compared to carrying on the dominant side so, we recommend the students to carry shoulder side packs on the non-dominant side.

  15. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  16. The effectiveness of the anti-CD11d treatment is reduced in rat models of spinal cord injury that produce significant levels of intraspinal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, N M; Hryciw, T; Bao, F; Streijger, F; Okon, E; Lee, J H T; Weaver, L C; Dekaban, G A; Kwon, B K; Brown, A

    2017-09-01

    We have previously reported that administration of a CD11d monoclonal antibody (mAb) improves recovery in a clip-compression model of SCI. In this model the CD11d mAb reduces the infiltration of activated leukocytes into the injured spinal cord (as indicated by reduced intraspinal MPO). However not all anti-inflammatory strategies have reported beneficial results, suggesting that success of the CD11d mAb treatment may depend on the type or severity of the injury. We therefore tested the CD11d mAb treatment in a rat hemi-contusion model of cervical SCI. In contrast to its effects in the clip-compression model, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve forelimb function nor did it significantly reduce MPO levels in the hemi-contused cord. To determine if the disparate results using the CD11d mAb were due to the biomechanical nature of the cord injury (compression SCI versus contusion SCI) or to the spinal level of the injury (12th thoracic level versus cervical) we further evaluated the CD11d mAb treatment after a T12 contusion SCI. In contrast to the T12 clip compression SCI, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve locomotor recovery or significantly reduce MPO levels after T12 contusion SCI. Lesion analyses revealed increased levels of hemorrhage after contusion SCI compared to clip-compression SCI. SCI that is accompanied by increased intraspinal hemorrhage would be predicted to be refractory to the CD11d mAb therapy as this approach targets leukocyte diapedesis through the intact vasculature. These results suggest that the disparate results of the anti-CD11d treatment in contusion and clip-compression models of SCI are due to the different pathophysiological mechanisms that dominate these two types of spinal cord injuries. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  18. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Significance of the agreement and results of the Bonn and Marrakesh Conventions with respect to long-term reduction of greenhouse gases. An analysis of supply-side and demand-side aspects; Bedeutung des Bonner Beschlusses und der Ergebnisse aus Marrakesch fuer die langfristige Senkung der Treibhausgasemissionen. Eine Analyse der Angebots- und Nachfrageseite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wartmann, S.C.; Cremer, C.; Betz, R. [Fraunhofer Institut Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The article examines in great detail the Bonn resolution and the results of the Marrakesh Convention of the Parties to the UNFCCC with respect to the achievable contributions to a global reduction of greenhouse emissions. The analysis looks at the most important action plans and the relevant mechanisms agreed upon and derives global demand-side and national supply-side estimates and develops relevant projections of lasting greenhouse gas reductions, also indicating further required measures. (orig./CB) [German] Es wird untersucht, inwiefern die Regelungen des Bonner Beschlusses und der Konferenz in Marrakesch tatsaechlich auf das urspruengliche Ziel der Klimarahmenkonvention, langfristige Treibhausgasminderungen, abzielen. Zunaechst werden die wichtigsten Ergebnisse dieser Konferenzen erlaeutert. Anschliessend kann die internationale Nachfrage bzw. das entsprechende Angebot an Emissionsminderungen in Bezug auf Treibhausgasminderungen abgeschaetzt werden. Es ergibt sich ein Ueberblick, ob und in welchem Masse eigene Anstrengungen der verpflichteten Staaten noch notwendig sind. (orig./CB)

  20. Medications and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to fully work. You might feel some side effects of your medication before your feel the benefits – ... as sleepiness, anxiety or headache) is a side effect or a symptom of your illness. Many side ...

  1. Glycophospholipid Formulation with NADH and CoQ10 Significantly Reduces Intractable Fatigue in Western Blot-Positive ‘Chronic Lyme Disease’ Patients: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth L. Nicolson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An open label 8-week preliminary study was conducted in a small number of patients to determine if a combination oral supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids, coenzyme Q10 and microencapsulated NADH and other nutrients could affect fatigue levels in long-term, Western blot-positive, multi-symptom ‘chronic Lyme disease’ patients (also called ‘post-treatment Lyme disease’ or ‘post Lyme syndrome’ with intractable fatigue. Methods: The subjects in this study were 6 males (mean age = 45.1 ± 12.4 years and 10 females (mean age = 54.6 ± 7.4 years with ‘chronic Lyme disease’ (determined by multiple symptoms and positive Western blot analysis that had been symptomatic with chronic fatigue for an average of 12.7 ± 6.6 years. They had been seen by multiple physicians (13.3 ± 7.6 and had used many other remedies, supplements and drugs (14.4 ± 7.4 without fatigue relief. Fatigue was monitored at 0, 7, 30 and 60 days using a validated instrument, the Piper Fatigue Scale.Results: Patients in this preliminary study responded to the combination test supplement, showing a 26% reduction in overall fatigue by the end of the 8-week trial (p< 0.0003. Analysis of subcategories of fatigue indicated that there were significant improvements in the ability to complete tasks and activities as well as significant improvements in mood and cognitive abilities. Regression analysis of the data indicated that reductions in fatigue were consistent and occurred with a high degree of confidence (R2= 0.998. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(3:35-47 Conclusions: The combination supplement was a safe and effective method to significantly reduce intractable fatigue in long-term patients with Western blot-positive ‘chronic Lyme disease.’

  2. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivinius R

    2016-02-01

    group (P=0.0123. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596, 2-year (P=0.8620, 5-year (P=0.2737, or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049. Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786.Conclusion: Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with increased mortality after HTX. Keywords: amiodarone, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, heart transplantation, mortality

  3. A proper choice of route significantly reduces air pollution exposure--a study on bicycle and bus trips in urban streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Ole; Hvidberg, Martin; Ketzel, Matthias; Storm, Lars; Stausgaard, Lizzi

    2008-01-15

    A proper selection of route through the urban area may significantly reduce the air pollution exposure. This is the main conclusion from the presented study. Air pollution exposure is determined for two selected cohorts along the route going from home to working place, and back from working place to home. Exposure is determined with a street pollution model for three scenarios: bicycling along the shortest possible route, bicycling along the low exposure route along less trafficked streets, and finally taking the shortest trip using public transport. Furthermore, calculations are performed for the cases the trip takes place inside as well as outside the traffic rush hours. The results show that the accumulated air pollution exposure for the low exposure route is between 10% and 30% lower for the primary pollutants (NO(x) and CO). However, the difference is insignificant and in some cases even negative for the secondary pollutants (NO(2) and PM(10)/PM(2.5)). Considering only the contribution from traffic in the travelled streets, the accumulated air pollution exposure is between 54% and 67% lower for the low exposure route. The bus is generally following highly trafficked streets, and the accumulated exposure along the bus route is therefore between 79% and 115% higher than the high exposure bicycle route (the short bicycle route). Travelling outside the rush hour time periods reduces the accumulated exposure between 10% and 30% for the primary pollutants, and between 5% and 20% for the secondary pollutants. The study indicates that a web based route planner for selecting the low exposure route through the city might be a good service for the public. In addition the public may be advised to travel outside rush hour time periods.

  4. A Rosa canina - Urtica dioica - Harpagophytum procumbens/zeyheri Combination Significantly Reduces Gonarthritis Symptoms in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Margret; Gruenwald, Joerg; Pohl, Ute; Uebelhack, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    The special formulation MA212 (Rosaxan) is composed of rosehip ( Rosa canina L.) puree/juice concentrate, nettle ( Urtica dioica L.) leaf extract, and devil's claw ( Harpagophytum procumbens DC. ex Meisn. or Harpagophytum zeyheri Decne.) root extract and also supplies vitamin D. It is a food for special medical purposes ([EU] No 609/2013) for the dietary management of pain in patients with gonarthritis.This 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind parallel-design study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of MA212 versus placebo in patients with gonarthritis.A 3D-HPLC-fingerprint (3-dimensional high pressure liquid chromatography fingerprint) of MA212 demonstrated the presence of its herbal ingredients. Ninety-two randomized patients consumed 40 mL of MA212 (n = 46) or placebo (n = 44) daily. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), quality-of-life scores at 0, 6, and 12 weeks, and analgesic consumption were documented. Statistically, the initial WOMAC subscores/scores did not differ between groups. During the study, their means significantly improved in both groups. The mean pre-post change of the WOMAC pain score (primary endpoint) was 29.87 in the MA212 group and 10.23 in the placebo group. The group difference demonstrated a significant superiority in favor of MA212 (p U  < 0.001; p t  < 0.001). Group comparisons of all WOMAC subscores/scores at 6 and 12 weeks reached same significances. Compared to placebo, both physical and mental quality of life significantly improved with MA212. There was a trend towards reduced analgesics consumption with MA212, compared to placebo. In the final efficacy evaluation, physicians (p Chi  < 0.001) and patients (p Chi  < 0.001) rated MA212 superior to placebo. MA212 was well tolerated.This study demonstrates excellent efficacy for MA212 in gonarthritis patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Myocardial fatty acid imaging with 123I-BMIPP in patients with chronic right ventricular pressure overload. Clinical significance of reduced uptake in interventricular septum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Yoshiro; Ishida, Yoshio; Fukuchi, Kazuki; Hayashida, Kouhei; Takamiya, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    Regionally reduced 123 I-beta-methyliodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) uptake in the interventricular septum (SEP) is observed in some patients with chronic right ventricular (RV) pressure overload. We studied the significance of this finding by comparing it with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP). 123 I-BMIPP SPECT imaging was carried out in 21 patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH; 51+-14 years; 11 men and 10 women; 7 with primary pulmonary hypertension, 11 with pulmonary thromboembolism, and 3 with atrial septal defect). mPAP ranged from 25 to 81 mmHg (49±16 mmHg). Using a midventricular horizontal long-axis plane, regional BMIPP distributions in the RV free wall and SEP were estimated by referring to those in the LV free wall. Count ratios of the RV free wall and SEP to the LV free wall (RV/LV, SEP/LV) were determined by ROI analysis. RV/LV showed a linear correlation with mPAP (r=0.42). However, SEP/LV was inversely correlated with mPAP (r=-0.49). When SEP/RV was compared among three regions of SEP in each patient, basal SEP/RV was most sensitively decreased in response to increased mPAP (r=-0.70). These results suggest that the assessment of septal tracer uptake in 123 I-BMIPP SPECT imaging is useful for evaluating the severity of RV pressure overload in patients with PH. (author)

  6. PARP-1 depletion in combination with carbon ion exposure significantly reduces MMPs activity and overall increases TIMPs expression in cultured HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Sarma, Asitikantha; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Ghosh, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Hadron therapy is an innovative technique where cancer cells are precisely killed leaving surrounding healthy cells least affected by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation like carbon ion beam. Anti-metastatic effect of carbon ion exposure attracts investigators into the field of hadron biology, although details remain poor. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors are well-known radiosensitizer and several PARP-1 inhibitors are in clinical trial. Our previous studies showed that PARP-1 depletion makes the cells more radiosensitive towards carbon ion than gamma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate combining effects of PARP-1 inhibition with carbon ion exposure to control metastatic properties in HeLa cells. Activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, MMP-9) were measured using the gelatin zymography after 85 MeV carbon ion exposure or gamma irradiation (0- 4 Gy) to compare metastatic potential between PARP-1 knock down (HsiI) and control cells (H-vector - HeLa transfected with vector without shRNA construct). Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of MMPs such as TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 were checked by immunofluorescence and western blot. Cell death by trypan blue, apoptosis and autophagy induction were studied after carbon ion exposure in each cell-type. The data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and 2-tailed paired-samples T-test. PARP-1 silencing significantly reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and carbon ion exposure further diminished their activities to less than 3 % of control H-vector. On the contrary, gamma radiation enhanced both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in H-vector but not in HsiI cells. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in H-vector and HsiI showed different pattern after carbon ion exposure. All three TIMPs were increased in HsiI, whereas only TIMP-1 was up-regulated in H-vector after irradiation. Notably, the expressions of all TIMPs were significantly higher in HsiI than H-vector at 4 Gy. Apoptosis was

  7. Symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n reduce methylation of RARB and PTEN while significantly increase methylation of rRNA genes in MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Kostyuk

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome.It is shown that DBP(n are able to penetrate the cellular membranes and accumulate in breast carcinoma cell MCF-7, mainly in the mitochondria and in the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. The DBP(n are non-toxic to the cells and have a weak overall demethylation effect on genomic DNA. DBP(n demethylate the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and RARB. DBP(n promotes expression of the genes RARB, PTEN, CDKN2A, RUNX3, Apaf-1 and APC "silent" in the MCF-7 because of the hypermethylation of their promoter regions. Simultaneously with the demethylation of the DNA in the nucleus a significant increase in the methylation level of rRNA genes in the nucleolus was detected. Increased rDNA methylation correlated with a reduction of the rRNA amount in the cells by 20-30%. It is assumed that during DNA methyltransferase activity inhibition by the DBP(n in the nucleus, the enzyme is sequestered in the nucleolus and provides additional methylation of the rDNA that are not shielded by DBP(n.It is concluded that DBP (n are able to accumulate in the nucleus (excluding the nucleolus area and in the mitochondria of cancer cells, reducing mitochondrial potential. The DBP (n induce the demethylation of a cancer cell's genome, including the demethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. DBP (n significantly increase the methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the nucleoli. Therefore the further study of these compounds is needed

  8. Holstein-Friesian calves selected for divergence in residual feed intake during growth exhibited significant but reduced residual feed intake divergence in their first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Pryce, J E; Spelman, R J; Davis, S R; Wales, W J; Waghorn, G C; Williams, Y J; Marett, L C; Hayes, B J

    2014-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), as a measure of feed conversion during growth, was estimated for around 2,000 growing Holstein-Friesian heifer calves aged 6 to 9 mo in New Zealand and Australia, and individuals from the most and least efficient deciles (low and high RFI phenotypes) were retained. These animals (78 New Zealand cows, 105 Australian cows) were reevaluated during their first lactation to determine if divergence for RFI observed during growth was maintained during lactation. Mean daily body weight (BW) gain during assessment as calves had been 0.86 and 1.15 kg for the respective countries, and the divergence in RFI between most and least efficient deciles for growth was 21% (1.39 and 1.42 kg of dry matter, for New Zealand and Australia, respectively). At the commencement of evaluation during lactation, the cows were aged 26 to 29 mo. All were fed alfalfa and grass cubes; it was the sole diet in New Zealand, whereas 6 kg of crushed wheat/d was also fed in Australia. Measurements of RFI during lactation occurred for 34 to 37 d with measurements of milk production (daily), milk composition (2 to 3 times per week), BW and BW change (1 to 3 times per week), as well as body condition score (BCS). Daily milk production averaged 13.8 kg for New Zealand cows and 20.0 kg in Australia. No statistically significant differences were observed between calf RFI decile groups for dry matter intake, milk production, BW change, or BCS; however a significant difference was noted between groups for lactating RFI. Residual feed intake was about 3% lower for lactating cows identified as most efficient as growing calves, and no negative effects on production were observed. These results support the hypothesis that calves divergent for RFI during growth are also divergent for RFI when lactating. The causes for this reduced divergence need to be investigated to ensure that genetic selection programs based on low RFI (better efficiency) are robust. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy

  9. Comparing outcomes between side-to-side anastomosis and other anastomotic configurations after intestinal resection for patients with Crohn's disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Li, Yi; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2013-04-01

    Anastomotic configurations may be a predictor of postoperative recurrence for Crohn's disease. One previous meta-analysis showed side-to-side anastomosis was associated with fewer anastomotic leaks but did not reduce postoperative recurrence rates. After 2007, more articles that found distinct results were published. We aimed to update the meta-analysis comparing outcomes between side-to-side anastomosis and other anastomotic configurations after intestinal resection for patients with Crohn's disease. A literature search that included PubMed, EMBASE, the Science Citation Index, and the Cochrane Library was conducted to identify studies up to May 2012. Trials comparing side-to-side anastomosis with other anastomotic configurations for Crohn's disease were analyzed. Sensitivity analysis and heterogeneity assessment were also performed. Eleven trials compared side-to-side with other anastomotic configurations were included. Overall, results showed a significant reduction in the overall postoperative complications [n = 777; odds ratio (OR) = 0.60; P = 0.01], but side-to-side anastomosis did not reduce the anastomotic leak rate (n = 879; OR = 0.48; P = 0.07), complications other than anastomotic leak (n = 777; OR = 0.72; P = 0.13), endoscopic recurrence rates [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.73; P = 0.07], symptomatic recurrence rates (HR = 0.74; P = 0.20), and reoperation rates for recurrence (HR = 0.37; P = 0.06). Sensitivity analysis including two randomized controlled trials found no significant differences in short-term complications between the two groups. Sensitivity analysis including nine trials comparing only stapled side-to-side anastomosis with other anastomotic configurations showed stapled side-to-side anastomosis could reduce reoperation rates (HR = 0.38; P = 0.01). Side-to-side anastomosis did not reduce short-term complications and postoperative recurrence for Crohn's disease. Stapled side-to-side anastomosis may lead to fewer reoperations needed for recurrence

  10. Side Effects (Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  11. Leukocyte-depletion of blood components does not significantly reduce the risk of infectious complications. Results of a double-blinded, randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titlestad, I. L.; Ebbesen, L. S.; Ainsworth, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusions are claimed to be an independent risk factor for postoperative infections in open colorectal surgery due to immunomodulation. Leukocyte-depletion of erythrocyte suspensions has been shown in some open randomized studies to reduce the rate of postoperative infection t...

  12. Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy has side effects because it not only kills or slows the growth of cancer cells, it can also affect nearby healthy cells. Many people who get radiation therapy experience fatigue. Other side effects depend on the part of the body that is being treated. Learn more about possible side effects.

  13. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Luke A; Sands, Helen; Jones, Lewis; Clow, Angela; Evans, Phil; Stalder, Tobias; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the neurocognitive performance of recent users of recreational Ecstasy and investigate whether it was associated with the stress hormone cortisol. The 101 participants included 27 recent light users of Ecstasy (one to four times in the last 3 months), 23 recent heavier Ecstasy users (five or more times) and 51 non-users. Rivermead paragraph recall provided an objective measure for immediate and delayed recall. The prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire provided a subjective index of memory deficits. Cortisol levels were taken from near-scalp 3-month hair samples. Cortisol was significantly raised in recent heavy Ecstasy users compared with controls, whereas hair cortisol in light Ecstasy users was not raised. Both Ecstasy groups were significantly impaired on the Rivermead delayed word recall, and both groups reported significantly more retrospective and prospective memory problems. Stepwise regression confirmed that lifetime Ecstasy predicted the extent of these memory deficits. Recreational Ecstasy is associated with increased levels of the bio-energetic stress hormone cortisol and significant memory impairments. No significant relationship between cortisol and the cognitive deficits was observed. Ecstasy users did display evidence of a metacognitive deficit, with the strength of the correlations between objective and subjective memory performances being significantly lower in the Ecstasy users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Running away from side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, S; Hojman, P; Márquez-Rodas, I

    2015-01-01

    The number of breast cancer survivors increases every year, thanks to the development of new treatments and screening techniques. However, patients present with numerous side effects that may affect their quality of life. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce some of these side effects...... be an integrative complementary intervention to improve physiological, physical and psychological factors that affect survival and quality of life of these patients. For that reason, the main objective of this review is to provide a general overview of exercise benefits in breast cancer patients and recommendations...

  15. Metaldyne: Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Efficiency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Significant Cost Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  16. The co registration of initial PET on the CT-radiotherapy reduces significantly the variabilities of anatomo-clinical target volume in the child hodgkin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, H.; Blouet, A.; David, I.; Rives, M.; Izar, F.; Courbon, F.; Filleron, T.; Laprie, A.; Plat, G.; Vial, J.

    2009-01-01

    It exists a great interobserver variability for the anatomo-clinical target volume (C.T.V.) definition in children suffering of Hodgkin disease. In this study, the co-registration of the PET with F.D.G. on the planning computed tomography has significantly lead to a greater coherence in the clinical target volume definition. (N.C.)

  17. Soluble CD36 and risk markers of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis are elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome and significantly reduced during pioglitazone treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Højlund, Kurt; Andersen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the relation between soluble CD36 (sCD36), risk markers of atherosclerosis and body composition, and glucose and lipid metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Research Design and Methods: Thirty PCOS patients were randomized to pioglitazone, 30 mg/day or placebo...... units), oxLDL (44.9 (26.9 - 75.1) vs. 36.1 (23.4 - 55.5) U/l), and hsCRP (0.26 (0.03 - 2.41) vs. 0.12 (0.02 - 0.81) mg/dl) were significantly increased in PCOS patients vs. controls (geometric mean (+/- 2SD)). In PCOS, positive correlations were found between central fat mass and sCD36 (r=0.43), hs......CRP (r=0.43), and IL-6 (r=0.42), all pPCOS patients and controls (n=44). sCD36 and oxLDL were significant...

  18. Does Liposomal Bupivacaine (Exparel) Significantly Reduce Postoperative Pain/Numbness in Symptomatic Teeth with a Diagnosis of Necrosis? A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Brandon; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Fowler, Sara; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2016-09-01

    Medical studies have shown some potential for infiltrations of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel; Pacira Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA), a slow-release bupivacaine solution, to extend postoperative benefits of numbness/pain relief for up to several days. Because the Food and Drug Administration has approved Exparel only for infiltrations, we wanted to evaluate if it would be effective as an infiltration to control postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to compare an infiltration of bupivacaine with liposomal bupivacaine for postoperative numbness and pain in symptomatic patients diagnosed with pulpal necrosis experiencing moderate to severe preoperative pain. One hundred patients randomly received a 4.0-mL buccal infiltration of either bupivacaine or liposomal bupivacaine after endodontic debridement. For postoperative pain, patients were given ibuprofen/acetaminophen, and they could receive narcotic pain medication as an escape. Patients recorded their level of numbness, pain, and medication use the night of the appointment and over the next 5 days. Success was defined as no or mild postoperative pain and no narcotic use. The success rate was 29% for the liposomal group and 22% for the bupivacaine group, with no significant difference (P = .4684) between the groups. Liposomal bupivacaine had some effect on soft tissue numbness, pain, and use of non-narcotic medications, but it was not clinically significant. There was no significant difference in the need for escape medication. For symptomatic patients diagnosed with pulpal necrosis experiencing moderate to severe preoperative pain, a 4.0-mL infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine did not result in a statistically significant increase in postoperative success compared with an infiltration of 4.0 mL bupivacaine. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dual-sided reading versus single-sided reading: comparison of image quality and radiation dose between the two computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shaojuan; Qi Hengtao; Zhao Yongxia; Jiao Fanglian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the difference in image quality and exposure dose between single-sided reading image plate (IP) and dual-sided reading IP. Methods: A contrast-detail phantom CDRAD 2.0 was exposed by single-sided and dual-sided reading IP with different mAs sets. The entrance surface doses were recorded for all images. Images were then presented to two radiologists on a high resolution monitor of diagnosis workstation. The image quality figure (IQF) was measured for each image. Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's correlation test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare the difference in image quality and exposure dose between single-sided IP and dual-sided reading IP. Results: With different tube current dosage of 5.6, 12.0, 20.0, 25.0, and 40.0 mAs, IQF values of single-sided reading IP were 47.95, 37.68, 34.31, 28.61, and 24.65, respectively, while those of dual- sided reading IP were 38.83, 29.81, 29.65, 25.16, and 21.43, respectively. The IQF difference between them showed statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion: Image quality of dual-sided reading IP has been proved to be far superior to that of single-sided reading IP, in particular for low contrast detail. The image quality of single-sided reading IP is similar to that of dual-sided reading IP only at high dose levels. The clinical application of dual-sided reading IP will reduce the exposure dose by about 25% compared with single-sided reading IP. (authors)

  20. Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 73 m2 ) at first transurethral resection of bladder tumour is a significant predictor of subsequent recurrence and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blute, Michael L; Kucherov, Victor; Rushmer, Timothy J; Damodaran, Shivashankar; Shi, Fangfang; Abel, E Jason; Jarrard, David F; Richards, Kyle A; Messing, Edward M; Downs, Tracy M

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate if moderate chronic kidney disease [CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 73 m 2 ] is associated with high rates of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) recurrence or progression. A multi-institutional database identified patients with serum creatinine values prior to first transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). The CKD-epidemiology collaboration formula calculated patient eGFR. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations with recurrence-free (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS). In all, 727 patients were identified with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) patient age of 69.8 (60.1-77.6) years. Data for eGFR were available for 632 patients. During a median (IQR) follow-up of 3.7 (1.5-6.5) years, 400 (55%) patients had recurrence and 145 (19.9%) patients had progression of tumour stage or grade. Moderate or severe CKD was identified in 183 patients according to eGFR. Multivariable analysis identified an eGFR of 73 m 2 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-1.9; P = 0.002) as a predictor of tumour recurrence. The 5-year RFS rate was 46% for patients with an eGFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 27% for patients with an eGFR of 73 m 2 (P 73 m 2 (HR 3.7, 95% CI: 1.75-7.94; P = 0.001) was associated with progression to muscle-invasive disease. The 5-year PFS rate was 83% for patients with an eGFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 71% for patients with an eGFR of 73 m 2 (P = 0.01). Moderate CKD at first TURBT is associated with reduced RFS and PFS. Patients with reduced renal function should be considered for increased surveillance. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Intra-articular laser treatment plus Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) significantly reduces pain in many patients who had failed prior PRP treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodromos, Chadwick C.; Finkle, Susan; Dawes, Alexander; Dizon, Angelo

    2018-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: In our practice Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injections effectively reduce pain in most but not all arthritic patients. However, for patients who fail PRP treatment, no good alternative currently exists except total joint replacement surgery. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the surface of the skin has not been helpful for arthritis patients in our experience. However, we hypothesized that intra-articular laser treatment would be an effective augmentation to PRP injection and would increase its efficacy in patients who had failed prior PRP injection alone. METHODS: We offered Intra-articular Low Level Laser Therapy (IAL) treatment in conjunction with repeat PRP injection to patients who had received no benefit from PRP injection alone at our center. They were the treatment group. They were not charged for PRP or IAL. They also served as a historical control group since they had all had failed PRP treatment alone. 28 patients (30 joints) accepted treatment after informed consent. 22 knees, 4 hips, 2 shoulder glenohumeral joints and 1 first carpo-metacarpal (1st CMC) joint were treated RESULTS: All patients were followed up at 1 month and no adverse events were seen from the treatment. At 6 months post treatment 46% of patients had good outcomes, and at 1 year 17% still showed improvement after treatment. 11 patients failed treatment and went on to joint replacement. DISCUSSION: A single treatment of IAL with PRP salvaged 46% of patients who had failed PRP treatment alone, allowing avoidance of surgery and good pain control.

  2. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Holst, Jens Juul; Sorensen, Charlotte M

    2017-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect of acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1. We hypothesized that GLP-1 would increase diuresis and natriuresis and reduce MAP in SHR. Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization for the GLP-1 receptor were used to localize GLP-1 receptors in the kidney. Sevoflurane-anesthetized normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats and SHR received a 20 min intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 and changes in MAP, RBF, heart rate, dieresis, and natriuresis were measured. The vasodilatory effect of GLP-1 was assessed in isolated interlobar arteries from normo- and hypertensive rats. We found no expression of GLP-1 receptors in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e.g., insulin) to induce the renal changes observed or possibly by an alternative renal GLP-1 receptor. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  3. Peak medial (but not lateral) hamstring activity is significantly lower during stance phase of running. An EMG investigation using a reduced gravity treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Einarson, Einar; Thomson, Athol; Whiteley, Rodney

    2017-09-01

    The hamstrings are seen to work during late swing phase (presumably to decelerate the extending shank) then during stance phase (presumably stabilizing the knee and contributing to horizontal force production during propulsion) of running. A better understanding of this hamstring activation during running may contribute to injury prevention and performance enhancement (targeting the specific role via specific contraction mode). Twenty active adult males underwent surface EMG recordings of their medial and lateral hamstrings while running on a reduced gravity treadmill. Participants underwent 36 different conditions for combinations of 50%-100% altering bodyweight (10% increments) & 6-16km/h (2km/h increments, i.e.: 36 conditions) for a minimum of 6 strides of each leg (maximum 32). EMG was normalized to the peak value seen for each individual during any stride in any trial to describe relative activation levels during gait. Increasing running speed effected greater increases in EMG for all muscles than did altering bodyweight. Peak EMG for the lateral hamstrings during running trials was similar for both swing and stance phase whereas the medial hamstrings showed an approximate 20% reduction during stance compared to swing phase. It is suggested that the lateral hamstrings work equally hard during swing and stance phase however the medial hamstrings are loaded slightly less every stance phase. Likely this helps explain the higher incidence of lateral hamstring injury. Hamstring injury prevention and rehabilitation programs incorporating running should consider running speed as more potent stimulus for increasing hamstring muscle activation than impact loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. "Tell me, how bright your hypomania is, and I tell you, if you are happily in love!"--among young adults in love, bright side hypomania is related to reduced depression and anxiety, and better sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Foell, Stephan; Bajoghli, Hafez; Keshavarzi, Zahra; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Schmidt, Norman B; Norton, Peter J; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2015-03-01

    Studies on adolescents and adults show that romantic love (RL) is associated with favorable emotional states. However, data on these associations are scarce for adults. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to explore the associations between RL, symptoms of depression, anxiety, hypomania (bright side and dark side), and sleep in a sample of adults. A total of 844 participants currently in love (M = 24.79 years, 75.8% females) took part in the study. They completed a series of questionnaires related to RL, symptoms of depression, anxiety, hypomania (bright side and dark side), and sleep. An increased state of RL was associated both with the bright and the dark side of hypomania (BRHYP and DAHYP). Relative to participants with BRHYP, participants with DAHYP reported stronger symptoms of depression and state anxiety, and poor sleep quality. The pattern of results adds to our knowledge that in adults RL is not entirely a joyful and happy period of life. Rather, data suggest that for young adults in love, bright versus dark side of hypomania was associated with a different quality of psychological functioning and sleep. We conclude that experiencing RL might be a critical life event associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and poor sleep.

  5. The chemical digestion of Ti6Al7Nb scaffolds produced by Selective Laser Melting reduces significantly ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junka, Adam F; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Secewicz, Anna; Pawlak, Andrzej; Smutnicka, Danuta; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna; Chlebus, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In our previous work we reported the impact of hydrofluoric and nitric acid used for chemical polishing of Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds on decrease of the number of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm forming cells. Herein, we tested impact of the aforementioned substances on biofilm of Gram-negative microorganism, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, dangerous pathogen responsible for plethora of implant-related infections. The Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds were manufactured using Selective Laser Melting method. Scaffolds were subjected to chemical polishing using a mixture of nitric acid and fluoride or left intact (control group). Pseudomonal biofilm was allowed to form on scaffolds for 24 hours and was removed by mechanical vortex shaking. The number of pseudomonal cells was estimated by means of quantitative culture and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The presence of nitric acid and fluoride on scaffold surfaces was assessed by means of IR and rentgen spetorscopy. Quantitative data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test (P ≤ 0.05). Our results indicate that application of chemical polishing correlates with significant drop of biofilm-forming pseudomonal cells on the manufactured Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds ( p = 0.0133, Mann-Whitney test) compared to the number of biofilm-forming cells on non-polished scaffolds. As X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of fluoride and nitrogen on the surface of scaffold, we speculate that drop of biofilm forming cells may be caused by biofilm-supressing activity of these two elements.

  6. Single side Emitting Transparent OLED lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lifka, H.; Verschuren, C.A.; Bruls, D.M.; Tanase, C.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent OLEDs offer great potential for novel applications. Preferably, the light should be emitted from one side only. This can bedone to some extent by modifying electrode thicknesses, but at the cost of reduced transparency. Here, we demonstrate a new approach tomake single side emissive

  7. Reduction of common motoneuronal drive on the affected side during walking in hemiplegic stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Brittain, John-Stuart; Halliday, David M.

    2008-01-01

    walking in eight subjects with unilateral stroke. RESULTS: On the unaffected side, short-term synchronization was evident from the presence of a narrow central peak in cumulant densities and from the presence of significant coherence between these signals in the 10-25 Hz band. Such indicators of short...... on the affected side in hemiplegic patients during walking. SIGNIFICANCE: This is of importance for understanding the mechanisms responsible for reduced gait ability and development of new strategies for gait restoration....

  8. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  9. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...... with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties...

  10. Nuclear energy significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2006-01-01

    This article is devoted to nuclear energy, to its acceptability, compatibility and sustainability. Nuclear energy is non-dispensable part of energy sources with vast innovation potential. The safety of nuclear energy, radioactive waste deposition, and prevention of risk from misuse of nuclear material have to be very seriously adjudged and solved. Nuclear energy is one of the ways how to decrease the contamination of atmosphere with carbon dioxide and it solves partially also the problem of global increase of temperature and climate changes. Given are the main factors responsible for the renaissance of nuclear energy. (author)

  11. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  12. Side Effects: Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatigue is a common side effect of many cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and surgery. Anemia and pain can also cause fatigue. Learn about symptoms and way to manage fatigue.

  13. Side Effects: Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarrhea, a side effect of cancer treatment, may cause symptoms such as loose, watery stools. Diarrhea can lead to dehydration and malnutrition in cancer patients. Learn about ways to treat and manage diarrhea during cancer treatment.

  14. Side Effects: Appetite Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments may lower your appetite. Side effects such as nausea, fatigue, or mouth sores can also making eating difficult. Learn how to eat well to avoid losing weight or becoming dehydrated, so you stay strong during treatment.

  15. Side Effects: Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling pain is an important part of your cancer treatment plan. Learn how to track levels of pain. Find out how pain, a side effect of cancer treatment, is treated using acupuncture, biofeedback, and physical therapy.

  16. Side Effects: Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a side effect of cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It can make women and men feel fatigued, dizzy, and short of breath. Learn how to manage fatigue caused by anemia during cancer treatment.

  17. Side core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A

    1982-01-01

    A side core lifter is proposed which contains a housing with guide slits and a removable core lifter with side projections on the support section connected to the core receiver. In order to preserve the structure of the rock in the core sample by means of guaranteeing rectilinear movement of the core lifter in the rock, the support and core receiver sections are hinged. The device is equipped with a spring for angular shift in the core-reception part.

  18. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ARTIFICIAL ABORTION-INDUCED SIDE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽颖

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroecupuncture (EA) of acupoints of Ren, Spleen and Stomach Meridians on artificial abortion-induced side effects was observed in 100 artificial abortion women. In comparison with 45 artificial abortion women in the control group (who had not accepted EA treatment), EA possessed significant effects in relieving abdominal pain, reducing vaginal bleeding duration, lowering infection rate and infertility rate after artificial abortion operation.

  19. Working the Dark Side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjering, Jens Christian Borrebye

    A few days after the terror attacks of 9/11, then Vice President Dick Cheney appeared on television with a call for “working the dark side.” While still unclear what this expression entailed at the time, Cheney's comment appears in retrospect to almost have been prophetic for the years to come....... By analyzing official reports and testimonies from soldiers partaking in the War On Terror, the dissertation's second part—dark arts—focuses on the transformation of the dark side into a productive space in which “information” and the hunt for said information overshadowed all legal, ethical, or political...

  20. Forskningens personlige side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler den ontologiske vending inden for universitetspædagogisk forskning, og redegør for hvorfor en mere personlig og eksistentiel side ved forskningen må medtænkes i universitetspædagogikken og -vejledningen. Udgivelsesdato: 24.11.08...

  1. Side loading filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    A side loading filter chamber for use with radioactive gases is described. The equipment incorporates an inexpensive, manually operated, mechanism for aligning filter units with a number of laterally spaced wall openings and for removing the units from the chamber. (U.K.)

  2. Side insertable spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Ewing, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a spacer for restraining the fuel rods of a nuclear fuel assembly, the assembly being formed of a plurality of parallel, elongated fuel rods so arranged that the assembly is bounded by a polygon having an even number of sides, the rods being so arranged as to lie in a plurality of sets of parallel rows, the rows of each set being perpendicular to one of the sides of the polygon. It comprises a number of spacer combs equal to at least half the number of the sides of the polygon, the spacer combs being superposed on each other, each of the spacer combs comprising: a single base strip having a length equal to that of one of the sides of the polygon and grid strips equal in number to the spaces between rows in one of the sets, and at least a majority of the grid strips being of a length sufficient to extend substantially the full length of the rows; the grid strips being provided with spring members positioned to engage each of the rods; the grid strips being provided with spring members positioned to engage each of the rods; the grid strips being secured to and extending at right angles to the base strip; the grid strips of different combs being positioned at angles to each other, so as to occupy the spaces between rows in different sets

  3. Pre-Treatment Deep Curettage Can Significantly Reduce Tumour Thickness in Thick Basal Cell Carcinoma While Maintaining a Favourable Cosmetic Outcome When Used in Combination with Topical Photodynamic Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.; Mork, C.; Foss, O. A.

    2011-01-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has limitations in the treatment of thick skin tumours. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of pre-PDT deep curettage on tumour thickness in thick (≥2 mm) basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Additionally, 3-month treatment outcome and change of tumour thickness from diagnosis to treatment were investigated. At diagnosis, mean tumour thickness was 2.3 mm (range 2.0-4.0). Pre- and post-curettage biopsies were taken from each tumour prior to PDT. Of 32 verified BCCs, tumour thickness was reduced by 50% after deep curettage (ρ≤0.001) . Mean tumour thickness was also reduced from diagnosis to treatment. At 3-month followup, complete tumour response was found in 93% and the cosmetic outcome was rated excellent or good in 100% of cases. In conclusion, deep curettage significantly reduces BCC thickness and may with topical PDT provide a favourable clinical and cosmetic short-term outcome.

  4. Incidence of Important Hemobilia Following Transhepatic Biliary Drainage: Left-Sided Versus Right-Sided Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Sanfeliz, G. M.; Assar, O. S. A.; LaBerge, J. M.; Wilson, M. W.; Gordon, R. L.; Ring, E. J.; Kerlan, R. K. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose here is to describe our experience with important hemobilia following PTBD and to determine whether left-sided percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is associated with an increased incidence of important hemobilia compared to right-sided drainages. We reviewed 346 transhepatic biliary drainages over a four-year period and identified eight patients (2.3%) with important hemobilia requiring transcatheter embolization. The charts and radiographic files of these patients were reviewed. The side of the PTBD (left versus right), and the order of the biliary ductal branch entered (first, second, or third) were recorded. Of the 346 PTBDs, 269 were right-sided and 77 were left-sided. Of the eight cases of important hemobilia requiring transcatheter embolization, four followed right-sided and four followed left-sided PTBD, corresponding to a bleeding incidence of 1.5% (4/269) for right PTBD and 5.2% (4/77) for left PTBD. The higher incidence of hemobilia associated with left-sided PTBD approached, but did not reach the threshold of statistical significance (p = 0.077). In six of the eight patients requiring transcatheter embolization, first or second order biliary branches were accessed by catheter for PTBD. All patients with left-sided bleeding had first or proximal second order branches accessed by biliary drainage catheters. In conclusion, a higher incidence of hemobilia followed left- versus right-sided PTBD in this study, but the increased incidence did not reach statistical significance

  5. Sediment sorting at a side channel bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Denderen, Pepijn; Schielen, Ralph; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Side channels have been constructed to reduce the flood risk and to increase the ecological value of the river. In various Dutch side channels large aggradation in these channels occurred after construction. Measurements show that the grain size of the deposited sediment in the side channel is smaller than the grain size found on the bed of the main channel. This suggest that sorting occurs at the bifurcation of the side channel. The objective is to reproduce with a 2D morphological model the fining of the bed in the side channel and to study the effect of the sediment sorting on morphodynamic development of the side channel. We use a 2D Delft3D model with two sediment fractions. The first fraction corresponds with the grain size that can be found on the bed of the main channel and the second fraction corresponds with the grain size found in the side channel. With the numerical model we compute several side channel configurations in which we vary the length and the width of the side channel, and the curvature of the upstream channel. From these computations we can derive the equilibrium state and the time scale of the morphodynamic development of the side channel. Preliminary results show that even when a simple sediment transport relation is used, like Engelund & Hansen, more fine sediment enters the side channel than coarse sediment. This is as expected, and is probably related to the bed slope effects which are a function of the Shields parameter. It is expected that by adding a sill at the entrance of the side channel the slope effect increases. This might reduce the amount of coarse sediment which enters the side channel even more. It is unclear whether the model used is able to reproduce the effect of such a sill correctly as modelling a sill and reproducing the correct hydrodynamic and morphodynamic behaviour is not straightforward in a 2D model. Acknowledgements: This research is funded by STW, part of the Dutch Organization for Scientific Research under

  6. Flapping propulsion with side-by-side pitching foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huera-Huarte, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    Fish schools are one of the most common types of collective behaviour observed in nature. One of the reasons why fish swim in groups, is to reduce the cost of transport of the school. In this work we explore the propulsive performance of two foils flapping in a symmetric configuration, i.e. with an out-of-phase flapping motion. Direct thrust measurements and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) allowed a detailed examination of the forces and the wake generated by the system, for different kinematics (swept angles and frequencies) and shaft separations. For certain specific cases, volumetric PIV shows major differences on how the different structures in the wake of the system evolve, depending on the imposed kinematics and the side-by-side separation between the foils. Results obtained will be compared against data produced with isolated flapping foils with similar imposed kinematics, with the aim to better understand the interactions between both and the performance of the system as a whole. The author would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y competitividad (MINECO) through Grant DPI2015-71645-P.

  7. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines, talk to your health care provider about possible side effects. Tell your health care provider about your lifestyle and point out any possible side effects that would be especially hard for you to ...

  8. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  9. Friction dampers, the positive side of friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Arteaga, I.; Nijmeijer, H.; Busturia, J.M.; Sas, P.; Munck, de M.

    2004-01-01

    Friction is frequently seen as an unwanted phenomenon whose influence has to be either minimised or controlled. In this work one of the positive sides of friction is investigated: friction damping. Friction dampers can be a cheap and efficient way to reduce the vibration levels of a wide range of

  10. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2010-01-01

    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face

  11. Treatment with a belly-board device significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated and results in low acute toxicity in adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer: results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Joseph; Fitzpatrick, Kathryn; Horan, Gail; McCloy, Roisin; Buckney, Steve; O'Neill, Louise; Faul, Clare

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine whether treatment prone on a belly-board significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated in women receiving adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer, and to prospectively study acute small bowel toxicity using an accepted recording instrument. Material and methods: Thirty-two gynecologic patients underwent simulation with CT scanning supine and prone. Small bowel was delineated on every CT slice, and treatment was prone on the belly-board using 3-5 fields-typically Anterior, Right and Left Lateral, plus or minus Lateral Boosts. Median prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy and all treatments were delivered in 1.8 Gy fractions. Concomitant Cisplatin was administered in 13 patients with cervical carcinoma. Comparison of small bowel dose-volumes was made between supine and prone, with each subject acting as their own matched pair. Acute small bowel toxicity was prospectively measured using the Common Toxicity Criteria: Version 2.0. Results: Treatment prone on the belly-board significantly reduced the volume of small bowel receiving ≥100; ≥95; ≥90; and ≥80% of the prescribed dose, but not ≥50%. This was found whether volume was defined in cubic centimeters or % of total small bowel volume. Of 29 evaluable subjects, 2 (7%) experienced 1 episode each of grade 3 diarrhoea. All other toxicity events were grade 2 or less and comprised diarrhoea (59%), abdominal pain or cramping (48%), nausea (38%), anorexia (17%), vomiting (10%). There were no Grade 4 events and no treatment days were lost due to toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment prone on a belly-board device results in significant small bowel sparing, during adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. The absence of Grade 4 events or Treatment Days Lost compares favorably with the published literature

  12. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  13. Design and methods of the Echo WISELY (Will Inappropriate Scenarios for Echocardiography Lessen SignificantlY) study: An investigator-blinded randomized controlled trial of education and feedback intervention to reduce inappropriate echocardiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, R Sacha; Ivers, Noah; Yin, Cindy X; Myers, Dorothy; Nesbitt, Gillian; Edwards, Jeremy; Yared, Kibar; Wadhera, Rishi; Wu, Justina C; Wong, Brian; Hansen, Mark; Weinerman, Adina; Shadowitz, Steven; Johri, Amer; Farkouh, Michael; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Udell, Jacob A; Rambihar, Sherryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Hall, Judith; Thorpe, Kevin E; Rakowski, Harry; Weiner, Rory B

    2015-08-01

    Appropriate use criteria (AUC) for transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were developed to address concerns regarding inappropriate use of TTE. A previous pilot study suggests that an educational and feedback intervention can reduce inappropriate TTEs ordered by physicians in training. It is unknown if this type of intervention will be effective when targeted at attending level physicians in a variety of clinical settings. The aim of this international, multicenter study is to evaluate the hypothesis that an AUC-based educational and feedback intervention will reduce the proportion of inappropriate echocardiograms ordered by attending physicians in the ambulatory environment. In an ongoing multicentered, investigator-blinded, randomized controlled trial across Canada and the United States, cardiologists and primary care physicians practicing in the ambulatory setting will be enrolled. The intervention arm will receive (1) a lecture outlining the AUC and most recent available evidence highlighting appropriate use of TTE, (2) access to the American Society of Echocardiography mobile phone app, and (3) individualized feedback reports e-mailed monthly summarizing TTE ordering behavior including information on inappropriate TTEs and brief explanations of the inappropriate designation. The control group will receive no education on TTE appropriate use and order TTEs as usual practice. The Echo WISELY (Will Inappropriate Scenarios for Echocardiography Lessen Significantly in an education RCT) study is the first multicenter randomized trial of an AUC-based educational intervention. The study will examine whether an education and feedback intervention will reduce the rate of outpatient inappropriate TTEs ordered by attending level cardiologists and primary care physicians (www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02038101). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Communication technologies for demand side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The scope of this research is data communications for electric utilities, specifically for the purposes of Demand Side Management (DSM). Demand Side Management has the objective to change the customer`s end use of energy in a manner that benefits both the customer and the utility. For example, peak demand may be reduced, and the peak demand may be relocated to off peak periods. Thus additional investments in generation and network may be avoided. A number of Demand Side Management functions can be implemented if a communication system is available between the Electric Utility and the Customer. The total communication capacity that is needed, will depend on several factors, such as the functions that are chosen for DSM, and on the number and type of customers. Some functions may be handled with one-way communications, while some other functions need to have two-way communication

  15. Left-colon water exchange preserves the benefits of whole colon water exchange at reduced cecal intubation time conferring significant advantage in diagnostic colonoscopy - a prospective, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangping; Luo, Hui; Xiang, Yi; Leung, Felix W; Wang, Limei; Zhang, Linhui; Liu, Zhiguo; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Pan, Yanglin; Guo, Xuegang

    2015-07-01

    Whole-colon water exchange (WWE) reduces insertion pain, increases cecal intubation success and adenoma detection rate, but requires longer insertion time, compared to air insufflation (AI) colonoscopy. We hypothesized that water exchange limited to the left colon (LWE) can speed up insertion with equivalent results. This prospective, randomized controlled study (NCT01735266) allocated patients (18-80 years) to WWE, LWE or AI group (1:1:1). The primary outcome was cecal intubation time. Three hundred subjects were randomized to the WWE (n = 100), LWE (n = 100) or AI group (n = 100). Ninety-four to ninety-five per cent of patients underwent diagnostic colonoscopy. Baseline characteristics were balanced. The median insertion time was shorter in LWE group (4.8 min (95%CI: 3.2-6.2)) than those in WWE (7.5 min (95%CI: 6.0-10.3)) and AI (6.4 min (95%CI: 4.2-9.8)) (both p rates in unsedated patients of the two water exchange methods (WWE 99%, LWE 99%) were significantly higher than that (89.8%) in AI group (p = 0.01). The final success rates were comparable among the three groups after sedation was given. Maximum pain scores and number of patients needing abdominal compression between WWE and LWE groups were comparable, both lower than those in AI group (p higher in WWE group. By preserving the benefits of WWE and reducing insertion time, LWE is appropriate for diagnostic colonoscopy, especially in settings with tight scheduling of patients. The higher PDR in the right colon in WWE group deserves to be further investigated.

  16. Policaptil Gel Retard significantly reduces body mass index and hyperinsulinism and may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in obese children and adolescents with family history of obesity and T2DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Lapi, Elisabetta; Seminara, Salvatore; Pelosi, Paola; Del Greco, Paolo; Capirchio, Laura; Strano, Massimo; Giglio, Sabrina; Chiarelli, Francesco; de Martino, Maurizio

    2015-02-15

    Treatments for childhood obesity are critically needed because of the risk of developing co-morbidities, although the interventions are frequently time-consuming, frustrating, difficult, and expensive. We conducted a longitudinal, randomised, clinical study, based on a per protocol analysis, on 133 obese children and adolescents (n = 69 males and 64 females; median age, 11.3 years) with family history of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The patients were divided into three arms: Arm A (n = 53 patients), Arm B (n = 45 patients), and Arm C (n = 35 patients) patients were treated with a low-glycaemic-index (LGI) diet and Policaptil Gel Retard, only a LGI diet, or only an energy-restricted diet (ERD), respectively. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the Matsuda, insulinogenic and disposition indexes were calculated at T0 and after 1 year (T1). At T1, the BMI-SD scores were significantly reduced from 2.32 to 1.80 (p 1) in Arm A and from 2.23 to 1.99 (p 13.2% to 5.6%; p 1) and B (p 1) and B (p obese children and adolescents with family history of obesity and T2DM.

  17. Cutaneous side-effects during therapy of melanoma by vemurafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ankudowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vemurafenib is a selective inhibitor of serine-threonine kinase BRAF used in the treatment of advanced melanoma with BRAF mutation. Effectiveness of this drug was confirmed in a large clinical trial, which led to the increase of its usage. During treatment with vemurafenib, particular attention should be paid to the numerous side effects, including those concerning the skin. Vemurafenib is highly toxic to the skin. Skin lesions occurring during the treatment of melanoma with this medicament can be divided into: early (observed 3 to 6 weeks after beginning treatment, late (observed 6 weeks after beginning treatment and hypersensitivity reactions to vemurafenib. Objective. Presentation of vemurafenib toxic effects on the skin and side effects that can be caused by this drug. Case report. We present a 58-year-old woman with metastatic melanoma who was treated with vemurafenib. During the course of therapy, numerous adverse reactions, including inflammatory tumors, emergence of a number of melanocytic naevi, skin horns, alopecia, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and palmar erythrodysesthesia were observed. She was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, an antibiotic, circulation-improving preparations and local moisturizing and keratolytic treatment. The patient remains under the care of oncologists and dermatologists. Conclusions. The new generation anti-cancer drugs bring hope for a cure or prolongation of life, but can also significantly reduce the quality of life by inducing both general and local adverse side effects. Oncological patients should also be taken care of by dermatologists.

  18. Temporomandibular Disorders: The Habitual Chewing Side Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Mora, Urbano; López-Cedrún, José; Mora, María J.; Otero, Xosé L.; Santana-Penín, Urbano

    2013-01-01

    Background Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown. This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side) and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy. Methods The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders (all but one with unilateral symptoms) was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview. The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. Results Sixteen of 20 participants with unilateral symptoms chewed on the affected side; the concordance (Fisher’s exact test, P = .003) and the concordance-symmetry level (Kappa coefficient κ = 0.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.99; P = .002) were significant. The mean condylar path angle was steeper (53.47(10.88) degrees versus 46.16(7.25) degrees; P = .001), and the mean lateral anterior guidance angle was flatter (41.63(13.35) degrees versus 48.32(9.53) degrees P = .036) on the symptomatic side. Discussion The results of this study support the use of a new term based on etiology, “habitual chewing side syndrome”, instead of the nonspecific symptom-based “temporomandibular joint disorders”; this denomination is characterized in adults by a steeper condylar path, flatter lateral anterior guidance, and habitual chewing on the symptomatic side. PMID:23593156

  19. Temporomandibular disorders: the habitual chewing side syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Santana-Mora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown. This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy. METHODS: The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders (all but one with unilateral symptoms was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview. The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. RESULTS: Sixteen of 20 participants with unilateral symptoms chewed on the affected side; the concordance (Fisher's exact test, P = .003 and the concordance-symmetry level (Kappa coefficient κ = 0.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.99; P = .002 were significant. The mean condylar path angle was steeper (53.47(10.88 degrees versus 46.16(7.25 degrees; P = .001, and the mean lateral anterior guidance angle was flatter (41.63(13.35 degrees versus 48.32(9.53 degrees P = .036 on the symptomatic side. DISCUSSION: The results of this study support the use of a new term based on etiology, "habitual chewing side syndrome", instead of the nonspecific symptom-based "temporomandibular joint disorders"; this denomination is characterized in adults by a steeper condylar path, flatter lateral anterior guidance, and habitual chewing on the symptomatic side.

  20. Comparing Demand Side Management approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Due to increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect, a more efficient energy supply is desirable, preferably based on renewable sources. To cope with the decrease of flexibility due to the introduction of renewables in production side of the supply chain, a more flexible consumer side is

  1. Integrative relational machine-learning for understanding drug side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, Emmanuel; Grisoni, Renaud; Marchetti, Gino; Karaboga, Arnaud Sinan; Souchet, Michel; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2013-06-26

    Drug side effects represent a common reason for stopping drug development during clinical trials. Improving our ability to understand drug side effects is necessary to reduce attrition rates during drug development as well as the risk of discovering novel side effects in available drugs. Today, most investigations deal with isolated side effects and overlook possible redundancy and their frequent co-occurrence. In this work, drug annotations are collected from SIDER and DrugBank databases. Terms describing individual side effects reported in SIDER are clustered with a semantic similarity measure into term clusters (TCs). Maximal frequent itemsets are extracted from the resulting drug x TC binary table, leading to the identification of what we call side-effect profiles (SEPs). A SEP is defined as the longest combination of TCs which are shared by a significant number of drugs. Frequent SEPs are explored on the basis of integrated drug and target descriptors using two machine learning methods: decision-trees and inductive-logic programming. Although both methods yield explicit models, inductive-logic programming method performs relational learning and is able to exploit not only drug properties but also background knowledge. Learning efficiency is evaluated by cross-validation and direct testing with new molecules. Comparison of the two machine-learning methods shows that the inductive-logic-programming method displays a greater sensitivity than decision trees and successfully exploit background knowledge such as functional annotations and pathways of drug targets, thereby producing rich and expressive rules. All models and theories are available on a dedicated web site. Side effect profiles covering significant number of drugs have been extracted from a drug ×side-effect association table. Integration of background knowledge concerning both chemical and biological spaces has been combined with a relational learning method for discovering rules which explicitly

  2. Side effects after ambulatory lumbar iohexol myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Myhr, G.; Stovner, L.J.; Dale, L.G.; Tangerud, A.

    1989-01-01

    Side effect incidences after ambulatory (22G needle and two h bed rest) and after non-ambulatory (22 and 20G needles and 20 h bed rest) lumbar iohexol myelography have been estimated and compared. Headache incidence was significantly greater in ambulatory (50%, n=107) as compared to nonambulatory myelography (26%, n=58). Headaches in the ambulatory group tended to be of shorter duration and the difference between severe headaches in ambulatory and non-ambulatory groups was not significant. Serious adverse reactions did not occur and none of the ambulatory patients required readmission because of side effects. The headache was predominantly postural and occurred significantly earlier in the ambulatory group. Headache incidence was significantly greater after 20G needle myelography (44%, n=97) as compared to 22G needle iohexol myelography (26%, n=58). The results support the hypothesis that CSF leakage is a major cause of headache after lumbar iohexol myelography. (orig.)

  3. Improved side information generation for distributed video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2008-01-01

    As a new coding paradigm, distributed video coding (DVC) deals with lossy source coding using side information to exploit the statistics at the decoder to reduce computational demands at the encoder. The performance of DVC highly depends on the quality of side information. With a better side...... information generation method, fewer bits will be requested from the encoder and more reliable decoded frames will be obtained. In this paper, a side information generation method is introduced to further improve the rate-distortion (RD) performance of transform domain distributed video coding. This algorithm...

  4. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  5. Comparison of side effects in myelography with iopamidol and metrizamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong; Kang, Heung Sik; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Seoul Heui; Kwon, Oh Sung; Myung, Ho Gin

    1986-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare the side effects in myelography of the two non-ionic water-soluble contrast medias, lopamidol (Niopam) and Metrizamide (Amipaque). A total of 111 patients were examined, 64 with lopamidol and 47 with Metrizamide. Side effects consisted of headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, urinary difficulty, muscular pain, seizure, neurobehavioral disturbance, neurological sign change, vital sign change and etc. The common side effects were headache, nausea, vomiting and dizziness in order of frequency. Most of the side effects were subsided within 24 hours following myelography. lopamidol myelography caused fewer and milder side effects than Metrizamide study. The side effects were more commonly observed in cervical, thoracic or total myelography than in lumbar myelography with either lopamidol or Metrizamide. There was no significant correlation between incidence of the side effects and premedication with phenobarbital or valium injection before myelography and CSF sampling during the procedure.

  6. Comparison of side effects in myelography with iopamidol and metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong; Kang, Heung Sik; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Seoul Heui; Kwon, Oh Sung; Myung, Ho Gin [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-12-15

    The study was conducted to compare the side effects in myelography of the two non-ionic water-soluble contrast medias, lopamidol (Niopam) and Metrizamide (Amipaque). A total of 111 patients were examined, 64 with lopamidol and 47 with Metrizamide. Side effects consisted of headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, urinary difficulty, muscular pain, seizure, neurobehavioral disturbance, neurological sign change, vital sign change and etc. The common side effects were headache, nausea, vomiting and dizziness in order of frequency. Most of the side effects were subsided within 24 hours following myelography. lopamidol myelography caused fewer and milder side effects than Metrizamide study. The side effects were more commonly observed in cervical, thoracic or total myelography than in lumbar myelography with either lopamidol or Metrizamide. There was no significant correlation between incidence of the side effects and premedication with phenobarbital or valium injection before myelography and CSF sampling during the procedure.

  7. Left-sided native valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slabbekoorn, M.; Horlings, H. M.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Windhausen, A.; Van der Sloot, J. A. P.; Lagrand, W. K.

    2010-01-01

    Despite improved diagnostic tools and expanded treatment options, left-sided native valve endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection remains a serious and destructive disease. The high morbidity and mortality, however, can be reduced by early recognition, correct diagnosis, and

  8. Flexibility analysis in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis on side-bending images using the EOS imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, C; Ilharreborde, B; Mazda, K

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of preoperative flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is essential to classify the curves, determine their structurality, and select the fusion levels during preoperative planning. Side-bending x-rays are the gold standard for the analysis of preoperative flexibility. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and performance of side-bending images taken in the standing position using the EOS imaging system. All patients who underwent preoperative assessment between April 2012 and January 2013 for AIS were prospectively included in the study. The work-up included standing AP and lateral EOS x-rays of the spine, standard side-bending x-rays in the supine position, and standing bending x-rays in the EOS booth. The irradiation dose was measured for each of the tests. Two-dimensional reducibility of the Cobb angle was measured on both types of bending x-rays. The results were based on the 50 patients in the study. No significant difference was demonstrated for reducibility of the Cobb angle between the standing side-bending images with the EOS imaging system and those in the supine position for all types of Lenke deformation. The irradiation dose was five times lower during the EOS bending imaging. The standing side-bending images in the EOS device contributed the same results as the supine images, with five times less irradiation. They should therefore be used in clinical routine. 2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Side Flow Effect on Surface Generation in Nano Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    The side flow of material in nano cutting is one of the most important factors that deteriorate the machined surface quality. The effects of the crystallographic orientation, feed, and the cutting tool geometry, including tool edge radius, rake angle and inclination angle, on the side flow are investigated employing molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the stagnation region is formed in front of tool edge and it is characterized by the stagnation radius R s and stagnation height h s . The side flow is formed because the material at or under the stagnation region is extruded by the tool edge to flow to the side of the tool edge. Higher stagnation height would increase the size of the side flow. The anisotropic nature of the material which partly determines the stagnation region also influences the side flow due to the different deformation mechanism under the action of the tool edge. At different cutting directions, the size of the side flow has a great difference which would finally affect the machined surface quality. The cutting directions of {100} , {110} , and {110}  are beneficial to obtain a better surface quality with small side flow. Besides that, the side flow could be suppressed by reducing the feed and optimizing the cutting tool geometry. Cutting tool with small edge radius, large positive rake angle, and inclination angle would decrease the side flow and consequently improve the machined surface quality.

  10. Better long-term outcomes with hilar ductoplasty and a side-to-side Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hong-Tian; Liu, Yang; Yang, Tao; Liang, Bin; Wang, Jing; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2017-07-01

    Whether a wide hilar hepaticojejunostomy after bile duct cyst (BDC) excision can prevent the development of postoperative complications remains an unanswered question. We compared our outcomes after a minimum of 2-y follow-up in patients with Todani type Ia choledochal cyst treated with hilar ductoplasty followed by a side-to-side Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (ductoplasty group) or radical cyst resection with an end-to-side Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (conventional group). We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with Todani type Ia choledochal cyst who received radical cyst excision from January 1997 to December 2012, and we compared the groups' postoperative complications and surgical outcomes. The groups' baseline demographics were similar, except for age. The gender distribution and preoperative presenting symptoms were comparable in the ductoplasty (n = 72) and conventional (n = 53) groups (all P > 0.05). Average age was 37.0 y for the ductoplasty group and 41.8 y for the conventional group (P = 0.024). The short-term complication rate of the groups was not significantly different (conventional group, 13.2% [7/53]; ductoplasty group, 8.3% [6/72]; all P > 0.05). A significant between-group difference was found in the long-term complication rate of biliary-enteric anastomotic strictures (9.4% in the conventional group and 0% in the ductoplasty group, P = 0.012). The rates of satisfactory surgical outcomes were 91.1% and 77.1% in the ductoplasty and conventional groups, respectively (P = 0.036). The application of hilar ductoplasty with a side-to-side Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy as the primary surgery for bile duct cyst excision significantly reduced the postoperative complication of biliary-enteric anastomotic stricture and greatly improved our patients' prognosis with regard to biliary function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Side Effects and Their Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors. Donate Now Subscribe for e-updates Please leave this field empty ... tumors and their treatments bring an array of possible side effects in to a patient’s life. Fatigue, cognitive changes, and mood changes are ...

  12. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  13. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  14. Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Types of nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatment include: anticipatory, acute, and delayed. Controlling these side effects will help to prevent serious problems such as malnutrition and dehydration in people with cancer.

  15. Hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-side neurorrhaphy for facial paralysis resulting from closed temporal bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Diya; Li, Dezhi; Wang, Shiwei; Qiao, Hui; Li, Ping; Wang, Binbin; Wan, Hong; Schumacher, Michael; Liu, Song

    2018-06-06

    Closed temporal bone fractures due to cranial trauma often result in facial nerve injury, frequently inducing incomplete facial paralysis. Conventional hypoglossal-facial nerve end-to-end neurorrhaphy may not be suitable for these injuries because sacrifice of the lesioned facial nerve for neurorrhaphy destroys the remnant axons and/or potential spontaneous innervation. we modified the classical method by hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-side neurorrhaphy using an interpositional predegenerated nerve graft to treat these injuries. Five patients who experienced facial paralysis resulting from closed temporal bone fractures due to cranial trauma were treated with the "side"-to-side neurorrhaphy. An additional 4 patients did not receive the neurorrhaphy and served as controls. Before treatment, all patients had suffered House-Brackmann (H-B) grade V or VI facial paralysis for a mean of 5 months. During the 12-30 months of follow-up period, no further detectable deficits were observed, but an improvement in facial nerve function was evidenced over time in the 5 neurorrhaphy-treated patients. At the end of follow-up, the improved facial function reached H-B grade II in 3, grade III in 1 and grade IV in 1 of the 5 patients, consistent with the electrophysiological examinations. In the control group, two patients showed slightly spontaneous innervation with facial function improved from H-B grade VI to V, and the other patients remained unchanged at H-B grade V or VI. We concluded that the hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-side neurorrhaphy can preserve the injured facial nerve and is suitable for treating significant incomplete facial paralysis resulting from closed temporal bone fractures, providing an evident beneficial effect. Moreover, this treatment may be performed earlier after the onset of facial paralysis in order to reduce the unfavorable changes to the injured facial nerve and atrophy of its target muscles due to long-term denervation and allow axonal

  16. The study of CD side to side error in line/space pattern caused by post-exposure bake effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Guo, Eric; Ge, Haiming; Lu, Max; Wu, Yijun; Tian, Mingjing; Yan, Shichuan; Wang, Ran

    2016-10-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, as the design rule has decreased, the ITRS roadmap requires crucial tighter critical dimension (CD) control. CD uniformity is one of the necessary parameters to assure good performance and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit (IC) [1] [2], and towards the advanced technology nodes, it is a challenge to control CD uniformity well. The study of corresponding CD Uniformity by tuning Post-Exposure bake (PEB) and develop process has some significant progress[3], but CD side to side error happening to some line/space pattern are still found in practical application, and the error has approached to over the uniformity tolerance. After details analysis, even though use several developer types, the CD side to side error has not been found significant relationship to the developing. In addition, it is impossible to correct the CD side to side error by electron beam correction as such error does not appear in all Line/Space pattern masks. In this paper the root cause of CD side to side error is analyzed and the PEB module process are optimized as a main factor for improvement of CD side to side error.

  17. Incorporation of basic side chains into cryptolepine scaffold: structure-antimalarial activity relationships and mechanistic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrado, João; Cabal, Ghislain G; Prudêncio, Miguel; Mota, Maria M; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J; Díaz, Cecília; Guedes, Rita C; dos Santos, Daniel J V A; Bichenkova, Elena; Douglas, Kenneth T; Moreira, Rui; Paulo, Alexandra

    2011-02-10

    The synthesis of cryptolepine derivatives containing basic side-chains at the C-11 position and their evaluations for antiplasmodial and cytotoxicity properties are reported. Propyl, butyl, and cycloalkyl diamine side chains significantly increased activity against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains while reducing cytotoxicity when compared with the parent compound. Localization studies inside parasite blood stages by fluorescence microscopy showed that these derivatives accumulate inside the nucleus, indicating that the incorporation of a basic side chain is not sufficient enough to promote selective accumulation in the acidic digestive vacuole of the parasite. Most of the compounds within this series showed the ability to bind to a double-stranded DNA duplex as well to monomeric hematin, suggesting that these are possible targets associated with the observed antimalarial activity. Overall, these novel cryptolepine analogues with substantially improved antiplasmodial activity and selectivity index provide a promising starting point for development of potent and highly selective agents against drug-resistant malaria parasites.

  18. The Moon's near side megabasin and far side bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Since Luna and Lunar Orbiter photographed the far side of the Moon, the mysterious dichotomy between the face of the Moon as we see it from Earth and the side of the Moon that is hidden has puzzled lunar scientists. As we learned more from the Apollo sample return missions and later robotic satellites, the puzzle literally deepened, showing asymmetry of the crust and mantle, all the way to the core of the Moon. This book summarizes the author’s successful search for an ancient impact feature, the Near Side Megabasin of the Moon and the extensions to impact theory needed to find it. The implications of this ancient event are developed to answer many of the questions about the history of the Moon.

  19. Social identity performance : Extending the strategic side of SIDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Olivier; Spears, Russell; Reicher, Stephen

    This article extends the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) by considering the various ways in which relations of visibility to an audience can affect the public expression of identity-relevant norms (identity performance). It is suggested that social identity performance can

  20. Dark Side of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Side of the Universe (DSU) workshops bring together a wide range of theorists and experimentalists to discuss current ideas on models of the dark side, and relate them to current and future experiments. This year's DSU will take place in the colorful Norwegian city of Bergen. Topics include dark matter, dark energy, cosmology, and physics beyond the standard model. One of the goals of the workshop is to expose in particular students and young researchers to the fascinating topics of dark matter and dark energy, and to provide them with the opportunity to meet some of the best researchers in these areas .

  1. Results from the DarkSide-50 Dark Matter Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Alden [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    While there is tremendous astrophysical and cosmological evidence for dark matter, its precise nature is one of the most significant open questions in modern physics. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a particularly compelling class of dark matter candidates with masses of the order 100 GeV and couplings to ordinary matter at the weak scale. Direct detection experiments are aiming to observe the low energy (<100 keV) scattering of dark matter off normal matter. With the liquid noble technology leading the way in WIMP sensitivity, no conclusive signals have been observed yet. The DarkSide experiment is looking for WIMP dark matter using a liquid argon target in a dual-phase time projection chamber located deep underground at Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. Currently filled with argon obtained from underground sources, which is greatly reduced in radioactive 39Ar, DarkSide-50 recently made the most sensitive measurement of the 39Ar activity in underground argon and used it to set the strongest WIMP dark matter limit using liquid argon to date. This work describes the full chain of analysis used to produce the recent dark matter limit, from reconstruction of raw data to evaluation of the final exclusion curve. The DarkSide- 50 apparatus is described in detail, followed by discussion of the low level reconstruction algorithms. The algorithms are then used to arrive at three broad analysis results: The electroluminescence signals in DarkSide-50 are used to perform a precision measurement of ii longitudinal electron diffusion in liquid argon. A search is performed on the underground argon data to identify the delayed coincidence signature of 85Kr decays to the 85mRb state, a crucial ingredient in the measurement of the 39Ar activity in the underground argon. Finally, a full description of the WIMP search is given, including development of cuts, efficiencies, energy scale, and exclusion

  2. Transient Three-Dimensional Side Load Analysis of Out-of-Round Film Cooled Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Lin, Jeff; Ruf, Joe; Guidos, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of nozzle out-of-roundness on the transient startup side loads at a high altitude, with an anchored computational methodology. The out-of-roundness could be the result of asymmetric loads induced by hardware attached to the nozzle, asymmetric internal stresses induced by previous tests, and deformation, such as creep, from previous tests. The rocket engine studied encompasses a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and a film cooled nozzle extension with film coolant distributed from a turbine exhaust manifold. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a transient inlet history based on an engine system simulation. Transient startup computations were performed with the out-of-roundness achieved by four different degrees of ovalization: one perfectly round, one slightly out-of-round, one more out-of-round, and one significantly out-of-round. The results show that the separation-line-jump is the peak side load physics for the round, slightly our-of-round, and more out-of-round cases, and the peak side load increases as the degree of out-of-roundness increases. For the significantly out-of-round nozzle, however, the peak side load reduces to comparable to that of the round nozzle and the separation line jump is not the peak side load physics. The counter-intuitive result of the significantly out-of-round case is found to be related to a side force reduction mechanism that splits the effect of the separation-line-jump into two parts, not only in the circumferential direction and most importantly in time.

  3. Potential of a precrash lateral occupant movement in side collisions of (electric) minicars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierlinger, T; Lienkamp, M; Unger, J; Unselt, T

    2015-01-01

    In minicars, the survival space between the side structure and occupant is smaller than in conventional cars. This is an issue in side collisions. Therefore, in this article a solution is studied in which a lateral seat movement is imposed in the precrash phase. It generates a pre-acceleration and an initial velocity of the occupant, thus reducing the loads due to the side impact. The assessment of the potential is done by numerical simulations and a full-vehicle crash test. The optimal parameters of the restraint system including the precrash movement, time-to-fire of head and side airbag, etc., are found using metamodel-based optimization methods by minimizing occupant loads according to European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP). The metamodel-based optimization approach is able to tune the restraint system parameters. The numerical simulations show a significant averaged reduction of 22.3% in occupant loads. The results show that the lateral precrash occupant movement offers better occupant protection in side collisions.

  4. Preservation of bursal-sided tendon in partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears: a novel arthroscopic transtendon anatomic repair technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Jeong, Jae-Hoon; Jeon, Yoon Sang; Kim, Rag Gyu

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a novel arthroscopic transtendon anatomic repair technique that spares the intact bursal-sided tendon in articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCT) and to present shoulder functional outcomes in patients with symptomatic articular-sided PCRCT that involves more than 50 % of its thickness after arthroscopic repair using a novel technique. Eighteen patients with symptomatic articular-sided PCRCT involving more than 50 % of the tendon's thickness underwent arthroscopic repair using a devised technique. The devised technique restores only the torn articular portion of the rotator cuff at the anatomical footprint using a suture anchor, and preserves the integrity of the corresponding bursal-sided tendon by tying knots at the most lateral bursal side on the subacromial space. Clinical and functional outcome using ASES and Constant scores were evaluated. The structural integrity of the rotator cuff was evaluated by MRI at 6 months postoperatively. Pain relief and shoulder functional outcomes were encouraging during the recovery phase after operation. ASES (preoperative 54.0 ± 10.3 to postoperative 92.6 ± 8.0), Constant score (61.2 ± 8.5-88.0 ± 5.3), VAS for pain (4.9 ± 2.6-0.6 ± 0.7) improved significantly after arthroscopic transtendon anatomic repair (p rotator cuff retears on 6-month MRI. No complications related to surgical procedures had occurred. The devised technique of arthroscopic transtendon repair provided satisfactory functional outcomes without postoperative discomforts. This technique minimizes over-tightening of the articular layer and reduces tension mismatches between the articular and bursal layers, which are considered as important factors for improvement of postoperative shoulder motion.

  5. The DarkSide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DarkSide-50 at Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS, Italy, is a direct dark matter search experiment based on a liquid argon TPC. DS-50 has completed its first dark matter run using atmospheric argon as target. The detector performances and the results of the first physics run are presented in this proceeding.

  6. [Side Effects of Smoking Cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Raffael; Huwiler, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Side Effects of Smoking Cessation Abstract. We present the case of a clozapine intoxication associated with aspiration pneumonia due to smoking cessation. Clozapine is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2. CYP1A2 is induced by cigarette smoking, which may change the plasma level of clozapine, especially if consuming habits change.

  7. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Constipation Take these steps: Eat high-fiber foods such as: ● ● Whole-grain breads and cereals ● ● Fruits and vegetables ● ● Nuts and seeds Turn this ...

  8. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; van den Biggelaar, Olivier

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss

  9. The Human Side of Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surace, Cecily J.

    This paper discusses current trends in personnel management, with emphasis on performance standards and employee evaluation. Advances in personnel management from the scientific management theory to the application of the "human side of enterprise" approach should be reflected in how library managers review personnel and operate their libraries.…

  10. The DarkSide experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottino, B.; Aalseth, C.E.; Acconcia, G.

    2017-01-01

    DarkSide is a dark matter direct search experiment at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). DarkSide is based on the detection of rare nuclear recoils possibly induced by hypothetical dark matter particles, which are supposed to be neutral, massive (m > 10 GeV) and weakly interactive (Wimp). The dark matter detector is a two-phase time projection chamber (TPC) filled with ultra-pure liquid argon. The TPC is placed inside a muon and a neutron active vetoes to suppress the background. Using argon as active target has many advantages, the key features are the strong discriminant power between nuclear and electron recoils, the spatial reconstruction and easy scalability to multi-tons size. At the moment DarkSide-50 is filled with ultra-pure argon, extracted from underground sources, and from April 2015 it is taking data in its final configuration. When combined with the preceding search with an atmospheric argon target, it is possible to set a 90% CL upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section of 2.0×10"−"44 cm"2 for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV/c"2. The next phase of the experiment, DarkSide-20k, will be the construction of a new detector with an active mass of ∼ 20 tons.

  11. Finasteride and sexual side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Finasteride, a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, widely used in the medical management of male pattern hairloss, has been reported to cause sexual side effects. This article critically examines the evidence available and makes recommendations as to how a physician should counsel a patient while prescribing the drug.

  12. Truck side guard specifications : recommended standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document is intended to be used by (1) public or private medium/heavy-duty truck fleets considering adding side guards; (2) jurisdictions or customers that require side guards through policy or procurement; (3) manufacturers of side guards; and ...

  13. Warfarin Side Effects: Watch for Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfarin side effects: Watch for interactions Although commonly used to treat blood clots, warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) can have dangerous side effects or ... bleeding. Here are precautions to take to avoid warfarin side effects. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you' ...

  14. Side effects after lumbar iohexol myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Stovner, L.J.; Myhr, G.; Dale, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    Side effects of iohexol lumbar myelography have been analyzed with respect to the influence of the type of radiological abnormality, sex and age in a group of 200 patients. Headache, postural headache, nausea and back/leg pain were significantly more frequent in patients without definite radiological abnormalities. Postural headache, nausea, dizziness and mental symptoms were more frequent in women, while headache, postural headache, nausea, dizziness, minor mental symptoms (i.e. anxiety or depression) and pain became less frequent with age. This pattern is similar to that reported after lumbar puncture. Young women without definite clinical signs of nerve root lesions probably have the greatest risk of experiencing side effects after iohexol lumbar myelography. (orig.)

  15. Emergency Management of Malignant Acute Left-Sided Colonic Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompetas, Vasileios

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The management of acute left-sided colonic obstruction still remains a challenging problem despite significant progress. METHODS A literature search was undertaken using PubMed and the Cochrane Library regarding the options in emergency management of left-sided colonic obstruction focusing on outcomes such as mortality, morbidity, long-term prognosis and cost effectiveness. DISCUSSION Colonic stenting is the best option either for palliation or as a bridge to surgery. It reduces morbidity and mortality rate and the need for colostomy formation. Stenting is likely to be cost effective, but data are variable depending on the individual healthcare system. Nevertheless, surgical management remains relevant as colonic stenting has a small rate of failure, and it is not always available. There are various surgical options. One-stage primary resection and anastomosis is the preferred choice for low-risk patients. Intra-operative colonic irrigation has no proven benefit. Subtotal colectomy is useful in cases of proximal bowel damage or synchronous tumours. Hartmann's procedure should be reserved for high-risk patients. Simple colostomy has no role other than for use in very ill patients who are not fit for any other procedure. PMID:18430330

  16. The Dark Side of Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanlon, Gerard; Dunne, Stephen; Johnsen, Christian Garmann

    2017-01-01

    Towards the end of 2015, the ephemera collective organised, chaired and participated within two separate Q+A panels celebrating the launch of Gerard Hanlon’s The dark side of management: A secret history of management theory. The events took place in The University of Leicester’s School of Manage...... of Management and Copenhagen Business School’s Management, Politics and Philosophy Department. Each of the events were recorded, transcribed, edited and amalgamated into the following feature....

  17. Prostate health index significantly reduced unnecessary prostate biopsies in patients with PSA 2-10 ng/mL and PSA >10 ng/mL: Results from a Multicenter Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Rong; Ye, Dingwei; Qi, Jun; Liu, Fang; Helfand, Brian T; Brendler, Charles B; Conran, Carly A; Packiam, Vignesh; Gong, Jian; Wu, Yishuo; Zheng, Siqun L; Mo, Zengnan; Ding, Qiang; Sun, Yinghao; Xu, Jianfeng

    2017-08-01

    The performance of prostate health index (phi) in predicting prostate biopsy outcomes has been well established for patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values between 2 and 10 ng/mL. However, the performance of phi remains unknown in patients with PSA >10 ng/mL, the vast majority in Chinese biopsy patients. We aimed to assess the ability of phi to predict prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade disease (Gleason Score ≥7) on biopsy in a Chinese population. This is a prospective, observational, multi-center study of consecutive patients who underwent a transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy at four hospitals in Shanghai, China from August 2013 to December 2014. In the cohort of 1538 patients, the detection rate of PCa was 40.2%. phi had a significantly better predictive performance for PCa than total PSA (tPSA). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were 0.90 and 0.79 for phi and tPSA, respectively, P 10 ng/mL (N = 838, 54.5%). The detection rates of PCa were 35.9% and 57.7% in patients with tPSA 10.1-20 and 20.1-50 ng/mL, respectively. The AUCs of phi (0.79 and 0.89, for these two groups, respectively) were also significantly higher than tPSA (0.57 and 0.63, respectively), both P 10 ng/mL). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development of Side Coupled Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conto, J.M. de; Carretta, J.M.; Gomez-Martinez, Y.; Micoud, R.

    2008-01-01

    Side coupled Cavities are good candidates for proton accelerations in the 90-180 MeV range, as it has been first proposed for the CERN LINAC4 project. A side coupled Linac is made of a lump chain of resonant cavities, alternatively accelerating and coupling. A side coupled cavity has been designed in a CERN-LPSC collaboration to achieve LINAC4 requirements. After RF studies, a complete thermal study has been done, showing that 10-15% is the absolute maximum duty-cycle achievable by such a cavity. Error studies have been developed. They have shown that a tuning ring is mandatory and that a K equals 3% coupling factor is a good choice. A prototype has been built and each cell has been measured and tuned. A simple and accurate method has been used to get both the resonant frequency and the coupling factor, with a movable tuner and a linear fit. A similar method has been used to get the second order coupling factor. A large dispersion is observed on K. This is mainly due to the shape of the coupling apertures, which are very sensitive to mechanical errors. A future and realistic design must be very careful to guarantee a constant aperture (the important parameter is more the dispersion of k than its exact value). Finally, we analyse how to tune the cavity. This has to checked carefully and probably improved or corrected. Results are expected for mid-2008

  19. Central nervous system side effects associated with zolpidem treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, L C; Tsambiras, B M; Catalano, G; Catalano, M C; Cooper, D S

    2000-01-01

    Zolpidem is one of the newer medications developed for the treatment of insomnia. It is an imidazopyridine agent that is an alternative to the typical sedative-hypnotic agents. Zolpidem use is gaining favor because of its efficacy and its side effect profile, which is milder and less problematic than that of the benzodiazepines and barbiturates used to treat insomnia. Still, side effects are not uncommon with zolpidem use. We report a series of cases in which the patients developed delirium, nightmares and hallucinations during treatment with zolpidem. We will review its pharmacology, discuss previous reports of central nervous system side effects, examine the impact of drug interactions with concurrent use of antidepressants, examine gender differences in susceptibility to side effects, and explore the significance of protein binding in producing side effects.

  20. The influence of altered working-side occlusal guidance on masticatory muscles and related jaw movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, U C; Hannam, A G

    1985-03-01

    The effect of four different occlusal situations (group function, canine guidance, working side occlusal interference, and hyperbalancing occlusal interference) on EMG activity in jaw elevator muscles and related mandibular movement was investigated on 12 subjects. With a computer-based system, EMG and displacement signals were collected simultaneously during specific functional (unilateral chewing) and parafunctional tasks (mandibular gliding movements and various tooth clenching efforts) and analyzed quantitatively. When a naturally acquired group function was temporarily and artificially changed into a dominant canine guidance, a significant general reduction of elevator muscle activity was observed when subjects exerted full isometric tooth-clenching efforts in a lateral mandibular position. The original muscular coordination pattern (relative contraction from muscle to muscle) remained unaltered during this test. With respect to unilateral chewing, no significant alterations in the activity or coordination of the muscles occurred when an artificial canine guidance was introduced. Introduction of a hyperbalancing occlusal contact caused significant alterations in muscle activity and coordination during maximal tooth clenching in a lateral mandibular position. A marked shift of temporal muscle EMG activity toward the side of the interference and unchanged bilateral activity of the two masseter muscles were observed. The results suggest that canine-protected occlusions do not significantly alter muscle activity during mastication but significantly reduce muscle activity during parafunctional clenching. They also suggest that non-working side contacts dramatically alter the distribution of muscle activity during parafunctional clenching, and that this redistribution may affect the nature of reaction forces at the temporomandibular joints.

  1. Metabolic Side Effects of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagdas Eker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an alkaline ion being used since 19th century. After its widespread use in psychiatric disorders, observed side effects caused skepticism about its therapeutic efficacy. Despite several disadvantages, lithium is one of the indispensible drugs used in affective disorders, especially in bipolar disorder. It became a necessity for physicians to recognize its side effects since lithium is still accepted as a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Adverse effects of chronic administration of lithium on several organ systems are widely known. In this article metabolic effects of lithium on thyroid and parathyroid glands, body mass index and kidneys will be discussed along with their mechanisms, clinical findings, possible risk factors and treatment. One of the most common side effect of lithium is hypothyroidism. It has the same clinical and biochemical properties as primary hypothyroidism and observed as subclinical hypothyroidism in the first place. Hypothyroidism, even its subclinical form, may be associated with non-response or inadequate response and is indicated as a risk factor for development of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Therefore, hypothyroidism should be screened no matter how severe it is and should be treated with thyroid hormone in the presence of clinical hypothyroidism. Weight gain due to lithium administration disturbs the compliance to treatment and negatively affects the course of the illness. Increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and stroke because of weight gain constitute other centers of problem. Indeed, it is of importance to determine the risk factors before treatment, to follow up the weight, to re-organize nutritional habits and to schedule exercises. Another frequent problematic side effect of lithium treatment is renal dysfunction which clinically present as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with the common symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. Nephrogenic diabetes

  2. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side bearings. 229.69 Section 229.69....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  3. Side-to-side sutureless vascular anastomosis with magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Detlev; Sweis, Ranya; Heitmann, Christoph; Yasui, Koji; Olbrich, Kevin C; Levin, L Scott; Sharkawy, A Adam; Klitzman, Bruce

    2004-09-01

    Abbe and Payr introduced vascular techniques and devices to facilitate vessel anastomosis over a century ago. Obora published the idea of a sutureless vascular anastomosis with use of magnetic rings in 1978. The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of a new magnetic device to perform a side-to-side arteriovenous anastomosis in a dog model. Male fox hounds (25 kg) were treated preoperatively and daily postoperatively with clopidogrel bisulfate (Plavix) and aspirin. The femoral artery and vein were exposed unilaterally in 3 dogs and bilaterally in 4 dogs (n = 11 anastomoses). A 4-mm arteriotomy was performed, and 1 oval magnet 0.5 mm thick was inserted into the lumen of the artery and a second magnet was applied external to the artery, compressing and stabilizing the arterial wall to create a magnetic port. An identical venous magnetic port was created with another pair of oval magnets. When the 2 ports were allowed to approach each other, they self-aligned and magnetically coupled to complete the arteriovenous anastomosis. Patency was assessed for the first hour with direct observation, again after 9 weeks with duplex ultrasound scanning, and at 10 weeks under direct open observation. The anastomoses were explanted after 10 weeks. Hydrodynamic resistance was measured ex vivo on the final 8 anastomoses by measuring the pressure drop across an anastomosis with a known flow rate. After implantation, very high flow created visible turbulence and palpable vibration. All 11 anastomoses were patent under direct observation and palpation. Ten of 11 anastomoses were clearly patent on duplex scans, and patency of 1 anastomosis was questionable. Hydrodynamic resistance averaged 0.73 +/- 0.33 mm Hg min/mL (mean +/- SEM). Vascular anastomoses performed with magnets demonstrated feasibility; exhibited 100% patency after 10 weeks in a dog arteriovenous shunt model; lacked apparent aneurysm or other potentially catastrophic failure; demonstrated remodeling of the

  4. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbofung Carl MF

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent in vitro study indicates that IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the traditional West African food plant Irvingia gabonensis, favorably impacts adipogenesis through a variety of critical metabolic pathways including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of IGOB131, an extract of Irvingia gabonensis, on body weight and associated metabolic parameters in overweight human volunteers. Methods The study participants comprised of 102 healthy, overweight and/or obese volunteers (defined as BMI > 25 kg/m2 randomly divided into two groups. The groups received on a daily basis, either 150 mg of IGOB131 or matching placebo in a double blinded fashion, 30–60 minutes before lunch and dinner. At baseline, 4, 8 and 10 weeks of the study, subjects were evaluated for changes in anthropometrics and metabolic parameters to include fasting lipids, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and leptin. Results Significant improvements in body weight, body fat, and waist circumference as well as plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and leptin levels were observed in the IGOB131 group compared with the placebo group. Conclusion Irvingia gabonensis administered 150 mg twice daily before meals to overweight and/or obese human volunteers favorably impacts body weight and a variety of parameters characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. This is the first double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial regarding the anti-obesity and lipid profile modulating effects of an Irvingia gabonensis extract. The positive clinical results, together with our previously published mechanisms of gene expression modulation related to key metabolic pathways in lipid metabolism, provide impetus for much larger clinical studies. Irvingia gabonensis extract may prove to be a useful tool in dealing with the

  5. Detection of Left-Sided and Right-Sided Hearing Loss via Fractional Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect hearing loss more efficiently and accurately, this study proposed a new method based on fractional Fourier transform (FRFT. Three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance images were obtained from 15 patients with left-sided hearing loss (LHL, 20 healthy controls (HC, and 14 patients with right-sided hearing loss (RHL. Twenty-five FRFT spectrums were reduced by principal component analysis with thresholds of 90%, 95%, and 98%, respectively. The classifier is the single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network (SFN trained by the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The results showed that the accuracies of all three classes are higher than 95%. In all, our method is promising and may raise interest from other researchers.

  6. The Need of Slanted Side Holes for Venous Cannulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Yull Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-designed cannulae must allow good flow rate and minimize nonphysiologic load. Venous cannulae generally have side holes to prevent the rupture of blood vessel during perfusion. Optimizing side hole angle will yield more efficient and safe venous cannulae. A numerical modeling was used to study the effect of the angle (0°–45° and number (0–12 of side holes on the performance of cannulae. By only slanting the side holes, it increases the flow rate up to 6% (in our models. In addition, it was found that increasing the number of side holes reduces the shear rate up to 12% (in our models. A new parameter called “penetration depth” was introduced to describe the interfering effect of stream jets from side holes, and the result showed that the 45°-slanted side holes caused minimum interfering for the flow in cannula. Our quantitative hemodynamic analysis study provides important guidelines for venous cannulae design.

  7. Valve exploiting the principle of a side channel turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandourek Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a side channel turbine, which can be used as a suitable substitute for a pressure reducing valve. Reducing valves are a source of hydraulic losses. The aim is to replace them by a side channel turbine. With that in mind, hydraulic losses can be replaced by a production of electrical energy at comparable characteristics of the valve and the turbine. The basis for the design is the loss characteristics of the valve. Thereby creating a kind of turbine valve with speed-controlled flow in dependence of runner revolution.

  8. Right-sided infective endocarditis: recent epidemiologic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) has been increasingly reported, however, little is available regarding recent development of right-sided IE. Methods: Right-sided IE was comprehensively analyzed based on recent 5⅓-year literature. Results: Portal of entry, implanted foreign material, and repaired congenital heart defects were the main predisposing risk factors. Vegetation size on the right-sided valves was much smaller than those beyond the valves. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that predisposing risk factors, and vegetation size and locations were independent predictive risks of patients’ survival. Conclusions: Changes of right-sided IE in the past 5⅓ years included younger patient age, and increased vegetation size, but still prominent Staphylococcus aureus infections. Complication spectrum has changed into more valve insufficiency, more embolic events, reduced abscess formation, and considerably decreased valve perforations. With effective antibiotic regimens, prognoses of the patients seemed to be better than before. PMID:24482708

  9. NPP Krsko secondary side analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabijan, Lj.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze secondary side thermohydraulics response on steam generator tube plugging in order to ensure nominal NPP power. We had established that the additional opening of the governing valve No. 3 and 4 can compensate pressure drop caused by steam generator tube plugging. Two main steam flows with four governing valves were simulated. Steam expansion in turbine and feed water system was modeled separately. All important process point and steam moisture changes impact on nominal NPP power were analysed. (author)

  10. Distribution of steady state temperatures and thermoelastic stresses in a cylindrical shell with internal heat generation and cooled on both sides or only on one side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melese d'Hospital, G.B.

    1979-10-01

    General expressions for steady state temperatures and elastic thermal stress distributions are derived for a hollow fuel element cooled on both sides. The main simplifying assumptions consist of one dimensional heat transfer and a single medium. Dimensionless numerical results are plotted in the case of uniform internal heat generation and for constant thermal conductivity. Solid rods and flat plates are treated as special cases. As could be expected, cooling on both sides rather than on only one side, leads to significant reduction in maximum fuel temperature and thermal stresses for a given power density, or to a significant increase in power density for either given maximum temperature drop in the fuel or for maximum tensile thermal stress. Typically, for a rod diameter ratio of 2, the power density could be increased by a factor of 3 to 4 without increasing the maximum stress. Similarly, for the same power density, replacing internal cooling of a hollow fuel element by external cooling reduces the maximum fuel temperature drop by a factor of 1.5 and the average fuel temperature drop (or maximum tensile stress) by a factor of 2, with the same maximum compressive stress

  11. Side effects after diagnostic lumbar puncture and lumbar iohexol myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Stovner, L.J.; Salvesen, R.; Dale, L.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective, controlled study was performed to compare side effect incidences after lumbar iohexol myelography (n=97) and diagnostic lumbar puncture (n=85). No significant side effect incidence differences (iohexol vs. controls) were found regarding number of patients with any side effect (63 vs. 73%), headache (44 vs. 54%), nausea, dizziness, visual, auditory, or psychic symptoms. Early-onset headache occurred significantly more often in the iohexol group (16 vs 5%), while postural headache occurred most frequently after lumbar puncture (25 vs. 41%). These results suggest that apart from the slight early-onset headache, most side effets after lumbar iohexol myelography are related to the puncture per se, not to the contrast agent. (orig.)

  12. A big oil company's approach to significantly reduce fatal incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peuscher, W.; Groeneweg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Within the Shell Group of companies (Shell), keeping people safe at work is a deeply held value and the company actively pursues the goal of no harm to people. Shell actively works to build a culture where every employee and contractor takes responsibility for making this goal possible - it is

  13. Significantly reducing registration time in IGRT using graphics processing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Karsten Østergaard; Denis de Senneville, Baudouin; Tanderup, Kari

    2008-01-01

    respiration phases in a free breathing volunteer and 41 anatomical landmark points in each image series. The registration method used is a multi-resolution GPU implementation of the 3D Horn and Schunck algorithm. It is based on the CUDA framework from Nvidia. Results On an Intel Core 2 CPU at 2.4GHz each...... registration took 30 minutes. On an Nvidia Geforce 8800GTX GPU in the same machine this registration took 37 seconds, making the GPU version 48.7 times faster. The nine image series of different respiration phases were registered to the same reference image (full inhale). Accuracy was evaluated on landmark...

  14. Impact of brand or generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg; Petrie, Keith J

    2016-02-01

    Branding medication with a known pharmaceutical company name or product name bestows on the drug an added assurance of authenticity and effectiveness compared to a generic preparation. This study examined the impact of brand name and generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects. 87 undergraduate students with frequent headaches took part in the study. Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, each participant took tablets labeled either as brand name "Nurofen" or "Generic Ibuprofen" to treat each of 4 headaches. In reality, half of the tablets were placebos, and half were active ibuprofen (400 mg). Participants recorded their headache pain on a verbal descriptor and visual analogue scale prior to taking the tablets, and again 1 hour afterward. Medication side effects were also reported. Pain reduction following the use of brand name labeled tablets was similar in active ibuprofen or a placebo. However, if the tablets had a generic label, placebo tablets were significantly less effective compared to active ibuprofen. Fewer side effects were attributed to placebo tablets with brand name labeling compared to the same placebo tablets with a generic label. Branding of a tablet appears to have conferred a treatment benefit in the absence of an active ingredient, while generic labeled tablets were substantially less effective if they contained no active ingredient. Branding is also associated with reduced attribution of side effects to placebo tablets. Future interventions to improve perceptions of generics may have utility in improving treatment outcomes from generic drugs. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Research on the Efficiency of Side Exhausters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Tetsman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the relevant technology of environmental protection which includes an effective collection, disposal and control of aerosol and gases contaminants removed from the evaporating surfaces of electroplating tanks. The task of the paper is to help with finding the new ways of collecting and disposing aerosol pollution and to reduce the quantity of equipment and service costs. The article also discusses pollution formation and sorts and performance of side draft and slot hoods for vapour capture. Besides, the paper deals with the formation of vapour over the tank and the features of benefit that depend on absorber‘s shape. Exhaust velocity and its dependencies are analyzed.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Effects of yoga on cancer-related fatigue and global side-effect burden in older cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprod, Lisa K; Fernandez, Isabel D; Janelsins, Michelle C; Peppone, Luke J; Atkins, James N; Giguere, Jeffrey; Block, Robert; Mustian, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    Sixty percent of cancer survivors are 65years of age or older. Cancer and its treatments lead to cancer-related fatigue and many other side effects, in turn, creating substantial global side-effect burden (total burden from all side effects) which, ultimately, compromises functional independence and quality of life. Various modes of exercise, such as yoga, reduce cancer-related fatigue and global side-effect burden in younger cancer survivors, but no studies have specifically examined the effects of yoga on older cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 4-week yoga intervention (Yoga for Cancer Survivors: YOCAS©®) on overall cancer-related fatigue, and due to its multidimensional nature, the subdomains of cancer-related fatigue (general, physical, emotional, and mental) and global side-effect burden in older cancer survivors. We conducted a secondary analysis on data from a multicenter phase III randomized controlled clinical trial with 2 arms (standard care and standard care plus a 4-week YOCAS©® intervention). The sample for this secondary analysis was 97 older cancer survivors (≥60years of age), between 2months and 2years post-treatment, who participated in the original trial. Participants in the YOCAS©® intervention arm reported significantly lower cancer-related fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and global side-effect burden than participants in the standard care arm following the 4-week intervention period (peffective standardized yoga intervention for reducing cancer-related fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and global side-effect burden among older cancer survivors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  18. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  19. The dark side of technology

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Technological progress comes with a dark side where good ideas and intentions produce undesirable results (extreme downsides include atomic and biological weapons). The many and various unexpected outcomes of technology span humorous to bizarre, to situations that threaten human survival. Development can be positive for some, but negative and isolating for others (e.g. older or poorer people). Progress is often transient, as faster electronics and computers dramatically shorten retention time of data, knowledge, and information loss (e.g. even photos may be unreadable within a generation). Progress and globalization are also destroying past languages and cultures. Advances cut across all areas of science and life, and the scope is vast from biology, medicine, agriculture, transport, electronics, computers, long-range communications, to a global economy. Reliance on technology causes unexpected technology-driven vulnerability to natural events (e.g. intense sunspot activity) that could annihilate advanced soci...

  20. Optimal Load Response to Time-of-Use Power Price for Demand Side Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    -of-use power price for demand side management in order to save the energy costs as much as possible. 3 typical different kinds of loads (industrial load, residential load and commercial load) in Denmark are chosen as study cases. The energy costs decrease up to 9.6% with optimal load response to time......-of-use power price for different loads. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to time-of-use power price for demand side management generates different load profiles and reduces the load peaks. This kind of load patterns may also have significant effects on the power system normal operation.......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. This paper presents a load optimization method to time...

  1. Using Demand Side Management to Adapt to Water Scarcity and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Saiss is a sub-basin of the Sebou basin in Northern Morocco. Due to decreased precipitation and increased water demand, the surface waters of the Saiss basin have been greatly reduced. At the current rate of exploitation, the aquifer will be depleted within 25 years. This project will examine whether demand-side ...

  2. Black carbon: The reverse of its dark side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Cornelissen, G.; Bucheli, T.D.; Noort, van P.C.M.; Gustafsson, O.

    2006-01-01

    The emission of black carbon is known to cause major environmental problems. Black carbon particles contribute to global warming, carry carcinogenic compounds and cause serious health risks. Here, we show another side of the coin. We review evidence that black carbon may strongly reduce the risk

  3. Gas compressor with side branch absorber for pulsation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ralph E [San Antonio, TX; Scrivner, Christine M [San Antonio, TX; Broerman, III, Eugene L.

    2011-05-24

    A method and system for reducing pulsation in lateral piping associated with a gas compressor system. A tunable side branch absorber (TSBA) is installed on the lateral piping. A pulsation sensor is placed in the lateral piping, to measure pulsation within the piping. The sensor output signals are delivered to a controller, which controls actuators that change the acoustic dimensions of the SBA.

  4. 49 CFR 238.217 - Side structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side structure. 238.217 Section 238.217 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.217 Side structure. Each passenger car shall comply with the following: (a) Side posts and...

  5. Sustained attention training reduces spatial bias in Parkinson's disease: a pilot case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Grosso, Mallory; VanVleet, Thomas; Esterman, Michael; Pistorino, Laura; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly demonstrate lateralized spatial biases, which affect daily functioning. Those with PD with initial motor symptoms on the left body side (LPD) have reduced leftward attention, whereas PD with initial motor symptoms on the right side (RPD) may display reduced rightward attention. We investigated whether a sustained attention training program could help reduce these spatial biases. Four non-demented individuals with PD (2 LPD, 2 RPD) performed a visual search task before and after 1 month of computer training. Before training, all participants showed a significant spatial bias and after training, all participants' spatial bias was eliminated.

  6. Distributed video coding with multiple side information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Brites, C.; Ascenso, J.

    2009-01-01

    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new video coding paradigm which mainly exploits the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of some decoder side information. The quality of the side information has a major impact on the DVC rate-distortion (RD) performance in the same way...... the quality of the predictions had a major impact in predictive video coding. In this paper, a DVC solution exploiting multiple side information is proposed; the multiple side information is generated by frame interpolation and frame extrapolation targeting to improve the side information of a single...

  7. The Lighter Side of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu

    1996-10-01

    From the drop of an apple to the stately dance of the galaxies, gravity is omnipresent in the Cosmos. Even with its high profile, gravity is the most enigmatic of all the known basic forces in nature. The Lighter Side of Gravity presents a beautifully clear and completely nontechnical introduction to the phenomenon of this force in all its manifestations. Astrophysicist Jayant Narlikar begins with an historical background to the discovery of the law of gravitation by Isaac Newton in the seventeenth century. Using familiar analogies, interesting anecdotes, and numerous illustrations to get across subtle effects and difficult points to readers, he goes on to describe the general theory of relativity and some of its strange and unfamiliar ideas such as curved spacetime, the bending of light, and black holes. Since first publication in 1982 (W.H. Freeman), Dr. Narlikar has brought his book completely up to date and expanded it to include the discovery of gigantic gravitational lenses in space, the findings of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, the detection of dark matter in galaxies, the investigation of the very early Universe, and other new ideas in cosmology. This lucid and stimulating book presents a clear approach to the intriguing phenomenon of gravity for everyone who has ever felt caught in its grip. Jayant Narlikar is the winner of many astronomical prizes and the author of Introduction to Cosmology (Cambridge University Press, 1993).

  8. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  9. Blood pressure control with selective vagal nerve stimulation and minimal side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Cota, Oscar; Espinosa, Nayeli; Boeser, Fabian; Herrera, Taliana C.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Zentner, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Hypertension is the largest threat to patient health and a burden to health care systems. Despite various options, 30% of patients do not respond sufficiently to medical treatment. Mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch relay blood pressure (BP) levels through vagal nerve (VN) fibers to the brainstem and trigger the baroreflex, lowering the BP. Selective electrical stimulation of these nerve fibers reduced BP in rats. However, there is no technique described to localize and stimulate these fibers inside the VN without inadvertent stimulation of non-baroreceptive fibers causing side effects like bradycardia and bradypnea. Approach. We present a novel method for selective VN stimulation to reduce BP without the aforementioned side effects. Baroreceptor compound activity of rat VN (n = 5) was localized using a multichannel cuff electrode, true tripolar recording and a coherent averaging algorithm triggered by BP or electrocardiogram. Main results. Tripolar stimulation over electrodes near the barofibers reduced the BP without triggering significant bradycardia and bradypnea. The BP drop was adjusted to 60% of the initial value by varying the stimulation pulse width and duration, and lasted up to five times longer than the stimulation. Significance. The presented method is robust to impedance changes, independent of the electrode's relative position, does not compromise the nerve and can run on implantable, ultra-low power signal processors.

  10. The SIDER database of drugs and side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    , targets and side effects into a more complete picture of the therapeutic mechanism of actions of drugs and the ways in which they cause adverse reactions. To this end, we have created the SIDER ('Side Effect Resource', http://sideeffects.embl.de) database of drugs and ADRs. The current release, SIDER 4......% of which can be compared to the frequency under placebo treatment. SIDER furthermore contains a data set of drug indications, extracted from the package inserts using Natural Language Processing. These drug indications are used to reduce the rate of false positives by identifying medical terms that do...

  11. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  12. The side-to-side fashion for individual distal coronary anastomosis using venous conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takayoshi; Tsunekawa, Tomohiro; Motoji, Yusuke; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Okawa, Yasuhide; Tomita, Shinji

    2017-04-01

    Regarding to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the end-to-side anastomosis (ESA) has been performed as a gold standard. Recently, the effectiveness of the distal side-to-side anastomosis (SSA) in CABG using internal mammary artery has been reported. The benefit of SSA comparing to ESA also has been disclosed by computing simulation. However, use of SSA by venous conduit for individual CABG has not been reported. In this study, we investigated feasibility of SSA. From January 2013 to October 2014, we conducted 114 CABGs. There were 92 venous distal anastomoses without sequential anastomotic site (61 SSA and 31 ESA). The anastomosis was evaluated before discharge and at 1 year after the procedure by angiography or multi-detector row computed tomographic coronary angiography. The median values for time to anastomosis were 13 min in the two group (p = 0.89). There was no revision of anastomosis in both groups. Additional stitches for hemostasis were required significantly less in SSA than ESA (18.0 vs 45.2 %, respectively, p fashion is easy to perform and maybe beneficial in blood flow pattern.

  13. [Side effects of biologic therapies in psoriasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburg, A; Augustin, M; Zouboulis, C C

    2018-04-01

    The introduction of biologics has revolutionized the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Due to the continuous expansion of biological therapies for psoriasis, it is particularly important to acknowledge efficacy and safety of the compounds not only in clinical trials but also in long-term registry-based observational studies. Typical side effects and significant risks of antipsoriatic biologic therapies considering psoriatic control groups are presented. A selective literature search was conducted in PubMed and long-term safety studies of the psoriasis registries PsoBest, PSOLAR and BADBIR were evaluated. To assess the long-term safety of biologics, the evaluation of the course of large patient cohorts in long-term registries is of particular medical importance. Newer biologic drugs seem to exhibit a better safety profile than older ones.

  14. Determining optimum levels of DSM [demand-side management] as a supply-side resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, S.H.; Mitchell, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDGE) recommends the evaluation of demand-side management as a supply-side resource. The advantages of concurrent economic analysis of DSM options with other traditional sources represents a significant improvement over analysis either before or after the development of a resource plan. The evaluation of utility-sponsored DSM programs that provide system benefits that include deferment of capacity additions and improvements in more efficient system operation should be evaluated side-by-side with traditional resources that provide similar benefits. The utility decision to either provide capital costs to construct a power plant or make demand payments for a power purchase is directly analogous to the decision to provide funding for a DSM program that would defer these same investments. Both types of decision represent utility control over investment decisions that allow the utility to provide reliable, low-cost power to its customers. SDGE has also had experience with using generation expansion scenarios to test different levels of pre-selected packages of DSM programs, attempting to evaluate the total costs of system expansion for each of the different packages. This method was fraught with problems, and the best information that could be gained was if the selection of DSM packages happened to bracket a lower cost scenario, when it could reasonably be assumed that both smaller and larger levels of DSM were not as cost effective as the intermediate level. However, in many cases the selection of DSM programs did not produce this result and the important question of whether individual DSM programs were worthwhile when evaluated individually, or whether the lowest cost scenario would be improved with more or less DSM, could not be answered

  15. Clinical significance of the fabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodevski, A.; Lazarova-Tosovska, D.; Zhivadinovik, J.; Lazareska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: There is variable number of sesamoid bones in the human body; one of them is fabella, located in the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of fabella in the Macedonian population and to discuss about clinical importance of this bone. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined radiographs of 53 patients who had knee exams undertaken for a variety of clinical reasons, performed as a part of their medical treatment. Over a time span of six months, 53 patients (38 males and 15 females, age range 19-60 years, mean age of 36.7±12.3 years) were examined. Results: In seven (13.2%) patients of 53 analyzed reports, fabella was found in the lateral tendon of gastrocnemius muscle. We did not find a significant gender or side difference in the appearance of fabella. Conclusion: Although anatomic studies emphasized a lack of significance of the fabella, this bone has been associated with a spectrum of pathology affecting the knee as fabellar syndrome, perineal nerve injury and fracture. We should think of this sesamoid bone while performing diagnostic and surgical procedures

  16. Deflecting modes of the side-coupled cavity structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Shigemi.

    1990-11-01

    The deflecting modes of the 805 MHz side-coupled cavity structure with the relativistic factor 0.566 are studied. Our main concern is the dispersion properties among different configurations of side-coupling cells and their interpretations. It is shown that the ninety degree side-coupling cell configuration, so to speak, the Mickey Mouse configuration has a merit in reducing the HEM{sub 1} passband. Another concern is the magnitude of the transverse coupling impedance around the synchronization condition. It is shown that the existence of the coupling cell introduces the nonuniformity of the deflecting mode and gives different impedance relative to the beam axis and that the coupling impedance at {pi}/10 exceeds 50 M{Omega}/m if the quality value of the mode is around 12000.

  17. Deflecting modes of the side-coupled cavity structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Shigemi.

    1990-11-01

    The deflecting modes of the 805 MHz side-coupled cavity structure with the relativistic factor 0.566 are studied. Our main concern is the dispersion properties among different configurations of side-coupling cells and their interpretations. It is shown that the ninety degree side-coupling cell configuration, so to speak, the Mickey Mouse configuration has a merit in reducing the HEM 1 passband. Another concern is the magnitude of the transverse coupling impedance around the synchronization condition. It is shown that the existence of the coupling cell introduces the nonuniformity of the deflecting mode and gives different impedance relative to the beam axis and that the coupling impedance at π/10 exceeds 50 MΩ/m if the quality value of the mode is around 12000

  18. The scapular glenopolar angle: standard values and side differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucek, Michal; Bartonicek, Jan [Charles University and Military University Hospital Prague, Department of Orthopaedic Trauma, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Nanka, Ondrej [Charles University, Institute of Anatomy, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Malik, Jozef [Military University Hospital Prague, Department of Radiology, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study is to determine normal glenopolar angle (GPA) values on bone specimens of the scapula and compare them with various radiological views and CT examination. GPA values were measured on 100 mature, dry, non-paired scapulae, 20 pairs of dry scapulae, 50 AP radiographs of the shoulder, 50 Neer I views, 50 AP chest radiographs and 20 3D CT reconstructions of the scapula. Measurements made on bone specimens of the scapula showed an average GPA value of 42.3 ; the mean absolute side-to-side difference was on average 1.6 . The average GPA measured on 50 AP shoulder radiographs was 35.9 , on Neer I views 40.6 and AP chest radiographs 37.1 , with the mean absolute side-to-side difference on average 4.9 ; on 3D CT the average GPA was 43.0 and the mean absolute side-to-side difference on average 1.4 . GPA values depend on the method of measurement used. Measurements made on 3D CT reconstructions and Neer I views showed almost the same values as those measured on bone specimens. The values measured on AP shoulder views and AP chest radiographs were statistically significantly lower. Side-to-side variability (right and left) measured on 3D CT reconstructions was insignificant, and the obtained values corresponded to the values from bone specimens. Therefore, the best method to measure the GPA is a 3D CT reconstruction and an exact Neer I projection. (orig.)

  19. The impact of demand side management strategies in the penetration of renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, André; Silva, Carlos; Ferrão, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    High fuel costs, increasing energy security and concerns with reducing emissions have pushed governments to invest in the use of renewable energies for electricity generation. However, the intermittence of most renewable resources when renewable energy provides a significant share of the energy mix can create problems to electricity grids, which can be minimized by energy storage systems that are usually not available or expensive. An alternative solution consists on the use of demand side management strategies, which can have the double effect of reducing electricity consumption and allowing greater efficiency and flexibility in the grid management, namely by enabling a better match between supply and demand. This work analyzes the impact of demand side management strategies in the evolution of the electricity mix of Flores Island in the Azores archipelago which is characterized by high shares of renewable energy and therefore the introduction of more renewable energy sources makes it an interesting case study for testing innovative solutions. The electricity generation system is modeled in TIMES, a software which optimizes the investment and operation of wind and hydro plants until 2020 based on scenarios for demand growth, deployment of demand response technologies in the domestic sector and promotion of behavioral changes to eliminate standby power. The results show that demand side management strategies can lead to a significant delay in the investment on new generation capacity from renewable resources and improve the operation of the existing installed capacity. -- Highlights: ► Energy efficiency can help reduce the need for investment in more renewable energy. ► Dynamic demand helps increase the use of renewable energy in low demand periods. ► Around 40% of total consumption by domestic appliances is used as dynamic demand. ► The load of domestic appliances is mainly shifted to the 5:00 to 9:00 period.

  20. Promoting healthcare innovation on the demand side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Rebecca S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Innovation policy often focuses on fortifying the incentives of firms that develop and sell new products by offering them lucrative rights to exclude competitors from the market. Regulators also rely on these same firms—and on similar incentives—to develop information about the effects of their products in patients, despite their obvious conflict of interest. The result may be a distorted understanding that leads to overuse of expensive new medical technologies. Recent technological advances have put healthcare payers in an excellent position to play a larger role in future innovation to improve healthcare and reduce its costs. Insurance companies and integrated healthcare providers have custody of treasure troves of data about healthcare provision and outcomes that can yield valuable insights about the effects of medical treatment without the need to conduct costly clinical trials. Some integrated healthcare systems have seized upon this advantage to make notable discoveries about the effects of particular products that have changed the standard of care. Moreover, to the extent that healthcare payers can profit from reducing costs, they will seek to avoid inappropriate use of costly technologies. Greater involvement of payers in healthcare innovation thus offers a potential counterweight to the incentives of product sellers to promote excessive use of costly new products. In recent years, the federal government has sought to promote innovation through analysis of healthcare records in a series of initiatives; some picture insurers as passive data repositories, while others provide opportunities for insurers to take a more active role in innovation. In this paper, we examine the role of health insurers in developing new knowledge about the provision and effects of healthcare—what we call ‘demand-side innovation’. We address the contours of this underexplored area of innovation and describe the behavior of participating firms. We examine the

  1. Direct oxide reducing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Calcium oxides and magnetic oxides as wastes generated upon direct reduction are subjected to molten salt electrolysis, and reduced metallic calcium and magnesium are separated and recovered. Then calcium and magnesium are used recyclically as the reducing agent upon conducting direct oxide reduction. Even calcium oxides and magnesium oxides, which have high melting points and difficult to be melted usually, can be melted in molten salts of mixed fluorides or chlorides by molten-salt electrolysis. Oxides are decomposed by electrolysis, and oxygen is removed in the form of carbon monoxide, while the reduced metallic calcium and magnesium rise above the molten salts on the side of a cathode, and then separated. Since only carbon monoxide is generated as radioactive wastes upon molten salt electrolysis, the amount of radioactive wastes can be greatly reduced, and the amount of the reducing agent used can also be decreased remarkably. (N.H.)

  2. Do labour market reforms reduce labour productivity growth? A panel data analysis of 20 OECD countries (1960–2004)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, R.; Kleinknecht, A.

    2014-01-01

    Based on comprehensive regression analysis, the authors find that weak wage growth and a smaller labour share of national income significantly reduce labour productivity growth. They conclude that supply-side labour market reforms have contributed to reducing labour productivity growth: this cannot

  3. Physiological and skill demands of 'on-side' and 'off-side' games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the physiological and skill demands of 'on-side' and 'off-side' games in elite rugby league players. Sixteen male rugby league players participated in 'on-side' and 'off-side' games. Both small-sided games were played in a 40- × 40-m playing area. The 'off-side' game permitted players to have 3 'plays' while in possession of the ball. Players were permitted to pass backward or forward (to an 'off-side' player). The 'on-side' game also permitted players to have 3 'plays' while in possession of the ball. However, players were only permitted to pass backward to players in an 'on-side' position. Heart rate and movement patterns (via global positioning system) were recorded continuously throughout both games. Data were collected on the distance covered, number of high-acceleration and velocity efforts, and recovery between efforts. Video footage was also taken to track the performance of the players. Post hoc inspection of the footage was undertaken to count the number of possessions and the number and quality of disposals. In comparison to 'on-side' games, 'off-side' games had a greater number of involvements ("touches"), passes, and effective passes. However, the cognitive demands of 'on-side' games were greater than 'off-side' games. 'Off-side' games resulted in a greater total distance covered, greater distance covered in mild and moderate accelerations, and greater distance covered in low, moderate, and high-velocity efforts. There were also a greater number of short duration recovery periods between efforts in 'off-side' games. The results of this study demonstrate that 'off-side' games provide greater physiological and skill demands than 'on-side' games. 'Off-side' games may provide a practical alternative to 'on-side' games for the development of skill and fitness in elite rugby league players.

  4. Link between diet and chemotherapy related gastrointestinal side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Mardas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : To evaluate an association between food products consumption, dietary intake and the incidence of selected gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and constipation in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Material and methods : Fifty six women receiving chemotherapy for ovarian cancer were eligible for the study. Anthropometrical measurements were assessed. The dietary intake was evaluated by 24-hours food records. The association between the consumption of selected food products and gastrointestinal symptoms incidences was assessed by modified semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire including 77-different food items that was developed and applied in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Results : BMI values indicated 9%, 45%, 30% and 16% of patients as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese respectively. Only 23% and 32% of patients never experienced nausea and constipation when 43% and 45% never experienced vomiting and diarrhea. Nausea was promoted by oils, constipation by chocolate and chocolate products and diarrhea by dairy products, stone fruit and apple. Significant inverse correlations were found between vomiting and the intake of energy, fat, protein, carbohydrates, B groups vitamins, vitamin D, phosphorus and zinc. The difference in energy intake between marginal values of vomiting incidence exceeded 400 kcal. Conclusions : Dietary intake as well as specific food products influence on gastrointestinal side effect of chemotherapy in cancer patients. The dietary approach based on either exclusion or limited intake of selected food products and improvement of diet could reduce and prevent chemotherapy induced gastrointestinal symptoms therefore should be taken under consideration in clinical practice.

  5. Flapping modes of three filaments placed side by side in a free stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang-Bao; Luo, Haoxiang; Zhu, Luoding; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2010-11-01

    Flexible filaments flapping in a surrounding flow are useful models for understanding the flow-induced vibration and mimicking the schooling behavior of fish. In the present work, the coupled modes of three identical filaments in a side-by- side arrangement are studied using the linear stability analysis and also an immersed boundary--lattice Boltzmann method for low Reynolds numbers (Re on order of 100). The numerical simulations show that the system dynamics exhibits several patterns that depend on the spacing between the filaments. Among these patterns, three can be predicted by the linear analysis and have been reported before. These modes are: (1) the three filaments all flap in phase; (2) the two outer filaments are out of phase while the middle one is stable; (3) the two outer filaments are in phase while the middle one is out of phase. The simulations also identified two additional modes: (1) the outer two filaments are out of phase while the middle one flaps at a frequency reduced by half; (2) the outer two filaments are out of phase while the middle one flaps at a slightly different frequency. In addition to the vibratory modes, the drag force and the flapping amplitude are also computed, and the implication of the result will be discussed.

  6. An Evaluation of One-Sided and Two-Sided Communication Paradigms on Relaxed-Ordering Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Khaled Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hargrove, Paul H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Iancu, Costin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yelick, Katherine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-14

    The Cray Gemini interconnect hardware provides multiple transfer mechanisms and out-of-order message delivery to improve communication throughput. In this paper we quantify the performance of one-sided and two-sided communication paradigms with respect to: 1) the optimal available hardware transfer mechanism, 2) message ordering constraints, 3) per node and per core message concurrency. In addition to using Cray native communication APIs, we use UPC and MPI micro-benchmarks to capture one- and two-sided semantics respectively. Our results indicate that relaxing the message delivery order can improve performance up to 4.6x when compared with strict ordering. When hardware allows it, high-level one-sided programming models can already take advantage of message reordering. Enforcing the ordering semantics of two-sided communication comes with a performance penalty. Furthermore, we argue that exposing out-of-order delivery at the application level is required for the next-generation programming models. Any ordering constraints in the language specifications reduce communication performance for small messages and increase the number of active cores required for peak throughput.

  7. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  8. Construct Validity of Measures of Becker's Side Bet Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lynn M.; Tetrick, Lois E.; Shore, Ted H.; Barksdale, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Becker's side bet theory (remaining in a job because of perceived costs of leaving) was tested using data from 327 working business students. Three factors were most consistent with the theory: bureaucratic organization, nonwork-related concerns, and adjustment to social position. Attachment to the organization was significantly linked to tangible…

  9. Convergent and divergent functional connectivity patterns in patients with long-term left-sided and right-sided deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyang; Mao, Zhiqi; Feng, Shiyu; Wang, Wenxin; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Xinguang

    2018-02-05

    Cortical reorganization may be induced in long-term single-sided deafness (SD); however, the influence of the deafness side on the functional changes remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated whole-brain functional connectivity patterns in long-term SD patients. The normalized voxel-based functional connectivity strength (FCS) was determined using resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) in 17 left-sided deafness (LD) patients, 21 right-sided deafness (RD) patients and 21 healthy controls (HCs). Relative to the HCs, both the LD and RD patients exhibited a reduction in the FCS in the ipsilateral visual cortex. However, compared to that in the HCs, a significantly higher FCS was observed in some regions in the salience and default-mode networks in the RD patients, but this FCS alternation pattern was not observed in the LD patients. A direct comparison of the two patient groups revealed a significantly increased FCS in the supplemental motor area in the LD group. Altogether, the long-term SD groups with LD and RD exhibited convergent and divergent functional connectivity patterns in whole-brain networks, providing promising evidence that the functional changes in long-term SD are highly deafness-side-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Does the habitual mastication side impact jaw muscle activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcio, Karina Helga Leal; Zuim, Paulo Renato Junqueira; Guiotti, Aimée Maria; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Brandini, Daniela Atili

    2016-07-01

    To compare electrical activity in the anterior temporal and masseter muscles on the habitual (HMS) and non-habitual mastication side (NHMS), during mastication and in the mandibular postural position. In addition, the increase in electrical activity during mastication was assessed for the HMS and NHMS, analysing both working (WSM) and non-working side during mastication (NWSM). A total of 28 healthy women (18-32 years) participated in the study. They were submitted to Kazazoglu's test to identify the HMS. Bioresearch 'Bio EMG' software and bipolar surface electrodes were used in the exams. The exams were conducted in the postural position and during the unilateral mastication of raisins, on both the HMS and NHMS. The working and non-working side on HMS and NHMS were assessed separately. The obtained data were then statistically analysed with SPSS 20.0, using the Paired Samples Test at a significance level of 95%. The differences in the average EMG values between HMS and NHMS were not statistically significant in the postural position (Temporal p=0.2; Masseter p=0.4) or during mastication (Temporal WSM p=0.8; Temporal NWSM p=0.8; Masseter WSM p=0.6; Masseter NWSM p=0.2). Differences in the increase in electrical activity between the masseter and temporal muscles occurred on the working side, on the HMS and NHMS (p=0.0), but not on the non-working side: HMS (p=0.9) and NHMS (p=0.3). The increase in electrical activity was about 35% higher in the masseter than in the temporal muscle. Mastication side preference does not significantly impact electrical activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during mastication or in postural position. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Drug side effect extraction from clinical narratives of psychiatry and psychology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A; Chute, Christopher G; Savova, Guergana K

    2011-12-01

    To extract physician-asserted drug side effects from electronic medical record clinical narratives. Pattern matching rules were manually developed through examining keywords and expression patterns of side effects to discover an individual side effect and causative drug relationship. A combination of machine learning (C4.5) using side effect keyword features and pattern matching rules was used to extract sentences that contain side effect and causative drug pairs, enabling the system to discover most side effect occurrences. Our system was implemented as a module within the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System. The system was tested in the domain of psychiatry and psychology. The rule-based system extracting side effects and causative drugs produced an F score of 0.80 (0.55 excluding allergy section). The hybrid system identifying side effect sentences had an F score of 0.75 (0.56 excluding allergy section) but covered more side effect and causative drug pairs than individual side effect extraction. The rule-based system was able to identify most side effects expressed by clear indication words. More sophisticated semantic processing is required to handle complex side effect descriptions in the narrative. We demonstrated that our system can be trained to identify sentences with complex side effect descriptions that can be submitted to a human expert for further abstraction. Our system was able to extract most physician-asserted drug side effects. It can be used in either an automated mode for side effect extraction or semi-automated mode to identify side effect sentences that can significantly simplify abstraction by a human expert.

  12. Demand side management. Benefits and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strbac, Goran

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the major benefits and challenges of electricity demand side management (DSM) are discussed in the context of the UK electricity system. The relatively low utilisation of generation and networks (of about 50%) means that there is significant scope for DSM to contribute to increasing the efficiency of the system investment. The importance of the diversity of electricity load is discussed and the negative effects of DSM on load diversity illustrated. Ageing assets, the growth in renewable and other low-carbon generation technologies and advances in information and communication technologies are identified as major additional drivers that could lead to wider applications of DSM in the medium term. Potential benefits of DSM are discussed in the context of generation and of transmission and distribution networks. The provision of back-up capacity by generation may not be efficient as it will be needed relatively infrequently, and DSM may be better placed to support security. We also present an analysis of the value of DSM in balancing generation and demand in a future UK electricity system with significant variable renewable generation. We give a number of reasons for the relatively slow uptake of DSM, particularly in the residential, commercial and small business sectors. They include a lack of metering, information and communication infrastructure, lack of understanding of the benefits of DSM, problems with the competitiveness of DSM when compared with traditional approaches, an increase in the complexity of system operation and inappropriate market incentives. (author)

  13. On the front and back side quantum efficiency differences in semi-transparent organic solar cells and photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouthinon, B.; Clerc, R.; Verilhac, J. M.; Racine, B.; De Girolamo, J.; Jacob, S.; Lienhard, P.; Joimel, J.; Dhez, O.; Revaux, A.

    2018-03-01

    The External Quantum Efficiency (EQE) of semi-transparent Bulk Hetero-Junction (BHJ) organic photodiodes processed in air shows significant differences when measured from the front or back side contacts. This difference was found significantly reduced when decreasing the active layer thickness or by applying a negative bias. This work brings new elements to help understanding this effect, providing a large set of experiments featuring different applied voltages, active layers, process conditions, and electron and hole layers. By means of detailed electrical simulations, all these measurements have been found consistent with the mechanisms of irreversible photo-oxidation, modeled as deep trap states (and not as p-type doping). The EQE measurement from front and back sides is thus a simple and efficient way of monitoring the presence and amplitude of oxygen contamination in BHJ organic solar cells and photodiodes.

  14. Optimisation on processing parameters for minimising warpage on side arm using response surface methodology (RSM) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayhana, N.; Fathullah, M.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.; Sazli, M.; Yahya, Z. R.

    2017-09-01

    This study presents the application of optimisation method to reduce the warpage of side arm part. Autodesk Moldflow Insight software was integrated into this study to analyse the warpage. The design of Experiment (DOE) for Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was constructed and by using the equation from RSM, Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) was applied. The optimisation method will result in optimised processing parameters with minimum warpage. Mould temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure, packing time and cooling time was selected as the variable parameters. Parameters selection was based on most significant factor affecting warpage stated by previous researchers. The results show that warpage was improved by 28.16% for RSM and 28.17% for PSO. The warpage improvement in PSO from RSM is only by 0.01 %. Thus, the optimisation using RSM is already efficient to give the best combination parameters and optimum warpage value for side arm part. The most significant parameters affecting warpage are packing pressure.

  15. THE DILEMMA OF DEMAND SIDE POLICIES VERSUS SUPPLY SIDE POLICIES FOR RELAUNCHING CAPITALIST ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRE PRISECARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The first important economic recession in this century started in USA with the burst of real estate bubble followed by the bankruptcy of some investment and commercial banks and the collapse of capital market. The financial-banking crisis spilt over the world economy and caused the second deepest economic recession in the last 80 years. The financial crisis has badly affected almost all market economies and was the result of a combination between market failures and mistakes made in macroeconomic policies. In the financial sector there was not enough regulation and supervision of corporate governance while in goods industry the pressure of over-regulation led to higher factor costs and supply contraction. The direct result of supply side policies and particularly of monetarist instruments is seen now clearly in the USA: large deficits, huge debts, reduced savings, heavy dependence on foreign money (capital and resources, relatively low domestic output and supply.

  16. A protein-dependent side-chain rotamer library.

    KAUST Repository

    Bhuyan, M.S.

    2011-12-14

    Protein side-chain packing problem has remained one of the key open problems in bioinformatics. The three main components of protein side-chain prediction methods are a rotamer library, an energy function and a search algorithm. Rotamer libraries summarize the existing knowledge of the experimentally determined structures quantitatively. Depending on how much contextual information is encoded, there are backbone-independent rotamer libraries and backbone-dependent rotamer libraries. Backbone-independent libraries only encode sequential information, whereas backbone-dependent libraries encode both sequential and locally structural information. However, side-chain conformations are determined by spatially local information, rather than sequentially local information. Since in the side-chain prediction problem, the backbone structure is given, spatially local information should ideally be encoded into the rotamer libraries. In this paper, we propose a new type of backbone-dependent rotamer library, which encodes structural information of all the spatially neighboring residues. We call it protein-dependent rotamer libraries. Given any rotamer library and a protein backbone structure, we first model the protein structure as a Markov random field. Then the marginal distributions are estimated by the inference algorithms, without doing global optimization or search. The rotamers from the given library are then re-ranked and associated with the updated probabilities. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed protein-dependent libraries significantly outperform the widely used backbone-dependent libraries in terms of the side-chain prediction accuracy and the rotamer ranking ability. Furthermore, without global optimization/search, the side-chain prediction power of the protein-dependent library is still comparable to the global-search-based side-chain prediction methods.

  17. A protein-dependent side-chain rotamer library.

    KAUST Repository

    Bhuyan, M.S.; Gao, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Protein side-chain packing problem has remained one of the key open problems in bioinformatics. The three main components of protein side-chain prediction methods are a rotamer library, an energy function and a search algorithm. Rotamer libraries summarize the existing knowledge of the experimentally determined structures quantitatively. Depending on how much contextual information is encoded, there are backbone-independent rotamer libraries and backbone-dependent rotamer libraries. Backbone-independent libraries only encode sequential information, whereas backbone-dependent libraries encode both sequential and locally structural information. However, side-chain conformations are determined by spatially local information, rather than sequentially local information. Since in the side-chain prediction problem, the backbone structure is given, spatially local information should ideally be encoded into the rotamer libraries. In this paper, we propose a new type of backbone-dependent rotamer library, which encodes structural information of all the spatially neighboring residues. We call it protein-dependent rotamer libraries. Given any rotamer library and a protein backbone structure, we first model the protein structure as a Markov random field. Then the marginal distributions are estimated by the inference algorithms, without doing global optimization or search. The rotamers from the given library are then re-ranked and associated with the updated probabilities. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed protein-dependent libraries significantly outperform the widely used backbone-dependent libraries in terms of the side-chain prediction accuracy and the rotamer ranking ability. Furthermore, without global optimization/search, the side-chain prediction power of the protein-dependent library is still comparable to the global-search-based side-chain prediction methods.

  18. Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-02-12

    A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

  19. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of single umbilical artery: Emphasis on the absent side and its relation to associated anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Peng Wu

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In SUA fetuses, the absence of UA appears to occur equally at each side. Moreover, this study showed no significant difference between either side of missing UA and associated anomalies after statistical examination.

  20. Should the standard dimethyl sulfoxide concentration be reduced?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Curly; de Wreede, Liesbeth; Scholten, Marijke

    2014-01-01

    cells, we show that patients in the highest quartile receiving DMSO (mL and mL/kg body weight) had significantly more side effects attributed to DMSO, although this effect was not observed if DMSO was calculated as mL/min. Dividing the myeloma and lymphoma patients each into two equal groups by age we...... and attention to the dose of DMSO received by patients could help reduce the toxicity and morbidity of the transplant procedure....

  1. Sickle cell patients are characterized by a reduced glycocalyx volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, Edward J.; Nieuwdorp, Max; Duits, Ashley J.; Evers, Ludo M.; Schnog, John-John B.; Biemond, Bart J.

    2008-01-01

    The glycocalyx is an important anti-inflammatory and anti-adhesive barrier at the luminal side of endothelial cells. Glycocalyx volume was significantly reduced in sickle cell patients (HbSS/HbS beta(0)-thalassemia median 0.47L, IQR 0.27-0.66, HbSC/HbS beta(+)-thalassemia 0.23L, 0.0-0.58) compared

  2. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  3. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  4. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  5. Number and location of drainage catheter side holes: in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, D H; Alexander, J S; Weisman, J A; Orchard, M A; Williams, J T; D'Agostino, H B

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of number and location of catheter shaft side holes regarding drainage efficiency in an in vitro model. Three different drainage catheter models were constructed: open-ended model with no side holes (one catheter), unilateral side hole model (six catheters with one to six unilateral side holes), and bilateral side hole model (six catheters with one to six bilateral side holes). Catheters were inserted into a drainage output-measuring device with a constant-pressure reservoir of water. The volume of water evacuated by each of the catheters at 10-second intervals was measured. A total of five trials were performed for each catheter. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance. The open-ended catheter had a mean drainage volume comparable to the unilateral model catheters with three, four, and five side holes. Unilateral model catheters had significant drainage volume increases up to three side holes; unilateral model catheters with more than three side holes had no significant improvement in drainage volume. All bilateral model catheters had significantly higher mean drainage volumes than their unilateral counterparts. There was no significant difference between the mean drainage volume with one, two, or three pairs of bilateral side holes. Further, there was no drainage improvement by adding additional bilateral side holes. The present in vitro study suggests that beyond a critical side hole number threshold, adding more distal side holes does not improve catheter drainage efficiency. These results may be used to enhance catheter design towards improving their drainage efficiency. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Side-gate modulation effects on high-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Ye, Weiguang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Han, Tianyi; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    High-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors with double side-gates of graphene have been experimentally realized. The double side-gates can effectively modulate the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon capacitors. By applying anti-symmetric side-gate voltages, we observed significant upward shifting and flattening of the V-shaped capacitance curve near the charge neutrality point. Symmetric side-gate voltages, however, only resulted in tilted upward shifting along the opposite direction of applied gate voltages. These modulation effects followed the behavior of graphene nanoribbons predicted theoretically for metallic side-gate modulation. The negative quantum capacitance phenomenon predicted by numerical simulations for graphene nanoribbons modulated by graphene side-gates was not observed, possibly due to the weakened interactions between the graphene nanoribbon and side-gate electrodes caused by the Ga + beam etching process

  7. Impact of scaling voltage and size on the performance of Side-contacted Field Effect Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchaei, Behnam Jafari; Manavizadeh, Negin

    2018-05-01

    Side-contacted Fild Effect Diode (S-FED), with low leakage current and high Ion/Ioff ratio, has been recently introduced to suppress short channel effects in nanoscale regime. The voltage and size scalability of S-FEDs and effects on the power consumption, propagation delay time, and power delay product have been studied in this article. The most attractive properties are related to channel length to channel thickness ratio in the S-FED which reduces in comparison with MOSFET significantly, while gates control over the channel improve and the off-state current reduces dramatically. This promising advantage is not only capable to improve important S-FED's characteristics such as subthreshold slope but also eliminate Latch-up and floating body effect.

  8. The timeliness of patients reporting the side effects of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Ian; Carey, Mariko; Boyes, Allison; Hall, Alix; Noble, Natasha; Bryant, Jamie; Walsh, Justin; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2018-05-03

    To explore the actions cancer patients reported they would take in response to a range of common side effects of chemotherapy and whether these were considered appropriate based on current guidelines and evidence; and to explore the sociodemographic and cancer-related variables associated with patients selecting the appropriate action (immediate medical attention or reporting) for two potentially life-threatening side effects: fever, and unusual bleeding and bruising. Four hundred thirty-six medical oncology and haematology patients receiving chemotherapy completed two surveys to provide demographic, disease and treatment characteristics, and details on how they would respond if they experienced a range of specified side effects of chemotherapy (for example, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and skin rash or nail changes). The proportion of patients reporting the appropriate action for each side effect was calculated. Multiple logistic regressions examined the patient demographic and cancer characteristics associated with selecting the appropriate action (seeking immediate medical attention) for two potentially life-threatening side effects of chemotherapy: high fever of 38 °C or more, and unusual bleeding or bruising. Two thirds of patients indicated that they would seek immediate medical attention for high fever (67%), but only 41% would seek immediate attention for bleeding or bruising. Cancer type and time since diagnosis were significantly associated with patients indicating that they would seek immediate medical attention for high fever; while time since diagnosis was the only variable significantly associated with patients reporting that they would seek immediate medical attention for unusual bleeding or bruising. For chronic side effects, like skin rash or nail changes, and tingling or numbness, which usually do not require urgent reporting, only between 12 and 16% would report them immediately. A significant proportion of patients reported that they would

  9. A Study of Clinicopathological Differences Between Right-sided and Left-sided Colon Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    芳賀, 駿介; 遠藤, 俊吾; 加藤, 博之; 高橋, 直樹; 吉松, 和彦; 橋本, 雅彦; 石橋, 敬一郎; 梅原, 有弘; 横溝, 肇; 梶原, 哲郎; Shunsuke, HAGA; Shungo, ENDO; Hiroyuki, KATO; Naoki, TAKAHASHI; Kazuhiko, YOSHIMATSU

    1996-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the clinicopathological features of cancers of the right-sided colon (cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon) and left-sided colon (descending colon, sigmoid colon) in order to help improve the efficacy of their treatment. Excluding multiple cancer cases, 364 patients with primary colon cancer underwent surgey at our department between 1974 and 1994; they comprised 171 individuals with right-sided colon cancer and 193 with left-sided colon cancer. A ...

  10. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  11. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  12. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  13. Injury and side impact air bag deployment in near and far sided motor vehicle crashes, United States, 2000-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadter, Greg; Grabowski, Jurek G; Burke, Christine; Aldaghlas, Tayseer A; Robinson, Linda; Fakhry, Samir M

    2008-12-01

    Side impact crashes, the most lethal type, account for 26% of all motor vehicle crashes in the United States. The purpose of this study is to delineate side impact airbag (SIAB) deployment rates, injury rates, and analyze crash factors associated with SIAB deployment and occupant injury. All passenger vehicles equipped with SIABs that were involved in a side impact crash were identified from the National Automotive Sampling System database. Crashes with multiple impacts, ejections, unbelted drivers or rollovers were excluded from the study. The outcome variables of interest were SIAB deployment and driver injury. SIAB deployment was compared in similar crashes to analyze the impact on driver's injury severity score. Other crash factors were also examined to analyze what role they play in SIAB deployment rates and injury rates, such as plane of contact, striking object and Delta-V. The data set for this study contained 247 drivers in near and far side crashes in vehicles with installed SIABs. Overall SIAB deployment was 43% in side impact crashes. A significant factor associated with both the SIAB deployment rate and the driver's injury rate was increased Delta-V. SIABs do not deploy consistently in crashes with a high Delta-V or with a lateral primary direction of force and a front plane of contact. In these two scenarios, further research is warranted on SIAB deployments. With SIAB deployment, it appears drivers are able to sustain a higher Delta-V impact without serious injury.

  14. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  15. Simulations of the neutral structure within the dusk side aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Parish

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations of neutral winds from rocket release experiments within the premidnight and postmidnight substorm recovery phase aurora, show very large E-region neutral winds of several hundred m/s, where winds measured on the dusk side are even larger than those on the dawn side. These large winds are also associated with strong shears, and there is evidence that some of the regions below these shears may be unstable. The mechanisms which generate this strong vertical structure are not well understood. It is also not known whether the acceleration conditions in the pre and post midnight sectors of the aurora may produce significantly different neutral responses on the dawn and dusk sides. Simulations have been performed using a three-dimensional high resolution limited area thermosphere model to try to understand the neutral structure within the dawn and dusk side aurora. When simulations are performed using auroral forcing alone, for equivalent conditions within the dawn and dusk sectors, differences are found in the simulated response on each side. When measured values of auroral forcing parameters, and background winds and tides consistent with recent observations, are used as model inputs, some of the main features of the zonal and meridional wind observations are reproduced in the simulations, but the magnitude of the peak zonal wind around 140 km tends to be too small and the maximum meridional wind around 130 km is overestimated. The winds above 120 km altitude are found to be sensitive to changes in electric fields and ion densities, as was the case for the dawn side, but the effects of background winds and tides on the magnitudes of the winds above 120 km are found to be relatively small on the dusk side. The structure below 120 km appears to be related mainly to background winds and tides rather than auroral forcing, as was found in earlier studies on the dawn side, although the peak magnitudes of simulated wind variations in the 100 to

  16. Side Information and Noise Learning for Distributed Video Coding using Optical Flow and Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Rakêt, Lars Lau; Huang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side to reduce the complexity at the encoder. The coding efficiency of DVC critically depends on the quality of side information generation and accuracy of noise modeling. This paper considers...... Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) coding and proposes using optical flow to improve side information generation and clustering to improve noise modeling. The optical flow technique is exploited at the decoder side to compensate weaknesses of block based methods, when using motion-compensation to generate...... side information frames. Clustering is introduced to capture cross band correlation and increase local adaptivity in the noise modeling. This paper also proposes techniques to learn from previously decoded (WZ) frames. Different techniques are combined by calculating a number of candidate soft side...

  17. Direct observation of backbone planarization via side-chain alignment in single bulky-substituted polythiophenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, Dominic; Simine, Lena; Pickel, Sebastian; Schötz, Konstantin; Panzer, Fabian; Baderschneider, Sebastian; Schiefer, Daniel; Lohwasser, Ruth; Köhler, Jürgen; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Sommer, Michael; Köhler, Anna; Rossky, Peter J.; Hildner, Richard

    2018-03-01

    The backbone conformation of conjugated polymers affects, to a large extent, their optical and electronic properties. The usually flexible substituents provide solubility and influence the packing behavior of conjugated polymers in films or in bad solvents. However, the role of the side chains in determining and potentially controlling the backbone conformation, and thus the optical and electronic properties on the single polymer level, is currently under debate. Here, we investigate directly the impact of the side chains by studying the bulky-substituted poly(3-(2,5-dioctylphenyl)thiophene) (PDOPT) and the common poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), both with a defined molecular weight and high regioregularity, using low-temperature single-chain photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and quantum-classical simulations. Surprisingly, the optical transition energy of PDOPT is significantly (˜2,000 cm‑1 or 0.25 eV) red-shifted relative to P3HT despite a higher static and dynamic disorder in the former. We ascribe this red shift to a side-chain induced backbone planarization in PDOPT, supported by temperature-dependent ensemble PL spectroscopy. Our atomistic simulations reveal that the bulkier 2,5-dioctylphenyl side chains of PDOPT adopt a clear secondary helical structural motif and thus protect conjugation, i.e., enforce backbone planarity, whereas, for P3HT, this is not the case. These different degrees of planarity in both thiophenes do not result in different conjugation lengths, which we found to be similar. It is rather the stronger electronic coupling between the repeating units in the more planar PDOPT which gives rise to the observed spectral red shift as well as to a reduced calculated electron‑hole polarization.

  18. Side effects of endobronchial laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierkesmann, R.; Huzly, A.

    1985-03-01

    Side effects that have occurred in over 250 endobronchial laser treatments are reported. The laser has been used in severe tracheal and in bronchial obstructions. In two cases significant bleeding had to be treated with tamponade. In one patient an emphysema of the mediastinum developed, in 2 further patients a small pneumothorax. Perforation of the airway was not detected and no special treatment was necessary. Three patients with life-threatening tracheal stenoses and one patient with severe stenosis of both the mainstem bronchi due to metastasis in the bifurcation lymph node had a large defect in the tracheal or bronchial wall with a deep necrosis five to twelve weeks after laser treatment; all these patients had extensive radiotherapy in addition. One patient died due to severe respiratory insufficiency, probably caused by smoke intoxication. After the laser treatment, rubber-like fibrin-rich plaques may develop, which can lead to life-threatening obstructions of the airway. It is recommended that laser bronchoscopy should be performed with the rigid bronchoscope. After treatment of tracheal lesion an endoscopic check must be performed within 24 hours. The combination of laser treatment and radiotherapy seems to involve a certain risk of large defects in the bronchial wall due to necrosis of the tumor.

  19. Simultaneous Versus Sequential Side-by-Side Bilateral Metal Stent Placement for Malignant Hilar Biliary Obstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tadahisa; Ishii, Norimitsu; Kobayashi, Yuji; Kitano, Rena; Sakamoto, Kazumasa; Ohashi, Tomohiko; Nakade, Yukiomi; Sumida, Yoshio; Ito, Kiyoaki; Nakao, Haruhisa; Yoneda, Masashi

    2017-09-01

    Endoscopic bilateral self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) placement for malignant hilar biliary obstructions (MHBOs) is technically demanding, and a second SEMS insertion is particularly challenging. A simultaneous side-by-side (SBS) placement technique using a thinner delivery system may mitigate these issues. We aimed to examine the feasibility and efficacy of simultaneous SBS SEMS placement for treating MHBOs using a novel SEMS that has a 5.7-Fr ultra-thin delivery system. Thirty-four patients with MHBOs underwent SBS SEMS placement between 2010 and 2016. We divided the patient cohort into those who underwent sequential (conventional) SBS placement between 2010 and 2014 (sequential group) and those who underwent simultaneous SBS placement between 2015 and 2016 (simultaneous group), and compared the groups with respect to the clinical outcomes. The technical success rates were 71% (12/17) and 100% (17/17) in the sequential and simultaneous groups, respectively, a difference that was significant (P = .045). The median procedure time was significantly shorter in the simultaneous group (22 min) than in the sequential group (52 min) (P = .017). There were no significant group differences in the time to recurrent biliary obstruction (sequential group: 113 days; simultaneous group: 140 days) or other adverse event rates (sequential group: 12%; simultaneous group: 12%). Simultaneous SBS placement using the novel 5.7-Fr SEMS delivery system may be more straightforward and have a higher success rate compared to that with sequential SBS placement. This new method may be useful for bilateral stenting to treat MHBOs.

  20. The DarkSide Program at LNGS

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Alex; Collaboration, for the DarkSide

    2011-01-01

    DarkSide is a direct detection dark matter program based on two phase time projection chambers with depleted argon targets. The DarkSide detectors are designed, using novel low background techniques and active shielding, to be capable of demonstrating in situ a very low level of residual background. This means that each detector in the DarkSide program should have the ability to make a convincing claim of dark matter detection based on the observation of a few nuclear recoil events. The colla...

  1. The far-side solar magnetic index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Irene Gonzalez; Jain, Kiran; Hill, Frank; Tobiska, W Kent

    2011-01-01

    Several magnetic indices are used to model the solar irradiance and ultimately to forecast it. However, the observation of such indices are generally limited to the Earth-facing hemisphere of the Sun. Seismic maps of the far side of the Sun have proven their capability to locate and track medium-large active regions at the non-visible hemisphere. We present here the possibility of using the average signal from these seismic far-side maps as a proxy to the non-visible solar activity which can complement the current front-side solar activity indices.

  2. Bumper and grille airbags concept for enhanced vehicle compatibility in side impact: phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbat, Saeed; Li, Xiaowei; Prasad, Priya

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental physics and numerous field studies have shown a higher injury and fatality risk for occupants in smaller and lighter vehicles when struck by heavier, taller and higher vehicles. The consensus is that the significant parameters influencing compatibility in front-to-side crashes are geometric interaction, vehicle stiffness, and vehicle mass. The objective of this research is to develop a concept of deployable bumper and grille airbags for improved vehicle compatibility in side impact. The external airbags, deployed upon signals from sensors, may help mitigate the effect of weight, geometry and stiffness differences and reduce side intrusions. However, a highly reliable pre-crash sensing system is required to enable the reliable deployment, which is currently not technologically feasible. Analytical and numerical methods and hardware testing were used to help develop the deployable external airbags concept. Various Finite Element (FE) models at different stages were developed and an extensive number of iterations were conducted to help optimize airbag and inflator parameters to achieve desired targets. The concept development was executed and validated in two phases. This paper covers Phase II ONLY, which includes: (1) Re-design of the airbag geometry, pressure, and deployment strategies; (2) Further validation using a Via sled test of a 48 kph perpendicular side impact of an SUV-type impactor against a stationary car with US-SID-H3 crash dummy in the struck side; (3) Design of the reaction surface necessary for the bumper airbag functionality. The concept was demonstrated through live deployment of external airbags with a reaction surface in a full-scale perpendicular side impact of an SUV against a stationary passenger car at 48 kph. This research investigated only the concept of the inflatable devices since pre-crash sensing development was beyond the scope of this research. The concept design parameters of the bumper and grille airbags are presented in

  3. Experimental Study of Wake / Flap Interaction Noise and the Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Plassman, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the interaction of a wake with a half-span flap on radiated noise are examined. The incident wake is generated by bars of various widths and lengths or by a simplified landing gear model. Single microphone and phased array measurements are used to isolate the effects of the wake interaction on the noise radiating from the flap side edge and flap cove regions. The effects on noise of the wake generator's geometry and relative placement with respect to the flap are assessed. Placement of the wake generators upstream of the flap side edge is shown to lead to the reduction of flap side edge noise by introducing a velocity deficit and likely altering the instabilities in the flap side edge vortex system. Significant reduction in flap side edge noise is achieved with a bar positioned directly upstream of the flap side edge. The noise reduction benefit is seen to improve with increased bar width, length and proximity to the flap edge. Positioning of the landing gear model upstream of the flap side edge also leads to decreased flap side edge noise. In addition, flap cove noise levels are significantly lower than when the landing gear is positioned upstream of the flap mid-span. The impact of the local flow velocity on the noise radiating directly from the landing gear is discussed. The effects of the landing gear side-braces on flap side edge, flap cove and landing gear noise are shown.

  4. Lymphedema as a Cancer Treatment Side Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Prevention and Healthy Living Cancer.Net Videos Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog ...

  5. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Bleeding Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Bleeding Problems “My nurse said that chemotherapy could make ... with a clean cloth. Keep pressing until the bleeding stops. If you bruise: Put ice on the ...

  6. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  7. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Nausea and Vomiting “I take medicine so I won’t feel sick ...

  8. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and puffy. My nurse helped me understand why I had to stop eating salty ...

  9. Side- ja turvanguamet / Indrek Süld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Süld, Indrek

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: 2003 : annual report : [Eesti Raudtee]. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 34-35; 2003 : godovoi ottshjot : [Eesti Raudtee]. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 34-35. Ülevaade AS-i Eesti Raudtee side- ja turvanguameti tegevusest 2003. aastal. Skeem

  10. SIDES - Segment Interconnect Diagnostic Expert System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, A.W.; Forster, R.; Gustafsson, L.; Ho, N.

    1989-01-01

    It is well known that the FASTBUS Segment Interconnect (SI) provides a communication path between two otherwise independent, asynchronous bus segments. The SI is probably the most important module in any FASTBUS data acquisition network since it's failure to function can cause whole segments of the network to be inaccessible and sometimes inoperable. This paper describes SIDES, an intelligent program designed to diagnose SI's both in situ as they operate in a data acquisition network, and in the laboratory in an acceptance/repair environment. The paper discusses important issues such as knowledge acquisition; extracting knowledge from human experts and other knowledge sources. SIDES can benefit high energy physics experiments, where SI problems can be diagnosed and solved more quickly. Equipment pool technicians can also benefit from SIDES, first by decreasing the number of SI's erroneously turned in for repair, and secondly as SIDES acts as an intelligent assistant to the technician in the diagnosis and repair process

  11. Computational fluid dynamic evaluation of the side-to-side anastomosis for arteriovenous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Jeffrey E; Balakin, Boris V; Kellerman, Brad M; Wrolstad, David K

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this research was to compare side-to-side (STS) and end-to-side (ETS) anastomoses in a computer model of the arteriovenous fistula with computational fluid dynamic analysis. A matrix of 17 computer arteriovenous fistula models (SolidWorks, Dassault Systèmes, France) of artery-vein pairs (3-mm-diameter artery + 3-mm-diameter vein and 4-mm-diameter artery +6-mm-diameter vein elliptical anastomoses) in STS, 45° ETS, and 90° ETS configurations with cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of 3.5 to 18.8 mm(2) were evaluated with computational fluid dynamic software (STAR-CCM+; CD-adapco, Melville, NY) in simulations at defined flow rates from 600 to 1200 mL/min and mean arterial pressures of 50 to 140 mm Hg. Models and configurations were evaluated for pressure drop across the anastomosis, arterial inflow, venous outflow, arterial outflow, velocity vector, and wall shear stress (WSS) profile. Pressure drop across the anastomosis was inversely proportional to anastomotic CSA and to venous outflow and was proportional to arterial inflow. Pressure drop was greater in 3 + 3 models than in 4 + 6 STS models; 90° ETS configurations had the lowest pressure drops and were nearly identical, whereas 45° ETS configurations had the highest pressure drops. Venous outflow in the 4 + 6 model in STS configurations, evaluated at 100 mm Hg arterial inflow pressure, was 390, 592, 610, and 886 mL/min in anastomotic CSAs of 3.5, 5.3, 7.1, and 18.8 mm(2), respectively, and was similar in 90° ETS (609 and 908 mL/min) and lower in 45° ETS (534 and 562 mL/min) configurations at CSAs of 5.3 and 18.8 mm(2). The mean increase in venous outflow was 69 mL/min (range, -59 to 134) between 3 + 3 and 4 + 6 models at 100 mm Hg arterial inflow. The most uniform WSS profile occurs in STS anastomoses followed by 45° ETS and then 90° ETS anastomoses. The STS and 90° ETS anastomoses have high venous outflow and a tendency toward reversed arterial outflow. The 45° ETS anastomosis has reduced venous

  12. EMLA cream does not influence efficacy and pain reduction during pulsed-dye laser treatment of port-wine stain: a prospective side-by-side comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenxin; Wang, Tianyou; Zhu, Jiafang; Qiu, Yajing; Chen, Hui; Jin, Yunbo; Yang, Xi; Hu, Xiaojie; Chang, Lei; Chen, Yijie; Ma, Gang; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2018-04-01

    EMLA cream was developed to reduce pain during pulsed-dye laser (PDL) treatment; however, no standard assessment for the therapeutic outcomes of PDL with EMLA creams thus far available. This comparative, prospective clinical trial evaluates laser efficacy and pain reduction during PDL treatment with EMLA cream for local topical anesthesia. Nineteen patients with untreated port-wine stain (PWS) were treated using PDL and examined in this study. Treatment specifications included Vbeam® PDL (Candela Corp.), 595-nm wavelength, 9 J/cm 2 radiant exposure, 0.45 ms pulse duration, 10 mm spot size, and cryogen spray cooling (40 ms cooling plus a 20 ms delay). A topical anesthetic (EMLA cream: 2.5% lidocaine and 2.5% prilocaine) and a placebo were applied to two respective testing areas on all patients prior to treatment. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used for pain assessment. Clinical therapeutic outcomes were evaluated by visual evaluation and with the use of a chromameter 2 months after 3PDL treatments. The average VAS scores were 3.15 ± 0.95 and 8 ± 0.57 for the EMLA cream site and the placebo site, respectively, at a significance level p < 0.001. The EMLA cream site and the placebo site had clearance or fading rates of 45.08 and 44.12%, respectively (p < 0.05). No serious side effects were reported. Patients reported a consistent decrease in pain during PDL treatment when the topical anesthetic EMLA cream was administered. Treatment of PWS by PDL with EMLA cream does not lead to a decrease in efficacy or an increase in side effects; instead, it significantly reduces pain during treatment. EMLA cream is a safe and effective local topical anesthetic for PWS treatment by PDL.

  13. Novel Random PBS-Based Copolymers Containing Aliphatic Side Chains for Sustainable Flexible Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Guidotti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, there has been an increased interest from the food packaging industry toward the development and application of biodegradable and biobased plastics, to contribute to the sustainable economy and to reduce the huge environmental problem afflicting the planet. In this framework, the present paper describes the synthesis of novel PBS (poly(butylene succinate-based random copolymers with different composition containing glycol sub-units characterized by alkyl pendant groups of different length. The prepared samples were subjected to molecular, thermal, diffractometric and mechanical characterization. The barrier performances to O2, CO2 and N2 gases were also evaluated, envisioning for these new materials an application in food packaging. The presence of the side alkyl groups did not alter the thermal stability, whereas it significantly reduced the sample crystallinity degree, making these materials more flexible. The barrier properties were found to be worse than PBS; however, some of them were comparable to, or even better than, those of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE, widely employed for flexible food packaging. The entity of variations in the final properties due to copolymerization were more modest in the case of the co-unit with short side methyl groups, which, when included in the PBS crystal lattice, causes a more modest decrement of crystallinity degree.

  14. Asynchronous Advanced Encryption Standard Hardware with Random Noise Injection for Improved Side-Channel Attack Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Kotipalli

    2014-01-01

    (SCA resistance. These designs are based on a delay-insensitive (DI logic paradigm known as null convention logic (NCL, which supports useful properties for resisting SCAs including dual-rail encoding, clock-free operation, and monotonic transitions. Potential benefits include reduced and more uniform switching activities and reduced signal-to-noise (SNR ratio. A novel method to further augment NCL AES hardware with random voltage scaling technique is also presented for additional security. Thereby, the proposed components leak significantly less side-channel information than conventional clocked approaches. To quantitatively verify such improvements, functional verification and WASSO (weighted average simultaneous switching output analysis have been carried out on both conventional synchronous approach and the proposed NCL based approach using Mentor Graphics ModelSim and Xilinx simulation tools. Hardware implementation has been carried out on both designs exploiting a specified side-channel attack standard evaluation FPGA board, called SASEBO-GII, and the corresponding power waveforms for both designs have been collected. Along with the results of software simulations, we have analyzed the collected waveforms to validate the claims related to benefits of the proposed cryptohardware design approach.

  15. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  16. Protection against head injuries should not be optional: a case for mandatory installation of side-curtain air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuke, Lance E; Nirula, Raminder; Gentilello, Larry M; Shafi, Shahid

    2010-10-01

    More than 9,000 vehicle occupants die each year in side-impact vehicle collisions, primarily from head injuries. The authors hypothesized that side-curtain air bags significantly improve head and neck safety in side-impact crash testing. Side-impact crash-test data were obtained from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, which ranks occupant protection as good, acceptable, marginal, or poor. Vehicles of the same make and model that underwent side-impact crash testing both with and without side-curtain air bags were compared, as well as the protective effect of these air bags on occupants' risk for head and neck injury. Of all the passenger vehicles, 25 models have undergone side-impact crash testing with and without side-curtain air bags by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Only 3 models without side-curtain air bags (12%) provided good head and neck protection for drivers, while 21 cars with side-curtain air bags (84%) provided good protection (P bags was less dramatic but significant (84% without vs 100% with side-curtain air bags, P = .04). Side-curtain air bags significantly improve vehicle occupant safety in side-impact crash tests. Installation of these air bags should be federally mandated in all passenger vehicles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of small-sided games on physical conditioning and performance in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different small-sided games and, second, their effects on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m) participated in the study. Small-sided games included three-a-side (3 versus 3 players) and six-a-side (6 versus 6 players) games consisting of 10 bouts of 4 min duration with 3 min active recovery between bouts. Soccer player performance was evaluated using five field tests: a) 30m sprint, b) throw-in for distance, c) Illinois Agility Test, d) dribbling the ball and e) horizontal jump before, in the middle and after the implementation of both game situations. Heart rate was monitored during the entire testing session. Each game was also filmed to measure soccer movements within the game. The ANOVA analysis indicated that the three-a- side games displayed significantly higher heart rate values compared with the six-a-side games (p players performed more long passes and headed the ball more often during the six-a-side (p performance (p performance were observed (p physical conditioning and technical improvement than six-a-side games and their use for training young soccer players is recommended. Key pointsThree-a-side games display higher HR compared with six-a-side games.In the three-a-side games players performed more short passes, kicks, dribbles, tackles and scored more goals compared with the six-a-side games.Impairment in endurance and field test performance was observed mainly after three-a-side games.The use of the three-a-side games to develop physical fitness and technique in young soccer players is recommended.

  18. Treatment for snoring. Combined weight loss, sleeping on side, and nasal spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, H M; Block, A J; Perri, M G

    1995-05-01

    We sought to find a combination of noninvasive treatments for snoring by adding weight loss to previously studied treatments, including the combination of sleeping on one's side and using a decongestant nasal spray. Twenty asymptomatic men who snore heavily were studied previously on a control night and on a night when they slept on their side and used a nasal spray. With these two treatments, minor improvements in apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) were seen, but no improvement occurred in snoring frequency. Nineteen of these subjects subsequently completed a 6-month weight loss program, and 12 lost weight. These 19 subjects comprise the study population of this report. At the conclusion of the weight loss program, a repeated sleep study was done from which the effect of adding weight loss to the two previously studied treatments could be assessed. Those 12 subjects who lost any amount of weight showed a very mild reduction in snores per hour from 328 using two modalities of treatment to 232 per hour with the addition of weight loss (p = 0.15). The nine subjects who lost > or = 3 kg reduced the number of snores per hour from 320 to 176 (p = 0.0496). Three subjects losing an average of only 7.6 kg showed virtual elimination of snoring after weight loss. Subjects who gained weight had no improvement in snoring. Weight loss added to the other two modalities of treatment had no effect on the AHI. In most cases, the combination of weight loss, sleeping on one's side, and the administration of a nasal decongestant significantly reduces the frequency of snoring in asymptomatic men who snore heavily. The major effect appears to be related to weight loss.

  19. A double-sided linear primary permanent magnet vernier machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; Zou, Chunhua; Liu, Xianxing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM) vernier (DSLPPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed.

  20. Polyglycerol-opioid conjugate produces analgesia devoid of side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Sara; Quadir, Mohiuddin A; Gupta, Shilpi; Walker, Karolina A; Zhang, Xuejiao; Spahn, Viola; Labuz, Dominika; Rodriguez-Gaztelumendi, Antonio; Schmelz, Martin; Joseph, Jan; Parr, Maria K; Machelska, Halina; Haag, Rainer; Stein, Christoph

    2017-07-04

    Novel painkillers are urgently needed. The activation of opioid receptors in peripheral inflamed tissue can reduce pain without central adverse effects such as sedation, apnoea, or addiction. Here, we use an unprecedented strategy and report the synthesis and analgesic efficacy of the standard opioid morphine covalently attached to hyperbranched polyglycerol (PG-M) by a cleavable linker. With its high-molecular weight and hydrophilicity, this conjugate is designed to selectively release morphine in injured tissue and to prevent blood-brain barrier permeation. In contrast to conventional morphine, intravenous PG-M exclusively activated peripheral opioid receptors to produce analgesia in inflamed rat paws without major side effects such as sedation or constipation. Concentrations of morphine in the brain, blood, paw tissue, and in vitro confirmed the selective release of morphine in the inflamed milieu. Thus, PG-M may serve as prototype of a peripherally restricted opioid formulation designed to forego central and intestinal side effects.

  1. May disordered protein cause serious drug side effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Weng Ieong; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2014-04-01

    Insomnia is a self-reported disease where patients lose their ability to initiate and maintain sleep, leading to daytime performance impairment. Several drug targets to ameliorate insomnia symptoms have been discovered; however, these drug targets lead to serious side effects. Thus, we characterize the structural properties of these sleep-related receptors and the clock complex and discuss a possible drug design that will reduce side effects. Computational prediction shows that disordered property is shared. Over 30% of the structure of CLOCK, PER1/2/3, BMAL-1, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-M1, melatonin receptor and casein kinase I are structurally disordered (the remaining proteins represent insomnia drugs might be closely related to the protein architecture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparing side charging of PCM storage: theoretical and experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesfay, A H; Nydal, O J; Hagos, F Y; Yohannes, K G; Kahsay, M B

    2015-01-01

    In Ethiopia, there is an abundant source of solar energy that is estimated to 5.3 kWh/m 2 /day. However, more than 90% of the society uses biomass as a main source of energy for cooking due to lack of technologies to convert this energy. Replacing these cooking activities by using renewable energy resources decreases pollution and reduces deforestation significantly. Using the solar energy in day time has no problem. For night time however, the system needs some kind of back-up system to make the daytime solar energy available. This back-up should have high-density energy storage and constant working temperature to perform a specific application. Latent heat storage using phase change materials (PCM) is one way of storing thermal energy. In the current study, a latent heat storage that uses a PCM material is used to store the solar energy aimed at utilizing solar energy for cooking Injera, main staple bread in Ethiopia. The PCM is a mixture of 60% NaNO 3 and 40% KNO 3 that are known as solar salts. The storage has a welded parallel aluminum fins with a gap of 40 mm in between to enhance the thermal conductivity during the charging-discharging process of the storage. The fins are extruded outside of the storage container to enable a side charging technique for the PCM. A prototype was developed with a solar salt of 17.5 kg and is tested for charging-discharging. The numerical simulation done on ANSYS and experimental results show an agreement and the system registered a 41.6% efficiency. (paper)

  3. Endomorphisms on half-sided modular inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svegstrup, Rolf Dyre

    2006-01-01

    In algebraic quantum field theory we consider nets of von Neumann algebras indexed over regions of the space time. Wiesbrock [''Conformal quantum field theory and half-sided modular inclusions of von Neumann algebras,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 158, 537-543 (1993)] has shown that strongly additive nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle are in correspondence with standard half-sided modular inclusions. We show that a finite index endomorphism on a half-sided modular inclusion extends to a finite index endomorphism on the corresponding net of von Neumann algebras on the circle. Moreover, we present another approach to encoding endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle into half-sided modular inclusions. There is a natural way to associate a weight to a Moebius covariant endomorphism. The properties of this weight have been studied by Bertozzini et al. [''Covariant sectors with infinite dimension and positivity of the energy,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 193, 471-492 (1998)]. In this paper we show the converse, namely, how to associate a Moebius covariant endomorphism to a given weight under certain assumptions, thus obtaining a correspondence between a class of weights on a half-sided modular inclusion and a subclass of the Moebius covariant endomorphisms on the associated net of von Neumann algebras. This allows us to treat Moebius covariant endomorphisms in terms of weights on half-sided modular inclusions. As our aim is to provide a framework for treating endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras in terms of the apparently simpler objects of weights on half-sided modular inclusions, we lastly give some basic results for manipulations with such weights

  4. TROSY of side-chain amides in large proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aizhuo; Yao, Lishan; Li, Yue; Yan, Honggao

    2012-01-01

    By using the mixed solvent of 50% H2O/50% D2O and employing deuterium decoupling, TROSY experiments exclusively detect NMR signals from semideuterated isotopomers of carboxamide groups with high sensitivities for proteins with molecular weights up to 80 kDa. This isotopomer-selective strategy extends TROSY experiments from exclusively detecting backbone to both backbone and side-chain amides, particularly in large proteins. Because of differences in both TROSY effect and dynamics between 15N–HE{DZ} and 15N–HZ{DE} isotopomers of the same carboxamide, the 15N transverse magnetization of the latter relaxes significantly faster than that of the former, which provides a direct and reliable stereospecific distinction between the two configurations. The TROSY effects on the 15N–HE{DZ} isotopomers of side-chain amides are as significant as on backbone amides. PMID:17347000

  5. Comparing Efficacy and Side Effects of Memantine vs. Risperidone in the Treatment of Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikvarz, Nikvarz; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Alimadadi, Abbas; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy and side effects of memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor of glutamate, with risperidone given the fact that glutamate has been noted for its possible effects in the pathogenesis of autism. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, has been approved by FDA for the management of irritability associated with autism. Methods: 30 children, aged 4-17 years, entered an 8-week, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either risperidone or memantine. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scales were used to assess behavioral symptoms of the patients. Results: Both risperidone and memantine reduced the scores of 4 subscales of ABC as well as the 10-item and the total score of CARS significantly. However, differences between the 2 drugs in the scores of each evaluating scale were not found to be significant. Relatively, larger number of patients on risperidone showed "very much improvement" when assessed by CGI-I scale when compared with those on memantine. Discussion and conclusion: The present study suggests that memantine may have beneficial effects in the treatment of many core symptoms of autism. Therefore, memantine may be considered as a potential medication in the treatment of those autistic children who do not respond or cannot tolerate side effects of risperidone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Demand-side management and European environmental and energy goals: An optimal complementary approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergaentzlé, Claire; Clastres, Cédric; Khalfallah, Haikel

    2014-01-01

    Demand side management (DSM) in electricity markets could improve energy efficiency and achieve environmental targets through controlled consumption. For the past 10 years or so DSM programmes have registered significant results. However, detailed analysis of its real impact as observed by a large number of pilot studies suggests that such programmes need to be fine-tuned to suit clearly identified conditions. This study aims to provide recommendations for the instruments to be used to prompt demand response with a view to maximizing energy and environmental efficiencies of various countries. The present study suggests that different DSM models should be deployed depending on the specific generation mix in any given country. Beside the natural benefits from cross-borders infrastructures, DSM improves the flexibility and reliability of the energy system, absorbing some shock on generation mix. We show efficiency increases with demand response but at a decreasing rate. So, according to rebound and report effects, simple DSM tools could be preferred. - Highlights: • Demand side management could improve energy and environmental efficiency. • Several instruments should be used to achieve significant load-shedding. • DSM models should be deployed depending on generation mix. • Efficiency increases with demand response but at a decreasing rate. • Rebound and report effects reduce positive impacts

  7. Neck injury tolerance under inertial loads in side impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Kallieris, Dimitrios; Frechede, Bertrand

    2007-03-01

    Neck injury remains a major issue in road safety. Current side impact dummies and side impact crashworthiness assessments do not assess the risk of neck injury. These assessments are limited by biofidelity and knowledge regarding neck injury criteria and tolerance levels in side impacts. Side impact tests with PMHS were performed at the Heidelberg University in the 1980s and 1990s to improve primarily the understanding of trunk dynamics, injury mechanisms and criteria. In order to contribute to the definition of human tolerances at neck level, this study presents an analysis of the head/neck biomechanical parameters that were measured in these tests and their relationship to neck injury severity. Data from 15 impact tests were analysed. Head accelerations, and neck forces and moments were calculated from 9-accelerometer array head data, X-rays and anthropometric data. Statistically significant relationships were observed between resultant head acceleration and neck force and neck injury severity. The average resultant head acceleration for AIS 2 neck injuries was 112 g, while resultant neck force was 4925 N and moment 241 Nm. The data compared well to other test data on cadavers and volunteers. It is hoped that the paper will assist in the understanding of neck injuries and the development of tolerance criteria.

  8. Laparoscopic side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoichi Deie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical pancreatic duct (PD drainage for chronic pancreatitis in children is relatively rare. It is indicated in cases of recurrent pancreatitis and PD dilatation that have not responded to medical therapy and therapeutic endoscopy. We performed laparoscopic side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy for two paediatric patients with chronic pancreatitis. The main PD was opened easily by electrocautery after locating the dilated PD by intraoperative ultrasonography. The dilated PD was split longitudinally from the pancreatic tail to the pancreatic head by laparoscopic coagulation shears or electrocautery after pancreatography. A laparoscopic side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy was performed by a one-layered technique using continuous 4-0 polydioxanone (PDS sutures from the pancreatic tail to the pancreatic head. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications or recurrences. This procedure has cosmetic advantages compared with open surgery for chronic pancreatitis. Laparoscopic side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy in children is feasible and effective for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

  9. Carotid endarterectomy significantly improves postoperative laryngeal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Georg Philipp; Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Vasicek, Sarah; Graupp, Matthias; Gugatschka, Markus; Baumann, Anneliese; Konstantiniuk, Peter; Koter, Stephan Herwig

    2016-11-01

    Iatrogenic injury of the vagus nerve or its branches during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) can result in globus sensation, dysphagia, and even vocal fold immobility. Knowledge of morphologic and functional laryngopharyngeal outcomes after CEA is poor. The present study was performed to determine potential iatrogenic damage to the laryngeal innervation after CEA. An area of particular interest was the supraglottic sensory threshold, which was examined by Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing With Sensory Testing (FEESST; Pentax Medical Company, Montvale, NJ), a validated and safe method for the determination of the motor and sensory components of swallowing. FEESST was used preoperatively in 32 patients scheduled to undergo CEA and twice postoperatively to examine the motor and sensory components of swallowing. In this endolaryngeal examination, laryngopharyngeal sensory thresholds (in mm Hg) were defined as normal at 6.0 mm Hg APP, with a value >10.0 mm Hg APP indicating abolished laryngeal adductor reflex. Acoustic voice parameters were also analyzed for further functional changes of the larynx. The mean ± standard deviation preoperative FEESST measures showed no significant differences (P = .065) between the operated-on side (6.73 ± 1.73 mm Hg) and the opposite side (5.83 ± 1.68 mm Hg). At 2 days postoperatively, the threshold increased (P = .001) to 7.62 ± 1.98 mm Hg on the operated-on side. A laryngopharyngeal mucosal hematoma on the operated side was endoscopically detectable in eight patients (30.8%); in these patients, we found a markedly elevated (P = .021) measure of 9.50 ± 0.93 mm Hg. On the opposite (nonoperated-on) side of the laryngopharynx, the thresholds remained at the same level as preoperatively over all assessments (P >.05), whereas the differences between the operated and nonoperated-on sides and the hematoma and nonhematoma groups were highly significant (P = .004 and P = .001, respectively). Surprisingly, the

  10. Modeling occupants in far-side impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Clay; Fildes, Brian; Gibson, Tom

    2011-10-01

    Far-side impacts are not part of any regulated NCAP, FMVSS, or similar test regime despite accounting for 43 percent of the seriously injured persons and 30 percent of the harm in U.S. side impact crashes. Furthermore, injuries to the head and thorax account for over half of the serious injuries sustained by occupants in far-side crashes. Despite this, there is no regulated or well-accepted anthropomorphic test device (ATD) or computer model available to investigate far-side impacts. As such, this presents an opportunity to assess a computer model that can be used to measure the effect of varying restraint parameters on occupant biomechanics in far-side impacts. This study sets out to demonstrate the modified TASS human facet model's (MOTHMO) capabilities in modeling whole-body response in far-side impacts. MOTHMO's dynamic response was compared to that of postmortem human subjects (PMHS), WorldSID, and Thor-NT in a series of far-side sled tests. The advantages, disadvantages, and differences of using MOTHMO compared to ATDs were highlighted and described in terms of model design and instrumentation. Potential applications and improvements for MOTHMO were also recommended. The results showed that MOTHMO is capable of replicating the seat belt-to-shoulder complex interaction, pelvis impacts, head displacement, neck and shoulder belt loading from inboard mounted belts, and impacts from multiple directions. Overall, the model performed better than Thor-NT and at least as well as WorldSID when compared to PMHS results. Though WorldSID and Thor-NT ATDs were capable of reproducing many of these impact loads, measuring the seat belt-to-shoulder complex interaction and thoracic deflection at multiple sites and directions was less accurately handled. This study demonstrated that MOTHMO is capable of modeling whole-body response in far-side impacts. Furthermore, MOTHMO can be used as a virtual design tool to explore the effect of varying restraint parameters on occupant

  11. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  12. How to reduce household carbon emissions: A review of experience and policy design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Global warming and environment problems caused by the excessive emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), along with rapid economic development has attracted the attention of many countries and regions of the world. Reducing GHG emissions is essential to mitigate the threat of global warming. Household carbon (dioxide) emissions have been recognized as one of the most important contributors to climate change, with a significant impact on both the local and global environment, and various policy instruments have been implemented by governments to bring about the reduction. This paper reviews these carbon abatement policy measures from demand-side and supply-side perspectives based on 144 countries across the world. The advantages and disadvantages of the policies are analyzed and it is found that income level largely affects the choice of policy, with high-income countries being mostly associated with demand-side policy instruments. Low-income countries adopt less demand-side policy measures and mainly depend on supply-side polices such as targets and regulations. Geographic location is also an important factor influencing the choice of policy instruments due to the different climates between different regions, although targets, regulations and carbon taxes are dominant GHG reduction policy measures worldwide. In America, tendering and net metering are popular, while in Europe feed-in-tariff (FIT) policies are implemented for more than 70% of the time. In Asia, policy measures, whether supply-side or demand-side, are comparatively weakly implemented and influenced by location, urbanization and economic growth. This paper suggests that, although the economic level is different, low-income countries and particularly developing countries can promote carbon abatement as well as the financial market by gradually changing from supply-side policy instruments to demand-side policies. This critical review provides a systematic understanding of various carbon emission policies in

  13. Algebraic Side-Channel Attack on Twofish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chujiao Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While algebraic side-channel attack (ASCA has been successful in breaking simple cryptographic algorithms, it has never been done on larger or more complex algorithms such as Twofish. Compared to other algorithms that ASCA has been used on, Twofish is more difficult to attack due to the key-dependent S-boxes as well as the complex key scheduling. In this paper, we propose the first algebraic side-channel attack on Twofish, and examine the importance of side-channel information in getting past the key-dependent S-boxes and the complex key scheduling. The cryptographic algorithm and side-channel information are both expressed as boolean equations and a SAT solver is used to recover the key. While algebraic attack by itself is not sufficient to break the algorithm, with the help of side-channel information such as Hamming weights, we are able to correctly solve for 96 bits of the 128 bits key in under 2 hours with known plaintext/ciphertext.

  14. Pharmacogenomic and clinical data link non-pharmacokinetic metabolic dysregulation to drug side effect pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Daniel C.; Filipp, F. V.; Bordbar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug side effects cause a significant clinical and economic burden. However, mechanisms of drug action underlying side effect pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate pharmacogenomic and clinical data with a human metabolic network and find that non-pharmacokinetic metabolic pathways...

  15. The two sides of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, S.R.

    2001-10-01

    Results are presented on in situ irradiation of silicon detector's at cryogenic temperature. The results show that irradiation at cryogenic temperatures does not detrimentally effect a silicon detectors performance when compared to its irradiation at room temperature. Operation of silicon devices at cryogenic temperatures offers the advantage of reducing radiation-induced leakage current to levels of a few pA, while at 130K the Lazarus Effect plays an important role i.e. minimum voltage required for full depletion. Performing voltage scans on a 'standard' silicon pad detector pre- and post annealing, the charge collection efficiency was found to be 60% at 200V and 95% at 200V respectively. Time dependence measurements are presented, showing that for a dose of 6.5x10 14 p/cm 2 (450GeV protons) the time dependence of the charge collection efficiency is negligible. However, for higher doses, 1.2x10 15 p/cm 2 , the charge collection efficiency drops from an initial measured value of 67% to a stable value of 58% over a period of 15 minutes for reversed biased diodes. An analysis of the 'double junction' effect is also presented. A comparison between the Transient Current Technique and an X-ray technique is presented. The double junction has been observed in p + /n/n + silicon detectors after irradiation beyond 'type inversion', corresponding to a fluence equivalent to ∼3x10 13 cm -2 1MeV neutrons, producing p + /p/n + and essentially two p-n junctions within one device. With increasing bias voltage, as the electric field is extending into the detector bulk from opposite sides of the silicon detector, there are two distinct depletion regions that collect charge signal independently. Summing the signal charge from the two regions, one is able to reconstruct the initial energy of the incident particle. From Transient Current measurements it is apparent that E-field manipulation is possible by excess carrier injection, enabling a high enough E-field to extend across the

  16. Dynamics of energy-related CO2 emissions in China during 1980-2002: the relative importance of energy supply-side and demand-side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libo Wu; Kaneko, Shinji; Matsuoka, Shunji

    2006-01-01

    Based on a newly developed model that integrates energy production, transformation and consumption processes, this paper compares the relative importance of some traditionally recognized factors operating on the energy demand side with a body of newly defined factors on the supply side, in terms of their contribution to trends in China's CO 2 emissions related to the total primary energy supply (C-TPES). Before 1996, changes in China's C-TPES were mainly driven by changes on the energy demand side. Factors operating on the energy supply side played trivial roles. During the period 1996-2000, however, increasing demand-side effects declined dramatically and at the same time decreasing effects from supply side expanded significantly. Such changes resulted directly in a decline in the C-TPES. The decreasing effects from international trade as well as statistical imbalances between supply and demand reinforced the declining trend. The shrinkage of demand side effects mainly arose from the slowdown of economic growth and speed of decrease in energy intensity. The expansion of supply-side effects was principally attributed to the speed of decrease in gross unit consumption in transformation sectors, especially in electricity sector. Therefore, the acceleration of efficiency improvements in end-use and transformation sectors accounted for the decline in the C-TPES over the period 1996-2000. (author)

  17. Side-by-side determination of workers' exposure to wood dust with IOM and open-faced samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavlović, Anka Ozana; Beljo Lučić, Ružica; Jug, Matija; Radmanović, Kristijan; Bešlić, Ivan

    2013-09-01

    Woodworkers' exposure to airborne particles is measured with different sampling techniques throughout the world. Due to a great number of exposure data obtained with different samplers, European countries have aimed over the last ten years to find a conversion factor for mass concentrations that would render these measurements comparable. Following the accepted EU standards and regulations, we replaced a 25 mm open-faced (OF) filter holder with an IOM head to determine woodworkers' exposure to inhalable dust and establish an IOM/OF sampler ratio that might serve as a reliable factor for converting the existing OF data to IOM dust mass concentration in the industrial environment. For this side-by-side sampling we used personal 25 mm OF (N=29) and IOM (N=29) sampling heads over eight working hours. The obtained IOM/OF ratios ranged between 0.7 and 2.3. However, mass concentrations obtained by IOM and OF samplers did not significantly differ. Our findings suggest that there is no need for conversion of the existing OF data for workers exposed to wood dust, provided that dust mass concentrations in the working environment range between 1 mg m-3 and 7 mg m-3. Future side-by-side measurements should also involve environments with low wood dust mass concentrations.

  18. DarkSide search for dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, T.; Alton, D.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Beltrame, P.; Benziger, J.; Bonfini, G.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Bussino, S.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Chidzik, S.; Cocco, A. G.; Condon, C.; D' Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Vincenzi, M. De; Haas, E. De; Derbin, A.; Pietro, G. Di; Dratchnev, I.; Durben, D.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Franco, D.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guo, C.; Guray, G.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al; Ianni, An; Joliet, C.; Kayunov, A.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kidner, S.; Klemmer, R.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Komor, M.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Li, P.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Love, C.; Ludhova, L.; Luitz, S.; Lukyanchenko, L.; Lund, A.; Lung, K.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I.; Mari, S.; Maricic, J.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meroni, E.; Meyers, P.; Mohayai, T.; Montanari, D.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Nelson, A.; Nemtzow, A.; Nurakhov, N.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Parsells, R.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Perfetto, F.; Pinsky, L.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Sands, W.; Seigar, M.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvarov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Thompson, J.; Tonazzo, A.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wang, H.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zehfus, M.; Zhong, W.; Zuzel, G.

    2013-11-22

    The DarkSide staged program utilizes a two-phase time projection chamber (TPC) with liquid argon as the target material for the scattering of dark matter particles. Efficient background reduction is achieved using low radioactivity underground argon as well as several experimental handles such as pulse shape, ratio of ionization over scintillation signal, 3D event reconstruction, and active neutron and muon vetos. The DarkSide-10 prototype detector has proven high scintillation light yield, which is a particularly important parameter as it sets the energy threshold for the pulse shape discrimination technique. The DarkSide-50 detector system, currently in commissioning phase at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory, will reach a sensitivity to dark matter spin-independent scattering cross section of 10-45 cm2 within 3 years of operation.

  19. Transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new transmit antenna selection scheme based on shadowing side information. In the proposed scheme, single transmit antenna which has the highest shadowing coefficient is selected. By the proposed technique, usage of the feedback channel and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We consider independent but not identically distributed Generalized-K composite fading model, which is a general composite fading & shadowing channel model for wireless environments. Exact closed-form outage probability, moment generating function and symbol error probability expressions are derived. In addition, theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Yilmaz, Ahmet Oǧuz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Kucur, Oǧuz

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new transmit antenna selection scheme based on shadowing side information. In the proposed scheme, single transmit antenna which has the highest shadowing coefficient is selected. By the proposed technique, usage of the feedback channel and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We consider independent but not identically distributed Generalized-K composite fading model, which is a general composite fading & shadowing channel model for wireless environments. Exact closed-form outage probability, moment generating function and symbol error probability expressions are derived. In addition, theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Uranium density reduction on fuel element side plates assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Ilka A.; Andrade, Delvonei A.; Domingos, Douglas B.; Umbehaun, Pedro E.

    2011-01-01

    During operation of IEA-R1 research reactor, located at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP, an abnormal oxidation on some fuel elements was noted. It was also verified, among the possible causes of the problem, that the most likely one was insufficient cooling of the elements in the core. One of the propositions to solve or minimize the problem is to reduce uranium density on fuel elements side plates. In this paper, the influence of this change on neutronic and thermal hydraulic parameters for IEA-R1 reactor is verified by simulations with the codes HAMMER and CITATION. Results are presented and discussed. (author)

  2. Uranium density reduction on fuel element side plates assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Ilka A. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, Delvonei A.; Domingos, Douglas B.; Umbehaun, Pedro E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    During operation of IEA-R1 research reactor, located at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP, an abnormal oxidation on some fuel elements was noted. It was also verified, among the possible causes of the problem, that the most likely one was insufficient cooling of the elements in the core. One of the propositions to solve or minimize the problem is to reduce uranium density on fuel elements side plates. In this paper, the influence of this change on neutronic and thermal hydraulic parameters for IEA-R1 reactor is verified by simulations with the codes HAMMER and CITATION. Results are presented and discussed. (author)

  3. Internet of Things, Challenges for Demand Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of any new product means also the apparition of new issues and challenges, and this is especially true when we talk about a mass adoption. The advent of Internet of Things (IoT devices will be, in the authors of this paper opinion, the largest and the fastest product adoption yet to be seen, as several early sources were predicting a volume of 50 billion IoT devices to be active by 2020 [1][2]. While later forecasts reduced the predicted amount to about 20-30 billion devices [3], even for such “reduced” number, demand side management issues are foreseeable, for the potential economic impact of IoT applications in 2025 will be between 3.9 and $11.1 trillion USD [4]. Not only that new patterns will emerge in energy consumption and Internet traffic, but we predict that the sheer amount of data produced by this quantity of IoT devices will give birth to a new sort of demand side management, the demand side management of IoT data. How will this work is yet to be seen but, at the current moment, one can at least identify the bits and pieces that will constitute it. This paper is intended to serve as short guide regarding the possible challenges raised by the adoption of IoT devices. The data types and structures, lifecycle and patterns will be briefly discussed throughout the following article.

  4. Enhancing Electromagnetic Side-Channel Analysis in an Operational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montminy, David P.

    Side-channel attacks exploit the unintentional emissions from cryptographic devices to determine the secret encryption key. This research identifies methods to make attacks demonstrated in an academic environment more operationally relevant. Algebraic cryptanalysis is used to reconcile redundant information extracted from side-channel attacks on the AES key schedule. A novel thresholding technique is used to select key byte guesses for a satisfiability solver resulting in a 97.5% success rate despite failing for 100% of attacks using standard methods. Two techniques are developed to compensate for differences in emissions from training and test devices dramatically improving the effectiveness of cross device template attacks. Mean and variance normalization improves same part number attack success rates from 65.1% to 100%, and increases the number of locations an attack can be performed by 226%. When normalization is combined with a novel technique to identify and filter signals in collected traces not related to the encryption operation, the number of traces required to perform a successful attack is reduced by 85.8% on average. Finally, software-defined radios are shown to be an effective low-cost method for collecting side-channel emissions in real-time, eliminating the need to modify or profile the target encryption device to gain precise timing information.

  5. Energy Refurbishment of an Office Building with Hybrid Photovoltaic System and Demand-Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Almeida Dávi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On-site photovoltaic (PV and battery systems intend to improve buildings energy performance, however battery costs and monetary incentives are a major drawback for the introduction of these technologies into the electricity grids. This paper proposes an energy refurbishment of an office building based on multi-objective simulations. An innovative demand-side management approach is analyzed through the PV and battery control with the purpose of reducing grid power peaks and grid imported energy, as well as improving the project economy. Optimization results of load matching and grid interaction parameters, complemented with an economic analysis, are investigated in different scenarios. By means of battery use, the equivalent use of the grid connection is reduced by 12%, enhancing the grid interaction potential, and 10% of load matching rates can be increased. Project improvements indicate the grid connection capacity can be reduced by 13% and significant savings of up to 48% are achieved on yearly bills. The economy demonstrates the grid parity is only achieved for battery costs below 100 €/kWh and the payback period is large: 28 years. In the case with only PV system, the grid parity achieves better outcomes and the payback time is reduced by a half, making this a more attractive option.

  6. Integrated planning in supply chains with buy-side and sell-side

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supply chain management; dynamic pricing; partner selection; supply chain planning; electronic marketplaces. Abstract. In this paper we develop a quadratic programming model for partner selection and planning in integrated supply chain networks embedded with both sell-side and buy-side electronic marketplaces.

  7. Computer-mediated communication as a channel for social resistance : The strategic side of SIDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, R; Lea, M; Corneliussen, RA; Postmes, T; Ter Haar, W

    2002-01-01

    In two studies, the authors tested predictions derived from the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) concerning the potential of computer-mediated communication (CMC) to serve as a means to resist powerful out-groups. Earlier research using the SIDE model indicates that the

  8. Classification of gap flow regimes in two side-by-side circular cylinders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Atkins, M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the flow around two circular cylinders arranged in a side-by-side configuration strongly depends on the transverse center-to-center gap spacing ratio (T/D) where D is the cylinder diameter. Based on the observed wake structure [13...

  9. Advection within side-by-side liquid micro-cylinders in a cross-flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qingming; Sau, Amalendu

    2017-11-01

    The gaseous SO2 entrainment from outer air stream and dispersion in binary and ternary liquid micro-cylinders appearing side-by-side are examined hereby. The separation/attachment regulated non-uniform interfacial momentum exchange creates main stream driven "primary" and shear reversed "secondary" vortices in the liquid cylinders. At separation points, the sense of rotation of the generated "primary-secondary" vortex pair remains inward directed. We define such a vortex pair as the "inflow" type. However, at stagnation or attachment points, the sense of rotation of a "primary-primary" or "secondary-secondary" vortex pair remains outward directed, and such a vortex pair is defined as the "outflow" type. For the coupled water cylinders facing an oncoming stream contaminated by gaseous SO2, its absorption and internal transport are effectively controlled by dominant "inflow" and "outflow" natured dynamics of the said vortex pairs, besides by diffusion. The evolving "inflow" natured "primary-secondary" vortex pairs at separation points actively entrain the outer SO2, whereas the "outflow" natured vortex-pairs oppose SO2 entry through the stagnation regions. Moreover, the blockage induced steady-symmetric, steady-deflected, and flip-flopping air-jets through gaps, for varied gap-ratio (1 ≤ G/R ≤ 4) and Reynolds number (30 ≤ Re ≤ 160), create distinctive impact both on quantitative SO2 absorption (mso2 ') and convective nature of the SO2 transport in upper, lower, and middle cylinders, by virtue of modified strength and size of the inflow and outflow paired vortices. The present study shows that the tiny "secondary vortices" play important roles in SO2 entrainment and in effectively controlling the local absorption rate Rs o2. The sudden acceleration and upward/downward deflection of gap-flows enhanced near-neck advective SO2 entrainment by suitably strengthening the "inflow" natured local vortex dynamics. Conversely, for the reduced size of secondary vortices

  10. Atenolol versus pindolol: side-effects in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, E C; Greminger, P; Siegenthaler, W; Vetter, H; Vetter, W

    1985-01-01

    This randomized crossover out-patient study was designed to compare the antihypertensive effects of atenolol and pindolol. After a wash-out period of two weeks in pretreated cases, 107 patients with essential hypertension were given either atenolol 100 mg once-daily or pindolol 20 mg slow release (SR) once-daily. Both atenolol and pindolol lowered blood pressure over the 24 week period. The diastolic blood pressure reduction was significantly greater (p less than 0.01) with atenolol than with pindolol. Before beta-blocker therapy, many patients had already experienced side-effects such as fatigue, sleep disturbances and dreams. This probably relates to the high sensitivity of the analogue scale used to assess side-effects, and to the high incidence of such symptoms in untreated patients. As the study progressed there was a reduction in the frequency of fatigue (p less than 0.03) and dreams (p less than 0.05) in both groups, whereas sleep disturbances significantly increased under pindolol (p less than 0.05) but decreased under atenolol (p less than 0.05). The only important side-effect difference between the two beta-blockers was the higher incidence of sleep disturbances with pindolol which may be due to the higher lipophilicity of this beta-blocker.

  11. Cochlear implantation for single-sided deafness and tinnitus suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Jourdan T; O'Connell, Brendan; Hedley-Williams, Andrea; Wanna, George

    To quantify the potential effectiveness of cochlear implantation for tinnitus suppression in patients with single-sided deafness using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory. The study included 12 patients with unilateral tinnitus who were undergoing cochlear implantation for single-sided deafness. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory was administered at the patient's cochlear implant candidacy evaluation appointment prior to implantation and every cochlear implant follow-up appointment, except activation, following implantation. Patient demographics and speech recognition scores were also retrospectively recorded using the electronic medical record. A significant reduction was found when comparing Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score preoperatively (61.2±27.5) to the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score after three months of cochlear implant use (24.6±28.2, p=0.004) and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score beyond 6months of CI use (13.3±18.9, p=0.008). Further, 45% of patients reported total tinnitus suppression. Mean CNC word recognition score improved from 2.9% (SD 9.4) pre-operatively to 40.8% (SD 31.7) by 6months post-activation, which was significantly improved from pre-operative scores (p=0.008). The present data is in agreement with previously published studies that have shown an improvement in tinnitus following cochlear implantation for the large majority of patients with single-sided deafness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Side-Specific Reward Memories in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariana; Menzel, Randolf; De Marco, Rodrigo J.

    2009-01-01

    We report a hitherto unknown form of side-specific learning in honeybees. We trained bees individually by coupling gustatory and mechanical stimulation of each antenna with either increasing or decreasing volumes of sucrose solution offered to the animal's proboscis along successive learning trials. Next, we examined their proboscis extension…

  13. Factors effecting paint performance on wood siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Hunt; R. Sam Williams; Mark Knaebe; Peter Sotos; Steven Lacher

    2009-01-01

    Several different studies are compared to assess the effectiveness of commercial water repellent preservatives (WRP’s) in the late 1990’s on vertical and horizontal siding. Besides WRP, variables included wood species, exposure location (Wisconsin or Mississippi), and solid color stain vs. primer + paint. Data on substrate checking and paint flaking are presented....

  14. Side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.S. van der; Lenders, J.W.M.; Thien, Th.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the experiences and complaints of patients who underwent 24 h blood pressure monitoring. METHODS: Two groups of hypertensive patients of a tertiary outpatient clinic were asked to fill in a nine-item questionnaire about the side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  15. Demand Side Management for Multiple Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    Steering a heterogeneous set of devices in a Smart Grid using cost functions: Demand Side Management (DSM) is an important element in smart grids. DSM is already in operation for large consumers, but thorough research is required into DSM on a building level within the distribution grid.

  16. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm, or...

  17. Hallucinatory Side Effects of ADHD Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trial and postmarketing surveillance data for drugs used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed to determine the frequency of hallucinations and other psychotic side effects, in a study at the US Food and Drug Administration, and Department of Health and Human Services, Maryland.

  18. Solar cell with back side contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  19. Demand side management using profile steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Toersche, Hermen; Hoogsteen, Gerwin; van der Klauw, Thijs; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2015-01-01

    Many Demand Side Management (DSM) approaches use energy prices as steering signals. This paper shows that such steering signals may result in power quality problems and high losses. As an alternative, this paper proposes to use desired (e.g., flat) power profiles as steering signals and presents an

  20. Beware the left-sided gallbladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An abdominal ultrasound scan showed multiple stones in the gallbladder with no evidence of acute cholecystitis and a common bile duct (CBD) diameter of 4 mm. Owing to the atypical nature of her pain, a computed tomography (CT) scan was requested which showed a left-sided gallbladder containing gallstones (Fig. 1).

  1. Price discrimination in two-sided markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of a price discrimination strategy is an important tool in competition. It can hurt firms and benefit consumers in a one-sided market. However, in two-sided markets, its primary goal is to attract more agents or increase profits. Here, the performance of a second-degree price discrimination strategy in the context of duopoly two-sided platforms is analysed. Two exogenous variables, which include the discount rate and the price discrimination threshold, are used in order to examine whether the price discrimination strategy could help two-sided platforms achieve their objective, which is to maximise their market value. Three cases are considered, and we demonstrate that the price discrimination strategy cannot attract more agents and at the same time increase the profits; a lower price discrimination threshold cannot ensure larger markets shares; a higher discount rate is detrimental to the profit of a platform. However, this is good for its market shares. Moreover, discriminative pricing increases the competition.

  2. The People Side of Performance Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Richard F.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses 11 keys to the personal side of performance improvement, including positive attitude, high self esteem and positive self-image, communication skills, lifelong learning, caring about other people, health and well-being, motivation, goal setting, relaxation, visualization, and personal value system. (LRW)

  3. Struck by a lance through his side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Boldsen, Jesper Lier

    2010-01-01

    The Danish King Canute the Saint was killed in St Alban church in Odense July 1086. According to a legend the king was kneeling in prayers when a lance thrust to his side killed him. Our re-examination of the skeleton presumed to belong to Canute showed a slimly build man with an approximate stat...

  4. Left-sided portal hypertension revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manenti

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In every case of left-sided portal hypertension, upper digestive endoscopy and close follow-up are recommended. Besides, computed tomography can demonstrate particular conditions directly favoring gastroesophageal varices, and aid in selection of the appropriate therapeutic decisions. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(4.000: 211-215

  5. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bladder cancer Types of Sexual Side Effects For women, the most common sexual side effects include: Loss ...

  6. Side Chain Engineering in Solution-Processable Conjugated Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jianguo; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    Side chains in conjugated polymers have been primarily utilized as solubilizing groups. However, these side chains have roles that are far beyond. We advocate using side chain engineering to tune a polymer's physical properties, including absorption

  7. An Overview of Demand Side Management Control Schemes for Buildings in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing share of distributed energy resources and renewable energy in power systems results in a highly variable and less controllable energy production. Therefore, in order to ensure stability and to reduce the infrastructure and operation cost of the power grid, flexible and controllable...... of the power sector in mind and thus can differ significantly in their architecture, their integration into the various markets, their integration into distribution network operation and several other aspects. This paper proposes a classification of load control policies for demand side management in smart...... buildings, based on external behavior: direct, indirect, transactional and autonomous control; internal operation: decision support system scope, control strategy, failure handling and architecture. This classification assists in providing an overview of the control schemes as well as different ways...

  8. Thyroid side effects prophylaxis in front of nuclear power plant accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopiantz, Mikaël; Elhanbali, Ouifak; Demore, Béatrice; Cuny, Thomas; Demarquet, Léa; Ndiaye, Cumba; Barbe, Françoise; Brunaud, Laurent; Weryha, Georges; Klein, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The better knowledge of the mechanisms of nuclear incidents and lessons learned from accidents in the recent past to improve the effectiveness of measures taken following a nuclear accident exposure to fallout of radioactive iodine isotopes. Thus, immediate, passive measures, such as containment, and stopping consumption of contaminated products are paramount. The earliest possible administration of stable iodine as potassium iodide (KI) reduces significantly (up to 90% if taken at the same time of the accident) thyroid radioactive contamination. These tablets should be given in priority to children and pregnant women. The side effects are minor. KI is not recommended for persons aged over 60 years, or for adults suffering from cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Irrigation with isoproterenol diminishes increases in pelvic pressure without side-effects during ureterorenoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, H U; Jakobsen, J S; Mortensen, J

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Recently, we showed that endoluminally administered isoproterenol (ISO) inhibits muscle function of the pyeloureter in swine. This may be of value in managing increases in pelvic pressure during upper urinary tract endoscopy. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect...... groups: p=0.425 and p=0.166, respectively. Conclusions. ISO (0.1 microg/ml) added to irrigation fluid significantly reduces the increase in pelvic pressure during ureterorenoscopy in pigs, without concomitant side-effects....... of endoluminally administered ISO on increases in pelvic pressure and cardiovascular function during flexible ureterorenoscopy. Material and methods. The study was performed in anaesthetized female pigs. In terms of endoscopic procedures, the pigs were randomized as follows: Group 1, irrigation with 0.1 microg...

  10. Objective assessment of actual chewing side by measurement of bilateral masseter muscle electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yo; Kuwatsuru, Rika; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Oki, Kyosuke; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the validity of objective assessment of actual chewing side by measurement of electromyographic (EMG) activity of the bilateral masseter muscles upon chewing test foods. The sample consisted of 19 healthy, dentate individuals. The subjects were asked to chew three types of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky, and chewing gum) for 10 strokes on the right side and then on the left side, and instructed to perform maximum voluntary clenching for 3s, three times. EMG activity from the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The data were collected in three different days. The root mean square EMG amplitude obtained from the maximum clenching task was used as the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Then, the level of amplitude against the MVC (%MVC) was calculated for the right and left sides on each stroke. The side with the larger %MVC value was judged as the chewing side, and the concordance rates (CRs) for the instructed chewing side (ICS) and the judged chewing side (JCS) were calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of the CRs were calculated to evaluate the reproducibility of the method. High CRs between the ICS and JCS for each test food were recognized. There were significant ICCs for beef jerky (R=0.761, Pchewing gum (R=0.785, Pchewing side during mastication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High efficiency double sided solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddik, M.M.

    1990-06-01

    Silicon technology state of the art for single crystalline was given to be limited to less than 20% efficiency. A proposed new form of photovoltaic solar cell of high current high efficiency with double sided structures has been given. The new forms could be n ++ pn ++ or p ++ np ++ double side junctions. The idea of double sided devices could be understood as two solar cells connected back-to-back in parallel electrical connection, in which the current is doubled if the cell is illuminated from both sides by a V-shaped reflector. The cell is mounted to the reflector such that each face is inclined at an angle of 45 deg. C to each side of the reflector. The advantages of the new structure are: a) High power devices. b) Easy to fabricate. c) The cells are used vertically instead of horizontal use of regular solar cell which require large area to install. This is very important in power stations and especially for satellite installation. If the proposal is made real and proved to be experimentally feasible, it would be a new era for photovoltaic solar cells since the proposal has already been extended to even higher currents. The suggested structures could be stated as: n ++ pn ++ Vp ++ np ++ ;n ++ pn ++ Vn ++ pn ++ ORp ++ np ++ Vp ++ np ++ . These types of structures are formed in wedged shape to employ indirect illumination by either parabolic; conic or V-shaped reflectors. The advantages of these new forms are low cost; high power; less in size and space; self concentrating; ... etc. These proposals if it happens to find their ways to be achieved experimentally, I think they will offer a short path to commercial market and would have an incredible impact on solar cell technology and applications. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  12. Transient Three-Dimensional Side Load Analysis of a Film Cooled Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Guidos, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Transient three-dimensional numerical investigations on the side load physics for an engine encompassing a film cooled nozzle extension and a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber, were performed. The objectives of this study are to identify the three-dimensional side load physics and to compute the associated aerodynamic side load using an anchored computational methodology. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a transient inlet history based on an engine system simulation. Ultimately, the computational results will be provided to the nozzle designers for estimating of effect of the peak side load on the nozzle structure. Computations simulating engine startup at ambient pressures corresponding to sea level and three high altitudes were performed. In addition, computations for both engine startup and shutdown transients were also performed for a stub nozzle, operating at sea level. For engine with the full nozzle extension, computational result shows starting up at sea level, the peak side load occurs when the lambda shock steps into the turbine exhaust flow, while the side load caused by the transition from free-shock separation to restricted-shock separation comes at second; and the side loads decreasing rapidly and progressively as the ambient pressure decreases. For the stub nozzle operating at sea level, the computed side loads during both startup and shutdown becomes very small due to the much reduced flow area.

  13. Single Side Electrolytic In-Process Dressing (ELID) Grinding with Lapping Kinematics of Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshaim, Ahmed Bakr

    The demand for Silicon Carbide ceramics (SiC) has increased significantly in the last decade due to its reliable physical and chemical properties. The silicon carbide is widely used for aerospace segments in addition to many uses in the industry. Sometimes, a single side grinding is preferable than conventional grinding, for it has the ability to produce flat ceramics. However, the manufacturing cost is still high because of the high tool wear and long machining time. Part of the solution is to use electrolytic in process dressing (ELID) to reduce the processing time. The study on ELID single side grinding of ceramics has never been attempted before. The study involves four variables with three levels each. One of the variables, which is the eccentricity, is being investigated for the first time on ceramics. A full factorial design, for both the surface roughness and material removal rate, guides to calculate mathematical models that can predict future results. Three grinding wheel mesh sizes are used. An investigation of the influence of different grain size on the results can then be evaluated. The kinematics of the process was studied based on eccentricity in order to optimize the pattern of the diamond grains. The experiment is performed with the assist of the proposed specialized ELID fluid, TRIM C270E.

  14. A Simulation of Rainwater Harvesting Design and Demand-Side Controls for Large Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence V. Fulton

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Inpatient health buildings in the United States are the most intensive users of water among large commercial buildings. Large facilities (greater than 1 million square feet consume an average of 90 million gallons per building per year. The distribution and treatment of water imposes a significant electrical power demand, which may be the single largest energy requirement for various states. Supply and demand-side solutions are needed, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions where water is scarce. This study uses continuous simulations based on 71 years of historical data to estimate how rainwater harvesting systems and demand-side interventions (e.g., low-flow devices, xeriscaping would offset the demand for externally-provided water sources in a semi-arid region. Simulations from time series models are used to generate alternative rainfall models to account for potential non-stationarity and volatility. Results demonstrate that hospital external water consumption might be reduced by approximately 25% using conservative assumptions and depending on the design of experiment parameters associated with rainfall capture area, building size, holding tank specifications, and conservation efforts.

  15. Risperidone-Induced Renal Damage and Metabolic Side Effects: The Protective Effect of Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Bilgiç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible protective qualities of resveratrol (RSV against the side effects of risperidone (RIS in an experimental model in rat kidneys with histologic and biochemical assessments. Materials and Methods. Experimental procedures were performed on 35 female Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, untreated rats (n=7 were in group 1; group 2 was given 2 mg/kg/day RIS (n=7; group 3 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 20 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7; group 4 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 40 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7; and group 5 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 80 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7. All treatments were administered for two weeks by gavage. On treatment day 15, kidney tissues were removed for analysis. Results. The results showed that RSV treatment reduced weight gain induced by RIS. In addition, RSV increased the total antioxidant status (TAS and decreased serum creatinine (Cr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, oxidative stress index (OSI, and total oxidant status (TOS levels significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion. This study revealed that treatment with RSV might protect kidney tissues against the side effects of RIS. RSV could be an effective course of therapy to enhance therapeutic efficacy.

  16. X-RAYING THE DARK SIDE OF VENUS—SCATTER FROM VENUS’ MAGNETOTAIL?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshari, M.; Peres, G.; Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Jibben, P. R.; Weber, M.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze significant X-ray, EUV, and UV emission coming from the dark side of Venus observed with Hinode /XRT and Solar Dynamics Observatory /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly ( SDO /AIA) during a transit across the solar disk that occurred in 2012. As a check we have analyzed an analogous Mercury transit that occurred in 2006. We have used the latest version of the Hinode /XRT point spread function to deconvolve Venus and Mercury X-ray images, to remove instrumental scattering. After deconvolution, the flux from Venus’ shadow remains significant while that of Mercury becomes negligible. Since stray light contamination affects the XRT Ti-poly filter data we use, we performed the same analysis with XRT Al-mesh filter data, not affected by the light leak. Even the latter data show residual flux. We have also found significant EUV (304 Å, 193 Å, 335 Å) and UV (1700 Å) flux in Venus’ shadow, measured with SDO /AIA. The EUV emission from Venus’ dark side is reduced, but still significant, when deconvolution is applied. The light curves of the average flux of the shadow in the X-ray, EUV, and UV bands appear different as Venus crosses the solar disk, but in any of them the flux is, at any time, approximately proportional to the average flux in a ring surrounding Venus, and therefore proportional to that of the solar regions around Venus’ obscuring disk line of sight. The proportionality factor depends on the band. This phenomenon has no clear origin; we suggest that it may be due to scatter occurring in the very long magnetotail of Venus.

  17.  X-RAYING THE DARK SIDE OF VENUS—SCATTER FROM VENUS’ MAGNETOTAIL?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshari, M.; Peres, G.; Petralia, A.; Reale, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 (Italy); Jibben, P. R.; Weber, M., E-mail: peres@astropa.unipa.it [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    We analyze significant X-ray, EUV, and UV emission coming from the dark side of Venus observed with Hinode /XRT and Solar Dynamics Observatory /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly ( SDO /AIA) during a transit across the solar disk that occurred in 2012. As a check we have analyzed an analogous Mercury transit that occurred in 2006. We have used the latest version of the Hinode /XRT point spread function to deconvolve Venus and Mercury X-ray images, to remove instrumental scattering. After deconvolution, the flux from Venus’ shadow remains significant while that of Mercury becomes negligible. Since stray light contamination affects the XRT Ti-poly filter data we use, we performed the same analysis with XRT Al-mesh filter data, not affected by the light leak. Even the latter data show residual flux. We have also found significant EUV (304 Å, 193 Å, 335 Å) and UV (1700 Å) flux in Venus’ shadow, measured with SDO /AIA. The EUV emission from Venus’ dark side is reduced, but still significant, when deconvolution is applied. The light curves of the average flux of the shadow in the X-ray, EUV, and UV bands appear different as Venus crosses the solar disk, but in any of them the flux is, at any time, approximately proportional to the average flux in a ring surrounding Venus, and therefore proportional to that of the solar regions around Venus’ obscuring disk line of sight. The proportionality factor depends on the band. This phenomenon has no clear origin; we suggest that it may be due to scatter occurring in the very long magnetotail of Venus.

  18. Shore Side Electricity in Europe: Potential and environmental benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, R.; Weddige, U.; Johnsen, D.; Hoen, V.; Papaefthimiou, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of reducing emissions from the transport sector, the EU Commission envisions a strong modal shift to energy efficient modes including maritime shipping and inland shipping, as an alternative for road transport. In view of the expected growth of the sector, the emissions from waterborne transport are a key concern. When at berth, ships typically use their auxiliary engines to generate electrical power for communications, lighting, ventilation and other on-board equipment. The extended use of vessels’ auxiliary engines augments greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution in the adjacent ports, which are typically located in or near densely populated areas, thus leading to dangerous health and environmental effects. Shore Side Electricity (SSE) is an option for reducing the unwanted environmental impacts of ships at berth, i.e. GHG emissions, other air pollutants (NO_x, SO_x, PM) and noise of ships using their auxiliary engines. This paper quantifies the economic and environmental potential for SSE in Europe, through detailed estimation of in-port ships’ emissions and relevant energy demand, providing an insight of the expected barriers for implementation and formulating recommendations on policy actions that could accelerate the implementation of SSE in European harbors. - Highlights: • We model Shore Side Electricity (SSE) options for ports in the European region. • The economic and environmental potential for SSE in Europe is quantified. • The expected barriers for wide implementation of SSE are depicted. • We recommend policy actions that could accelerate SSE implementation.

  19. Server-side Statistics Scripting in PHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan de Leeuw

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available On the UCLA Statistics WWW server there are a large number of demos and calculators that can be used in statistics teaching and research. Some of these demos require substantial amounts of computation, others mainly use graphics. These calculators and demos are implemented in various different ways, reflecting developments in WWW based computing. As usual, one of the main choices is between doing the work on the client-side (i.e. in the browser or on the server-side (i.e. on our WWW server. Obviously, client-side computation puts fewer demands on the server. On the other hand, it requires that the client downloads Java applets, or installs plugins and/or helpers. If JavaScript is used, client-side computations will generally be slow. We also have to assume that the client is installed properly, and has the required capabilities. Requiring too much on the client-side has caused browsing machines such as Netscape Communicator to grow beyond all reasonable bounds, both in size and RAM requirements. Moreover requiring Java and JavaScript rules out such excellent browsers as Lynx or Emacs W3. For server-side computing, we can configure the server and its resources ourselves, and we need not worry about browser capabilities and configuration. Nothing needs to be downloaded, except the usual HTML pages and graphics. In the same way as on the client side, there is a scripting solution, where code is interpreted, or a ob ject-code solution using compiled code. For the server-side scripting, we use embedded languages, such as PHP/FI. The scripts in the HTML pages are interpreted by a CGI program, and the output of the CGI program is send to the clients. Of course the CGI program is compiled, but the statistics procedures will usually be interpreted, because PHP/FI does not have the appropriate functions in its scripting language. This will tend to be slow, because embedded languages do not deal efficiently with loops and similar constructs. Thus a first

  20. Similar Outcome After Colonic Pouch and Side-to-End Anastomosis in Low Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mikael; Nygren, Jonas; Goldman, Sven; Ljungqvist, Olle

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To compare a colonic J-pouch or a side-to-end anastomosis after low-anterior resection for rectal cancer with regard to functional and surgical outcome. Summary Background Data: A complication after restorative rectal surgery with a straight anastomosis is low- anterior resection syndrome with a postoperatively deteriorated anorectal function. The colonic J-reservoir is sometimes used with the purpose of reducing these symptoms. An alternative method is to use a simple side-to-end anastomosis. Methods: One-hundred patients with rectal cancer undergoing total mesorectal excision and colo-anal anastomosis were randomized to receive either a colonic pouch or a side-to-end anastomosis using the descending colon. Surgical results and complications were recorded. Patients were followed with a functional evaluation at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Results: Fifty patients were randomized to each group. Patient characteristics in both groups were very similar regarding age, gender, tumor level, and Dukes’ stages. A large proportion of the patients received short-term preoperative radiotherapy (78%). There was no significant difference in surgical outcome between the 2 techniques with respect to anastomotic height (4 cm), perioperative blood loss (500 ml), hospital stay (11 days), postoperative complications, reoperations or pelvic sepsis rates. Comparing functional results in the 2 study groups, only the ability to evacuate the bowel in <15 minutes at 6 months reached a significant difference in favor of the pouch procedure. Conclusions: The data from this study show that either a colonic J-pouch or a side-to-end anastomosis performed on the descending colon in low-anterior resection with total mesorectal excision are methods that can be used with similar expected functional and surgical results. PMID:12894014

  1. Side effects of external tooth bleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruzell, E.M.; Pallesen, Ulla; Thoresen, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study was performed to assess the risk of at-home and in-office bleaching procedures, and to recognise potential predictors for side effects. Design Multi-centre, questionnaire-based prospective study with follow-ups at around 14 days and around one year post-treatment. Setting...... General practices and university clinics during the years 2007‑2009 in Scandinavia. Subjects Patients with tooth bleaching as part of the treatment plan. Results The prevalence of experienced tooth sensitivity at first follow-up was independent of bleaching procedure (at-home = 50.3% [n = 143]; in...... attributed to the bleaching treatment in the at-home and in-office groups, respectively. Predictors for side effects were tooth sensitivity, surface loss and gingivitis when observed at inclusion. Treatment-related predictors were bleaching concentration and contact between tray and gingiva. Conclusions...

  2. 'Right-Sided' May-Thurner Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, Georges; Midulla, Marco; Lions, Christophe; El Ngheoui, Ziad; Gengler, Laurent; Martinelli, Thomas; Beregi, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    The May-Thurner syndrome is a well-known anatomical anomaly where the left common iliac vein (LCIV) is compressed between the right common iliac artery and the fifth vertebral body. This report describes the case of a 'right-sided' May-Thurner syndrome where the right common iliac vein (RCIV) is compressed by the left common iliac artery in a patient with a left-sided inferior vena cava (IVC). A 26-year-old woman was admitted to our institution with acute edema of the right lower limb. The diagnosis of May-Thurner syndrome was done by CT scan and confirmed by phlebography. An endovascular treatment with stenting was carried out, with good patency and clinical result at 12-month follow-up.

  3. Side Chain Cyclized Aromatic Amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van der Poorten, Olivier; Knuhtsen, Astrid; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the conformation of flexible peptides is a proven strategy to increase potency, selectivity, and metabolic stability. The focus has mostly been on constraining the backbone dihedral angles; however, the correct orientation of the amino acid side chains (χ-space) that constitute...... the peptide pharmacophore is equally important. Control of χ-space utilizes conformationally constrained amino acids that favor, disfavor, or exclude the gauche (-), the gauche (+), or the trans conformation. In this review we focus on cyclic aromatic amino acids in which the side chain is connected...... to the peptide backbone to provide control of χ(1)- and χ(2)-space. The manifold applications for cyclized analogues of the aromatic amino acids Phe, Tyr, Trp, and His within peptide medicinal chemistry are showcased herein with examples of enzyme inhibitors and ligands for G protein-coupled receptors....

  4. Water side corrosion prevention in boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeid, A.

    1993-01-01

    Corrosion may be defined as a naturally occurring physical and chemical deterioration of a material due to reaction with the environment or surrounding atmosphere. In boilers the material is subjected on both sides to two different media which may cause severe corrosion. At the water side the content of O 2 considered one of the principal factors which determine the extent of corrosion in the boiler tubes. This paper deals with certain conditions that result in the increase of O 2 in the boiler water and hence increase the corrosion rate, to minimize the effect of these conditions a chemical treatment was carried out the results obtained indicated the success of the treatment procedure in corrosion prevention and boiler material protection. The treatment is traditional. But the study indicates how a simple mean could be applied to solve a serious problem. 4 tab

  5. Double-sided microtron at Nihon University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Hayakawa, K.; Yatoh, H.; Yoshida, K.; Takeda, O.; Sato, K.; Torizuka, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Construction of a 35 MeV cw double-sided microtron (DSM) at Nihon University was started in 1984 and completed in the spring of 1989. This machine was constructed as a proto-type of an 1 GeV cw double sided microtron for a medical pion facility and test accelerator for FEL and other applications. The 4.55 MeV electron beam from 5 MeV injector linac is injected to the DSM. The energy gain is 6 MeV at each turn acceleration. After recirculated 5 times, the electron beam with 34.5 MeV is extracted at the final short straight section. The DAW structure is used for all the accelerating tubes including the injector linac. Total rf power of 200 kW is provided by four 50 kW klystrons of 2450 MHz. (author)

  6. Highly conductive side chain block copolymer anion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhu; Hickner, Michael A

    2016-06-28

    Block copolymers based on poly(styrene) having pendent trimethyl styrenylbutyl ammonium (with four carbon ring-ionic group alkyl linkers) or benzyltrimethyl ammonium groups with a methylene bridge between the ring and ionic group were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation radical (RAFT) polymerization as anion exchange membranes (AEMs). The C4 side chain polymer showed a 17% increase in Cl(-) conductivity of 33.7 mS cm(-1) compared to the benzyltrimethyl ammonium sample (28.9 mS cm(-1)) under the same conditions (IEC = 3.20 meq. g(-1), hydration number, λ = ∼7.0, cast from DMF/1-propanol (v/v = 3 : 1), relative humidity = 95%). As confirmed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the side chain block copolymers with tethered ammonium cations showed well-defined lamellar morphologies and a significant reduction in interdomain spacing compared to benzyltrimethyl ammonium containing block copolymers. The chemical stabilities of the block copolymers were evaluated under severe, accelerated conditions, and degradation was observed by (1)H NMR. The block copolymer with C4 side chain trimethyl styrenylbutyl ammonium motifs displayed slightly improved stability compared to that of a benzyltrimethyl ammonium-based AEM at 80 °C in 1 M NaOD aqueous solution for 30 days.

  7. Hybrid Client Side Phishing Websites Detection Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Firdous Kausar; Bushra Al-Otaibi; Asma Al-Qadi; Nwayer Al-Dossari

    2014-01-01

    Phishing tricks to steal personal or credential information by entering victims into a forged website similar to the original site, and urging them to enter their information believing that this site is legitimate. The number of internet users who are becoming victims of phishing attacks is increasing beside that phishing attacks have become more sophisticated. In this paper we propose a client-side solution to protect against phishing attacks which is a Firefox extension integrated as a tool...

  8. A disappearing left-sided neck mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2012-07-04

    The patient was a 48-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with complaints of a left-sided painful neck mass, which changed in size relative to ingestion of meals. He denied voice change, fever, chills, weight loss, dysphagia and hoarseness. Physical examination was unremarkable. CT scan demonstrated a 3.9 mm calculus of the submandibular gland duct. Therapeutic sialendocopy was successfully performed.

  9. Side effects of creatine supplementation in athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Francaux, Marc; Poortmans, Jacques R

    2006-01-01

    Context: Allegations about side effects of creatine supplementation by athletes have been published in the popular media and scientific publications. Purpose: To examine the experimental evidence relating to the physiological effects of creatine supplementation. Results: One of the purported effects of oral creatine supplementation is increased muscle mass. A review of the literature reveals a 1.0% to 2.3% increase in body mass, which is attributed to fat-free mass and, more specifically, to ...

  10. Photon side-bands in mesoscopics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews several applications of photonic side bands, used by Buttiker and Landauer (Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1739 (1982)) in their theory of traversal time in tunneling, in transport and optics of mesoscopic systems. Topics include generalizations of the transmission theory of transport...... to time-dependent situations, optics and transport of mesoscopic systems in THz electromagnetic fields, and phase-measurements of photon-assisted tunneling through a quantum dot. (C) 1998 Academic Press Limited....

  11. Examining the dark side of competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article examines the effect that increased competition among electric power suppliers will have on overall service to the customer and to profits. Some topics discussed are the coexistence of competition and cooperation, electric utility profits at risk and the dark side of competition - business failures. The author feels there is a basic conflict between some of the features of the competitive market model and the obligation to serve

  12. Integrated double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perevertailo V. L.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of design, technology and manufacturing double-sided silicon microstrip detectors using standard equipment production line in mass production of silicon integrated circuits are considered. The design of prototype high-energy particles detector for experiment ALICE (CERN is presented. The parameters of fabricated detectors are comparable with those of similar foreign detectors, but they are distinguished by lesser cost.

  13. Client-side Skype forensics: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Tina; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.

  14. Side abutment pressure distribution by field measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian-guo Wang; Yang Song; Xing-hua He; Jian Zhang [State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, Xuzhou (China)

    2008-12-15

    Given the 7123 working face in the Qidong Coal Mine of the Wanbei Mining Group, nine dynamic roof monitors were installed in the crossheading to measure the amount and velocity of roof convergence in different positions and at different times and three steel bored stress sensors were installed in the return airway to measure rock stress at depth. On the basis of this arrangement, the rule of change of the distribution of the side abutment pressure with the advance of the working face and movement of overlying strata was studied. The rule of change and the stability of rock stress at depth were measured. Secondly, the affected area and stability time of the side abutment pressure were also studied. The results show that: 1) During working, the face advanced distance was from 157 m to 99 m, the process was not effected by mining induced pressure. When the distance was 82 m, the position of peak stress was 5 m away from the coal wall. When the distance was 37 m, the position of peak stress away from the coal wall was about 15 m to 20 m and finally reached a steady state; 2) the time and the range of the peak of side rock pressure obtained from stress sensors were consistent with the results from the dynamic roof monitors; 3) the position of the peak pressure was 25 m away from the coal wall. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Demand Side Management: An approach to peak load smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prachi

    A preliminary national-level analysis was conducted to determine whether Demand Side Management (DSM) programs introduced by electric utilities since 1992 have made any progress towards their stated goal of reducing peak load demand. Estimates implied that DSM has a very small effect on peak load reduction and there is substantial regional and end-user variability. A limited scholarly literature on DSM also provides evidence in support of a positive effect of demand response programs. Yet, none of these studies examine the question of how DSM affects peak load at the micro-level by influencing end-users' response to prices. After nearly three decades of experience with DSM, controversy remains over how effective these programs have been. This dissertation considers regional analyses that explore both demand-side solutions and supply-side interventions. On the demand side, models are estimated to provide in-depth evidence of end-user consumption patterns for each North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) region, helping to identify sectors in regions that have made a substantial contribution to peak load reduction. The empirical evidence supports the initial hypothesis that there is substantial regional and end-user variability of reductions in peak demand. These results are quite robust in rapidly-urbanizing regions, where air conditioning and lighting load is substantially higher, and regions where the summer peak is more pronounced than the winter peak. It is also evident from the regional experiences that active government involvement, as shaped by state regulations in the last few years, has been successful in promoting DSM programs, and perhaps for the same reason we witness an uptick in peak load reductions in the years 2008 and 2009. On the supply side, we estimate the effectiveness of DSM programs by analyzing the growth of capacity margin with the introduction of DSM programs. The results indicate that DSM has been successful in offsetting the

  16. Both sides retaliate in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haushofer, Johannes; Biletzki, Anat; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Ending violent international conflicts requires understanding the causal factors that perpetuate them. In the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Israelis and Palestinians each tend to see themselves as victims, engaging in violence only in response to attacks initiated by a fundamentally and implacably violent foe bent on their destruction. Econometric techniques allow us to empirically test the degree to which violence on each side occurs in response to aggression by the other side. Prior studies using these methods have argued that Israel reacts strongly to attacks by Palestinians, whereas Palestinian violence is random (i.e., not predicted by prior Israeli attacks). Here we replicate prior findings that Israeli killings of Palestinians increase after Palestinian killings of Israelis, but crucially show further that when nonlethal forms of violence are considered, and when a larger dataset is used, Palestinian violence also reveals a pattern of retaliation: (i) the firing of Palestinian rockets increases sharply after Israelis kill Palestinians, and (ii) the probability (although not the number) of killings of Israelis by Palestinians increases after killings of Palestinians by Israel. These findings suggest that Israeli military actions against Palestinians lead to escalation rather than incapacitation. Further, they refute the view that Palestinians are uncontingently violent, showing instead that a significant proportion of Palestinian violence occurs in response to Israeli behavior. Well-established cognitive biases may lead participants on each side of the conflict to underappreciate the degree to which the other side's violence is retaliatory, and hence to systematically underestimate their own role in perpetuating the conflict. PMID:20921415

  17. Surgical management of colonic diverticular disease: discrepancy between right- and left-sided diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heung-Kwon; Han, Eon Chul; Ha, Heon-Kyun; Choe, Eun Kyung; Moon, Sang Hui; Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo

    2014-08-07

    To compare the outcome of the surgical management of left-sided and right-sided diverticular disease. The medical records of 77 patients who were surgically treated for diverticular disease between 1999 and 2010 in a tertiary referral hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The study population was limited to cases wherein the surgical specimen was confirmed as diverticulosis by pathology. Right-sided diverticula were classified as those arising from the cecum, ascending colon, and transverse colon, and those from the descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum were classified as left-sided diverticulosis. To assess the changing trend of occurrence of diverticulosis, data were compared with two previous studies of 51 patients. The proportion of left-sided disease cases was significantly increased compared to the results of our previous studies in 1994 and 2001, (27.5% vs 48.1%, P disease. However, patients with right-sided disease were significantly younger (50.9 year vs 64.0 year, P disease was significantly associated with a higher incidence of complicated diverticulitis (89.2% vs 57.5%, P diverticular disease, the incidence of left-sided disease in Korea has increased since 2001 and is associated with worse surgical outcomes.

  18. Impact of balancing-side tooth contact on clenching induced mandibular displacements in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K; Yugami, K; Yaka, T; Ai, M

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated mandibular displacements during clenching in the lateral mandibular position in relation to lateral occlusal relationships. Twelve healthy human subjects (mean=26.7 years) volunteered for this study. Acrylic occlusal devices were fabricated for the lower working-side canine, working-side second molar and balancing-side second molar in order to simulate a dominant canine guidance, working-side interference (WI), balancing-side interference (BI) and bilateral balanced occlusion (BO). Vertical displacements of the mandible were recorded by linear variable differential transformers during submaximal clenching in the right lateral position. The four experimental occlusal conditions were revealed to have a significant effect on mandibular displacement patterns (ANOVA, P experimental conditions. These results suggest that the nature of reaction forces at the temporomandibular (TM) joints caused by the elevation of the mandible varies in a predictable manner depending upon lateral occlusal relationships.

  19. Numerical study of two side-by-side cylinders with unequal diameters at low Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y Y; Wang, X K; Tan, S K

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional laminar flow about two side-by-side unequal cylinders with different diameter ratios d/D and centre-to-centre spacing ratios T/D at Re=300 (based on the larger cylinder diameter) was simulated using a CFD software. Comparisons of experimental and numerical results were made to elucidate the degree of interference due to d/D and T/D and their effects on the flow patterns and vortex shedding frequencies. The findings showed that the flow patterns behind two unequal cylinders were distinctly different from that behind two equal side-by-side cylinders, with distinct in-phase and anti-phase vortex shedding, and random switching of modes of vortex shedding.

  20. Functionally Graded Ceramics Fabricated with Side-by-Side Tape Casting for Use in Magnetic Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina; Bahl, Christian; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm

    2015-01-01

    Functionally graded ceramic tapes have been fabricated by a side-by-side tape casting technique. This study shows the possibility and describes the main principles of adjacent coflow of slurries resulting in formation of thin plates of graded ceramic material. Results showed that the small...... variations of solvent and binder system concentrations have a substantial effect on slurry viscosity. Varying these parameters showed that side-by-side tape casting with a well-defined interface area is possible for slurries with viscosities above 3500 mPa s at a casting shear rate of 3.3 s -1...... of developing this graded ceramic tape casting was applications of these specific magnetocaloric properties within the magnetic refrigeration technology....

  1. Assessment of utility side financial benefits of demand side management considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeygunawardane, Saranga Kumudu

    2018-02-01

    Any electrical utility prefers to implement demand side management and change the shape of the demand curve in a beneficial manner. This paper aims to assess the financial gains (or losses) to the generating sector through the implementation of demand side management programs. An optimization algorithm is developed to find the optimal generation mix that minimizes the daily total generating cost. This daily total generating cost includes the daily generating cost as well as the environmental damage cost. The proposed optimization algorithm is used to find the daily total generating cost for the base case and for several demand side management programs using the data obtained from the Sri Lankan power system. Results obtained for DSM programs are compared with the results obtained for the base case to assess the financial benefits of demand side management to the generating sector.

  2. Parental Expectation of Side Effects Following Vaccination Is Self-fulfilling: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louise E; Weinman, John; Amlôt, Richard; Yiend, Jenny; Rubin, G James

    2018-06-02

    One of the major factors contributing to parental refusal of vaccinations is the perception that vaccines cause side effects. Although symptoms are commonly reported following vaccinations, their causes are not always straightforward. Although some may be directly attributable to the vaccine itself, others may reflect pre-existing or coincidental symptoms that are misattributed to the vaccine. To investigate psychological factors associated with parental report of side effects following vaccination with the child influenza vaccine, and parental intention to re-vaccinate one's child the following year. A prospective cohort study was run in primary care practices in London in the 2016-2017 influenza season (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02909855). Two hundred seventy parents from 14 practices completed a questionnaire before their child's vaccination. Follow-up questionnaires were completed 3 days after vaccination and one month after vaccination. Parental report of side effects and vaccination intention for the subsequent year were measured. Parental report of side effects was strongly associated with pre-vaccination expectation of side effects. Suggestions received from the media, National Health Service (NHS) vaccination leaflet, and health care workers, as well as uncertainty-related beliefs, perceived sensitivity of the child to medicines, pessimism, and anxiety were also associated with reporting side effects. Side effect report was associated with lower vaccination intention for the following influenza season. Side effect perception following vaccination is influenced by psychological factors, in particular expectations. Perceiving side effects reduces future vaccination intention. Future public health communications should aim to decrease unrealistic expectations of side effects to increase vaccine uptake.

  3. Reirradiation on recurrent cervical cancer case: Treatment response and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, M. F.; Supriana, N.; Nuranna, L.; Prihartono, J.

    2017-08-01

    Management of recurrent cervical cancer by reirradiation after radiation treatment remains controversial. In Indonesia, there is currently no data about reirradiation tumor response and side effects. This study aims to assess the tumor response to and side effects of reirradiation, the effect of time interval between first radiation treatment and cancer recurrence on the tumor response and side effects, and the effect of tumor size on tumor response. A cohort retrospective study with no comparison was done with the Radiotherapy Department at Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. Participants were recurrent cervical cancer patients undergoing reirradiation. Data was collected from patients’ medical records and follow-up phone calls. Twenty-two patients participated in this study. Nine patients (40.9%) had complete responses, 10 patients (45.5%) had partial responses, 1 patient (4.5%) had a stable response, and 2 patients (9.1%) had tumor progressions. In general, 15 patients (68.2%) had no to light side effects (grade 0-2 RTOG) and 7 patients (31.8%) had severe side effects (grade 3-4 RTOG). Four patients (18.1%) had severe gastrointestinal acute side effects, 6 patients (27.3%) had severe gastrointestinal late side effects, 2 patients (9.1%) had severe urogenital side effects, and there were no patients had severe urogenital late side effects. There was no significant difference in tumor response between patients with time interval between first radiation treatment and recurrence of 4 cm. Reirradiation can be considered as a modality in recurrent cervical cancer management since good tumor response was achieved and the majority of patients had no to light side effects (grade 0-2 RTOG). This study found no correlation between tumor response, side effects, and time gap between first radiation treatment and recurrence of 4 cm.

  4. Direct comparison of [18F]FDG PET/CT with PET alone and with side-by-side PET and CT in patients with malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottaghy, Felix M.; Wohlfart, Petra; Blumstein, Norbert M.; Neumaier, Bernd; Glatting, Gerhard; Buck, Andreas K.; Reske, Sven N.; Sunderkoetter, Cord; Schubert, Roland; Oezdemir, Cueneyt; Scharfetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective, blinded study was to evaluate the additional value of [ 18 F]FDG PET/CT in comparison with PET alone and with side-by-side PET and CT in patients with malignant melanoma (MM). A total of 127 consecutive studies of patients with known MM referred for a whole-body PET/CT examination were included in this study. PET alone, side-by-side PET and CT and integrated PET/CT study were independently and separately interpreted without awareness of the clinical information. One score each was applied for certainty of lesion localisation and for certainty of lesion characterisation. Verification of the findings was subsequently performed using all available clinical, pathological (n = 30) and follow-up information. The number of lesions with an uncertain localisation was significantly (p 18 F]FDG. (orig.)

  5. Left-Sided Patent Ductus Arteriosus in a Right-Sided Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yen Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 31-year-old female with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF and right-sided aortic arch (RAA with left-sided patent ductus arteriosus (PDA originating from the left brachiocephalic artery. This is a rare finding but most common site for a PDA in TOF and a RAA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of this rare finding on MRI in the literature.

  6. Stabilization of Gob-Side Entry with an Artificial Side for Sustaining Mining Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-sheng Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A concrete artificial side (AS is introduced to stabilize a gob-side entry (GSE. To evaluate the stability of the AS, a uniaxial compression failure experiment was conducted with large and small-scale specimens. The distribution characteristics of the shear stress were obtained from a numerical simulation. Based on the failure characteristics and the variation of the shear stress, a failure criterion was determined and implemented in the strengthening method for the artificial side. In an experimental test, the distribution pattern of the maximum shear stress showed an X shape, which contributed to the failure shape of the specimen. The shear stress distribution and failure shape are induced by a combination of two sets of shear stresses, which implies that failure of the AS follows the twin shear strength theory. The use of anchor bolts, bolts, and anchor bars enhances the shear strength of the artificial side. When this side is stable, the components can constrain the lateral deformation as well as improve the internal friction angle and cohesion. When the AS is damaged, the components prevent the sliding of broken blocks along the shear failure plane and improve the residual strength of the artificial side. When reinforced with an anchor bar, the AS is still stable even after mining operations for three years.

  7. Operational parameters and their influence on particle-side mass transfer resistance in a packed bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amir; Kangwa, Martin; Yumnam, Nivedita; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    The influence of internal mass transfer on productivity as well as the performance of packed bed bioreactor was determined by varying a number of parameters; chitosan coating, flow rate, glucose concentration and particle size. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in chitosan and non-chitosan coated alginate beads to demonstrate the effect on particle side mass transfer on substrate consumption time, lag phase and ethanol production. The results indicate that chitosan coating, beads size, glucose concentration and flow rate have a significant effect on lag phase duration. The duration of lag phase for different size of beads (0.8, 2 and 4 mm) decreases by increasing flow rate and by decreasing the size of beads. Moreover, longer lag phase were found at higher glucose medium concentration and also with chitosan coated beads. It was observed that by increasing flow rates; lag phase and glucose consumption time decreased. The reason is due to the reduction of external (fluid side) mass transfer as a result of increase in flow rate as glucose is easily transported to the surface of the beads. Varying the size of beads is an additional factor: as it reduces the internal (particle side) mass transfer by reducing the size of beads. The reason behind this is the distance for reactants to reach active site of catalyst (cells) and the thickness of fluid created layer around alginate beads is reduced. The optimum combination of parameters consisting of smaller beads size (0.8 mm), higher flow rate of 90 ml/min and glucose concentration of 10 g/l were found to be the maximum condition for ethanol production.

  8. Hyper-X Vehicle Model - Side View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A side-view of an early desk-top model of NASA's X-43A 'Hyper-X,' or Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, which has been developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic

  9. Nursing-led management of side effects of radiation: evidence-based recommendations for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirier P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Patricia PoirierUniversity of Maine School of Nursing, Orono, ME, USAAbstract: It has been estimated that 50%–60% of patients diagnosed with cancer will receive radiation therapy at some point in their treatment. Although radiation therapy can play a significant role in the cure or control of cancer, and the palliation of symptoms, it also has side effects. Side effects of radiation therapy can interfere with patient quality of life and daily functioning. Severe side effects can lead to delays in treatment, potentially affecting the outcome of treatment. All patients receiving radiation therapy are at risk of fatigue and skin reactions in the area of the body being treated. Other side effects of radiation therapy are specific to the part of the body being treated. Radiation therapy to the head and neck area may cause oral mucositis, dryness, and nutritional deficiencies. Radiation therapy to the chest or lung area may lead to difficulty in swallowing and eating. Radiation therapy to the pelvis frequently causes diarrhea. There are many nursing interventions available to manage the side effects of treatment based on best available evidence and expert opinion. Nurses in all settings are essential in helping patients manage the side effects of treatment and maintain their quality of life. The purpose of this review is to provide nurses with evidence-based recommendations and suggestions for managing common acute side effects of radiation therapy.Keywords: evidence-based practice, radiation therapy, side effects, nursing management

  10. Mean size estimation yields left-side bias: Role of attention on perceptual averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuei-An; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2017-11-01

    The human visual system can estimate mean size of a set of items effectively; however, little is known about whether information on each visual field contributes equally to the mean size estimation. In this study, we examined whether a left-side bias (LSB)-perceptual judgment tends to depend more heavily on left visual field's inputs-affects mean size estimation. Participants were instructed to estimate the mean size of 16 spots. In half of the trials, the mean size of the spots on the left side was larger than that on the right side (the left-larger condition) and vice versa (the right-larger condition). Our results illustrated an LSB: A larger estimated mean size was found in the left-larger condition than in the right-larger condition (Experiment 1), and the LSB vanished when participants' attention was effectively cued to the right side (Experiment 2b). Furthermore, the magnitude of LSB increased with stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA), when spots on the left side were presented earlier than the right side. In contrast, the LSB vanished and then induced a reversed effect with SOA when spots on the right side were presented earlier (Experiment 3). This study offers the first piece of evidence suggesting that LSB does have a significant influence on mean size estimation of a group of items, which is induced by a leftward attentional bias that enhances the prior entry effect on the left side.

  11. Human-Human Interaction Forces and Interlimb Coordination During Side-by-Side Walking With Hand Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylos-Labini, Francesca; d'Avella, Andrea; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yury

    2018-01-01

    Handholding can naturally occur between two walkers. When people walk side-by-side, either with or without hand contact, they often synchronize their steps. However, despite the importance of haptic interaction in general and the natural use of hand contact between humans during walking, few studies have investigated forces arising from physical interactions. Eight pairs of adult subjects participated in this study. They walked on side-by-side treadmills at 4 km/h independently and with hand contact. Only hand contact-related sensory information was available for unintentional synchronization, while visual and auditory communication was obstructed. Subjects walked at their natural cadences or following a metronome. Limb kinematics, hand contact 3D interaction forces and EMG activity of 12 upper limb muscles were recorded. Overall, unintentional step frequency locking was observed during about 40% of time in 88% of pairs walking with hand contact. On average, the amplitude of contact arm oscillations decreased while the contralateral (free) arm oscillated in the same way as during normal walking. Interestingly, EMG activity of the shoulder muscles of the contact arm did not decrease, and their synergistic pattern remained similar. The amplitude of interaction forces and of trunk oscillations was similar for synchronized and non-synchronized steps, though the synchronized steps were characterized by significantly more regular orientations of interaction forces. Our results further support the notion that gait synchronization during natural walking is common, and that it may occur through interaction forces. Conservation of the proximal muscle activity of the contact (not oscillating) arm is consistent with neural coupling between cervical and lumbosacral pattern generation circuitries ("quadrupedal" arm-leg coordination) during human gait. Overall, the findings suggest that individuals might integrate force interaction cues to communicate and coordinate steps during

  12. Human-Human Interaction Forces and Interlimb Coordination During Side-by-Side Walking With Hand Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sylos-Labini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Handholding can naturally occur between two walkers. When people walk side-by-side, either with or without hand contact, they often synchronize their steps. However, despite the importance of haptic interaction in general and the natural use of hand contact between humans during walking, few studies have investigated forces arising from physical interactions. Eight pairs of adult subjects participated in this study. They walked on side-by-side treadmills at 4 km/h independently and with hand contact. Only hand contact-related sensory information was available for unintentional synchronization, while visual and auditory communication was obstructed. Subjects walked at their natural cadences or following a metronome. Limb kinematics, hand contact 3D interaction forces and EMG activity of 12 upper limb muscles were recorded. Overall, unintentional step frequency locking was observed during about 40% of time in 88% of pairs walking with hand contact. On average, the amplitude of contact arm oscillations decreased while the contralateral (free arm oscillated in the same way as during normal walking. Interestingly, EMG activity of the shoulder muscles of the contact arm did not decrease, and their synergistic pattern remained similar. The amplitude of interaction forces and of trunk oscillations was similar for synchronized and non-synchronized steps, though the synchronized steps were characterized by significantly more regular orientations of interaction forces. Our results further support the notion that gait synchronization during natural walking is common, and that it may occur through interaction forces. Conservation of the proximal muscle activity of the contact (not oscillating arm is consistent with neural coupling between cervical and lumbosacral pattern generation circuitries (“quadrupedal” arm-leg coordination during human gait. Overall, the findings suggest that individuals might integrate force interaction cues to communicate and

  13. A mixture of honey bee products ameliorates the genotoxic side effects of cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Aly Fahmy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the protective role of a mixture of honey bee products (honey, royal jelly and pollen grains against the genotoxicity induced by the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide (CP. Methods: The study included chromosomal aberration analysis in mice bone marrow cells, induction of morphological sperm abnormalities, DNA fragmentation and histopathological changes induced in liver cells of mice. CP was injected intraperitoneally at the dose of 20 mg/ kg body weight. The mixture of honey bee products was administrated orally for different periods of time 5, 10 and 15 days with a dose exactly equivalent to the daily intake of human beings. Results: The results revealed that honey mixture ameliorated the genotoxic side effects of CP. For chromosomal aberrations the percentage reached 25.20 ± 1.30 for CP treated group, while it reached half of that value 12.30 ± 0.54 in CP-group pretreated with honey mixture for 15 days. Breaks, fragments and multiple aberrations were the most pronounced types of aberrations induced after CP treatment and honey mixture reduced these types of abnormalities. CP induced significant percentage of sperm abnormalities 8.52 ± 0.17 compared to control 3.10 ± 0.10. The percentage of sperm abnormalities reached nearly to the control value in CP- mice treated with honey mixture for 15 days. Honey also reduced the incidence of liver DNA damage induced by CP. The results also indicated that CP had a marked damaging effect on liver tissue including severe dilatation, congestion of main blood vessels and massive infiltration of inflammatory cells with irregular general pattern of the tissue. These effects were greatly ameliorated by using oral administration of honey mixture for different periods of time. Conclusions: The results concluded that honey bee mixture can be used as chemopreventive agent for minimizing the genotoxic side effects of the anticancer drug CP and open the field for its use in many applications.

  14. Does Injection of Lidocaine with 1/100000 Epinephrine Immediately before Lateral Osteotomy Reduce Post-Operative Periorbital Edema and Ecchymosis in Rhinoplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mansoor zojajy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative periorbital edema and ecchymosis are common after rhinoplasty. We studied the effect of local injection of Lidocaine/Adrenaline immediately before osteotomy on prevention of post-operative periorbital edema and ecchymosis in rhinoplasty.Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy candidates for rhinoplasty were enrolled in the self-controlled clinical trial study. Lidocaine/Adrenaline solution injected randomly to one side just prior to the lateral osteotomy. The opposite side used as a control. The degree of edema/ecchymosis on both sides was compared on the 1st, 2nd and 7th day postoperatively.Results: Mean of severity of edema, 24 hours after operation was 3in both sides, (Mann-whitney U; p=0.829. Mean of severity of edema, 48 hours after operation was 2 in both sides (Mann-whitney U; p=0.867 and it was 1 in both sides 7 days after operation (Mann-whitney U; p=0.756.There was no significant difference between two sides. Mean of severity of ecchymosis, 24 hours after operation was 3 in both sides (Mann-whitney U; p=0.692. Mean of severity of ecchymosis, 48 hours after operation was 2 in both sides (Mann-whitney U; p=0.655 and it was 1 in both sides 7 days after operation (Mann-whitney U; p=0.873. There was no significant difference between two sides.Conclusion: local injection of Lidocaine/Adrenaline solution immediately before lateral osteotomy could not reduce postoperative edema and ecchymosis in rhinoplasty.

  15. The significance of vector magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of four flaring solar active regions, obtained during 1980-1986 with the NASA Marshall vector magnetograph (Hagyard et al., 1982 and 1985), are presented graphically and characterized in detail, with reference to nearly simultaneous Big Bear Solar Observatory and USAF ASW H-alpha images. It is shown that the flares occurred where local photospheric magnetic fields differed most from the potential field, with initial brightening on either side of a magnetic-neutral line near the point of maximum angular shear (rather than that of maximum magnetic-field strength, typically 1 kG or greater). Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that these significant nonpotential features were detected only by measuring all three components of the vector magnetic field.

  16. THRESHOLD OF SIGNIFICANCE IN STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress management is the individual's ability to handle any situation, external conditions, to match the demands of the external environment. The researchers revealed several stages in the stress response. A first phase was called ‘‘alert reaction'' or ‘‘immediate reaction to stress‘‘, phase in which there are physiological modifications and manifestations that occur under psychological aspect. Adaptation phase is the phase in which the reactions from the first phase diminishes or disappears. Exhaustion phase is related to the diversity of stress factors and time and may exceed the resources of the human body to adapt. Influencing factors may be: limited, cognitive, perceptual, and a priori. But there is a threshold of significance in stress management. Once the reaction to external stimuli occurs, awareness is needed. The capability effect occurs, any side effect goes away and comes out the ''I AM'' effect.

  17. Left-side changes in thoracic X-ray follow-ups after cardiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, G.; Buecheler, E.; Grabbe, E.; Darup, J.

    1983-03-01

    In routine thoracic X-ray follow-ups after cardiosurgical procedures, 93.2% of our patients (n=88) showed radiologically perceivable pathological changes, reduced ventilation being the most common phenomenon. 77.1% of the patients showed signs of reduced ventilation, mostly the left side. Limited motility of the diaphragm on the left side was visible in 69% of the cases studied. The defective motility of the left diaphragm is attributable to direct damage to the left nervus phrenicus caused by extracardial heart cooling during surgery.

  18. Left-side changes in thoracic X-ray follow-ups after cardiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, G.; Buecheler, E.; Grabbe, E.; Darup, J.

    1983-01-01

    In routine thoracic X-ray follow-ups after cardiosurgical procedures, 93.2% of our patients (n=88) showed radiologically perceivable pathological changes, reduced ventilation being the most common phenomenon. 77.1% of the patients showed signs of reduced ventilation, mostly the left side. Limited motility of the diaphragm on the left side was visible in 69% of the cases studied. The defective motility of the left diaphragm is attributable to direct damage to the left nervus phrenicus caused by extracardial heart cooling during surgery. (orig.) [de

  19. 49 CFR 231.4 - Fixed-end low-side gondola and low-side hopper cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cars. 231.4 Section 231.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Fixed-end low-side gondola and low-side hopper cars. (Cars with sides 36 inches or less above the floor are low-side cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see...

  20. Pharmacogenomic study of side-effects for antidepressant treatment options in STAR*D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S L; Adkins, D E; Aberg, K; Hettema, J M; McClay, J L; Souza, R P; van den Oord, E J C G

    2012-06-01

    Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to antidepressant therapy side-effects is essential to optimize the treatment of depression. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to search for genetic variation affecting the susceptibility to side-effects. The analysis sample consisted of 1439 depression patients, successfully genotyped for 421K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Outcomes included four indicators of side-effects: general side-effect burden, sexual side-effects, dizziness and vision/hearing-related side-effects. Our criterion for genome-wide significance was a prespecified threshold ensuring that, on average, only 10% of the significant findings are false discoveries. Thirty-four SNPs satisfied this criterion. The top finding indicated that 10 SNPs in SACM1L mediated the effects of bupropion on sexual side-effects (p = 4.98 × 10(-7), q = 0.023). Suggestive findings were also found for SNPs in MAGI2, DTWD1, WDFY4 and CHL1. Although our findings require replication and functional validation, this study demonstrates the potential of GWAS to discover genes and pathways that could mediate adverse effects of antidepressant medication.

  1. The frequency of occurrence and severity of side-effects of immersion virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, E C; Price, K R

    1994-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has become increasingly well-known over the last few years. However, little is known about the side-effects of prolonged immersion in VR. This study set out to investigate the frequency of occurrence and severity of side-effects of using an immersion VR system. Out of 146 subjects, 61% reported symptoms of malaise at some point during a 20-min immersion and 10-min post-immersion period. These ranged from symptoms such as dizziness, stomach awareness, headaches, eyestrain and lightheadedness to severe nausea. These symptoms caused 5% of the subjects to withdraw from the experiment before completing their 20-min immersion period. Further research needs to be conducted that attempts to identify those factors that play a causative role in the side-effects of the VR system, and that looks for methods of reducing these side-effects.

  2. Side effects of antiviral therapy in hepatitis C virus infection-sarcoidosis - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodor, D; Teodor, Andra; Grigore, Lucia; Jugănariu, Gabriela; Dorobăţ, Carmen Mihaela; Miftode, Egidia; Azoicăi, Doina

    2012-01-01

    Standard therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus infection is still a combination of peginterferon alfa2a/2b and ribavirin for 48 weeks. As of side effects, there are organic side effects, such as hematologic disorders, and functional side effects, reflected in the quality of life of hepatitis C patients. Up to 30% of the patients develop specific side effects such as headache, fever, fatigue. Sarcoidosis, known as a granulomatous disease of uncertain cause, is an uncommon finding in this category of patients. This cause-effect relation is accounted for by the convergent action of peginterferon and ribavirin of stimulating type 1 T helper cells and reducing type 2 helper T cells activation. We present the case of male patient known with chronic hepatitis C who developed pulmonary sarcoidosis following antiviral therapy. The first manifestation of the disease was unexplained fever accompanied by pulmonary tract disease. The diagnosis was established by immunophenotyping in bronchial aspirate

  3. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  4. Side chain polysiloxanes with phthalocyanine moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ganicz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Side chain polysiloxane with 5-(pentyloxy-3-methyloxy-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexakis(octenyloxyphthalocyanine moieties is synthesized by hydrosilylation reaction. The phase behavior and thermooptical properties of the polysiloxane and starting 2-(pent-4-enyloxy-3-methyloxy-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexakis(octenyloxyphthalocyanine is examined by POM (Polarizing optical microscopy, TOA (thermooptical analysis, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, AFM (atomic force microscopy and SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering studies. The effect of the attachment of phthalocyanine to polysiloxane chains over phase transitions and phase morphology is discussed in details.

  5. Launching a Two-sided Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Solheim, Magnus Tovsen; Tovsen, Ole Kristoffer Solheim

    2017-01-01

    Two-sided platforms, such as Airbnb, Uber and eBay, have all revolutionized their industries. Despite having colossal potential, they are very difficult to launch. This is due to what s referred to as network effects, which imply that the value of the platform becomes larger as more people use it. Network effects lead to a chicken-or-egg-problem , where it is difficult to convince sellers to join if there are no buyers and vice versa, in addition to the need to reach a critical mass of users...

  6. Effective use of thermal energy at both hot and cold side of thermoelectric module for developing efficient thermoelectric water distillation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Madhhachi, Hayder; Min, Gao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New distillation process using thermoelectric to assist evaporation/condensation. • Novel thermoelectric distillation system with reduced specific energy consumption. • Freshwater production by thermoelectrically assisted evaporation and condensation. - Abstract: An efficient thermoelectric distillation system has been designed and constructed for production of drinkable water. The unique design of this system is to use the heat from hot side of the thermoelectric module for water evaporation and the cold side for vapour condensation simultaneously. This novel design significantly reduces energy consumption and improves the system performance. The results of experiments show that the average water production is 28.5 mL/h with a specific energy consumption of 0.00114 kW h/mL in an evaporation chamber filled with 10 × 10 × 30 mm"3 of water. This is significantly lower than the energy consumption required by other existing thermoelectric distillation systems. The results also show that a maximum temperature difference between the hot and cold side of the thermoelectric module is 42.3 °C, which led to temperature increases of 26.4 °C and 8.4 °C in water and vapour, respectively.

  7. Side effects associated with ultrarapid cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype among women with early stage breast cancer treated with tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolla, R; Vidali, M; Meola, S; Pollarolo, P; Fanello, M R; Nicolotti, C; Saggia, C; Forti, L; Agostino, F D; Rossi, V; Borra, G; Stratica, F; Alabiso, O; Bellomo, G

    2012-01-01

    The side effects of tamoxifen, a drug widely used for the treatment and the prevention of recurrence in patients with estrogen receptor positive breast cancers (ER+), have been reported in clinical trials, but to date no information is available on their possible association with an increased enzymatic activity of CYP2D6 (ultra-metabolizers, UMs). The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the association between the presence of multiple functional CYP2D6 alleles and the occurrence of side effects. 61 women with ER+ breast cancer receiving tamoxifen monotherapy were investigated in order to assess the relationships between CYP2D6 UM phenotype and side effects. Genotyping of 16 CYP2D6 polymorphisms was performed using a new DNA microarray technology. A highly significant difference was detected (41.2% of difference, 95% CI 6 - 61%, Fisher's exact test, p = 0.030) between the numbers of Ultrarapid Metabolizer patients (UM; high activity) with two or more adverse drug reactions to tamoxifen (7/9; 77.8%), compared to the number of Extensive Metabolizers (EM; normal activity), Intermediate Metabolizers (IM; reduced activity), and Poor Metabolizers (PM; no activity) with at least two side effects (19/52, 36.5%). A similar difference was also observed comparing the two groups (UM vs EM-IM-PM) for the number of side effects (median and inter quartile range, IQR: AM/EM/IM 1, IQR 0-2 vs. ULTRA 2, IQR 2-4; Mann-Whitney p = 0.005). Our results suggest a new association between CYP2D6 gene duplication and side effects to tamoxifen, indicating a possible role of CYP2D6 in their occurrence.

  8. Impact on energy requirements and emissions of heat pumps and micro-cogenerators participating in demand side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Samuel J.G.; Hammond, Geoffrey P.; McManus, Marcelle C.; Rogers, John G.

    2014-01-01

    The potential impacts of participating in demand side management (DSM) on the performance of air source heat pumps (ASHP) and micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units are considered by this study. As significant consumers and generators of electricity at the distribution level, large numbers of heat pumps and micro-cogenerators would provide considerable scope for participation in DSM systems. However, it is possible that operating regimes which are optimised for grid considerations will not achieve the maximum performance that is possible from the units. Modelling has been conducted to investigate the significance of this effect, considering the case where local distribution constraints are the main driver for demand side interventions. A model of domestic electrical demand has been adapted to consider a neighbourhood of 128 dwellings in order to identify when interventions are necessary. This has been combined with dynamic models of two combustion engine micro-cogenerators, a solid oxide fuel cell micro-cogenerator and two ASHPs. A simple thermal model of each building is combined with a range of user preferences in order to determine the preferred operating profiles of the heating units. The DSM scheme analysed here is likely to have minimal impact on the emissions and energy requirements associated with each heating unit. Its effect is similar to that which occurs without DSM if the control system gain is relaxed such that equivalent thermal comfort is achieved. DSM can reduce the peak electrical demand of the neighbourhood. However, in the scenarios investigated, it is unlikely that the peaks can be reduced sufficiently such that they do not exceed the capacity of the local distribution transformer if ASHPs are used in all dwellings. By using a combination of mCHP units with ASHPs, it is possible to supply heating to all dwellings without exceeding this capacity. In this case, the use of DSM can increase the ratio of ASHPs used. In the context of a low

  9. EFFECTS OF SMALL-SIDED GAMES ON PHYSICAL CONDITIONING AND PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Katis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different small-sided games and, second, their effects on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m participated in the study. Small-sided games included three-a-side (3 versus 3 players and six-a-side (6 versus 6 players games consisting of 10 bouts of 4 min duration with 3 min active recovery between bouts. Soccer player performance was evaluated using five field tests: a 30m sprint, b throw-in for distance, c Illinois Agility Test, d dribbling the ball and e horizontal jump before, in the middle and after the implementation of both game situations. Heart rate was monitored during the entire testing session. Each game was also filmed to measure soccer movements within the game. The ANOVA analysis indicated that the three-a- side games displayed significantly higher heart rate values compared with the six-a-side games (p < 0.05. The number of short passes, kicks, tackles, dribbles and scoring goals were significantly higher during the three-a-side compared with the six-a-side game condition (p < 0. 05 while players performed more long passes and headed the ball more often during the six-a-side (p < 0.05. After the three-a-side games, there was a significant decline in sprint and agility performance (p < 0.05, while after both game conditions significant alterations in the throw-in and the horizontal jump performance were observed (p < 0.05. The results of the present study indicated that three-a-side games provide higher stimulus for physical conditioning and technical improvement than six-a-side games and their use for training young soccer players is recommended

  10. Deep Neural Network Based Demand Side Short Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghyoung Ryu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the smart grid, one of the most important research areas is load forecasting; it spans from traditional time series analyses to recent machine learning approaches and mostly focuses on forecasting aggregated electricity consumption. However, the importance of demand side energy management, including individual load forecasting, is becoming critical. In this paper, we propose deep neural network (DNN-based load forecasting models and apply them to a demand side empirical load database. DNNs are trained in two different ways: a pre-training restricted Boltzmann machine and using the rectified linear unit without pre-training. DNN forecasting models are trained by individual customer’s electricity consumption data and regional meteorological elements. To verify the performance of DNNs, forecasting results are compared with a shallow neural network (SNN, a double seasonal Holt–Winters (DSHW model and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE and relative root mean square error (RRMSE are used for verification. Our results show that DNNs exhibit accurate and robust predictions compared to other forecasting models, e.g., MAPE and RRMSE are reduced by up to 17% and 22% compared to SNN and 9% and 29% compared to DSHW.

  11. Experimental research on end-to-side anastomosis of peripheral nerves and effect of FK506 on end-to-side anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L M; Wu, Y X; Zhang, X P; Li, X H

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of end-to-side anastomosis of initially-denatured nerves at different times. 60 male Wistar albino rats were used to fabricate animal models for the experiment on end-to-side anastomosis of peripheral nerves and 50 female Wistar albino rats were used to fabricate animal models for the experiment on the effect of FK506 on end-to-side anastomosis. Bilateral common peroneal nerve, tibialis anterior muscle electrophysiological and histological examinations, tibialis anterior muscle wet muscle weight determination, and motor end plate examination were performed 3 months after operation. All recovery rates of action potential, single muscle contraction force and tetanic contraction force of the FK506 experimental group are significantly higher than those of the control group and the sectional area of muscle fiber is also higher than that of the control group of normal saline. The best time for end-to-side anastomosis of nerves should be controlled within 2 weeks and the effect of end-to-side anastomosis of nerves will gradually become unsatisfactory. FK506 plays a role in promoting functional rehabilitation following nerve end-to-side anastomosis (Tab. 7, Fig. 4, Ref. 31).

  12. Effects of microstructure and mechanical properties of alloys 600 an 690 on secondary side SCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillant, F.; Buisine, D.; Prieux, B.; Fournel, J.C.; Gelpi, A.

    1996-03-01

    Modeling for secondary side cracking is needed to understand the behaviour of alloy 600 in plants. They require a comprehensive understanding of the various influences of the material properties on Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC), based on field experience and laboratory data. In an attempt to predict the materials effects on SCC behaviour of new steam generators, laboratory corrosion data of alloy 690 were overviewed. French field experience with steam generators equipped with drilled tube support plates (TSPs) has demonstrated that the lower the yield stress (YS) and the carbon content, the higher the susceptibility t secondary side cracking of mill-annealed (MA) alloy 600. Also heat treated (700 deg. C x 16 h) tubing has been shown to have a much better resistance, but this excellent resistance could not be attributed only to the material properties. In laboratory environments, particularly in caustics, results have confirmed several of the above mentioned key findings on alloy 600: in caustic environments and under constant loading, tubes fabricated from MA alloy 600 with low YS have exhibited the worst resistance to initiation; YS was found to be the most accurate parameter to account for the behaviour of MA alloy 600. A heat treatment at 700 deg. C appeared to reduce the propagation rates of cracks in alloy 600. The best IGSCC resistance of alloy 690 was obtained for tubes with intergranular precipitation of carbides. TT (700 deg. C) significantly improved the propagation resistance of alloy 690; in acidic and neutral sulfate environments, IGSCC of alloy 600 was not strongly dependent on the microstructure in the MA condition, but sensitization was detrimental. When alloy 600 and particularly alloy 690 were thermally treated at 700 deg. C x 16 h, the resistance to IGSCC was significantly improved. Tests performed on alloy 690 have shown a better resistance to IGSCC initiation and propagation than alloy 600, in NaOH and acidic sulfate environments. (authors

  13. Assembly technology of 4-side buttable MPPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, K.; Sato, K.; Yamada, R., E-mail: ryuta-ya@ssd.hpk.co.jp; Hosokawa, N.; Nagano, T.; Hayatsu, K.; Shimohara, T.; Ohkuwa, Y.; Oguri, A.

    2013-12-21

    The multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) is a solid-state photon counting device consisting of a Geiger-mode APD and a quenching resistor. Through-silicon via technology (TSV) allows for the production of a discrete array version of the MPPC, creating a detector with the advantages of a larger active area and less dead space in its overall packaging when compared to other package types commonly used to produce MPPCs. Eliminating the need for a wire-bonding pad allows individual MPPCs to be tiled with minimum dead-space between individual detectors to form a four-sided buttable array. Selecting MPPCs that behave and perform very similarly to each other, especially when an operating voltage is applied, minimizes variation in performance between each channel and enhances channel uniformity. The output of discrete arrays of MPPCs can be easily readout with ASICs (application specific integrated circuits) due to their excellent channel uniformity characteristics, with minimum adjustment required by the ASIC. -- Author-Highlights: • TSV-MPPC and assembly technology are developed. • TSV-MPPC array is tiled in 4-sided buttable and has large and dense active area. • The output pulse of MPPC may have sharp rising edge by virtue of TSV. • The uniformity of the array can be maximized by neat inspection technology.

  14. Side effects of AAS abuse: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, E; Perilli, G; Di Paolo, M; Neri, M; Riezzo, I; Fineschi, V

    2011-05-01

    Anabolic - androgenic steroids (AAS) were originally developed to promote growth of skeletal muscle. AAS abuse is commonly associated with bodybuilders, weightlifters, and other athletes. The issue of AAS toxicity is not yet completely understood since the adverse effects outline a varied scenario with side effects reported affecting many organs and systems in humans. The true incidence of AAS related medical problems is not known, due to several drawbacks in human studies. The entity of side effects depends on the sex, the dose, the duration of treatment, whether they are taken during exercise training or under sedentary conditions, and the susceptibility of the individuals themselves to androgen exposure partly depending on genetic factors. Both the acute and the chronic effects can lead to toxicity, but generally the serious and even fatal effects depend on the time and the duration of AAS administration. A limitation of human studies is represented by the fact that information about the intake of steroids are, generally, self reported and it is hardly possible to assess the exact dosage. AAS are often used in combination with other dugs or substances, so it is difficult to separate their toxic effects from those caused by the other drugs abused. Hence experimental studies conducted on animal models are mandatory to investigate the mechanisms underlying to AAS toxicity and the organ alterations due to these substances. Finally, clinicians should be aware of the complex and varied pattern of toxicity so as to be able to perform correct diagnoses and treatments.

  15. THE TWO SIDES OF MONEY LAUNDERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina – Maria ENE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mainly goal of money laundering is to carry out more and more illegal economic transactions or activities to produce individual or groups gains and then to legitimate them. Money laundering converts illicit source of money generated by criminal activities in order to hide the connection between money and their original illegal activities. This is one of money laundering side. The second side implies corruption. While money laundering is a passing channel for illicit funds due to its criminal origin source, such funds may derive from corruption offences. All corruption’s forms represent the most important illicit funds branches for money laundering process. Corrupt people methods used to exploit the national and international financial system reflect the relationship between those two criminal activities. Criminals achieve their personal interests by hiding their corruption proceeds and transfer these gains to official economies. Corruption spread in any society entails money laundering spread, and the converse, too. There is a quite “indecent” relationship between money laundering and corruption. This paper tries to identify the multiple connections between the two phenomenons showing the negative impacts these criminal behaviours are having on the national and international economy. We conclude by highlighting the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach in order to fight against money laundering and corruption by integrating these problem frameworks at national level. International community must focus their resources on money laundering and corruption risks areas and maximize their response impact.

  16. Sided functions of an arginine-agmatine antiporter oriented in liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Feng; Fang, Yiling; Miller, Christopher

    2012-02-28

    The arginine-dependent extreme acid resistance system helps enteric bacteria survive the harsh gastric environment. At the center of this multiprotein system is an arginine-agmatine antiporter, AdiC. To maintain cytoplasmic pH, AdiC imports arginine and exports its decarboxylated product, agmatine, resulting in a net extrusion of one "virtual proton" in each turnover. The random orientation of AdiC in reconstituted liposomes throws up an obstacle to quantifying its transport mechanism. To overcome this problem, we introduced a mutation, S26C, near the substrate-binding site. This mutant exhibits substrate recognition and pH-dependent activity similar to those of the wild-type protein but loses function completely upon reaction with thiol reagents. The membrane-impermeant MTSES reagent can then be used as a cleanly sided inhibitor to silence those S26C-AdiC proteins whose extracellular portion projects from the external side of the liposome. Alternatively, the membrane-permeant MTSEA and membrane-impermeant reducing reagent, TCEP, can be used together to inhibit proteins in the opposite orientation. This approach allows steady-state kinetic analysis of AdiC in a sided fashion. Arginine and agmatine have similar Michaelis-Menten parameters for both sides of the protein, while the extracellular side selects arginine over argininamide, a mimic of the carboxylate-protonated form of arginine, more effectively than does the cytoplasmic side. Moreover, the two sides of AdiC have different pH sensitivities. AdiC activity increases to a plateau at pH 4 as the extracellular side is acidified, while the cytoplasmic side shows an optimal pH of 5.5, with further acidification inhibiting transport. This oriented system allows more precise analysis of AdiC-mediated substrate transport than has been previously available and permits comparison to the situation experienced by the bacterial membrane under acid stress.

  17. Chewing side preference is associated with hemispheric laterality in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serel Arslan, Selen; İnal, Özgü; Demir, Numan; Ölmez, Merih Seval; Karaduman, Aynur Ayşe

    2017-06-01

    Purpose To investigate if chewing side preference (CSP) can be used as an indicator of hemispheric laterality in healthy adults. Materials and methods Seventy-five individuals were included. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine CSP and laterality test for preferred peripheral organs. Results Significant correlation between CSP and hand, foot, ear, and eye side preference was found (r = .41, p lateralization.

  18. Hypertension as risk factor for radiation induced side-effects in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, F.K.; Rhomberg, W.; Doringer, W.

    1992-01-01

    130 breast cancer patients were retrospectively evaluated for side-effects to estimate the influence of arterial hypertension. All were treated with mastecomy and irradiation (telecobalt). 79 patients had normal blood pressure, 51 showed arterial hypertension. Hypertension proved to be the strongest endogeneous factor for the development of side-effects. In contrast to the patients with normal blood pressure those with hypertension showed significant more arm lymphedema (p [de

  19. Multidomain Operations: A Subtle but Significant Transition in Military Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    He pointed out that whichever side loses in an electronic war will be reduced to blindness and deafness , so its weapons will be disabled, and it...reconnaissance; communications; early warning; and navigation. The conse- quences would severely affect a joint force air component commander’s planning ...operational planning that facilitates prioritized allocation of bandwidth, efficient data exchange, flexible security requirements, and the organi

  20. Genome-wide pharmacogenomic study of citalopram-induced side effects in STAR*D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, D E; Clark, S L; Åberg, K; Hettema, J M; Bukszár, J; McClay, J L; Souza, R P; van den Oord, E J C G

    2012-07-03

    Affecting about 1 in 12 Americans annually, depression is a leading cause of the global disease burden. While a range of effective antidepressants are now available, failure and relapse rates remain substantial, with intolerable side effect burden the most commonly cited reason for discontinuation. Thus, understanding individual differences in susceptibility to antidepressant therapy side effects will be essential to optimize depression treatment. Here we perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genetic variation influencing susceptibility to citalopram-induced side effects. The analysis sample consisted of 1762 depression patients, successfully genotyped for 421K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR(*)D) study. Outcomes included five indicators of citalopram side effects: general side effect burden, overall tolerability, sexual side effects, dizziness and vision/hearing side effects. Two SNPs met our genome-wide significance criterion (qeffects of citalopram on vision/hearing side effects (P=3.27 × 10(-8), q=0.026). The second genome-wide significant finding, representing a haplotype spanning ∼30 kb and eight genotyped SNPs in a gene desert on chromosome 13, was associated with general side effect burden (P=3.22 × 10(-7), q=0.096). Suggestive findings were also found for SNPs at LAMA1, AOX2P, EGFLAM, FHIT and RTP2. Although our findings require replication and functional validation, this study demonstrates the potential of GWAS to discover genes and pathways that potentially mediate adverse effects of antidepressant medications.

  1. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  2. Wrist and Hand Ultrasound: Reliability of Side-to-Side Comparisons of Very Small (Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Federica; Romano, Nicola; Muda, Alessandro; Martinoli, Carlo; Tagliafico, Alberto

    2018-04-24

    In ultrasound (US) examinations of clinically relevant very small structures of the wrist and hand, the healthy contralateral side can be used as a reference to identify subtle abnormalities. Intraindividual side-to-side variability must be minimal. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of side-to-side US evaluations of very small structures of the wrist and hand. Forty-one healthy volunteers were prospectively studied. Small structures of the wrist and hand were evaluated bilaterally by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists in separate sessions. The first annular pulleys of the second finger and the thumb, sagittal band of the third finger, extensor and flexor retinacula, ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb, radial collateral ligament of the second finger, and palmar cutaneous branches of the median and ulnar nerves were considered. To assess intra- and inter-reader agreement, 10 of 41 (24%) examinations were repeated. Nonparametric statistics were used. Data were not normally distributed (P > .001). Intra-reader agreement was κ = 0.674 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.78), and inter-reader agreement was κ = 0.935 (95% CI, 0.92-0.95). The mean value ± SD for all of the structures was 0.78 ± 0.44 mm. The overall coefficient of variation was 9.8% ± 0.07%. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96-0.98). In clinical practice, the healthy contralateral side can be used as a reference during a real-time musculoskeletal US evaluation of small (structures. © 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. [Injection Pressure Evaluation of the New Venous Catheter with Side Holes for Contrast-enhanced CT/MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Junya; Arai, Keisuke; Miyazawa, Hitomi; Kobayashi, Kyouko; Nakamura, Junpei; Suto, Takayuki; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2018-01-01

    The simulation study was conducted for the new venous catheter with side holes of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the infusion pressure on four contrast media and several injection speeds. All infusion pressure of the new venous catheter with side holes were less than 15 kg/cm 2 as limitation of extension tube and also reduced the infusion pressure by 15% at the maximum compared to the catheter with single hole. The results suggest that the new venous catheter with side holes can reduce the infusion pressure by power injection of contrast-enhanced CT and MRI.

  4. Modulations of Foot and Ankle Frontal Kinematics for Breaking and Propulsive Movement Characteristics during Side-Step Cutting with Varying Midsole Thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jia Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at determining the effects of midsole thickness on movement characteristic during side cutting movement. Fifteen athletes performed side-step cutting while wearing shoes with varying midsole thicknesses. Temporal-spatial and ground reaction force variables as well as foot and ankle frontal kinematics were used to describe breaking and propulsive movement characteristics and modulation strategies. Regardless of midsole thickness, temporal-spatial variables and breaking and propulsive force during side cutting were statistically unchanged. Significantly greater peaks of ankle inversion and plantarflexion with a thicker sole and greater midtarsal pronation with a thinner sole were observed. Current results demonstrated that hypotheses formed solely based on material testing were insufficient to understand the adaptations in human movement because of the redundancy of the neuromusculoskeletal system. Participants were able to maintain temporal-spatial performance during side cutting while wearing shoes with midsoles of varying thicknesses. Increased pronation for a thinner sole might help reduce the force of impact but might be associated with an increased risk of excessive stress on soft tissue. Increased peak of ankle inversion and plantarflexion for a thicker sole may be unfavorable for the stability of ankle joint. Information provided in human movement testing is crucial for understanding factors associated with movement characteristics and injury and should be considered in the future development of shoe design.

  5. Modulations of Foot and Ankle Frontal Kinematics for Breaking and Propulsive Movement Characteristics during Side-Step Cutting with Varying Midsole Thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Jia; Lee, Shih-Chi; Chang, Chao-Chin; Liu, Tsung-Han

    2018-01-01

    This study is aimed at determining the effects of midsole thickness on movement characteristic during side cutting movement. Fifteen athletes performed side-step cutting while wearing shoes with varying midsole thicknesses. Temporal-spatial and ground reaction force variables as well as foot and ankle frontal kinematics were used to describe breaking and propulsive movement characteristics and modulation strategies. Regardless of midsole thickness, temporal-spatial variables and breaking and propulsive force during side cutting were statistically unchanged. Significantly greater peaks of ankle inversion and plantarflexion with a thicker sole and greater midtarsal pronation with a thinner sole were observed. Current results demonstrated that hypotheses formed solely based on material testing were insufficient to understand the adaptations in human movement because of the redundancy of the neuromusculoskeletal system. Participants were able to maintain temporal-spatial performance during side cutting while wearing shoes with midsoles of varying thicknesses. Increased pronation for a thinner sole might help reduce the force of impact but might be associated with an increased risk of excessive stress on soft tissue. Increased peak of ankle inversion and plantarflexion for a thicker sole may be unfavorable for the stability of ankle joint. Information provided in human movement testing is crucial for understanding factors associated with movement characteristics and injury and should be considered in the future development of shoe design. PMID:29854000

  6. Two against one - a case for single-sided films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, L.

    1979-01-01

    The disadvantages of double-sided X-ray film include parallax between the double images where the film is angled to the central ray, and a cross-over effect where light from the front screen affects the back emulsion and vice versa. An investigation of the percentage of the total film density due to cross-over showed the effect varied from 28% to 47%, increasing with total density and faster screens. Kilovoltage had little influence on the effect. A single emulsion film with one screen gave an appreciable increase in radiographic sharpness and definition but required an increase by about 2.5 times in the exposure required. A very fast screen overcame this effect without comparable loss of detail. The use of single emulsion films should also reduce the thickness of cut and therefore improve sharpness in tomography. (UK)

  7. Modelling the side impact of carbon fibre tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudharsan, R; Rolfe, B F; Hodgson, P D

    2010-01-01

    Metallic tubes have been extensively studied for their crashworthiness as they closely resemble automotive crash rails. Recently, the demand to improve fuel economy and reduce vehicle emissions has led automobile manufacturers to explore the crash properties of light weight materials such as fibre reinforced polymer composites, metallic foams and sandwich structures in order to use them as crash barriers. This paper discusses the response of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) tubes and their failure mechanisms during side impact. The energy absorption of CFRP tubes is compared to similar Aluminium tubes. The response of the CFRP tubes during impact was modelled using Abaqus finite element software with a composite fabric material model. The material inputs were given based on standard tension and compression test results and the in-plane damage was defined based on cyclic shear tests. The failure modes and energy absorption observed during the tests were well represented by the finite element model.

  8. Slim edges in double-sided silicon 3D detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M; Dalla Betta, G-F; Bagolini, A; Boscardin, M; Giacomini, G; Vianello, E; Zorzi, N

    2012-01-01

    Minimization of the insensitive edge area is one of the key requirements for silicon radiation detectors to be used in future silicon trackers. In 3D detectors this goal can be achieved with the active edge, at the expense of a high fabrication process complexity. In the framework of the ATLAS 3D sensor collaboration, we produced modified 3D silicon sensors with a double-sided technology. While this approach is not suitable to obtain active edges, because it does not use a support wafer, it allows for a new type of edge termination, the slim edge. In this paper we report on the development of the slim edge, from numerical simulations to design and testing, proving that it works effectively without increasing the fabrication complexity of silicon 3D detectors, and that it could be further optimized to reduce the insensitive edge region to less than 100 μm.

  9. Reduced somatosensory impairment by piezosurgery during orthognathic surgery of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Phillipp; Hahn, Wolfram; Fenge, Stefan; Moser, Norman; Schliephake, Henning; Gruber, Rudolf Matthias

    2015-09-01

    This clinical trial aimed to test the hypothesis that piezosurgery causes reduced nerval irritations and, thus, reduced somatosensory impairment when used in orthognathic surgery of the mandible. To this end, 37 consecutive patients with Angle Class II and III malocclusion were treated using bilateral sagittal split osteotomies (BSSO) of the mandible. In a split mouth design, randomized one side of the mandible was operated using a conventional saw, while a piezosurgery device was used on the contralateral side. In order to test the individual qualities of somatosensory function, quantitative sensory testings (QSTs) were performed 1 month, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. A comparison of the data using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant reduction in postoperative impairment in warm detection threshold (WDT) (P = 0.046), a decreased dynamic mechanical allodynia (ALL) (P = 0.002) and a decreased vibration detection threshold (VDT) (P = 0.030) on the piezosurgery side of the mandible as opposed to the conventionally operated control side. In the remaining QSTs, minor deviations from the preoperative baseline conditions and a more rapid regression could be observed. Piezosurgery caused reduced somatosensory impairment and a faster recovery of somatosensory functions in the present investigation.

  10. Vortex interactions in a two side-by-side cylinder near-wake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.J.; Zhou, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The flow behind two side-by-side circular cylinders is experimentally investigated based on laser-illuminated flow-visualization, particle image velocimetry and hot-wire measurements. The flow is classified as three regimes: single street (the cylinder center-to-center spacing T/d 2.0). Special attention is given to the regime of 1.2 2.0, the flow structure change from the anti-phase to in-phase mode starts with a phase shift between gap vortices. The dynamical role of gap bleeding between cylinders for L/d < 1.2 is also examined

  11. The Variation of Interface Formation with Slurry Viscosity Change in Side-By-Side Tape Casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina; Jabbari, Masoud; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm

    Homogenous and flexible adjacently graded tapes were produced by casting the organic-based slurries simultaneously. To develop side-by-side tape casing (SBSTC), the material optimization, modernization of the doctor blade design, and parameters control of such processes as casting, drying, de......-bindering and sintering were studied. Solvent and binder concentrations were varied in order to optimize co-casting flow, as well as the drying and sintering shrinkage. Tapes were evaluated in terms of rheological behavior of the slurries, the green and sintered tape microstructure, the quality of the interface area...

  12. Combination of same-side with opposite-side flavour tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Calvo, M; Musy, M

    2010-01-01

    A considerable number of CP violation measurements require the most possible accurate knowledge of the flavour at production of the reconstructed $B$ meson. The performance of different flavour tagging methods will be measured from control channels. One of the possible tagging methods that can be used is the one known as $Same Side kaon$. In this note we present how to calibrate the response of the tagging algorithms using the data and combine the result with the so called $Opposite Side tagging$. Also trigger and selection effects are briefly discussed.

  13. Fluid-mediated stability and speed-increase for heaving hydrofoils swimming side-by-side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbolt, Joel; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif

    2017-11-01

    As an example of collective motion in active swimmers we study the fluid-mediated interaction between two heaving hydrofoils that swim with a fixed transverse separation (between the heaving mid-heights) but are free to independently choose their forward swimming speeds and positions. Experiments reveal that out-of-phase foils are attracted to a side-by-side configuration which also increases the swimming speed of the pair (up to 59% faster for our parameters), while in-phase foils are repelled from this configuration. Because this type of swimming is qualitatively similar to that of fish and birds this interaction could be important to schooling and flocking.

  14. Perioperative use of etoricoxib reduces pain and opioid side-effects after total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viscusi, Eugene R; Frenkl, Tara L; Hartrick, Craig T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effects of two different doses of etoricoxib delivered perioperatively compared with placebo and standard pain management on pain at rest, pain with mobilization, and use of additional morphine/opioids postoperatively. Research design and methods: In this double......-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, we evaluated postoperative pain following total abdominal hysterectomy over 5 days in patients receiving placebo or etoricoxib administered 90 min prior to surgery and continuing postoperatively. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n...... in the active treatment groups by ~10 hours vs. placebo. A greater proportion of patients on etoricoxib (10-30% greater than placebo) achieved mild levels of pain with movement, defined as pain pain measurements were not designated...

  15. Effect of side chain position on solar cell performance in cyclopentadithiophene-based copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kyu; Seo, Jung Hwa; Cho, Nam Sung; Cho, Shinuk

    2012-01-01

    The photovoltaic properties of a series of low band-gap conjugated copolymers, in which alkyl side chains were substituted at various positions, were investigated using donor–acceptor (D–A) conjugated copolymers consisting of a cyclopentadithiophene derivative and dithienyl-benzothiadiazole. The base polymer, which has no alkyl side chains, yielded promising power conversion efficiency of 3.8%. Polymers with alkyl side chains, however, exhibited significantly decreased performance. In addition, the effects of processing additive became negligible. The results indicate that substituted side chains, which were introduced to improve solubility, critically affected the optical and electronic properties of D–A conjugated copolymers. Furthermore, the position of the side chain was also very important for controlling the morphological properties of the D–A conjugated copolymers. - Highlights: ► Effect of side chain position on solar cell performance was investigated. ► Polymer without alkyl chains yielded promising power conversion efficiency of 3.8%. ► Position of side chains critically affected the optical and electronic properties.

  16. A one-sided sequential test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A.; Lux, I. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1996-04-16

    The applicability of the classical sequential probability ratio testing (SPRT) for early failure detection problems is limited by the fact that there is an extra time delay between the occurrence of the failure and its first recognition. Chien and Adams developed a method to minimize this time for the case when the problem can be formulated as testing the mean value of a Gaussian signal. In our paper we propose a procedure that can be applied for both mean and variance testing and that minimizes the time delay. The method is based on a special parametrization of the classical SPRT. The one-sided sequential tests (OSST) can reproduce the results of the Chien-Adams test when applied for mean values. (author).

  17. Grammars with two-sided contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Barash

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper (M. Barash, A. Okhotin, "Defining contexts in context-free grammars", LATA 2012, the authors introduced an extension of the context-free grammars equipped with an operator for referring to the left context of the substring being defined. This paper proposes a more general model, in which context specifications may be two-sided, that is, both the left and the right contexts can be specified by the corresponding operators. The paper gives the definitions and establishes the basic theory of such grammars, leading to a normal form and a parsing algorithm working in time O(n^4, where n is the length of the input string.

  18. Dual side control for inductive power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2017-09-12

    An apparatus for dual side control includes a measurement module that measures a voltage and a current of an IPT system. The voltage includes an output voltage and/or an input voltage and the current includes an output current and/or an input current. The output voltage and the output current are measured at an output of the IPT system and the input voltage and the input current measured at an input of the IPT system. The apparatus includes a max efficiency module that determines a maximum efficiency for the IPT system. The max efficiency module uses parameters of the IPT system to iterate to a maximum efficiency. The apparatus includes an adjustment module that adjusts one or more parameters in the IPT system consistent with the maximum efficiency calculated by the max efficiency module.

  19. Data model for Demand Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand Side Management (DSM is a portfolio of measures to improve the energy system mainly at the consumption level. In this paper we propose a data model for DSM stating from the optimization methods approach in SMARTRADE project from different perspectives of several entities that include: Transmission System Operator (TSO/Distribution System Operators (DSOs perspectives in case of security/reliability concerns: minimum amount of load (or generation shedding; aggregators perspective in case of demand or generation shedding request: Which demand (or generators should be shed?; consumers perspective: load shifting (time-of-use (ToU tariffs and optimum contract strategies with the aggregators (also known as balancing responsible parties- BRP for load shedding.

  20. COHERENT enlightenment of the neutrino dark side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Pilar; Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, Michele; Schwetz, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    In the presence of nonstandard neutrino interactions (NSI), oscillation data are affected by a degeneracy which allows the solar mixing angle to be in the second octant (also known as the dark side) and implies a sign flip of the atmospheric mass-squared difference. This leads to an ambiguity in the determination of the ordering of neutrino masses, one of the main goals of the current and future experimental neutrino program. We show that the recent observation of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering by the COHERENT experiment, in combination with global oscillation data, excludes the NSI degeneracy at the 3.1 σ (3.6 σ ) C.L. for NSI with up (down) quarks.

  1. Industrial demand side management: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, M.F.; Conger, R.L.; Foley, T.J. [and others

    1995-05-01

    This report provides an overview of and rationale for industrial demand side management (DSM) programs. Benefits and barriers are described, and data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey are used to estimate potential energy savings in kilowatt hours. The report presents types and examples of programs and explores elements of successful programs. Two in-depth case studies (from Boise Cascade and Eli Lilly and Company) illustrate two types of effective DSM programs. Interviews with staff from state public utility commissions indicate the current thinking about the status and future of industrial DSM programs. A comprehensive bibliography is included, technical assistance programs are listed and described, and a methodology for evaluating potential or actual savings from projects is delineated.

  2. Constraining the dark side with observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez-Tejedor, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to use the observational evidences pointing out to the existence of a dark side in the universe in order to infer some of the properties of the unseen material. We will work within the Unified Dark Matter models, in which both, Dark Matter and Dark Energy appear as the result of one unknown component. By modeling effectively this component with a classical scalar field minimally coupled to gravity, we will use the observations to constrain the form of the dark action. Using the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies we will see that we are restringed to the use of purely kinetic actions, previously studied in cosmology by Scherrer. Finally we arrive to a simple action which fits both cosmological and astrophysical observations

  3. Constraining the dark side with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Tejedor, Alberto [Dpto. de Fisica Teorica, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080, Bilbao (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    The main purpose of this talk is to use the observational evidences pointing out to the existence of a dark side in the universe in order to infer some of the properties of the unseen material. We will work within the Unified Dark Matter models, in which both, Dark Matter and Dark Energy appear as the result of one unknown component. By modeling effectively this component with a classical scalar field minimally coupled to gravity, we will use the observations to constrain the form of the dark action. Using the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies we will see that we are restringed to the use of purely kinetic actions, previously studied in cosmology by Scherrer. Finally we arrive to a simple action which fits both cosmological and astrophysical observations.

  4. Side effects from intense pulsed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Erlendsson, Andres M; Nash, J F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intense pulsed light (IPL) is a mainstream treatment for hair removal. Side effects after IPL are known, but risk factors remain to be investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of skin pigmentation, fluence level, and ultraviolet radiation...... stacking of 46 J/cm2. Areas were subsequently randomized to no UVR or single solar-simulated UVR exposure of 3 Standard Erythema Dose at 30 minutes or 24 hours after IPL. Each area had a corresponding control, resulting in 15 treatment sites. Follow-up visits were scheduled up to 4 weeks after IPL. Outcome...... measures were: (i) blinded clinical skin reactions; (ii) objectively measured erythema and pigmentation; (iii) pain measured by visual analog scale (VAS); (iv) histology (H&E, Fontana-Masson); and (v) mRNA-expression of p53. RESULTS: Fifteen subjects with FST II-IV completed the protocol. IPL induced...

  5. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF CONCURRENT TWO-SIDED LENS PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kozeruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to modernize technology for obtaining high-accuracy lenses with fine centre. Presently their operating surfaces are fixed  to an accessory with the help of adhesive substance that leads to elastic deformation in glass and causes local errors in lens parts.A mathematical model for concurrent two-sided processing of high-accuracy optical parts with spherical surfaces has been developed in the paper. The paper presents analytical expressions that permit to calculate sliding speed at any point on the processed spherical surface depending on type and value of technological equipment settings. Calculation of parameter Q = Pv in a diametric section of the convexo-concave lens has been carried out while using these expressions together with functional dependence of pressure on contact zone еarea of tool and part bedding surfaces.Theoretical and experimental investigations have been carried out with the purpose to study changes in Q parameter according to the processed lens surface for various setting parameters of the technological equipment and their optimum values ensuring preferential stock removal in the central or boundary part zone or uniform distribution of the removal along the whole processed surface have been determined in the paper.The paper proposes a machine tool scheme for concurrent two-sided grinding and polishing of lenses while fixing their side (cylindrical surface. Machine tool kinematics makes it possible flexibly and within wide limits to change its setting parameters  that significantly facilitates the control of form-building process of parts with highly-precise spherical surfaces.Methodology for investigations presupposes the following: mathematical simulation of highly-precise spherical surface form-building process under conditions of forced closing, execution of numerical and experimental studies.  

  6. Pulmonary hypertension associated with left-sided heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Micha Tobias; Schoch, Otto D; Kleiner, Rebekka; Joerg, Lucas; Weilenmann, Daniel; Swiss Society For Pulmonary Hypertension

    2017-01-19

    Pulmonary hypertension associated with left-sided heart disease (PH-LHD) is the most common type of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left-sided heart disease, the presence of pulmonary hypertension is typically a marker of more advanced disease, more severe symptoms, and worse prognosis. In contrast to pulmonary arterial hypertension, PH-LHD is characterised by an elevated pulmonary artery wedge pressure (postcapillary pulmonary hypertension) without or with an additional precapillary component (isolated postcapillary versus combined postcapillary and precapillary pulmonary hypertension). Transthoracic echocardiography is the primary nonin-vasive imaging tool to estimate the probability of pulmonary hypertension and to establish a working diagnosis on the mechanism of pulmonary hyperten-sion. However, right heart catheterisation is always required if significant pulmonary hypertension is sus-pected and exact knowledge of the haemodynamic constellation is necessary. The haemodynamic con-stellation (mean pulmonary artery pressure, mean pulmonary artery wedge pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure) in combination with clinical infor-mation and imaging findings (mainly echocardiog-raphy, coronary angiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging) will usually allow the exact mech-anism underlying PH-LHD to be defined, which is a prerequisite for appropriate treatment. The general principle for the management of PH-LHD is to treat the underlying left-sided heart disease in an optimal man-ner using drugs and/or interventional or surgical ther-apy. There is currently no established indication for pulmonary arterial hypertension-specific therapies in PH-LHD, and specific therapies may even cause harm in patients with PH-LHD.

  7. Antiepileptic drug behavioral side effects and baseline hyperactivity in children and adolescents with new onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Follansbee-Junger, Katherine; Smith, Aimee W; Combs, Angela; Ollier, Shannon; Hater, Brooke; Modi, Avani C

    2018-01-01

    To examine baseline psychological functioning and antiepileptic drug (AED) behavioral side effects in new onset epilepsy and determine, by age, whether baseline psychological functioning predicts AED behavioral side effects 1 month following AED initiation. A retrospective chart review was conducted between July 2011 and December 2014 that included youths with new onset epilepsy. As part of routine interdisciplinary care, caregivers completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition: Parent Rating Scale to report on baseline psychological functioning at the diagnostic visit and the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire to identify AED behavioral side effects at the 1-month follow-up clinic visit following AED initiation. Children (age = 2-11 years) and adolescents (age = 12-18 years) were examined separately. A total of 380 youths with new onset epilepsy (M age  = 8.9 ± 4.3 years; 83.4% Caucasian; 34.8% focal epilepsy, 41.1% generalized epilepsy, 23.7% unclassified epilepsy) were included. Seventy percent of youths had at-risk or clinically elevated baseline psychological symptoms. Children had significantly greater AED behavioral side effects (M = 25.08 ± 26.36) compared to adolescents (M = 12.36 ± 17.73), regardless of AED. Valproic acid demonstrated significantly greater behavioral side effects compared to all other AEDs, with the exception of levetiracetam. Higher hyperactivity/impulsivity at baseline significantly predicted higher AED behavioral side effects 1 month after AED initiation in both age groups. Younger children seem to be more prone to experience behavioral side effects, and these are likely to be higher if youths with epilepsy have baseline hyperactivity/impulsivity. Baseline psychological screening, specifically hyperactivity, can be used as a precision medicine tool for AED selection. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Therapeutic Touch Has Significant Effects on Mouse Breast Cancer Metastasis and Immune Responses but Not Primary Tumor Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Secor, Eric R; Flynn, John R; Jellison, Evan R; Kuhn, Liisa T

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based integrative medicine therapies have been introduced to promote wellness and offset side-effects from cancer treatment. Energy medicine is an integrative medicine technique using the human biofield to promote well-being. The biofield therapy chosen for study was Therapeutic Touch (TT). Breast cancer tumors were initiated in mice by injection of metastatic 66cl4 mammary carcinoma cells. The control group received only vehicle. TT or mock treatments were performed twice a week for 10 minutes. Two experienced TT practitioners alternated treatments. At 26 days, metastasis to popliteal lymph nodes was determined by clonogenic assay. Changes in immune function were measured by analysis of serum cytokines and by fluorescent activated cells sorting (FACS) of immune cells from the spleen and lymph nodes. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or tumor size. Metastasis was significantly reduced in the TT-treated mice compared to mock-treated mice. Cancer significantly elevated eleven cytokines. TT significantly reduced IL-1-a, MIG, IL-1b, and MIP-2 to control/vehicle levels. FACS demonstrated that TT significantly reduced specific splenic lymphocyte subsets and macrophages were significantly elevated with cancer. Human biofield therapy had no significant effect on primary tumor but produced significant effects on metastasis and immune responses in a mouse breast cancer model.

  9. Research on Battery Energy Storage System Based on User Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Yichi; Yun, Zejian; Wang, Xuguang; Zhang, Dong; Bian, Di

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces the effect of user side energy storage on the user side and the network side, a battery energy storage system for the user side is designed. The main circuit topology of the battery energy storage system based on the user side is given, the structure is mainly composed of two parts: DC-DC two-way half bridge converter and DC-AC two-way converter, a control strategy combining battery charging and discharging characteristics is proposed to decouple the grid side and the energy storage side, and the block diagram of the charging and discharging control of the energy storage system is given. The simulation results show that the battery energy storage system of the user side can not only realize reactive power compensation of low-voltage distribution network, but also improve the power quality of the users.

  10. Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation KidsHealth / For Parents / Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation What's in this article? What to ...

  11. Side-Scan-Sonar Points for Hudson River, NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Side Scan Point Files. These points correspond to individual pings which produced hte side-scan-sonar backscatter imagery. Sonar data were collected November 6 to...

  12. Chemotherapy Side Effects: A Cause of Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can chemotherapy side effects increase the risk of heart disease? Answers from Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. Chemotherapy side effects may increase the risk of heart disease, including weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and ...

  13. Emerging technologies for demand side management. Demand side management jitsugen no tame no saishin gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H; Iyoda, I [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-11-05

    This paper explains the latest situation in hardware technologies to realize the demand side management, divided into the following technologies: communications technology, measurement technology, client information system technology, load controlling technology, home automation technology, and energy storing and saving technologies. Speaking of the communications technology, information exchange between the supply side and the demand side is important in the demand side management, whereas a technology intended of automatic power distribution and automatic meter-reading is advancing in development. The technology covers transmissions using from power lines and telephone lines to optical cables and wireless communications. Power line communications using power transmission lines as communication lines are simple and economical, but weak against noise, and not suitable for long-distance communications. Wireless communications have been drawing attentions along with the development of mobile communication device technologies. These technologies will give benefits to electric power companies in the initial stage of their use, such as for load investigation and general automation in power distribution. They would shift to benefiting users in about 2010 covering from security information such as about power interruption to publicity information and educations. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Not all side effects associated with tricyclic antidepressant therapy are true side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiwan, Syed; Drossman, Douglas A; Morris, Carolyn B; Dalton, Chris; Toner, Brenda B; Diamant, Nicholas E; Hu, J B; Whitehead, William E; Leserman, Jane; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I

    2009-04-01

    Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders treated with tricyclic antidepressants sometimes report nongastrointestinal symptoms; it is unclear whether these are drug side effects or reflect a behavioral tendency to report symptoms. We evaluated whether symptoms reported before treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant (desipramine) increased in number or worsened in severity after 2 weeks of treatment and assessed the baseline factors that predispose patients to report symptoms. Female patients in a multicenter National Institutes of Health trial for functional bowel disorders completed a 15-item symptom questionnaire at baseline (before randomization), 2 weeks after they were given desipramine (n = 81) or placebo (n = 40), and at study completion (12 weeks). Patients were asked about the severity and frequency of 15 symptoms. Results were analyzed from 57 patients given desipramine who completed the questionnaires. Symptoms reported as side effects to have occurred more frequently and also worsened at week 2 in the group given desipramine included dizziness, dry mouth/thirstiness, lightheadedness, jittery feelings/tremors, and flushing. Symptoms that did not change in severity or showed improvement at week 2 in the group given desipramine included morning tiredness, nausea, blurred vision, headaches, appetite reduction, and trouble sleeping. Psychologic distress but not desipramine blood level correlated with symptom reporting. Most symptoms often attributed to side effects of desipramine were present before treatment; only a few, related to anticholinergic effects, worsened 2 weeks after treatment, suggesting that most so-called side effects were not associated specifically with desipramine use. Such symptoms might instead be associated with psychologic distress.

  15. Quantitative flow characteristics for side-by-side square cylinders via PIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Sercan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, instantaneous and time-averaged flow structures downstream of the sharp-edged single and two and three side-by-side square cylinders (SCs immersed in a uniform open channel water flow were studied by a technique of particle image velocimetry (PIV. Experimental results of wake flow structures were presented for gap ratios (G/D in the range of 1.0”G/D”3.0 for Reynolds number values of 1050, 2450 and 3400. Flow structures depending on the square cylinder (SC configurations and Reynolds number were discussed. It has been found that the development of the vortex shedding as well as the flow structure were substantially altered for side-by-side SCs comparing to the single SC. Asymmetrical and biased wake structures were observed because of the jetlike flow between the SCs for two SCs cases for the gap ratio less than 2.0. Depending on the gap spacing between the SCs, the interaction results of time2 averaged vorticity, velocity vector field, Reynolds stress correlations and streamline patterns in the wake region form a distinguished flow structure. Strouhal numbers for the single square cylinder for 1050≤Re≤3400 are found in the range of 0.12-0.13. The present results have supported the previous works by providing detailed quantitative experimental information with PIV in the wake region of the SC and might be helpful for validation of numerical studies and designers.

  16. Side effects of radiotherapy in regime of dynamic dose multifractioning for local larynx cancer forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobina, E.L.

    2000-01-01

    A regime for dynamic multifractioning of radiotherapy dose used for treating larynx cancer was developed. The method favored reducing the side effects frequency as compared with the conventional fractioning in larynx mucosa from 70% to 46%, in neck skin being irradiated - from 60% to 48%

  17. Analysis and Design of Double-sided Air core Linear Servo Motor with Trapezoidal Permanent Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuqiu; Yang, Zilong; Yu, Minghu

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce the thrust ripple of linear servo system, a double-sided air core permanent magnet linear servo motor with trapezoidal shape permanent magnets (TDAPMLSM) is proposed in this paper. An analytical model of the motor for predicting the magnetic field in the air-gap at no...

  18. Medication side effects among people with epilepsy taking phenobarbital in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elafros, Melissa A; Bui, Esther; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2014-11-01

    Phenobarbital remains one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs worldwide, yet there are limited data regarding side effects associated with its use in routine clinical care settings in low-income countries. Available data suggests that phenobarbital is as effective as other first-line drugs for treating tonic-clonic seizures, but side effect reports differ widely between high and low-income settings. A better understanding of phenobarbital side effect profile and severity in low-income settings is warranted given its role in efforts to decrease the epilepsy treatment gap. We used the Liverpool adverse events profile (LEAP) to assess side effects in consecutive patients with epilepsy on phenobarbital seeking care in rural Zambia. Data regarding age, gender, medication dose, and medication adherence were also collected. T-tests and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess predictors of LEAP score and medication adherence. Thirty-five patients receiving a mean dose of 2.1mg/kg/day (SD: 2.78 mg/kg/day) of phenobarbital were assessed. All participants reported at least one side effect in the previous four weeks with a median of 6 symptoms (IQR: 4-8) and a mean side effects score of 28/76 (SD: 5.38). Over half reported sleepiness and dizziness. Memory problems and depression were also common (both 46%). Total LAEP score was not associated with age (p=0.88), gender (p=0.17), or phenobarbital dose (p=0.13). Medication adherence was not associated with side effects total score (p=0.56). Rural Zambian adults taking phenobarbital at doses recommended by the World Health Organization report a significant number of side effects. The most common side effects reported were similar to those reported in high-income countries. The significant burden of phenobarbital-associated side effects in this African cohort is in contrast to data from non-randomized clinical trials in China that reported phenobarbital to be well-tolerated with few side effects. Additional

  19. Volumetric modulated arc therapy and breath-hold in image-guided locoregional left-sided breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Sarah O.S.; Hol, Sandra; Poortmans, Philip M.; Essers, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and/or voluntary moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (vmDIBH) in the radiation therapy (RT) of left-sided breast cancer including the regional lymph nodes. Materials and methods: For 13 patients, four treatment combinations were compared; 3D-conformal RT (i.e., forward IMRT) in free-breathing 3D-CRT(FB), 3D-CRT(vmDIBH), 2 partial arcs VMAT(FB), and VMAT(vmDIBH). Prescribed dose was 42.56 Gy in 16 fractions. For 10 additional patients, 3D-CRT and VMAT in vmDIBH only were also compared. Results: Dose conformity, PTV coverage, ipsilateral and total lung doses were significantly better for VMAT plans compared to 3D-CRT. Mean heart dose (D mean,heart ) reduction in 3D-CRT(vmDIBH) was between 0.9 and 8.6 Gy, depending on initial D mean,heart (in 3D-CRT(FB) plans). VMAT(vmDIBH) reduced the D mean,heart further when D mean,heart was still >3.2 Gy in 3D-CRT(vmDIBH). Mean contralateral breast dose was higher for VMAT plans (2.7 Gy) compared to 3DCRT plans (0.7 Gy). Conclusions: VMAT and 3D-CRT(vmDIBH) significantly reduced heart dose for patients treated with locoregional RT of left-sided breast cancer. When D mean,heart exceeded 3.2 Gy in 3D-CRT(vmDIBH) plans, VMAT(vmDIBH) resulted in a cumulative heart dose reduction. VMAT also provided better target coverage and reduced ipsilateral lung dose, at the expense of a small increase in the dose to the contralateral breast

  20. Rarity of invasiveness in right-sided infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Syed T; Shrestha, Nabin K; Witten, James

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The rarity of invasiveness of right-sided infective endocarditis (IE) compared with left-sided has not been well recognized and evaluated. Thus, we compared invasiveness of right- versus left-sided IE in surgically treated patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2002 to January 20...