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Sample records for significantly reduced micronuclei

  1. MICRONUCLEI: A PROGNOSTIC TOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Ankit; Rinky; Manisha; Sonalika; Anand; Sanyog

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is one the most common oral mucosal malignant tumor, diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma rarely presents difficulty, it is the cancer staging and histo pathological grading that are more important for prognosis, micronuclei are good prognostic indicator. Micronuclei screening can be done easily by exfoliative cytology, one of the most valuable diagnostic method other than routine histopathology (H and E-stained sections) and immunohistochemist...

  2. Sucralfate significantly reduces ciprofloxacin concentrations in serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrelts, J C; Godley, P J; Peterie, J D; Gerlach, E H; Yakshe, C C

    1990-01-01

    The effect of sucralfate on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in eight healthy subjects utilizing a randomized, crossover design. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h was reduced from 8.8 to 1.1 micrograms.h/ml by sucralfate (P less than 0.005). Similarly, the maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in serum was reduced from 2.0 to 0.2 micrograms/ml (P less than 0.005). We conclude that concurrent ingestion of sucralfate significantly reduces the concentr...

  3. Quilting after mastectomy significantly reduces seroma formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduce or prevent seroma formation among mastectomy patients ... of this prospective study is to evaluate the effect of surgical quilting ... Seroma was more common in smokers (p=0.003) and was not decreased by the .... explain its aetiology.

  4. Micronuclei Frequency in Radiation Worker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudprasert, Wanwisa; Jungtanasombut, Amornrat; Pakkong, Pannee

    2009-07-01

    Full text: The purpose of this study is to determine the micronuclei (MN) frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 31 individuals occupationally exposed to radiation compared to 24 controls. The effect of donor gender, age, alcoholic consumption, tea/coffee consumption and radiation burden on MN frequency was studied. The results showed that MN frequencies observed for exposed employees were significantly higher than in controls (p = 0.000). The average MN frequency in control was 39.1 ± 3.7 MN/1000 BN while those of exposed group were 60.9 ± 12.3, 61.6 ± 13.0 and 62.6 ± 11.8 MN/1000 BN for the range of accumulative doses at 0.01-3.00, 3.01-6.00 and 6.01-9.00 mSv, respectively. Moreover, MN frequency showed a positive trend with increased accumulative doses as a linear-quadratic relation (R 2 = 0.4754). No correlation of MN frequency with gender, age and alcoholic consumption could be observed in both exposed and control groups. However, the effect of tea/coffee consumption on MN frequency was clearly observed in the exposed individuals (t-test = -2.018, sig. (2-tailed) = 0.030). These results indicate that the increased MN frequency, an indicator of chromosomal aberration, is associated with occupational exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation

  5. Effect of radiosensitizer BSO on the incidence of micronuclei in cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yizun; Cai Rongmei; Ding Li; Shen Zhifen; Xu Liming; Yang Jiakuan

    1992-01-01

    The effects of BSO, a potent radiosensitizing and chemical sensitizing chemical, on the incidence of micronuclei in four different cell lines have been studied using the cytokinesis-block (CB) method. The number of micronuclei in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes, Chinese hamster cells and human breast cancer cells were not affected by 0.1-2 mmol/L BSO treatment alone. However, significant increase in the incidence of micronuclei in these cells could be detected when BSO was used in combination with γ-irradiation. Linear relationship between the incidence of micronuclei and the radiation dose was observed

  6. Automated Detection of Binucleated Cell and Micronuclei using CellProfiler 2.0 Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI RAMADHANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Micronucleus assay in human peripheral lymphocytes usually used to assess chromosomal damage. Manual scoring of micronuclei can be time consuming and large numbers of binucleated cells have to be analyzed to obtain statistically relevant data. Automation of the micronuclei analysis using image processing analysis software can provide a faster and more reliable analysis of micronucleus assay. Here the used of CellProfiler an open access cell image analysis software for automatic detection of binucleated cells and micronuclei were reported. We aimed to know whether there was a significant difference in the number of binucleated cells and micronuclei that obtained by manual and CellProfiler counting. Wilcoxon Rank test was used for statistical analysis to test H0 hypothesis that there was no significant difference in the number of binucleated cells and micronuclei that obtained by manual and CellProfiler counting. We analyzed 135 images for both manual and CellProfiler counting. Our results showed that there was no significant difference between manual and CellProfiler counting for binucleated cells (P = 0.851 and for micronuclei (P = 0.917. In conclusion, the binucleated cells and micronuclei counting using CellProfiler were comparable but not better than manual counting.

  7. Environmental lead exposure increases micronuclei in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapka, Lucyna; Baumgartner, Adolf; Siwińska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the contribution of environmental exposures to lead in the development of cytogenetic damage detected as the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in children. The other aim was to apply the MN assay in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization...... age from an unexposed recreational area. Exposure to lead was assessed by determination of lead concentrations in blood (PbB) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas the level of selenium (Se) in serum was detected by using graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. The frequency of MN...... was determined by the cytokinesis-block MN assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization performed using a specific pan-centromeric probe. Environmental exposure to lead resulted in significantly increased levels of PbB (5.29 +/- 2.09 versus 3.45 +/- 1.20 microg/dl in controls), although the average level...

  8. Micronuclei in lymphocytes from currently active uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoelzer, Friedo; Freitinger Skalicka, Zuzana; Havrankova, Renata; Hon, Zdenek; Rosina, Jozef; Navratil, Leos; Skopek, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Micronuclei can be used as markers of past radiation exposure, but only few studies have dealt with uranium miners. In this paper, we report on micronuclei in lymphocytes from individuals currently working at Rozna, Czech Republic, the last functioning uranium mine in the European Union. A modified micronucleus-centromere test was applied to assess the occurrence of micronuclei in stimulated lymphocytes, as well as their content in terms of whole chromosomes or fragments. Compared with unexposed individuals, the miners had higher frequencies of micronucleus-containing lymphocytes and higher percentages of micronuclei without centromeres, and the differences were significant for both parameters (0.74 ± 0.60 vs. 0.50 ± 0.42, p = 0.017 and 49 ± 44 vs. 12 ± 21, p = 0.0002; means ± standard deviations). There were also significant correlations between one or other of these parameters on the one hand and various dose values on the other, in particular with a 'retrievable' dose, that is, a dose whose effect should still be recognisable in lymphocytes assuming a half-life of 3 years. The 'retrievable' dose at which a doubling of the micronucleus frequency was observed was around 35 mSv, corresponding to a total dose of 90 mSv received while working in the mines. Altogether, our data show that the micronucleus-centromere test is a valuable tool for the assessment of past radiation exposure in uranium miners. The scatter in the data is of course far too great to allow individual dosimetry, but for groups of a few dozen exposed individuals, the method can be used to monitor doses clearly below 100 mSv. (orig.)

  9. Micronuclei in breast aspirates. Is scoring them helpful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hemalatha

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: An increase in micronuclei values was seen from fibroadenoma to infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Micronuclei scoring can be used as a biomarker on fine needle aspiration cytology smears of breast carcinoma.

  10. Micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes of medical personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noditi, M.; Draghia, L.; Popescu, D.; Cincu, E.

    2006-01-01

    Bio monitoring of occupational exposures relies on surveillance of exposure and its biological consequences. The measurement of micronuclei in population of exposed cells is a cytogenetic end point used for estimation purposes. To ensure that only dividing cells are scored, cells are treated with cytochalasin B, which blocks cytokinesis and results in bi nucleated cells. Only the bi nucleated cells are evaluated for the formation of micronuclei. In 2004-2005 there have been analyzed and compared two groups of medical staff occupationally exposed to X-rays by using micronucleus test. The first group consisted in 9 doctors and nurses specialized in interventional cardiology from the Institute of Cardiology - Timisoara, Romania, males and females, smokers and nonsmokers. The mean age was 41.5 years and the mean duration of employment 10.6 years. According to personal dosimeters, some of them have had an overdose exposure. The other group consisted in 19 doctors and nurses from the radiology department of several hospitals from Timisoara with the mean age of 48.3 years and the mean duration of employment of 17.8 years. According to personal dosimeters, none of them have had an overdose exposure. The recorded frequency of micronuclei was 62.6/1000 bi nucleated cells for the interventional cardiology personnel. There have been observed cells with 2, 3 and even 5 micronuclei. For the radiology department personnel the frequency of micronuclei was 15.4/1000 bi nucleated cells and the appearance of cells with more than one micronucleus was exceptional. In general, there was a tendency of accumulation of micronuclei with age but the correlation with the age of employment was rather unclear. Due to low doses exposure confounding factors could exist. For instance, a proportion of micronuclei are formed because of other mutagen factors from the environment or smoking habit. Nevertheless the exposure of interventional cardiology personnel is more consistent and further

  11. Micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes of medical personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noditi, M.; Draghia, L.; Popescu, D. [Institute of Public Health ' Prof. Dr. Leonida Georgescu' Timisoara (Romania); Cincu, E. [University of Agriculture Sciences of Banat, Timisoara (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    Bio monitoring of occupational exposures relies on surveillance of exposure and its biological consequences. The measurement of micronuclei in population of exposed cells is a cytogenetic end point used for estimation purposes. To ensure that only dividing cells are scored, cells are treated with cytochalasin B, which blocks cytokinesis and results in bi nucleated cells. Only the bi nucleated cells are evaluated for the formation of micronuclei. In 2004-2005 there have been analyzed and compared two groups of medical staff occupationally exposed to X-rays by using micronucleus test. The first group consisted in 9 doctors and nurses specialized in interventional cardiology from the Institute of Cardiology - Timisoara, Romania, males and females, smokers and nonsmokers. The mean age was 41.5 years and the mean duration of employment 10.6 years. According to personal dosimeters, some of them have had an overdose exposure. The other group consisted in 19 doctors and nurses from the radiology department of several hospitals from Timisoara with the mean age of 48.3 years and the mean duration of employment of 17.8 years. According to personal dosimeters, none of them have had an overdose exposure. The recorded frequency of micronuclei was 62.6/1000 bi nucleated cells for the interventional cardiology personnel. There have been observed cells with 2, 3 and even 5 micronuclei. For the radiology department personnel the frequency of micronuclei was 15.4/1000 bi nucleated cells and the appearance of cells with more than one micronucleus was exceptional. In general, there was a tendency of accumulation of micronuclei with age but the correlation with the age of employment was rather unclear. Due to low doses exposure confounding factors could exist. For instance, a proportion of micronuclei are formed because of other mutagen factors from the environment or smoking habit. Nevertheless the exposure of interventional cardiology personnel is more consistent and further

  12. cGAS Conducts Micronuclei DNA Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Mann, Carina C; Kranzusch, Philip J

    2017-10-01

    DNA damage elicits a potent proinflammatory immune response. A collection of four papers now reveals that micronuclear DNA is a new cell intrinsic immunostimulatory molecule, and that accumulation of the immune sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) in micronuclei leads to a cell-cycle-dependent proinflammatory response following DNA damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corrina A

    2014-10-01

    Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these 'meat' alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Next-generation nozzle check valve significantly reduces operating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roorda, O. [SMX International, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Check valves perform an important function in preventing reverse flow and protecting plant and mechanical equipment. However, the variety of different types of valves and extreme differences in performance even within one type can change maintenance requirements and life cycle costs, amounting to millions of dollars over the typical 15-year design life of piping components. A next-generation non-slam nozzle check valve which prevents return flow has greatly reduced operating costs by protecting the mechanical equipment in a piping system. This article described the check valve varieties such as the swing check valve, a dual-plate check valve, and nozzle check valves. Advancements in optimized design of a non-slam nozzle check valve were also discussed, with particular reference to computer flow modelling such as computational fluid dynamics; computer stress modelling such as finite element analysis; and flow testing (using rapid prototype development and flow loop testing), both to improve dynamic performance and reduce hydraulic losses. The benefits of maximized dynamic performance and minimized pressure loss from the new designed valve were also outlined. It was concluded that this latest non-slam nozzle check valve design has potential applications in natural gas, liquefied natural gas, and oil pipelines, including subsea applications, as well as refineries, and petrochemical plants among others, and is suitable for horizontal and vertical installation. The result of this next-generation nozzle check valve design is not only superior performance, and effective protection of mechanical equipment but also minimized life cycle costs. 1 fig.

  15. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekis, Nejc [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mc Entee, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mcentee@ucd.i [School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin 4 (Ireland); Stegnar, Peter [Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p {<=} 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p {<=} 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p {<=} 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p {<=} 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p {<=} 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p {<=} 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  16. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekis, Nejc; Mc Entee, Mark F.; Stegnar, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p ≤ 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p ≤ 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p ≤ 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p ≤ 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p ≤ 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p ≤ 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  17. Induction of micronuclei in the mouse. Revised timing of the final stage of erythropoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, J.W. (Leo Pharmaceutical Products Ltd., Ballerup (Denmark)); Hartley-Asp, B. (AB Leo, Helsingborg (Sweden))

    1983-05-01

    the early effects of X-rays, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, quinacrine dihydrochloride, cycloheximide, actinomycin D and hydroxyurea on the induction of micronuclei in mouse bone-marrow erythrocytes were studied. A significant increase in the incidence of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes was seen as early as 5 h after a single treatment with vincristine, 6 h after treatment with X-rays and 10 h after treatment with cyclophosphamide. The cell kinetics of the mouse erythropoietic system described by Cole et al. (1981) can be modified to fit these results. According to this revised model, the final mitosis takes place only 5 h before the expulsion of the nucleus.

  18. Induction of micronuclei in the mouse. Revised timing of the final stage of erythropoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.W.; Hartley-Asp, B.

    1983-01-01

    the early effects of X-rays, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, quinacrine dihydrochloride, cycloheximide, actinomycin D and hydroxyurea on the induction of micronuclei in mouse bone-marrow erythrocytes were studied. A significant increase in the incidence of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes was seen as early as 5 h after a single treatment with vincristine, 6 h after treatment with X-rays and 10 h after treatment with cyclophosphamide. The cell kinetics of the mouse erythropoietic system described by Cole et al. (1981) can be modified to fit these results. According to this revised model, the final mitosis takes place only 5 h before the expulsion of the nucleus. (orig.)

  19. Protective effect of red wine on the frequency of micronuclei in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, M.; Joksic, G.

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of red wines 'Cabernet Sauvignon' on the micronuclei formation in human lymphocytes. Blood samples of healthy volunteers were irratiated in vitro using 60 Co as a source of radiation, dose of 2Gy. Irradiated samples, as well as unirradiated controls, were treated with concentrations of red wine ranged from 100-500 ml/2x106 cells. Obtained results demonstrated significant decrease of the micronuclei frequency (t=9.14; p0.05) in treated samples versus untreated controls. The results of our study demonstrated radioprotective effect of red wine

  20. Discrimination between micronuclei induced by spindle poisons and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discrimination between micronuclei induced by spindle poisons and clastogens by using toad bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes. ... Egyptian Journal of Biology ... The used chemicals induced high percentages of micronuclei with variable sizes, which clarify the sensitivity of bone marrow cells of Bufo regularis to ...

  1. Induction and prevention of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes exposed to the light of halogen tungsten lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostini, F; Caimo, A; De Filippi, S; De Flora, S

    1999-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that the light emitted by halogen tungsten lamps contains UV radiation in the UV-A, UV-B and UV-C regions, induces mutations and irreparable DNA damage in bacteria, enhances the frequency of micronuclei in cultured human lymphocytes and is potently carcinogenic to the skin of hairless mice. The present study showed that the light emitted by an uncovered, traditional halogen lamp induces a significant, dose-related and time-related increase not only in micronuclei but also in chromosome-type aberrations, such as breaks, and even more in chromatid-type aberrations, such as isochromatid breaks, exchanges and isochromatid/chromatid interchanges, all including gaps or not, in cultured human lymphocytes. All these genotoxic effects were completely prevented by shielding the same lamp with a silica glass cover, blocking UV radiation. A new model of halogen lamp, having the quartz bulb treated in order to reduce the output of UV radiation, was considerably less genotoxic than the uncovered halogen lamp, yet induction of chromosomal alterations was observed at high illuminance levels.

  2. Epigenetic Alterations and an Increased Frequency of Micronuclei in Women with Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Menzies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM, characterized by chronic widespread pain, fatigue, and cognitive/mood disturbances, leads to reduced workplace productivity and increased healthcare expenses. To determine if acquired epigenetic/genetic changes are associated with FM, we compared the frequency of spontaneously occurring micronuclei (MN and genome-wide methylation patterns in women with FM (n=10 to those seen in comparably aged healthy controls (n=42 (MN; n=8 (methylation. The mean (sd MN frequency of women with FM (51.4 (21.9 was significantly higher than that of controls (15.8 (8.5 (χ2=45.552; df = 1; P=1.49×10-11. Significant differences (n=69 sites in methylation patterns were observed between cases and controls considering a 5% false discovery rate. The majority of differentially methylated (DM sites (91% were attributable to increased values in the women with FM. The DM sites included significant biological clusters involved in neuron differentiation/nervous system development, skeletal/organ system development, and chromatin compaction. Genes associated with DM sites whose function has particular relevance to FM included BDNF, NAT15, HDAC4, PRKCA, RTN1, and PRKG1. Results support the need for future research to further examine the potential role of epigenetic and acquired chromosomal alterations as a possible biological mechanism underlying FM.

  3. Evaluation of genotoxicity through micronuclei test in workers of car and battery repair garages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino-Roth M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the micronuclei test (MNT was applied in exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa, in order to evaluate the genotoxic risk associated with occupational exposure of mechanics, storage battery renovation workers, and car painters. For each individual, 3000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed. There was a significantly higher frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC in the exposed workers than in controls. Smoking and drinking habits, age, and working time did not represent significant factors in terms of increasing the production of micronuclei (MN, when the control and the exposed groups were compared. These results allowed to conclude that the studied individuals belong to a risk group and should periodically undergo biological monitoring and proper care.

  4. Potent radio-protective effects of vitamins E and C on radiation induced DNA damage in gametes leading to lower frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in subsequent embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossein Mozdarani

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: To compare the effects of parental and maternal exposure of NMRI mice with γ-rays on gametes in the absence or presence of vitamins E and C and subsequent cytogenetic damage in pre-implantation embryos generated from irradiated gametes. Materials and Methods: Male and female NMRI mice were whole body irradiated in the presence of 200 IU/Kg vitamin E and 100 μg/ml vitamin C. Various mating schemes were designed for mating of irradiated mice, e.g. mating irradiated male with non-irradiated female, irradiated female with non irradiated male or both male and female irradiated. About 68 h post coitus, 4-8-cell embryos were flushed out from oviducts and fixed on slides using standard methods in order to screen for chromosome abnormalities and micronuclei. Results: In control embryos, frequencies of abnormal metaphase and embryos with micronuclei was low and there was no significant difference between vitamins treated samples and controls. However there was an increase in both abnormal metaphases and micronuclei frequency in embryos generated after parental or maternal irradiation or both. Vitamin E effectively reduced the frequency of aneuploidy in all irradiated groups and vitamin C was very effective in reducing the frequencies of micronuclei. DRF calculated for both vitamins indicate that vitamin C is more potent than vitamin E in reducing clastogenic effects of gamma-rays in pre-implantation embryos. Conclusion: Data indicate that γ-irradiation affects spermatogenesis and preovulatory stage oocytes in male and female mice respectively. These effects might be due to DNA alterations in sperms and oocytes affecting meiotic segregations that may lead to chromosome abnormalities in subsequent embryos expressed as numerical chromosome abnormalities or micronuclei. Administration of vitamins E and C before irradiation effectively reduced the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities. The way these vitamins reduces genotoxic

  5. Micronuclei induction in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles by the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Alejandra Campana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin genotoxicity was evaluated using the micronucleus test in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles. The effects of concentration and exposure time on the micronuclei frequency were studied in blood smears obtained from tadpoles exposed to four concentrations (0.02, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/L of the compound for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and 8, 15, 20 and 30 days. As a positive control, tadpoles were exposed to cyclophosphamide (5 mg/L. The micronucleated cell frequency was expressed per 1,000 cells. R. catesbeiana tadpoles exposed to increasing concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin showed an increase in the micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood. Tadpoles exposed to cyclophosphamide (CP also showed a significant increase in micronucleated erythrocytes which peaked after 15 days. These results suggest that R. catesbeiana tadpoles may provide a useful model for monitoring water pollution.

  6. Investigation of micronuclei induction in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to EMF RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomiets, Irina A.; Triapitsina, Galina A.; Polevik, Nikolai D.; Pryakhin, Evgeny A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The widespread application of cellular phones is of great concern in view possible consequences for human health. The aim of this study is to assess the capability of electromagnetic fields (EMF) RF with frequency 925 MHz and modulation 217 Hz to induce genotoxic effects as evaluated by the in vitro micronucleus assay on peripheral blood lymphocytes. The flasks of peripheral blood samples collected from healthy volunteers (5 men and 5 women) were placed just on the oscillator of emitting antenna. The signals were produced by the laboratory research plant and were evaluated at four specific absorption rates (SARs) - 0; 0.29; 1.2; 8.1 W/kg. SARs were determined by the calorimetric method. Phytohaemagglutinin stimulated lymphocytes were exposed three times for 10 minutes in the G o (the first 30 minutes after the beginning of cultivation), S (24 hours later), G 2 -M (after 48 hours from the beginning of cultivation) stages of the cell cycle. 72-hours cultures of lymphocytes were examined to determine the extent of micronuclei. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate the significance for comparison. The data indicated a significant increase of micronuclei in human lymphocytes exposed to EMF RF (6.5 ± 0.51 0/00; 7.1 ± 0.66 0/00; 7.0 ± 0.50 0/00) in comparison with sham-exposed lymphocytes (3.0 ± 0.60 0/00). There was not revealed a dose-dependent increase of micronuclei in human lymphocytes. It was suggested that the increase of micronuclei in lymphocytes is explicated by a particularity of EMF RF just near the oscillator of emitting antenna. (author)

  7. Generation of micronuclei during interphase by coupling between cytoplasmic membrane blebbing and nuclear budding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh-ichi Utani

    Full Text Available Micronucleation, mediated by interphase nuclear budding, has been repeatedly suggested, but the process is still enigmatic. In the present study, we confirmed the previous observation that there are lamin B1-negative micronuclei in addition to the positive ones. A large cytoplasmic bleb was found to frequently entrap lamin B1-negative micronuclei, which were connected to the nucleus by a thin chromatin stalk. At the bottom of the stalk, the nuclear lamin B1 structure appeared broken. Chromatin extrusion through lamina breaks has been referred to as herniation or a blister of the nucleus, and has been observed after the expression of viral proteins. A cell line in which extrachromosomal double minutes and lamin B1 protein were simultaneously visualized in different colors in live cells was established. By using these cells, time-lapse microscopy revealed that cytoplasmic membrane blebbing occurred simultaneously with the extrusion of nuclear content, which generated lamin B1-negative micronuclei during interphase. Furthermore, activation of cytoplasmic membrane blebbing by the addition of fresh serum or camptothecin induced nuclear budding within 1 to 10 minutes, which suggested that blebbing might be the cause of the budding. After the induction of blebbing, the frequency of lamin-negative micronuclei increased. The budding was most frequent during S phase and more efficiently entrapped small extrachromosomal chromatin than the large chromosome arm. Based on these results, we suggest a novel mechanism in which cytoplasmic membrane dynamics pulls the chromatin out of the nucleus through the lamina break. Evidence for such a mechanism was obtained in certain cancer cell lines including human COLO 320 and HeLa. The mechanism could significantly perturb the genome and influence cancer cell phenotypes.

  8. Genotoxic potential evaluation of a cosmetic insoluble substance by the micronuclei assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, N; Shah, V; Minko, T

    2011-01-01

    An optical brightener (OB) powder (INCI: sodium silicoaluminate (and) glycidoxypropyl trimethyloxysilane/PEI-250 cross fluorescent brightener 230 salt (and) polyvinylalcohol crosspolymer) that is used in cosmetic facial products was tested for its genotoxic potential using the micronuclei test (MNT). It is a solid dry powder with an average size of 5 microns that is insoluble but dispersible in water. This study describes the exposure of cell culture to positive controls with and without enzymatic activation and to the test compound in different concentrations. We evaluated three end points: microscopic observation and quantification of micronuclei formation, and cell viability and proliferation. Both positive controls induced significant changes that were observed under the microscope and quantified. Based on its chemical nature, it was not anticipated that the test substance will degrade under the conditions of the experiments. However, the test is required to make sure that when solublized, impurities that may be present, even at trace levels, will not induce a genotoxic effect. The test compound did not promote micronuclei formation or change the viability or proliferation rate of cells. During this study we faced challenges such as solubilization and correlating viability data to genotoxicity data. These are described in the body of the paper. We believe that with the emergence of the 7(th) European amendment that bans animal testing, sharing these data and the study protocol serves as a key in building the understanding of the utilization of in vitro studies in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

  9. Micronuclei rate in workers of Novi Han radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atamasova, P.; Hadjidekova, V.

    2003-01-01

    A cytogenetic study has been carried out by the micronucleus test of lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of 30 workers from the Novi Han radioactive waste repository. The results are compared to the results of a control group of 6 persons from the administrative staff, and to outside group of 39 healthy persons. All persons are questioned through a special questionnaire about their occupational, medical, and social status. The rate of the cells with micronuclei and the total number of the micronuclei are analysed in the peripheral blood lymphocytes using the cytogenesis-block micronucleus test. The comparison of the results does not show an increase of the lymphocytes with micronuclei in the workers

  10. Biological dosimetry of X-rays by micronuclei study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, E.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in hematological, biochemical an cytogenetics data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable, in this case, the study of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes cytokinetic blocked can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using micronuclei assay for X-rays at 250 kVp, 43,79 rads/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y=c+ α D+β D 2 where. Y is the number micronuclei per cell and D the dose. the curve is compared with those produced elsewhere

  11. Biological Dosimetry of X-rays by micronuclei study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, E.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical an cytogenetics data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable, in this case, the study of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes citokinetics blocked can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using micronuclei assay for X-rays at 250 kVp, 43,79 rads/min and temperature 37 degree centigree has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y=C+ αD+BD''2 where Y is the number of micronuclei per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 24 refs

  12. Detection of individual radiosensitivity by radiation–induced micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and polymorphisms in DNA repair genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staynova, A.; Hadjidekova, V.; Popova, L.; Hristova, R. [Radiation Genetics Laboratory, National Centre of Radiobology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria); Savov, A. [National Genetic Laboratory, University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-07-01

    Aim: To investigate the association of two polymorphisms – in XRCC1 gene (Arg399Gln) and in APE1 gene (Asp148Glu) and the radiation induced frequency of micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Material and methods: Genomic DNA from 34 cancer patients and 52 controls were genotyped using PCR–RFLP technique. Micronucleus test (MNT) was performed on 15 cancer patients and 15 controls, before and after in vitro irradiation with 2Gy gamma rays. Results: The data showed that cancer patients had a significantly higher spontaneous frequency of cells with micronuclei than controls (P=0.009). No statistical difference was registered when comparing the mean frequency of cells with micronuclei after in vitro irradiation between these groups. Four subjects were selected as radiosensitive after applying cut–off of the mean frequency of radiation induced micronuclei. Three of them are carriers of the XRCC1 399Gln allele and two of them are carriers of the APE1 148Glu allele. (author)

  13. The influence of plutonium exposure and lung cancer on the frequency of x-ray-induced micronuclei in dog blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A.L.; Rithidech, K.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lozano, D.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    This study determined if lung cancer or exposure to an inhaled alpha emitter, plutonium-239, increased the frequency of micronuclei in blood lymphocytes or altered the responsiveness of lymphocytes to induction of micronuclei by subsequent doses of X rays in vitro. Beagle dogs inhaled 1.5 mm ABAD monodisperse 239 PuO 2 aerosols. The exposure resulted in initial lung burdens of 1.8 KBq to 48 KBq and produced cumulative alpha radiation lung doses of 1.4 to 10.4 Gy at the time of this study. Blood lymphocytes were sampled and irradiated with either 0.0 or 2.0 Gy of X rays. The lymphocytes were stimulated to divide by phytohemagglutinin, cytokinesis was blocked with cytochalasin B, and the frequency of micronuclei was determined in binucleated cells. Plutonium inhalation alone produced no significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in blood lymphocytes. When 2 Gy of X rays ws given to blood lymphocytes of dogs that had inhaled 239 PuO 2 , there was a linear increase in micronuclei frequency as a function of alpha dose to the lungs; micronuclei/binucleated cell = 0.15 +0.2 D, where D is the cumulative alpha-radiation dose to the lung in Gy. Dogs with 239 PuO 2 - induced lung cancer did not have a significant increase in the frequency of X- ray-induced micronuclei relative to dogs exposed to plutonium that did not have lung cancer. These data suggest that inhaled 239 PuO 2 alters the responsiveness of blood lymphocytes to subsequent X-ray exposure. (author)

  14. Effect of doxorubicin on cell survival and micronuclei formation in HeLa cells exposed to different doses of gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagetia, G.C.; Nayak, V.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was undertaken to obtain an insight into the combined effects of doxorubicin with radiation on the cell survival and micronuclei induction in HeLa cells. Material and Methods: HeLa S3 cells were allowed to grow till they reached plateau phase, inoculated with 10 μg/ml doxorubicin hydrochloride and then exposed to 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 Gy γ-radiation. Clonogenicity of cell was measured using the colony forming assay, micronuclei formation using the micronucleus assay. Results: The treatment of HeLa cells with doxorubicin (adriamycin) for 2 hours before exposure to different doses of γ-radiation resulted in a significant and dose-dependent decline in the cell survival and cell proliferation when compared to the PBS+irradiation group. Conversely, the frequency of micronuclei increased in a dose-related manner in both the PBS+irradiation and doxorubicin+irradiation groups. The pretreatment of HeLa cells with doxorubicin before irradiation to various doses of γ-rays resulted in a significant elevation in the frequency of micronuclei when compared with the concurrent PBS+irradiation group. The dose-response relationship for both PBS+irradiation and doxorubicin+irradiation groups was linear. The correlation between cell survival and micronuclei induction was also determined for PBS or doxorubicin+irradiation group, where the clonogenicity of cells declined with the increase in micronuclei formation. The correlation between cell survical and micronuclei induction was linear quadratic for both PBS+irradiation and doxorubicin+irradiation groups. Conclusion: From our study it can be concluded that combination treatment with doxorubicin and radiation increased the genotoxic effect of the either treatment given alone. (orig.) [de

  15. Comparative investigations of sodium arsenite, arsenic trioxide and cadmium sulphate in combination with gamma-radiation on apoptosis, micronuclei induction and DNA damage in a human lymphoblastoid cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornhardt, Sabine; Gomolka, Maria; Walsh, Linda; Jung, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the field of radiation protection the combined exposure to radiation and other toxic agents is recognised as an important research area. To elucidate the basic mechanisms of simultaneous exposure, the interaction of the carcinogens and environmental toxicants cadmium and two arsenic compounds, arsenite and arsenic trioxide, in combination with gamma-radiation in human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6) were investigated. Gamma-radiation induced significant genotoxic effects such as micronuclei formation, DNA damage and apoptosis, whereas arsenic and cadmium had no significant effect on these indicators of cellular damage at non-toxic concentrations. However, in combination with gamma-radiation arsenic trioxide induced a more than additive apoptotic rate compared to the sum of the single effects. Here, the level of apoptotic cells was increased, in a dose-dependent way, up to two-fold compared to the irradiated control cells. Arsenite did not induce a significant additive effect at any of the concentrations or radiation doses tested. On the other hand, arsenic trioxide was less effective than arsenite in the induction of DNA protein cross-links. These data indicate that the two arsenic compounds interact through different pathways in the cell. Cadmium sulphate, like arsenite, had no significant effect on apoptosis in combination with gamma-radiation at low concentrations and, at high concentrations, even reduced the radiation-induced apoptosis. An additive effect on micronuclei induction was observed with 1 μM cadmium sulphate with an increase of up to 80% compared to the irradiated control cells. Toxic concentrations of cadmium and arsenic trioxide seemed to reduce micronuclei induction. The results presented here indicate that relatively low concentrations of arsenic and cadmium, close to those occurring in nature, may interfere with radiation effects. Differences in action of the two arsenic compounds were identified

  16. Micronuclei in red blood cells of armored catfish Hypostomus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    Apr 3, 2008 ... with micronuclei and 17 ± 0.005 mg/kg of total chrome in tissues, detected through atomic absorption spectrophotometry. .... and human cell lines, DNA damage induction by potas- .... Effects of metallic ion toxicity on human ...

  17. Sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei analysis in lymphocytes of men exposed to simazine through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Susanna; Rubio, Arantxa; Sueiro, Rosa Ana; Garrido, Joaquín

    2003-06-06

    In some cities of the autonomous community of Extremadura (south-west of Spain), levels of simazine from 10 to 30 ppm were detected in tap water. To analyse the possible effect of this herbicide, two biomarkers, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and micronuclei (MN), were used in peripheral blood lymphocytes from males exposed to simazine through drinking water. SCE and MN analysis failed to detect any statistically significant increase in the people exposed to simazine when compared with the controls. With respect to high frequency cells (HFC), a statistically significant difference was detected between exposed and control groups.

  18. Sodium-Reduced Meat and Poultry Products Contain a Significant Amount of Potassium from Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Arti Sharma; Goldstein, Marc B; Arcand, JoAnne; Cho, France; L'Abbé, Mary R; Darling, Pauline B

    2018-05-01

    counterparts (mean difference [95% CI]: 486 [334-638]; Padditives appearing on the product label ingredient list, did not significantly differ between the two groups. Potassium additives are frequently added to sodium-reduced MPPs in amounts that significantly contribute to the potassium load for patients with impaired renal handling of potassium caused by chronic kidney disease and certain medications. Patients requiring potassium restriction should be counseled to be cautious regarding the potassium content of sodium-reduced MPPs and encouraged to make food choices accordingly. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Micronuclei frequency in albino rats exposed to high natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneesh, D.; Godwin Wesley, S.

    2013-01-01

    Genotoxicity and DNA damage endpoints are used to evaluate results in the context of cell survival. Genotoxicity in mammalian cells is monitored mostly by using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The score of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used as a biomarker and also as a bio-dosimeter of radiation exposure. In the present study the effect of natural radiation on albino rats has been investigated, to find out if there is any increase in MN frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Animals at the age of 2-3 weeks were exposed to natural radiation, at the dose of 10.38 μGyh -1 for a period of 6 months. A parallel control set was also maintained (0.12 μGy h -1 '). Blood samples were collected from both test (exposed to natural radiation) and control rats. Lymphocyte culture was done following 'microculture techniques' for 72 h. Cytochalasin B, at a concentration of 6.0 μg/ml, was added to the lymphocyte cultures at 44 h to block cytokinesis. The frequency of MN was evaluated by scoring a total of 1000 binucleated (BN) cells from one slide. The frequency of MN among the rats exposed to natural radiation was found to be 1.83±0.05 per 1000 BN cells and in the control it was 1.82±0.07 per 1000 BN cells. No statistically significant difference in the MN frequencies of exposed and control groups (p>0.05) was seen. The lower MN frequency in natural radiation exposed rats could be an indication of adaptive response. (author)

  20. A pilot weight reduction program over one year significantly reduced DNA strand breaks in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Wagner

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: A sustainable lifestyle change under supervision including physical activity and diet quality over a period of one year was not only responsible to reduce body weight and BMI but also led to significant reduction in all parameters of the comet assay. These results underline the importance of body weight reduction and highlight the positive changes in DNA stability.

  1. Micronuclei induced by municipal landfill leachate in mouse bone marrow cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangke; Sang Nan; Zhao Youcai

    2004-01-01

    The induction of micronuclei (MN) in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of mouse bone marrow by municipal landfill leachate was studied in vivo. Results showed that mouse exposure via drinking water containing various concentrations of leachate caused a significant increase of MN frequencies in a concentration (Chemical oxygen demand measured with potassium dichromate oxidation, COD Cr )-dependent manner. MN induction in female and male mice was different at higher concentrations. This implies that leachate is a genotoxic agent in mammalian cells and that exposure to leachate in an aquatic environment may pose a potential genotoxic risk to human beings

  2. Suppressing effects of glucan on micronuclei induced by Co60 in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorvatovicova, D.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of glucan on the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes of A/Ph mouse bone marrow induced by Co 60 irradiation were examined. Suppressing effect of three glucan derivatives was statistically significant (P 3 substituent (DS 0.89). Intraperitoneal application of glucan has to be done earlier than one hour after irradiation. The suppressive effects of glucans can be explained by their ability to trap OH radicals and so decrease the clastogenic effect of irradiation. The results may be useful for therapeutic application of glucan with radiation therapy. (orig.) [de

  3. The significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme activities: clinical, biochemical and radiological associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordekar, S R; Guthrie, P; Bonham, J R; Olpin, S E; Hargreaves, I; Baxter, P S

    2006-03-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are an important group of neurometabolic disorders in children with varied clinical presentations and diagnosis that can be difficult to confirm. To report the significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme (RCE) activity in muscle biopsy samples from children. Retrospective odds ratio was used to compare clinical and biochemical features, DNA studies, neuroimaging, and muscle biopsies in 18 children with and 48 without reduced RCE activity. Children with reduced RCE activity were significantly more likely to have consanguineous parents, to present with acute encephalopathy and lactic acidaemia and/or within the first year of life; to have an axonal neuropathy, CSF lactate >4 mmol/l; and/or to have signal change in the basal ganglia. There were positive associations with a maternal family history of possible mitochondrial cytopathy; a presentation with failure to thrive and lactic acidaemia, ragged red fibres, reduced fibroblast fatty acid oxidation and with an abnormal allopurinol loading test. There was no association with ophthalmic abnormalities, deafness, epilepsy or myopathy. The association of these clinical, biochemical and radiological features with reduced RCE activity suggests a possible causative link.

  4. Retinoic acid-treated pluripotent stem cells undergoing neurogenesis present increased aneuploidy and micronuclei formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela C Sartore

    Full Text Available The existence of loss and gain of chromosomes, known as aneuploidy, has been previously described within the central nervous system. During development, at least one-third of neural progenitor cells (NPCs are aneuploid. Notably, aneuploid NPCs may survive and functionally integrate into the mature neural circuitry. Given the unanswered significance of this phenomenon, we tested the hypothesis that neural differentiation induced by all-trans retinoic acid (RA in pluripotent stem cells is accompanied by increased levels of aneuploidy, as previously described for cortical NPCs in vivo. In this work we used embryonal carcinoma (EC cells, embryonic stem (ES cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells undergoing differentiation into NPCs. Ploidy analysis revealed a 2-fold increase in the rate of aneuploidy, with the prevalence of chromosome loss in RA primed stem cells when compared to naïve cells. In an attempt to understand the basis of neurogenic aneuploidy, micronuclei formation and survivin expression was assessed in pluripotent stem cells exposed to RA. RA increased micronuclei occurrence by almost 2-fold while decreased survivin expression by 50%, indicating possible mechanisms by which stem cells lose their chromosomes during neural differentiation. DNA fragmentation analysis demonstrated no increase in apoptosis on embryoid bodies treated with RA, indicating that cell death is not the mandatory fate of aneuploid NPCs derived from pluripotent cells. In order to exclude that the increase in aneuploidy was a spurious consequence of RA treatment, not related to neurogenesis, mouse embryonic fibroblasts were treated with RA under the same conditions and no alterations in chromosome gain or loss were observed. These findings indicate a correlation amongst neural differentiation, aneuploidy, micronuclei formation and survivin downregulation in pluripotent stem cells exposed to RA, providing evidence that somatically generated chromosomal

  5. Oxygen enhancement ratios for glutathione-deficient human fibroblasts determined from the frequency of radiation induced micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midander, J.

    1982-01-01

    The yield of micronuclei (MN) was determined to study the radiosensitizing effect of oxygen on three human fibroblast strains, characterized by genetically defined differences in their glutathione (GSH) level. Cells were irradiated in paired experiments with x-ray doses of 2.66 and 6.65 gy in their exponential growth phase in a monolayer under oxic and anoxic conditions. Results indicated a reduced oxygen effect for the GSH deficient cells, the reduction of o.e.r. being most pronounced in the case of GSHsup(-/-) cells, when it was close to unity. The o.e.r. value was intermediate for the GSHsup(+/-) in comparison with the two other cell strains. It is concluded that the data indicate a correlation between the cellular content of GSH and the oxygen enhancement of the formation of micronuclei after irradiation. (U.K.)

  6. Association between micronuclei frequency in pollen mother cells of Tradescantia and mortality due to cancer and cardiovascular diseases: A preliminary study in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, Rauda Lucia; Martins Jorge, Maria Paulete; Pereira, Sergio Silva; Melione, Luiz Paulo; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Ma, Te Hsiu; Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilario

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the correlation between the frequency of micronuclei in Trad-MN, measured across 28 biomonitoring stations during the period comprised between 11 of May and 2 of October, 2006, and adjusted mortality rates due to cardiovascular, respiratory diseases and cancer in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, an area with different sources of air pollution. For controlling purposes, mortality rate due to gastrointestinal diseases (an event less prone to be affected by air pollution) was also considered in the analysis. Spatial distribution of micronuclei frequency was determined using average interpolation. The association between health estimators and micronuclei frequency was determined by measures of Pearson's correlation. Higher frequencies of micronuclei were detected in areas with high traffic and close to a petrochemical pole. Significant associations were detected between micronuclei frequency and adjusted mortality rate due to cardiovascular diseases (r = 0.841, p = 0.036) and cancer (r = 0.890, p = 0.018). The association between mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases was positive but did not reach statistical significance (r = 0.640, p = 0.172), probably because of the small number of events. Gastrointestinal mortality did not exhibit significant association with micronuclei frequency. Because the small number of observations and the nature of an ecological study, the present findings must be considered with caution and considered as preliminary. Further studies, performed in different conditions of contamination and climate should be done before considering Trad-MN in the evaluation of human health risk imposed by air pollutants. - Bioassay used to explore the correlation between air pollution exposition and mortality rates.

  7. Effect of oxygen on formation of micronuclei and binucleated cells and cell survival in γ-irradiated 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peng; Zheng Xiulong

    1991-01-01

    Formation of micronuclei and binucleate cells and their relationships with cell survival were studied in the aerobically- and anaerobically-irradiated 3T3 cells. The results showed taht frequency of micronuclei, percentage of micronucleus cells and percentage of binucleate cells increased linearly with the radiation dose in certain range. Oxygen enhancement ratios (OER) of micronucleus frequency, percentage of micronucleus cells, percentage of binucleate cells and cell survival were 2.02, 1.96, 1.87 and 1.83 respectively. The percentage of micronucleus cells or the percentage of micronucleus cells plus binucleate cells correlated negatively well with cell survival. The mechanism of oxygen effect in the radiation response of 3T3 cells and the significance of formation of micronuclei and binucleate cells were discussed

  8. Incidence of micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to modulated and unmodulated 2450 MHz radiofrequency fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalaxmi; Reddy, Abhishek B; McKenzie, Raymond J; McIntosh, Robert L; Prihoda, Thomas J; Wood, Andrew W

    2013-10-01

    Peripheral blood samples from four healthy volunteers were collected and aliquots were exposed in vitro for 2 h to either (i) modulated (wideband code division multiple access, WCDMA) or unmodulated continuous wave (CW) 2450 MHz radiofrequency (RF) fields at an average specific absorption rate of 10.9 W/kg or (ii) sham-exposed. Aliquots of the same samples that were exposed in vitro to an acute dose of 1.5 Gy ionizing gamma-radiation (GR) were used as positive controls. Half of the aliquots were treated with melatonin (Mel) to investigate if such treatment offers protection to the cells from the genetic damage, if any, induced by RF and GR. The cells in all samples were cultured for 72 h and the lymphocytes were examined to determine the extent of genetic damage assessed from the incidence of micronuclei (MN). The results indicated the following: (i) the incidence of MN was similar in incubator controls, and those exposed to RF/sham and Mel alone; (ii) there were no significant differences between WCDMA and CW RF exposures; (iii) positive control cells exposed to GR alone exhibited significantly increased MN; and (iv) Mel treatment had no effect on cells exposed to RF and sham, while such treatment significantly reduced the frequency of MN in GR-exposed cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Male circumcision significantly reduces prevalence and load of genital anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy M; Hungate, Bruce A; Tobian, Aaron A R; Serwadda, David; Ravel, Jacques; Lester, Richard; Kigozi, Godfrey; Aziz, Maliha; Galiwango, Ronald M; Nalugoda, Fred; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L; Wawer, Maria J; Keim, Paul; Gray, Ronald H; Price, Lance B

    2013-04-16

    Male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV transmission. Hypothesized mechanisms for this protective effect include decreased HIV target cell recruitment and activation due to changes in the penis microbiome. We compared the coronal sulcus microbiota of men from a group of uncircumcised controls (n = 77) and from a circumcised intervention group (n = 79) at enrollment and year 1 follow-up in a randomized circumcision trial in Rakai, Uganda. We characterized microbiota using16S rRNA gene-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) and pyrosequencing, log response ratio (LRR), Bayesian classification, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), and permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PerMANOVA). At baseline, men in both study arms had comparable coronal sulcus microbiota; however, by year 1, circumcision decreased the total bacterial load and reduced microbiota biodiversity. Specifically, the prevalence and absolute abundance of 12 anaerobic bacterial taxa decreased significantly in the circumcised men. While aerobic bacterial taxa also increased postcircumcision, these gains were minor. The reduction in anaerobes may partly account for the effects of circumcision on reduced HIV acquisition. The bacterial changes identified in this study may play an important role in the HIV risk reduction conferred by male circumcision. Decreasing the load of specific anaerobes could reduce HIV target cell recruitment to the foreskin. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the benefits of male circumcision could help to identify new intervention strategies for decreasing HIV transmission, applicable to populations with high HIV prevalence where male circumcision is culturally less acceptable.

  10. A chimpanzee recognizes synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Beran, Michael J; Owren, Michael J

    2011-07-26

    A long-standing debate concerns whether humans are specialized for speech perception, which some researchers argue is demonstrated by the ability to understand synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content. We tested a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) that recognizes 128 spoken words, asking whether she could understand such speech. Three experiments presented 48 individual words, with the animal selecting a corresponding visuographic symbol from among four alternatives. Experiment 1 tested spectrally reduced, noise-vocoded (NV) synthesis, originally developed to simulate input received by human cochlear-implant users. Experiment 2 tested "impossibly unspeechlike" sine-wave (SW) synthesis, which reduces speech to just three moving tones. Although receiving only intermittent and noncontingent reward, the chimpanzee performed well above chance level, including when hearing synthetic versions for the first time. Recognition of SW words was least accurate but improved in experiment 3 when natural words in the same session were rewarded. The chimpanzee was more accurate with NV than SW versions, as were 32 human participants hearing these items. The chimpanzee's ability to spontaneously recognize acoustically reduced synthetic words suggests that experience rather than specialization is critical for speech-perception capabilities that some have suggested are uniquely human. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Defibrillator charging before rhythm analysis significantly reduces hands-off time during resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. K.; Folkestad, L.; Brabrand, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to reduce hands-off time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation as increased hands-off time leads to higher mortality. METHODS: The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2005 and ERC 2010 guidelines were compared with an alternative sequence (ALT). Pulseless ventricular...... physicians were included. All had prior experience in advanced life support. Chest compressions were shorter interrupted using ALT (mean, 6.7 vs 13.0 seconds). Analyzing data for ventricular tachycardia scenarios only, hands-off time was shorter using ALT (mean, 7.1 vs 18.2 seconds). In ERC 2010 vs ALT, 12...... physicians were included. Two physicians had not prior experience in advanced life support. Hands-off time was reduced using ALT (mean, 3.9 vs 5.6 seconds). Looking solely at ventricular tachycardia scenarios, hands-off time was shortened using ALT (mean, 4.5 vs 7.6 seconds). No significant reduction...

  12. Differential Micronuclei Induction in Human Lymphocyte Cultures by Imidacloprid in the Presence of Potassium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polychronis Stivaktakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are exposed to pesticides as a consequence of their application in farming or their persistence in a variety of media, including food, water, air, soil, plants, animals, and smoke. The interaction of pesticides with environmental factors may result in the alteration of their physicochemical properties. Square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry (SW-CSV, a technique that simulates electrodynamically the cellular membrane, is used to investigate whether the presence of potassium nitrate (KNO3 in the culture medium interferes with the genotoxic behavior of imidacloprid. The cytokinesis block micronuclei (CBMN method is used to evaluate imidacloprid's genotoxicity in the absence or presence of KNO3 in the culture medium and, as a consequence, its adsorption by lymphocytes. Comparing micronuclei (MN frequencies in control and imidacloprid-treated blood cell cultures, statistically significant differences were not detected. KNO3 did not induce MN frequencies compared to control. Statistically significant differences in MN frequencies were observed when blood cell cultures were treated with imidacloprid in the presence of increasing concentrations of KNO3. SW-CSV revealed that by increasing KNO3 molarity, imidacloprid's concentration in the culture medium decreased in parallel. This finding indicates that imidacloprid is adsorbed by cellular membranes. The present study suggests a novel role of a harmless environmental factor, such as KNO3, on the genotoxic behavior of a pesticide, such as imidacloprid. KNO3 rendered imidacloprid permeable to lymphocytes, resulting in elevated MN frequencies.

  13. Antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus racemosus root extract against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Sharmila, K.P.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice. Micronucleus assay was performed in the bone marrow of Swiss albino mice according to the method of Hosseinimehr et al., 2003. The experimental animals were orally administered 200 mg/kg body weight of ARE once daily for 15 consecutive days. At the end of experimental period, the animals were euthanized and the bone marrow was collected from the femur. Control (C), Radiation control (RC) and drug control (DC) group was also maintained. The number of radiation induced Micronucleated Polychromatic Erythrocytes (MnPCE) and Micronucleated Normochromatic Erythrocytes were decreased in the ARE treated mice which was statistically significant (p<0.05) compared to radiation control group. Present findings demonstrate the antigenotoxic potential of ARE against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation which may be attributed to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals

  14. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand; Brault, Christophe; Bruze, Magnus; Eudes, Hervé; Gadras, Catherine; Signoret, Anne-Cécile J; Mose, Kristian F; Müller, Boris P; Toulemonde, Bernard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-02-01

    Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control subjects. In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less allergic contact dermatitis in previously oak moss-sensitized individuals, suggesting that new oak moss is less allergenic to non-sensitized individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Scoring of radiation-induced micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked human lymphocytes by automated image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, F.; Seuntjens, J.; Thierens, H.

    1994-01-01

    The micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes is, at present, frequently used to assess chromosomal damage caused by ionizing radiation or mutagens. Manual scoring of micronuclei (MN) by trained personnel is very time-consuming, tiring work, and the results depend on subjective interpretation of scoring criteria. More objective scoring can be accomplished only if the test can be automated. Furthermore, an automated system allows scoring of large numbers of cells, thereby increasing the statistical significance of the results. This is of special importance for screening programs for low doses of chromosome-damaging agents. In this paper, the first results of our effort to automate the micronucleus assay with an image-analysis system are represented. The method we used is described in detail, and the results are compared to those of other groups. Our system is able to detect 88% of the binucleated lymphocytes on the slides. The procedure consists of a fully automated localization of binucleated cells and counting of the MN within these cells, followed by a simple and fast manual operation in which the false positives are removed. Preliminary measurements for blood samples irradiated with a dose of 1 Gy X-rays indicate that the automated system can find 89% ± 12% of the micronuclei within the binucleated cells compared to a manual screening. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. Evaluation of micronuclei in tobacco users: A study in Punjabi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanta Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The assessment of micronuclei in exfoliated cells is a promising tool for the study of epithelial carcinogens and can be used to detect chromosome breakage or mitotic interference, thought to be relevant to carcinogenesis. Aim: The present study aimed to detect micronuclei in exfoliated oral mucosal cells in individuals using various tobacco forms from the last 5 years. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 healthy male subjects (25 smokeless tobacco users, 25 smokers, and 25 non-tobacco users were selected for the study. Smears were obtained with moistened wooden spatula from buccal mucosa and fixed with 95% alcohol. All the cytologic smears were stained by Papanicolaou technique. From each slide, ~1000 cells were examined under the 400× magnification and where micronucleated (MN cells were located, they were examined under the 1000× magnification. Result: MN cells were found to be significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers and controls. Conclusion: A positive correlation is found between increased micronucleus frequency and tobacco-using habits. So micronucleus assay can be used as a biomarker of genotoxicity.

  17. Four-phonon scattering significantly reduces intrinsic thermal conductivity of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tianli; Lindsay, Lucas; Ruan, Xiulin

    2017-10-01

    For decades, the three-phonon scattering process has been considered to govern thermal transport in solids, while the role of higher-order four-phonon scattering has been persistently unclear and so ignored. However, recent quantitative calculations of three-phonon scattering have often shown a significant overestimation of thermal conductivity as compared to experimental values. In this Rapid Communication we show that four-phonon scattering is generally important in solids and can remedy such discrepancies. For silicon and diamond, the predicted thermal conductivity is reduced by 30% at 1000 K after including four-phonon scattering, bringing predictions in excellent agreement with measurements. For the projected ultrahigh-thermal conductivity material, zinc-blende BAs, a competitor of diamond as a heat sink material, four-phonon scattering is found to be strikingly strong as three-phonon processes have an extremely limited phase space for scattering. The four-phonon scattering reduces the predicted thermal conductivity from 2200 to 1400 W/m K at room temperature. The reduction at 1000 K is 60%. We also find that optical phonon scattering rates are largely affected, being important in applications such as phonon bottlenecks in equilibrating electronic excitations. Recognizing that four-phonon scattering is expensive to calculate, in the end we provide some guidelines on how to quickly assess the significance of four-phonon scattering, based on energy surface anharmonicity and the scattering phase space. Our work clears the decades-long fundamental question of the significance of higher-order scattering, and points out ways to improve thermoelectrics, thermal barrier coatings, nuclear materials, and radiative heat transfer.

  18. Induction of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in mussels exposed to bisphenol A, diallyl phthalate and tetrabromodiphenyl ether-47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsiene, Janina; Syvokiene, Janina; Bjornstad, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of micronuclei, nuclear buds, bi-polynucleated and fragmented-apoptotic cells was performed in gills of blue mussels exposed for 3 weeks to sublethal concentrations of bisphenol A, diallyl phthalate (for the both nominal concentration 50 ppb) and to tetrabromodiphenyl ether-47 (nominal concentration 5 ppb). Fourteen specimens from each treatment and control group were used for the analysis. Our results demonstrated a significant increase in micronuclei frequency after the treatment with bisphenol A (P = 0.0243), diallyl phthalate (P = 0.0005) and tetrabromodiphenyl ether-47 (P < 0.0001; Mann-Whitney U-test). Induction of bi-nucleated (P = 0.0028), fragmented-apoptotic (P = 0.0004) cells and nuclear buds (P = 0.0101) was found in mussels exposed to tetrabromodiphenyl ether-47 while treatment with diallyl phthalate increased the level of fragmented-apoptotic cells (P = 0.0283). Bisphenol A was the only agent that resulted only in induction of micronuclei but not any other kind of nuclear injuries

  19. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  20. Nano-CL-20/HMX Cocrystal Explosive for Significantly Reduced Mechanical Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwei An

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying method was used to prepare cocrystals of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX. Raw materials and cocrystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Impact and friction sensitivity of cocrystals were tested and analyzed. Results show that, after preparation by spray drying method, microparticles were spherical in shape and 0.5–5 µm in size. Particles formed aggregates of numerous tiny plate-like cocrystals, whereas CL-20/HMX cocrystals had thicknesses of below 100 nm. Cocrystals were formed by C–H⋯O bonding between –NO2 (CL-20 and –CH2– (HMX. Nanococrystal explosives exhibited drop height of 47.3 cm, and friction demonstrated explosion probability of 64%. Compared with raw HMX, cocrystals displayed significantly reduced mechanical sensitivity.

  1. Implementation of standardized follow-up care significantly reduces peritonitis in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Alicia M; Richardson, Troy; Lawlor, John; Stuart, Jayne; Newland, Jason; McAfee, Nancy; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-06-01

    The Standardizing Care to improve Outcomes in Pediatric End stage renal disease (SCOPE) Collaborative aims to reduce peritonitis rates in pediatric chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by increasing implementation of standardized care practices. To assess this, monthly care bundle compliance and annualized monthly peritonitis rates were evaluated from 24 SCOPE centers that were participating at collaborative launch and that provided peritonitis rates for the 13 months prior to launch. Changes in bundle compliance were assessed using either a logistic regression model or a generalized linear mixed model. Changes in average annualized peritonitis rates over time were illustrated using the latter model. In the first 36 months of the collaborative, 644 patients with 7977 follow-up encounters were included. The likelihood of compliance with follow-up care practices increased significantly (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.10, 1.19). Mean monthly peritonitis rates significantly decreased from 0.63 episodes per patient year (95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.92) prelaunch to 0.42 (95% confidence interval 0.31, 0.57) at 36 months postlaunch. A sensitivity analysis confirmed that as mean follow-up compliance increased, peritonitis rates decreased, reaching statistical significance at 80% at which point the prelaunch rate was 42% higher than the rate in the months following achievement of 80% compliance. In its first 3 years, the SCOPE Collaborative has increased the implementation of standardized follow-up care and demonstrated a significant reduction in average monthly peritonitis rates. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly reduces xerostomia compared with conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braam, Petra M.; Terhaard, Chris H.J. M.D.; Roesink, Judith M.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a severe complication after radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer, as the salivary glands are in close proximity with the primary tumor. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) offers theoretical advantages for normal tissue sparing. A Phase II study was conducted to determine the value of IMRT for salivary output preservation compared with conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 56 patients with oropharyngeal cancer were prospectively evaluated. Of these, 30 patients were treated with IMRT and 26 with CRT. Stimulated parotid salivary flow was measured before, 6 weeks, and 6 months after treatment. A complication was defined as a stimulated parotid flow rate <25% of the preradiotherapy flow rate. Results: The mean dose to the parotid glands was 48.1 Gy (SD 14 Gy) for CRT and 33.7 Gy (SD 10 Gy) for IMRT (p < 0.005). The mean parotid flow ratio 6 weeks and 6 months after treatment was respectively 41% and 64% for IMRT and respectively 11% and 18% for CRT. As a result, 6 weeks after treatment, the number of parotid flow complications was significantly lower after IMRT (55%) than after CRT (87%) (p = 0.002). The number of complications 6 months after treatment was 56% for IMRT and 81% for CRT (p = 0.04). Conclusions: IMRT significantly reduces the number of parotid flow complications for patients with oropharyngeal cancer

  3. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui; Alotaibi, Hamad S.; Sun, Haiding; Lin, Ronghui; Guo, Wenzhe; Torres-Castanedo, Carlos G.; Liu, Kaikai; Galan, Sergio V.; Li, Xiaohang

    2018-01-01

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  4. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui

    2018-02-23

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  5. Origin of nuclear buds and micronuclei in normal and folate-deprived human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, Hanna K.; Wang Xu; Jaerventaus, Hilkka; Falck, Ghita C.-M.; Norppa, Hannu; Fenech, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Micronuclei are formed from chromosomes and chromosomal fragments that lag behind in anaphase and are left outside daughter nuclei in telophase. They may also be derived from broken anaphase bridges. Nuclear buds, micronucleus-like bodies attached to the nucleus by a thin nucleoplasmic connection, have been proposed to be generated similarly to micronuclei during nuclear division or in S-phase as a stage in the extrusion of extra DNA, possibly giving rise to micronuclei. To better understand these phenomena, we have characterized the contents of 894 nuclear buds and 1392 micronuclei in normal and folate-deprived 9-day cultures of human lymphocytes using fluorescence in situ hybridization with pancentromeric and pantelomeric DNA probes. Such information has not earlier been available for human primary cells. Surprisingly, there appears to be no previous data on the occurrence of telomeres in micronuclei (or buds) of normal human cells in general. Our results suggest that nuclear buds and micronuclei have partly different mechanistic origin. Interstitial DNA without centromere or telomere label was clearly more prevalent in nuclear buds (43%) than in micronuclei (13%). DNA with only telomere label or with both centromere and telomere label was more frequent in micronuclei (62% and 22%, respectively) than in nuclear buds (44% and 10%, respectively). Folate deprivation especially increased the frequency of nuclear buds and micronuclei harboring telomeric DNA and nuclear buds harboring interstitial DNA but also buds and micronuclei with both centromeric and telomeric DNA. According to the model we propose, that micronuclei in binucleate lymphocytes primarily derive from lagging chromosomes and terminal acentric fragments during mitosis. Most nuclear buds, however, are suggested to originate from interstitial or terminal acentric fragments, possibly representing nuclear membrane entrapment of DNA that has been left in cytoplasm after nuclear division or excess DNA that

  6. Using lytic bacteriophages to eliminate or significantly reduce contamination of food by foodborne bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Bacteriophages (also called 'phages') are viruses that kill bacteria. They are arguably the oldest (3 billion years old, by some estimates) and most ubiquitous (total number estimated to be 10(30) -10(32) ) known organisms on Earth. Phages play a key role in maintaining microbial balance in every ecosystem where bacteria exist, and they are part of the normal microflora of all fresh, unprocessed foods. Interest in various practical applications of bacteriophages has been gaining momentum recently, with perhaps the most attention focused on using them to improve food safety. That approach, called 'phage biocontrol', typically includes three main types of applications: (i) using phages to treat domesticated livestock in order to reduce their intestinal colonization with, and shedding of, specific bacterial pathogens; (ii) treatments for decontaminating inanimate surfaces in food-processing facilities and other food establishments, so that foods processed on those surfaces are not cross-contaminated with the targeted pathogens; and (iii) post-harvest treatments involving direct applications of phages onto the harvested foods. This mini-review primarily focuses on the last type of intervention, which has been gaining the most momentum recently. Indeed, the results of recent studies dealing with improving food safety, and several recent regulatory approvals of various commercial phage preparations developed for post-harvest food safety applications, strongly support the idea that lytic phages may provide a safe, environmentally-friendly, and effective approach for significantly reducing contamination of various foods with foodborne bacterial pathogens. However, some important technical and nontechnical problems may need to be addressed before phage biocontrol protocols can become an integral part of routine food safety intervention strategies implemented by food industries in the USA. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Pharmacological kynurenine 3-monooxygenase enzyme inhibition significantly reduces neuropathic pain in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewska, Ewelina; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the involvement of the kynurenine pathway in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, but the role of this system in neuropathic pain requires further extensive research. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the role of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (Kmo), an enzyme that is important in this pathway, in a rat model of neuropathy after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. For the first time, we demonstrated that the injury-induced increase in the Kmo mRNA levels in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was reduced by chronic administration of the microglial inhibitor minocycline and that this effect paralleled a decrease in the intensity of neuropathy. Further, minocycline administration alleviated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of Kmo mRNA expression in microglial cell cultures. Moreover, we demonstrated that not only indirect inhibition of Kmo using minocycline but also direct inhibition using Kmo inhibitors (Ro61-6048 and JM6) decreased neuropathic pain intensity on the third and the seventh days after CCI. Chronic Ro61-6048 administration diminished the protein levels of IBA-1, IL-6, IL-1beta and NOS2 in the spinal cord and/or the DRG. Both Kmo inhibitors potentiated the analgesic properties of morphine. In summary, our data suggest that in neuropathic pain model, inhibiting Kmo function significantly reduces pain symptoms and enhances the effectiveness of morphine. The results of our studies show that the kynurenine pathway is an important mediator of neuropathic pain pathology and indicate that Kmo represents a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo variation of micronuclei in BALB/c mice after low and high doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain, D.; Allen, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: An adaptive response to ionising radiation exists if a low level or priming dose reduces the effect of a subsequent high or challenge dose. This has been demonstrated in vitro using the frequency of micronuclei formation as a measure of radiation-induced DNA damage. The objective of this project was to use the same approach with an animal model to investigate the existence of an in vivo adaptive response. The experimental design involved priming doses of 0.005 or 0.01 Gy and a challenge dose of 4 Gy administered 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 hours after the priming dose. Ten mice at a time were housed in a perspex animal cage and irradiated using Co-60 gamma radiation. For every time point (1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 hours), there were four treatment groups of 5 mice for statistical analysis. The first group acted as a non-irradiated control (0 Gy). The second group of mice received only the priming dose (0.005 Gy), while the third group of mice received only the challenge dose (4 Gy). The fourth group of mice received both the priming and challenge doses 0.005 Gy + 4 Gy). The process was repeated for the second priming dose of 0.01 Gy. A total of 200 mice were used. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation 24 hours after receiving the challenge dose. Both femora were removed and cleared of adhering muscle tissue. The bone marrow cells of five mice were collected and the nucleated cells removed using filtration through a mixed cellulose column incorporating a self-locking filter. The cell suspension was placed onto microscope slides using a cytocentrifuge, air-dried and then stained for the micronuclei. Then the slides were coded, and reticulocytes were scored for the presence or absence of micronuclei. Approximately 2500 cells were scored for each treatment point, and the number of micronuclei counted ranged from 3 to 125 in this sample size. While it appears that the adaptive response may be present in 2 of 9 groups of mice pre-exposed to 0.005 or 0.01 Gy, this

  9. Intriguing model significantly reduces boarding of psychiatric patients, need for inpatient hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As new approaches to the care of psychiatric emergencies emerge, one solution is gaining particular traction. Under the Alameda model, which has been put into practice in Alameda County, CA, patients who are brought to regional EDs with emergency psychiatric issues are quickly transferred to a designated emergency psychiatric facility as soon as they are medically stabilized. This alleviates boarding problems in area EDs while also quickly connecting patients with specialized care. With data in hand on the model's effectiveness, developers believe the approach could alleviate boarding problems in other communities as well. The model is funded by through a billing code established by California's Medicaid program for crisis stabilization services. Currently, only 22% of the patients brought to the emergency psychiatric facility ultimately need to be hospitalized; the other 78% are able to go home or to an alternative situation. In a 30-day study of the model, involving five community hospitals in Alameda County, CA, researchers found that ED boarding times were as much as 80% lower than comparable ED averages, and that patients were stabilized at least 75% of the time, significantly reducing the need for inpatient hospitalization.

  10. Significantly reduced hypoxemic events in morbidly obese patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: Predictors and practice effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gouda Goudra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing anesthesia for gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy procedures in morbidly obese patients is a challenge for a variety of reasons. The negative impact of obesity on the respiratory system combined with a need to share the upper airway and necessity to preserve the spontaneous ventilation, together add to difficulties. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with a body mass index (BMI >40 kg/m 2 that underwent out-patient GI endoscopy between September 2010 and February 2011. Patient data was analyzed for procedure, airway management technique as well as hypoxemic and cardiovascular events. Results: A total of 119 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our innovative airway management technique resulted in a lower rate of intraoperative hypoxemic events compared with any published data available. Frequency of desaturation episodes showed statistically significant relation to previous history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. These desaturation episodes were found to be statistically independent of increasing BMI of patients. Conclusion: Pre-operative history of OSA irrespective of associated BMI values can be potentially used as a predictor of intra-procedural desaturation. With suitable modification of anesthesia technique, it is possible to reduce the incidence of adverse respiratory events in morbidly obese patients undergoing GI endoscopy procedures, thereby avoiding the need for endotracheal intubation.

  11. Significantly reduced hypoxemic events in morbidly obese patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: Predictors and practice effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudra, Basavana Gouda; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Penugonda, Lakshmi C; Speck, Rebecca M; Sinha, Ashish C

    2014-01-01

    Providing anesthesia for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy procedures in morbidly obese patients is a challenge for a variety of reasons. The negative impact of obesity on the respiratory system combined with a need to share the upper airway and necessity to preserve the spontaneous ventilation, together add to difficulties. This retrospective cohort study included patients with a body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m(2) that underwent out-patient GI endoscopy between September 2010 and February 2011. Patient data was analyzed for procedure, airway management technique as well as hypoxemic and cardiovascular events. A total of 119 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our innovative airway management technique resulted in a lower rate of intraoperative hypoxemic events compared with any published data available. Frequency of desaturation episodes showed statistically significant relation to previous history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These desaturation episodes were found to be statistically independent of increasing BMI of patients. Pre-operative history of OSA irrespective of associated BMI values can be potentially used as a predictor of intra-procedural desaturation. With suitable modification of anesthesia technique, it is possible to reduce the incidence of adverse respiratory events in morbidly obese patients undergoing GI endoscopy procedures, thereby avoiding the need for endotracheal intubation.

  12. Environmental program with operational cases to reduce risk to the marine environment significantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.T.; Forde, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper Amoco Norway Oil Company's environmental program is detailed, followed by example operational programs and achievements aimed to minimize environmental risks to the marine environment at Valhall platform. With a corporate goal to be a leader in protecting the environment, the appropriate strategies and policies that form the basis of the environmental management system are incorporated in the quality assurance programs. Also, included in the program are necessary organizational structures, responsibilities of environmental affairs and line organization personnel, compliance procedures and a waste task force obliged to implement operations improvements. An internal environmental audit system has been initiated, in addition to corporate level audits, which, when communicated to the line organization closes the environmental management loop through experience feed back. Environmental projects underway are significantly decreasing the extent and/or risk of pollution from offshore activities. The cradle to grave responsibility is assumed with waste separated offshore and onshore followed by disposal in audited sites. A $5 MM program is underway to control produced oily solids and reduce oil in produced water aiming to less than 20 ppm. When oil-based mud is used in deeper hole sections, drill solids disposed at sea average less than 60 g oil/kg dry cuttings using appropriate shaker screens, and a washing/centrifuge system to remove fines. Certain oily liquid wastes are being injected down hole whereas previously they were burned using a mud burner. Finally, a program is underway with a goal to eliminate sea discharge of oil on cuttings through injection disposal of oily wastes, drilling with alternative muds such as a cationic water base mud, and/or proper onshore disposal of oily wastes

  13. Simultaneous bilateral stereotactic procedure for deep brain stimulation implants: a significant step for reducing operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Azevedo, Angelo; Angelos, Jairo Silva Dos; Martinez, Raquel Chacon Ruiz; Navarro, Jessie; Reis, Paul Rodrigo; Sepulveda, Miguel Ernesto San Martin; Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Ghilardi, Maria Gabriela Dos Santos; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Lopez, William Omar Contreras

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Currently, bilateral procedures involve 2 sequential implants in each of the hemispheres. The present report demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous bilateral procedures during the implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads. METHODS Fifty-seven patients with movement disorders underwent bilateral DBS implantation in the same study period. The authors compared the time required for the surgical implantation of deep brain electrodes in 2 randomly assigned groups. One group of 28 patients underwent traditional sequential electrode implantation, and the other 29 patients underwent simultaneous bilateral implantation. Clinical outcomes of the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who had undergone DBS implantation of the subthalamic nucleus using either of the 2 techniques were compared. RESULTS Overall, a reduction of 38.51% in total operating time for the simultaneous bilateral group (136.4 ± 20.93 minutes) as compared with that for the traditional consecutive approach (220.3 ± 27.58 minutes) was observed. Regarding clinical outcomes in the PD patients who underwent subthalamic nucleus DBS implantation, comparing the preoperative off-medication condition with the off-medication/on-stimulation condition 1 year after the surgery in both procedure groups, there was a mean 47.8% ± 9.5% improvement in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III) score in the simultaneous group, while the sequential group experienced 47.5% ± 15.8% improvement (p = 0.96). Moreover, a marked reduction in the levodopa-equivalent dose from preoperatively to postoperatively was similar in these 2 groups. The simultaneous bilateral procedure presented major advantages over the traditional sequential approach, with a shorter total operating time. CONCLUSIONS A simultaneous stereotactic approach significantly reduces the operation time in bilateral DBS procedures, resulting in decreased microrecording time, contributing to the optimization of functional

  14. [Induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood and bone marrow reticulocytes of male mice after subchronic exposure to x-rays and bisphenol A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzikowska, Joanna; Gajowik, Aneta; Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and xenoestrogens are widely present in the human environment. Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics, epoxy and polyester resins. BPA is present in a great variety of products including: baby bottles, compact disks, thermal paper, safety helmets, bullet resistant laminate, plastic windows, car parts, adhesives, protective coatings, powder paints, polycarbonate bottles and containers, the sheathing of electrical and electronic parts, dental fillings. Food and beverage cans are protected from rusting and corrosion by the application of epoxy resins as inner coatings. Human activities involving the use of radiation and radioactive materials in industry, agriculture and research cause radiation exposure in addition to natural exposure coming from cosmic rays and naturally occurring radioactive substances. The aim of the study was to estimate the effects of bisphenol A, X-rays and combined exposure to X-rays and bisphenol A on the induction of micronuclei in the peripheral blood and in bone marrow reticulocytes of laboratory mice. Pzh-Sfis male mice were exposed for 8 weeks. Animals were treated with bisphenol A diluted in drinking water (5 mg/kg bw, 10 mg/kg bw, 20 mg/kg bw), irradiated 0.05 Gy of X-rays or exposed to a combination of both (0.05 Gy + 5 mg/kg bw BPA). The samples of peripheral blood were taken at 1, 4 and 8 week following the start of exposure, whereas the bone marrow after the end of experiment, only. The induction of micronuclei in reticulocytes were evaluated by using fluorescence microscope. Bisphenol A as well as ionizing radiation stimulated induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood and bone marrow reticulocytes. After the irradiation the level of micronuclei increased, whereas after exposure to BPA decreased related to time expired from beginning of experiment. Combined exposure of ionizing radiation and bisphenol A induced significantly higher frequency of micronuclei compared to the effect

  15. X-ray induction of micronuclei in human lymphocyte subpopulations differentiated by immunoperoxidase staining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadayuki; Nakano, Mimako; Cologne, J.B.

    1992-10-01

    In this report we sought to confirm the radiosensitivity of human peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations using a micronucleus assay. Mononucleated cells isolated from peripheral blood were irradiated with X rays. After being cultured for 3 days, cells were fixed and stained using the immunoperoxidase staining technique. Lymphocyte subpopulations were characterized by means of the monoclonal antibodies Leu4 (CD3), Leu2a (CD8), and Leu19 (CD56). Dose-response curves were obtained by scoring the number of micronuclei in binucleated cells that reacted with a specific antibody and were then stained. The dose response of CD8 + (suppressor/cytotoxic) cells was quite similar to that of CD3 + (pan T) cells. In comparison, CD56 + (natural killer) cells were significantly less sensitive, although scorable binucleated CD56 + cells made up less than 4 % of the total number of binucleated cells. (author)

  16. Suppressing effects of glucan on micronuclei induced by Co sup 60 in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chorvatovicova, D. (Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Inst. of Ecobiology)

    1991-10-01

    The effects of glucan on the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes of A/Ph mouse bone marrow induced by Co{sup 60} irradiation were examined. Suppressing effect of three glucan derivatives was statistically significant (P<0.01) by intravenous application of glucan one hour after irradiation. The most expressive effect was obvious by K{sub 3} substituent (DS 0.89). Intraperitoneal application of glucan has to be done earlier than one hour after irradiation. The suppressive effects of glucans can be explained by their ability to trap OH radicals and so decrease the clastogenic effect of irradiation. The results may be useful for therapeutic application of glucan with radiation therapy. (orig.).

  17. Folic acid deficiency increases chromosomal instability, chromosome 21 aneuploidy and sensitivity to radiation-induced micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetstra, Sasja; Thomas, Philip; Salisbury, Carolyn; Turner, Julie; Fenech, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Folic acid deficiency can lead to uracil incorporation into DNA, hypomethylation of DNA, inefficient DNA repair and increase chromosome malsegregation and breakage. Because ionising radiation increases demand for efficient DNA repair and also causes chromosome breaks we hypothesised that folic acid deficiency may increase sensitivity to radiation-induced chromosome breakage. We tested this hypothesis by using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in 10 day WIL2-NS cell cultures at four different folic acid concentrations (0.2, 2, 20, and 200 nM) that span the 'normal' physiological range in humans. The study showed a significant dose-dependent increase in frequency of binucleated cells with micronuclei and/or nucleoplasmic bridges with decreasing folic acid concentration (P < 0.0001, P = 0.028, respectively). These biomarkers of chromosomal instability were also increased in cells irradiated (1.5 Gy γ-rays) on day 9 relative to un-irradiated controls (P < 0.05). Folic acid deficiency and γ-irradiation were shown to have a significant interactive effect on frequency of cells containing micronuclei (two-way ANOVA, interaction P 0.0039) such that the frequency of radiation-induced micronucleated cells (i.e. after subtracting base-line frequency of un-irradiated controls) increased with decreasing folic acid concentration (P-trend < 0.0001). Aneuploidy of chromosome 21, apoptosis and necrosis were increased by folic acid deficiency but not by ionising radiation. The results of this study show that folate status has an important impact on chromosomal stability and is an important modifying factor of cellular sensitivity to radiation-induced genome damage

  18. Replication of somatic micronuclei in bovine enucleated oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canel Natalia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT was developed to introduce a low number of chromosomes into a host cell. We have designed a novel technique combining part of MMCT with somatic cell nuclear transfer, which consists of injecting a somatic micronucleus into an enucleated oocyte, and inducing its cellular machinery to replicate such micronucleus. It would allow the isolation and manipulation of a single or a low number of somatic chromosomes. Methods Micronuclei from adult bovine fibroblasts were produced by incubation in 0.05 μg/ml demecolcine for 46 h followed by 2 mg/ml mitomycin for 2 h. Cells were finally treated with 10 μg/ml cytochalasin B for 1 h. In vitro matured bovine oocytes were mechanically enucleated and intracytoplasmatically injected with one somatic micronucleus, which had been previously exposed [Micronucleus- injected (+] or not [Micronucleus- injected (−] to a transgene (50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP during 5 min. Enucleated oocytes [Enucleated (+] and parthenogenetic [Parthenogenetic (+] controls were injected into the cytoplasm with less than 10 pl of PVP containing 50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP. A non-injected parthenogenetic control [Parthenogenetic (−] was also included. Two hours after injection, oocytes and reconstituted embryos were activated by incubation in 5 μM ionomycin for 4 min + 1.9 mM 6-DMAP for 3 h. Cleavage stage and egfp expression were evaluated. DNA replication was confirmed by DAPI staining. On day 2, Micronucleus- injected (−, Parthenogenetic (− and in vitro fertilized (IVF embryos were karyotyped. Differences among treatments were determined by Fisher′s exact test (p≤0.05. Results All the experimental groups underwent the first cell divisions. Interestingly, a low number of Micronucleus-injected embryos showed egfp expression. DAPI staining confirmed replication of micronuclei in most of the evaluated embryos. Karyotype analysis revealed that all Micronucleus-injected embryos had

  19. Soil nitrate reducing processes drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, M.; Morley, N.; Baggs, E.M.; Daniell, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium\\ud (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for\\ud the loss of nitrate (NO−\\ud 3 ) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O).\\ud A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and\\ud moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms\\ud responsible for the ...

  20. Pegasus project. DLC coating and low viscosity oil reduce energy losses significantly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerwald, Dave; Jacobs, Ruud [Hauzer Techno Coating (Netherlands). Tribological Coatings

    2012-03-15

    Pegasus, the flying horse from Greek mythology, is a suitable name for the research project initiated by a German automotive OEM with participation of Hauzer Techno Coating and several automotive suppliers. It will enable future automotive vehicles to reduce fuel consumption without losing power. The project described in this article focuses on the rear differential, because reducing friction here can contribute considerably to efficiency improvement of the whole vehicle. Surfaces, coating and oil viscosity have been investigated and interesting conclusions have been reached. (orig.)

  1. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...

  2. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Daniell, Tim J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3−) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N2O production from soils. PMID:23264770

  3. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Eleanore Giles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3-¬ and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O. A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub cm areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location and potential for N2O production from soils.

  4. Soil nitrate reducing processes - drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Daniell, Tim J

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate ([Formula: see text]) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N(2)O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O(2) concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N(2)O production from soils.

  5. Three-dimensional organization of micronuclei induced by colchicine in PtK sub 1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraud, G.; Laquerriere, F.; Masson, C.; Arnoult, J.; Labidi, B.; Hernandez-Verdun, D. (Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France))

    1989-03-01

    In PtK{sub 1} cells micronucleated by colchicine, the authors previously demonstrated that some micronuclei contain a single chromosome. Here, they investigated interphase chromosome organization in micronucleated PtK{sub 1} cells using conventional electron microscopy and three-dimensional computer reconstruction. The distribution of micronuclei was not always polarized, but in some cells they formed a ring. When this occurred, centrioles and Golgi apparatus were located inside the ring. On freeze-fracture replicas, they observed that nuclear pore distinction among the micronuclei was heterogeneous, and on thin sections some micronuclei displayed an incomplete nuclear envelope, with gaps in the double membrane and areas without lamina or condensed chromatin. By autoradiography, they showed that the fibrillar dots were not sites of active transcription. They applied three dimensional reconstruction to one micronucleated cell containing 22 micronuclei whose size indicated that each micronucleus probably contained one chromosome. In this cell they demonstrated that only the smallest micronuclei had an incomplete nuclear envelope. The presence in micronuclei of either nucleoli or fibrillar dots was found to be mutually exclusive. Taken together, these findings indicate that in the diploid nuclei of PtK{sub 1} cells, the three-dimensional organization of the nucleolar domain seems to be directly controlled by the X-chromosome.

  6. Chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei frequencies in Bulgarian control population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, I.; Hadjidekova, V.; Hristova, R.; Atanasova, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to represent the frequency of spontaneous chromosomal damages in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Bulgarian control population. Material and methods: The investigated group includes persons belonging to both sexes and different ages. Each of them is interviewed of their social and health status. Sixteen persons are examined using the chromosomal aberrations analysis and forty-five with micronucleus test. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations varied between 0 - 2.4 % and the mean value is 1.00 %. The frequency of cells with micronuclei varied between 4.5 - 24.5 % and the mean value 12,9 %. Further work on the investigation of spontaneous frequency of chromosomal damages is in progress. (authors)

  7. Micronuclei Frequencies in Lymphocytes of Nuclear Malaysia Radiation Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Rodzi Ali; Aisyah Mohd Yusof; Rahimah Abdul Rahim; Juliana Mahamat Napiah; Yahaya Talib; Shafii Khamis

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the frequency of cell aberration in lymphocytes of the Nuklear Malaysia radiation workers. A total of 58 blood samples were collected from the radiation workers during their routine medical examination. The donor age range is between 23 to 58 years, 31 male and 27 female. Blood samples were cultured according to the standard protocol recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The mean micronuclei (MN) is 23.5 ± 0.9 MN/ 1000 binucleate, with the median value of 24 MN/ 1000 binucleate. The lowest number of MN was 9, and the highest was 43. There is no correlation between the number of MN in blood and yearly cumulative dose for radiation workers. The results indicate the MN expression due to small radiation exposure is almost negligible in Nuclear Malaysia radiation workers. (author)

  8. Analysis of micronuclei of the oral epithelium in workers of a banana zone exposed to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Achi, R.

    1999-01-01

    The following study was realized with workers of the zone of Guapiles (Limon, Costa Rica), to determine the possible damage to the genetic material occasioned by labour exhibition to pesticides. The presence of micronuclei in cells of the oral epithelium was used as a biomarcador of effect . Besides, an analysis of frequency of other abnormalities was made in the nucleus of the epithelial cells, which can be an indication of genotoxicity or cytotoxicity. The group of women exposed to pesticides (cases) was formed by workers of packing plants of different independent banana states. The group of women who constituted the group of control were persons that neither them nor their spouses or companions had never worked at agricultural labours and that had not lived inside a banana estate. The samples of the controls were gathered not only from women who are employed at the Hospital of Guapiles, but also from patients who were expecting to be attended in the external consultation of the same hospital, or, in the Healthy Child consultation in the health center of the same city. It is the first time that a study of control-case is done in the country to detect genotoxicidad, using micronuclei of the oral epithelium (MNOE) as a biomarcador. The participants were interviewed to obtain information about his or her customs and family history that could be relevant for the study. The preparation and the analysis of the cells of the oral epithelium of every individual was done in the laboratories of the Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud (INISA), of the Universidad de Costa Rica. Although there are indications of cytotoxic and genotoxicity in the controls showed by an increase of the frequencies of other nuclear abnormalities, the results demonstrated that there is not a significant increase in MNOE's frequency between the group of cases and of controls. (Author) [es

  9. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  10. Frequencies of micronuclei in lymphocytes and complete blood picture of radiation worker at Al-Twuathia Site Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amel, J.M.; Abdulsahib, K. A.; Abdullah, A.G.; Haider, Y.L.; Ali, H.F.

    2012-12-01

    The present study aims to use the frequency of micronuclei in lymphocyte and complete blood picture as a bio markers for detection of the effects of the low radiation doses in to decommissioning to radioactive contamination (Lama and Geo- Pilot) as a result of work, during January 2009 to November 2011 present study including collected 113 blood samples, including (103 male and female) aged (25 - 65) year for the exam of compete blood picture analysis, included 69 blood samples as first time before work in Al-Twuathia site, 22 blood samples as a second and third exam. While the cytogenetic analysis including 78 male blood samples aged (35 - 63) year, included 30 blood samples as first time be for work in Al-Twuathia site, 30 blood samples as a second exam and 18 blood samples as third exam, as well as 50 blood samples which are not smokers and alcohol as control group which including (40 male and 10 female) aged (30 - 55 year). Three cytogenetic parameter were employed such as frequency of micronuclei, mitotic index an nuclear and nuclear division index, which used for detection of biological effects of ionizing radiation. Also the current study included the detection of the effect of radiation in complete blood picture analysis of workers at Al-Tuwaitha site, which included (Hb, PCV, WBC count, differential count of WBCs, platelets count of WBCs, platelets count and ESR). From the study no significant differences in the rate of micronuclei and division index of workers in the first and second examination compared with the group of workers in the third exam, while observed a significant increase slightly at level (P <0.05) in these rates compared with the control group, as well as were recorded no significant differences in the rate of mitotic index for workers compared with the control group. Also, found no significant difference in complete blood picture analysis for workers compared with the control group. In conclusion, the significant slightly increase at the

  11. The Evolution of Polymer Composition during PHA Accumulation: The Significance of Reducing Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Montano-Herrera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic investigation into monomer development during mixed culture Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA accumulation involving concurrent active biomass growth and polymer storage. A series of mixed culture PHA accumulation experiments, using several different substrate-feeding strategies, was carried out. The feedstock comprised volatile fatty acids, which were applied as single carbon sources, as mixtures, or in series, using a fed-batch feed-on-demand controlled bioprocess. A dynamic trend in active biomass growth as well as polymer composition was observed. The observations were consistent over replicate accumulations. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA was used to investigate metabolic activity through time. It was concluded that carbon flux, and consequently copolymer composition, could be linked with how reducing equivalents are generated.

  12. Significantly reduced c-axis thermal diffusivity of graphene-based papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meng; Xie, Yangsu; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jingchao; Wang, Xinwei

    2018-06-01

    Owing to their very high thermal conductivity as well as large surface-to-volume ratio, graphene-based films/papers have been proposed as promising candidates of lightweight thermal interface materials and lateral heat spreaders. In this work, we study the cross-plane (c-axis) thermal conductivity (k c ) and diffusivity (α c ) of two typical graphene-based papers, which are partially reduced graphene paper (PRGP) and graphene oxide paper (GOP), and compare their thermal properties with highly-reduced graphene paper and graphite. The determined α c of PRGP varies from (1.02 ± 0.09) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 295 K to (2.31 ± 0.18) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 12 K. This low α c is mainly attributed to the strong phonon scattering at the grain boundaries and defect centers due to the small grain sizes and high-level defects. For GOP, α c varies from (1.52 ± 0.05) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 295 K to (2.28 ± 0.08) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 12.5 K. The cross-plane thermal transport of GOP is attributed to the high density of functional groups between carbon layers which provide weak thermal transport tunnels across the layers in the absence of direct energy coupling among layers. This work sheds light on the understanding and optimizing of nanostructure of graphene-based paper-like materials for desired thermal performance.

  13. Technological significances to reduce the material problems. Feasibility of heat flux reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Shimada, Michiya.

    1994-01-01

    For a divertor plate in a fusion power reactor, a high temperature coolant must be used for heat removal to keep thermal efficiency high. It makes the temperature and thermal stress of wall materials higher than the design limits. Issues of the coolant itself, e.g. burnout of high temperature water, will also become a serious problem. Sputtering erosion of the surface material will be a great concern of its lifetime. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the heat and particle loads to the divertor plate technologically. The feasibility of some technological methods of heat reduction, such as separatrix sweeping, is discussed. As one of the most promising ideas, the methods of radiative cooling of the divertor plasma are summarized based on the recent results of large tokamaks. The feasibility of remote radiative cooling and gas divertor is discussed. The ideas are considered in recent design studies of tokamak power reactors and experimental reactors. By way of example, conceptual designs of divertor plate for the steady state tokamak power reactor are described. (author)

  14. Thrombolysis significantly reduces transient myocardial ischaemia following first acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate whether thrombolysis affects residual myocardial ischaemia, we prospectively performed a predischarge maximal exercise test and early out-of-hospital ambulatory ST segment monitoring in 123 consecutive men surviving a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Seventy......-four patients fulfilled our criteria for thrombolysis, but only the last 35 patients included received thrombolytic therapy. As thrombolysis was not available in our Department at the start of the study, the first 39 patients included were conservatively treated (controls). No significant differences...... in baseline clinical characteristics were found between the two groups. In-hospital atrial fibrillation and digoxin therapy was more prevalent in controls (P less than 0.05). During exercise, thrombolysed patients reached a higher maximal work capacity compared with controls: 160 +/- 41 vs 139 +/- 34 W (P...

  15. Selenium Supplementation Significantly Reduces Thyroid Autoantibody Levels in Patients with Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichman, Johanna Eva Märta; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium supplementation may decrease circulating thyroid autoantibodies in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), but the available trials are heterogenous. This study expands and critically reappraises the knowledge on this topic. METHODS: A literature search identified...... 3366 records. Controlled trials in adults (≥18 years of age) with AIT, comparing selenium with or without levothyroxine (LT4), versus placebo and/or LT4, were eligible. Assessed outcomes were serum thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) autoantibody levels, and immunomodulatory effects...... and LT4-untreated. Heterogeneity was estimated using I(2), and quality of evidence was assessed per outcome, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. RESULTS: In LT4-treated populations, the selenium group had significantly lower TPOAb levels after...

  16. A case of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma which was significantly reduced in size by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azakami, Kiyoshi; Nishida, Kouji; Tanikawa, Ken

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization classified gastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) into three types: NET grade (G) 1, NET G2 and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). NECs are associated with a very poor prognosis. The patient was an 84-year-old female who was initially diagnosed by gastrointestinal endoscope with type 3 advanced gastric cancer with stenosis of the gastric cardia. Her overall status and performance status did not allow for operations or intensive chemotherapy. Palliative radiotherapy was performed and resulted in a significant reduction in the size of the tumor as well as the improvement of the obstructive symptoms. She died 9 months after radiotherapy. An autopsy provided a definitive diagnosis of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma, and the effectiveness of radiotherapy was pathologically-confirmed. Palliative radiotherapy may be a useful treatment option for providing symptom relief, especially for old patients with unresectable advanced gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma. (author)

  17. Ad libitum Mediterranean and Low Fat Diets both Significantly Reduce Hepatic Steatosis: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, Catherine; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Sherriff, Jill L; Ching, Helena L; Jeffrey, Garry P; Buckley, Rachel F; Tibballs, Jonathan; MacQuillan, Gerry C; Garas, George; Adams, Leon A

    2018-05-05

    Although diet induced weight loss is first-line treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), long-term maintenance is difficult. The optimal diet for either improvement in NAFLD or associated cardio-metabolic risk factors regardless of weight loss, is unknown. We examined the effect of two ad libitum isocaloric diets [Mediterranean (MD) or Low Fat (LF)] on hepatic steatosis and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Subjects with NAFLD were randomized to a 12-week blinded dietary intervention (MD vs LF). Hepatic steatosis was determined via magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). From a total of 56 subjects enrolled, 49 subjects completed the intervention and 48 were included for analysis. During the intervention, subjects on the MD had significantly higher total and monounsaturated fat but lower carbohydrate and sodium intakes compared to LF subjects (pfat reduction between the groups (p=0.32), with mean (SD) relative reductions of 25.0% (±25.3%) in LF and 32.4% (±25.5%) in MD. Liver enzymes also improved significantly in both groups. Weight loss was minimal and not different between groups [-1.6 (±2.1)kg in LF vs -2.1 (±2.5)kg in MD, (p=0.52)]. Within-group improvements in the Framingham risk score, total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, and HbA1c were observed in the MD (all pvs. 64%, p=0.048). Ad libitum low fat and Mediterranean diets both improve hepatic steatosis to a similar degree. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Social networking strategies that aim to reduce obesity have achieved significant although modest results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Harling, Leanne; Kerr, Karen; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues to escalate. Obesity accounts for an increasing proportion of the international socioeconomic burden of noncommunicable disease. Online social networking services provide an effective medium through which information may be exchanged between obese and overweight patients and their health care providers, potentially contributing to superior weight-loss outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of these services in modifying body mass index (BMI). Our analysis of twelve studies found that interventions using social networking services produced a modest but significant 0.64 percent reduction in BMI from baseline for the 941 people who participated in the studies' interventions. We recommend that social networking services that target obesity should be the subject of further clinical trials. Additionally, we recommend that policy makers adopt reforms that promote the use of anti-obesity social networking services, facilitate multistakeholder partnerships in such services, and create a supportive environment to confront obesity and its associated noncommunicable diseases. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. Targeting Heparin to Collagen within Extracellular Matrix Significantly Reduces Thrombogenicity and Improves Endothelialization of Decellularized Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Suen, Rachel; Wertheim, Jason A; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2016-12-12

    Thrombosis within small-diameter vascular grafts limits the development of bioartificial, engineered vascular conduits, especially those derived from extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we describe an easy-to-implement strategy to chemically modify vascular ECM by covalently linking a collagen binding peptide (CBP) to heparin to form a heparin derivative (CBP-heparin) that selectively binds a subset of collagens. Modification of ECM with CBP-heparin leads to increased deposition of functional heparin (by ∼7.2-fold measured by glycosaminoglycan composition) and a corresponding reduction in platelet binding (>70%) and whole blood clotting (>80%) onto the ECM. Furthermore, addition of CBP-heparin to the ECM stabilizes long-term endothelial cell attachment to the lumen of ECM-derived vascular conduits, potentially through recruitment of heparin-binding growth factors that ultimately improve the durability of endothelialization in vitro. Overall, our findings provide a simple yet effective method to increase deposition of functional heparin on the surface of ECM-based vascular grafts and thereby minimize thrombogenicity of decellularized tissue, overcoming a significant challenge in tissue engineering of bioartificial vessels and vascularized organs.

  20. Thyroid function appears to be significantly reduced in Space-borne MDS mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco; Curcio, Francesco; Fontanini, Elisabetta; Perrella, Giuseppina; Spelat, Renza; Zambito, Anna Maria; Damaskopoulou, Eleni; Peverini, Manola; Albi, Elisabetta

    It is known that prolonged space flights induced changes in human cardiovascular, muscu-loskeletal and nervous systems whose function is regulated by the thyroid gland but, until now, no data were reported about thyroid damage during space missions. We have demonstrated in vitro that, during space missions (Italian Soyuz Mission "ENEIDE" in 2005, Shuttle STS-120 "ESPERIA" in 2007), thyroid in vitro cultured cells did not respond to thyroid stimulating hor-mone (TSH) treatment; they appeared healthy and alive, despite their being in a pro-apopotic state characterised by a variation of sphingomyelin metabolism and consequent increase in ce-ramide content. The insensitivity to TSH was largely due to a rearrangement of specific cell membrane microdomains, acting as platforms for TSH-receptor (TEXUS-44 mission in 2008). To study if these effects were present also in vivo, as part of the Mouse Drawer System (MDS) Tissue Sharing Program, we performed experiments in mice maintained onboard the Interna-tional Space Station during the long-duration (90 days) exploration mission STS-129. After return to earth, the thyroids isolated from the 3 animals were in part immediately frozen to study the morphological modification in space and in part immediately used to study the effect of TSH treatment. For this purpose small fragments of tissue were treated with 10-7 or 10-8 M TSH for 1 hour by using untreated fragments as controls. Then the fragments were fixed with absolute ethanol for 10 min at room temperature and centrifuged for 20 min. at 3000 x g. The supernatants were used for cAMP analysis whereas the pellet were used for protein amount determination and for immunoblotting analysis of TSH-receptor, sphingomyelinase and sphingomyelin-synthase. The results showed a modification of the thyroid structure and also the values of cAMP production after treatment with 10-7 M TSH for 1 hour were significantly lower than those obtained in Earth's gravity. The treatment with TSH

  1. The insecticide buprofezin induces morphological transformation and kinetochore-positive micronuclei in cultured Syrian hamster embryo cells in the absence of detectable DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, L A; Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Schiffmann, D; Chen, Q Y; Ziegler-Skylakakis, K; Andrae, U

    1993-11-01

    The insecticide buprofezin was examined for its genotoxicity in cultured Syrian hamster embryo cells in order to better understand the mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of the compound in mammalian cells. Exposure to buprofezin concentrations of 12.5-100 microM did not significantly affect the colony-forming ability of the cells, but did result in increased frequencies of morphologically transformed colonies. Treatment with buprofezin did not cause a detectable induction of DNA repair synthesis, an indicator of DNA damage, but significantly increased the frequency of micronuclei. Immunostaining of the cells with antikinetochore antibody (CREST antibody) showed that essentially all of the buprofezin-induced micronuclei were kinetochore-positive. The results suggest that morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by buprofezin results from an interaction of the compound or a metabolite of it with the mitotic apparatus rather than from DNA damage.

  2. Elevated Frequencies of Micronuclei and other Nuclear Abnormalities of Chrome Plating Workers Occupationally Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, S; Kripa, S K; Shibily, P; Shyn, J

    2011-01-01

    Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium by using micronuclei (MN) as a biomarker. This was a cross-sectional study and all participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from Coimbatore, Southern India. Exfoliated buccal cells from 44 chrome plating workers and 40 age and sex matched control subjects were examined for MN frequency and nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, broken eggs, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and pyknosis. Results showed statistically significant difference between chrome plating workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in chrome plating workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p chrome plating workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. Therefore, there is a need to educate those who work with heavy metals about the potential hazard of occupational exposure and the importance of using protective measures.

  3. Chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei frequencies in Bulgarian control population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staynova, A.; Hadjidekova, V.; Popova, L.; Hristova, R.; Georgieva, G. [Radiation Genetics Laboratory, National Centre of Radiobology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-07-01

    The correct estimation of the possible genotoxic effects in humans after external damage agents exposures depends on the data of the spontaneous levels of the biomarkers used. Spontaneous levels of chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) formation in human peripheral lymphocytes, and their variability were studied in a population of a clean environmentally regions in Bulgaria. Spontaneous frequency of CA was investigated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 151 subjects. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 148 subjects were analysed for the presence of MN. Also MN assay was applied for evaluation of genotoxic effects in buccal epithelium cells obtained from 43 donors. The mean frequency ± sd of the cells with ca is 1.42± 0.95. The mean frequency ± SD of cells with MN is 11.99 ± 6.50%. The mean frequency ± SD of cells with MN in buccal epithelium cells was found to be 2.53 ± 1.41x10{sup -3}. (author)

  4. Incidence of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in cave tour guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, M; Bilban-Jakopin, C; Vrhovec, S

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA) and micronucleus tests (MN) were performed in 38 subjects, cave tour guides and in appropriate control group. The dominant type of chromosomal aberrations in tourist guides were chromosomal breaks (0.013 per cell) and acentric fragments (0.011 per cell). In the control group, these aberrations were present up to 0.008 on cells. Considering the analysed cells of the guides in total (33,556), the incidence of dicentric and rings range is below 0.0008 on cells, even though three dicentric and ring chromosoms were found already in the first 1000 in vitro metaphases of some guides. Only 0.0003 dicentrics and neither other translocations were found in control group (ambiental exposure). The incidence of micronuclei in cytokinesis blocked lymphocytes ranged from 12-32 per 500 CB cells in the cave tour guides and from 4-11 per 500 CB cells in control group. Measurements of radon and its daughters were performed at different locations in the cave. Annual doses from 40-60 mSv were estimated per 2000 work hours for cave guides. The changes found in the genome of somatic cells may be related to the exposure doses of radon and its daughters, although smoking should not be ignored.

  5. The Effects of Environmental Pollution with Heavy Metals in Frequency of Micronuclei in Epithelial Buccal Cells of Human Population in Mitrovica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Letaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was evaluation of genotoxic effects of environmental pollution with heavy metals in inhabitants of Mitrovica town (which is located close to smelter “Treça” down closed. In this study, 55 inhabitants (males from Mitrovica town and 20 (males control subjects with similar mean ages and smoking prevalence were enrolled for analysis of micronuclei frequency in epithelial buccal cells. The subjects of Mitrovica town showed significant increase micronuclei frequency (p< 0.001 in epithelial buccal cells compared to controls and with respect to their smoking habits. The current study suggests that chronic exposure to pollution with heavy metals could lead to increase of DNA damage.

  6. High incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area near the Semipalatinsk nuclear explosion test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kamada, Nanao; Tchaijunusova, N.J.; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Gusev, B.I.; Sakerbaev, A.K.H.

    2000-01-01

    The Semipalatinsk area is highly contaminated with radioactive fallout from 40 years of continuous nuclear testing. The biological effects on human health in this area have not been studied. Significant remaining radioactivities include long-lived radioisotopes of 238, 239, 400 Pu, 137 Cs and 90 Sr. To evaluate the long-term biological effects of the radioactive fallout, the incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area was observed. Blood was obtained from 10 residents (5 females and 5 males, aged 47 to 55 years old) from each of the 3 areas of Znamenka, Dolon and Semipalatinsk, which are about 50-150 km from the nuclear explosion test site. For micronucleus assay. PHA-stimulated lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h and cytochalasin B was added at 44 h for detecting binuclear lymphocytes. Five thousand binuclear lymphocytes in each resident were scored. The means of micronucleus counts in 1,000 lymphocytes in residents of Semipalatinsk, Dolon and Znamenka were 16.3, 12.6, and 7.80, respectively, which were higher than those of the normal Japanese persons (4.66). These values were equivalent to the results obtained from 0.187-0.47 Gy of chronic exposure to γ-rays at a dose rate of 0.02 cGy/min. The high incidence of micronuclei in residents of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area was mainly caused by internal exposure rather than external exposure received for the past 40 years. (author)

  7. RNA polymerase activity in PtK1 micronuclei containing individual chromosomes: an in vitro and in situ study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labidi, B.; Gregoire, M.; Frackowiak, S.; Hernandez-Verdun, D.; Bouteille, M.

    1987-01-01

    Micronuclei have been induced by colchicine in rat kangaroo (Potorous tridactylis) PtK1 cells. The synthesis of RNA was investigated both in isolated micronuclei by quantifying RNA polymerase activities at different ionic strengths with or without inhibitors, and in micronucleated cells by radioautography after [ 3 H]uridine pulse labeling. In vitro transcription shows that isolated micronuclei are able to take up [ 3 H]UTP. The rate curves of incorporation are close to those of isolated diploid nuclei, though the level of incorporation was relatively lower (65-70%) than control nuclei. This indicates that micronuclei react to the ionic environment and to inhibitors in the same manner as described for many species of isolated diploid nuclei. The labelling distributions plotted from radioautographs show that micronuclei were able to efficiently incorporate the hot precursor. Furthermore, for short pulses there is no homogeneity in the labelling density among the different micronuclei and there is no correlation between the labelling intensity and the size of micronuclei. After 60-min pulse time, there is an enhanced uptake of [ 3 H]uridine and all the micronuclei exhibit considerable labelling, although less than control cells. Thus, the micronuclei exhibit some characteristic RNA transcriptional activity in situ as well as after isolation. This material should be a particular interesting model with which to study the physiological activity and the role of each individual interphasic chromosome

  8. Beta-carotene supplementation in smokers reduces the frequency of nnicronuclei in sputum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppel, G. van; Kok, F.J.; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1992-01-01

    β-carotene has been hypothesised to reduce lung cancer risk. We studied the effect of 14 weeks of β-carotene supplementation (20 mg d-1) on the frequency of micronuclei in sputum in 114 heavy smokers in a double-blind trial. Micronuclei reflect DNA damage in exfoliated cells and may thus provide a

  9. Induction of Micronuclei in Human Fibroblasts across the Bragg Curve of Energetic Si and Fe Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Rusek, A.; Hada, M.

    2006-01-01

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET gamma or X-rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged particle exposure. Since the dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply as the particle approaches the end of its range, a position known as the Bragg peak, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle traversal since biological effects are influenced by the track structure of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the biological Bragg curve is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle, and may vary for different biological endpoints. We studied micronuclei (MN) induction across the Bragg curve of Si and Fe ions at incident energies of 300 MeV/nucleon and 1 GeV/nucleon. A quantitative biological response curve did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak. However, the ratio of mono- to bi-nucleated cells, which indicates inhibition in cell progression, increased at the Bragg peak location. These results confirm the hypothesis that severely damaged cells at the Bragg peak are likely to go through reproduction death.

  10. Micronuclei induced by fast neutrons versus 60Co gamma-rays in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vral, A; Verhaegen, F; Thierens, H; De Ridder, L

    1994-03-01

    Here we compared the effectiveness of neutrons ( = 5.5 MeV) versus 60Co gamma-rays in producing micronuclei (MN) in human lymphocytes. To obtain dose-response data, blood samples of six donors were irradiated with doses ranging from 0.1 to 5 Gy for gamma-rays and 0.1-3 Gy for neutrons. A linear dependence of MN yield with dose was found for fast neutrons while for gamma-rays a nonlinear dependence existed. For both radiation qualities no significant interindividual differences were found. Derived relative biological effectiveness values decreased with increasing dose. The MN frequency distributions were overdispersed with respect to the Poisson distribution, with neutrons showing higher dispersion values than with gamma-rays. To compare the repair kinetics of both radiation qualities split-dose experiments were performed. A dose of 4 Gy gamma-rays (3 Gy neutrons) was delivered either as a single exposure or in two equal fractions separated by time intervals ranging from 30 min to 10 h (30 min to 7 h for neutrons). The data showed for gamma-rays a significant decline (30% +/- 10%) in MN yield with interfraction time due to repair of DNA damage. This repair is a continuous process starting almost immediately after the first of the two doses and lasting 3-5 h. For fast neutrons no decline was observed indicating irreparable damage.

  11. Induction of mitotic micronuclei by X-ray contrast media in human peripheral lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, Z.; Moncada, R.; Kormano, M.; Satokari, K.; Eklund, R.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo cytogenetic effects of X-ray contrast media (CM) were determined by scoring micronuclei (MN) in 72-h cultures of human peripheral lymphocytes. Both ionic (sodium meglumine diatrizoate, methylglucamine diatrizoate, and sodium meglumine ioxaglate and nonionic CM (iosimide, iopromide, iohexol and iotrolan) were able to induce MN in lymphocytes. Based upon their calculated percent probabilities for MN induction, these agents could be ranked in their decreasing order of probability, as iosimide > sodium meglumine ioxaglate > iohexol > sodium meglumine diatrizoate > iopromide > methylglucamine diatrizoate > iotrolan. Stepwise logistic regression analysis of the data indicated that the frequency of MN in CM-exposed lymphocyte cultures was significantly higher than the frequency of MN in control cultures (P < 0.001). In clinical studies where 14 patients were injected with an ionic CM methylglucamine diatrizoate, lymphocyte cultures from 10 patients showed higher frequencies of MN. The differences between pre- and post-CM counts of MN were significant in a Mann-Whitney U test (P < 0.05). The effect of X-irradiation on MN formation in lymphocytes was separately determined and was found to be insignificant. These results indicate that irrespective of ionic and osmolality differences, X-ray contrast agents are capable of producing chromosomal damage in peripheral lymphocytes. Further studies are required to establish molecular mechanisms in the observed cytogenetic effects of CM in cell cultures. (Auth.)

  12. Micronuclei as biomarkers for evaluating the risk of malignant transformation in the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, G M A; Meireles, J R C; Oliveira, P C; Oliveira, J L; Araújo, E L; Pires, B C; Cruz, E S A; Jesus, N F; Pereira, C A B; Cerqueira, E M M

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated micronucleus and apoptosis occurrence among women with normal smears and women with different kinds of cervical abnormalities, i.e., inflammatory processes and low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (N = 12, N = 10 and N = 27, respectively). The sample included 59 women who were seen at a public medical service for cervical cancer prevention in Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. The diagnosis was established by means of cytological, colposcopic, and histopathological examination. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on 2000 cells from each woman and included assessment of micronuclei and nuclear degenerative abnormalities indicative of apoptosis (karyorrhexis, pyknosis and condensed chromatin). Micronucleus frequency was significantly higher in the women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions than in the women without cervical abnormalities or inflammatory processes (P 0.50), and significantly lower in women without cervical abnormalities and in women showing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions than in women showing inflammatory processes or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (P cancer. The assessment of nuclear degenerative abnormalities indicative of apoptosis increased the sensitivity of this test.

  13. Induction of micronuclei in V79 cells after combined treatments with heterocyclic aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, C; Lopez de Cerain, A; Bello, J

    2002-10-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) appear in foods rich in proteins when subjected to different cooking processes. These amines have been demonstrated to be mutagenic in bacteria; in eucaryotic cells, controversial results have been referred. The objective of this study is to evaluate the clastogenic and/or aneugenic capacity of three HAs--2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (IQx), and 2-amino-3-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)--in isolated as well as in combined treatments. The micronucleus test in vitro was used on V79 cells in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. The duration of the treatment was 2 h, and cytochalasin B was added for 21 h to stop cytokinesis; then, micronuclei (MN) were counted in binucleated cells. In the presence of metabolic activation, the three amines showed a significant increase in the number of MN with respect to the negative control. The PhIP amine presented the highest values and it also resulted slightly active in the absence of metabolic activation, although these differences have not been considered to be significant. The combined treatments of these amines have shown that the effects attributed to them when administered together are those that are expected for a possible additive effect; the effect attributed to each HA separately is not potentiated nor inhibited.

  14. Micronuclei levels in mothers and their newborns from regions with different types of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossnerova, Andrea; Spatova, Milada; Pastorkova, Anna; Tabashidze, Nana; Veleminsky, Milos; Balascak, Ivan; Solansky, Ivo; Sram, Radim J

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze genetic damage in human lymphocytes measured using automated image analysis of micronuclei (MN) in a group of 178 mothers and their newborns from two locations in the Czech Republic. The concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter comparison with Ceske Budejovice: 1.9 ± 0.5ng/m³ vs. 3.2 ± 0.2ng/m³ (pmothers was 31 years (range, 18-49 years). The frequencies of MN per 1000 binucleated cells were 8.35 ± 3.06 vs. 6.47 ± 2.35 (pmothers from Prague and Ceske Budejovice, respectively, and 2.17 ± 1.32 vs. 3.82 ± 2.43 (pmothers and the impact of the mothers' and fathers' ages were analyzed in our study. The results suggest that the different sensitivity of the study groups to various mixtures of carcinogenic pollutants could be affected by significant differences in lifestyle factors. Possible higher genetic damage was analyzed in newborns of smoking mothers, and the birth weight of this group was 7.4% lower (pcomparison with the newborns of nonsmoking mothers. No impact of the age of the mothers or fathers on MN frequency in the newborns was observed. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Interaction between FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Based on the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality...... at advanced ages. Such significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p =0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p =0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers...... of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably...

  16. Improvement of techniques for the detection of radio-induced micronuclei in human blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, P.; Paillole, N.

    1995-12-31

    Scoring of micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked peripheral human lymphocytes, after an accidental overexposure, seems an easier and faster alternative for biological dosimetry than conventional cytogenetics (dicentric chromosomes). Several variations of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay have been tested, in order to obtain a sufficient number of micronuclei in bi-nucleated cells by the shortest time possible for operational purposes. The methods differ in the use of hypotonic treatment as well as culture time (48 to 72 h), amount of blood and materials used. We have compared frequencies of bi-nucleated cells and micronuclei in normal lymphocytes and after {gamma}-({sup 60}Co) irradiation in vitro with {sup 60}Co for doses up to 6 Gy. Main results and the final choice of the technique are presented. (authors). 3 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Improvement of techniques for the detection of radio-induced micronuclei in human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voisin, P.; Paillole, N.

    1995-01-01

    Scoring of micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked peripheral human lymphocytes, after an accidental overexposure, seems an easier and faster alternative for biological dosimetry than conventional cytogenetics (dicentric chromosomes). Several variations of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay have been tested, in order to obtain a sufficient number of micronuclei in bi-nucleated cells by the shortest time possible for operational purposes. The methods differ in the use of hypotonic treatment as well as culture time (48 to 72 h), amount of blood and materials used. We have compared frequencies of bi-nucleated cells and micronuclei in normal lymphocytes and after γ-( 60 Co) irradiation in vitro with 60 Co for doses up to 6 Gy. Main results and the final choice of the technique are presented. (authors). 3 refs., 3 figs

  18. Association of CHMP4B and Autophagy with Micronuclei: Implications for Cataract Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia P. Sagona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a mechanism of cellular self-degradation that is very important for cellular homeostasis and differentiation. Components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT machinery are required for endosomal sorting and also for autophagy and the completion of cytokinesis. Here we show that the ESCRT-III subunit CHMP4B not only localizes to normal cytokinetic bridges but also to chromosome bridges and micronuclei, the latter surrounded by lysosomes and autophagosomes. Moreover, CHMP4B can be co-immunoprecipitated with chromatin. Interestingly, a CHMP4B mutation associated with autosomal dominant posterior polar cataract abolishes the ability of CHMP4B to localize to micronuclei. We propose that CHMP4B, through its association with chromatin, may participate in the autophagolysosomal degradation of micronuclei and other extranuclear chromatin. This may have implications for DNA degradation during lens cell differentiation, thus potentially protecting lens cells from cataract development.

  19. Induction of micronuclei by irradiation with neutrons produced from 600 MeV protons

    CERN Document Server

    Diehl-Marshall, I

    1980-01-01

    Chromosome damage can be detected by the observation of micronuclei . Because its sensitivity, the micronuclei induciton in meristems of Vicia faba bean roots has been selected to determine the radiation damage produced by doses ranging from 1 to 82 cGy of neutrons. The average number of miconuclei found between 24 and 48 hours after irradiation was plotted as a funciton of dose. The RBE values, using as reference radiation 60 Co y-rays, ranged from 3.5 for a neutron dose of 82 cGy to 18 for a neutron of 1 cGy. Even higher RBE values were deduced at low doses from the evaluation of cells containing multiple micronuclei.

  20. Induction of micronuclei and binucleated cells by treatment with radiation and cisplatin in CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodilla, V.; Seymour, C.B.; Mothersill, C.; Pertusa, J.; Pellicer, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The frequencies of CHO cells with micronuclei in the cisplatin-treated cultures showed an increase reaching a maximum 48 hours after treatment. Within the next 48 hours a slight decrease in the frequencies was observed. In γ-irradiated cultures (1.2 Gy/min at 80 cm source-skin distance) the maximum in micronuclei-induction was reached at 24 hours post-irradiation, decreasing thereafter. Cultures receiving both treatments showed a similar curve, with a peak at 24 hours, decreasing thereafter. (UK)

  1. Evaluation of genotoxicity in automobile mechanics occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammed Rafiq; Sudha, Sellappa

    2012-01-01

    Occupational and environmental exposures mostly represent mixtures of genotoxic agents, whereas the specificity of biomarker measurements varies widely. Exploration of correlations among biomarkers contributes to the further progress of molecular cancer epidemiology and to the selection of the optimal biomarkers for the investigation of human exposure to carcinogens. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) among automobile mechanics by using Micronuclei (MN) and other Nuclear Abnormalities (NA) as a biomarker. The study population composed of 110 occupationally exposed automobile mechanics and 100 unexposed controls. All the study participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from automobile garages located in the urban area of Coimbatore City, South India. Exfoliated buccal cells were collected from 110 automobile mechanics and 100 age and sex matched controls. Further, cells were examined for MN frequency and Nuclear Abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, broken eggs and karyolysis. Results showed a statistically significant difference between occupationally exposed automobile mechanics and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in automobile mechanics were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05) and also significantly related to smoking habit (p < 0.05). In addition, a higher degree of NA was observed among the exposed subjects with smoking, drinking, tobacco chewing, which is an indicative of cytogenetic damage in these individuals. MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that automobile mechanics exposed to PAHs are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. Therefore, it is important to provide and offer better awareness of occupational hazards among these workers to promote

  2. A Recombinant Multi-Stage Vaccine against Paratuberculosis Significantly Reduces Bacterial Level in Tissues without Interference in Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, C.

    , PPDj-specific IFN-γ responses or positive PPDa or PPDb skin tests developed in vaccinees. Antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses were developed against FET11 antigens, however. At necropsy 8 or 12 months of age, relative Map burden was determined in a number of gut tissues by quantitative IS900...... PCR and revealed significantly reduced levels of Map and reduced histopathology. Diagnostic tests for antibody responses and cell-mediated immune responses, used as surrogates of infection, corroborated the observed vaccine efficacy: Five of seven non‐vaccinated calves seroconverted in ID Screen......-γ assay responses from 40 to 52 weeks compared to non-vaccinated calves. These results indicate the FET11 vaccine can be used to accelerate eradication of paratuberculosis while surveillance or test-and-manage control programs for tuberculosis and Johne’s disease remain in place. Funded by EMIDA ERA...

  3. Mapping the factors affecting the frequency and types of micronuclei in an elderly population from Southern Bohemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossnerova, Andrea, E-mail: andrearo@biomed.cas.cz [Department of Genetic Toxicology and Nanotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Czech Academy of Sciences, 14220 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Honkova, Katerina; Pavlikova, Jitka [Department of Genetic Toxicology and Nanotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Czech Academy of Sciences, 14220 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Skalicka, Zuzana Freitinger; Havrankova, Renata [Institute of Radiology, Toxicology and Civil Protection, University of South Bohemia, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Solansky, Ivo; Rossner, Pavel; Sram, Radim J. [Department of Genetic Toxicology and Nanotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Czech Academy of Sciences, 14220 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Zölzer, Friedo [Institute of Radiology, Toxicology and Civil Protection, University of South Bohemia, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Factors affecting the frequency and types of micronuclei were mapped. • The effect of former uranium exposure and later X-ray examination was studied. • An increase of CEN+ MN (chromosome losses) in the fall season was observed. • Lower DNA damage after X-ray examination was found in cases of previous exposure. - Abstract: The micronucleus assay is one of the most common methods used to assess chromosomal damage (losses or breaks) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in genetic toxicology. Most studies have focused on analyzing total micronuclei (MN), but identifying the content of MN can provide more detailed information. The main aim of this study was to map the factors affecting the frequency and types of micronuclei in binucleated cells (BNC) in elderly population. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using Human Pan Centromeric Chromosome Paint was used to identify centromere positive (CEN+) or centromere negative (CEN-) MN. A group of 95 men from Southern Bohemia, Czech Republic (average age 68.0 ± 6.8 years) was followed repeatedly, in spring and fall 2014. The study participants were former workers of the uranium plant “MAPE Mydlovary” (processing uranium ore from 1962 to 1991), and controls. The general profile of individual types of MN, and the effect of the season, former uranium exposure, age, smoking status, weight, and X-ray examination on the level and type of MN were analyzed. The results of this study showed: (i) a stable profile of BNC with MN based on the number of MN during two seasons; (ii) an increase of the number of CEN+ MN from spring to fall; (iii) a lower frequency of the total MN in the exposed group than in controls with a significant difference in the percentage of aberrant cells (%AB.C.) in the fall; (iv) no clear effect of age, smoking and BMI on DNA damage in this group; (v) lower DNA damage levels in former uranium workers who received X-ray examination later in life. In summary, the results indicate

  4. Lime and Phosphate Amendment Can Significantly Reduce Uptake of Cd and Pb by Field-Grown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongbo Xiao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soils are suffering from increasing heavy metal pollution, among which, paddy soil polluted by heavy metals is frequently reported and has elicited great public concern. In this study, we carried out field experiments on paddy soil around a Pb-Zn mine to study amelioration effects of four soil amendments on uptake of Cd and Pb by rice, and to make recommendations for paddy soil heavy metal remediation, particularly for combined pollution of Cd and Pb. The results showed that all the four treatments can significantly reduce the Cd and Pb content in the late rice grain compared with the early rice, among which, the combination amendment of lime and phosphate had the best remediation effects where rice grain Cd content was reduced by 85% and 61%, respectively, for the late rice and the early rice, and by 30% in the late rice grain for Pb. The high reduction effects under the Ca + P treatment might be attributed to increase of soil pH from 5.5 to 6.7. We also found that influence of the Ca + P treatment on rice production was insignificant, while the available Cd and Pb content in soil was reduced by 16.5% and 11.7%, respectively.

  5. Induction of micronuclei in buccal mucosa on chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappa, Sudha; Balakrishnan, Mythili; Raman, Sangeetha; Palanisamy, Subashini

    2009-06-01

    Betel quid containing areca nut and chewing tobacco is used in many parts of India. In this study we evaluated the micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosa of healthy individuals from southern India, who were regularly chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco. A total of 44 subjects were examined. The study population included 15 chewers, 14 chewers with smoking habit and 15 controls with the mean age of 38.57 +/- 0.54, 34.50 +/- 0.95, and 33.28 +/- 0.89 years, respectively. The mean percentage of MN was 1.90 +/- 1.03 in chewers, 2.00 +/-1.12 in chewers with smoking habits and 0.81 +/- 0.66 in controls. There was no significant difference between the mean percentages of the two experimental groups. It can be concluded that a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut, and tobacco is unsafe for oral health.

  6. Increased micronuclei and bulky DNA adducts in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M.; Wichmann, J.; Autrup, H.

    2009-01-01

    assessed through the use of validated biomarkers in blood cells from mother-newborn pairs. A cross-sectional biomonitoring study with healthy pregnant women living in the Greater Copenhagen area, Denmark, was conducted. Bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei (MN) were measured in blood from 75 women and 69...... levels were similar and positively correlated in maternal and cord blood (1.40 vs. 1.37 n/10(8) nucleotides; r = 0.99; p cells). Adduct levels were...... highest among mother-newborn pairs who lived near medium-traffic-density (> 400-2500 vehicle km/24 h; p 2500 vehicle km/24 h) were significantly increased (p = 0.02). This trend remained after adjusting...

  7. Reduced bone mineral density is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Dennis T; Kotyk, John J; Armamento-Villareal, Reina C; Kenguva, Venkata; Seaman, Pamela; Shahar, Allon; Wald, Michael J; Kleerekoper, Michael; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-02-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces bone quantity but not bone quality in rodents. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of CR with adequate intake of vitamin and minerals on bone quantity and quality in middle-aged lean individuals. In this study, we evaluated body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and serum markers of bone turnover and inflammation in 32 volunteers who had been eating a CR diet (approximately 35% less calories than controls) for an average of 6.8 ± 5.2 years (mean age 52.7 ± 10.3 years) and 32 age- and sex-matched sedentary controls eating Western diets (WD). In a subgroup of 10 CR and 10 WD volunteers, we also measured trabecular bone (TB) microarchitecture of the distal radius using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the CR volunteers had significantly lower body mass index than the WD volunteers (18.9 ± 1.2 vs. 26.5 ± 2.2 kg m(-2) ; P = 0.0001). BMD of the lumbar spine (0.870 ± 0.11 vs. 1.138 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) and hip (0.806 ± 0.12 vs. 1.047 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) was also lower in the CR than in the WD group. Serum C-terminal telopeptide and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase concentration were similar between groups, while serum C-reactive protein (0.19 ± 0.26 vs. 1.46 ± 1.56 mg L(-1) , P = 0.0001) was lower in the CR group. Trabecular bone microarchitecture parameters such as the erosion index (0.916 ± 0.087 vs. 0.877 ± 0.088; P = 0.739) and surface-to-curve ratio (10.3 ± 1.4 vs. 12.1 ± 2.1, P = 0.440) were not significantly different between groups. These findings suggest that markedly reduced BMD is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in middle-aged men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

  8. Smoking cessation programmes in radon affected areas: can they make a significant contribution to reducing radon-induced lung cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Timson, K.; Shield, G.; Rogers, S.; Phillips, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic radon levels in parts of the UK are sufficiently high to increase the risk of lung cancer in the occupants. Public health campaigns in Northamptonshire, a designated radon affected area with 6.3% of homes having average radon levels over the UK action level of 200 Bq m -3 , have encouraged householders to test for radon and then to carry out remediation in their homes, but have been only partially successful. Only 40% of Northamptonshire houses have been tested, and only 15% of householders finding raised levels proceed to remediate. Of those who did remediate, only 9% smoked, compared to a countywide average of 28.8%. This is unfortunate, since radon and smoking combine to place the individual at higher risk by a factor of around 4, and suggests that current strategies to reduce domestic radon exposure are not reaching those most at risk. During 2004-5, the NHS Stop Smoking Services in Northamptonshire assisted 2,808 smokers to quit to the 4-week stage, with some 30% of 4-week quitters remaining quitters at 1 year. We consider whether smoking cessation campaigns make significant contributions to radon risk reduction on their own, by assessing individual occupants' risk of developing lung cancer from knowledge of their age, gender, and smoking habits, together with he radon level in their house. The results demonstrate that smoking cessation programmes have significant added value in radon affected areas, and contribute a greater health benefit than reducing radon levels in the smokers' homes, whilst they remain smokers. Additionally, results are presented from a questionnaire-based survey of quitters, addressing their reasons for seeking help in quitting smoking, and whether knowledge of radon risks influenced this decision. The impact of these findings on future public health campaigns to reduce the impact of radon and smoking are discussed. (author)

  9. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  10. [The effect of cimeiguo on micronuclei in mice induced by cooking lampblack].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, S; Qiu, D; Li, L; Han, C; Li, Y

    1997-04-01

    The effect of Cimeiguo on micronuclei in mice induced by cooking lampblack is studied. The results show that the number of micronulei induced by cooking lampblack are increased sighificantly (P > 0.01) with dose-response relationship and inhibited by Cimeiguo.

  11. Dose-dependent micronuclei formation in normal human fibroblasts exposed to proton radiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Litvinchuk, Alexandra; Vachelová, Jana; Michaelidesová, Anna; Wagner, Richard; Davídková, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2015), s. 327-334 ISSN 0301-634X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : human fibroblasts * proton radiation * micronuclei assay * biodosimetry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.923, year: 2015

  12. Quantification of micronuclei in blood lymphocytes of patients exposed to gamma radiation for dose absorbed assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Isvania Maria Serafim da Silva

    2003-02-01

    Dose assessment in an important step to evaluate biological effects as a result of individual exposure to ionizing radiation. The use of cytogenetic dosimetry based on the quantification of micronuclei in lymphocytes is very important to complement physical dosimetry, since the measurement of absorbed dose cannot be always performed. In this research, the quantification of micronuclei was carried out in order to evaluate absorbed dose as a result of radiotherapy with 60 Co, using peripheral blood samples from 5 patients with cervical uterine cancer. For this purpose, an aliquot of whole blood from the individual patients was added in culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with fetal calf serum and phytohaemagglutinin. The culture was incubated for 44 hours. Henceforth, cytochalasin B was added to block the dividing lymphocytes in cytokinesis. The culture was returned to the incubator for further of 28 hours. Thus, cells were harvested, processed and analyzed. Values obtained considering micronuclei frequency after pelvis irradiation with absorption of 0,08 Gy and 1,8 Gy were, respectively, 0,0021 and 0,052. These results are in agreement with some recent researches that provided some standard values related to micronuclei frequency induced by gamma radiation exposure in different exposed areas for the human body. The results presented in this report emphasizes biological dosimetry as an important tool for dose assessment of either total or partial-body exposure to ionizing radiation, mainly in retrospective dose investigation. (author)

  13. Micronuclei levels in mothers and their newborns from regions with different types of air pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössnerová, Andrea; Špátová, Milada; Pastorková, Anna; Tabashidze, Nana; Veleminský Jr., M.; Balascak, I.; Solanský, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 715, 1-2 (2011), s. 72-78 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : automated image analysis * benzo[a]pyrene * micronuclei Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.850, year: 2011

  14. Significant Association between Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Uranium-Reducing Microbial Communities as Revealed by a Combined Massively Parallel Sequencing-Indicator Species Approach▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Jardine, Philip M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Marsh, Terence L.; Tiedje, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared. PMID:20729318

  15. Significant association between sulfate-reducing bacteria and uranium-reducing microbial communities as revealed by a combined massively parallel sequencing-indicator species approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K; Jardine, Philip M; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S; Marsh, Terence L; Tiedje, James M

    2010-10-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared.

  16. Reducing Eating Disorder Onset in a Very High Risk Sample with Significant Comorbid Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. Barr; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated on-line eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. Method 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or non-clinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or wait-list control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Results ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = 0.28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% versus 42%, p = 0.025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% versus 57%, NNT = 4). Conclusions An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. PMID:26795936

  17. Reducing eating disorder onset in a very high risk sample with significant comorbid depression: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C Barr; Kass, Andrea E; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-05-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated online eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or nonclinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or waitlist control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = .28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% vs. 42%, p = .025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% vs. 57%, NNT = 4). An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Pharmacological inhibition of Polo Like Kinase 2 (PLK2) does not cause chromosomal damage or result in the formation of micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, Kent; Bergeron, Marcelle; Willits, Christopher; Bowers, Simeon; Aubele, Danielle L.; Goldbach, Erich; Tonn, George; Ness, Daniel; Olaharski, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Polo Like Kinase 2 (PLK2) phosphorylates α-synuclein and is considered a putative therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease. Several lines of evidence indicate that PLK2 is involved with proper centriole duplication and cell cycle regulation, inhibition of which could impact chromosomal integrity during mitosis. The objectives of the series of experiments presented herein were to assess whether specific inhibition of PLK2 is genotoxic and determine if PLK2 could be considered a tractable pharmacological target for Parkinson's disease. Several selective PLK2 inhibitors, ELN 582175 and ELN 582646, and their inactive enantiomers, ELN 582176 and ELN 582647, did not significantly increase the number of micronuclei in the in vitro micronucleus assay. ELN 582646 was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats in an exploratory 14-day study where flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood identified a dose-dependent increase in the number of micronucleated reticulocytes. A follow-up investigative study demonstrated that ELN 582646 administered to PLK2 deficient and wildtype mice significantly increased the number of peripheral micronucleated reticulocytes in both genotypes, suggesting that ELN 582646-induced genotoxicity is not through the inhibition of PLK2. Furthermore, significant reduction of retinal phosphorylated α-synuclein levels was observed at three non-genotoxic doses, additional data to suggest that pharmacological inhibition of PLK2 is not the cause of the observed genotoxicity. These data, in aggregate, indicate that PLK2 inhibition is a tractable CNS pharmacological target that does not cause genotoxicity at doses and exposures that engage the target in the sensory retina. - Highlights: • Active and inactive enantiomers test negative in the in vitro micronucleus test. • ELN 582646 significantly increased micronuclei at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day doses. • ELN 582646 significantly increased micronuclei in PLK2 knockout mice. • ELN 582646 decreased

  19. Pharmacological inhibition of Polo Like Kinase 2 (PLK2) does not cause chromosomal damage or result in the formation of micronuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Kent, E-mail: Kent.fitzgerald@elan.com [Pharmacological Sciences, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Bergeron, Marcelle, E-mail: Marcelle.bergeron@elan.com [Pharmacological Sciences, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Willits, Christopher, E-mail: Chris.willits@elan.com [Pharmacological Sciences, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Bowers, Simeon, E-mail: Simeon.bowers@elan.com [Chemistry, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Aubele, Danielle L., E-mail: Danielle.aubele@elan.com [Chemistry, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Goldbach, Erich, E-mail: Erich.goldbach@elan.com [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Tonn, George, E-mail: George.tonn@elan.com [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Ness, Daniel, E-mail: Dan.ness@elan.com [Nonclinical Safety Evaluation, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Olaharski, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.olaharski@agios.com [Nonclinical Safety Evaluation, Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc., 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Polo Like Kinase 2 (PLK2) phosphorylates α-synuclein and is considered a putative therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease. Several lines of evidence indicate that PLK2 is involved with proper centriole duplication and cell cycle regulation, inhibition of which could impact chromosomal integrity during mitosis. The objectives of the series of experiments presented herein were to assess whether specific inhibition of PLK2 is genotoxic and determine if PLK2 could be considered a tractable pharmacological target for Parkinson's disease. Several selective PLK2 inhibitors, ELN 582175 and ELN 582646, and their inactive enantiomers, ELN 582176 and ELN 582647, did not significantly increase the number of micronuclei in the in vitro micronucleus assay. ELN 582646 was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats in an exploratory 14-day study where flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood identified a dose-dependent increase in the number of micronucleated reticulocytes. A follow-up investigative study demonstrated that ELN 582646 administered to PLK2 deficient and wildtype mice significantly increased the number of peripheral micronucleated reticulocytes in both genotypes, suggesting that ELN 582646-induced genotoxicity is not through the inhibition of PLK2. Furthermore, significant reduction of retinal phosphorylated α-synuclein levels was observed at three non-genotoxic doses, additional data to suggest that pharmacological inhibition of PLK2 is not the cause of the observed genotoxicity. These data, in aggregate, indicate that PLK2 inhibition is a tractable CNS pharmacological target that does not cause genotoxicity at doses and exposures that engage the target in the sensory retina. - Highlights: • Active and inactive enantiomers test negative in the in vitro micronucleus test. • ELN 582646 significantly increased micronuclei at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day doses. • ELN 582646 significantly increased micronuclei in PLK2 knockout mice. • ELN 582646

  20. Potent corticosteroid cream (mometasone furoate) significantly reduces acute radiation dermatitis: results from a double-blind, randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Aasa; Lindman, Henrik; Swartling, Carl; Berne, Berit; Bergh, Jonas

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy, and may necessitate interruption of the therapy. There is a substantial lack of evidence-based treatments for this condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mometasone furoate cream (MMF) on radiation dermatitis in a prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Material and methods: The study comprised 49 patients with node-negative breast cancer. They were operated on with sector resection and scheduled for postoperative radiotherapy using photons with identical radiation qualities and dosage to the breast parenchyma. The patients were randomized to receive either MMF or emollient cream. The cream was applied on the irradiated skin twice a week from the start of radiotherapy until the 12th fraction (24 Gy) and thereafter once daily until 3 weeks after completion of radiation. Both groups additionally received non-blinded emollient cream daily. The intensity of the acute radiation dermatitis was evaluated on a weekly basis regarding erythema and pigmentation, using a reflectance spectrophotometer together with visual scoring of the skin reactions. Results: MMF in combination with emollient cream treatment significantly decreased acute radiation dermatitis (P=0.0033) compared with emollient cream alone. There was no significant difference in pigmentation between the two groups. Conclusions: Adding MMF, a potent topical corticosteroid, to an emollient cream is statistically significantly more effective than emollient cream alone in reducing acute radiation dermatitis

  1. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother–newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Autrup, Herman; Brouwer, Abraham; Besselink, Harrie; Loft, Steffen; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006–2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet was estimated on the basis of maternal food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by the end of pregnancy. Biomarkers were detected in paired blood samples through the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) ® bioassay, 32 P-postlabelling technique and cytokinesis-block MN assay. Maternal preference for meats with dark surface were significantly associated with higher bulky DNA adducts in both maternal (β 95%CI; 0.46 (0.08, 0.84)) and cord blood (β 95%CI; 0.46 (0.05, 0.86)) before and after adjustment for potential confounders. No other significant associations between the 18 dietary variables and the biomarkers measured in maternal and fetal samples were identified. The present study suggests that maternal intake of meats with dark surface contributes to the bulky DNA adduct levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relationship between food preparation and bulky DNA adducts appear to be captured by a FFQ while potential associations for other biomarkers might be more complex or need larger sample size.

  2. Effect of repeated benzene inhalation exposures on benzene metabolism, binding to hemoglobin, and induction of micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, P.J.; Sun, J.D.; MacGregor, J.T.; Wehr, C.M.; Birnbaum, L.S.; Lucier, G.; Henderson, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Metabolism of benzene is thought to be necessary to produce the toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, associated with benzene exposure. To extrapolate from the results of rodent studies to potential health risks in man, one must know how benzene metabolism is affected by species, dose, dose rate, and repeated versus single exposures. The purpose of our studies was to determine the effect of repeated inhalation exposures on the metabolism of [14C]benzene by rodents. Benzene metabolism was assessed by characterizing and quantitating urinary metabolites, and by quantitating 14C bound to hemoglobin and micronuclei induction. F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed, nose-only, to 600 ppm benzene or to air (control) for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks. On the last day, both benzene-pretreated and control animals were exposed to 600 ppm, 14C-labeled benzene for 6 hr. Individual benzene metabolites in urine collected for 24 hr after the exposure were analyzed. There was a significant decrease in the respiratory rate of mice (but not rats) pretreated with benzene which resulted in lower levels of urinary [14C]benzene metabolites. The analyses indicated that the only effects of benzene pretreatment on the metabolite profile in rat or mouse urine were a slight shift from glucuronidation to sulfation in mice and a shift from sulfation to glucuronidation in rats. Benzene pretreatment also had no effect, in either species, on formation of [14C]benzene-derived hemoglobin adducts. Mice and rats had similar levels of hemoglobin adduct binding, despite the higher metabolism of benzene by mice. This indicates that hemoglobin adduct formation occurs with higher efficiency in rats. After 1 week of exposure to 600 ppm benzene, the frequency of micronucleated, polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in mice was significantly increased

  3. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother-newborns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Marie, E-mail: mpedersen@creal.cat [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halldorsson, Thorhallur I., E-mail: lur@ssi.dk [Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland Reykjavik (Iceland); Center for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Autrup, Herman, E-mail: ha@mil.au.dk [School of Public Health, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Brouwer, Abraham, E-mail: Bram.Brouwer@bds.nl [BioDetection Systems B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Besselink, Harrie, E-mail: Harrie.Besselink@bds.nl [BioDetection Systems B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Loft, Steffen, E-mail: stl@sund.ku.dk [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark); Knudsen, Lisbeth E., E-mail: liek@sund.ku.dk [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2012-06-01

    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006-2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet was estimated on the basis of maternal food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by the end of pregnancy. Biomarkers were detected in paired blood samples through the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX){sup Registered-Sign} bioassay, {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique and cytokinesis-block MN assay. Maternal preference for meats with dark surface were significantly associated with higher bulky DNA adducts in both maternal ({beta} 95%CI; 0.46 (0.08, 0.84)) and cord blood ({beta} 95%CI; 0.46 (0.05, 0.86)) before and after adjustment for potential confounders. No other significant associations between the 18 dietary variables and the biomarkers measured in maternal and fetal samples were identified. The present study suggests that maternal intake of meats with dark surface contributes to the bulky DNA adduct levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relationship between food preparation and bulky DNA adducts appear to be captured by a FFQ while potential associations for other biomarkers might be more complex or need larger sample size.

  4. Reduced frontal and occipital lobe asymmetry on the CT-scans of schizophrenic patients. Its specificity and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Schneider, T.; Greve, B.; Klieser, E.; Bogerts, B.

    1995-01-01

    Frontal and occipital lobe widths were determined in the computed tomographic (CT) scans of 135 schizophrenic patients, 158 neuro psychiatrically healthy and 102 psychiatric control subjects, including patients with affective psychosis, neurosis and schizoaffective psychosis. Most healthy right-handed subjects demonstrate a relative enlargement of the right frontal as well as left occipital lobe compared to the opposite hemisphere. These normal frontal and occipital lobe asymmetries were selectively reduced in schizophrenics (f.: 5%, p < .0005; o.: 3%, p < .05), irrespective of the pathophysiological subgroup. Schizophrenic neuroleptic non-responders revealed a significant reduction of frontal lobe asymmetry (3%, p < .05), while no correlation between BPRS-sub scores and disturbed cerebral laterality could be detected. In sum the present study demonstrates the disturbed cerebral lateralisation in schizophrenic patients supporting the hypothesis of interrupted early brain development in schizophrenia. (author)

  5. Two structurally distinct inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3 induced centromere positive micronuclei in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kenji; Takeiri, Akira; Harada, Asako; Kubo, Chiyomi; Sone, Sachiko; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Tachibana, Yukako; Okazaki, Makoto

    2008-08-25

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is an attractive novel pharmacological target. Inhibition of GSK3 is recently regarded as one of the viable approaches to therapy for Alzheimer's disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, and bipolar mood disorder. Here, we have investigated the aneugenic potential of two potent and highly specific inhibitors of GSK3 by using an in vitro micronucleus test with human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells. One inhibitor was a newly synthesized maleimide derivative and the other was a previously known aminopyrimidine derivative. Both compounds elicited statistically significant and concentration-dependent increases in micronucleated cells. One hundred micronuclei (MN) of each were analyzed using centromeric DNA staining with fluorescence in situ hybridization. Both the two structurally distinct compounds induced centromere-positive micronuclei (CMN). Calculated from the frequency of MN cells and the percentage of CMN, CMN cell incidence after treatment with the maleimide compound at 1.2 microM, 2.4 microM, and 4.8 microM was 11.6, 27.7, and 56.3 per 1000 cells, respectively; the negative control was 4.5. CMN cell incidence after the treatment with the aminopyrimidine compound at 1.8 microM, 3.6 microM, and 5.4 microM was 6.7, 9.8 and 17.2 per 1000 cells, respectively. Both compounds exhibited concentration-dependent increase in the number of mitotic cells. The frequency of CMN cells correlated well with mitotic cell incidence after treatment with either compound. Furthermore, both inhibitors induced abnormal mitotic cells with asymmetric mitotic spindles and lagging anaphase chromosomes. These results lend further support to the hypothesis that the inhibition of GSK3 activity affects microtubule function and exhibits an aneugenic mode of action.

  6. Walking with a four wheeled walker (rollator) significantly reduces EMG lower-limb muscle activity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suica, Zorica; Romkes, Jacqueline; Tal, Amir; Maguire, Clare

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the immediate effect of four-wheeled- walker(rollator)walking on lower-limb muscle activity and trunk-sway in healthy subjects. In this cross-sectional design electromyographic (EMG) data was collected in six lower-limb muscle groups and trunk-sway was measured as peak-to-peak angular displacement of the centre-of-mass (level L2/3) in the sagittal and frontal-planes using the SwayStar balance system. 19 subjects walked at self-selected speed firstly without a rollator then in randomised order 1. with rollator 2. with rollator with increased weight-bearing. Rollator-walking caused statistically significant reductions in EMG activity in lower-limb muscle groups and effect-sizes were medium to large. Increased weight-bearing increased the effect. Trunk-sway in the sagittal and frontal-planes showed no statistically significant difference between conditions. Rollator-walking reduces lower-limb muscle activity but trunk-sway remains unchanged as stability is likely gained through forces generated by the upper-limbs. Short-term stability is gained but the long-term effect is unclear and requires investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi, E-mail: thashimo@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Iwanaka, Nobumasa [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Higashida, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192 (Japan); Taguchi, Sadayoshi [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  8. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Taguchi, Sadayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O 2 for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  9. Micronuclei frequency in circulating erythrocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to radiation, an image analysis and flow cytometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, N.; Norrgren, L.; Grawe, J.; Johannisson, A.; Medhage, O.

    1993-01-01

    Rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to a single X-ray dose of 4 Gy. The frequency of micronuclei in the peripheral erythrocytes was investigated at regular intervals up to 58 days after the exposure. A flow cytometric method and a semi-automatic image analysis method were used to estimate the micronuclei frequency. The results show that both methods can detect an increased frequency of micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes from exposed fish. However, the semi-automatic image analysis method was the most stable and sensitive. (Author)

  10. A pilot study: Horticulture-related activities significantly reduce stress levels and salivary cortisol concentration of maladjusted elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Oh, Wook; Jang, Ja Soon; Lee, Ju Young

    2018-04-01

    The effects of three horticulture-related activities (HRAs), including floral arranging, planting, and flower pressing were compared to see if they influenced changes on a stress scale and on salivary cortisol concentrations (SCC) in maladjusted elementary school children. Twenty maladjusted elementary school children were randomly assigned either to an experimental or control group. The control group carried out individual favorite indoor activities under the supervision of a teacher. Simultaneously, the ten children in the experimental group participated in a HRA program consisting of flower arrangement (FA), planting (P), and flower pressing (PF) activities, in which the other ten children in the control group did not take part. During nine sessions, the activities were completed as follows: FA-FA-FA, P-P-P, and PF-PF-PF; each session lasted 40 min and took place once a week. For the quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol, saliva was collected from the experimental group one week before the HRAs and immediately after the activities for 9 consecutive weeks at the same time each session. In the experimental group, stress scores of interpersonal relationship, school life, personal problems, and home life decreased after the HRAs by 1.3, 1.8, 4.2, and 1.3 points, respectively. In particular, the stress score of school life was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In addition, from the investigation of the SCCs for the children before and after repeating HRAs three times, it was found that flower arrangement, planting, and flower pressing activities reduced the SCCs by ≥37% compared to the SCCs prior to taking part in the HRAs. These results indicate that HRAs are associated with a reduction in the stress levels of maladjusted elementary school children. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Cerebral Embolic Protection During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Significantly Reduces Death and Stroke Compared With Unprotected Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Julia; Gonska, Birgid; Otto, Markus; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Wöhrle, Jochen

    2017-11-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cerebral embolic protection on stroke-free survival in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Imaging data on cerebral embolic protection devices have demonstrated a significant reduction in number and volume of cerebral lesions. A total of 802 consecutive patients were enrolled. The Sentinel cerebral embolic protection device (Claret Medical Inc., Santa Rosa, California) was used in 34.9% (n = 280) of consecutive patients. In 65.1% (n = 522) of patients TAVR was performed in the identical setting except without cerebral embolic protection. Neurological follow-up was done within 7 days post-procedure. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality or all-stroke according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria within 7 days. Propensity score matching was performed to account for possible confounders. Both filters of the device were successfully positioned in 280 of 305 (91.8%) consecutive patients. With use of cerebral embolic protection rate of disabling and nondisabling stroke was significantly reduced from 4.6% to 1.4% (p = 0.03; odds ratio: 0.29, 95% confidence interval: 0.10 to 0.93) in the propensity-matched population (n = 560). The primary endpoint occurred significantly less frequently, with 2.1% (n = 6 of 280) in the protected group compared with 6.8% (n = 19 of 280) in the control group (p = 0.01; odds ratio: 0.30; 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.77). In multivariable analysis Society of Thoracic Surgeons score for mortality (p = 0.02) and TAVR without protection (p = 0.02) were independent predictors for the primary endpoint. In patients undergoing TAVR use of a cerebral embolic protection device demonstrated a significant higher rate of stroke-free survival compared with unprotected TAVR. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dermal application of nitric oxide releasing acidified nitrite-containing liniments significantly reduces blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opländer, Christian; Volkmar, Christine M; Paunel-Görgülü, Adnana; Fritsch, Thomas; van Faassen, Ernst E; Mürtz, Manfred; Grieb, Gerrit; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Hemmrich, Karsten; Windolf, Joachim; Suschek, Christoph V

    2012-02-15

    Vascular ischemic diseases, hypertension, and other systemic hemodynamic and vascular disorders may be the result of impaired bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). NO but also its active derivates like nitrite or nitroso compounds are important effector and signal molecules with vasodilating properties. Our previous findings point to a therapeutical potential of cutaneous administration of NO in the treatment of systemic hemodynamic disorders. Unfortunately, no reliable data are available on the mechanisms, kinetics and biological responses of dermal application of nitric oxide in humans in vivo. The aim of the study was to close this gap and to explore the therapeutical potential of dermal nitric oxide application. We characterized with human skin in vitro and in vivo the capacity of NO, applied in a NO-releasing acidified form of nitrite-containing liniments, to penetrate the epidermis and to influence local as well as systemic hemodynamic parameters. We found that dermal application of NO led to a very rapid and significant transepidermal translocation of NO into the underlying tissue. Depending on the size of treated skin area, this translocation manifests itself through a significant systemic increase of the NO derivates nitrite and nitroso compounds, respectively. In parallel, this translocation was accompanied by an increased systemic vasodilatation and blood flow as well as reduced blood pressure. We here give evidence that in humans dermal application of NO has a therapeutic potential for systemic hemodynamic disorders that might arise from local or systemic insufficient availability of NO or its bio-active NO derivates, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Significant change of local atomic configurations at surface of reduced activation Eurofer steels induced by hydrogenation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greculeasa, S.G.; Palade, P.; Schinteie, G. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, A.; Stanciu, A. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Lungu, G.A. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Porosnicu, C.; Lungu, C.P. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, V., E-mail: kuncser@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Engineering of Eurofer slab properties by hydrogenation treatments. • Hydrogenation modifies significantly the local atomic configurations at the surface. • Hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the very surface. • Approaching binomial atomic distribution by hydrogenation in the next surface 100 nm. - Abstract: Reduced-activation steels such as Eurofer alloys are candidates for supporting plasma facing components in tokamak-like nuclear fusion reactors. In order to investigate the impact of hydrogen/deuterium insertion in their crystalline lattice, annealing treatments in hydrogen atmosphere have been applied on Eurofer slabs. The resulting samples have been analyzed with respect to local structure and atomic configuration both before and after successive annealing treatments, by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The corroborated data point out for a bcc type structure of the non-hydrogenated alloy, with an average alloy composition approaching Fe{sub 0.9}Cr{sub 0.1} along a depth of about 100 nm. EDS elemental maps do not indicate surface inhomogeneities in concentration whereas the Mössbauer spectra prove significant deviations from a homogeneous alloying. The hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the surface layer and decreases their oxidation, with considerable influence on the surface properties of the steel. The hydrogenation treatment is therefore proposed as a potential alternative for a convenient engineering of the surface of different Fe-Cr based alloys.

  14. Optical trapping of nanoparticles with significantly reduced laser powers by using counter-propagating beams (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenglong; LeBrun, Thomas W.

    2015-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNP) have wide applications ranging from nanoscale heating to cancer therapy and biological sensing. Optical trapping of GNPs as small as 18 nm has been successfully achieved with laser power as high as 855 mW, but such high powers can damage trapped particles (particularly biological systems) as well heat the fluid, thereby destabilizing the trap. In this article, we show that counter propagating beams (CPB) can successfully trap GNP with laser powers reduced by a factor of 50 compared to that with a single beam. The trapping position of a GNP inside a counter-propagating trap can be easily modulated by either changing the relative power or position of the two beams. Furthermore, we find that under our conditions while a single-beam most stably traps a single particle, the counter-propagating beam can more easily trap multiple particles. This (CPB) trap is compatible with the feedback control system we recently demonstrated to increase the trapping lifetimes of nanoparticles by more than an order of magnitude. Thus, we believe that the future development of advanced trapping techniques combining counter-propagating traps together with control systems should significantly extend the capabilities of optical manipulation of nanoparticles for prototyping and testing 3D nanodevices and bio-sensing.

  15. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis.

  16. New scanning technique using Adaptive Statistical lterative Reconstruction (ASIR) significantly reduced the radiation dose of cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550mA (450–600) vs. 650mA (500–711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P<0.001. There was 27% effective radiation dose reduction in the ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29mSv (2.84–6.02) vs. 5.84mSv (3.88–8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P<0.001. Although ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93±10.22 vs. 37.63±18.79 (mean ±standard deviation), respectively, P<001), it did not affect the signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio or the diagnostic quality of CCTA. Application of ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality.

  17. New scanning technique using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) significantly reduced the radiation dose of cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus

    2013-06-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550 mA (450-600) vs. 650 mA (500-711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29 mSv (2.84-6.02) vs. 5.84 mSv (3.88-8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93 ± 10.22 vs. 37.63 ± 18.79 (mean ± standard deviation), respectively, P ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  18. Secukinumab Significantly Reduces Psoriasis-Related Work Impairment and Indirect Costs Compared With Ustekinumab and Etanercept in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R B; Halliday, A; Graham, C N; Gilloteau, I; Miles, L; McBride, D

    2018-05-30

    Psoriasis causes work productivity impairment that increases with disease severity. Whether differential treatment efficacy translates into differential indirect cost savings is unknown. To assess work hours lost and indirect costs associated with secukinumab versus ustekinumab and etanercept in the United Kingdom (UK). This was a post hoc analysis of work impairment data collected in the CLEAR study (secukinumab vs. ustekinumab) and applied to the FIXTURE study (secukinumab vs. etanercept). Weighted weekly and annual average indirect costs per patient per treatment were calculated from (1) overall work impairment derived from Work Productivity and Activity Impairment data collected in CLEAR at 16 and 52 weeks by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) response level; (2) weekly/annual work productivity loss by PASI response level; (3) weekly and annual indirect costs by PASI response level, based on hours of work productivity loss; and (4) weighted average indirect costs for each treatment. In the primary analysis, work impairment data for employed patients in CLEAR at Week 16 were used to compare secukinumab and ustekinumab. Secondary analyses were conducted at different timepoints and with patient cohorts, including FIXTURE. In CLEAR, 452 patients (67%) were employed at baseline. At Week 16, percentages of weekly work impairment/mean hours lost decreased with higher PASI: PASI hours; PASI 50-74: 13.3%/4.45 hours; PASI 75-89: 6.4%/2.14 hours; PASI ≥90: 4.9%/1.65 hours. Weighted mean weekly/annual work hours lost were significantly lower for secukinumab than ustekinumab (1.96/102.51 vs. 2.40/125.12; P=0.0006). Results were consistent for secukinumab versus etanercept (2.29/119.67 vs. 3.59/187.17; Ρreduced work impairment and associated indirect costs of psoriasis compared with ustekinumab and etanercept at Week 16 through 52 in the UK. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct evidence that radiation induced micronuclei of early embryos require a mitosis for expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.U.; Schlusen, I.; Streffer, C.

    1991-01-01

    The naturally synchronous development of early mouse embryos was exploited to address the question, whether micronuclei require a mitosis for expression or whether they can be expressed in the same cell cycle, in which exposure to X-rays or caffeine took place. Experiments with 2-cell and with 4-cell embryos showed that micronulcei are expressed only if a mitosis is completed. There was no indication, even after doses up to 20 Gy, that micronuclei can be expressed before the mitosis was reached, which followed exposure. Furthermore, no nuclear fragmentation pointing to apoptosis could be detected in the cycle, in which cells were exposed. The same results were obtained when caffeine (5 mM) was used as micronucleus inducing agent. (orig.)

  20. Urban air pollution induces micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes of mice in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, S.R.C.; Bueno-Guimaraes, H.M.; Ferreira, C.M.; Rivero, D.H.R.F.; Castro, I. de; Garcia, M.L.B.; Saldiva, P.H.N.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we explored the role of chronic exposure to urban air pollution in causing DNA damage (micronuclei frequency in peripheral erythrocytes) in rodents in vivo. Mice (n=20) were exposed to the urban atmosphere of Sao Paulo for 120 days (February to June 1999) and compared to animals (n=20) maintained in the countryside (Atibaia) for the same period. Daily levels of inhalable particles (PM10), CO, NO 2 , and SO 2 , were available for Sao Paulo. Occasional measurements of CO and O 3 were made in Atibaia, showing negligible levels of pollution in the area. The frequency of micronuclei (repeated-measures ANOVA) increased with aging, the highest values obtained for the 90th day of experiment (P 2 (P<0.001), and PM10 (P<0.001). Our results support the concept that urban levels of air pollution may cause somatic mutations

  1. FREQUENCY OF CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS AND MICRONUCLEI IN HORSE LYMPHOCYTES FOLLOWING IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO LOW DOSE IONISING RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Rukavina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ionising radiation is known to cause chromosomal instability, which is observed as increased frequency of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei. These are listed as reliable criteria in biological dosimetry. Numerous experiments conducted on both animal and plant models demonstrated that increase in radiation dosage is followed by increased mutation frequency, and that mutations occur even at the lowest exposure. We used horse blood in vitro irradiated by low doses of ionizing radiation. Cultivation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and micronucleus test were used as biomarkers of genetic damage. The observed aberrations were recorded and classified in accordance with the International System of Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Micronuclei were identified on the basis of criteria proposed by Fenech et al. (8. Analysis of chromosomal aberration showed increased frequency of aberrations in blood cultures exposed to 0,1 Gy and 0,2 Gy compared to the controls. Microscopic analysis of chromosomal damage in in vitro micronucleus test revealed that the applied radiation dose induced micronuclei while no binucleated cells with micronuclei were found in lymphocytes that were not irradiated. In this paper we analysed the influence of low dose ionising radiation on frequency of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei in horse lymphocytes following in vitro exposure to X-rays (0,1 Gy and 0,2 Gy. Key words: chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, ionising radiation, horse lymphocytes

  2. The impact of air pollution on the level of micronuclei measured by automated image analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössnerová, Andrea; Špátová, Milada; Rossner, P.; Solanský, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 669, 1-2 (2009), s. 42-47 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500390506; GA MŠk 2B06088; GA MŠk 2B08005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : micronuclei * binucleated cells * automated image analysis Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2009

  3. Hypersensitivity of Allium cepa seedling roots to X-rays for production of micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Takayoshi; Hanmoto, Hidehiro; Fujishige, Ikuko; Inoue, Toshihiro; Taniguchi, Kenji; Itoh, Tetsuo; Fujikawa, Kazuo; Yonezawa, Yoshihiko.

    1995-01-01

    Seedling roots of onion (Allium cepa) were irradiated with various doses of X-rays. Following irradiation, the roots were incubated at 23-25degC for 24 hr, i.e., approximate time for one mitotic cycle, and then fixed, stained and macerated in a 7:3 mixture of acetic dahlia (prepared by dissolving a 0.5 g sample of dahlia violet into 100 ml of 30% acetate) and 1 N HCl for 10-15 min. Terminal 1-2 mm of the root tips were squashed on slides, one root each, and microscopically inspected for the presence of more than one nucleus in the cells. The additional nuclei, which were smaller than the normal, were scored as micronuclei. The frequency of micronuclei increased with dose over the control level (∼0.2x10 -3 ) to a high level of 140x10 -3 at 1 Gy. The frequency recorded at 1 Gy was about two fold higher as compared with the frequency reported by Evans et al. (1959) for micronuclei induced by γ-rays at a comparable dose in the root tip cells of Vica faba seedlings, probably reflecting relatively higher DNA content per cell in Allium somatic cells. We thus may conclude that root-tip meristematic cells of Allium seedlings are hypersensitive to the induction of micronuclei by X-rays. The Allium micronucleus assay may be useful as a system not only for quantitating chromosome damage by low-level radiation but also for detecting environmental mutagens. (author)

  4. Assay of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a biological indicator of radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreedevi, B.; Rao, B.S.

    1994-01-01

    Chromosomal aberration analysis (CA) has regularly been used as a biological dosemeter to evaluate suspected overexposures to ionising radiations. Recently, the micronucleus (MN) assay has been suggested as an alternative method. An attempt has been made to explore the dose response parameters of MN assay in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes. Whole blood was irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays or 250 kV p X rays. A dose-dependent increase in micronuclei yield was observed. The dose response could be best described by a linear-quadratic relationship for both gamma rays and X rays. The α and β coefficients were found to be 1.9 x 10 -2 Gy -1 and 5.7 x 10 -2 Gy -2 for gamma rays and 6.3 x 10 -2 Gy -1 and 4.3 x 10 -2 Gy -2 for X rays, respectively. In the low dose region X rays were three times more efficient in inducing micronuclei. The background value derived for 25 samples from healthy individuals ranged from 6-18 micronuclei per 1000 cells, with a mean value of 12 ± 4 x 10 -3 . Biological dose estimates for individuals exposed in the range 0.1-1 Gy made by MN and CA methods yielded similar results for doses ≥ 0.5 Gy. Due to the uncertainties in the background incidence of MN, at present this technique cannot provide reliable estimates at low doses. (author)

  5. Incidence of Micronuclei inversly relates with apoptosis in human circulating lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jocksic, G.; Djurovic, B.; Petrovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study relationship between chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, radiosensitivity and apoptosis of circulating lymphocytes of radiation workers was evaluated. Exposed group comprises 34 individuals, radiology sts, of mean age 43,35±6.02; with 14.9±5.2 years of occupational exposition to ionizing radiation. In 10 out of 34 exchange aberrations were found (dicentrics and ring chromosomes). According to chromosomal findings exposed groups was divided on two subgroups:>> dicentric positive >dicentric negative > dicentric positive >dicentric >dicentric >dicentric >dicentric >dicentric<< negative respectively. Baseline micronuclei correlates negatively with apoptosis in both exposed groups (r=0.55m p<0.45) suggesting that chronical exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation disturb the balance between pro apoptotic and anti apoptotic signals in cells. Results of our study have shown that effects of radiation-induced cytotoxicity could be characterised employing flow cytometry as precise method for measuring degradation of internucleosaomal DNA. Inversly relationship between baseline micronuclei and percent of lymphocytes undergoing apoptosis is the most important finding in this study, suggesting that assay can discriminate differences in radiation-induced cytotoxicity between individuals occupationally exposed to low doses of ionising radiation. (Author)

  6. The use of unstable chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in the individual biomonitoring: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Thiago de Salazar e

    2005-02-01

    Biodosimetry is based on the investigation of radioinduced biological effects in order to correlate them with the absorbed dose. The quantification of unstable chromosome aberrations and micronuclei, in peripheral blood lymphocytes, are two methods commonly used in biodosimetry. In this context, the aim of this research was to compare these methods in the biomonitoring of health care professionals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. In parallel, the technique of C-banding was evaluated for quality control of unstable chromosome aberrations analyses. Thus, samples of peripheral blood from health care professionals of three hospitals from Recife (Brazil) were collected, and the lymphocytes cultures were carried out based on the cytogenetic classical technique. It was pointed out that analysis of micronuclei is faster than the unstable chromosome aberrations ones, which suggests the use of the former in preliminary evaluation in cases of suspected accidental exposure. C-banding technique was efficient, as confirmatory test, in the identification of dicentrics and rings during the analyses of unstable chromosome aberrations, being able to be applied in the quality control in biodosimetry. The comparison between the individual work conditions with the frequencies of unstable aberrations and micronuclei obtained from cytogenetic analysis, resulted in the change of behavior of the professionals involved in this research, with a better observance of the radioprotection standards. (author)

  7. Micronuclei and erythrocytic abnormalities frequencies of freshwater fishes: Establishing a baseline for health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Torres, Audalio Rebelo; Oliveira, Suelen Rosana Sampaio; Castro, Jonatas da Silva; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2017-11-01

    Majority papers shows that micronucleus test and erythrocyte abnormalities are excellent tools such as tools for monitor fish health and the level of impact in aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, still do not know the baseline for those changes in freshwater fishes communities in the Brazilian Northeastern river. In this study, we show the level of basis of two species of freshwater fishes (Colossoma macropomum -tambaqui and Oreochromis niloticus - tilápia) with the aim of establish levels of background these species. The animals were collected from Ambude river in the protected area and blood collected from all fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices—mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)—were calculated. Blood samples from all fish were examined for micronuclear changes after Giemsa staining. Micronuclei were found in fish from from Ambude River. The baseline values determined for tambaqui was (micronuclei= 0.0071±0.0026; MCV=0.0073±0.0037; MCHV=0.0071±0.0024) and tilapia (micronuclei= 0.0061±0.0026; MCV=0.0037±0.0017; MCHV=0.056±0.0036). We belive that, we propose using the genotoxic approach for estimating fish health status as the technique allows examination in locus of live fish without the need for animal euthanasia. Besides, baseline level can be to establish levels of background and patterns to pathological and physiological research of these species in future biomonitoring programs.

  8. Oxidation of naturally reduced uranium in aquifer sediments by dissolved oxygen and its potential significance to uranium plume persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. A.; Smith, R. L.; Bohlke, J. K.; Jemison, N.; Xiang, H.; Repert, D. A.; Yuan, X.; Williams, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of naturally reduced zones is common in alluvial aquifers in the western U.S.A. due to the burial of woody debris in flood plains. Such reduced zones are usually heterogeneously dispersed in these aquifers and characterized by high concentrations of organic carbon, reduced mineral phases, and reduced forms of metals, including uranium(IV). The persistence of high concentrations of dissolved uranium(VI) at uranium-contaminated aquifers on the Colorado Plateau has been attributed to slow oxidation of insoluble uranium(IV) mineral phases found in association with these reducing zones, although there is little understanding of the relative importance of various potential oxidants. Four field experiments were conducted within an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO, wherein groundwater associated with the naturally reduced zones was pumped into a gas-impermeable tank, mixed with a conservative tracer (Br-), bubbled with a gas phase composed of 97% O2 and 3% CO2, and then returned to the subsurface in the same well from which it was withdrawn. Within minutes of re-injection of the oxygenated groundwater, dissolved uranium(VI) concentrations increased from less than 1 μM to greater than 2.5 μM, demonstrating that oxygen can be an important oxidant for uranium in such field systems if supplied to the naturally reduced zones. Dissolved Fe(II) concentrations decreased to the detection limit, but increases in sulfate could not be detected due to high background concentrations. Changes in nitrogen species concentrations were variable. The results contrast with other laboratory and field results in which oxygen was introduced to systems containing high concentrations of mackinawite (FeS), rather than the more crystalline iron sulfides found in aged, naturally reduced zones. The flux of oxygen to the naturally reduced zones in the alluvial aquifers occurs mainly through interactions between groundwater and gas phases at the water table

  9. Vaccination of pigs two weeks before infection significantly reduces transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eble, P.L.; Bouma, A.; Bruin, de M.G.M.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van F.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Dekker, A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether and at what time interval could vaccination reduce transmission of foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV) among pigs. Reduction of virus transmission by vaccination was determined experimentally. Transmission of FMDV was studied in three groups of

  10. Micronuclei: sensitivity for the detection of radiation induced damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Taja, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro cytokinesis-block (CB) micronucleus (MN) assay for human peripheral blood has been used extensively for the assessment of chromosomal damage induced by ionizing radiation and chemicals and considered a suitable biological dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures, particularly in the case of large scale radiation accidents. One of the major drawbacks of the MN assay is its reduced sensitivity for the detection of damage induced by low doses of low LET radiation, due to the high variability among the spontaneous MN frequencies. It is suggested that age, smoking habit and sex are the main confounding factors that contribute to the observed variability. Previous work in our laboratory, shows a significant positive correlation of the spontaneous and radiation induced MN frequencies with age and smoking habit, the latter being the strongest confounder. These findings led to in vitro studies of the dose-response relationships for smoking and non smoking donors evaluated separately, using 60 Co γ rays. The objectives of the present work are: 1-To increase the amount of data of the dose-response relationships, using γ rays from a 60 Co source, for smoking and non smoking donors, in order to find, if applicable, a correction factor for the calibration curve that takes into account the smoking habit of the individual in the case of accidental overexposure dose assessment, particularly in the low dose range. 2-To establish general conclusions on the current state of the technique. The sample for smoking and non smoking calibration curves was enlarged in the range of 0Gy to 2Gy. The fitting of both curves, performed up to the 2Gy dose, resulted in a linear quadratic model. MN distribution among bi nucleated cells was found to be over dispersed with respect to Poisson distribution, the average ratio of variance to mean being 1.13 for non smokers and 1.17 for smokers. Each fitted calibration curve, for smoking and non smoking donors, fell within the 95

  11. ClusterSignificance: A bioconductor package facilitating statistical analysis of class cluster separations in dimensionality reduced data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serviss, Jason T.; Gådin, Jesper R.; Eriksson, Per

    2017-01-01

    , e.g. genes in a specific pathway, alone can separate samples into these established classes. Despite this, the evaluation of class separations is often subjective and performed via visualization. Here we present the ClusterSignificance package; a set of tools designed to assess the statistical...... significance of class separations downstream of dimensionality reduction algorithms. In addition, we demonstrate the design and utility of the ClusterSignificance package and utilize it to determine the importance of long non-coding RNA expression in the identity of multiple hematological malignancies....

  12. The effect of different acute concentrations of cadmium chloride on the frequency of micronuclei in AO rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Bubujuk Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is highly toxic heavy metal which may cause severe biological effects in vivo and in vitro. In this study, an evaluation of the acute Cd ability to trigger micronuclei (MNi formation was carried out on 3-monthold male and female Albino Oxford (AO rats using micronucleus (MN test. Experimental animals were treated intraperitoneally with three different concentrations of cadmium chloride (CdCl2: 0.5, 1, and 2 mg CdCl2 per kg of body weight. Control animals received equal volume of sterile phosphate buffered saline. The results showed that 2 mg CdCl2 per kg b.w. concentration caused a highly statistically significant (P < 0.001 increase in MNi formation in the bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs, exerting a clear-cut concentration-dependent effect. Lower concentrations of CdCl2 used (0.5 and 1 mg/kg b.w. also caused MNi formation, but with lower statistical significance. Sex differences in MNi production in bone marrow PCEs after acute exposure to different experimental concentrations of CdCl2 were not observed in our study. Our results indicate the ability of CdCl2 to exerts genotoxic effects in bone marrow of AO rats, and complement previous data on the genotoxicity of this important environmental contaminant, burdening the body from different sources - major being industrial exposure, food and cigarette smoking. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46002

  13. Origin and evolution of binucleated cells and binucleated cells with micronuclei in cisplatin-treated CHO cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, V

    1993-08-01

    It has recently been described that cisplatin is an agent able to induce binucleated cells (BC) in cultured CHO cells. Both the origin and the significance of those cells within a population are unknown although several hypothesis have been suggested such as blocking of cytokinesis or cell fusion. Using interval photography we have found that at least two mechanisms are involved in the production of BC. These cells can arise in a culture as a result of an incomplete process of cell division, i.e. karyokinesis with incomplete cytokinesis or as a result of the mitotic division of a pre-existent BC. The mitotic division of a BC can give rise to different types of daughter cells. These BC sometimes enter mitosis but fail to divide and as a consequence they remain BC. When the process of division is successful (in the vast majority of cases), the results that have been found are either two mononucleated cells or one mononucleated and one binucleated cell. The possible implications and significance of BC and BC with micronuclei in a given population are discussed.

  14. Microscopic and flow cytometric study of micronuclei in iododeoxyuridine labelled cells irradiated with soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwikow, G.; Staalnacke, C.G.; Johanson, K.J.; Sundell-Bergman, S.; Richter, S.; Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala; Uppsala Univ.

    1990-01-01

    Iododeoxyuridine labelled (IUdR(+)) and unlabelled (IUdR(-)) CHO cells irradiated with 2 Gy of soft X-rays showed only minor differences in the kinetics of micronuclei formation during the first 20 hours postirradiation period. Between 20 to 40 hours, the IUdR(-) cells showed approximately a constant number of micronuclei while the number of micronuclei in IUdR(+) cells was still increasing. The frequency of micronuclei was higher in IUdR(+) cells compared to IUdR(-) cells at 24 hours after irradiation with various doses up to 4.0 Gy. Dose modifying factors were found to be 1.3 (microscopic evaluation) and 1.8 (flow cytometric evaluation). Flow cytometry with use of two parameters, fluorescence from propidium iodide and light scattering, seems to be a good tool to estimate the frequency of micronuclei in CHO cells in the dose range up to about 4 Gy. At higher doses perturbation of the cell cycle and the appearance of dying cells will influence the results. (orig.)

  15. A novel multi-stage subunit vaccine against paratuberculosis induces significant immunity and reduces bacterial burden in tissues (P4304)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Riber, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Effective control of paratuberculosis is hindered by lack of a vaccine preventing infection, transmission and without diagnostic interference with tuberculosis. We have developed a novel multi-stage recombinant subunit vaccine in which a fusion of four early expressed MAP antigens is combined...... characterized by a significant containment of bacterial burden in gut tissues compared to non-vaccinated animals. There was no cross-reaction with bovine tuberculosis in vaccinated animals. This novel multi-stage vaccine has the potential to become a marker vaccine for paratuberculosis....

  16. Reduced expression of circRNA hsa_circ_0003159 in gastric cancer and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mengqian; Chen, Ruoyu; Li, Tianwen; Xiao, Bingxiu

    2018-03-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play a crucial role in the occurrence of several diseases including cancers. However, little is known about circRNAs' diagnostic values for gastric cancer, one of the worldwide most common diseases of mortality. The hsa_circ_0003159 levels in 108 paired gastric cancer tissues and adjacent non-tumorous tissues from surgical patients with gastric cancer were first detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, the relationships between hsa_circ_0003159 expression levels in gastric cancer tissues and the clinicopathological factors of patients with gastric cancer were analyzed. Finally, its diagnostic value was evaluated through the receiver operating characteristic curve. Compared with paired adjacent non-tumorous tissues, hsa_circ_0003159 expression was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues. What is more, we found that hsa_circ_0003159 expression levels were significantly negatively associated with gender, distal metastasis, and tumor-node-metastasis stage. All of the results suggest that hsa_circ_0003159 may be a potential cancer marker of patients with gastric cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation and resistance exercise significantly reduce abdominal adiposity in healthy elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Moon, Jordan R; Hoffman, Jay R

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 12-weeks of HMB ingestion and resistance training (RT) on abdominal adiposity were examined in 48 men (66-78 yrs). All participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: no-training placebo (NT-PL), HMB only (NT-HMB), RT with PL (RT-PL), or HMB with RT (RT-HMB). DXA was used to estimate abdominal fat mass (AFM) by placing the region of interest over the L1-L4 region of the spine. Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA, with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons. Baseline AFM values were used as the covariate. The ANCOVA indicated a significant difference (p = 0.013) between group means for the adjusted posttest AFM values (mean (kg) ± SE: NT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.06; NT-HMB = 2.59 ± 0.61; RT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.62; RT-HMB = 2.34 ± 0.61). The pairwise comparisons indicated that AFM following the intervention period in the RT-HMB group was significantly less than NT-PL (p = 0.013), NT-HMB (p = 0.011), and RT-PL (p = 0.010). These data suggested that HMB in combination with 12 weeks of RT decreased AFM in elderly men. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Wind Erosion Caused by Land Use Changes Significantly Reduces Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Carbon Sequestration Potentials in Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Chi, Y. G.; Wang, J.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Wind erosion exerts a fundamental influence on the biotic and abiotic processes associated with ecosystem carbon (C) cycle. However, how wind erosion under different land use scenarios will affect ecosystem C balance and its capacity for future C sequestration are poorly quantified. Here, we established an experiment in a temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia, and simulated different intensity of land uses: control, 50% of aboveground vegetation removal (50R), 100% vegetation removal (100R) and tillage (TI). We monitored lateral and vertical carbon flux components and soil characteristics from 2013 to 2016. Our study reveals three key findings relating to the driving factors, the magnitude and consequence of wind erosion on ecosystem C balance: (1) Frequency of heavy wind exerts a fundamental control over the severity of soil erosion, and its interaction with precipitation and vegetation characteristics explained 69% variation in erosion intensity. (2) With increases in land use intensity, the lateral C flux induced by wind erosion increased rapidly, equivalent to 33%, 86%, 111% and 183% of the net ecosystem exchange of the control site under control, 50R, 100R and TI sites, respectively. (3) After three years' treatment, erosion induced decrease in fine fractions led to 31%, 43%, 85% of permanent loss of C sequestration potential in the surface 5cm soil for 50R, 100R and TI sites. Overall, our study demonstrates that lateral C flux associated with wind erosion is too large to be ignored. The loss of C-enriched fine particles not only reduces current ecosystem C content, but also results in irreversible loss of future soil C sequestration potential. The dynamic soil characteristics need be considered when projecting future ecosystem C balance in aeolian landscape. We also propose that to maintain the sustainability of grassland ecosystems, land managers should focus on implementing appropriate land use rather than rely on subsequent managements on degraded soils.

  19. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Campos, Lízia Maria Franco dos; Luz Dias, Francisca da; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2008-11-01

    Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON). Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners), age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 +/- 7.8) and passive (7.2 +/- 10.6) smoking versus no smoking (3.7 +/- 5.1); with/without alcoholism (7.8 +/- 1.4 and 6.9 +/- 10.1); with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 +/- 10.5 and 1.3 +/- 1.7); and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 +/- 4.3, 10.6 +/- 5.3, 22.7 +/- 11.9 and 1.3 +/- 1.4) found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05). We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  20. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lízia Maria Franco dos Reis Campos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON. METHODS: Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners, age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. RESULTS: Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 ± 7.8 and passive (7.2 ± 10.6 smoking versus no smoking (3.7 ± 5.1; with/without alcoholism (7.8 ± 1.4 and 6.9 ± 10.1; with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 ± 10.5 and 1.3 ± 1.7; and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 ± 4.3, 10.6 ± 5.3, 22.7 ± 11.9 and 1.3 ± 1.4 found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  1. Increased Micronuclei Frequency in Oral and Lingual Epithelium of Treated Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Emilo Quintero Ojeda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease characterized by persistent high levels of glucose in plasma. Chronic hyperglycemia is thought to increase oxidative stress and the formation of free radicals that in turn damage cells. Thus, we decided to determine the frequency of nuclear abnormalities in epithelial cells from cheek and tongue mucosa of DM patients with type 1 (DM1, treated only with insulin and type 2 (DM2, treated with metformin using the buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt assay. Micronuclei frequency in cheek epithelial cells was higher in both DM1 (0.75 ± 0.31, P<0.001 and DM2 (0.52 ± 0.27, P<0.001 patients, as compared to healthy controls (0.07  ±  0.06. Similarly, micronuclei frequency in tongue epithelium was increased in DM1 (0.81  ±  0.22, P<0.001 and DM2 (0.41  ±  0.21, P<0.001 groups, in comparison to controls (0.06  ±  0.05. Besides, we found a positive correlation between micronuclei frequency and the onset time of DM2 in both cheek (ρ = 0.69, P<0.001 and tongue epithelial cells (ρ = 0.71, P<0.001, but not with onset time of DM1 or age of the patients. Considering all this, we pose that BMCyt could serve as a fast and easily accessible test to assess genotoxic damage during dental visits of DM patients, helping to monitor their disease.

  2. Postoperative Stiffness Requiring Manipulation Under Anesthesia Is Significantly Reduced After Simultaneous Versus Staged Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, John P; Monazzam, Shafagh; Miles, Troy; Danielsen, Beate; White, Richard H

    2017-12-20

    adjust for relevant risk factors, the 90-day odds ratio (OR) of undergoing manipulation after simultaneous bilateral TKA was significantly lower than that for unilateral TKA (OR = 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.86) and staged bilateral TKA (OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.90). Similarly, at 180 days, the odds of undergoing manipulation were significantly lower after simultaneous bilateral TKA than after both unilateral TKA (OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.84) and staged bilateral TKA (OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.93). The frequency of manipulation was significantly associated with younger age, fewer comorbidities, black race, and the absence of obesity. Although the ORs were small (close to 1), simultaneous bilateral TKA had a significantly decreased rate of stiffness requiring manipulation under anesthesia at 90 days and 180 days after knee replacement compared with that after staged bilateral TKA and unilateral TKA. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. Advantages of micronuclei analysis through images autocapturing and screen scoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, J.E.; Martínez-López, W.

    2015-01-01

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) test is a quantitative assay for genetic toxicity assessment. One of the advantages of the MN assay is its amenability for automation. Different type of cells has been used to evaluate genetic damage through MN assay, such as, human lymphocytes and rodent cell lines (i.e. CHO, V79, CHL and L5178Y). The MN quantification is a time consuming process and several efforts has been conducted for its automation. Some of them include an operator checking step, like PathFinder CellScan System, or are fully automated such as MNScore from MetaSytems. Usually, fully automated systems detect two or three times less MN than visual scoring. In some cases, the impact of false positive detection is reduced with a visual detection step. In the present work we have tested a combination of image autocapturing of CHOK1 cells previously treated with bleomycin (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/ml) or UVC (0, 4, 8 and 16 J/m”2 ) with a screen scoring. Capturing images using the AutoCapture option from Metafer 4 from MetaSystems (GmbH, Germany) plus screen scoring render similar results in terms of MN cells frequency than microscopic live scoring. The resultant bias from the Bland–Altman analysis was -1.1% with confidence intervals between -2.2% and -0.1%, indicating an acceptable agreement between both MN scoring method. However, the mean time devoted to live microscope scoring per sample was 159 minutes compared to 39 minutes for microscope images autocapturing and screen scoring. Therefore, it become advantageous to combine autocapturing of microscope images plus screen scoring when many samples have to be analyzed for radiological biodosimetry purposes. (authors)

  4. Significance of surface functionalization of Gold Nanorods for reduced effect on IgG stability and minimization of cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, Sruthi Ann; Rajiv, Sundaramoorthy [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Chakravarty, Sujay [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam, Node, Kokilamedu (India); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2017-02-01

    side effect of AuNRs by modifying capping. • Polymer-coated AuNRs safe for in vitro assays, but hamper protein functioning. • PEG-AuNRs reduced toxicity to lymphocyte cells and lesser effect on IgG. • Highlights importance of neutral PEGylated particles for theranostic applications.

  5. Significance of surface functionalization of Gold Nanorods for reduced effect on IgG stability and minimization of cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Sruthi Ann; Rajiv, Sundaramoorthy; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-01-01

    side effect of AuNRs by modifying capping. • Polymer-coated AuNRs safe for in vitro assays, but hamper protein functioning. • PEG-AuNRs reduced toxicity to lymphocyte cells and lesser effect on IgG. • Highlights importance of neutral PEGylated particles for theranostic applications.

  6. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother-newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Autrup, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei...... (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006-2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet...

  7. Micronuclei induction in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles by the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Marcela Alejandra; Panzeri, Ana María; Moreno, Víctor Jorge; Dulout, Fernando Noel

    2003-01-01

    Pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin genotoxicity was evaluated using the micronucleus test in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles. The effects of concentration and exposure time on the micronuclei frequency were studied in blood smears obtained from tadpoles exposed to four concentrations (0.02, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/L) of the compound for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and 8, 15, 20 and 30 days. As a positive control, tadpoles were exposed to cyclophosphamide (5 mg/L). The micronucleated cell frequency was expressed per...

  8. [Intra-Articular Application of Tranexamic Acid Significantly Reduces Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirement in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lošťák, J; Gallo, J; Špička, J; Langová, K

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of topical application of tranexamic acid (TXA, Exacyl) on the amount of post-operative blood loss, and blood transfusion requirement in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Attention was paid to early complications potentially associated with TXA administration, such as haematoma, wound exudate, or knee swelling. In addition, the economic benefit of TXA treatment was also taken into account. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 238 patients (85 men and 153 women) who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at our department between January 2013 and November 2015. A group of 119 patients (41 men and 78 women) received intraarticular TXA injections according to the treatment protocol (TXA group). A control group matched in basic characteristics to the TXA group also consisted of 119 patients. The average age in the TXA group was 69.8 years, and the most frequent indication for TKA surgery was primary knee osteoarthritis (81.5%). In each patient, post-operative volume of blood lost from drains and total blood loss including hidden blood loss were recorded, as well as post-operative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. On discharge of each patient from hospital, the size and site of a haematoma; wound exudate, if present after post-operative day 4; joint swelling; range of motion and early revision surgery, if performed, were evaluated. Requirements of analgesic drugs after surgery were also recorded. RESULTS In the TXA group, blood losses from drains were significantly lower than in the control group (456.7 ± 270.8 vs 640.5 ±448.2; p = 0.004). The median value for blood losses from drains was lower by 22% and the average value for total blood loss, including hidden losses, was also lower than in the control group (762.4 ± 345.2 ml vs 995.5 ± 457.3 ml). The difference in the total amount of blood loss between the two groups was significant (p = 0

  9. Weight loss significantly reduces serum lipocalin-2 levels in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiou, Ekaterini; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Katsikis, Ilias; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Kalaitzakis, Emmanuil; Delkos, Dimitrios; Vosnakis, Christos; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Serum lipocalin-2 levels are elevated in obese patients. We assessed serum lipocalin-2 levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the effects of weight loss or metformin on these levels. Forty-seven overweight/obese patients with PCOS [body mass index (BMI) >27 kg/m(2)] were instructed to follow a low-calorie diet, to exercise and were given orlistat or sibutramine for 6 months. Twenty-five normal weight patients with PCOS (BMI weight and 25 overweight/obese healthy female volunteers comprised the control groups. Serum lipocalin-2 levels did not differ between overweight/obese patients with PCOS and overweight/obese controls (p = 0.258), or between normal weight patients with PCOS and normal weight controls (p = 0.878). Lipocalin-2 levels were higher in overweight/obese patients with PCOS than in normal weight patients with PCOS (p weight loss resulted in a fall in lipocalin-2 levels (p weight patients with PCOS, treatment with metformin did not affect lipocalin-2 levels (p = 0.484). In conclusion, PCOS per se is not associated with elevated lipocalin-2 levels. Weight loss induces a significant reduction in lipocalin-2 levels in overweight/obese patients with PCOS.

  10. Dose rate effect on micronuclei induction in human blood lymphocytes exposed to single pulse and multiple pulses of electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Santhosh; Bhat, N N; Joseph, Praveen; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Sreedevi, B; Narayana, Y

    2011-05-01

    The effects of single pulses and multiple pulses of 7 MV electrons on micronuclei (MN) induction in cytokinesis-blocked human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were investigated over a wide range of dose rates per pulse (instantaneous dose rate). PBLs were exposed to graded doses of 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 Gy of single electron pulses of varying pulse widths at different dose rates per pulse, ranging from 1 × 10(6) Gy s(-1) to 3.2 × 10(8) Gy s(-1). Different dose rates per pulse were achieved by changing the dose per electron pulse by adjusting the beam current and pulse width. MN yields per unit absorbed dose after irradiation with single electron pulses were compared with those of multiple pulses of electrons. A significant decrease in the MN yield with increasing dose rates per pulse was observed, when dose was delivered by a single electron pulse. However, no reduction in the MN yield was observed when dose was delivered by multiple pulses of electrons. The decrease in the yield at high dose rates per pulse suggests possible radical recombination, which leads to decreased biological damage. Cellular response to the presence of very large numbers of chromosomal breaks may also alter the damage.

  11. Effect of space flight on the frequency of micronuclei and expression of stress-responsive proteins in cultured mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikenaga, Mituo; Hirayama, Jun; Kato, Tomohisa [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Radiation Biology Center] [and others

    2002-12-01

    Results of past space experiments suggest that the biological effect of space radiation could been hanced under microgravity in some cases, especially ininsects. To examine if such a synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity also exists in human cells, frequencies of chromosome instability and cellular levels of several stress-responsive proteins were analyzed incultured human and rodent cells afterspace flight. Human (MCF7 and ataxia telangiectasia(AT)2KY), mouse (m5S) and hamster (Syrian hamster embryo (SHE)) cell lines were loaded on the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-95 mission) and grown during a 9-daymission. After landing, the micronuclei resulting from abnormal nuclear division and accumulationof stress-responsive proteins such as p53 and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which are involved in radiation-induced signal transduction cascades, were analyzed. The frequencies of micronucleiin all the four mammalian cell strains tested were not significantly different between flight and ground control samples. Also, the cellular amounts of p53, p21 (WAF1/SDI1/CIP1) and activated (phosphorylated) forms of three distinct MAPKs in MCF7 and m5S cells of flight samples were similar to those of ground control samples. These results indicated that anyeffect of space radiation, microgravity, or combination of both were not detectable, at least under thepresent experimental conditions. (author)

  12. Biological Dosimetry of X-rays by micronuclei study; Dosimetria Biologica de rayos-X mediante el estudio de micronucleos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, E.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1991-07-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical an cytogenetics data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable, in this case, the study of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes citokinetics blocked can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using micronuclei assay for X-rays at 250 kVp, 43,79 rads/min and temperature 37 degree centigree has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y=C+ {alpha}D+BD''2 where Y is the number of micronuclei per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 24 refs.

  13. Biological Dosimetry of X-rays by micronuclei study; Dosimetria Biologica de rayos-X mediante el estudio de micronucleos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, E; Silva, A; Navlet, J

    1991-07-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical an cytogenetics data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable, in this case, the study of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes citokinetics blocked can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using micronuclei assay for X-rays at 250 kVp, 43,79 rads/min and temperature 37 degree centigree has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y=C+ {alpha}D+BD''2 where Y is the number of micronuclei per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 24 refs.

  14. Induction of micronuclei in the root tip cells of Haplopappus germinating seeds by fission neutrons and X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanmoto, Hidehiro; Yonezawa, Yoshihiko; Itoh, Tetsuo; Kondo, Sohei.

    1992-01-01

    Seeds of Haplopappus gracilis (2n=4), an annual Compositae, were soaked in water for 24 hr and then irradiated with fission neutrons from the 1-wattage reactor, UTR-KINKI, or X rays. The root tip cells were inspected at 48 hr post-irradiation for evidence of chromosome damage using micronucleus as endpoint. The frequency of neutron-induced micronuclei increased almost linearly as the dose increased up to as much as 1.2 Gy. X-ray-induced micronuclei showed an exponential dose-response relation. From dose-response data, we estimated that the dose necessary to induce micronuclei at a frequency of 5 per 1,000 cells was 1.2 Gy for neutrons and 8.6 Gy for X rays. Thus, to induce chromosome damage in the somatic cells of germinating Haplopappus seeds, fission neutrons were much more effective than X rays. (author)

  15. [Tripartite motif-containing protein 34 (TRIM34) colocalized with micronuclei chromosome and hampers its movement to equatorial plate during the metaphase stage of mitosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dakang; An, Xinye; Ji, Bing; Cheng, Yanli; Gao, Honglian; Tian, Mingming

    2016-06-01

    Objective To examine whether tripartite motif-containing protein 34 (TRIM34) is colocalized with micronuclei and investigate the influence on the movement of micronuclei chromosome in mitosis. Methods The eukaryotic expression vector TRIM34-pEGFP-N3 was constructed, identified and then transfected into HEK293T cells. With 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole 2HCI (DAPI) staining, the colocalization between TRIM34 and micronuclei was observed under a fluorescence microscope. Moreover, MitoTracker(R)Deep Red was used to identify the colocalization between the complex of TRIM34-micronulei and mitochondria under a confocal microscope. Finally, the effect of TRIM34 on the movement of micronuclei chromosome in mitosis was examined. Results DNA sequencing confirmed that the vector TRIM34-pEGFP-N3 was constructed successfully. A fluorescence microscope revealed that TRIM34 could be colocalized with micronuclei in HEK293T cells transfected with TRIM34-pEGFP-N3. In the same manner, a confocal microscope distinctly showed that TRIM34 was colocalized with micronuclei similarly in appearance. However, there was no distinguished colocalization relationship between the complex of TRIM34-micronulei and mitochondria. Interestingly, the micronuclei chromosome conjugated with TRIM34 was hardly transferred to equatorial plate during the metaphase stage of mitosis. Conclusion TRIM34 is colocalized with micronuclei chromosome and hampers its movement to equatorial plate in mitosis.

  16. Estimation and comparison of baseline frequencies of micronuclei among the new-borns from natural high background radiation and control areas of Kerala coast in south India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Birajalaxmi; Karuppasamy, C.V.; Thampi, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    Based on the studies it is concluded that the elevated level of natural radiation has no significant effect of micronucleus formation in high background radiation area (HBRA) new-borns as compared to control area. It is also in agreement with the results of cytogenetic investigations on new-borns from HBRA and control area using chromosome aberration analysis method. The significance, if any, of the slightly lower micronuclei (MN) frequency observed in HBRA, is not clear at this stage. Further investigations on a larger number of new-borns from both the areas are necessary in order to draw firm conclusions. It appears that, this is the first attempt to estimate the baseline frequency of MN among the new-borns from a natural high background radiation area. (author). 9 refs

  17. The induction of micronuclei in X-irradiated Beagle dog lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rithidech, K.; Lozano, D.; Brooks, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    We developed a simple, sensitive, and reproducible method using the micronucleus assay in dog blood lymphocytes for detecting genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. Micronuclei (MM) are expressed in cells that have undergone 1 cell division. Thus, it was important to determine the optimum culture condition and sampling time to obtain a maximum number of such cells. To identify cells that have divided, cytochalasin B was added to block cytokinesis. Cells were harvested at 72, 76, or 94 h after incubation with different concentrations of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) 15 or 16. After optimizing the culture time and PHA concentration, the system was calibrated by evaluating the dose response for the induction of MN by X rays. Blood samples were drawn, X-irradiated (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 Gy), grown in optimum culture medium, harvested at 94 h after incubation, and the frequency of MN analyzed in binucleated cells. The dose-response relationship was fit by a quadratic model; micronuclei/binucleated cell = 0.017 + 0.046D + 0.0093D 2 , where D = dose. The MN assay in dog blood lymphocytes provides a sensitive and reliable technique for measuring genotoxic damage in a large animal model. The MN assay will be very useful for evaluating genotoxic effects of hazardous agents after both chronic and acute exposures and for estimating radiation dose. (author)

  18. In vitro H2AX phosphorylation and micronuclei induction in human fibroblasts across the Bragg curve of a 577MeV/nucleon Fe incident beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, N. [NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX (United States); Sodolak, J. [Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, TX (United States); Gersey, B. [Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, TX (United States); Durante, M. [University Federico II, Naples (Italy); Lin, Z.W. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Rusek, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Cucinotta, F.A. [NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX (United States); Wu, H. [NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: honglu.wu-1@nasa.gov

    2006-10-15

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the only major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-linear energy transfer (LET) {gamma} or X-rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged particle exposure, since the dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply as the particle approaches the end of its range, a position known as the Bragg peak. The Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle traversal, and the 'biological Bragg curve' is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle, and may vary for different biological endpoints. Here we used a unique irradiation geometry to measure the biological response across the Bragg curve in human fibroblasts exposed to 577MeV/nucleon incident Fe ions in vitro. Polyethylene shielding was used to achieve a Bragg curve distribution with the beam geometry parallel to a monolayer of fibroblast cells. Qualitative analyses of {gamma}-H2AX fluorescence, a known marker of DSBs, indicated increased clustering of DNA damage before the Bragg peak, enhanced homogenous distribution at the peak, and provided visual evidence of high-LET particle traversal of cells beyond the Bragg peak in agreement with one-dimensional transport approximations. A quantitative biological response curve generated for micronuclei induction across the Bragg curve did not reveal an increased yield of micronuclei at the location of the Bragg peak. However, the percentage of mononucleated cells, which indicates inhibition in cell progression, increased at the location of the peak. These results confirm the argument that severely damaged cells at the Bragg peak, as observed by increased {gamma}-H2AX formation, are likely to go through reproduction death. Depending on the LET value of the primary particles, the yield of

  19. Induction of micronuclei in human and mouse lymphocytes irradiated with gamma radiation and effect of panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Oh, Heon; Lee, Song Eun [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun Sil; Kim, Tae Hwan [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kyu Sik [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Si Yun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    The frequencies of {gamma}-ray-induced micronuclei (MN) in Cytokinesis-Blocked (CB) lymphocytes at several doses were measured in three donors of human and C57BL/6 mice. Measurements performed after irradiation showed a dose-related increases in MN frequency in each of the donors studied. The relative sensitivity of mouse in Spleen Lymphocytes (SLs) compared with human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes (PBLs) was estimated by best fitting linear-quadratic model based on the radiation-induced MN data over the range from 0 cGy to 400 cGy. In the case of MN frequency with 0.2 per CB cell, the relative sensitivity of mouse SLs was 1.67. Compared with the radiation-induced MN formation in the PBLs of human, the SLs of mouse were more radiosensitive. Using this MN assay with human PBLs and mouse SLs, studies were performed to determine whether the water fraction of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer)against radiation-induced MN in human PBLs after in vitro irradiation (3Gy) and in SLs of C57BL/6 mice after in vivo irradiation (3Gy). The frequency of MN in human PBLs was reduced by water fraction of ginseng (0.5mg/ml of medium) both pre-and post treatment (p<0.01) in vitro. In addition, the frequency of MN in mouse SLs was also reduced by pretreatment of ginseng (2mg/ml of drinking water for 7 days) in vivo.

  20. From meatless Mondays to meatless Sundays: motivations for meat reduction among vegetarians and semi-vegetarians who mildly or significantly reduce their meat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2014-01-01

    This study explores vegetarians' and semi-vegetarians' motives for reducing their meat intake. Participants are categorized as vegetarians (remove all meat from their diet); semi-vegetarians (significantly reduce meat intake: at least three days a week); or light semi-vegetarians (mildly reduce meat intake: once or twice a week). Most differences appear between vegetarians and both groups of semi-vegetarians. Animal-rights and ecological concerns, together with taste preferences, predict vegetarianism, while an increase in health motives increases the odds of being semi-vegetarian. Even within each group, subgroups with different motives appear, and it is recommended that future researchers pay more attention to these differences.

  1. Micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to mixed beams of X-rays and alpha particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staaf, E.; Brehwens, K.; Haghdoost, S.; Nievaart, S.; Pachnerová Brabcová, Kateřina; Czub, J.; Braziewicz, J.; Wojcik, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2012), s. 283-293 ISSN 0301-634X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Micronuclei * LET * Combined exposure * Mixed beams * Alpha particles * X-rays Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.754, year: 2012

  2. Mapping the factors affecting the frequency and types of micronuclei in an elderly population from Southern Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössnerová, Andrea; Hoňková, Kateřina; Pavlíková, Jitka; Freitinger Skalická, Z.; Havránková, R.; Solanský, Ivo; Rössner ml., Pavel; Šrám, Radim; Zölzer, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 793, nov - dec (2016), s. 32-40 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1508 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : environmental exposure * micronuclei * pan-centromeric FISH Subject RIV: EB - Genetic s ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.829, year: 2016

  3. Correlation between micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes and retention of 131-I in thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrndic, O.B.; Milosevic-Djordjevic, O.M.; Mijatovic Teodorovic, L.C.; Zivancevic Simonovic, S.T.; Jeremic, M.Z.; Stosic, I.M.; Grujicic, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) derive from thyroid follicular cells and include papillary and follicular cancers. In patients with DTCs, the initial treatment includes thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine (131-I) therapy. The objective of this study was to examine whether the intensity of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of DTC patients depends on the amount of 131-I retained in the selected regions of interest (thyroid and abdominal region) as well as in the whole-body 72 hours after therapy. In addition, the possible influence of other factors that may affect micronuclei (MN) frequency, such as age, gender, smoking habits, and histological type of tumour was analyzed. The study population consisted of 22 DTC patients and 20 healthy donors. Data on the distribution of 131-I were obtained from the whole-body scans. MN frequency and cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI) were measured using cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. 131-I therapy significantly increased the MN frequency (19.50±6.90 vs. 27.10±19.50 MN) and significantly decreased the CBPI (1.52±0.20 vs. 1.38±0.17) in patients' lymphocytes. There was a clear correlation between the increased MN frequency and 131-I accumulation in the thyroid region in patients without metastases. The MN values did not differ in relation to the factors that could affect MN, such as age, gender, smoking habits, and histological type of tumour. In conclusion, the MN frequency in PBLs of DTC patients without metastases depends on the accumulation of 131-I in the thyroid region and does not depend on the other factors examined. (author)

  4. Transcriptomic network analysis of micronuclei-related genes: a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, D. M.; Pedersen, Marie; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2011-01-01

    checkpoint and aneuploidy. The MN-related gene network was tested against a transcriptomics case study associated with MN measurements. In this case study, transcriptomic data from children and adults differentially exposed to ambient air pollution in the Czech Republic were analysed and visualised......Mechanistically relevant information on responses of humans to xenobiotic exposure in relation to chemically induced biological effects, such as micronuclei (MN) formation can be obtained through large-scale transcriptomics studies. Network analysis may enhance the analysis and visualisation...... of such data. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a 'MN formation' network based on a priori knowledge, by using the pathway tool MetaCore. The gene network contained 27 genes and three gene complexes that are related to processes involved in MN formation, e.g. spindle assembly checkpoint, cell cycle...

  5. Evaluation of Papanicolaou stain for studying micronuclei in buccal cells under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyad, Sohair B A; Israel, Ebenezer; El-Setouhy, Maged; Nasr, Ghada Radwan; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2006-01-01

    To compare Papanicolaou (Pap) and May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) stain as 2 techniques for staining for buccal mucosal cells to detect micronuclei (MN) infield studies. Eighty cytologic smears (2 per individual) were taken from the buccal mucosa of 40 cigarette smokers recruited at a rural village in Egypt. Forty smears were stained with Pap stain and 40 with MGG stain. All were assessed for cellularity and scored for MN. Pap stain was faster and easier to process and transport in the field study than was MGG stain. Regarding MGG smears, bacteria and cell debris masked the MN as compared to Pap smears, in which the fixative destroyed the bacteria and made the cell boundaries clearly demarcated. Using Pap stain, MN were seen easily in transparent cytoplasm. Pap stain is the preferred method infield studies for scoring and detecting MN in cells of buccal mucosa.

  6. Flow cytometric detection of micronuclei by combined staining of DNA and membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, J.M.; Nuesse, M.

    1995-01-01

    A new staining method is presented for flow cytometric measurement of micronuclei (MN) in cell cultures and human lymphocytes using membrane-specific fluorescent dyes in addition to DNA staining. Several combinations of fluorescent membrane and DNA dyes were studied for a better discrimination of MN from debris in a suspension of nuclei and micronuclei. For staining of membranes, the lipophilic dyes 2-hydroxyethyl-7,12,17-tris(methoxyethyl)porphycene (HEPn) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) were used in combination with ethidium bromide (EB), proflavine (PF), and Hoechst 33258 (HO). Due to their spectral properties, HO or EB combined with HEPn were not as suitable for the discrimination of MN from debris as was HEPn in combination with PF. With HEPn in combination with PF, however, additional noise was found at low fluorescence intensities, probably due to free fluorescent dye molecules in the solution. The optimal simultaneous staining of membranes and DNA was obtained using a combination of DPH and EB. The induction of MN in Chinese hamster and mouse NIH-3T3 cells by UV-B illumination was studied with this new staining technique. UV-B illumination (280-360 nm) induced MN in both cell lines. Chinese hamster cells were found to be more sensitive to these wavelengths. Illumination with wavelengths above 360 nm did not induce MN in either cell line. The results obtained from human lymphocytes using the combination of EB or DPH were comparable to the results obtained with the combination of EB and HO. 23 refs., 7 figs

  7. Seven benzimidazole pesticides combined at sub-threshold levels induce micronuclei in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermler, Sibylle; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Benzimidazoles act by disrupting microtubule polymerisation and are capable of inducing the formation of micronuclei. Considering the similarities in their mechanisms of action (inhibition of microtubule assembly by binding to the colchicine-binding site on tubulin monomers), combination effects according to the principles of concentration addition might occur. If so, it is to be expected that several benzimidazoles contribute to micronucleus formation even when each single one is present at or below threshold levels. This would have profound implications for risk assessment, but the idea has never been tested rigorously. To fill this gap, we analysed micronucleus frequencies for seven benzimidazoles, including the fungicide benomyl, its metabolite carbendazim, the anthelmintics albendazole, albendazole oxide, flubendazole, mebendazole and oxibendazole. Thiabendazole was also tested but was inactive. We used the cytochalasin-blocked micronucleus assay with CHO-K1 cells according to OECD guidelines, and employed an automated micronucleus scoring system based on image analysis to establish quantitative concentration–response relationships for the seven active benzimidazoles. Based on this information, we predicted additive combination effects for a mixture of the seven benzimidazoles by using the concepts of concentration addition and independent action. The observed effects of the mixture agreed very well with those predicted by concentration addition. Independent action underestimated the observed combined effects by a large margin. With a mixture that combined all benzimidazoles at their estimated threshold concentrations for micronucleus induction, micronucleus frequencies of ~15.5% were observed, correctly anticipated by concentration addition. On the basis of independent action, this mixture was expected to produce no effects. Our data provide convincing evidence that concentration addition is applicable to combinations of benzimidazoles that form micronuclei

  8. Increased frequency of micronuclei in adults with a history of childhood sexual abuse: a discordant monozygotic twin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P York

    Full Text Available Childhood sexual abuse (CSA is a traumatic life event associated with an increased lifetime risk for psychopathology/morbidity. The long-term biological consequences of CSA-elicited stress on chromosomal stability in adults are unknown. The primary aim of this study was to determine if the rate of acquired chromosomal changes, measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay on stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes, differs in adult female monozygotic twins discordant for CSA.Monozygotic twin pairs discordant for CSA were identified from a larger population-based sample of female adult twins for whom the experience of CSA was assessed by self-report (51 individuals including a reference sample. Micronuclei (MN contain chromatin from structurally normal or abnormal chromosomes that are excluded from the daughter nuclei during cell division and serve as a biomarker to assess acquired chromosomal instability.Female twins exposed to CSA exhibited a 1.63-fold average increase in their frequency of MN compared to their nonexposed genetically identical cotwins (Paired t-test, t₁₆ = 2.65, P = 0.017. No additional effects of familial factors were detected after controlling for the effect of CSA exposure. A significant interaction between CSA history and age was observed, suggesting that the biological effects of CSA on MN formation may be cumulative.These data support a direct link between CSA exposure and MN formation measured in adults that is not attributable to genetic or environmental factors shared by siblings. Further research is warranted to understand the biological basis for the observed increase in acquired chromosomal findings in people exposed to CSA and to determine if acquired somatic chromosomal abnormalities/somatic clonal mosaicism might mediate the adult pathology associated with CSA.

  9. Cell cycle kinetics and in vivo micronuclei induction in rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumors using a monoclonal antibody to BrdUrd and cell sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuesse, M.; Afzal, S.M.J.; Carr, B.C.; Kavanau, K.S.; Tenforde, T.S.; Curtis, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the experiments reported here was to investigate the applicability of the BrdUrd/DNA technique to a rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumor system growing in vivo and to study radiation-induced changes in the progression of cells through the cell cycle. Details of this technique are described elsewhere. In addition, the induction of micronuclei in tumor cells irradiated in vivo with x-rays or peak neon ions was studied. Micronuclei found in interphase cells after irradiation represent genetic material that is lost from the genome of the cells during mitosis. The formation of micronuclei that can mainly be ascribed to acentric chromosome or chromatid fragments occurs only after cells go through one or more cell divisions. Cycling cells in the tumors were, therefore, continuously labeled with BrdUrd, and micronuclei induction was measured only in tetraploid cycling tumor cells using the flow cytometric cell sorting technique

  10. Dose-response curve for translocation frequency with single pair of painted chromosome. A comparison with dicentric and micronuclei frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatachalam, P.; Paul, S.F.D.; Mohankumar, M.N.; Prabhu, B.K.; Gajendiran, N.; Jeevanram, R.K

    2000-07-01

    A translocation dose-response curve using a single pair of painted chromosomes was constructed. The translocation frequencies observed at different doses were compared to those obtained for dicentrics (DC) and micronuclei (MN). The translocation and DC frequency followed the Poisson distribution and MN showed over-dispersion. The translocation and DC frequencies were nearly the same for each dose point. Micronuclei showed a comparatively lower frequency. The alpha/beta ratio for translocations (0.916) and DC (0.974) were comparable, whereas the value for MN (1.526) was much higher. The equal frequencies of translocations and DC observed for a given dose indicated that genomic translocation frequency estimated using a single pair of painted chromosomes provides a reliable and easy method to measure translocation frequency. (autho000.

  11. Dose-response curve for translocation frequency with single pair of painted chromosome. A comparison with dicentric and micronuclei frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, P.; Paul, S.F.D.; Mohankumar, M.N.; Prabhu, B.K.; Gajendiran, N.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    A translocation dose-response curve using a single pair of painted chromosomes was constructed. The translocation frequencies observed at different doses were compared to those obtained for dicentrics (DC) and micronuclei (MN). The translocation and DC frequency followed the Poisson distribution and MN showed over-dispersion. The translocation and DC frequencies were nearly the same for each dose point. Micronuclei showed a comparatively lower frequency. The alpha/beta ratio for translocations (0.916) and DC (0.974) were comparable, whereas the value for MN (1.526) was much higher. The equal frequencies of translocations and DC observed for a given dose indicated that genomic translocation frequency estimated using a single pair of painted chromosomes provides a reliable and easy method to measure translocation frequency. (author)

  12. Effect of misonidazole (Ro-07-0582) on the incidence of micronuclei in irradiated Ehrlich tumour ascites cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olinici, C D; Mustea, I [Institute of Oncology, Cluj (Romania)

    1978-12-01

    Misonidazole (1-(2-nitro-1-imidazole)-3-methoxy-2-propanol) was injected intraperitoneally into mice on the fifth day of development of Ehrlich ascites tumours. The animals were then /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-irradiated (100 to 400 R) and killed at 24 to 72 hours post-irradiation. Ascites tumour cells from the mice were stained by the Feulgen reaction and the incidence of micronuclei determined. Pretreatment with misonidazole induced an increase in the incidence of micronuclei in the irradiated tumour cells. This increase was most conspicuous at higher radiation doses and at 48 hours post-irradiation. The results suggest the possibility of using the micronucleus assay for the screening of substances with radio-sensitizing potential. The method would be especially suitable for the study of tumours irradiated in vivo with high doses of radiation, since cytogenetic methods present difficulties under these conditions.

  13. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  14. Elevated Frequencies of Micronuclei and other Nuclear Abnormalities of Chrome Plating Workers Occupationally Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha, S; Kripa, SK; Shibily, P; Shyn, J

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium by using micronuclei (MN) as a biomarker. Methods This was a cross-sectional study and all participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from Coimbatore, Southern India. Exfoliated buccal cells from 44 chrome plating work...

  15. Dose assessment by quantification of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Barbosa, Isvania; Pereira-MagnataI, Simey; Amaral, Ademir [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia - GERAR; Sotero, Graca [Fundacao de Hematologia e Hemoterapia, Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Homero Cavalcanti [Hospital do Cancer, Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Radioterapia de Pernambuco]. E-mail: isvania@uol.com.br

    2005-07-15

    Scoring of unstable chromosome aberrations (dicentrics, rings and fragments) and micronuclei in circulating lymphocytes are the most extensively studied biological means for estimating individual exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), which can be used as complementary methods to physical dosimetry or when the latter cannot be performed. In this work, the quantification of the frequencies of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei were carried out based on cytogenetic analyses of peripheral blood samples from 5 patients with cervical uterine cancer following radiotherapy in order to evaluate the absorbed dose as a result of partial-body exposure to 60Co source. Blood samples were collected from each patient in three phases of the treatment: before irradiation, 24 h after receiving 0.08 Gy and 1.8 Gy, respectively. The results presented in this report emphasize biological dosimetry, employing the quantification of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in lymphocytes from peripheral blood, as an important methodology of dose assessment for either whole or partial-body exposure to IR.

  16. Frequency of micronuclei in individuals from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala in India, as a function of age and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppasamy, C.V.; Ramachandran, E.N.; Vivek Kumar, P.R.; Anil Kumar, V.; Sudheer, K.R.; Jaikishan, G.; Jagateesan, C.K.; Seshadri, M.

    2012-01-01

    The genotoxic effects of chronic low level radiation exposure in humans may be studied by estimating the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in whole blood samples. Frequency of MN is also known to be affected by age, gender and smoking habit of individuals. In this study we have evaluated the frequency of MN in subjects from high level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala. Radioactivity in this area is primarily due to the presence of 8-10% of thorium ( 232 Th) in the monazite, which is 1% of the beach sand. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 105 subjects by venipuncture using heparinised vacuette tubes, after obtaining informed consent. Age of the subjects ranged between 22 and 80. Of these subjects, 68 belong to HLNRA and consisted of 50 males and 18 females. Thirty seven subjects belong to normal level natural radiation areas (NLNRA) and consisted of 27 males and 10 females. Whole blood cultures were set up for the MN test using the cytokinesis-block methodology. Frequency of MN was calculated per 1000 binucleated cells. Data on the frequency of MN was analyzed after log transformation, as the results were not normally distributed. The basal frequency of micronuclei in the 105 subjects studied was 13.59 ± 7.49 (Mean ± S.D.) with a range of 2-37. Multiple regression analysis in all samples showed significant influence of age (P=0.02) and gender (P=0.007) on the frequency of MN. However, the frequency of MN was comparable (P=0.3) between NLNRA (12.97 ± 7.84) and HLNRA subjects (13.92 ± 7.34). In this study, 75% (N=21) of females were in the age group of 35-55. Frequency of MN was significantly (Th=0.05) higher among females (17.80 ± 7.56) compared to males belonging to age group of 35-55 (14.09 ± 6.95). Further, in subgroup analysis, in male subjects (N=77) frequency of MN was significantly influenced by age (P=0.03) and not by smoking habit (P=0.11) or residential area (NLNRA/HLNRA, P=0.7). In female subjects (N=28) frequency of MN was not

  17. Micronuclei as biomarkers of genotoxicity of gamma radiation in aquatic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B.; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Ronaldo C. da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Amancio, Francisco F. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Ionizing radiation is a genotoxic agent, inducing gene mutations and cellular death. Several efforts have been defendants in the development of techniques for measurement of radiation damage in biological systems. Among these techniques, micronuclei test has been showing as a great bio marker of DNA damage, being used in environmental monitoring to detect genotoxic agents in the environment. Additionally, organisms as Biomphalaria glabrata, freshwater molluscs, presents itself as an excellent model to assess damage caused by physical and chemical agents, due their biological and environmental characteristics. The snails were divided into groups of 5 individuals exposed to doses of 0 (control), 25, 35, 45 and 55 Gy of {sup 60}Co. After 48 hours of irradiation, the hemo lymph was collected and prepared the slides, which were stained with Giemsa and analyzed the cellular changes in haemocytes Statistical analysis was accomplished through chi-square test, ANOVA and Tukey test (p< 0,05). The results indicated that B. glabrata showed to be sensitive to gamma radiation. The snails irradiated with 35 Gy showed a decrease of haemocytes, while that of 55 Gy increased. Cellular and morphological changes were observed at doses of 35, 45 and 55 Gy and the dose of 55 Gy, the most radiotoxic. (author)

  18. Micronuclei as biomarkers of genotoxicity of gamma radiation in aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Silva, Ronaldo C. da; Amancio, Francisco F.

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a genotoxic agent, inducing gene mutations and cellular death. Several efforts have been defendants in the development of techniques for measurement of radiation damage in biological systems. Among these techniques, micronuclei test has been showing as a great bio marker of DNA damage, being used in environmental monitoring to detect genotoxic agents in the environment. Additionally, organisms as Biomphalaria glabrata, freshwater molluscs, presents itself as an excellent model to assess damage caused by physical and chemical agents, due their biological and environmental characteristics. The snails were divided into groups of 5 individuals exposed to doses of 0 (control), 25, 35, 45 and 55 Gy of 60 Co. After 48 hours of irradiation, the hemo lymph was collected and prepared the slides, which were stained with Giemsa and analyzed the cellular changes in haemocytes Statistical analysis was accomplished through chi-square test, ANOVA and Tukey test (p< 0,05). The results indicated that B. glabrata showed to be sensitive to gamma radiation. The snails irradiated with 35 Gy showed a decrease of haemocytes, while that of 55 Gy increased. Cellular and morphological changes were observed at doses of 35, 45 and 55 Gy and the dose of 55 Gy, the most radiotoxic. (author)

  19. Frequencies of micronuclei in bank voles from zones of high radiation at Chernobyl, Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, B.E.; Baker, R.J.

    2000-06-01

    A population of Clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole) from a highly radioactive area within the Chernobyl, Ukraine exclusion zone was sampled in June 1997 and in June and October 1998. Internal radiation doses from radiocesium were estimated to be as high as 8 rads/d. Total dose, which takes into account the internal dose form radiostrontium and the surrounding environment, was estimated to be 15 to 20 rads/d. In contrast, individuals from a reference population lying outside of the exclusion zone registered negligible levels of contamination. The authors used the micronucleus test in a double-blind study to analyze blood samples from 58 individuals. They scored more than 600,000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) but could not reject the null hypothesis that the frequency of micronucleated PCEs in voles exposed to radiation was equal to the frequency in unexposed voles. Results of their study stand in sharp contrast to earlier reports of increased frequencies of micronuclei in rodents exposed to fallout of the Chernobyl accident, but with radiation doses that were orders of magnitude lower than those reported here. Radio resistance and experimental methods are possible explanations for these differences in the results.

  20. Effect of smoking habit on the frequency of micronuclei in human lymphocytes: results from the human micronucleus project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonassi, Stefano; Neri, M.; Lando, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The effect of tobacco smoking on the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in human lymphocytes has been the object of many population studies. In most reports, the results were unexpectedly negative, and in many instances smokers had lower frequencies of MN than non-smokers. A pooled re-analysis of 24 databases from the HUMN international collaborative project has been performed with the aim of understanding the impact of smoking habits on MN frequency. The complete database included 5710 subjects, with 3501 non-smokers, 1409 current smokers, and 800 former smokers, among subjects in occupational and environmental surveys. The overall result of the re-analysis confirmed the small decrease of MN frequencies in current smokers (frequency ratio (FR =0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI =0.93-1.01) and in former smokers (FR =0.96, 95% CI =0.91-1.01), when compared to non-smokers. MN frequency was not influenced by the number of cigarettes smoked per day among subjects occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents, whereas a typical U-shaped curve is observed for non-exposed smokers, showing a significant increase of MN frequency in individuals smoking 30 cigarettes or more per day (FR =1.59, 95% CI =1.35-1.88). This analysis confirmed that smokers do not experience an overall increase in MN frequency, although when the interaction with occupational exposure is taken into account, heavy smokers were the only group showing a significant increase in genotoxic damage as measured by the micronucleus assay in lymphocytes. From these results some general recommendations for the design of bio monitoring studies involving smokers can be formulated. Quantitative data about smoking habit should always be collected because, in the absence of such data, the simple comparison of smokers versus non-smokers could be misleading. The sub-group of heavy smokers (≥30 cigarettes per day) should be specifically evaluated whenever it is large enough to satisfy statistical requirements. The

  1. The effectiveness of the anti-CD11d treatment is reduced in rat models of spinal cord injury that produce significant levels of intraspinal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, N M; Hryciw, T; Bao, F; Streijger, F; Okon, E; Lee, J H T; Weaver, L C; Dekaban, G A; Kwon, B K; Brown, A

    2017-09-01

    We have previously reported that administration of a CD11d monoclonal antibody (mAb) improves recovery in a clip-compression model of SCI. In this model the CD11d mAb reduces the infiltration of activated leukocytes into the injured spinal cord (as indicated by reduced intraspinal MPO). However not all anti-inflammatory strategies have reported beneficial results, suggesting that success of the CD11d mAb treatment may depend on the type or severity of the injury. We therefore tested the CD11d mAb treatment in a rat hemi-contusion model of cervical SCI. In contrast to its effects in the clip-compression model, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve forelimb function nor did it significantly reduce MPO levels in the hemi-contused cord. To determine if the disparate results using the CD11d mAb were due to the biomechanical nature of the cord injury (compression SCI versus contusion SCI) or to the spinal level of the injury (12th thoracic level versus cervical) we further evaluated the CD11d mAb treatment after a T12 contusion SCI. In contrast to the T12 clip compression SCI, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve locomotor recovery or significantly reduce MPO levels after T12 contusion SCI. Lesion analyses revealed increased levels of hemorrhage after contusion SCI compared to clip-compression SCI. SCI that is accompanied by increased intraspinal hemorrhage would be predicted to be refractory to the CD11d mAb therapy as this approach targets leukocyte diapedesis through the intact vasculature. These results suggest that the disparate results of the anti-CD11d treatment in contusion and clip-compression models of SCI are due to the different pathophysiological mechanisms that dominate these two types of spinal cord injuries. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  3. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Glycophospholipid Formulation with NADH and CoQ10 Significantly Reduces Intractable Fatigue in Western Blot-Positive ‘Chronic Lyme Disease’ Patients: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth L. Nicolson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An open label 8-week preliminary study was conducted in a small number of patients to determine if a combination oral supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids, coenzyme Q10 and microencapsulated NADH and other nutrients could affect fatigue levels in long-term, Western blot-positive, multi-symptom ‘chronic Lyme disease’ patients (also called ‘post-treatment Lyme disease’ or ‘post Lyme syndrome’ with intractable fatigue. Methods: The subjects in this study were 6 males (mean age = 45.1 ± 12.4 years and 10 females (mean age = 54.6 ± 7.4 years with ‘chronic Lyme disease’ (determined by multiple symptoms and positive Western blot analysis that had been symptomatic with chronic fatigue for an average of 12.7 ± 6.6 years. They had been seen by multiple physicians (13.3 ± 7.6 and had used many other remedies, supplements and drugs (14.4 ± 7.4 without fatigue relief. Fatigue was monitored at 0, 7, 30 and 60 days using a validated instrument, the Piper Fatigue Scale.Results: Patients in this preliminary study responded to the combination test supplement, showing a 26% reduction in overall fatigue by the end of the 8-week trial (p< 0.0003. Analysis of subcategories of fatigue indicated that there were significant improvements in the ability to complete tasks and activities as well as significant improvements in mood and cognitive abilities. Regression analysis of the data indicated that reductions in fatigue were consistent and occurred with a high degree of confidence (R2= 0.998. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(3:35-47 Conclusions: The combination supplement was a safe and effective method to significantly reduce intractable fatigue in long-term patients with Western blot-positive ‘chronic Lyme disease.’

  5. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivinius R

    2016-02-01

    group (P=0.0123. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596, 2-year (P=0.8620, 5-year (P=0.2737, or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049. Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786.Conclusion: Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with increased mortality after HTX. Keywords: amiodarone, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, heart transplantation, mortality

  6. A proper choice of route significantly reduces air pollution exposure--a study on bicycle and bus trips in urban streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Ole; Hvidberg, Martin; Ketzel, Matthias; Storm, Lars; Stausgaard, Lizzi

    2008-01-15

    A proper selection of route through the urban area may significantly reduce the air pollution exposure. This is the main conclusion from the presented study. Air pollution exposure is determined for two selected cohorts along the route going from home to working place, and back from working place to home. Exposure is determined with a street pollution model for three scenarios: bicycling along the shortest possible route, bicycling along the low exposure route along less trafficked streets, and finally taking the shortest trip using public transport. Furthermore, calculations are performed for the cases the trip takes place inside as well as outside the traffic rush hours. The results show that the accumulated air pollution exposure for the low exposure route is between 10% and 30% lower for the primary pollutants (NO(x) and CO). However, the difference is insignificant and in some cases even negative for the secondary pollutants (NO(2) and PM(10)/PM(2.5)). Considering only the contribution from traffic in the travelled streets, the accumulated air pollution exposure is between 54% and 67% lower for the low exposure route. The bus is generally following highly trafficked streets, and the accumulated exposure along the bus route is therefore between 79% and 115% higher than the high exposure bicycle route (the short bicycle route). Travelling outside the rush hour time periods reduces the accumulated exposure between 10% and 30% for the primary pollutants, and between 5% and 20% for the secondary pollutants. The study indicates that a web based route planner for selecting the low exposure route through the city might be a good service for the public. In addition the public may be advised to travel outside rush hour time periods.

  7. Micronuclei in sputum from uranium workers: Epidemiologic application of an evolving cytogenetic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The exfoliated-cell micronucleus assay is a relatively new cytogenetic technique which can provide a measure of the genetic effect of exposure to carcinogens and mutagens in target tissues where tumors arise among exposed populations. It is responsive to the effects of ionizing radiation and tobacco smoke in some in vivo human cell systems, but has not been extensively field tested as an indicator of lung cancer-related effects, despite the public health importance of exposure to occupational and environmental lung carcinogens. In this study the exfoliated-cell micronucleus assay was used to assess effects of exposure to radon progeny and cigarette smoke in a population of uranium industry workers (including employees in underground and open-pit mines, mills, laboratories, and administrative offices); underground uranium miners experience markedly elevated lung cancer risk because of exposure to ionizing radiation from radon progeny. Ninety-nine workers were selected at random from among workers in Colorado Plateau uranium-related facilities who participated in a workplace sputum cytology screening program from 1964-1988. The prevalence of cells with micronuclei was determined by a manual assay of one sputum specimen for each worker under a light microscope. Occupational and smoking data obtained by interview during screening were used to classify exposure and smoking status at the time the sputum specimen was taken and to obtain information on potential confounders and effect modifiers; underground miners were classified as exposed to radon progeny, and others were considered unexposed. Neither radon progeny exposure nor cigarette smoking had any appreciable effect on the prevalence of micronucleated cells. Crude prevalence ratios were 1.0 (95% CI 0.7-1.4) and 0.9 (95% CI 0.6-1.3), respectively, for radon exposure and smoking

  8. A Rosa canina - Urtica dioica - Harpagophytum procumbens/zeyheri Combination Significantly Reduces Gonarthritis Symptoms in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Margret; Gruenwald, Joerg; Pohl, Ute; Uebelhack, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    The special formulation MA212 (Rosaxan) is composed of rosehip ( Rosa canina L.) puree/juice concentrate, nettle ( Urtica dioica L.) leaf extract, and devil's claw ( Harpagophytum procumbens DC. ex Meisn. or Harpagophytum zeyheri Decne.) root extract and also supplies vitamin D. It is a food for special medical purposes ([EU] No 609/2013) for the dietary management of pain in patients with gonarthritis.This 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind parallel-design study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of MA212 versus placebo in patients with gonarthritis.A 3D-HPLC-fingerprint (3-dimensional high pressure liquid chromatography fingerprint) of MA212 demonstrated the presence of its herbal ingredients. Ninety-two randomized patients consumed 40 mL of MA212 (n = 46) or placebo (n = 44) daily. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), quality-of-life scores at 0, 6, and 12 weeks, and analgesic consumption were documented. Statistically, the initial WOMAC subscores/scores did not differ between groups. During the study, their means significantly improved in both groups. The mean pre-post change of the WOMAC pain score (primary endpoint) was 29.87 in the MA212 group and 10.23 in the placebo group. The group difference demonstrated a significant superiority in favor of MA212 (p U  < 0.001; p t  < 0.001). Group comparisons of all WOMAC subscores/scores at 6 and 12 weeks reached same significances. Compared to placebo, both physical and mental quality of life significantly improved with MA212. There was a trend towards reduced analgesics consumption with MA212, compared to placebo. In the final efficacy evaluation, physicians (p Chi  < 0.001) and patients (p Chi  < 0.001) rated MA212 superior to placebo. MA212 was well tolerated.This study demonstrates excellent efficacy for MA212 in gonarthritis patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Myocardial fatty acid imaging with 123I-BMIPP in patients with chronic right ventricular pressure overload. Clinical significance of reduced uptake in interventricular septum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Yoshiro; Ishida, Yoshio; Fukuchi, Kazuki; Hayashida, Kouhei; Takamiya, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    Regionally reduced 123 I-beta-methyliodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) uptake in the interventricular septum (SEP) is observed in some patients with chronic right ventricular (RV) pressure overload. We studied the significance of this finding by comparing it with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP). 123 I-BMIPP SPECT imaging was carried out in 21 patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH; 51+-14 years; 11 men and 10 women; 7 with primary pulmonary hypertension, 11 with pulmonary thromboembolism, and 3 with atrial septal defect). mPAP ranged from 25 to 81 mmHg (49±16 mmHg). Using a midventricular horizontal long-axis plane, regional BMIPP distributions in the RV free wall and SEP were estimated by referring to those in the LV free wall. Count ratios of the RV free wall and SEP to the LV free wall (RV/LV, SEP/LV) were determined by ROI analysis. RV/LV showed a linear correlation with mPAP (r=0.42). However, SEP/LV was inversely correlated with mPAP (r=-0.49). When SEP/RV was compared among three regions of SEP in each patient, basal SEP/RV was most sensitively decreased in response to increased mPAP (r=-0.70). These results suggest that the assessment of septal tracer uptake in 123 I-BMIPP SPECT imaging is useful for evaluating the severity of RV pressure overload in patients with PH. (author)

  10. Differences in the origins of kinetochore-positive and kinetochore-negative micronuclei: A live cell imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Erkang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Most Kinetochore-negative micronuclei were derived from kinetochore-negative displaced chromosomes, kinetochore-negative lagging chromosomes and fragments of broken chromosome bridges in mitosis of MN-free cells. • Most Kinetochore-positive micronuclei were derived from kinetochore-positive displaced chromosomes, kinetochore-positive lagging chromosomes and fragments of broken chromosome bridges in mitosis of MN-free cells. • Kinetochore-positive lagging chromosomes developed into kinetochore-positive micronuclei at the higher frequency than kinetochore-positive displaced chromosomes, kinetochore-negative lagging chromosomes developed into kinetochore-negative micronuclei at the higher rate than kinetochore-negative displaced chromosomes and broken chromosome bridges produced K−MNi and/or K+MNi. - Abstract: Micronuclei (MNi) are extensively used to evaluate genotoxicity and chromosomal instability. Classification of kinetochore-negative (K−MNi) and kinetochore-positive micronuclei (K+MNi) improves the specificity and sensitivity of the micronucleus (MN) test; however, the fundamental differences in the origins of K−MNi and K+MNi have not been addressed due to the limitations of traditional methods. In the current study, HeLa CENP B-GFP H2B-mCherry cells were constructed in which histone 2B (H2B) and centromere protein B (CENP B) were expressed as fusion proteins to monomeric Cherry (mCherry) and EGFP, respectively. MNi were identified using H2B-mCherry; K+MN contained CENP B-GFP, while K−MN did not. Long-term live cell imaging was conducted to examine MN formation in the dual-color fluorescent HeLa cells. The results suggested that K−MNi were derived from kinetochore-negative displaced chromosomes (K−DCs), kinetochore-negative lagging chromosomes (K−LCs) and fragments of broken chromosome bridges (CBs) during late mitotic stages. The results also indicated that K+MNi are derived from kinetochore-positive displaced chromosomes (K

  11. Differences in the origins of kinetochore-positive and kinetochore-negative micronuclei: A live cell imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Erkang, E-mail: erkangj@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Most Kinetochore-negative micronuclei were derived from kinetochore-negative displaced chromosomes, kinetochore-negative lagging chromosomes and fragments of broken chromosome bridges in mitosis of MN-free cells. • Most Kinetochore-positive micronuclei were derived from kinetochore-positive displaced chromosomes, kinetochore-positive lagging chromosomes and fragments of broken chromosome bridges in mitosis of MN-free cells. • Kinetochore-positive lagging chromosomes developed into kinetochore-positive micronuclei at the higher frequency than kinetochore-positive displaced chromosomes, kinetochore-negative lagging chromosomes developed into kinetochore-negative micronuclei at the higher rate than kinetochore-negative displaced chromosomes and broken chromosome bridges produced K−MNi and/or K+MNi. - Abstract: Micronuclei (MNi) are extensively used to evaluate genotoxicity and chromosomal instability. Classification of kinetochore-negative (K−MNi) and kinetochore-positive micronuclei (K+MNi) improves the specificity and sensitivity of the micronucleus (MN) test; however, the fundamental differences in the origins of K−MNi and K+MNi have not been addressed due to the limitations of traditional methods. In the current study, HeLa CENP B-GFP H2B-mCherry cells were constructed in which histone 2B (H2B) and centromere protein B (CENP B) were expressed as fusion proteins to monomeric Cherry (mCherry) and EGFP, respectively. MNi were identified using H2B-mCherry; K+MN contained CENP B-GFP, while K−MN did not. Long-term live cell imaging was conducted to examine MN formation in the dual-color fluorescent HeLa cells. The results suggested that K−MNi were derived from kinetochore-negative displaced chromosomes (K−DCs), kinetochore-negative lagging chromosomes (K−LCs) and fragments of broken chromosome bridges (CBs) during late mitotic stages. The results also indicated that K+MNi are derived from kinetochore-positive displaced chromosomes (K

  12. The relative biological effectiveness of a high energy neutron beam for micronuclei induction in T-lymphocytes of different individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slabbert, J.P., E-mail: jps@tlabs.ac.z [NRF iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerated Based Sciences), Somerset West (South Africa); Dept. of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, University of Stellenbosch (South Africa); August, L. [NRF iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerated Based Sciences), Somerset West (South Africa); Vral, A. [Dept. of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University (Belgium); Symons, J. [NRF iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerated Based Sciences), Somerset West (South Africa)

    2010-12-15

    In assessing the radiation risk of personnel exposed to cosmic radiation fields as it pertains to radiological damage during travel in civilian aircrafts, it is particularly important to know the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for high energy neutrons. It has been the subject of numerous investigations in recent years using different neutron energies and cytogenetic examinations. Variations in the radiosensitivity of white blood cells for different individuals are likely to influence the estimate of the relative biological effectiveness for high energy neutrons. This as such observations have been noted in the response of different cancer cell lines with varying inherent sensitivities. In this work the radiosensitivities of T-lymphocytes of different individuals to the p(66)/Be neutron beam at iThemba LABS were measured using micronuclei formations and compared to that noted following exposure to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays. The principle objective of this investigation was to establish if a relationship between neutron RBE and variation in biological response to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays for lymphocytes from different individuals could be determined. Peripheral blood samples were collected from four healthy donors and isolated lymphocytes were exposed to different doses of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (1-5 Gy) and p(66)/Be neutrons (0.5-2.5 Gy). One sample per donor was not exposed to radiation and served as a control. Lymphocytes were stimulated using PHA and cultured to induce micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked cells. Micronuclei yields were numerated using fluorescent microscopy. Radiosensitivities and RBE values were calculated from the fitted parameters describing the micronuclei frequency dose response data. Dissimilar dose response curves for different donors were observed reflecting varying inherent sensitivities to both neutron and gamma radiation. A clear reduction in the dose limiting RBE{sub M} is noted for donors with lymphocytes more sensitive to

  13. PARP-1 depletion in combination with carbon ion exposure significantly reduces MMPs activity and overall increases TIMPs expression in cultured HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Sarma, Asitikantha; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Ghosh, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Hadron therapy is an innovative technique where cancer cells are precisely killed leaving surrounding healthy cells least affected by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation like carbon ion beam. Anti-metastatic effect of carbon ion exposure attracts investigators into the field of hadron biology, although details remain poor. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors are well-known radiosensitizer and several PARP-1 inhibitors are in clinical trial. Our previous studies showed that PARP-1 depletion makes the cells more radiosensitive towards carbon ion than gamma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate combining effects of PARP-1 inhibition with carbon ion exposure to control metastatic properties in HeLa cells. Activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, MMP-9) were measured using the gelatin zymography after 85 MeV carbon ion exposure or gamma irradiation (0- 4 Gy) to compare metastatic potential between PARP-1 knock down (HsiI) and control cells (H-vector - HeLa transfected with vector without shRNA construct). Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of MMPs such as TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 were checked by immunofluorescence and western blot. Cell death by trypan blue, apoptosis and autophagy induction were studied after carbon ion exposure in each cell-type. The data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and 2-tailed paired-samples T-test. PARP-1 silencing significantly reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and carbon ion exposure further diminished their activities to less than 3 % of control H-vector. On the contrary, gamma radiation enhanced both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in H-vector but not in HsiI cells. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in H-vector and HsiI showed different pattern after carbon ion exposure. All three TIMPs were increased in HsiI, whereas only TIMP-1 was up-regulated in H-vector after irradiation. Notably, the expressions of all TIMPs were significantly higher in HsiI than H-vector at 4 Gy. Apoptosis was

  14. Symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n reduce methylation of RARB and PTEN while significantly increase methylation of rRNA genes in MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Kostyuk

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome.It is shown that DBP(n are able to penetrate the cellular membranes and accumulate in breast carcinoma cell MCF-7, mainly in the mitochondria and in the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. The DBP(n are non-toxic to the cells and have a weak overall demethylation effect on genomic DNA. DBP(n demethylate the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and RARB. DBP(n promotes expression of the genes RARB, PTEN, CDKN2A, RUNX3, Apaf-1 and APC "silent" in the MCF-7 because of the hypermethylation of their promoter regions. Simultaneously with the demethylation of the DNA in the nucleus a significant increase in the methylation level of rRNA genes in the nucleolus was detected. Increased rDNA methylation correlated with a reduction of the rRNA amount in the cells by 20-30%. It is assumed that during DNA methyltransferase activity inhibition by the DBP(n in the nucleus, the enzyme is sequestered in the nucleolus and provides additional methylation of the rDNA that are not shielded by DBP(n.It is concluded that DBP (n are able to accumulate in the nucleus (excluding the nucleolus area and in the mitochondria of cancer cells, reducing mitochondrial potential. The DBP (n induce the demethylation of a cancer cell's genome, including the demethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. DBP (n significantly increase the methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the nucleoli. Therefore the further study of these compounds is needed

  15. Holstein-Friesian calves selected for divergence in residual feed intake during growth exhibited significant but reduced residual feed intake divergence in their first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Pryce, J E; Spelman, R J; Davis, S R; Wales, W J; Waghorn, G C; Williams, Y J; Marett, L C; Hayes, B J

    2014-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), as a measure of feed conversion during growth, was estimated for around 2,000 growing Holstein-Friesian heifer calves aged 6 to 9 mo in New Zealand and Australia, and individuals from the most and least efficient deciles (low and high RFI phenotypes) were retained. These animals (78 New Zealand cows, 105 Australian cows) were reevaluated during their first lactation to determine if divergence for RFI observed during growth was maintained during lactation. Mean daily body weight (BW) gain during assessment as calves had been 0.86 and 1.15 kg for the respective countries, and the divergence in RFI between most and least efficient deciles for growth was 21% (1.39 and 1.42 kg of dry matter, for New Zealand and Australia, respectively). At the commencement of evaluation during lactation, the cows were aged 26 to 29 mo. All were fed alfalfa and grass cubes; it was the sole diet in New Zealand, whereas 6 kg of crushed wheat/d was also fed in Australia. Measurements of RFI during lactation occurred for 34 to 37 d with measurements of milk production (daily), milk composition (2 to 3 times per week), BW and BW change (1 to 3 times per week), as well as body condition score (BCS). Daily milk production averaged 13.8 kg for New Zealand cows and 20.0 kg in Australia. No statistically significant differences were observed between calf RFI decile groups for dry matter intake, milk production, BW change, or BCS; however a significant difference was noted between groups for lactating RFI. Residual feed intake was about 3% lower for lactating cows identified as most efficient as growing calves, and no negative effects on production were observed. These results support the hypothesis that calves divergent for RFI during growth are also divergent for RFI when lactating. The causes for this reduced divergence need to be investigated to ensure that genetic selection programs based on low RFI (better efficiency) are robust. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy

  16. Baseline values of micronuclei and comet assay in the lizard Tupinambis merianae (Teiidae, Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumburg, Laura G; Poletta, Gisela L; Siroski, Pablo A; Mudry, Marta D

    2012-10-01

    The Micronucleus test (MN) and Comet assay (CA) are currently the most widely used methods that allow the characterization of DNA damage induced by physical and chemical agents in wild species. The continuous expansion of the cultivated areas in Argentina, since the introduction of transgenic crops, mainly soy, in association with the increased use of pesticides, transformed deeply the natural environments where the lizard Tupinambis merianae (tegu lizard) occurs. Despite the fact that reptiles have shown to be excellent bioindicators of environmental contaminants, there is no record of genotoxicity studies in T. merianae. The aim of the present study was to adjust the MN test and CA protocols to be applied in erythrocytes of T. merianae, and determine the baseline values of DNA damage in this species. We used 20 adult lizards (10 males: 10 females) from Estación Zoológica Experimental "Granja La Esmeralda" (Santa Fe, Argentina). Peripheral blood samples were collected from all animals and the MN test and CA applied according to the protocols established for other reptilian species. We test critical parameters of CA protocol (cell density, unwinding and electrophoresis times) using increasing concentrations of H2O2 (10, 25 and 50 μM) as a known genotoxic agent to induce DNA damage. Based on this, we determined the most suitable conditions for the CA in this species: a cell density of 4×10(3) erythrocytes per slide, 10 min of unwinding and 15 min of electrophoresis at 0.90 V/cm approximately. The baseline frequency of micronuclei (BFMN=MN/1000 erythrocytes counted) determined for this species was 0.95±0.27 and the basal damage index (BDI: calculated from 100 comet images classified in arbitrary units)=103.85±0.97. No differences were observed between sexes in the BFMN or BDI (p>0.05), and no relation was found between baseline values and length or weight of the analyzed animals (p>0.05). These results demonstrated the sensitivity of both biomarkers of

  17. Chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and nuclear buds induced in human lymphocytes by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid pesticide formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeljezic, Davor; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2004-01-01

    Pesticides of worldwide application are used in agriculture in vast amounts each year, of which herbicides are the most prominent class. Phenoxyacetic herbicides constitute one of the largest groups of herbicides sold in the world. Among them, for many years 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has been the one most used. In this study we used Deherban A[reg], a commercial formulation of 2,4-D to determine its possible genotoxic effect on human lymphocytes in vitro by chromosomal aberration analysis and micronucleus assay including the scoring of nuclear buds. Two different concentrations of pesticide formulation were used so that final concentrations of 2,4-D were 0.4 and 4 μg/ml, both in the presence and in the absence of the liver microsomal fraction as metabolic activator. Both concentrations of pesticide caused an increase in chromatid and chromosome breaks, number of micronuclei and number of nuclear buds. Presence of the S9 mix additionally elevated the number of chromatid breaks and micronuclei in treated lymphocytes

  18. Biomonitoring of genotoxicity using micronuclei assay in native population of Astyanax jacuhiensis (Characiformes: Characidae) at sites under petrochemical influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres de Lemos, Clarice [Divisao de Biologia, Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais, Departamento de Laboratorios, Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler (FEPAM), Avenida Dr. Salvador Franca, 1707, 90690-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: claricetl@fepam.rs.gov.br; Almeida Iranco, Fabio de; D' Avila de Oliveira, Nanci Cristina; Dornelles de Souza, Getulio [Divisao de Biologia, Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais, Departamento de Laboratorios, Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler (FEPAM), Avenida Dr. Salvador Franca, 1707, 90690-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Guimaraes Fachel, Jandyra Maria [Instituto de Matematica, Departamento de Estatistica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91509-9000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    Bom Jardim brook is a small stream that flows through an area under the influence of a Petrochemical Complex, demanding control over its quality, so a genotoxic evaluation was performed. This study was conducted in situ, based on previous analysis on the same subject. These were performed both in vitro, with Salmonella typhimurium and human lymphocytes, and in vivo, using bioassays with fish exposed to water from the study area. The purpose of this research was to assess the quality of the aquatic environment and possible effects from petrochemical pollution to surrounding native populations. Micronuclei (MNE) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) frequencies in peripheral blood of Astyanax jacuhiensis, a native fish species collected from the study area, were used as biomarkers. Study period was from summer/99 to spring/2001, using samples obtained seasonally at two ponds upstream from the industrial area (BJN and BJPa) and two sites in Bom Jardim brook (BJ002 and BJ000), which are subject to Complex influence. MNE and NA frequencies found in individuals from BJ002 and BJ000 were similar, showing positive genotoxic responses related to control sites BJN and BJPa. No differential sensitivity could be verified for micronuclei induction between genders of A. jacuhiensis in the studied population. This study showed that sites subject to petrochemical influence were under higher genotoxic impact. Biomarkers adequacy to the case and the sensitivity of A. jacuhiensis for water monitoring could be also inferred.

  19. Water mutagenic potential assessment on a semiarid aquatic ecosystem under influence of heavy metals and natural radioactivity using micronuclei test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Luiz Cláudio Cardozo; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Morais Ferreira, Douglisnilson; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia; Ferreira da Costa, Thomas; Petta, Reinaldo Antônio; Souza do Amaral, Viviane

    2016-04-01

    The contamination of water bodies by heavy metals and ionizing radiation is a critical environmental issue, which can affect water quality and, thus, human health. This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the Boqueirão de Parelhas Dam in the Brazilian semiarid region. A 1-year study (2013-2014) was performed through the assessment of physicochemical parameters, heavy metal content, and radioactivity along with the mutagenicity potential of water using micronuclei test in Orechromis niloticus (in vivo) and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in human lymphocytes (in vitro). A deterioration of water organoleptics characteristics by the presence of high levels of sulfate and total solids was observed. High concentrations of aluminum, nickel, silver, and lead along with the alpha particle content were higher than the limits suggested by the World Health Organization and Brazilian legislation for drinking water. An increase in the frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities was observed in both experimental models. The results obtained confirmed the mutagenic potential present in water samples. This study highlights that geogenic agents affect water quality becoming a human health concern to be taken into account due to the relevance that this water reservoir has in the region.

  20. Biomonitoring of genotoxicity using micronuclei assay in native population of Astyanax jacuhiensis (Characiformes: Characidae) at sites under petrochemical influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres de Lemos, Clarice; Almeida Iranco, Fabio de; D'Avila de Oliveira, Nanci Cristina; Dornelles de Souza, Getulio; Guimaraes Fachel, Jandyra Maria

    2008-01-01

    Bom Jardim brook is a small stream that flows through an area under the influence of a Petrochemical Complex, demanding control over its quality, so a genotoxic evaluation was performed. This study was conducted in situ, based on previous analysis on the same subject. These were performed both in vitro, with Salmonella typhimurium and human lymphocytes, and in vivo, using bioassays with fish exposed to water from the study area. The purpose of this research was to assess the quality of the aquatic environment and possible effects from petrochemical pollution to surrounding native populations. Micronuclei (MNE) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) frequencies in peripheral blood of Astyanax jacuhiensis, a native fish species collected from the study area, were used as biomarkers. Study period was from summer/99 to spring/2001, using samples obtained seasonally at two ponds upstream from the industrial area (BJN and BJPa) and two sites in Bom Jardim brook (BJ002 and BJ000), which are subject to Complex influence. MNE and NA frequencies found in individuals from BJ002 and BJ000 were similar, showing positive genotoxic responses related to control sites BJN and BJPa. No differential sensitivity could be verified for micronuclei induction between genders of A. jacuhiensis in the studied population. This study showed that sites subject to petrochemical influence were under higher genotoxic impact. Biomarkers adequacy to the case and the sensitivity of A. jacuhiensis for water monitoring could be also inferred

  1. Leukocyte-depletion of blood components does not significantly reduce the risk of infectious complications. Results of a double-blinded, randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titlestad, I. L.; Ebbesen, L. S.; Ainsworth, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusions are claimed to be an independent risk factor for postoperative infections in open colorectal surgery due to immunomodulation. Leukocyte-depletion of erythrocyte suspensions has been shown in some open randomized studies to reduce the rate of postoperative infection t...

  2. Hematology, micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in fishes from São Francisco river, Minas Gerais state, Brazil = Hematologia, micronúcleos e anomalias nucleares em peixes do rio São Francisco, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Seriani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the variables leukocytary, erythrocytary, frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus and Myleus micans from São Francisco river basin, Minas Gerais State, during the summer and winter. Thrombocytes, hematocrit and leukocyte of P.argenteus series, was influenced by climatic conditions. In P. maculatus, not were significant differences for all leukocytes and thrombocytes. In M. micans, values are unprecedented in the literature, with MCV and absolute number of leukocytes found superior to other species of the family Characidae. The frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes, the three species not showed seasonal differences between the sites. However, the highest values were found in summer. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the increase in the percentage of micronuclei with nuclear abnormalities.O presente estudo teve como objetivo, determinar as variáveis leucocitárias, eritrocíticas, freqüência de micronúcleos e anomaliasnucleares nos eritrócitos do sangue periférico de Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus e Myleus micans de um trecho da bacia do rio São Francisco, Minas Gerais, no verão e inverno. Trombóctios, hematócrito e a serie leucocítária de P.argenteus, foi influenciado pela sazonalidade. Em P. maculatus, não ocorreram diferenças significativas para todos os leucócitos e trombócitos. Em M. micans, os valores são inéditos na literatura, apresentando VCM e número absoluto de leucócitos superior ao encontrados para outras espécies dafamília Characidae. A freqüência de micronúcleos e de anomalias nucleares nos eritrócitos, nas três espécies não apresentou diferenças sazonais e entre os pontos amostrais. No entanto, os valores mais altos foram encontrados no verão. Além disso, foi possível observar correlação positiva entre o aumento da

  3. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Luke A; Sands, Helen; Jones, Lewis; Clow, Angela; Evans, Phil; Stalder, Tobias; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the neurocognitive performance of recent users of recreational Ecstasy and investigate whether it was associated with the stress hormone cortisol. The 101 participants included 27 recent light users of Ecstasy (one to four times in the last 3 months), 23 recent heavier Ecstasy users (five or more times) and 51 non-users. Rivermead paragraph recall provided an objective measure for immediate and delayed recall. The prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire provided a subjective index of memory deficits. Cortisol levels were taken from near-scalp 3-month hair samples. Cortisol was significantly raised in recent heavy Ecstasy users compared with controls, whereas hair cortisol in light Ecstasy users was not raised. Both Ecstasy groups were significantly impaired on the Rivermead delayed word recall, and both groups reported significantly more retrospective and prospective memory problems. Stepwise regression confirmed that lifetime Ecstasy predicted the extent of these memory deficits. Recreational Ecstasy is associated with increased levels of the bio-energetic stress hormone cortisol and significant memory impairments. No significant relationship between cortisol and the cognitive deficits was observed. Ecstasy users did display evidence of a metacognitive deficit, with the strength of the correlations between objective and subjective memory performances being significantly lower in the Ecstasy users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Metaldyne: Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Efficiency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Significant Cost Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  5. The co registration of initial PET on the CT-radiotherapy reduces significantly the variabilities of anatomo-clinical target volume in the child hodgkin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, H.; Blouet, A.; David, I.; Rives, M.; Izar, F.; Courbon, F.; Filleron, T.; Laprie, A.; Plat, G.; Vial, J.

    2009-01-01

    It exists a great interobserver variability for the anatomo-clinical target volume (C.T.V.) definition in children suffering of Hodgkin disease. In this study, the co-registration of the PET with F.D.G. on the planning computed tomography has significantly lead to a greater coherence in the clinical target volume definition. (N.C.)

  6. Soluble CD36 and risk markers of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis are elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome and significantly reduced during pioglitazone treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Højlund, Kurt; Andersen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the relation between soluble CD36 (sCD36), risk markers of atherosclerosis and body composition, and glucose and lipid metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Research Design and Methods: Thirty PCOS patients were randomized to pioglitazone, 30 mg/day or placebo...... units), oxLDL (44.9 (26.9 - 75.1) vs. 36.1 (23.4 - 55.5) U/l), and hsCRP (0.26 (0.03 - 2.41) vs. 0.12 (0.02 - 0.81) mg/dl) were significantly increased in PCOS patients vs. controls (geometric mean (+/- 2SD)). In PCOS, positive correlations were found between central fat mass and sCD36 (r=0.43), hs......CRP (r=0.43), and IL-6 (r=0.42), all pPCOS patients and controls (n=44). sCD36 and oxLDL were significant...

  7. Does Liposomal Bupivacaine (Exparel) Significantly Reduce Postoperative Pain/Numbness in Symptomatic Teeth with a Diagnosis of Necrosis? A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Brandon; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Fowler, Sara; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2016-09-01

    Medical studies have shown some potential for infiltrations of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel; Pacira Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA), a slow-release bupivacaine solution, to extend postoperative benefits of numbness/pain relief for up to several days. Because the Food and Drug Administration has approved Exparel only for infiltrations, we wanted to evaluate if it would be effective as an infiltration to control postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to compare an infiltration of bupivacaine with liposomal bupivacaine for postoperative numbness and pain in symptomatic patients diagnosed with pulpal necrosis experiencing moderate to severe preoperative pain. One hundred patients randomly received a 4.0-mL buccal infiltration of either bupivacaine or liposomal bupivacaine after endodontic debridement. For postoperative pain, patients were given ibuprofen/acetaminophen, and they could receive narcotic pain medication as an escape. Patients recorded their level of numbness, pain, and medication use the night of the appointment and over the next 5 days. Success was defined as no or mild postoperative pain and no narcotic use. The success rate was 29% for the liposomal group and 22% for the bupivacaine group, with no significant difference (P = .4684) between the groups. Liposomal bupivacaine had some effect on soft tissue numbness, pain, and use of non-narcotic medications, but it was not clinically significant. There was no significant difference in the need for escape medication. For symptomatic patients diagnosed with pulpal necrosis experiencing moderate to severe preoperative pain, a 4.0-mL infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine did not result in a statistically significant increase in postoperative success compared with an infiltration of 4.0 mL bupivacaine. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inference from some pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of busulfan through the analysis of its induction kinetics of micronuclei polychromated erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez I, M.R.; Vallarino K, T.; Morales R, P.

    2001-01-01

    The induction kinetics of micronuclei polychromated eritrocites (EPC-MN) which is produced by busulfan and compared with that produced by the ionizing radiation, allows to make inferences over the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of busulfan. Observing two induction mechanisms of MN, this one early at low doses and other later at high doses, this last is presented to a critical dose being very sheer and associated with an increase of the cytotoxicity. The data suggest the transformation or dependence between these two types of leisures, which to determine the narrow therapeutical margin of busulfan. The pharmacokinetic parameters determined in the early mechanisms kinetics indicate a latency period, a time of effective activity and of half life 5.7, 5.2 and 2.6 h respectively. (Author)

  9. Exposure to brominated trihalomethanes in water during pregnancy and micronuclei frequency in maternal and cord blood lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stayner, Leslie Thomas; Pedersen, Marie; Patelarou, Evridiki

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water disinfection by-products have been associated with an increased cancer risk. Micronuclei (MN) frequency in lymphocytes is a marker of genomic damage and can predict adult cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated maternal exposure to drinking water brominated trihalomethanes (BTHM......) in relation to MN frequency in maternal and cord blood lymphocytes. METHODS: MN frequency was examined in 214 mothers and 223 newborns from the Rhea mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece, in 2007-2008. Residential BTHM water concentrations were estimated during pregnancy using tap water analyses and modeling....... Questionnaires on water related habits were used to estimate BTHM exposure from all routes. Associations between BTHM and MN frequency were estimated using negative binomial regression. RESULTS: BTHM concentrations in residential tap water during pregnancy ranged from 0.06 to 7.1 μg/L. MN frequency in maternal...

  10. Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 73 m2 ) at first transurethral resection of bladder tumour is a significant predictor of subsequent recurrence and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blute, Michael L; Kucherov, Victor; Rushmer, Timothy J; Damodaran, Shivashankar; Shi, Fangfang; Abel, E Jason; Jarrard, David F; Richards, Kyle A; Messing, Edward M; Downs, Tracy M

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate if moderate chronic kidney disease [CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 73 m 2 ] is associated with high rates of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) recurrence or progression. A multi-institutional database identified patients with serum creatinine values prior to first transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). The CKD-epidemiology collaboration formula calculated patient eGFR. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations with recurrence-free (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS). In all, 727 patients were identified with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) patient age of 69.8 (60.1-77.6) years. Data for eGFR were available for 632 patients. During a median (IQR) follow-up of 3.7 (1.5-6.5) years, 400 (55%) patients had recurrence and 145 (19.9%) patients had progression of tumour stage or grade. Moderate or severe CKD was identified in 183 patients according to eGFR. Multivariable analysis identified an eGFR of 73 m 2 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-1.9; P = 0.002) as a predictor of tumour recurrence. The 5-year RFS rate was 46% for patients with an eGFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 27% for patients with an eGFR of 73 m 2 (P 73 m 2 (HR 3.7, 95% CI: 1.75-7.94; P = 0.001) was associated with progression to muscle-invasive disease. The 5-year PFS rate was 83% for patients with an eGFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 71% for patients with an eGFR of 73 m 2 (P = 0.01). Moderate CKD at first TURBT is associated with reduced RFS and PFS. Patients with reduced renal function should be considered for increased surveillance. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and hematological disorders among workers of wireless communication instruments and cell phone (Mobile) users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldawy, H.A.; Khattab, F.I.; Hassan, N.H.A.; Amin, Y.M.; Mahmoud, M.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the hazardous effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) such as chromosomal aberration, disturbed micronucleus formation and hematological disorders that may detected among workers of wireless communication instruments and mobile phone users. Seven individuals ( 3 males and 4 females) of a central workers in the microwave unit of the wireless station and 7 users of Mobil phone (4 males and 3 females ) were volunteered to give blood samples. Chromosomes and micronucleus were prepared for cytogenetic analysis as well as blood film for differential count. The results obtained in the microwave group indicated that, the total summation of all types of aberrations (chromosomes and chromatid aberrations) had a frequency of 6. 14% for the exposed group, whereas, the frequency in the control group amounted to 1.57%. In Mobil phone users, the total summation of all types of aberrations(chromosome and chromatid aberrations) had a frequency of 4.43% for the exposed group and 1.71% for the control group. The incidence of the total number of micronuclei in the exposed microwave group was increased 4.3 folds as compared with those of the control group The incidence of the total number of micronuclei in the exposed mobile phone group was increased 2 fold as compared with those in the control group. On the other hand, normal ranges of total white blood cells counts were determined for mobile phone users but abnormalities in the differential counts of the different types of the white blood cells such as neutropenia, eosinophilia and lymphocytosis were observed in the individuals number 1,2,3,7 in microwave group

  12. RNAi mediated acute depletion of Retinoblastoma protein (pRb promotes aneuploidy in human primary cells via micronuclei formation

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    Iovino Flora

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in chromosome number or structure as well as supernumerary centrosomes and multipolar mitoses are commonly observed in human tumors. Thus, centrosome amplification and mitotic checkpoint dysfunctions are believed possible causes of chromosomal instability. The Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB participates in the regulation of synchrony between DNA synthesis and centrosome duplication and it is involved in transcription regulation of some mitotic genes. Primary human fibroblasts were transfected transiently with short interfering RNA (siRNA specific for human pRb to investigate the effects of pRb acute loss on chromosomal stability. Results Acutely pRb-depleted fibroblasts showed altered expression of genes necessary for cell cycle progression, centrosome homeostasis, kinetochore and mitotic checkpoint proteins. Despite altered expression of genes involved in the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC the checkpoint seemed to function properly in pRb-depleted fibroblasts. In particular AURORA-A and PLK1 overexpression suggested that these two genes might have a role in the observed genomic instability. However, when they were post-transcriptionally silenced in pRb-depleted fibroblasts we did not observe reduction in the number of aneuploid cells. This finding suggests that overexpression of these two genes did not contribute to genomic instability triggered by RB acute loss although it affected cell proliferation. Acutely pRb-depleted human fibroblasts showed the presence of micronuclei containing whole chromosomes besides the presence of supernumerary centrosomes and aneuploidy. Conclusion Here we show for the first time that RB acute loss triggers centrosome amplification and aneuploidy in human primary fibroblasts. Altogether, our results suggest that pRb-depleted primary human fibroblasts possess an intact spindle checkpoint and that micronuclei, likely caused by mis-attached kinetochores that in turn trigger

  13. Intra-articular laser treatment plus Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) significantly reduces pain in many patients who had failed prior PRP treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodromos, Chadwick C.; Finkle, Susan; Dawes, Alexander; Dizon, Angelo

    2018-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: In our practice Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injections effectively reduce pain in most but not all arthritic patients. However, for patients who fail PRP treatment, no good alternative currently exists except total joint replacement surgery. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the surface of the skin has not been helpful for arthritis patients in our experience. However, we hypothesized that intra-articular laser treatment would be an effective augmentation to PRP injection and would increase its efficacy in patients who had failed prior PRP injection alone. METHODS: We offered Intra-articular Low Level Laser Therapy (IAL) treatment in conjunction with repeat PRP injection to patients who had received no benefit from PRP injection alone at our center. They were the treatment group. They were not charged for PRP or IAL. They also served as a historical control group since they had all had failed PRP treatment alone. 28 patients (30 joints) accepted treatment after informed consent. 22 knees, 4 hips, 2 shoulder glenohumeral joints and 1 first carpo-metacarpal (1st CMC) joint were treated RESULTS: All patients were followed up at 1 month and no adverse events were seen from the treatment. At 6 months post treatment 46% of patients had good outcomes, and at 1 year 17% still showed improvement after treatment. 11 patients failed treatment and went on to joint replacement. DISCUSSION: A single treatment of IAL with PRP salvaged 46% of patients who had failed PRP treatment alone, allowing avoidance of surgery and good pain control.

  14. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Holst, Jens Juul; Sorensen, Charlotte M

    2017-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect of acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1. We hypothesized that GLP-1 would increase diuresis and natriuresis and reduce MAP in SHR. Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization for the GLP-1 receptor were used to localize GLP-1 receptors in the kidney. Sevoflurane-anesthetized normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats and SHR received a 20 min intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 and changes in MAP, RBF, heart rate, dieresis, and natriuresis were measured. The vasodilatory effect of GLP-1 was assessed in isolated interlobar arteries from normo- and hypertensive rats. We found no expression of GLP-1 receptors in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e.g., insulin) to induce the renal changes observed or possibly by an alternative renal GLP-1 receptor. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  15. Human Tubal-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Associated with Low Level Laser Therapy Significantly Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very debilitating disease, with a very high prevalence worldwide, which results in a expressive economic and social burden. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches to treat these patients are of unquestionable relevance. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs is an innovative and yet accessible approach for pulmonary acute and chronic diseases, mainly due to its important immunoregulatory, anti-fibrogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic. Besides, the use of adjuvant therapies, whose aim is to boost or synergize with their function should be tested. Low level laser (LLL therapy is a relatively new and promising approach, with very low cost, no invasiveness and no side effects. Here, we aimed to study the effectiveness of human tube derived MSCs (htMSCs cell therapy associated with a 30mW/3J-660 nm LLL irradiation in experimental cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 75 days (twice a day and all experiments were performed on day 76. Experimental groups receive htMSCS either intraperitoneally or intranasally and/or LLL irradiation either alone or in association. We show that co-therapy greatly reduces lung inflammation, lowering the cellular infiltrate and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and KC, which were followed by decreased mucus production, collagen accumulation and tissue damage. These findings seemed to be secondary to the reduction of both NF-κB and NF-AT activation in lung tissues with a concomitant increase in IL-10. In summary, our data suggests that the concomitant use of MSCs + LLLT may be a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD.

  16. Peak medial (but not lateral) hamstring activity is significantly lower during stance phase of running. An EMG investigation using a reduced gravity treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Einarson, Einar; Thomson, Athol; Whiteley, Rodney

    2017-09-01

    The hamstrings are seen to work during late swing phase (presumably to decelerate the extending shank) then during stance phase (presumably stabilizing the knee and contributing to horizontal force production during propulsion) of running. A better understanding of this hamstring activation during running may contribute to injury prevention and performance enhancement (targeting the specific role via specific contraction mode). Twenty active adult males underwent surface EMG recordings of their medial and lateral hamstrings while running on a reduced gravity treadmill. Participants underwent 36 different conditions for combinations of 50%-100% altering bodyweight (10% increments) & 6-16km/h (2km/h increments, i.e.: 36 conditions) for a minimum of 6 strides of each leg (maximum 32). EMG was normalized to the peak value seen for each individual during any stride in any trial to describe relative activation levels during gait. Increasing running speed effected greater increases in EMG for all muscles than did altering bodyweight. Peak EMG for the lateral hamstrings during running trials was similar for both swing and stance phase whereas the medial hamstrings showed an approximate 20% reduction during stance compared to swing phase. It is suggested that the lateral hamstrings work equally hard during swing and stance phase however the medial hamstrings are loaded slightly less every stance phase. Likely this helps explain the higher incidence of lateral hamstring injury. Hamstring injury prevention and rehabilitation programs incorporating running should consider running speed as more potent stimulus for increasing hamstring muscle activation than impact loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of γ (60Co) and β (90Sr) radiations in Chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO-K1): induction of micronuclei and cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Daniella

    2003-01-01

    Among various types of ionising radiation, the beta emitter radionuclides are involved in many sectors of human activity, such as nuclear medicine, nuclear industries and biomedicine, with a consequent increased risk of accidental, occupational or therapeutic exposure. Despite their recognized importance, there is little information about the effect of beta particles at the cellular level when compared to other types of ionizing radiation. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of 90 Sr, a pure, highly energetic beta source, on CHO-K1 cells and to compare them with data obtained with 60 Co. CHO-K1 cells irradiated with different doses (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 Gy) of 60 Co (0.34 Gy.min -1 ) and 90 Sr (0.23 Gy.min -1 ) were processed for analysis of clonogenic death, induction of micronuclei (MN) and necrotic and apoptotic death. The survival curves obtained for both types of radiation were better fitted by the linear-quadratic model and were similar. However, the cytogenetic results showed that both the proportion of micronucleated cells and the magnitude of radioinduced lesions demonstrated by the analysis of MN distribution were significantly higher in cells irradiated with 60 Co than in cells irradiated with 90 Sr, whereas 90 Sr was more damaging than 60 Co in terms of cell death induction. Necrosis was the major type of death observed in CHO-K1 cells. The data obtained suggest that the low incidence of micronucleated cells after exposure to 90 Sr may be a consequence of selective elimination of severely damaged cells from the population by the necrotic process at a higher rate than observed with 60 Co exposure. The data obtained also demonstrated the need to use several parameters for a better estimate of cellular sensitivity to the action of genotoxic agents, which would be important in terms of radiobiology, oncology and therapeutics. (author)

  18. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges and micronuclei in peripheral lymphocytes of pharmacists before and after working with cytostatic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, S; Norppa, H; Järventaus, H; Kyyrönen, P; Ahonen, M; Lehtomäki, J; Sainio, H; Sorsa, M

    1994-12-01

    The frequencies of chromosome aberrations, SCEs and micronuclei (cytokinesis-block method) in blood lymphocytes were compared among six nonsmoking female pharmacists before and after 1 year of working with cytostatic drugs. All possible precautions were taken to avoid exposure to cytostatics, including proper protective clothing and a monitored, negative-pressured working environment with vertical laminar flow cabinet. As referents, an age-matched group of six nonsmoking female hospital workers not dealing with cytostatics was simultaneously sampled twice with the same time interval. The pharmacists showed a marginally higher mean frequency of SCEs/cell (6.3; P = 0.049) after the working period than 1 year earlier (5.8). On the other hand, the referents, with no obvious exposure, had a higher mean number of cells with chromatid-type aberrations, gaps excluded, in the second sampling (2.0%; P = 0.048) than in the first one (0.5%). In addition, a slight (P = 0.055) trend towards a higher frequency of micronucleated binucleate cells was observed in the second sampling for both the exposed and control subjects. As such findings suggest technical variation in the cytogenetic parameters, the small difference observed in SCEs for the pharmacists between the two samplings was probably not related to the cytostatics exposure. No statistically significant differences were observed for any of the cytogenetic parameters in comparisons between the pharmacists and the referents. The findings suggest that caution should be exercised in comparing results obtained from two different samplings in prospective cytogenetic studies.

  19. The chemical digestion of Ti6Al7Nb scaffolds produced by Selective Laser Melting reduces significantly ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junka, Adam F; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Secewicz, Anna; Pawlak, Andrzej; Smutnicka, Danuta; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna; Chlebus, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In our previous work we reported the impact of hydrofluoric and nitric acid used for chemical polishing of Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds on decrease of the number of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm forming cells. Herein, we tested impact of the aforementioned substances on biofilm of Gram-negative microorganism, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, dangerous pathogen responsible for plethora of implant-related infections. The Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds were manufactured using Selective Laser Melting method. Scaffolds were subjected to chemical polishing using a mixture of nitric acid and fluoride or left intact (control group). Pseudomonal biofilm was allowed to form on scaffolds for 24 hours and was removed by mechanical vortex shaking. The number of pseudomonal cells was estimated by means of quantitative culture and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The presence of nitric acid and fluoride on scaffold surfaces was assessed by means of IR and rentgen spetorscopy. Quantitative data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test (P ≤ 0.05). Our results indicate that application of chemical polishing correlates with significant drop of biofilm-forming pseudomonal cells on the manufactured Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds ( p = 0.0133, Mann-Whitney test) compared to the number of biofilm-forming cells on non-polished scaffolds. As X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of fluoride and nitrogen on the surface of scaffold, we speculate that drop of biofilm forming cells may be caused by biofilm-supressing activity of these two elements.

  20. Nuclear energy significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2006-01-01

    This article is devoted to nuclear energy, to its acceptability, compatibility and sustainability. Nuclear energy is non-dispensable part of energy sources with vast innovation potential. The safety of nuclear energy, radioactive waste deposition, and prevention of risk from misuse of nuclear material have to be very seriously adjudged and solved. Nuclear energy is one of the ways how to decrease the contamination of atmosphere with carbon dioxide and it solves partially also the problem of global increase of temperature and climate changes. Given are the main factors responsible for the renaissance of nuclear energy. (author)

  1. The use of unstable chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in the individual biomonitoring: a comparative study; Emprego das aberracoes cromossomicas instaveis e micronucleos no biomonitoramento individual: estudo comparativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Thiago de Salazar e

    2005-02-15

    Biodosimetry is based on the investigation of radioinduced biological effects in order to correlate them with the absorbed dose. The quantification of unstable chromosome aberrations and micronuclei, in peripheral blood lymphocytes, are two methods commonly used in biodosimetry. In this context, the aim of this research was to compare these methods in the biomonitoring of health care professionals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. In parallel, the technique of C-banding was evaluated for quality control of unstable chromosome aberrations analyses. Thus, samples of peripheral blood from health care professionals of three hospitals from Recife (Brazil) were collected, and the lymphocytes cultures were carried out based on the cytogenetic classical technique. It was pointed out that analysis of micronuclei is faster than the unstable chromosome aberrations ones, which suggests the use of the former in preliminary evaluation in cases of suspected accidental exposure. C-banding technique was efficient, as confirmatory test, in the identification of dicentrics and rings during the analyses of unstable chromosome aberrations, being able to be applied in the quality control in biodosimetry. The comparison between the individual work conditions with the frequencies of unstable aberrations and micronuclei obtained from cytogenetic analysis, resulted in the change of behavior of the professionals involved in this research, with a better observance of the radioprotection standards. (author)

  2. Micronuclei Formation and 8-Hydroxy-2-Deoxyguanosine Enzyme Detection in Ovarian Tissues After Radiofrequency Exposure at 1800 MHz in Adult Sprague–Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saeed Hammoodi Alchalabi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Human fertility and its correlation to ovarian function and cytological changes are linked to ever-increasing use of mobile phones. Wireless communications have become a critical topic of concern because of an increasing number of studies in this field with controversial outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effect of GSM frequency at 1800 MHz on ovarian function. Sixty female Sprague–Dawley rats were distributed over six groups (control group and the exposure groups with whole-body exposure for 2 h/day, 7 days/week for 15, 30 and 60 continuous days. The study investigated the oxidative stress, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine enzyme, micronuclei formation and histopathological changes in ovarian tissue. The results showed an induced oxidative stress via an increase in lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity. There was also an elevation in the 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine enzyme and an increased rate of micronuclei formation in ovarian tissues of exposed animals with 60-day exposure compared with control animals. Cytological changes were recorded such as micronuclei formation, vacuolation, degeneration and impaired folliculogenesis. The study suggests that GSM frequency at 1800 MHz was negatively impacted on female reproductive performances mediated by oxidative stress induction and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine formation leading to overall impaired ovarian function.

  3. Genotoxic effects of silver amalgam and composite restorations: Micronuclei-Based cohort and case–control study in oral exfoliated cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jeslin Mary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A huge number of people carry dental fillings which contain either mercury-based amalgam and/or the recently introduced methacrylate-based resins. It has been shown that both these materials are known to be leached into the oral cavity and induce genotoxic alterations in the buccal mucosal cells. Because of its low cost and ease of manipulation, dental amalgam is still widely used as a restorative material in developing countries. The health risks associated with the components of this restorative material has always been a matter of concern. The present study was designed to assess the frequency of micronuclei (MN in oral mucosal cells as it is a promising tool for studying the genotoxic effect of clastogenic agents on them. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the genotoxic effects of silver amalgam and composite restorations by measuring the mean number of MN in oral exfoliated cells. Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective cohort study which includes a study group consisting of 110 participants. The study sample was equally divided into 55 participants requiring only amalgam restoration and 55 participants requiring only composite restoration in any permanent molar teeth. The same participants before the restoration formed the control group. Smears were obtained from each patient before and 10 days after restoration and were stained with DNA-specific Feulgen stain. The number of cells containing MN out of 500 cells were counted and recorded. After the evaluation of the slides, the results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant (P < 0.01 variation in the mean number of MN after the restoration in both amalgam (5.41 ± 1.25 and composite (2.83 ± 0.85 restorations when compared to before the restoration. However, the mean number of MN in composite restoration was significantly less when compared to amalgam restoration. There was also a statistically

  4. DNA damage and micronuclei in parthenogenetic and bisexual Darevskia rock lizards from the areas with different levels of soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Anna; Hovhannisyan, Galina; Sargsyan, Anzhela; Arakelyan, Marine; Minasyan, Seyran; Aroutiounian, Rouben

    2018-06-15

    Natural species are widely used as indicator organisms to estimate of the impact of environmental pollution. Here we present the results of first study of a reliability of parthenogenetic Darevskia аrmeniaca and bisexual Darevskia raddei rock lizards as sentinels for monitoring of environmental genotoxicity. The comet assay and micronucleus test were applied to the lizards sampled in six areas in Armenia and Artsakh with different levels of soil contamination. The results obtained showed a clear relationship between the pollution level of lizards' habitats and the frequency of DNA damage in the comet assay. Low baseline frequency of micronuclei in D. аrmeniaca and D. raddei, however, makes this parameter ineffective for environmental genotoxicity evaluation. The parthenogenetic lizards D. аrmeniaca showed higher sensitivity toward genotoxic pollutions compared with bisexual D. raddei living in the same environment. The correlations between soil content of heavy metals Cr, Cu, Zn, Mo, Pb and DNA damage in D. аrmeniaca and between Cu, As, Mo, Pb and DNA damage in D. raddei were revealed. Overall, the lizards D. raddei and D. аrmeniaca appeared to be sensitive species in detecting soil pollution in natural environment. The application of the comet assay in Darevskia lizard species can be considered as a more appropriate method than a micronucleus test. The use of parthenogenetic lizards D. аrmeniaca as bioindicator will permit to assess the environmental genotoxicity independent of the genetic polymorphism of bisexual species. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Multiple origins of spontaneously arising micronuclei in HeLa cells: Direct evidence from long-term live cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Xiaotang; Zhang Yingyin; Yi Qiyi; Hou Heli; Xu Bo; Chu Liang; Huang Yun; Zhang Wenrui; Fenech, Michael; Shi Qinghua

    2008-01-01

    Although micronuclei (MNi) are extensively used to evaluate genotoxic effects and chromosome instability, the most basic issue regarding their origins has not been completely addressed due to limitations of traditional methods. Recently, long-term live cell imaging was developed to monitor the dynamics of single cell in a real-time and high-throughput manner. In the present study, this state-of-the-art technique was employed to examine spontaneous micronucleus (MN) formation in untreated HeLa cells. We demonstrate that spontaneous MNi are derived from incorrectly aligned chromosomes in metaphase (displaced chromosomes, DCs), lagging chromosomes (LCs) and broken chromosome bridges (CBs) in later mitotic stages, but not nuclear buds in S phase. However, most of bipolar mitoses with DCs (91.29%), LCs (73.11%) and broken CBs (88.93%) did not give rise to MNi. Our data also show directly, for the first time, that MNi could originate spontaneously from (1) MNi already presented in the mother cells; (2) nuclear fragments that appeared during mitosis with CB; and (3) chromosomes being extruded into a minicell which fused with one of the daughter cells later. Quantitatively, most of MNi originated from LCs (63.66%), DCs (10.97%) and broken CBs (9.25%). Taken together, these direct evidences show that there are multiple origins for spontaneously arising MNi in HeLa cells and each mechanism contributes to overall MN formation to different extents

  6. Multiple origins of spontaneously arising micronuclei in HeLa cells: Direct evidence from long-term live cell imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao Xiaotang; Zhang Yingyin; Yi Qiyi; Hou Heli; Xu Bo; Chu Liang; Huang Yun; Zhang Wenrui [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Genetics, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Fenech, Michael [CSIRO Human Nutrition, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Shi Qinghua [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Genetics, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)], E-mail: qshi@ustc.edu.cn

    2008-11-10

    Although micronuclei (MNi) are extensively used to evaluate genotoxic effects and chromosome instability, the most basic issue regarding their origins has not been completely addressed due to limitations of traditional methods. Recently, long-term live cell imaging was developed to monitor the dynamics of single cell in a real-time and high-throughput manner. In the present study, this state-of-the-art technique was employed to examine spontaneous micronucleus (MN) formation in untreated HeLa cells. We demonstrate that spontaneous MNi are derived from incorrectly aligned chromosomes in metaphase (displaced chromosomes, DCs), lagging chromosomes (LCs) and broken chromosome bridges (CBs) in later mitotic stages, but not nuclear buds in S phase. However, most of bipolar mitoses with DCs (91.29%), LCs (73.11%) and broken CBs (88.93%) did not give rise to MNi. Our data also show directly, for the first time, that MNi could originate spontaneously from (1) MNi already presented in the mother cells; (2) nuclear fragments that appeared during mitosis with CB; and (3) chromosomes being extruded into a minicell which fused with one of the daughter cells later. Quantitatively, most of MNi originated from LCs (63.66%), DCs (10.97%) and broken CBs (9.25%). Taken together, these direct evidences show that there are multiple origins for spontaneously arising MNi in HeLa cells and each mechanism contributes to overall MN formation to different extents.

  7. Pre-Treatment Deep Curettage Can Significantly Reduce Tumour Thickness in Thick Basal Cell Carcinoma While Maintaining a Favourable Cosmetic Outcome When Used in Combination with Topical Photodynamic Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.; Mork, C.; Foss, O. A.

    2011-01-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has limitations in the treatment of thick skin tumours. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of pre-PDT deep curettage on tumour thickness in thick (≥2 mm) basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Additionally, 3-month treatment outcome and change of tumour thickness from diagnosis to treatment were investigated. At diagnosis, mean tumour thickness was 2.3 mm (range 2.0-4.0). Pre- and post-curettage biopsies were taken from each tumour prior to PDT. Of 32 verified BCCs, tumour thickness was reduced by 50% after deep curettage (ρ≤0.001) . Mean tumour thickness was also reduced from diagnosis to treatment. At 3-month followup, complete tumour response was found in 93% and the cosmetic outcome was rated excellent or good in 100% of cases. In conclusion, deep curettage significantly reduces BCC thickness and may with topical PDT provide a favourable clinical and cosmetic short-term outcome.

  8. Dose response of micronuclei induced by combination radiation of α-particles and γ-rays in human lymphoblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ruiping; He, Mingyuan; Dong, Chen; Xie, Yuexia; Ye, Shuang; Yuan, Dexiao [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► α-Particle induced MN had a biphasic dose–response followed by a bystander model. ► MN dose–response of α- and γ-combination IR was similar to that of α-particle. ► α-Particles followed by γ-rays yielded a synergistic effect on MN induction. ► Low dose γ-rays triggered antagonistic and adaptive responses against α-particle. - Abstract: Combination radiation is a real situation of both nuclear accident exposure and space radiation environment, but its biological dosimetry is still not established. This study investigated the dose–response of micronuclei (MN) induction in lymphocyte by irradiating HMy2.CIR lymphoblast cells with α-particles, γ-rays, and their combinations. Results showed that the dose–response of MN induced by γ-rays was well-fitted with the linear-quadratic model. But for α-particle irradiation, the MN induction had a biphasic phenomenon containing a low dose hypersensitivity characteristic and its dose response could be well-stimulated with a state vector model where radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) was involved. For the combination exposure, the dose response of MN was similar to that of α-irradiation. However, the yield of MN was closely related to the sequence of irradiations. When the cells were irradiated with α-particles at first and then γ-rays, a synergistic effect of MN induction was observed. But when the cells were irradiated with γ-rays followed by α-particles, an antagonistic effect of MN was observed in the low dose range although this combination radiation also yielded a synergistic effect at high doses. When the interval between two irradiations was extended to 4 h, a cross-adaptive response against the other irradiation was induced by a low dose of γ-rays but not α-particles.

  9. Stress induced by premature chromatin condensation triggers chromosome shattering and chromothripsis at DNA sites still replicating in micronuclei or multinucleate cells when primary nuclei enter mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzoudi, Georgia I; Karakosta, Maria; Pantelias, Antonio; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Karachristou, Ioanna; Pantelias, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Combination of next-generation DNA sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism array analyses and bioinformatics has revealed the striking phenomenon of chromothripsis, described as complex genomic rearrangements acquired in a single catastrophic event affecting one or a few chromosomes. Via an unproven mechanism, it is postulated that mechanical stress causes chromosome shattering into small lengths of DNA, which are then randomly reassembled by DNA repair machinery. Chromothripsis is currently examined as an alternative mechanism of oncogenesis, in contrast to the present paradigm that considers a stepwise development of cancer. While evidence for the mechanism(s) underlying chromosome shattering during cancer development remains elusive, a number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain chromothripsis, including ionizing radiation, DNA replication stress, breakage-fusion-bridge cycles, micronuclei formation and premature chromosome compaction. In the present work, we provide experimental evidence on the mechanistic basis of chromothripsis and on how chromosomes can get locally shattered in a single catastrophic event. Considering the dynamic nature of chromatin nucleoprotein complex, capable of rapid unfolding, disassembling, assembling and refolding, we first show that chromatin condensation at repairing or replicating DNA sites induces the mechanical stress needed for chromosome shattering to ensue. Premature chromosome condensation is then used to visualize the dynamic nature of interphase chromatin and demonstrate that such mechanical stress and chromosome shattering can also occur in chromosomes within micronuclei or asynchronous multinucleate cells when primary nuclei enter mitosis. Following an aberrant mitosis, chromosomes could find themselves in the wrong place at the wrong time so that they may undergo massive DNA breakage and rearrangement in a single catastrophic event. Specifically, our results support the hypothesis that premature chromosome

  10. Micronuclei frequencies in lymphocytes and cervical cells of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengin Karataylı

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine micronucleus (MN frequencies in exfoliated cervical cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients with PCOS and 11 healthy control patients were included in the study. Cervical smears and peripheral blood were collected from all patients. Specimens were analyzed for MN frequencies and compared between the groups. In addition to MN, other nuclear anomalies connected with both genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were evaluated. Results: The MN frequencies in cervical smear and peripheral blood lymphocytes were compared in patients with PCOS and normal controls. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes (p=0.239. The mean MN scores in exfoliated cervical cells of patients with PCOS and normal controls were 1.19±0.57 and 0.74±0.34, respectively. The difference regarding micronucleus frequencies in cervical cells was statistically significant between the groups (p=0.032. Conclusion: Although study group is small, our study results support that there is an increased micronucleus frequency in cervical exfoliated cells of PCOS patients; this is a determinant of genetic hazard in the disease.

  11. Induction of micronuclei by X radiation and various chemical agents in red blood cells of Pleurodeles waltl. Uptake, release and excretion of one of them: benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinfeld, S.

    1983-11-01

    The first part of the study is concerned with the effects of X radiation and of various substances dissolved in the breeding water (carbaryl, N-nitrosocarbaryl, benzo(a)pyrene, formol, cafeine, colchicine...) on the formation of micronuclei in red blood cells of Pleurodele larvae. The curves of the dose-effect relationships and of the kinetics of micronuclei formation are established for X radiation and benzo(a)pyrene. In the second part, a scintigraphic study concerning benzo(a)pyrene uptake, release and excretion by larvae, is presented. This study enables the dose-effect curve and the kinetics of micronuclei formation for this substance, to be interpreted. This study must allow the development of a cytogenetic test for the detection of radiomimetic substances in aqueous medium. Pleurodele is proposed as a new animal for the study of genetic toxicology [fr

  12. Treatment with a belly-board device significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated and results in low acute toxicity in adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer: results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Joseph; Fitzpatrick, Kathryn; Horan, Gail; McCloy, Roisin; Buckney, Steve; O'Neill, Louise; Faul, Clare

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine whether treatment prone on a belly-board significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated in women receiving adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer, and to prospectively study acute small bowel toxicity using an accepted recording instrument. Material and methods: Thirty-two gynecologic patients underwent simulation with CT scanning supine and prone. Small bowel was delineated on every CT slice, and treatment was prone on the belly-board using 3-5 fields-typically Anterior, Right and Left Lateral, plus or minus Lateral Boosts. Median prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy and all treatments were delivered in 1.8 Gy fractions. Concomitant Cisplatin was administered in 13 patients with cervical carcinoma. Comparison of small bowel dose-volumes was made between supine and prone, with each subject acting as their own matched pair. Acute small bowel toxicity was prospectively measured using the Common Toxicity Criteria: Version 2.0. Results: Treatment prone on the belly-board significantly reduced the volume of small bowel receiving ≥100; ≥95; ≥90; and ≥80% of the prescribed dose, but not ≥50%. This was found whether volume was defined in cubic centimeters or % of total small bowel volume. Of 29 evaluable subjects, 2 (7%) experienced 1 episode each of grade 3 diarrhoea. All other toxicity events were grade 2 or less and comprised diarrhoea (59%), abdominal pain or cramping (48%), nausea (38%), anorexia (17%), vomiting (10%). There were no Grade 4 events and no treatment days were lost due to toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment prone on a belly-board device results in significant small bowel sparing, during adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. The absence of Grade 4 events or Treatment Days Lost compares favorably with the published literature

  13. Design and methods of the Echo WISELY (Will Inappropriate Scenarios for Echocardiography Lessen SignificantlY) study: An investigator-blinded randomized controlled trial of education and feedback intervention to reduce inappropriate echocardiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, R Sacha; Ivers, Noah; Yin, Cindy X; Myers, Dorothy; Nesbitt, Gillian; Edwards, Jeremy; Yared, Kibar; Wadhera, Rishi; Wu, Justina C; Wong, Brian; Hansen, Mark; Weinerman, Adina; Shadowitz, Steven; Johri, Amer; Farkouh, Michael; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Udell, Jacob A; Rambihar, Sherryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Hall, Judith; Thorpe, Kevin E; Rakowski, Harry; Weiner, Rory B

    2015-08-01

    Appropriate use criteria (AUC) for transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were developed to address concerns regarding inappropriate use of TTE. A previous pilot study suggests that an educational and feedback intervention can reduce inappropriate TTEs ordered by physicians in training. It is unknown if this type of intervention will be effective when targeted at attending level physicians in a variety of clinical settings. The aim of this international, multicenter study is to evaluate the hypothesis that an AUC-based educational and feedback intervention will reduce the proportion of inappropriate echocardiograms ordered by attending physicians in the ambulatory environment. In an ongoing multicentered, investigator-blinded, randomized controlled trial across Canada and the United States, cardiologists and primary care physicians practicing in the ambulatory setting will be enrolled. The intervention arm will receive (1) a lecture outlining the AUC and most recent available evidence highlighting appropriate use of TTE, (2) access to the American Society of Echocardiography mobile phone app, and (3) individualized feedback reports e-mailed monthly summarizing TTE ordering behavior including information on inappropriate TTEs and brief explanations of the inappropriate designation. The control group will receive no education on TTE appropriate use and order TTEs as usual practice. The Echo WISELY (Will Inappropriate Scenarios for Echocardiography Lessen Significantly in an education RCT) study is the first multicenter randomized trial of an AUC-based educational intervention. The study will examine whether an education and feedback intervention will reduce the rate of outpatient inappropriate TTEs ordered by attending level cardiologists and primary care physicians (www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02038101). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A study of the process of synchronisation and micronucleation in Beta vulgaris and the monitoring of an isolation procedure for micro-nuclei and micro-protoplasts by confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Famelaer, I.; Verhoeven, H.A.; Dijkhuis, P.; Ramulu, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The process of synchronization and micro-nuclei induction in a suspension culture of Beta vulgaris, was induced by the sequential treatment with the DNA-synthesis inhibitor aphidicolin (30 mu M, 24 h) and the spindle-toxin amiprophos-methyl (32 mu M, 24 h). Mitotic arrest of divisions, spreading of

  15. Quantification of micronuclei in blood lymphocytes of patients exposed to gamma radiation for dose absorbed assessment; Quantificacao de micronucleos em linfocitos de pacientes expostas a radiacao gama para a avaliacao da dose absorvida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Isvania Maria Serafim da Silva

    2003-02-15

    Dose assessment in an important step to evaluate biological effects as a result of individual exposure to ionizing radiation. The use of cytogenetic dosimetry based on the quantification of micronuclei in lymphocytes is very important to complement physical dosimetry, since the measurement of absorbed dose cannot be always performed. In this research, the quantification of micronuclei was carried out in order to evaluate absorbed dose as a result of radiotherapy with {sup 60}Co, using peripheral blood samples from 5 patients with cervical uterine cancer. For this purpose, an aliquot of whole blood from the individual patients was added in culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with fetal calf serum and phytohaemagglutinin. The culture was incubated for 44 hours. Henceforth, cytochalasin B was added to block the dividing lymphocytes in cytokinesis. The culture was returned to the incubator for further of 28 hours. Thus, cells were harvested, processed and analyzed. Values obtained considering micronuclei frequency after pelvis irradiation with absorption of 0,08 Gy and 1,8 Gy were, respectively, 0,0021 and 0,052. These results are in agreement with some recent researches that provided some standard values related to micronuclei frequency induced by gamma radiation exposure in different exposed areas for the human body. The results presented in this report emphasizes biological dosimetry as an important tool for dose assessment of either total or partial-body exposure to ionizing radiation, mainly in retrospective dose investigation. (author)

  16. Differential induction of micronuclei in peripheral lymphocytes and exfoliated urothelial cells of workers exposed to 4,4'-methylenebis-(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA) and bitumen fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, E B; Edwards, J W

    2005-01-01

    Cytogenetic end-points used to estimate risk of genotoxic events in workers include the measurement of micronuclei (MN) in exfoliated cells, lymphocytes, and other tissues. Micronuclei are chromatin-containing bodies outside the cell nucleus resulting from contaminant-induced DNA damage. A review of 71 reports of human genotoxic responses to chemical or physical agents published between 1999 and 2001 revealed that 14% of such studies measured genotoxicity endpoints in specific target tissues relevant to the site of disease for the agent examined; 18% used endpoints in surrogate or non-target tissues but considered the relations between endpoints in surrogate and disease target tissues, and 68% measured genotoxicity endpoints in accessible tissues without reference to specific targets for disease. Methylenebis-(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), used in polyurethane manufacture, is a suspected bladder carcinogen. Bitumen, used in road surfacing, contains skin and lung carcinogens. In this study, we aimed to compare genotoxicity in urothelial cells and in lymphocytes of workers exposed to these materials. Twelve men employed in polyurethane manufacture, twelve bitumen road layers, and eighteen hospital stores personnel (controls) were recruited and all provided blood and urine samples on the same day. Blood cultures were prepared using a cytochalasin B-block method. Exfoliated urothelial cells were collected from urine and stained for light microscopy. The number of MN in urothelial cells was higher in MOCA-exposed (14.27 +/- 0.56 MN/1000, 9.69 +/- 0.32 MN cells/1000) than in bitumen exposed workers (11.99 +/- 0.65 MN/1000, 8.66 +/- 0.46 MN cells/1000) or in control subjects (6.88 +/- 0.18 MN/1000, 5.17 +/- 0.11 MN cells/1000). Conversely, in lymphocytes, MN were higher in bitumen-exposed (16.24 +/- 0.63 MN/1000, 10.65 +/- 0.24 MN cells/1000) than in MOCA-exposed workers (13.25 +/- 0.48 MN/1000, 8.54 +/- 0.14 MN cells/1000) or in control subjects (9.24 +/- 0.29 MN/ 1000, 5

  17. Left-colon water exchange preserves the benefits of whole colon water exchange at reduced cecal intubation time conferring significant advantage in diagnostic colonoscopy - a prospective, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangping; Luo, Hui; Xiang, Yi; Leung, Felix W; Wang, Limei; Zhang, Linhui; Liu, Zhiguo; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Pan, Yanglin; Guo, Xuegang

    2015-07-01

    Whole-colon water exchange (WWE) reduces insertion pain, increases cecal intubation success and adenoma detection rate, but requires longer insertion time, compared to air insufflation (AI) colonoscopy. We hypothesized that water exchange limited to the left colon (LWE) can speed up insertion with equivalent results. This prospective, randomized controlled study (NCT01735266) allocated patients (18-80 years) to WWE, LWE or AI group (1:1:1). The primary outcome was cecal intubation time. Three hundred subjects were randomized to the WWE (n = 100), LWE (n = 100) or AI group (n = 100). Ninety-four to ninety-five per cent of patients underwent diagnostic colonoscopy. Baseline characteristics were balanced. The median insertion time was shorter in LWE group (4.8 min (95%CI: 3.2-6.2)) than those in WWE (7.5 min (95%CI: 6.0-10.3)) and AI (6.4 min (95%CI: 4.2-9.8)) (both p rates in unsedated patients of the two water exchange methods (WWE 99%, LWE 99%) were significantly higher than that (89.8%) in AI group (p = 0.01). The final success rates were comparable among the three groups after sedation was given. Maximum pain scores and number of patients needing abdominal compression between WWE and LWE groups were comparable, both lower than those in AI group (p higher in WWE group. By preserving the benefits of WWE and reducing insertion time, LWE is appropriate for diagnostic colonoscopy, especially in settings with tight scheduling of patients. The higher PDR in the right colon in WWE group deserves to be further investigated.

  18. Frequency of micronuclei in hepatocytes following X and fast-neutron irradiations--an analysis by a linear-quadratic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Nagata, Y.; Akuta, K.; Abe, M.; Ando, K.; Koike, S.

    1990-01-01

    The usefulness of the micronucleus assay for investigating the radiation response of hepatocytes was examined. The frequency was defined as the ratio of the total number of micronuclei to the number of hepatocytes examined. The dose-response curves were curvilinear after X rays and linear after neutrons. These dose-response curves were analyzed by a linear-quadratic model, frequency = aD + bD2 + c. The a/b ratio was 3.03 +/- 1.26 Gy following X irradiation. This value is within the range of the alpha/beta ratios reported by others using the clonogenic assay of hepatocytes. While the a/b value for neutrons was 24.3 +/- 11.7 Gy, the maximum relative biological effectiveness of neutrons was 6.30 +/- 2.53. Since the micronucleus assay is simple and rapid, it may be a good tool for evaluating the radiation response of hepatocytes in vivo

  19. Policaptil Gel Retard significantly reduces body mass index and hyperinsulinism and may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in obese children and adolescents with family history of obesity and T2DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Lapi, Elisabetta; Seminara, Salvatore; Pelosi, Paola; Del Greco, Paolo; Capirchio, Laura; Strano, Massimo; Giglio, Sabrina; Chiarelli, Francesco; de Martino, Maurizio

    2015-02-15

    Treatments for childhood obesity are critically needed because of the risk of developing co-morbidities, although the interventions are frequently time-consuming, frustrating, difficult, and expensive. We conducted a longitudinal, randomised, clinical study, based on a per protocol analysis, on 133 obese children and adolescents (n = 69 males and 64 females; median age, 11.3 years) with family history of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The patients were divided into three arms: Arm A (n = 53 patients), Arm B (n = 45 patients), and Arm C (n = 35 patients) patients were treated with a low-glycaemic-index (LGI) diet and Policaptil Gel Retard, only a LGI diet, or only an energy-restricted diet (ERD), respectively. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the Matsuda, insulinogenic and disposition indexes were calculated at T0 and after 1 year (T1). At T1, the BMI-SD scores were significantly reduced from 2.32 to 1.80 (p 1) in Arm A and from 2.23 to 1.99 (p 13.2% to 5.6%; p 1) and B (p 1) and B (p obese children and adolescents with family history of obesity and T2DM.

  20. 'BioQuaRT' project: design of a novel in situ protocol for the simultaneous visualisation of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei after irradiation at microbeam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrono, C.; Testa, A.; Monteiro Gil, O.; Giesen, U.; Langner, F.; Rabus, H.; Pinto, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the 'BioQuaRT' (Biologically weighted Quantities in Radiotherapy) project is to develop measurement techniques for characterising charged particle track structure on different length scales, and to correlate at the cellular level the track structure properties with the biological effects of radiation. This multi-scale approach will allow characterisation of the radiation qualities used in radiotherapy and the related biological effects. Charged-particle microbeam facilities were chosen as the platforms for all radiobiology experiments in the 'BioQuaRT' project, because they allow targeting single cells (or compartments of a cell) with a predefined number of ionising particles and correlating the cell-by-cell induced damage with type and energy of the radiation and with the number of ions per cell. Within this project, a novel in situ protocol was developed for the analysis of the mis-repaired and/or unrepaired chromosome damage induced by charged-particle irradiations at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) ion microbeam facility. Among the cytogenetic biomarkers to detect and estimate radiation-induced DNA damage in radiobiology, chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei were chosen. The characteristics of the PTB irradiation system required the design of a special in situ assay: specific irradiation dishes with a base made from a bio-foil 25-μm thick and only 3000-4000 cells seeded and irradiated per dish. This method was developed on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, one of the most commonly used cell lines in radiobiology in vitro experiments. The present protocol allows the simultaneous scoring of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei on the same irradiated dish. Thanks to its versatility, this method could also be extended to other radiobiological applications besides the single-ion microbeam irradiations. (authors)

  1. Measurement of micronuclei and internal dose in mice demonstrates that 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) has no genotoxic potency in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasa, Jenny; Törnqvist, Margareta; Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne

    2017-11-01

    In this study 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD), a compound that appears as contaminant in refined cooking oils, has been studied with regard to genotoxicity in vivo (mice) with simultaneous measurement of internal dose using state-of-the-art methodologies. Genotoxicity (chromosomal aberrations) was measured by flow cytometry with dual lasers as the frequency of micronuclei in erythrocytes in peripheral blood from BalbC mice intraperitoneally exposed to 3-MCPD (0, 50, 75, 100, 125 mg/kg). The internal doses of 3-MCPD in the mice were calculated from N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-valine adducts to hemoglobin (Hb), quantified at very low levels by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Convincing evidence for absence of genotoxic potency in correlation to measured internal doses in the mice was demonstrated, despite relatively high administered doses of 3-MCPD. The results are discussed in relation to another food contaminant that is formed as ester in parallel to 3-MCPD esters in oil processing, i.e. glycidol, which has been studied previously by us in a similar experimental setup. Glycidol has been shown to be genotoxic, and in addition to have ca. 1000 times higher rate of adduct formation compared to that observed for 3-MCPD. The conclusion is that at simultaneous exposure to 3-MCPD and glycidol the concern about genotoxicity would be glycidol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluación genotóxica del D-004, extracto del fruto de Roystonea regia, mediante el ensayo de micronúcleos Genotoxic assessment of D-004, extract from Roystonea regia fruit, by means of micronuclei assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Francisco Arencibia Arrebola

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El D-004 es un extracto lipídico del fruto de la palma real (Roystonea regia, que ha demostrado ser eficaz en prevenir la hiperplasia prostática inducida por testosterona y por fenilefrina en modelos experimentales en ratas. El objetivo fue determinar si el D-004 induce cambios en la frecuencia de aparición de micronúcleos al realizar la administración oral a dosis repetida durante 8 semanas. Se formaron 5 grupos experimentales (7 animales/grupo: un grupo control solvente, tres tratados con D-004 (500, 1 000 y 1 500 mg/kg y un control positivo tratado con ciclofosfamida. No ocurrieron muertes ni se detectaron signos clínicos de toxicidad. No hubo diferencias significativas entre controles y tratados en cuanto a la frecuencia de eritrocitos policromatófilos micronucleados y el índice de citotoxicidad. En conclusión, el D-004 administrado por vía oral a las dosis empleadas no presenta actividad clastogénica ni citotóxica en médula ósea de ratones OF-1 machos in vivo.D-004 is a lipid extract from the real palm fruit (Roystonea regia, which has demonstrated that is effective to prevent prostatic hyperplasia from testosterone and from phenylephrine in rats' experimental models. Aim of this paper was to determine if D-004 provoke changes in appearance frequency of micronuclei during oral administration of repeated doses for 8 weeks. Five experimental groups were created (7animals/group: a solvent control-group, three treated with D-004(500, 1 000, and 1 500 mg/kg, and a positive control-group treated with cyclophosphamide. There were no deaths or clinical signs of toxicity neither significant differences among controls and treated ones as regards the frequency of micronucleated polychromatophils erythrocytes, and the cytotoxic index. In conclusion, D-004 administered per os at doses used has neither clastogenic nor cytotoxic activity in bone marrow male OF-1mice in vivo.

  3. Prostate health index significantly reduced unnecessary prostate biopsies in patients with PSA 2-10 ng/mL and PSA >10 ng/mL: Results from a Multicenter Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Rong; Ye, Dingwei; Qi, Jun; Liu, Fang; Helfand, Brian T; Brendler, Charles B; Conran, Carly A; Packiam, Vignesh; Gong, Jian; Wu, Yishuo; Zheng, Siqun L; Mo, Zengnan; Ding, Qiang; Sun, Yinghao; Xu, Jianfeng

    2017-08-01

    The performance of prostate health index (phi) in predicting prostate biopsy outcomes has been well established for patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values between 2 and 10 ng/mL. However, the performance of phi remains unknown in patients with PSA >10 ng/mL, the vast majority in Chinese biopsy patients. We aimed to assess the ability of phi to predict prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade disease (Gleason Score ≥7) on biopsy in a Chinese population. This is a prospective, observational, multi-center study of consecutive patients who underwent a transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy at four hospitals in Shanghai, China from August 2013 to December 2014. In the cohort of 1538 patients, the detection rate of PCa was 40.2%. phi had a significantly better predictive performance for PCa than total PSA (tPSA). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were 0.90 and 0.79 for phi and tPSA, respectively, P 10 ng/mL (N = 838, 54.5%). The detection rates of PCa were 35.9% and 57.7% in patients with tPSA 10.1-20 and 20.1-50 ng/mL, respectively. The AUCs of phi (0.79 and 0.89, for these two groups, respectively) were also significantly higher than tPSA (0.57 and 0.63, respectively), both P 10 ng/mL). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbofung Carl MF

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent in vitro study indicates that IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the traditional West African food plant Irvingia gabonensis, favorably impacts adipogenesis through a variety of critical metabolic pathways including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of IGOB131, an extract of Irvingia gabonensis, on body weight and associated metabolic parameters in overweight human volunteers. Methods The study participants comprised of 102 healthy, overweight and/or obese volunteers (defined as BMI > 25 kg/m2 randomly divided into two groups. The groups received on a daily basis, either 150 mg of IGOB131 or matching placebo in a double blinded fashion, 30–60 minutes before lunch and dinner. At baseline, 4, 8 and 10 weeks of the study, subjects were evaluated for changes in anthropometrics and metabolic parameters to include fasting lipids, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and leptin. Results Significant improvements in body weight, body fat, and waist circumference as well as plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and leptin levels were observed in the IGOB131 group compared with the placebo group. Conclusion Irvingia gabonensis administered 150 mg twice daily before meals to overweight and/or obese human volunteers favorably impacts body weight and a variety of parameters characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. This is the first double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial regarding the anti-obesity and lipid profile modulating effects of an Irvingia gabonensis extract. The positive clinical results, together with our previously published mechanisms of gene expression modulation related to key metabolic pathways in lipid metabolism, provide impetus for much larger clinical studies. Irvingia gabonensis extract may prove to be a useful tool in dealing with the

  5. Effect of dose rate on residual γ-H2AX levels and frequency of micronuclei in X-irradiated mouse lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, H C; Shuryak, I; Taveras, M; Bertucci, A; Perrier, J R; Chen, C; Elliston, C D; Johnson, G W; Smilenov, L B; Amundson, S A; Brenner, D J

    2015-03-01

    The biological risks associated with low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation exposures are not yet well defined. To assess the risk related to DNA damage, we compared the yields of two established biodosimetry end points, γ-H2AX and micronuclei (MNi), in peripheral mouse blood lymphocytes after prolonged in vivo exposure to LDR X rays (0.31 cGy/min) vs. acute high-dose-rate (HDR) exposure (1.03 Gy/min). C57BL/6 mice were total-body irradiated with 320 kVP X rays with doses of 0, 1.1, 2.2 and 4.45 Gy. Residual levels of total γ-H2AX fluorescence in lymphocytes isolated 24 h after the start of irradiation were assessed using indirect immunofluorescence methods. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used to determine apoptotic cell frequency in lymphocytes sampled at 24 h. Curve fitting analysis suggested that the dose response for γ-H2AX yields after acute exposures could be described by a linear dependence. In contrast, a linear-quadratic dose-response shape was more appropriate for LDR exposure (perhaps reflecting differences in repair time after different LDR doses). Dose-rate sparing effects (P effect across the dose range 24 h or 7 days post exposure. In conclusion, the γ-H2AX biomarker showed higher sensitivity to measure dose-rate effects after low-dose LDR X rays compared to MNi formation; however, confounding factors such as variable repair times post exposure, increased cell killing and cell cycle block likely contributed to the yields of MNi with accumulating doses of ionizing radiation.

  6. Geospatial analysis of residential proximity to open-pit coal mining areas in relation to micronuclei frequency, particulate matter concentration, and elemental enrichment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Arteaga-Pertuz, Marcia; Soto, José Salvador; Espitia-Pérez, Pedro; Salcedo-Arteaga, Shirley; Pastor-Sierra, Karina; Galeano-Páez, Claudia; Brango, Hugo; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João A P

    2018-05-03

    During coal surface mining, several activities such as drilling, blasting, loading, and transport produce large quantities of particulate matter (PM) that is directly emitted into the atmosphere. Occupational exposure to this PM has been associated with an increase of DNA damage, but there is a scarcity of data examining the impact of these industrial operations in cytogenetic endpoints frequency and cancer risk of potentially exposed surrounding populations. In this study, we used a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) methods to perform a spatial and statistical analysis to explore whether exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 10 pollution, and additional factors, including the enrichment of the PM with inorganic elements, contribute to cytogenetic damage in residents living in proximity to an open-pit coal mining area. Results showed a spatial relationship between exposure to elevated concentrations of PM 2.5, PM 10 and micronuclei frequency in binucleated (MNBN) and mononucleated (MNMONO) cells. Active pits, disposal, and storage areas could be identified as the possible emission sources of combustion elements. Mining activities were also correlated with increased concentrations of highly enriched elements like S, Cu and Cr in the atmosphere, corroborating its role in the inorganic elements pollution around coal mines. Elements enriched in the PM 2.5 fraction contributed to increasing of MNBN but seems to be more related to increased MNMONO frequencies and DNA damage accumulated in vivo. The combined use of GIS and IDW methods could represent an important tool for monitoring potential cancer risk associated to dynamically distributed variables like the PM. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Failure of antimony trioxide to induce micronuclei or chromosomal aberrations in rat bone-marrow after sub-chronic oral dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David; Whitwell, James; Deyo, James; Serex, Tessa

    2007-03-05

    Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3, CAS 1309-64-4) is widely used as a flame retardant synergist in a number of household products, as a fining agent in glass manufacture, and as a catalyst in the manufacture of various types of polyester plastics. It does not induce point mutations in bacteria or mammalian cells, but is able to induce chromosomal aberrations (CA) in cultured cells in vitro. Although no CA or micronuclei (MN) have been induced after acute oral dosing of mice, repeated oral dosing for 14 or 21 days resulted in increased CA in one report, but did not result in increased MN in another. In order to further investigate its in vivo genotoxicity, Sb2O3 was dosed orally to groups of rats for 21 days at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg day. There were no clinical signs of toxicity in the Sb2O3-exposed animals except for some reductions in body-weight gain in the top dose group. Toxicokinetic measurements in a separate study confirmed bone-marrow exposure, and at higher levels than would have been achieved by single oral dosing. Large numbers of cells were scored for CA (600 metaphases/sex group) and MN (12,000 PCE/sex group) but frequencies of CA or MN in Sb2O3-treated rats were very similar to controls, and not biologically or statistically different, at all doses. These results provide further indication that Sb2O3 is not genotoxic to the bone marrow of rodents after 21 days of oral administration at high doses close to the maximum tolerated dose.

  8. Evaluation of micronuclei in mice bone marrow and antioxidant systems in erythrocytes exposed to α-amanitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, B; Lopaczyńska, D; Kowalczyk, E; Skośkiewicz, J; Witczak, M; Majczyk, M; Grabowicz, W; Ferenc, T

    2013-03-01

    α-Amanitin, the main toxic substance from mushroom species (Amanita genus), blocks the activity of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in mammalian cells causing inhibition of transcription and subsequent synthesis of structural and enzymatic proteins. It has been postulated that α-amanitin generates the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration. The micronucleus (MN) test was used on an animal experimental model to evaluate possible potential genotoxic effect of α-amanitin on mice bone marrow cells. At the same time the activity of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were investigated in the lysate of mice erythrocytes. α-Amanitin was administered intraperitoneally at the doses: 0.1, 0.15, and 0.25 mg/kg bw (LD(50) for mice) 48 h prior to sacrification. A statistically significant increase of SOD activity was observed in the hemolysate for all the investigated α-amanitin doses as compared to the negative control (p activity for α-amanitin doses 0.1 and 0.15 mg/kg was higher in comparison to the negative control but the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). However, for the dose 0.25 mg/kg the activity of CAT was statistically significantly higher (p  0.05). A statistically significant increase of mean values of MN percent was found in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) as compared to the negative control for α-amanitin dose 0.1 and 0.25 mg/kg (p  0.1). The observed disturbances in the activity of the examined antioxidant enzymes in cells exposed in vivo to α-amanitin suggest indirect genotoxic effect of α-amanitin through ROS generation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habits) on the spontaneous and radiation induced micronuclei frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Nasazzi, N.; Heredia, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human populations for environmental or occupational exposure to genotoxic agents, particularly ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for assessing radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. To further define the use of this assay in Biological Dosimetry, a study to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habit) on the spontaneous and radiation induced MN frequencies was performed. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 healthy donors aged between 4 and 62 years. On the basis of their smoking habit they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with γ rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R 2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed and also a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was obtained (R 2 = 0.86) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence MN variability significantly but there was a greater dispersion in the results for females when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking donors to non smoking donors supports the convenience of taking into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposure to γ rays for doses below 2 Gy. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Induction of micronuclei by 2-hydroxypyridine in water and elimination of solution genotoxicity by UVC (254 nm) photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoutelis, Charalambos G.; Vlastos, Dimitris; Kortsinidou, Marianna C.; Theodoridis, Ioannis T.; Papadaki, Maria I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► 2-Hydroxypyridine (2-HPY) is the major metabolite of 2-halogenated pyridines photolysis. ► We examine the genotoxicity of 2-HPY in cultured human lymphocytes applying the micronucleus assay. ► 2-HPY was found to be genotoxic. ► Aqueous solutions of 2-HPY were irradiated by UV at 254 nm. ► Solution genotoxicity can be completely removed after prolonged phototreatment. - Abstract: 2-Hydroxypyridine (2-HPY) is a major first-stage product formed upon the photolytic destruction of 2-halogenated pyridines. Genotoxicity of 2-HPY in water was studied as a function of concentration. Aqueous solutions of 2-HPY were irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) at 254 nm. 2-HPY concentration, solution total organic carbon (TOC) concentration and solution genotoxicity were measured as a function of treatment time and their profile as a function of time is presented in this work. 2-HPY was found to be genotoxic at all concentrations in the range of 5–400 μg ml −1 . 2-HPY mineralises completely upon prolonged UV irradiation. All untreated and irradiated solution samples, taken at different photo-treatment times, were tested in cultured human lymphocytes applying the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The genotoxicity of the solution was reduced near to the control level after prolonged UV irradiation.

  11. Treatment of mice with a novel antineoplastic agent taxol before irradiation increases the frequency of micronuclei in the bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Nayak, Vijayashree

    1995-01-01

    The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE) and the normochromatic erythrocytes (MNCE) and polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (P/N ratio) was studied at 12, 24 and 36 h postirradiation in the bone marrow of male mice treated or not with taxol before exposure to 0-4 Gy of 60 Co gamma radiation. The frequency of MPCE increased with the increase in radiation dose in a dose-related manner in the irradiated control group. A peak frequency of MPCE was observed at 24 h postirradiation in irradiated control group. The pattern of increase in MNCE was similar to that of MPCE except that a highest number of MNCE was scored at 36 h postirradiation. Taxol administration to animals before irradiation resulted in a significant elevation in the frequency of MPCE and MNCE at all the postirradiation time periods studied. This increase was dose related as observed in the irradiated control group. Irradiation resulted in a dose-dependent decline in the P/N ratio at all the postirradiation time periods studied. The P/N ratio was significantly lower in the taxol+irradiated group compared to the irradiated control group at all postirradiation time periods. A maximum decline in P/N ratio was observed at 36 h postirradiation for both irradiated control and taxol+irradiated groups. The dose response for MPCE, MNCE and P/N ratio was linear quadratic for both the irradiated and taxol+irradiated groups

  12. A big oil company's approach to significantly reduce fatal incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peuscher, W.; Groeneweg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Within the Shell Group of companies (Shell), keeping people safe at work is a deeply held value and the company actively pursues the goal of no harm to people. Shell actively works to build a culture where every employee and contractor takes responsibility for making this goal possible - it is

  13. Significantly reducing registration time in IGRT using graphics processing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Karsten Østergaard; Denis de Senneville, Baudouin; Tanderup, Kari

    2008-01-01

    respiration phases in a free breathing volunteer and 41 anatomical landmark points in each image series. The registration method used is a multi-resolution GPU implementation of the 3D Horn and Schunck algorithm. It is based on the CUDA framework from Nvidia. Results On an Intel Core 2 CPU at 2.4GHz each...... registration took 30 minutes. On an Nvidia Geforce 8800GTX GPU in the same machine this registration took 37 seconds, making the GPU version 48.7 times faster. The nine image series of different respiration phases were registered to the same reference image (full inhale). Accuracy was evaluated on landmark...

  14. Ultraviolet-induced formation of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange in cultured fibroblasts of patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, M.; Boehm, A.O.; Oldigs, M.; Weichenthal, M.; Reimers, U.; Schmidt-Preuss, U.; Breitbart, E.W.; Ruediger, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Genetically enhanced sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) radiation may play an important role in the development of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). This was studied in cultured fibroblasts of 26 CMM patients and controls by micronucleus (MN) test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) after UV irradiation (375 J/m2). Sister chromatid exchange and MN formation were used as parameters to detect the UV-induced genotoxic damage in the individual cell strains. We found that the UV-induced level of MN was significantly increased in CMM patients (p = 0.0005), being most pronounced in the familial cases (p = 0.0001). Ultraviolet-induced SCE was also elevated in CMM patients (p = 0.001), but there was no difference between familial and nonfamilial cases. The present findings indicate that genetic predisposition contributes to the development of CMM in a subset of CMM patients and may be due to an enhanced susceptibility to UV light

  15. Effects on micronuclei formation of 60-Hz electromagnetic field exposure with ionizing radiation, hydrogen peroxide, or c-Myc overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yeung Bae; Kang, Ga-Young; Lee, Jae Seon; Choi, Jong-Il; Lee, Ju-Woon; Hong, Seung-Cheol; Myung, Sung Ho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a possible correlation between exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and cancer. However, this correlation has yet to be definitively confirmed by epidemiological studies. The principal objective of this study was to assess the effects of 60 Hz magnetic fields in a normal cell line system, and particularly in combination with various external factors, via micronucleus (MN) assays. Mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH3T3 cells and human lung fibroblast WI-38 cells were exposed for 4 h to a 60 Hz, 1 mT uniform magnetic field with or without ionizing radiation (IR, 2 Gy), H(2)O(2) (100 μM) and cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-Myc) activation. The results obtained showed no significant differences between the cells exposed to ELF-MF alone and the unexposed cells. Moreover, no synergistic effects were observed when ELF-MF was combined with IR, H(2)O(2), and c-Myc activation. Our results demonstrate that ELF-MF did not enhance MN frequency by IR, H(2)O(2) and c-Myc activation.

  16. Micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds induced in human lymphocytes by the fungicide signum and its active ingredients (boscalid and pyraclostrobin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çayır, Akin; Coskun, Munevver; Coskun, Mahmut

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the Signum fungicide and its active ingredients (boscalid and pyraclostrobin) on human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs), nuclear bud (NBUDs) formations, and the cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI) were evaluated in treated lymphocytes in Go (cells were treated and then kept in culture without stimulation for 24 h) and proliferation phases (cells were treated after 44 h culture in medium containing phytohemagglutinin). MN formation in lymphocytes treated in G0 statistically increased at doses of 2, 6, and 25 μg/mL signum; 0.5 and 2 μg/mL boscalid; and 0.5, 1.5, and 2 μg/mL pyraclostrobin; while NPB formation increased at a dose of 0.25 μg/mL pyraclostrobin. All concentrations of each fungicide did not statistically increase NBUD formation, while the cytotoxicity increased the dependent on concentration in lymphocytes treated in G0 . Doses of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 3 μg/mL signum; 0.5, 1, and 1.5 μg/mL boscalid; and 0.75 μg/mL pyraclostrobin statistically increased the MN formation in proliferating lymphocytes. NPB formation increased in proliferating lymphocytes at doses of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/mL signum and at a dose of 0.75 μg/mL pyraclostrobin. In addition, a dose of 0.75 μg/mL pyraclostrobin increased NBUD frequencies. Cytotoxicity increased with increasing concentrations of each fungicide. It is concluded that signum, boscalid, and pyraclostrobin may be genotoxic and cytotoxic in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes in consideration of each of the two protocols. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 723-732, 2014. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  17. Pristanic acid provokes lipid, protein, and DNA oxidative damage and reduces the antioxidant defenses in cerebellum of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Lobato, Vannessa Gonçalves Araujo; Zanatta, Ângela; Borges, Clarissa Günther; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Manfredini, Vanusa; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Vargas, Carmen Regla; de Souza, Diogo Onofre Gomes; Wajner, Moacir

    2014-12-01

    Zellweger syndrome (ZS) and some peroxisomal diseases are severe inherited disorders mainly characterized by neurological symptoms and cerebellum abnormalities, whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. Biochemically, these diseases are mainly characterized by accumulation of pristanic acid (Prist) and other fatty acids in the brain and other tissues. In this work, we evaluated the in vitro influence of Prist on redox homeostasis by measuring lipid, protein, and DNA damage, as well as the antioxidant defenses and the activities of aconitase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in cerebellum of 30-day-old rats. The effect of Prist on DNA damage was also evaluated in blood of these animals. Some parameters were also evaluated in cerebellum from neonatal rats and in cerebellum neuronal cultures. Prist significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and carbonyl formation and reduced sulfhydryl content and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in cerebellum of young rats. It also caused DNA strand damage in cerebellum and induced a high micronuclei frequency in blood. On the other hand, this fatty acid significantly reduced α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and aconitase activities in rat cerebellum. We also verified that Prist-induced increase of MDA levels was totally prevented by melatonin and attenuated by α-tocopherol but not by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indicating the involvement of reactive oxygen species in this effect. Cerebellum from neonate rats also showed marked alterations of redox homeostasis, including an increase of MDA levels and a decrease of sulfhydryl content and GSH concentrations elicited by Prist. Finally, Prist provoked an increase of dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation in cerebellum-cultivated neurons. Our present data indicate that Prist compromises redox homeostasis in rat cerebellum and blood and inhibits critical enzymes of the citric acid cycle that are susceptible to free radical attack. The

  18. Amelioration of azoxymethane induced-carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress in rat colon by natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Rawahi, Amani S; Al Riyami, Marwa; Al-Kindi, Mohamed A; Al-Issaei, Halima K; Farooq, Sardar A; Al-Alawi, Ahmed; Rahman, Mohammad S

    2014-02-18

    Azoxymethane (AOM) is a potent carcinogenic agent commonly used to induce colon cancer in rats; the cytotoxicity of AOM is considered to mediate oxidative stress. This study investigated the chemopreventive effect of three natural extracts [pomegranate peel extract (PomPE), papaya peel extract (PapPE) and seaweed extract (SE)] against AOM-induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis in rat colon. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 4 weeks) were randomly divided into 8 groups (10 rats/group). Control group was fed a basal diet; AOM-treated group was fed a basal diet and received AOM intraperitonial injections for two weeks at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight, whereas the other six groups were received oral supplementation of PomPE, PapPE or SE, in the presence or absence of AOM injection. All animals were continuously fed ad-libitum until aged 16 weeks, then all rats were sacrificed and the colon tissues were examined microscopically for pathological changes and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) development, genotoxicity (induced micronuclei (MN) cells enumeration), and glutathione and lipid peroxidation. Our results showed that AOM-induced ACF development and pathological changes in the colonic mucosal tissues, increased bone marrow MN cells and oxidative stress (glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation) in rat colonic cells. The concomitant treatment of AOM with PomPE, PapPE or SE significantly ameliorated the cytotoxic effects of AOM. The results of this study provide in-vivo evidence that PomPE, PapPE and SE reduced the AOM-induced colon cancer in rats, through their potent anti-oxidant activities.

  19. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  20. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  1. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  2. Cytogenetic effects in children and mothers exposed to air pollution assessed by the frequency of micronuclei and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): a family pilot study in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Vinzents, Peter; Petersen, Joergen Holm

    2006-01-01

    A family pilot study was conducted in the Czech Republic to test the hypothesis that exposure to air pollution with particulate matter (PM) in children results in detectable effects indicated by a number of biomarkers of exposure and early effects. The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral...... with elevated carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) concentration of the PM(2.5) measured in the ambient Teplice air, but other factors like genotoxic compounds from the diet or protective effect of micronutrients, which was not addressed in this pilot study, may also differ between the two...... exchanges (F(G)/100) were found in children or parents from the Teplice area in comparison with those from the Prachatice area. The family pilot study indicates that MN is a valuable and sensitive biomarker for early biological effect in children and adults living in two different areas characterised...

  3. Induction and disappearance of γH2AX foci and formation of micronuclei after exposure of human lymphocytes to ⁶⁰Co γ-rays and p(66)+ Be(40) neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersickel, Veerle; Beukes, Philip; Van Bockstaele, Bram; Depuydt, Julie; Vral, Anne; Slabbert, Jacobus

    2014-02-01

    To investigate both the formation of micronuclei (MN) and the induction and subsequent loss of phosphorylated histone H2AX foci (γH2AX foci) after in vitro exposure of human lymphocytes to either (60)Co γ-rays or p(66)+ Be(40) neutrons. MN dose response (DR) curves were obtained by exposing isolated lymphocytes of 10 different donors to doses ranging from 0-4 Gy γ-rays or 0-2 Gy neutrons. Also, γH2AX foci DR curves were obtained following exposure to doses ranging from 0-0.5 Gy of either γ-rays or neutrons. Foci kinetics for lymphocytes for a single donor exposed to 0.5 Gy γ-rays or neutrons were studied up to 24 hours post-irradiation. Micronuclei yields following neutron exposure were consistently higher compared to that from (60)Co γ-rays. All MN yields were over-dispersed compared to a Poisson distribution. Over-dispersion was higher after neutron irradiation for all doses > 0.1 Gy. Up to 4 hours post-irradiation lower yields of neutron-induced γH2AX foci were observed. Between 4 and 24 hours the numbers of foci from neutrons were consistently higher than that from γ-rays. The half-live of foci disappearance is only marginally longer for neutrons compared to that from γ-rays. Foci formations were more likely to be over-dispersed for neutron irradiations. Although neutrons are more effective to induce MN, the absolute number of induced γH2AX foci are less at first compared to γ-rays. With time neutron-induced foci are more persistent. These findings are helpful for using γH2AX foci in biodosimetry and to understand the repair of neutron-induced cellular damage.

  4. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  5. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  6. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  7. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  8. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  9. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  10. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  11. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  12. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  13. Cell cycle synchronization and BrdU incorporation as a tool to study the possible selective elimination of ErbB1 gene in the micronuclei in A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauand, C.; Niero, E.L.; Dias, V.M.; Machado-Santelli, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer often exhibits molecular changes, such as the overexpression of the ErbB1 gene that encodes epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). ErbB1 amplification and mutation are associated with tumor aggressiveness and low response to therapy. The aim of the present study was to design a schedule to synchronize the cell cycle of A549 cell line (a non-small cell lung cancer) and to analyze the possible association between the micronuclei (MNs) and the extrusion of ErbB1 gene extra-copies. After double blocking, by the process of fetal bovine serum deprivation and vincristine treatment, MNs formation was monitored with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, which is an S-phase marker. Statistical analyses allowed us to infer that MNs may arise both in mitosis as well as in interphase. The MNs were able to replicate their DNA and this process seemed to be non-synchronous with the main cell nuclei. The presence of ErbB1 gene in the MNs was evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). ErbB1 sequences were detected in the MNs, but a relation between the MNs formation and extrusion of amplified ErbB1could not be established. The present study sought to elucidate the meaning of MNs formation and its association with the elimination of oncogenes or other amplified sequences from the tumor cells

  14. Cell cycle synchronization and BrdU incorporation as a tool to study the possible selective elimination of ErbB1 gene in the micronuclei in A549 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauand, C.; Niero, E.L.; Dias, V.M.; Machado-Santelli, G.M. [Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-06

    Lung cancer often exhibits molecular changes, such as the overexpression of the ErbB1 gene that encodes epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). ErbB1 amplification and mutation are associated with tumor aggressiveness and low response to therapy. The aim of the present study was to design a schedule to synchronize the cell cycle of A549 cell line (a non-small cell lung cancer) and to analyze the possible association between the micronuclei (MNs) and the extrusion of ErbB1 gene extra-copies. After double blocking, by the process of fetal bovine serum deprivation and vincristine treatment, MNs formation was monitored with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, which is an S-phase marker. Statistical analyses allowed us to infer that MNs may arise both in mitosis as well as in interphase. The MNs were able to replicate their DNA and this process seemed to be non-synchronous with the main cell nuclei. The presence of ErbB1 gene in the MNs was evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). ErbB1 sequences were detected in the MNs, but a relation between the MNs formation and extrusion of amplified ErbB1could not be established. The present study sought to elucidate the meaning of MNs formation and its association with the elimination of oncogenes or other amplified sequences from the tumor cells.

  15. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  16. Micronúcleo: um importante marcador biológico intermediário na prevenção do câncer bucal =Micronuclei: an important intermediate biomarker on oral cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade, Miguel Gustavo Setúbal et al.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com a prevenção do câncer da boca e da orofaringe tem motivado diversos estudos epidemiológicos que, apesar de serem úteis em identificar fatores de risco, os indivíduos da amostra já tinham desenvolvido a neoplasia maligna. Outros estudos são conduzidos para investigar a incidência de leucoplasias e segundo tumor primário em indivíduos submetidos a um determinado agente de prevenção. Nesses estudos, entretanto, as alterações celulares são constatadas num momento avançado. Este trabalho se propõe a discutir o papel do micronúcleo, uma alteração cromossômica capaz de refletir a exposição dos indivíduos a carcinógenos, como marcador biológico intermediário na prevenção do câncer bucal e na avaliação de estudos prospectivos. The concern with the prevention of mouth and oropharynx cancer has motivated epidemiological studies that, although useful on identify risk factors, the individuals of the sample had already developed the malignant neoplasia. Other studies are lead to verify the incidence of leucoplasias and second primary tumors in individuals submitted to a specific prevention agent. In these studies, however, cellular alterations are evidenced at an advanced stage. This work is proposed to argue the role of micronuclei, a chromosomal alteration able to reflect carcinogen exposition of an individual, as intermediate biomarker in the prevention of oral cancer and in the evaluation of prospective studies.

  17. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  18. Genotoxicity of nanomaterials: DNA damage and micronuclei induced by carbon nanotubes and graphite nanofibres in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Hanna K; Falck, Ghita C-M; Suhonen, Satu; Vippola, Minnamari; Vanhala, Esa; Catalán, Julia; Savolainen, Kai; Norppa, Hannu

    2009-05-08

    Despite the increasing industrial use of different nanomaterials, data on their genotoxicity are scant. In the present study, we examined the potential genotoxic effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs; >50% single-walled, approximately 40% other CNTs; 1.1 nm x 0.5-100 microm; Sigma-Aldrich) and graphite nanofibres (GNFs; 95%; outer diameter 80-200 nm, inner diameter 30-50 nm, length 5-20 microm; Sigma-Aldrich) in vitro. Genotoxicity was assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay and the micronucleus assay (cytokinesis-block method) in human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells cultured for 24h, 48h, or 72h with various doses (1-100 microg/cm(2), corresponding to 3.8-380 microg/ml) of the carbon nanomaterials. In the comet assay, CNTs induced a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage at all treatment times, with a statistically significant effect starting at the lowest dose tested. GNFs increased DNA damage at all doses in the 24-h treatment, at two doses (40 and 100 microg/cm(2)) in the 48-h treatment (dose-dependent effect) and at four doses (lowest 10 microg/cm(2)) in the 72-h treatment. In the micronucleus assay, no increase in micronucleated cells was observed with either of the nanomaterials after the 24-h treatment or with CNTs after the 72-h treatment. The 48-h treatment caused a significant increase in micronucleated cells at three doses (lowest 10 microg/cm(2)) of CNTs and at two doses (5 and 10 microg/cm(2)) of GNFs. The 72-h treatment with GNFs increased micronucleated cells at four doses (lowest 10 microg/cm(2)). No dose-dependent effects were seen in the micronucleus assay. The presence of carbon nanomaterial on the microscopic slides disturbed the micronucleus analysis and made it impossible at levels higher than 20 microg/cm(2) of GNFs in the 24-h and 48-h treatments. In conclusion, our results suggest that both CNTs and GNFs are genotoxic in human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells in vitro. This activity may be due to the fibrous nature

  19. Biomonitoring with Micronuclei Test in Buccal Cells of Female Farmers and Children Exposed to Pesticides of Maneadero Agricultural Valley, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Yslas, Idalia Jazmin; Arellano-García, María Evarista; García-Zarate, Marco Antonio; Ruíz-Ruíz, Balam; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in 2000 cells were obtained from the buccal mucosa of the study population (n = 144), divided in four groups: (1) farmers (n = 37), (2) unexposed (n = 35), (3) farmers' children (n = 34), and (4) unexposed children (n = 38). We compared frequencies of MNc and NA and fitted generalized linear models to investigate the interaction between these variables and exposition to pesticides. Differences were found between farmers and unexposed women in MNc (p < 0.0001), CC (p = 0.3376), and PN (p < 0.0001). With respect to exposed children, we found higher significant frequencies in MNc (p < 0.0001), LN (p < 0.0001), CC (p < 0.0001), and PN (p < 0.004) when compared to unexposed children. Therefore working as a farmer is a risk for genotoxic damage; more importantly indirectly exposed children were found to have genotoxic damage, which is of concern, since it could aid in future disturbances of their health.

  20. Biomonitoring with Micronuclei Test in Buccal Cells of Female Farmers and Children Exposed to Pesticides of Maneadero Agricultural Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Jazmin Castañeda-Yslas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc and nuclear abnormalities (NA in 2000 cells were obtained from the buccal mucosa of the study population (n=144, divided in four groups: (1 farmers (n=37, (2 unexposed (n=35, (3 farmers’ children (n=34, and (4 unexposed children (n=38. We compared frequencies of MNc and NA and fitted generalized linear models to investigate the interaction between these variables and exposition to pesticides. Differences were found between farmers and unexposed women in MNc (p<0.0001, CC (p=0.3376, and PN (p<0.0001. With respect to exposed children, we found higher significant frequencies in MNc (p<0.0001, LN (p<0.0001, CC (p<0.0001, and PN (p<0.004 when compared to unexposed children. Therefore working as a farmer is a risk for genotoxic damage; more importantly indirectly exposed children were found to have genotoxic damage, which is of concern, since it could aid in future disturbances of their health.

  1. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  2. Induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in tadpoles of the common toad (Rhinella arenarum) treated with the herbicides Liberty® and glufosinate-ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Cabagna-Zenklusen, Mariana C; Attademo, Andrés M; Junges, Celina M; Peltzer, Paola M; Bassó, Agustín; Lorenzatti, Eduardo

    2014-07-15

    The assessment of micronucleated erythrocytes (ME) in blood represents a widely used method for the detection of chromosomal damage by chemical agents, such as herbicides that may occur as water contaminants. We investigated the changes in some circulating blood-cell parameters of tadpoles of the common toad (Rhinella arenarum) that were exposed during 48 or 96 h to three sub-lethal concentrations (3.75, 7.5, and 15 mg/L) of a commercial formulation of a glufosinate-ammonium (GLA)-based herbicide (Liberty(®), LY(®)) as well as to the corresponding active ingredient GLA. The frequency of ME and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA, i.e., lobed nuclei, binucleates or segmented nuclei, kidney-shaped nuclei, notched nuclei, and picnotic nuclei) were evaluated and compared with positive (cyclophosphamide, CP, 40 mg/L) and negative (de-chlorinated tap water) controls. The results indicate that the exposure of R. arenarum tadpoles to LY(®) induces a concentration-dependent increase in ME frequency. The ENA frequency at 48 h was also significantly higher than that in the negative control group for all the chemicals assayed (CP, LY(®) and GLA) whereas at 96 h, increases in ENA over the negative control group were found only for CP and GLA (7.5 mg/L). Our study demonstrates that the commercial formulation of a GLA-based herbicide induces micronucleus formation in R. arenarum tadpoles, in contrast to the active ingredient. According to these results, the inert ingredients of the commercial formulation played an important role in the production of genotoxic damage in erythrocytes of amphibian tadpoles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Significance of irradiation of blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Eisuke; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1992-01-01

    Many reports of fatal GVHD occurring in non-immunocompromised patients after blood transfusion have been published in Japan. One explantation is that transfused lymphocytes were simulated and attack the recipient organs recognized as HLA incompatible. That is so called 'one-way matching'. To reduce the risk of post-transfusion GVHD, one of the most convenient methods is to irradiate the donated blood at an appropriate dose for inactivation of lymphocytes. Because no one knows about the late effect of irradiated blood, it is necessary to make the prospective safety control. (author)

  4. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  5. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  6. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  7. Shrinkage Reducing Admixture for Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Concrete shrinkage cracking is a common problem in all types of concrete structures, especially for structures and environments where the cracks are prevalent and the repercussions are most severe. A liquid shrinkage reducing admixture for concrete, developed by GRACE Construction Products and ARCO Chemical Company, that reduces significantly the shrinkage during concrete drying and potentially reduces overall cracking over time.

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Clinical significance of neonatal menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. The co registration of initial PET on the CT-radiotherapy reduces significantly the variabilities of anatomo-clinical target volume in the child hodgkin disease; La coregistration de la TEP initiale sur la scanographie de radiotherapie diminue significativement les variabilites de volume cible anatomoclinique dans la maladie de Hodgkin de l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, H.; Blouet, A.; David, I.; Rives, M.; Izar, F.; Courbon, F.; Filleron, T.; Laprie, A. [Institut Claudius-Regaud, 31 - Toulouse (France); Plat, G.; Vial, J. [CHU-hopital des Enfants, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2009-10-15

    It exists a great interobserver variability for the anatomo-clinical target volume (C.T.V.) definition in children suffering of Hodgkin disease. In this study, the co-registration of the PET with F.D.G. on the planning computed tomography has significantly lead to a greater coherence in the clinical target volume definition. (N.C.)

  10. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  11. Clinical significance of the fabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodevski, A.; Lazarova-Tosovska, D.; Zhivadinovik, J.; Lazareska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: There is variable number of sesamoid bones in the human body; one of them is fabella, located in the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of fabella in the Macedonian population and to discuss about clinical importance of this bone. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined radiographs of 53 patients who had knee exams undertaken for a variety of clinical reasons, performed as a part of their medical treatment. Over a time span of six months, 53 patients (38 males and 15 females, age range 19-60 years, mean age of 36.7±12.3 years) were examined. Results: In seven (13.2%) patients of 53 analyzed reports, fabella was found in the lateral tendon of gastrocnemius muscle. We did not find a significant gender or side difference in the appearance of fabella. Conclusion: Although anatomic studies emphasized a lack of significance of the fabella, this bone has been associated with a spectrum of pathology affecting the knee as fabellar syndrome, perineal nerve injury and fracture. We should think of this sesamoid bone while performing diagnostic and surgical procedures

  12. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  13. No significant fuel failures (NSFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domaratzki, Z.

    1979-01-01

    It has long been recognized that no emergency core cooling system (ECCS) could be absolutely guaranteed to prevent fuel failures. In 1976 the Atomic Energy Control Board decided that the objective for an ECCS should be to prevent fuel failures, but if the objective could not be met it should be shown that the consequences are acceptable for dual failures comprising any LOCA combined with an assumed impairment of containment. Out of the review of the Bruce A plant came the definition of 'no significant fuel failures': for any postulated LOCA combined with any one mode of containment impairment the resultant dose to a person at the edge of the exclusion zone is less than the reference dose limits for dual failures

  14. Ritual Significance in Mycenaean Hairstyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu, Florence Sheng-chieh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the frescoes excavated from Bronze Age sites on the Greek mainland provide evidence for female figures in the Mycenaean society, the hairstyles of these figures have not been studied in detail. As in many other ancient cultures, hairstyles were not only an exhibition of beauty and fashion, but they also represented certain age groups or a person’s social status. The Mycenaeans inherited many of their hairstyles from their Minoan predecessors, although differences existed as well. It is also possible there may have been a shift in meaning for seemingly similar looking hairstyles from the Minoan to the Mycenaean periods. Female figures, which compose most of the Mycenaean figures in frescoes known to date, are fine examples for discussing the artistic representation and potential significance of Mycenaean hairstyles. By comparing with Minoan hairstyles, discussions of Mycenaean examples lead to conclusions in the relationship between hairstyles and ritual activities in the Mycenaean society.

  15. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  16. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  17. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  18. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  19. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  20. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  1. Detection of significant protein coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of proteins cannot be fully understood without taking into account the coevolutionary linkages entangling them. From a practical point of view, coevolution between protein families has been used as a way of detecting protein interactions and functional relationships from genomic information. The most common approach to inferring protein coevolution involves the quantification of phylogenetic tree similarity using a family of methodologies termed mirrortree. In spite of their success, a fundamental problem of these approaches is the lack of an adequate statistical framework to assess the significance of a given coevolutionary score (tree similarity). As a consequence, a number of ad hoc filters and arbitrary thresholds are required in an attempt to obtain a final set of confident coevolutionary signals. In this work, we developed a method for associating confidence estimators (P values) to the tree-similarity scores, using a null model specifically designed for the tree comparison problem. We show how this approach largely improves the quality and coverage (number of pairs that can be evaluated) of the detected coevolution in all the stages of the mirrortree workflow, independently of the starting genomic information. This not only leads to a better understanding of protein coevolution and its biological implications, but also to obtain a highly reliable and comprehensive network of predicted interactions, as well as information on the substructure of macromolecular complexes using only genomic information. The software and datasets used in this work are freely available at: http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/pMT/. pazos@cnb.csic.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Estudio comparativo de la frecuencia de micronúcleos y anormalidades nucleares en eritrocitos de tres especies ícticas Comparative studies of the frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of three species fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favio E Pollo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los ecosistemas acuáticos cercanos a las zonas urbanas sufren un deterioro constante ocasionado por diversos factores físico-químicos relacionados con la actividad antrópica, representando un riesgo para los organismos que los habitan, en especial los peces. Estos efectos pueden ser biomonitoreados mediante técnicas de amplia utilización, como el Test de Micronúcleos (Mn y el de Anormalidades nucleares (AN, entre otros. El objetivo de este trabajo fue verifcar y comparar la frecuencia de micronúcleos y anormalidades nucleares en tres especies ícticas colectadas en un lago urbano, Cyprinus carpio, Astyanax eigenmanniorum y Cheirodon interruptus. Luego de la captura y anestesia de los peces, se extrajo de cada individuo una muestra de sangre y se registró el peso y la longitud total. Las muestras fueron fjadas y luego teñidas con Giemsa al 10%, posteriormente se las analizó con microscopio (1000X y se les tomaron fotografías con cámara digital. Se calculó, además, el índice de condición corporal (K para cada uno de los ejemplares capturados. Se aplicó un análisis de correlación de rangos de Spearman (rs entre frecuencia de Mn y AN vs K para cada especie. La prueba de Kruskal-Wallis se aplicó para evaluar diferencias de Mn y AN entre las especies. Los resultados no mostraron una correlación estadísticamente signifcativa (P> 0,05 entre las frecuencias de Mn y AN vs K. Las frecuencias de Mn entre las diferentes especies no arrojaron diferencias signifcativas (P> 0,05, mientras que las AN sí (PAquatic ecosystems near urban areas suffer a steady deterioration caused by physical and chemical factors related to human activity, representing a danger to organisms that inhabit them, especially the fsh. These effects may be biomonitored by widely used techniques, such as the Micronucleus Test (Mn and Nuclear Abnormalities (NA, among others. The aim of this study was to verify and compare the frequency of micronuclei and nuclear

  3. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. OBJECTIVES: To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new o...

  4. Inference from some pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of busulfan through the analysis of its induction kinetics of micronuclei polychromated erythrocytes; Inferencia de algunos parametros farmacocineticos y farmacodinamicos de busulfan, mediante el analisis de su cinetica de induccion de eritrocitos policromaticos micronucleados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez I, M.R.; Vallarino K, T.; Morales R, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The induction kinetics of micronuclei polychromated eritrocites (EPC-MN) which is produced by busulfan and compared with that produced by the ionizing radiation, allows to make inferences over the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of busulfan. Observing two induction mechanisms of MN, this one early at low doses and other later at high doses, this last is presented to a critical dose being very sheer and associated with an increase of the cytotoxicity. The data suggest the transformation or dependence between these two types of leisures, which to determine the narrow therapeutical margin of busulfan. The pharmacokinetic parameters determined in the early mechanisms kinetics indicate a latency period, a time of effective activity and of half life 5.7, 5.2 and 2.6 h respectively. (Author)

  5. Reducing infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T R

    1994-01-01

    Public health and social policies at the population level (e.g., oral rehydration therapy and immunization) are responsible for the major reduction in infant mortality worldwide. The gap in infant mortality rates between developing and developed regions is much less than that in maternal mortality rates. This indicates that maternal and child health (MCH) programs and women's health care should be combined. Since 1950, 66% of infant deaths occur in the 1st 28 days, indicating adverse prenatal and intrapartum events (e.g., congenital malformation and birth injuries). Infection, especially pneumonia and diarrhea, and low birth weight are the major causes of infant mortality worldwide. An estimated US$25 billion are needed to secure the resources to control major childhood diseases, reduce malnutrition 50%, reduce child deaths by 4 million/year, provide potable water and sanitation to all communities, provide basic education, and make family planning available to all. This cost for saving children's lives is lower than current expenditures for cigarettes (US$50 billion in Europe/year). Vitamin A supplementation, breast feeding, and prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations are low-cost strategies that can significantly affect infant well-being and reduce child mortality in many developing countries. The US has a higher infant mortality rate than have other developed countries. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the US National Institutes of Health are focusing on prematurity, low birth weight, multiple pregnancy, violence, alcohol abuse, and poverty to reduce infant mortality. Obstetricians should be important members of MCH teams, which also include traditional birth attendants, community health workers, nurses, midwives, and medical officers. We have the financial resources to allocate resources to improve MCH care and to reduce infant mortality.

  6. Regional and global significance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    Measures to combat poverty and improve the standard of living in countries of the Third World will inevitably boost global demand for energy, and energy conservation measures will not be able to offset this increase. Nuclear energy will regain significance in the framework of approaches adopted to resolve the energy problem, which primarily is an ecologic problem created by an extremely large flow of materials. The extraordinarily high energy density of nuclear fuels can contribute to markedly reduce the flow of materials; and at that, electric energy is an efficient substitute for primary energy forms. Thus nuclear electricity generation is of double benefit to the ecology. Engineering goals in nuclear technology thus gain a service aspect, with progress in power plant engineering and design aiming not only at enhanced engineered safety, but also at regaining public acceptance of and confidence in nuclear power plant technology. (orig./UA) [de

  7. Reducing Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep Does Not Significantly Improve Insomnia in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the...

  8. A novel 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Rahnella aquatilis with significantly reduced glyphosate sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri-He Peng

    Full Text Available The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS; EC 2.5.1.19 is a key enzyme in the shikimate pathway for the production of aromatic amino acids and chorismate-derived secondary metabolites in plants, fungi, and microorganisms. It is also the target of the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate. Natural glyphosate resistance is generally thought to occur within microorganisms in a strong selective pressure condition. Rahnella aquatilis strain GR20, an antagonist against pathogenic agrobacterial strains of grape crown gall, was isolated from the rhizosphere of grape in glyphosate-contaminated vineyards. A novel gene encoding EPSPS was identified from the isolated bacterium by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotrophic aroA mutant. The EPSPS, named AroA(R. aquatilis, was expressed and purified from E. coli, and key kinetic values were determined. The full-length enzyme exhibited higher tolerance to glyphosate than the E. coli EPSPS (AroA(E. coli, while retaining high affinity for the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate. Transgenic plants of AroA(R. aquatilis were also observed to be more resistant to glyphosate at a concentration of 5 mM than that of AroA(E. coli. To probe the sites contributing to increased tolerance to glyphosate, mutant R. aquatilis EPSPS enzymes were produced with the c-strand of subdomain 3 and the f-strand of subdomain 5 (Thr38Lys, Arg40Val, Arg222Gln, Ser224Val, Ile225Val, and Gln226Lys substituted by the corresponding region of the E. coli EPSPS. The mutant enzyme exhibited greater sensitivity to glyphosate than the wild type R. aquatilis EPSPS with little change of affinity for its first substrate, shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP. The effect of the residues on subdomain 5 on glyphosate resistance was more obvious.

  9. Long-term agricultural management maximizing hay production can significantly reduce belowground C storage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sochorová, Lenka; Jansa, Jan; Verbruggen, E.; Hejcman, M.; Schellberg, J.; Kiers, E. T.; Johnson, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 220, March (2016), s. 104-114 ISSN 0167-8809 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11224 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Arbuscular mycorrhiza * Nitrogen * Phosphorus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.099, year: 2016

  10. Clinical significance of reduced cerebral metabolism in multiple sclerosis. A combined PET and MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiayan; Tanaka, Makoto; Kondo, Susumu; Okamoto, Koichi; Hirai, Shunsaku

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has provided major insights into the disease's natural history, and many studies have focussed on possible correlations between MRI findings and the clinical manifestations of MS. In contrast, there are few reports on possible relationships between functional imaging data and cognitive function. The present study assessed the relationship between clinical presentation and combined anatomical and functional imaging data in MS. Twenty patients with definite MS underwent MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) to evaluate cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism (rCMRO 2 ). The relationships between these neuroimaging findings and clinical data, including the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Mini-mental status scale, Hasegawa Dementia Scale and relapse time, were evaluated with Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. A general reduction in rCBF and rCMRO 2 in the gray and white matter were found in the MS patients. EDSS was correlated with the number and size of the lesions on MRI and was negatively correlated with rCMRO 2 . A correlation between the decrease in rCMRO 2 and the level of cognitive impairment was also found. The severity of cerebral hypometabolism was also related to the number of relapses. Morphological and functional findings obtained by MRI and PET are closely related to the clinical status in MS. Our results suggest that measurement of cerebral metabolism in MS has the potential to be an objective marker for monitoring disease activity and to provide prognostic information. (author)

  11. Synergy in Sulfur Cycle: The Biogeochemical Significance of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria in Syntrophic Associations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    . Consideration of the oasis analogy for chemosyntheticcommunities at Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon vents. Geo. Mar. Lett. 14,149-159 Douglas, A.E.,2004. Strategies in antagonistic and cooperative interactions. Microbial Evolution. Gene Establishment, survival... and fuels. Plenum, New York, pp 277?296. MacAvoy, S.A., Macko, S.A., Joye, S.B., 2002. Fatty acid carbon isotope signatures in chemosynthetic mussels and tube worms from Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon seep communities. Chem.Geol. 185, 1 ? 8. Michaelis, W...

  12. Long-term agricultural management maximizing hay production can significantly reduce belowground C storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sochorová, L.; Jansa, J.; Verbruggen, E.; Hejcman, M.; Schellberg, J.; Kiers, E.T.

    2016-01-01

    Liming and fertilization of grasslands have been used for centuries to sustain hay production. Besides improving hay yields, these practices induce compositional shifts in plant and soil microbial communities, including symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. However, in spite of increasing

  13. Nano-CL-20/HMX Cocrystal Explosive for Significantly Reduced Mechanical Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    An, Chongwei; Li, Hequn; Ye, Baoyun; Wang, Jingyu

    2017-01-01

    Spray drying method was used to prepare cocrystals of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX). Raw materials and cocrystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Impact and friction sensitivity of cocrystals were tested and analyzed. Results show that, after preparation by spray drying method, microparticles were sph...

  14. Mutation of NRAS but not KRAS significantly reduces myeloma sensitivity to single-agent bortezomib therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Mulligan (George); D.I. Lichter (David); A.D. Bacco (Alessandra Di); S.J. Blakemore (Stephen); A. Berger (Allison); E. Koenig (Erik); H. Bernard (Hugues); W.L. Trepicchio (William); B. Li (Bin); R. Neuwirth (Rachel); N. Chattopadhyay (Nibedita); J.B. Bolen (Joseph); A.J. Dorner (Andrew); H. van de Velde (Helgi); D. Ricci (Deborah); S. Jagannath (Sundar); J.R. Berenson (James); P.G. Richardson (Paul Gerard); E.A. Stadtmauer (Edward); R.Z. Orlowski (Robert); S. Lonial (Sagar); K.C. Anderson (Kenneth); P. Sonneveld (Pieter); J.F. San Miguel (Jesús Fernando); D.-L. Esseltine (Dixie-Lee); M. Schu (Matthew)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractVarious translocations and mutations have been identified in myeloma, and certain aberrations, such as t(4;14) and del17, are linked with disease prognosis. To investigate mutational prevalence in myeloma and associations between mutations and patient outcomes, we tested a panel of 41

  15. Teenage Smoking: Higher Excise Tax Should Significantly Reduce the Number of Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    12 to 17, in the United States, about 3.5 million use tobacco products, almost 3 million smoke marijuana , 6 million drink alcohol, and 1 million use...particularly in indoor environments. As a result nonsmokers tend to face a greater risk of cancer and of becoming less healthy in general. (The details on

  16. Significant enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit of polycrystalline Si films by reducing grain size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valalaki, K; Nassiopoulou, A G; Vouroutzis, N

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of p-type polycrystalline silicon thin films deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) were accurately determined at room temperature and the thermoelectric figure of merit was deduced as a function of film thickness, ranging from 100 to 500 nm. The effect of film thickness on their thermoelectric performance is discussed. More than threefold increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit of the 100 nm thick polysilicon film was observed compared to the 500 nm thick film, reaching a value as high as 0.033. This enhancement is mainly the result of the smaller grain size in the thinner films. With the decrease in grain size the resistivity of the films is increased twofold and electrical conductivity decreased, however the Seebeck coefficient is increased by 30% and the thermal conductivity is decreased eightfold, being mainly at the origin of the increased figure of merit of the 100 nm film. Our experimental results were compared to known theoretical models and the possible mechanisms involved are presented and discussed. (paper)

  17. Microplastic contamination of river beds significantly reduced by catchment-wide flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Rachel; Woodward, Jamie; Rothwell, James J.

    2018-04-01

    Microplastic contamination of the oceans is one of the world's most pressing environmental concerns. The terrestrial component of the global microplastic budget is not well understood because sources, stores and fluxes are poorly quantified. We report catchment-wide patterns of microplastic contamination, classified by type, size and density, in channel bed sediments at 40 sites across urban, suburban and rural river catchments in northwest England. Microplastic contamination was pervasive on all river channel beds. We found multiple urban contamination hotspots with a maximum microplastic concentration of approximately 517,000 particles m-2. After a period of severe flooding in winter 2015/16, all sites were resampled. Microplastic concentrations had fallen at 28 sites and 18 saw a decrease of one order of magnitude. The flooding exported approximately 70% of the microplastic load stored on these river beds (equivalent to 0.85 ± 0.27 tonnes or 43 ± 14 billion particles) and eradicated microbead contamination at 7 sites. We conclude that microplastic contamination is efficiently flushed from river catchments during flooding.

  18. Radiological significance of thorium processing in manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The study of thorium processing in manufacturing comprised monitoring programs at a plant where thorium dioxide was in use and another where the use of thorium nitrate had been discontinued. The measurements of the solubility in simulated lung fluid proved that both materials belonged in the Y Class with dissolution half-times greater than 500 days. Bioassay measurements of 20 subjects from both facilities proved that in vitro monitoring methods, urine, feces, hair and nails analysis were not sufficient indicators of thorium uptake. In vivo monitoring by phoswich and large sodium iodide detectors were proven to be good methods of determining thorium lung burdens. The thoron in breath technique was shown to have a lower limit of sensitivity than lung counting, however, due to lack of information regarding the thoron escape rate from the thorium particles in the lungs the method is not as accurate as lung counting. Two subjects at the thorium dioxide facility had lung burdens of 21+- 16 Bq and 29+- 24 Bq Th 232 and one at the thorium nitrate facility had a lung burden of 37+- 13 Bq. Improvements in the procedures and use of a glove box were among the recommendations to reduce the inhalation of thorium by workers at the thorium dioxide facility. Decontamination of several rooms at the thorium nitrate facility and sealing of the walls and floors were recommended in order to reduce the escape of thoron gas into the room air. The risk to non Atomic Radiation Workers was primarily due to thoron daughters in air while gamma radiation and thorium in air were less important. Conversely, at the thorium dioxide facility the inhalation of thorium in air was the most significant exposure pathway

  19. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...

  20. Significance of manipulating tumour hypoxia and radiation dose rate in terms of local tumour response and lung metastatic potential, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, S; Matsumoto, Y; Kashino, G; Hirayama, R; Liu, Y; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y; Suzuki, M; Kinashi, Y; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of manipulating intratumour oxygenation status and radiation dose rate on local tumour response and lung metastases following radiotherapy, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations within irradiated tumours. B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. They received γ-ray irradiation at high dose rate (HDR) or reduced dose rate (RDR) following treatment with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide or local hyperthermia at mild temperatures (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the quiescent (Q) and total (proliferating + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumour-bearing mice, 17 days after irradiation, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated. Following HDR irradiation, nicotinamide and MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the total and Q-cell populations, respectively. The decrease in sensitivity at RDR irradiation compared with HDR irradiation was slightly inhibited by MTH, especially in Q cells. Without γ-ray irradiation, nicotinamide treatment tended to reduce the number of lung metastases. With γ-rays, in combination with nicotinamide or MTH, especially the former, HDR irradiation decreased the number of metastases more remarkably than RDR irradiation. Manipulating both tumour hypoxia and irradiation dose rate have the potential to influence lung metastasis. The combination with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide may be more promising in HDR than RDR irradiation in terms of reducing the number of lung metastases. PMID:20739345

  1. Global warming: the significance of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.; Le Treut, H.; Laponche, B.

    2008-01-01

    the concept of Global Warming Potential (GWP) indicates the relative contribution to global warming over a given period (for example 100 years) of a pulse emission at the start of the period of 1 kg of a specific greenhouse gas (GHG) in comparison to the contribution, over the same period, of an emission of 1 kg of CO 2 . The GWPs calculated for different time intervals take into account the differences in atmospheric lifetimes of the different GHGs. Using the '100-year GWP' to measure non CO 2 GHG emissions is not well suited to the case of permanent or long lifetime measures whose effectiveness is to be assessed at a given time horizon. In this context, it contributes to significantly playing down the importance of reducing emissions of GHGs with short atmospheric lifetimes. Thus, for example, methane which is not emitted over the period 2020- 2100 as a result of a landfill site being closed in 2020 will have an impact (as opposed to if the site remained in operation) that would be far greater towards 2100 compared to a CO 2 emission source that has also been stopped permanently and whose climate impact is measured in an equivalent manner. Using the GWP is only appropriate if applied year after year to time horizons considered to be of concern or decisive by climate studies, thus in particular 2050, 2100 and 2150. This is all the more significant as climate experts' current concerns lead them not only to advocate long-term stabilisation of GHG concentrations but also to avoid as far as possible intermediate excess of these concentrations over the coming century. Finally, it is noted that CH 4 prevention policies implemented in the short term may continue to have a long-term impact greater than merely taking into account the current GWP would imply. To more or less ignore the impact of CH 4 as it is unsuitable for accounting purposes affects the exclusive character of the link that may exist between the issue of GHGs and that of energy. Furthermore, if the

  2. Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo Welsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (Epo administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. METHODOLOGY: The clinico-pathological relevance of hemoglobin (Hb, n = 150, serum Epo (sEpo, n = 87 and tissue expression of Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR, n = 104 was analyzed in patients with PDAC. Epo/EpoR expression, signaling, growth, invasion and chemoresistance were studied in Epo-exposed PDAC cell lines. RESULTS: Compared to donors, median preoperative Hb levels were reduced by 15% in both chronic pancreatitis (CP, p<0.05 and PDAC (p<0.001, reaching anemic grade in one third of patients. While inversely correlating to Hb (r = -0.46, 95% of sEPO values lay within the normal range. The individual levels of compensation were adequate in CP (observed to predicted ratio, O/P = 0.99 but not in PDAC (O/P = 0.85. Strikingly, lower sEPO values yielding inadequate Epo responses were prominent in non-metastatic M0-patients, whereas these parameters were restored in metastatic M1-group (8 vs. 13 mU/mL; O/P = 0.82 vs. 0.96; p<0.01--although Hb levels and the prevalence of anemia were comparable. Higher sEpo values (upper quartile ≥ 16 mU/ml were not significantly different in M0 (20% and M1 (30% groups, but were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (HR 2.20, 10 vs. 17 months, p<0.05. The pattern of Epo expression in pancreas and liver suggested ectopic release of Epo by capillaries/vasa vasorum and hepatocytes, regulated by but not emanating from tumor cells. Epo could initiate PI3K/Akt signaling via EpoR in PDAC cells but failed to alter their functions, probably due to co-expression of the soluble EpoR isoform, known to antagonize Epo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher sEPO levels counteract anemia but worsen outcome in PDAC patients. Further trials are required to clarify how overcoming a sEPO threshold

  3. Impact significance determination-Back to basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination is widely recognized as a vital and critical EIA activity. But impact significance related concepts are poorly understood. And the quality of approaches for impact significance determination in EIA practice remains highly variable. This article seeks to help establish a sound and practical conceptual foundation for formulating and evaluating impact significance determination approaches. It addresses the nature (what is impact significance?), the core characteristics (what are the major properties of significance determination?), the rationale (why are impact significance determinations necessary?), the procedural and substantive objectives (what do impact significance determinations seek to achieve?), and the process for making impact significance judgments (how is impact significance determination conducted?). By identifying fundamental attributes and key distinctions associated with impact significance determinations, a basis is provided for designing and evaluating impact significance determination procedures at both the regulatory and applied levels

  4. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  5. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  6. Structural mode significance using INCA. [Interactive Controls Analysis computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Structural finite element models are often too large to be used in the design and analysis of control systems. Model reduction techniques must be applied to reduce the structural model to manageable size. In the past, engineers either performed the model order reduction by hand or used distinct computer programs to retrieve the data, to perform the significance analysis and to reduce the order of the model. To expedite this process, the latest version of INCA has been expanded to include an interactive graphical structural mode significance and model order reduction capability.

  7. Rackspace: Significance of Cloud Computing to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The research collaboration between Rackspace and CERN is contributing to how OpenStack cloud computing will move science work around the world for CERN, and to reducing the barriers between clouds for Rackspace.

  8. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  9. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Significant projects. 630.1010 Section 630.1010 Highways... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant projects. (a) A significant project is one that, alone or in combination with other concurrent projects nearby is anticipated to cause...

  10. Role and significance of total phenols during rooting of Protea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high total phenol content was associated with significantly higher rooting percentage and increased the number of roots formed. Blanching reduced the time needed for the cuttings to root sufficiently to be transplanted to the field by 30 days. Analyses of different parts of cuttings throughout the entire rooting period ...

  11. The impact of physical activity on the level of chromosome aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šošić Gordana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the lifetime, people are constantly exposed to the chemicals and agents of exogenic and endogenic sources, which through reaction with a molecule of DNA can cause the damage of genomes and their instability. The formation of micronuclei is a consequence of chromosomal aberrations caused by the influence of different genetic and environmental factors. Micronuclei are cytoplasmic chromatin masses that look like small nuclei and can originate from whole or parts of chromosomes. Micronucleus test ( MN test is used to detect genotoxic effects of various chemical , physical or biological mutagens, as well as the test for determination of chromosomal instability in a variety of cell types. Micronucleus frequency is directly proportional to the degree of chromosomal aberrations. It has been shown that genome damage may occur as a result of environmental exposure to genotoxins and medical procedures, due to deficiency of micronutrients and under the influence of various lifestyles and genetic factors. Unbalanced diet, lack of physical exercise, lack of sleep and overwork contribute significantly to increased frequency of micronuclei. It was also shown that strenuous exercise causes DNA damage, which results in the formation of micronuclei. As a professional athlete conduct highly Intensive physical training, these populations are at risk for the development of genomic instability and carcinogenesis. A healthy lifestyle, the optimal intake of antioxidants and regular moderate physical activity significantly reduced the frequency of micronuclei, and contribute to the stability of the genome.

  12. Reducing the impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-01-01

    In Asia, attempts to control HIV/AIDS through education have not achieved the necessary behavior changes. This is especially true for young women who are unable to apply their knowledge to their sex behavior because of inequalities in gender relations. Thus, the impact of AIDS on women is significantly greater in settings where the status of women is low. Women in developing countries are at greatest risk because the epidemic is fueled by poverty, lack of information, and lack of autonomy. Prosperity in a developing country, such as Malaysia, entails its own risks because it creates new social norms and values that exist in tandem with debilitating old norms, such as the patriarchy that disempowers women and a resurgence in polygamy and wife abandonment. Subservient gender roles not only increase women's chances of infection, they also target women as the primary caregivers for infected individuals. Young girls may have to abandon school to care for infected parents, and female health care providers are assigned to the lowest ranks of the profession. While most women have been infected by their husbands, they must also bear the stigma of being considered immoral infectors of their husbands. The futures of AIDS widows and orphans is jeopardized by the discrimination that attends the disease, and if the mother dies, her young children face a higher death rate. In settings new to the epidemic, it is difficult to convince men of the importance of addressing women's needs and of seeking the input of women in policy and program development. Only by empowering both sexes to work together to protect society will there be a reasonable chance of reducing the impact of HIV/AIDS.

  13. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  14. Direct oxide reducing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Calcium oxides and magnetic oxides as wastes generated upon direct reduction are subjected to molten salt electrolysis, and reduced metallic calcium and magnesium are separated and recovered. Then calcium and magnesium are used recyclically as the reducing agent upon conducting direct oxide reduction. Even calcium oxides and magnesium oxides, which have high melting points and difficult to be melted usually, can be melted in molten salts of mixed fluorides or chlorides by molten-salt electrolysis. Oxides are decomposed by electrolysis, and oxygen is removed in the form of carbon monoxide, while the reduced metallic calcium and magnesium rise above the molten salts on the side of a cathode, and then separated. Since only carbon monoxide is generated as radioactive wastes upon molten salt electrolysis, the amount of radioactive wastes can be greatly reduced, and the amount of the reducing agent used can also be decreased remarkably. (N.H.)

  15. Methodology, theoretical framework and scholarly significance: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology, theoretical framework and scholarly significance: An overview ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Keywords: Legal Research, Methodology, Theory, Pedagogy, Legal Training, Scholarship ...

  16. Impact significance determination-Pushing the boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination practice tends to be highly variable. Too often insufficient consideration is given to good practice insights. Also, impact significance determinations are frequently narrowly defined addressing, for example, only individual, negative impacts, focusing on bio-physical impacts, and not seeking to integrate either the Precautionary Principle or sustainability. This article seeks to extend the boundaries of impact significance determination practice by providing an overview of good general impact significance practices, together with stakeholder roles and potential methods for addressing significance determination challenges. Relevant thresholds, criteria, contextual considerations and support methods are also highlighted. The analysis is then extended to address how impact significance determination practices change for positive as compared with negative impacts, for cumulative as compared with individual impacts, for socio-economic as compared with bio-physical impacts, when the Precautionary Principle is integrated into the process, and when sustainability contributions drive the EIA process and related impact significance determinations. These refinements can assist EIA practitioners in ensuring that the scope and nature of impact significance determinations reflect the broadened scope of emerging EIA requirements and practices. Suggestions are included for further refining and testing of the proposed changes to impact significance determination practice

  17. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  18. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  19. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  20. Radiobiologic significance of apoptosis and micronucleation in quiescent cells within solid tumors following γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Suzuki, Minoru; Kinashi, Yuko; Takagaki, Masao

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency of apoptosis in quiescent (Q) cells within solid tumors following γ-ray irradiation, using four different tumor cell lines. In addition, to assess the significance of detecting apoptosis in these cell lines. Methods and Materials: C3H/He mice bearing SCC VII or FM3A tumors, Balb/c mice bearing EMT6/KU tumors, and C57BL mice bearing EL4 tumors received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously for 5 days via implanted mini-osmotic pumps to label all proliferating (P) cells. The mice then received γ-ray irradiation at a dose of 4-25 Gy while alive or after tumor clamping. Immediately after irradiation, the tumors were excised, minced, and trypsinized. The tumor cell suspensions thus obtained were incubated with cytochalasin-B (a cytokinesis blocker), and the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (=Q cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, 6 hours after irradiation, tumor cell suspensions obtained in the same manner were fixed. The apoptosis frequency in Q cells was also determined with immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN and apoptosis frequency in total (P+Q) tumor cells were determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. Results: In total cells, SCC VII, FM3A, and EMT6/KU cells showed reasonable relationships between MN frequency and surviving fraction (SF). However, fewer micronuclei were induced in EL4 cells than the other cell lines. In contrast, a comparatively close relationship between apoptosis frequency and SF was found in total cells of EL4 cell line. Less apoptosis was observed in the other cell lines. Quiescent tumor cells exhibited significantly lower values of MN and apoptosis frequency probably due to their large hypoxic fraction, similar to total tumor cells on clamped irradiation. Conclusion: γ-ray irradiation induced MN formation in SCC VII, FM3A, and EMT6/KU tumor cells, and the apoptosis was marked in EL4 cells compared with

  1. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thresholds for statistical significance are insufficiently demonstrated by 95% confidence intervals or P-values when assessing results from randomised clinical trials. First, a P-value only shows the probability of getting a result assuming that the null hypothesis is true and does...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore...... of the probability that a given trial result is compatible with a 'null' effect (corresponding to the P-value) divided by the probability that the trial result is compatible with the intervention effect hypothesised in the sample size calculation; (3) adjust the confidence intervals and the statistical significance...

  2. What if there were no significance tests?

    CERN Document Server

    Harlow, Lisa L; Steiger, James H

    2013-01-01

    This book is the result of a spirited debate stimulated by a recent meeting of the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology. Although the viewpoints span a range of perspectives, the overriding theme that emerges states that significance testing may still be useful if supplemented with some or all of the following -- Bayesian logic, caution, confidence intervals, effect sizes and power, other goodness of approximation measures, replication and meta-analysis, sound reasoning, and theory appraisal and corroboration. The book is organized into five general areas. The first presents an overview of significance testing issues that sythesizes the highlights of the remainder of the book. The next discusses the debate in which significance testing should be rejected or retained. The third outlines various methods that may supplement current significance testing procedures. The fourth discusses Bayesian approaches and methods and the use of confidence intervals versus significance tests. The last presents the p...

  3. Reducing Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  4. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  5. Transdermal drug delivery: approaches and significance

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, SATHYANARAYANA

    2012-01-01

    S Narasimha MurthyDepartment of Pharmaceutics, The University of Mississippi, USATransdermal drug delivery systems deliver drugs through the skin as an alternative to oral, intravascular, subcutaneous, and transmucosal routes. Potential advantages of transdermal delivery include, but are not limited to, elimination of first-pass metabolism, steady delivery/blood levels, better patient compliance, reduced systemic drug interactions, possible dose intervention, avoidance of medically assisted d...

  6. Encouraging generic use can yield significant savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christina

    2012-11-01

    Key findings. (1) Zero copayment for generic drugs is the greatest influencer of generic statin utilization. (2) Both higher copayments for generic drugs and lower copayments for competing brands are associated with a decreased probability of using generic statins. (3) Prior authorization and step therapy requirements for brand-name statins are associated with an increased use of generic drugs. (4) Greater use of generic statins should reduce costs for patients, plans, and Medicare.

  7. Reducing The Nuclear Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    off convention • Eliminate the civil use of HEU (includes RERTR ) • Reduce stockpiles of civil HEU and plutonium • Promote alternatives to the...these countries. ANL supports the Department’s Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor ( RERTR ) Program by providing the technical means to...scientists and engineers at 60 institutes in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. The United States and Russia have agreed to pursue a joint RERTR

  8. Using reduce in supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.P. dos.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure which allows one to do Supersymmetry calculus in REDUCE is described. Using the concept of an eight-dimensional 'superspace' (spanned by four space-time and four anticommuting coordinates) and of 'superfields' (which represent an entire supermultiplet of particles that transform among themselves), covariant derivatives with respect to supersymmetry are defined. Then, combining the vector facility and LET statement in REDUCE, spinors are simulated in a way to control the algebraic manipulation. (G.D.F.) [pt

  9. Reducing intratumour acute hypoxia through bevacizumab treatment, referring to the response of quiescent tumour cells and metastatic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, S; Liu, Y; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y; Suzuki, M; Kondo, N; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to evaluate the influence of bevacizumab on intratumour oxygenation status and lung metastasis following radiotherapy, with specific reference to the response of quiescent (Q) cell populations within irradiated tumours. Methods B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. They received γ-ray irradiation following treatment with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide or local mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH) with or without the administration of bevacizumab under aerobic conditions or totally hypoxic conditions, achieved by clamping the proximal end of the tumours. Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (P + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In the other tumour-bearing mice, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated 17 days after irradiation. Results 3 days after bevacizumab administration, acute hypoxia-rich total cell population in the tumour showed a remarkably enhanced radiosensitivity to γ-rays, and the hypoxic fraction (HF) was reduced, even after MTH treatment. However, the hypoxic fraction was not reduced after nicotinamide treatment. With or without γ-ray irradiation, bevacizumab administration showed some potential to reduce the number of lung metastases as well as nicotinamide treatment. Conclusion Bevacizumab has the potential to reduce perfusion-limited acute hypoxia and some potential to cause a decrease in the number of lung metastases as well as nicotinamide. PMID:21586505

  10. Mining Significant Semantic Locations from GPS Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  11. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses and defines the achievement of significance in design science research. We review the values and processes of old-science and how this mode of science attacks the complexity of scientific knowledge production through analysis. We then explain how new-science attacks...... the complexity of scientific knowledge production through synthesis. The work argues that significance of the new-science contribution in design science can be obfuscated when wrapped in old-science. This understanding helps reveal how new-science, such as design science research, constitutes its significance...

  12. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  13. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrack, A.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used.

  14. Can a significance test be genuinely Bayesian?

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carlos A. de B.; Stern, Julio Michael; Wechsler, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The Full Bayesian Significance Test, FBST, is extensively reviewed. Its test statistic, a genuine Bayesian measure of evidence, is discussed in detail. Its behavior in some problems of statistical inference like testing for independence in contingency tables is discussed.

  15. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Register of Historic Places or may cause loss or destruction of significant scientific, cultural, or... cultural resources, park lands, prime farmlands, wetlands, wild and scenic rivers, or ecologically critical...

  16. Economically Significant Sites - OSPR [ds356

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This point data set shows locations of Economically Significant Sites along the California coast from Del Norte to San Diego counties. Data for locating these points...

  17. Contribution of radiodiagnosis to genetically significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pele, J.M.; Ouvrard, R.

    Surveys were carried out in France on 33,000 X-ray medical examinations. The genetically significant dose to the whole population from roentgenography and fluoroscopy, for typical examinations, should be about 65mrads [fr

  18. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrack, A.G.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used

  19. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  20. Asymptomatic bacteriuria. Clinical significance and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Raul

    2003-10-01

    The clinical significance and management of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) differs according to different groups of patients. ASB requires antibiotic treatment in pregnant women, children aged 5-6 years and prior to invasive genitourinary procedures. However, there is a consensus that ASB in the elderly, healthy school girls and young women, diabetic women and patients with indwelling catheters or intermittent catheterization has no clinical significance and antibiotic prescription is not indicated.

  1. Formal conditions for the significance-effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The significance-effect is the right effect of meaning caused upon an interpreting mind. The right effect is understood as the right interpretation of an intended meaning caused by a sign communicated by an utterer. In the article, which is inspired by Charles S. Peirce's doctrine of signs, his s...... semeiotics and his theory of communication, we account for the formal conditions that have to be present for the release of the significance-effect....

  2. Significance of Hemispheric Security for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    La Seguridad Internacional, la Nueva Geopolitica Continental y Mexico ,” Seminario Internacional sobre Misiones de Paz, Seguridad y Defensa, Rio de...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT SIGNIFICANCE OF HEMISPHERIC SECURITY FOR MEXICO by LTC Enrique Garcia Jaramillo Cavalry, Mexican Army COL Joseph R...xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance of Hemispheric Security for Mexico Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  3. Building stones can be of geoheritage significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocx, Margaret; Semeniuk, Vic

    2017-04-01

    Building stones have generally been assigned values according to their cultural, aesthetic, and rarity significance, amongst other criteria, but they also may have geoheritage significance. This is akin to the geoheritage significance ascribed to minerals and fossils housed as ex situ specimens in museums. We proffer the notion that building stones can be of geoheritage value particularly where they comprise permanent buildings, they illustrate significant windows into the history of the Earth, and they can be visited as an ex situ museum locality (e.g., the "Blue Granite" of Iceland) for education as part of building-stone tours. For some rocks the quarries that supplied the building stone are no longer in existence and hence the building stones provide the only record of that type of material; for other rocks, the building stone may illustrate features in the lithology no longer present in the quarry itself (e.g., rare and large xenoliths). Building stones are particularly significant as they are often polished and manifest structures, fabrics, and textures not evident in outcrop. We illustrate here examples of building stone of geoheritage significance using Australian and International examples. Australian designated stones could include the "Sydney Sandstone" or "Victorian Bluestone". For international examples, there is the famous "Carrara Marble" in Italy and the widely known "Portland Limestone" from southern England, the latter having been utilized for St Pauls Cathedral in London and the UN building in New York City.

  4. Micronúcleos em tétrades de Tradescantia pallida (Rose Hunt. cv. purpurea Boom: alterações genéticas decorrentes de poluição aérea urbana = Micronuclei in tetrads of Tradescantia pallida (Rose Hunt. cv. purpurea Boom: genetic changes caused by urban air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizenando José de Andrade Júnior

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A atmosfera urbana contém uma mistura de poluentes que inclui substâncias mutagênicas e carcinogênicas. Associação entre estas substâncias e problemas respiratório e cardiovascular, além do aumento de determinados tipos de cânceres, é estabelecida na literatura. Assim, o biomonitoramento é importante para avaliar o potencial genotóxico da atmosfera urbana. O Teste de Micronúcleo em Tradescantia (Trad-MCN é um dos bioensaios usados para detecção de efeitos genotóxicos. Este teste é baseado na formação de micronúcleos resultante de quebra cromossômica na meiose das células-mãe do grão de pólen de inflorescências de Tradescantia ssp. Neste estudo, Trad-MCN foi utilizado para avaliar o potencial mutagênico do aratmosférico em duas áreas de tráfego diferenciado na cidade de Senhor do Bonfim, Estado da Bahia: 1 Rodovia Lomanto Júnior (RLJ, uma área de tráfego intenso, e 2 Praça Nova do Congresso (PNC, área de menor fluxo de veículos. O controle negativo (CTR foi instalado noCampus VII da Universidade do Estado da Bahia. Plantas expostas na RLJ e na PNC apresentaram frequência de micronúcleo (MCN mais alta em comparação com as plantas CTR (p The urban atmosphere contains a mixture of air pollutants, including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances. Associations betweenurban pollutants and respiratory/cardiovascular diseases and a greater incidence of certain cancer types have already been established in literature. Thus, biomonitoring procedures are required to evaluate the genotoxic potential of urban atmospheres. The Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad- MCN test is one of the most commonly used bioassays for the detection of genotoxic effects. Itis based on the formation of micronuclei resulting from chromosome breakage in the meiotic pollen mother cells of Tradescantia ssp. inflorescences. This study dealt with Trad-MCN for assessing the genotoxic potential of air in two areas of the municipality of Senhor do

  5. Significance of Lead Residues in Mallard Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.; Andrews, R.

    1974-01-01

    Tissues of adult, lead-dosed mallards that either died or were sacrificed were analyzed for lead. Lead levels in brains, tibiae, and breast muscle of ducks that died and in tibiae of ducks that were sacrificed increased significantly from dosage until death. Lead in the heart, lung, and blood from sacrificed ducks decreased significantly from dosage until death. Lead concentrations in tissues from ducks in the two groups were not significantly different except for the liver, kidney, and lung. Average lead levels in the livers and kidneys of ducks that died were significantly higher than those in ducks that were sacrificed. The mean concentration of lead in the lungs of the ducks sacrificed was significantly higher than the mean level in the lungs of ducks that died. Measurements of the lead concentrations in this study, when compared with lead levels reported in the literature for avian and non-avian species, showed that arbitrary diagnostic levels indicating lead poisoning could be set. In mallard ducks, lead levels exceeding 3 ppm in the brain, 6 to 20 ppm in the kidney or liver, or 10 ppm in clotted blood from the heart indicated acute exposure to lead.

  6. Clinical significance of anismus in encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto-Smith, A G; Nolan, T M; Coffey, C M

    1998-09-01

    Treatments designed to relieve paradoxical contraction of the anal sphincters during defecation (anismus) have had limited success in children with encopresis. This has raised doubts as to the clinical relevance of this diagnosis in childhood as anorectal dysfunction. Our aim was to determine whether, in patients who had treatment-resistant encopresis, the presence of electromyographic anismus was associated with increased faecal retention. Sixty-eight children with soiling (mean age 8.7+/-2.06 years) were assessed by clinical examination, abdominal radiography and then with anorectal manometry. Patients with electromyographic anismus (n=32; 47%) had significantly increased radiographic rectal faecal retention and were significantly less likely to be able to defecate water-filled balloons. There were no significant differences in response to prior therapy, history of primary encopresis, behavioural adjustment or in sociodemographic data. Our results suggest that electromyographic anismus is associated with obstructed defecation and faecal retention.

  7. Innovative Phase Change Approach for Significant Energy Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    related to the production, use, transmission , storage, control, or conservation of energy that will – (A) reduce the need for additional energy supplies...Conditions set for operation were: a. The computer with the broadband wireless card is to be used for data collection, transmission and...FINAL REPORT Innovative Phase Change Approach for Significant Energy Savings ESTCP Project EW-201138 SEPTEMBER 2016 Dr. Aly H Shaaban Applied

  8. Significant improvement in the thermal annealing process of optical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzenstein, Patrice; Zarubin, Mikhail

    2017-05-01

    Thermal annealing performed during process improves the quality of the roughness of optical resonators reducing stresses at the periphery of their surface thus allowing higher Q-factors. After a preliminary realization, the design of the oven and the electronic method were significantly improved thanks to nichrome resistant alloy wires and chopped basalt fibers for thermal isolation during the annealing process. Q-factors can then be improved.

  9. Statistical significance of cis-regulatory modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Andrew D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is becoming increasingly important for researchers to be able to scan through large genomic regions for transcription factor binding sites or clusters of binding sites forming cis-regulatory modules. Correspondingly, there has been a push to develop algorithms for the rapid detection and assessment of cis-regulatory modules. While various algorithms for this purpose have been introduced, most are not well suited for rapid, genome scale scanning. Results We introduce methods designed for the detection and statistical evaluation of cis-regulatory modules, modeled as either clusters of individual binding sites or as combinations of sites with constrained organization. In order to determine the statistical significance of module sites, we first need a method to determine the statistical significance of single transcription factor binding site matches. We introduce a straightforward method of estimating the statistical significance of single site matches using a database of known promoters to produce data structures that can be used to estimate p-values for binding site matches. We next introduce a technique to calculate the statistical significance of the arrangement of binding sites within a module using a max-gap model. If the module scanned for has defined organizational parameters, the probability of the module is corrected to account for organizational constraints. The statistical significance of single site matches and the architecture of sites within the module can be combined to provide an overall estimation of statistical significance of cis-regulatory module sites. Conclusion The methods introduced in this paper allow for the detection and statistical evaluation of single transcription factor binding sites and cis-regulatory modules. The features described are implemented in the Search Tool for Occurrences of Regulatory Motifs (STORM and MODSTORM software.

  10. How do we make sense of significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Determination of significance is widely recognised as an important step in environmental assessment (EA) processes. The prescriptive literature and guidance on significance determination is comprehensive within the field of EA, whereas descriptive and explorative studies of how we go about making......' sense-making, including important differences in the way individuals screen and scope. These patterns concern what we notice, how fast we frame the choice, and when we are critical about the provided information. The indications provide a basis for reflections on practice and on how to organise EA...

  11. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr 90 , the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  12. Significance of Fractionated Administration of Thalidomide Combined With γ-Ray Irradiation in Terms of Local Tumor Response and Lung Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Sanada, Yu; Moriwaki, Takahiro; Tano, Keizo; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of fractionated administration of thalidomide combined with γ-ray irradiation in terms of local tumor response and lung metastatic potential, referring to the response of intratumor quiescent (Q) cells. Methods B16-BL6 melanoma tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. The tumor-bearing mice then received γ-ray irradiation after thalidomide treatment through a single or two consecutive daily intraperitoneal administrations up to a total dose of 400 mg/kg in combination with an acute hypoxia-releasing agent (nicotinamide) or mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumors were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (= P + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumor-bearing mice, 17 days after irradiation, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated. Results Thalidomide raised the sensitivity of the total cell population more remarkably than Q cells in both single and daily administrations. Daily administration of thalidomide elevated the sensitivity of both the total and Q cell populations, but especially the total cell population, compared with single administration. Daily administration, especially combined with MTH, decreased the number of lung metastases. Conclusion Daily fractionated administration of thalidomide in combination with γ-ray irradiation was thought to be more promising than single administration because of its potential to enhance local tumor response and repress lung metastatic potential. PMID:29147396

  13. Changing relationships with significant others: Reflections of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symbolic interactionism provides the framework for analysing the building of relationships between elite athletes and their significant others. In-depth interviews were conducted with elite throwers and decathlon athletes. The sample included current (n=15) and retired (n=5) student-athletes, parents (n=5), coaches (n=2) ...

  14. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  15. Incidence and Significance of Haematemesis in Cirrhosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... veloped encephalopathy and coma. It was found that more patients fell into the latter group (50 cases) than into the group with haematemesis (with or without encephalopathy). (45 cases), but there was no significant difference in the mortality rate of the groups. s. Afr. Med. l., 48, 1155 (1974). It has for some ...

  16. Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...

  17. The Significance of the Nursery School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    From the standpoint of mental health and perhaps even from the standpoint of human culture, the complete realization of the educational possibilities of the preschool child is of foundational significance. Normative and comparative studies performed at a psychological clinic at Yale examining norms of development in children from one month to five…

  18. Scope and Significance of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E.; Eckert, Elke D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the increasing prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in many industrialized societies, and their association with significant morbidity and mortality. Discusses the genetic risks for the development of anorexia nervosa, and treatment strategies. Of these, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, particularly those incorporating…

  19. Soil physicochemical properties and their significance for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil physicochemical properties and their significance for sustainable sugarcane production in Kesem Allaideghe plains irrigation project area, Eastern Ethiopia. ... In order to improve soil structure and water availability, addition of gypsum, plant residues and organic matter are recommended. Keywords: Soil survey ...

  20. Petrochemistry and geotectonic significance of enderbite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrochemistry and geotectonic significance of enderbite-charnockite association in the Pan-African Obudu plateau, southeastern Nigeria. VU Ukaegbu, FT Beka. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 43 (1) 2007: pp. 1-14. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  1. The Historical Significance of the Universal Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Asbjorn

    1998-01-01

    Explains the historical significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Focuses on the initiative for the Declaration and its elaboration, the precursors to modern human rights, the foundation of the Declaration, the rights contained in the Universal Declaration, three modes of human rights analysis, and global governance and human…

  2. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Macgorine A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  3. Cystic echinococcosis: prevalence and economic significance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 at ELFORA export abattoir to determine the prevalence, cyst viability, organ distribution and economic significance of small ruminant cystic echinococcosis. A total of 850 small ruminants (400 sheep and 450 goats), were examined for the presence of ...

  4. Significance of Literature in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Ruzbeh; Yahya, Wan Roselezam Bt Wan

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to consider literature as a significant tool for teaching fundamental language skills including speaking, listening, reading and writing. Reasons for the use of literature in language classrooms and major factors for choosing appropriate kinds of literary texts in such classes should be highlighted in order to make readers aware…

  5. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.39 Significance. (a) If the...

  6. [Current clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, Roman; Marešová, Veronika; Brož, Zdeněk

    2010-10-01

    to estimate tje current clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia in a group of Czech hospitals. this retrospective analysis comprised 8 444 anaerobic blood cultures in patients admitted to four Czech hospitals between 2004 and 2007. in 16 patients, blood cultures yielded significant anaerobic bacteria. Thus, anaerobic bacteremia accounted for less than 2 % of clinically significant bacteremia. Four patients (18 %) died but none of the deaths could be clearly attributable to anaerobic bacteria in the bloodstream. The most common comorbidities predisposing to anaerobic bacteremia and the most frequent sources of infection were similar to those reported by other authors. The majority of anaerobic bacteremia cases were due to gram-negative bacteria, followed by Clostridium perfringens and, surprisingly, Eubacterium spp. (particularly Eubacterium lentum). anaerobic bacteremia remains rare. The comparison of our data with those by other authors suggests that (despite the reported high mortality) the actual clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia is rather controversial and that the anaerobic bacteremia might not correspond to more serious pathogenic role of the anaerobic bacteria as the source of infection.

  7. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    This paper aims at discussing and defining what it is that makes design science research significant. First it reviews the values and processes of old science and how this attacks complexity through analysis. It then shows how new science attacks complexity through synthesis. Then the paper argue...

  8. Reduced Braginskii equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Horton, W. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

    1993-11-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite {beta} that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm`s law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation {del} {center_dot} j = 0.

  9. Reduced Braginskii equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W.

    1993-11-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm's law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation ∇ · j = 0

  10. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  11. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if M is a von Neumann regular module (VNM); i.e., every principal submodule of M is a summand submodule. Also if M is an injective R-module, then M is a VNM. Keywords. Multiplication module; reduced module; minimal prime submodule;. Zariski topology; extremally disconnected. 1. Introduction. In this paper all rings are ...

  12. Reduced Braginskii equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W.

    1994-01-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that the perpendicular component of Ohm's law be solved to ensure ∇·j=0 for energy conservation

  13. Rheological measurements in reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.

    1999-01-01

    Rheology of fluidized beds and settling suspensions were studied experimentally in a series of reduced gravity parabolic flights aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Silica sands of two different size distributions were fluidized by air. The slurries were made using silica sand and Glycerol solution. The experimental set up incorporated instrumentation to measure the air flow rate, the pressure drop and the apparent viscosity of the fluidized sand and sand suspensions at a wide range of the shear rates. The fluidization chamber and container had transparent walls to allow visualization of the structure changes involved in fluidization and in Couette flow in reduced gravity. Experiments were performed over a broad range of gravitational accelerations including microgravity and double gravity conditions. The results of the flight and ground experiments reveal significant differences in overall void fraction and hence in the apparent viscosity of fluidized sand and sand suspensions under microgravity as compared to one-g conditions.

  14. Physiological significance of polyploidization in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Shusil K; Westendorp, Bart; de Bruin, Alain

    2013-11-01

    Programmed polyploidization occurs in all mammalian species during development and aging in selected tissues, but the biological properties of polyploid cells remain obscure. Spontaneous polyploidization arises during stress and has been observed in a variety of pathological conditions, such as cancer and degenerative diseases. A major challenge in the field is to test the predicted functions of polyploidization in vivo. However, recent genetic mouse models with diminished polyploidization phenotypes represent novel, powerful tools to unravel the biological function of polyploidization. Contrary to a longstanding hypothesis, polyploidization appears to not be required for differentiation and has no obvious impact on proliferation. Instead, polyploidization leads to increased cell size and genetic diversity, which could promote better adaptation to chronic injury or stress. We discuss here the consequences of reducing polyploidization in mice and review which stress responses and molecular signals trigger polyploidization during development and disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Significance of stepwise excretion pattern in renogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Nagara; Ishihara, Takashi; Mori, Toru; Bito, Sanae; Ito, Hidetomi

    1981-01-01

    In 204 routine renogram examinations using 131 I-iodohippurate, stepwise excretion curves were observed in 22 cases (14 with chronic thyroiditis, 4 with idiopathic edema, 3 with lower urinary tract disorders, and 1 with Bartter's syndrome). Such a phenomenon was observed in 74% of euthyroid edematous patients with chronic thyroiditis and 57% of patients with idiopathic edema. The stepwise pattern was considered to have certain correlations with spasm or increased peristalsis of the urinary tract through the studies of excretory urogram, butylscopolamine treated renogram, and regional renogram. In one of these edematous patients with chronic thyroiditis, this renogram pattern could not be reproduced after bed rest corresponding with the clinical evidence that physical rest reduce the edema. Thus, the stepwise excretory pattern in renogram seemed to be a useful indicator of the fluctuating edema in patients with chronic thyroiditis and idiopathic edema. (author)

  16. Hypothermia reduces sulphur mustard toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Lei; Gong Wenrong; Nelson, Peggy; Martin, Leanne; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of sulphur mustard (HD)-induced toxicity was investigated in first passage cultures of human skin keratinocytes and on hairless guinea pig skin. When cells exposed to HD were incubated at 37 deg. C, a concentration-dependent decline in viability was observed that was maximal by 2 days. In contrast, no significant HD-induced toxicity was evident up to 4 days posttreatment when the cells were incubated at 25 deg. C. However, these protective effects were lost by 24 h when the cells were switched back to 37 deg. C. The protective effects of hypothermia were also demonstrated when apoptotic endpoints were examined. The HD concentration-dependent induction of fragmented DNA (as quantitated using soluble DNA and the TUNEL reaction), morphology, and p53 expression were all significantly depressed when cell cultures were incubated at 25 deg. C compared to 37 deg. C. When animals were exposed to HD vapour for 2, 4, and 6 min and left at room temperature, lesions were produced whose severity was dependent on exposure time and that were maximal by 72 h posttreatment. Moderate cooling (5-10 deg. C) of HD exposure sites posttreatment (4-6 h) significantly reduced the severity of the resultant lesions. However, in contrast to the in vitro results, these effects were permanent. It appears that the early and noninvasive act of cooling HD-exposed skin may provide a facile means of reducing the severity of HD-induced cutaneous lesions

  17. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs.

  18. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs

  19. Respiratory neuroplasticity - Overview, significance and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, David D; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2017-01-01

    Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing. However, our appreciation for its importance is still relatively new, and we have much to learn concerning different forms of plasticity, their underlying mechanisms, and their biological and clinical significance. In this brief review, we discuss several well-studied models of respiratory plasticity, including plasticity initiated by inactivity in the respiratory system, intermittent and sustained hypoxia, and traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Other aspects of respiratory plasticity are considered in other contributions to this special edition of Experimental Neurology on respiratory plasticity. Finally, we conclude with discussions concerning the biological and clinical significance of respiratory motor plasticity, and areas in need of future research effort. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Dual purpose or not? The significant factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, W.; Roland, V.

    1999-01-01

    The development of spent fuel storage systems requires consideration of many factors in making design decisions. A significant issue affecting the design is the need to incorporate transportability of the canister or cask system design, which results in major changes to the storage system design. This paper presents a review of the significant factors affecting storage system design to incorporate transportation requirements and looks at the trends in both the United States and Europe where Transnucleaire and its US affiliated companies Transnuclear Inc., Transnuclear West and PacTec are active. A discussion is also presented relative to the pros and cons of whether the spent fuel storage system vendor should anticipate these transportation needs in the design of their systems. (author)

  1. Cross wavelet analysis: significance testing and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maraun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a detailed evaluation of cross wavelet analysis of bivariate time series. We develop a statistical test for zero wavelet coherency based on Monte Carlo simulations. If at least one of the two processes considered is Gaussian white noise, an approximative formula for the critical value can be utilized. In a second part, typical pitfalls of wavelet cross spectra and wavelet coherency are discussed. The wavelet cross spectrum appears to be not suitable for significance testing the interrelation between two processes. Instead, one should rather apply wavelet coherency. Furthermore we investigate problems due to multiple testing. Based on these results, we show that coherency between ENSO and NAO is an artefact for most of the time from 1900 to 1995. However, during a distinct period from around 1920 to 1940, significant coherency between the two phenomena occurs.

  2. Significance and radioimmunoassay of gastric inhibitory polypeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ping; Zeng Minde; Yuan Jimin

    1995-01-01

    We have established the GIP Radioimmunoassay which has high sensitivity and specificity by labelling with iodogen and purified with HPLC. Using this method, the plasma GIP level was measured in 64 cases of which there are 10 normal individuals, 25 cases of diabetes and 29 cases of liver cirrhosis . The results showed that the plasma GIP level was significantly increased in patients with liver cirrhosis and correlated to degree of glucose tolerance damage

  3. Prevalence of significant bacteriuria among symptomatic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Ill). Results: A total of 100 consenting participants were recruited into the study. The mean age was: 23.42 ± 8.31 years and a range of 14‑50 years. Only 9% (9/100) had significant bacteriuria while 44.4% (4/9) ...

  4. Impact significance determination-Designing an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    The question of how best to go about determining the significance of impacts has, to date, only been addressed in a partial and preliminary way. The assumption tends to be made that it is either only necessary to provide explicit, justified reasons for a judgment about significance and/or to explicitly apply a prescribed procedure-a procedure usually involving the staged application of thresholds and/or criteria. The detailed attributes, strengths and limitations of such approaches and possible alternative approaches have yet to be explored systematically. This article addresses these deficiencies by analyzing the characteristics, specific methods and positive and negative tendencies of three general impact significance determination approaches-the technical approach, the collaborative approach and the reasoned argumentation approach. A range of potential composite approaches are also described. With an enhanced understanding of these approaches, together with potential combinations, EIA practitioners and other EIA participants can be in a better position to select an approach appropriate to their needs, to reinforce the positive tendencies and offset the negative tendencies of the selected approach and to combine the best qualities of more than one approach

  5. Significance of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Nobuko; Ogami, Koji; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Koga, Kenji; Waki, Norio; Higashi, Hidefumi; Hayashi, Asami; Shibata, Koichiro; Watanabe, Katsuji

    1986-01-01

    From 1978 through 1983, 27 patients were treated with surgery followed by irradiation (irradiated group) and 29 with surery alone (non-irradiated group). In the irradiated group, 10 had stage II and 17 stage III; in the non-irradiated group, 25 had stage II and 4 stage III. The most common histology was medullary tubular carcinoma (MTC). There was no significant difference in survivals at 3 years and 5 years between the groups. Similarly, no significant difference was seen among stage II patients. Patients with MTC tended to have worse survivals in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group, with no statistically significant difference. Among stage II patients, no major differences in local recurrence were seen between the groups; the incidence of distant metastases tended to be high in the irradiated group. The incidence of both local recurrence and distant metastases for stage III patients showed a tendency to be higher in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group. The results indicated no apparent benifit of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. A randomized clinical trial is needed for the evaluation of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Clinical significance of dental root canal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B P; Lilley, J D; Drucker, D B

    1996-01-01

    Previous work by this group has shown that a significant association exists between pain and the presence of either Prevotella or Peptostreptococcus spp. in dental root canals. The aim of this study was to examine a more extensive series of canals microbiologically, to determine whether any other particular endodontic symptoms or clinical signs showed specific associations with individual bacterial species. Seventy root canals were examined microbiologically and clinical data collected to investigate in detail such associations. Of the canals studied, 37 were associated with pain, 49 with tenderness to percussion, 23 with swelling, six with purulent exudate and 57 presented with wet root canals. Anaerobes were isolated from 70.3% of painful canals and from 29.7% of pain-free canals. Significant associations were found between (a) pain and either Prevotella spp. or peptostreptococci, both with P spp. (P Eubacterium spp. (P spp. or Pstr. micros, both with P spp. (each P Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella or Propionibacterium (each P < 0.05). It was concluded that several different endodontic clinical signs and symptoms are significantly associated with specific bacterial species.

  7. Why reduce health inequalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, A; Kawachi, I

    2000-12-01

    It is well known that social, cultural and economic factors cause substantial inequalities in health. Should we strive to achieve a more even share of good health, beyond improving the average health status of the population? We examine four arguments for the reduction of health inequalities.1 Inequalities are unfair. Inequalities in health are undesirable to the extent that they are unfair, or unjust. Distinguishing between health inequalities and health inequities can be contentious. Our view is that inequalities become "unfair" when poor health is itself the consequence of an unjust distribution of the underlying social determinants of health (for example, unequal opportunities in education or employment).2 Inequalities affect everyone. Conditions that lead to marked health disparities are detrimental to all members of society. Some types of health inequalities have obvious spillover effects on the rest of society, for example, the spread of infectious diseases, the consequences of alcohol and drug misuse, or the occurrence of violence and crime.3 Inequalities are avoidable. Disparities in health are avoidable to the extent that they stem from identifiable policy options exercised by governments, such as tax policy, regulation of business and labour, welfare benefits and health care funding. It follows that health inequalities are, in principle, amenable to policy interventions. A government that cares about improving the health of the population ought therefore to incorporate considerations of the health impact of alternative options in its policy setting process.3 Interventions to reduce health inequalities are cost effective. Public health programmes that reduce health inequalities can also be cost effective. The case can be made to give priority to such programmes (for example, improving access to cervical cancer screening in low income women) on efficiency grounds. On the other hand, few programmes designed to reduce health inequalities have been formally

  8. Dietary Polyphenols and Their Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Lou

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols represent a wide variety of compounds that occur in fruits,vegetables, wine, tea, extra virgin olive oil, chocolate and other cocoa products. They aremostly derivatives and/or isomers of flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, catechins andphenolic acids, and possess diverse biological properties such as antioxidant, antiapoptosis,anti-aging, anticarcinogen, anti-inflammation, anti-atherosclerosis, cardiovascularprotection, improvement of the endothelial function, as well as inhibition of angiogenesisand cell proliferation activity. Most of these biological actions have been attributed to theirintrinsic reducing capabilities. They may also offer indirect protection by activatingendogenous defense systems and by modulating cellular signaling processes such asnuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB activation, activator protein-1(AP-1 DNA binding,glutathione biosynthesis, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt pathway,mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK proteins [extracellular signal-regulated proteinkinase (ERK, c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and P38 ] activation, and the translocationinto the nucleus of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2. This paper covers themost recent literature on the subject, and describes the biological mechanisms of action andprotective effects of dietary polyphenols.

  9. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  10. Assessing the significance of Heidegger's Black Notebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malpas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The publication of Heidegger's Black Notebooks (Schwarze Hefte has provoked a storm of controversy. Much of this has centred on the pro-Nazi and anti-Semitic comments the volumes contain. But these aspects of the Notebooks are perhaps the least surprising and important. This essay offers a summary overview of the issues to which the Notebooks give rise, at the same time as it also aims to provide a preliminary assessment of their overall significance, especially in relation to what they show about the nature and development of Heidegger's thinking from the early 1930s to the late 1940s.

  11. Os odontoideum: a significant radiographic finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choit, Rachel L.; Reilly, Christopher W.; Jamieson, Douglas H.

    2005-01-01

    Os odontoideum can lead to instability of the atlantoaxial joint and places the spinal cord at significant risk for acute catastrophic events after minor trauma or chronic neurological change. We present two cases of os odontoideum in pediatric patients that were not appreciated at earlier remote imaging but were, in retrospect, detectable. One patient presented with an acute spinal cord injury. Incorporating assessment of dens integrity into the evaluation algorithm for all pediatric cervical spine studies should lead to early detection of os odontoideum lesions and allow referral to appropriate clinical spinal services for evaluation, surveillance and possible surgery to prevent future complications. (orig.)

  12. Detecting significant changes in protein abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kammers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We review and demonstrate how an empirical Bayes method, shrinking a protein's sample variance towards a pooled estimate, leads to far more powerful and stable inference to detect significant changes in protein abundance compared to ordinary t-tests. Using examples from isobaric mass labelled proteomic experiments we show how to analyze data from multiple experiments simultaneously, and discuss the effects of missing data on the inference. We also present easy to use open source software for normalization of mass spectrometry data and inference based on moderated test statistics.

  13. Perspectives on Gandhi’s Significance Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Simpson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gandhi’s example has inspired countless political struggles worldwide over the past century. We might then ask how his thought has been transferred and translated when taken out of the particular historical and geographic context in which he lived. How have Gandhi’s ideas been changed or altered when adopted in different contexts? Which aspects of Gandhi’s thinking remain most relevant to struggles for social and environmental justice today? These are just a few of the questions that were discussed at the “Perspectives on Gandhi’s Significance Workshop” hosted by Reed College in Portland Oregon (USA, on April 16th, 2016.

  14. Significant events caused by extraneous acts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verlaeken, J.

    1987-01-01

    The operating experience feedback system of VINCOTTE, called ARIANE, consists, among others, of preparing synthesis reports on specific safety concerns. A recent report deals with significant events caused by extranous acts. Events attributable to human error are numerous. Confusion errors have already been analysed in several publications (NES IRS 664 etc.). However, are described here some ten incidents where extranous acts occurred: ZION 2 (September 76), OYSTER CREEK (May 79), PALISADES (January 81), CATAWBA (August 85), etc. The contributing factors for these unfortunate initiatives are explained; several resort to psychological influences. Corrective actions are discussed, and some general lessons are drawn. (author)

  15. Medical significance of the essential biological metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, I.J.T.

    1977-01-01

    The medical significance of the essential biological metals such as zinc, copper and molybdenum as well as their nutritional and biochemical importance are reviewed. The following topics are treated: biochemical actions of the essential biological metals; the concept of essentiality; the development of knowledge about the essential biological metals. Data are given on zinc deficiency and hypogonadismi in humans, zinc and acrodermatitis enterophatica, zinc and the skin, zinc in diabetes mellitus, zinc and insulin, zinc and the liver; copper functions, copper deficiency - ''sway back'' in sheep, copper and haemopoiesis, copper and the function of blood vessels; molybdenum and dental caries in humans, oesophageal carcinoma and molybdenum deficiency in humans. (T.G.)

  16. Non-destructive testing: significant facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, Hector; Ruch, Marta C.

    2006-01-01

    In the last fifty years different organisations, both public and private, have been assigned to the mission of introducing into the country the most relevant aspects of the modern technological discipline 'Non Destructive Testing' (NDT) through a manifold of activities, such as training and education, research, development, technical assistance and services, personnel qualification/certification and standardisation. A review is given of the significant facts in this process, in which the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission, CNEA, played a leading part, a balance of the accomplishments is made and a forecast of the future of the activity is sketched. (author) [es

  17. Os odontoideum: a significant radiographic finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choit, Rachel L.; Reilly, Christopher W. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jamieson, Douglas H. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada)

    2005-08-01

    Os odontoideum can lead to instability of the atlantoaxial joint and places the spinal cord at significant risk for acute catastrophic events after minor trauma or chronic neurological change. We present two cases of os odontoideum in pediatric patients that were not appreciated at earlier remote imaging but were, in retrospect, detectable. One patient presented with an acute spinal cord injury. Incorporating assessment of dens integrity into the evaluation algorithm for all pediatric cervical spine studies should lead to early detection of os odontoideum lesions and allow referral to appropriate clinical spinal services for evaluation, surveillance and possible surgery to prevent future complications. (orig.)

  18. Significant exposures to isoeugenol derivaties in perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2008-01-01

    in perfumes/aftershaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 29 international brand perfumes/aftershaves were analysed for the target fragrance ingredient by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All samples were analysed in duplicate at detection levels of 1-5 p.p.m. RESULTS: 16 products (55%) contained isoeugenol...... was not detected in any of the investigated products. CONCLUSIONS: Isoeugenyl acetate is present in perfumes/aftershaves, in some products in significant amounts. This may lead to elicitation of contact allergy in isoeugenol-sensitized individuals and may contribute to unchanged levels of isoeugenol sensitization....

  19. pancreatic steatosis: diagnosis and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Daðdeviren

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic steatosis (PS, with increased use of abdominal imaging in recent years generally appears as incidental. But it is a condition that is often overlooked. The reason for this is not yet fully demonstrated the clinical significance of PS while. However, in recent years, there are some studies conducted on the relationship with ps and other disease such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. In this review, the etiology, diagnosis, treatment and clinical characteristics of ps were evaluated in the light of recent literature and current approaches. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 107-112

  20. Significance of abolishing British National Oil Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabro, R

    1985-04-01

    The decision to abolish British National Oil Corporation has greater significance than any commentator, so far, has cared to admit. Mr. Mabro says the Government has done much more than get rid of an institution it had previously weakened and emasculated; in effect, it had abdicated its responsibilities for the pricing of North Sea oil. He further observes that these moves may be consistent with the tenets of a simplistic free-market ideology: they betray, however, a lack of understanding of the economics of oil, and of the UK economic interest in oil.

  1. Reducing Employment Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lebert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013. Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.

  2. Sonographic ally Detected Architectural Distortion: Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Kee; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Baek Hyun; Cho, Kyu Ran; Kim, Young Sik; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Young [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Architectural distortion is a suspicious abnormality for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of sonographic ally detected architectural distortion. From January 2006 to June 2008, 20 patients were identified who had sonographic ally detected architectural distortions without a history of trauma or surgery and abnormal mammographic findings related to an architectural distortion. All of the lesions were pathologically verified. We evaluated the clinical and pathological findings and then assessed the clinical significance of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions. Based on the clinical findings, one (5%) of the 20 patients had a palpable lump and the remaining 19 patients had no symptoms. No patient had a family history of breast cancer. Based on the pathological findings, three (15%) patients had malignancies. The malignant lesions included invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 2) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 1). Four (20%) patients had high-risk lesions: atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 3) and lobular carcinoma in situ (n = 1). The remaining 13 (65%) patients had benign lesions, however, seven (35%) out of 13 patients had mild-risk lesions (three intraductal papillomas, three moderate or florid epithelial hyperplasia and one sclerosing adenosis). Of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions, 35% were breast cancers or high-risk lesions and 35% were mild-risk lesions. Thus, a biopsy might be needed for an architectural distortion without an associated mass as depicted on breast ultrasound, even though the mammographic findings are normal

  3. Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.; Jones, R.

    1988-12-31

    Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root systems. Keeley proposes that this trait would be of greatest advantage in swamps where soils provide poor mechanical support. He provides as evidence a greenhouse study of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh in which seedlings of swamp provenance formed between-individual root grafts more frequently than upland provenance seedlings. In agreement with this within-species study, Keeley observed that arid zone species rarely exhibit grafts. Keeley also demonstrated that vines graft less commonly than trees, and herbs never do. Since the need for mechanical support coincides with this trend, these data seem to support his model. In this paper, the authors explore the mechanisms and ecological significance of root grafting, leading to predictions of root grafting incidence. Some observations support and some contradict the mechanical support hypothesis.

  4. Could patients' coughing have communicative significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Julia V

    2008-01-01

    Medical discourse positions patients with coughs and colds negatively, so consulting health services with 'minor' respiratory illness is therefore more accountable than for other medical problems. Patients face dilemmas since they must persuade doctors of the doctorability of their illness without being seen as hypochondriacal, and they risk losing face if doctors decide that there is nothing much wrong. It is known that the placement of non-lexical features of talk such as laughing or crying can have interactional meaning. Using a data set of video-recorded doctor-patient cough and cold consultations, this study explores whether patients' coughing could have communicative significance. The study is a qualitative analysis of 33 consultations drawing on a constructionist, sociolinguistic analytic approach. Coughing is co-ordinated with talk rather than occurring randomly. Coughing helps patients to demonstrate the doctorability of their symptoms and to legitimize their claims for medical attention. Coughing is also associated with resistance to 'no problem' diagnoses, resulting in changes in the trajectory of talk (for example, soliciting more explanation from doctors and/or re-negotiation of doctors' investigation or treatment plans). Coughing is undoubtedly a manifestation of respiratory illness, but also has communicative significance in consultations for coughs and colds.

  5. Significance and popularity in music production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. `Significant' or `influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  6. Sonographic ally Detected Architectural Distortion: Clinical Significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shin Kee; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Baek Hyun; Cho, Kyu Ran; Kim, Young Sik; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Young

    2008-01-01

    Architectural distortion is a suspicious abnormality for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of sonographic ally detected architectural distortion. From January 2006 to June 2008, 20 patients were identified who had sonographic ally detected architectural distortions without a history of trauma or surgery and abnormal mammographic findings related to an architectural distortion. All of the lesions were pathologically verified. We evaluated the clinical and pathological findings and then assessed the clinical significance of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions. Based on the clinical findings, one (5%) of the 20 patients had a palpable lump and the remaining 19 patients had no symptoms. No patient had a family history of breast cancer. Based on the pathological findings, three (15%) patients had malignancies. The malignant lesions included invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 2) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 1). Four (20%) patients had high-risk lesions: atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 3) and lobular carcinoma in situ (n = 1). The remaining 13 (65%) patients had benign lesions, however, seven (35%) out of 13 patients had mild-risk lesions (three intraductal papillomas, three moderate or florid epithelial hyperplasia and one sclerosing adenosis). Of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions, 35% were breast cancers or high-risk lesions and 35% were mild-risk lesions. Thus, a biopsy might be needed for an architectural distortion without an associated mass as depicted on breast ultrasound, even though the mammographic findings are normal

  7. Significance and popularity in music production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D P; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. 'Significant' or 'influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  8. Origin and significance of defects in welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    In the past 10 to 15 years significant advances have taken place in the understanding of the origin and nature of weld discontinuities. The furthering of the knowledge of hot cracking, cold cracking, lamellar tearing and porosity formation is due to the development and utilization of sophisticated techniques for microscopy and microanalysis and the concerted efforts of many researchers in the U.S. and abroad. Concurrent with the progress toward better definition of the metallurgical mechanisms for discontinuity formation, the development of the fracture mechanics approach for the assessment of the significance of the discontinuities was brought into focus. It is the marriage of the metallurgical understanding of formation and the mechanics assessment of relevance that permits discontinuities to be treated with a new degree of sophistication. The many types of cracking and porosity formation were the subjects of numerous studies in the intervening years. This presentation will treat the various types of weld discontinuities which have their origin closely related to a metallurgical mechanism. Emphasis will be placed on hot cracking, and porosity formation with information presented on cold cracking, reheat cracking and lamellar tearing. The employment of the newer metallurgical tools will be discussed in terms of their utilization in determining the cause of discontinuity formation

  9. Biased lineups: sequential presentation reduces the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, R C; Lea, J A; Nosworthy, G J; Fulford, J A; Hector, J; LeVan, V; Seabrook, C

    1991-12-01

    Biased lineups have been shown to increase significantly false, but not correct, identification rates (Lindsay, Wallbridge, & Drennan, 1987; Lindsay & Wells, 1980; Malpass & Devine, 1981). Lindsay and Wells (1985) found that sequential lineup presentation reduced false identification rates, presumably by reducing reliance on relative judgment processes. Five staged-crime experiments were conducted to examine the effect of lineup biases and sequential presentation on eyewitness recognition accuracy. Sequential lineup presentation significantly reduced false identification rates from fair lineups as well as from lineups biased with regard to foil similarity, instructions, or witness attire, and from lineups biased in all of these ways. The results support recommendations that police present lineups sequentially.

  10. Arcuate foramen and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmark, O.; Gurdal, E.; Cavdar, S.; Ekinci, G.; Yildiz, E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study determines the degree of ossification of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane in dry bone, plane lateral cervical spine radiographs and computer tomography (CT). The average length, width and the area of the arcuate foramen were measured on dry bone and on cervical CT. Further, age, gender and complaints of the patients of shoulder and arm pain, neck pain, headache, vertigo, and lacrimation in relation to the presence of bony complete or incomplete arcuate foramen were evaluated. From February 2004 to January 2005 60 dry atlases were obtained from the Anatomy Department, University of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey and 416 lateral cervical spine radiographs were obtained from the Radiology department for neurological and orthopedic evaluations. Each complete arcuate foramen was calculated with the aid of Clemex Vision PE demo version computer program. Among the 60 dry atlases examined 7 (11.7%) had complete and 2 (3.3 %) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 416 plane lateral cervical spine radiographs examined, 30 (7.2%) had complete and 26 (6.25%) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 30 complete arcuate foramen 24 (80%) were females and 6 (20%) were males. The frequency of having a complete arcuate foramen in females was 8.45%, and in males it was 4.55%. Further, of the 26 incomplete arcuate foramen 20 (76.9%) were females and 6 (23.1%) were males. The frequency of having an incomplete arcuate foramen in females was 7%, and in males was 4.55%. The statistical evaluations showed that patients with complete arcuate foramen had significant complaints of shoulder-arm pain (p=0.0072), neck pain (p=0.0072) and vertigo (p=0.0598) compared to patients with incomplete arcuate foramen. The patients with complete arcuate foramen had a headache ratio of 12:30 and this ratio was 2:26 in patients with incomplete arcuate foramen and the difference between complete and incomplete arcuate foramen was statistically significant (p=0.0062). Further

  11. Why the CDM can reduce carbon leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallbekken, S.

    2006-04-01

    Carbon leakage is an important concern because it can reduce the environmental effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol. The Clean Development Mechanism, one of the flexibility mechanisms allowed under the protocol, has the potential to reduce carbon leakage significantly because it reduces the relative competitive disadvantage to Annex B countries of restricting greenhouse gas emissions. The economic intuition behind this mechanism is explored in a theoretical analysis. It is then analyzed numerically using a CGE model. The results indicate that, assuming appropriate accounting for leakage and under realistic assumptions on CDM activity, the CDM has the potential to reduce the magnitude of carbon leakage by around three fifths

  12. Response to a spill of national significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.S.; Pond, R.; Johnson, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    Responding to a spill of national significance (SONS), such as the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill, requires an augmenting organization to support the local response organization. The US Coast Guard has developed SONS protocol to be better prepared to respond to these infrequent catastrophic spills. A flag-level Coast Guard officer assumes the role of national incident commander (NIC) and federal on-scene coordinator (OSC), and is supported by a national incident task force (NITF). The major role of the NITF is to develop a national response strategy, acquire response resources and allocate them efficiently, and effectively deal with many peripheral national issues. Unified command concepts have been incorporated into the NITF and its primary organizational elements. In addition, frequent training and exercising is essential to keep the SONS protocol's preparedness at an acceptable level

  13. The significance of vector magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of four flaring solar active regions, obtained during 1980-1986 with the NASA Marshall vector magnetograph (Hagyard et al., 1982 and 1985), are presented graphically and characterized in detail, with reference to nearly simultaneous Big Bear Solar Observatory and USAF ASW H-alpha images. It is shown that the flares occurred where local photospheric magnetic fields differed most from the potential field, with initial brightening on either side of a magnetic-neutral line near the point of maximum angular shear (rather than that of maximum magnetic-field strength, typically 1 kG or greater). Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that these significant nonpotential features were detected only by measuring all three components of the vector magnetic field.

  14. Bayesian approaches for detecting significant deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, Willy; Aven, Terje

    2009-01-01

    Risk indicators can provide useful input to risk management processes and are given increased attention in the Norwegian petroleum industry. Examples include indicators expressing the proportion of test failures of safety and barrier systems. Such indicators give valuable information about the performance of the systems and provide a basis for trend evaluations. Early warning of a possible deterioration is essential due to the importance of the systems in focus, but what should be the basis for the warning criterion? This paper presents and discusses several Bayesian approaches for the establishment of a warning criterion to disclose significant deterioration. The Norwegian petroleum industry is the starting point for this paper, but the study is relevant for other application areas as well

  15. Swiss solar power statistics 2007 - Significant expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostettler, T.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the 2007 statistics for solar power in Switzerland. A significant number of new installations is noted as is the high production figures from newer installations. The basics behind the compilation of the Swiss solar power statistics are briefly reviewed and an overview for the period 1989 to 2007 is presented which includes figures on the number of photovoltaic plant in service and installed peak power. Typical production figures in kilowatt-hours (kWh) per installed kilowatt-peak power (kWp) are presented and discussed for installations of various sizes. Increased production after inverter replacement in older installations is noted. Finally, the general political situation in Switzerland as far as solar power is concerned are briefly discussed as are international developments.

  16. THRESHOLD OF SIGNIFICANCE IN STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress management is the individual's ability to handle any situation, external conditions, to match the demands of the external environment. The researchers revealed several stages in the stress response. A first phase was called ‘‘alert reaction'' or ‘‘immediate reaction to stress‘‘, phase in which there are physiological modifications and manifestations that occur under psychological aspect. Adaptation phase is the phase in which the reactions from the first phase diminishes or disappears. Exhaustion phase is related to the diversity of stress factors and time and may exceed the resources of the human body to adapt. Influencing factors may be: limited, cognitive, perceptual, and a priori. But there is a threshold of significance in stress management. Once the reaction to external stimuli occurs, awareness is needed. The capability effect occurs, any side effect goes away and comes out the ''I AM'' effect.

  17. The insignificance of statistical significance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas H.

    1999-01-01

    Despite their use in scientific journals such as The Journal of Wildlife Management, statistical hypothesis tests add very little value to the products of research. Indeed, they frequently confuse the interpretation of data. This paper describes how statistical hypothesis tests are often viewed, and then contrasts that interpretation with the correct one. I discuss the arbitrariness of P-values, conclusions that the null hypothesis is true, power analysis, and distinctions between statistical and biological significance. Statistical hypothesis testing, in which the null hypothesis about the properties of a population is almost always known a priori to be false, is contrasted with scientific hypothesis testing, which examines a credible null hypothesis about phenomena in nature. More meaningful alternatives are briefly outlined, including estimation and confidence intervals for determining the importance of factors, decision theory for guiding actions in the face of uncertainty, and Bayesian approaches to hypothesis testing and other statistical practices.

  18. Significance and potential benefits of the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation is based on the Treaty stipulation on international cooperation: 'The States parties undertake to promote cooperation among themselves to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Non-proliferation Treaty in order to enable States to strengthen national implementation of verification measures; and to enable States to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes'. Political significance of the Treaty and the potential benefits of participating in the CTBT regime are exposed. It is concluded that international cooperation under the CTBT regime is an element in broadening Treaty support and participation, thereby contributing to an early establishment and the efficient operation of the Treaty verification regime. The PTS will assist the States Signatories to facilitate and promote cooperation among themselves in the fullest exchange of information relating to verification-related technologies so that they may benefit from participation in the Treaty regime

  19. Risk control and the minimum significant risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Risk management implies that the risk manager can, by his actions, exercise at least a modicum of control over the risk in question. In the terminology of control theory, a management action is a control signal imposed as feedback on the system to bring about a desired change in the state of the system. In the terminology of risk management, an action is taken to bring a predicted risk to lower values. Even if it is assumed that the management action taken is 100% effective and that the projected risk reduction is infinitely well known, there is a lower limit to the desired effects that can be achieved. It is based on the fact that all risks, such as the incidence of cancer, exhibit a degree of variability due to a number of extraneous factors such as age at exposure, sex, location, and some lifestyle parameters such as smoking or the consumption of alcohol. If the control signal is much smaller than the variability of the risk, the signal is lost in the noise and control is lost. This defines a minimum controllable risk based on the variability of the risk over the population considered. This quantity is the counterpart of the minimum significant risk which is defined by the uncertainties of the risk model. Both the minimum controllable risk and the minimum significant risk are evaluated for radiation carcinogenesis and are shown to be of the same order of magnitude. For a realistic management action, the assumptions of perfectly effective action and perfect model prediction made above have to be dropped, resulting in an effective minimum controllable risk which is determined by both risk limits. Any action below that effective limit is futile, but it is also unethical due to the ethical requirement of doing more good than harm. Finally, some implications of the effective minimum controllable risk on the use of the ALARA principle and on the evaluation of remedial action goals are presented

  20. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760