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Sample records for significantly reduce water

  1. Sucralfate significantly reduces ciprofloxacin concentrations in serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrelts, J C; Godley, P J; Peterie, J D; Gerlach, E H; Yakshe, C C

    1990-01-01

    The effect of sucralfate on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in eight healthy subjects utilizing a randomized, crossover design. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h was reduced from 8.8 to 1.1 micrograms.h/ml by sucralfate (P less than 0.005). Similarly, the maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in serum was reduced from 2.0 to 0.2 micrograms/ml (P less than 0.005). We conclude that concurrent ingestion of sucralfate significantly reduces the concentr...

  2. Quilting after mastectomy significantly reduces seroma formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduce or prevent seroma formation among mastectomy patients ... of this prospective study is to evaluate the effect of surgical quilting ... Seroma was more common in smokers (p=0.003) and was not decreased by the .... explain its aetiology.

  3. Left-colon water exchange preserves the benefits of whole colon water exchange at reduced cecal intubation time conferring significant advantage in diagnostic colonoscopy - a prospective, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangping; Luo, Hui; Xiang, Yi; Leung, Felix W; Wang, Limei; Zhang, Linhui; Liu, Zhiguo; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Pan, Yanglin; Guo, Xuegang

    2015-07-01

    Whole-colon water exchange (WWE) reduces insertion pain, increases cecal intubation success and adenoma detection rate, but requires longer insertion time, compared to air insufflation (AI) colonoscopy. We hypothesized that water exchange limited to the left colon (LWE) can speed up insertion with equivalent results. This prospective, randomized controlled study (NCT01735266) allocated patients (18-80 years) to WWE, LWE or AI group (1:1:1). The primary outcome was cecal intubation time. Three hundred subjects were randomized to the WWE (n = 100), LWE (n = 100) or AI group (n = 100). Ninety-four to ninety-five per cent of patients underwent diagnostic colonoscopy. Baseline characteristics were balanced. The median insertion time was shorter in LWE group (4.8 min (95%CI: 3.2-6.2)) than those in WWE (7.5 min (95%CI: 6.0-10.3)) and AI (6.4 min (95%CI: 4.2-9.8)) (both p rates in unsedated patients of the two water exchange methods (WWE 99%, LWE 99%) were significantly higher than that (89.8%) in AI group (p = 0.01). The final success rates were comparable among the three groups after sedation was given. Maximum pain scores and number of patients needing abdominal compression between WWE and LWE groups were comparable, both lower than those in AI group (p higher in WWE group. By preserving the benefits of WWE and reducing insertion time, LWE is appropriate for diagnostic colonoscopy, especially in settings with tight scheduling of patients. The higher PDR in the right colon in WWE group deserves to be further investigated.

  4. Cold water recovery reduces anaerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, M J; O'Connor, D; Rudd, D

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of cold water immersion on recovery from anaerobic cycling. Seventeen (13 male, 4 female) active subjects underwent a crossover, randomised design involving two testing sessions 2 - 6 d apart. Testing involved two 30-s maximal cycling efforts separated by a one-hour recovery period of 10-min cycling warm-down followed by either passive rest or 15-min cold water immersion (13 - 14 degrees C) with passive rest. Peak power, total work and postexercise blood lactate were significantly reduced following cold water immersion compared to the first exercise test and the control condition. These variables did not differ significantly between the control tests. Peak exercise heart rate was significantly lower after cold water immersion compared to the control. Time to peak power, rating of perceived exertion, and blood pH were not affected by cold water immersion compared to the control. Core temperature rose significantly (0.3 degrees C) during ice bath immersion but a similar increase also occurred in the control condition. Therefore, cold water immersion caused a significant decrease in sprint cycling performance with one-hour recovery between tests.

  5. Water neutral: reducing and ofsetting water footprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    During the past few years the concept of the ‘water footprint’ has started to receive recognition within governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses and media as a useful indicator of water use. The increased interest in the water-footprint concept has prompted the question about what

  6. The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corrina A

    2014-10-01

    Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these 'meat' alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Practical Significance of Basin Water Market Construction on Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of water market and the water market research in cluding both domestic market and foreign market,the system design features of water market are analyzed.The features include the prior distribution of agricultural water right,the close construction of market structure,reasonable price of water obtaining right and water pollution-discharge right and scientific stipulation of total volume of water use and total volume of pollution drainage.The practical significances of basin water market construction on Chinese agricultural production are revealed,which clover safeguarding the safety of agricultural water;effectively alleviating agricultural drought;saving the agricultural production water and improving the quality of agricultural products.

  8. Next-generation nozzle check valve significantly reduces operating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roorda, O. [SMX International, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Check valves perform an important function in preventing reverse flow and protecting plant and mechanical equipment. However, the variety of different types of valves and extreme differences in performance even within one type can change maintenance requirements and life cycle costs, amounting to millions of dollars over the typical 15-year design life of piping components. A next-generation non-slam nozzle check valve which prevents return flow has greatly reduced operating costs by protecting the mechanical equipment in a piping system. This article described the check valve varieties such as the swing check valve, a dual-plate check valve, and nozzle check valves. Advancements in optimized design of a non-slam nozzle check valve were also discussed, with particular reference to computer flow modelling such as computational fluid dynamics; computer stress modelling such as finite element analysis; and flow testing (using rapid prototype development and flow loop testing), both to improve dynamic performance and reduce hydraulic losses. The benefits of maximized dynamic performance and minimized pressure loss from the new designed valve were also outlined. It was concluded that this latest non-slam nozzle check valve design has potential applications in natural gas, liquefied natural gas, and oil pipelines, including subsea applications, as well as refineries, and petrochemical plants among others, and is suitable for horizontal and vertical installation. The result of this next-generation nozzle check valve design is not only superior performance, and effective protection of mechanical equipment but also minimized life cycle costs. 1 fig.

  9. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekis, Nejc [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mc Entee, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mcentee@ucd.i [School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin 4 (Ireland); Stegnar, Peter [Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p {<=} 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p {<=} 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p {<=} 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p {<=} 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p {<=} 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p {<=} 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  10. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekis, Nejc; Mc Entee, Mark F.; Stegnar, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p ≤ 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p ≤ 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p ≤ 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p ≤ 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p ≤ 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p ≤ 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  11. Potential Significance of the EU Water Framework Directive to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lars Skov Andersen; Martin Griffiths

    2009-01-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD) is a unique piece of legislation, which may be of great significance to on - going reforms of the water sector in China. First and foremost it unites 27 European mem- ber states behind a common goal, which is "to achieve good chemical and ecological status" of all water bodies across the EU. Other significant characteristics of the EU WFD are that (1) it sets a clear timeframe with a number of time - bound actions for member states to achieve the goal, hut leaves it to member states to achieve this goal in a decent- ralised process, which makes allowance for the different socio - economic conditions, (2) it defines the river basin as the management unit for water thus departing with the traditional fragmented management by administrative units and it appoints a single competent authority for water management within each fiver basin, thus facilitating resolution of sector conflicts, (3) it requires a financial and economic analysis of the costs of implementing the EU WFD to enable deci- sion makers to assess whether the required improvements are affordable to government and to the population within the fiver basin, and (4) it requires a structured process for information and consultation with stakeholders and the public throughout the planning and implementation process.

  12. Water Phase Diagram Is Significantly Altered by Imidazolium Ionic Liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, V. V.; Prezhdo, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    We report unusually large changes in the boiling temperature, saturated vapor pressure, and structure of the liquid-vapor interface for a range of 1-butyl-3-methyl tetrafluoroborate, [C4C1IM][BF4]-water mixtures. Even modest molar fractions of [C4C1IM][BF4] significantly affect the phase behavior...... of water, as represented, for instance, by strong negative deviations from Raoult's law, extending far beyond the standard descriptions. The investigation was carried out using classical molecular dynamics employing a specifically refined force field. The changes in the liquid-vapor interface and saturated...

  13. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  14. [Significance of extruded feeds for trout nutrition and water protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, W

    1993-01-01

    Extruded feeds exhibit an improved starch digestibility and are more firmly bound due to the almost complete gelatinization of the starch. This results in fewer fines and longer water stability than pelleted feeds. Extruded pellets also have the advantage that they can soak up more oil than a conventional pellet. It is therefore possible to increase the maximum oil content to more than 20%. On the other hand extruding feeds is more expensive than steam pelleting. Gelatinized starch is a useful energy source in trout diets helping to reduce feed conversion ratios. Proportions up to 35-40% in the diet are tolerable. Using high dietary levels of both gelatinized starch and oil the non-protein energy of feed may be increased and thus a protein-sparing effect results. High-energy diets enable to reduce excretion of faeces and of nitrogen via gills. In addition a decrease of phosphorus level in feeds and thus of phosphorus excretion by fish is possible. Extruded high-energy diets therefore make a contribution to improve water quality.

  15. Have Chinese water pricing reforms reduced urban residential water demand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Fang, K. H.; Baerenklau, K. A.

    2017-06-01

    China continues to deal with severe levels of water scarcity and water pollution. To help address this situation, the Chinese central government initiated urban water pricing reforms in 2002 that emphasized the adoption of increasing block rate (IBR) price structures in place of existing uniform rate structures. By combining urban water use records with microlevel data from the Chinese Urban Household Survey, this research investigates the effectiveness of this national policy reform. Specifically, we compare household water consumption in 28 cities that adopted IBR pricing structures during 2002-2009, with that of 110 cities that had not yet done so. Based on difference-in-differences models, our results show that the policy reform reduced annual residential water demand by 3-4% in the short run and 5% in the longer run. These relatively modest reductions are consistent with the generous nature of the IBR pricing structures that Chinese cities have typically chosen to implement. Our results imply that more efforts are needed to address China's persistent urban water scarcity challenges.

  16. Significance of losses in water distribution systems in India

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, V.

    1983-01-01

    Effective management of water supply systems consists in supplying adequate quantities of clean water to the population. Detailed pilot studies of water distribution systems were carried out in 9 cities in India during 1971-81 to establish the feasibility of a programme of assessment, detection, and control of water losses from supply systems. A cost-benefit analysis was carried out. Water losses from mains and service pipes in the areas studied amounted to 20-35% of the total flow in the sys...

  17. Structural and functional significance of water permeation through cotransporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; Gorraitz, Edurne; Her, Ka

    2016-01-01

    Membrane transporters, in addition to their major role as specific carriers for ions and small molecules, can also behave as water channels. However, neither the location of the water pathway in the protein nor their functional importance is known. Here, we map the pathway for water and urea...... through the intestinal sodium/glucose cotransporter SGLT1. Molecular dynamics simulations using the atomic structure of the bacterial transporter vSGLT suggest that water permeates the same path as Na+ and sugar. On a structural model of SGLT1, based on the homology structure of vSGLT, we identified...... to be due to alterations in steric hindrance to water and urea, and/or changes in protein folding caused by mismatching of side chains in the water pathway. Water permeation through SGLT1 and other transporters bears directly on the structural mechanism for the transport of polar solutes through...

  18. Significance of losses in water distribution systems in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, V

    1983-01-01

    Effective management of water supply systems consists in supplying adequate quantities of clean water to the population. Detailed pilot studies of water distribution systems were carried out in 9 cities in India during 1971-81 to establish the feasibility of a programme of assessment, detection, and control of water losses from supply systems. A cost-benefit analysis was carried out. Water losses from mains and service pipes in the areas studied amounted to 20-35% of the total flow in the system. At a conservative estimate, the national loss of processed water through leaks in the water distribution systems amounts to 10(12) litres per year, which is equivalent to 500 million rupees.It is possible to bring down the water losses in the pipe mains to 3-5% of the total flow, and the cost incurred on the control programme can be recovered in 6-18 months. Appropriate conservation measures will help in achieving the goals of the International Water Supply and Sanitation Decade to provide clean water for all.

  19. Water hammer reduces fouling during natural water ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broens, F; Menne, D; Pothof, I; Blankert, B; Roesink, H D W; Futselaar, H; Lammertink, R G H; Wessling, M

    2012-03-15

    Today's ultrafiltration processes use permeate flow reversal to remove fouling deposits on the feed side of ultrafiltration membranes. We report an as effective method: the opening and rapid closing of a valve on the permeate side of an ultrafiltration module. The sudden valve closure generates pressure fluctuations due to fluid inertia and is commonly known as "water hammer". Surface water was filtrated in hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes with a small (5%) crossflow. Filtration experiments above sustainable flux levels (>125 l (m2h)(-1)) show that a periodic closure of a valve on the permeate side improves filtration performance as a consequence of reduced fouling. It was shown that this effect depends on flux and actuation frequency of the valve. The time period that the valve was closed proved to have no effect on filtration performance. The pressure fluctuations generated by the sudden stop in fluid motion due to the valve closure are responsible for the effect of fouling reduction. High frequency recording of the dynamic pressure evolution shows water hammer related pressure fluctuations to occur in the order of 0.1 bar. The pressure fluctuations were higher at higher fluxes (higher velocities) which is in agreement with the theory. They were also more effective at higher fluxes with respect to fouling mitigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental program with operational cases to reduce risk to the marine environment significantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.T.; Forde, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper Amoco Norway Oil Company's environmental program is detailed, followed by example operational programs and achievements aimed to minimize environmental risks to the marine environment at Valhall platform. With a corporate goal to be a leader in protecting the environment, the appropriate strategies and policies that form the basis of the environmental management system are incorporated in the quality assurance programs. Also, included in the program are necessary organizational structures, responsibilities of environmental affairs and line organization personnel, compliance procedures and a waste task force obliged to implement operations improvements. An internal environmental audit system has been initiated, in addition to corporate level audits, which, when communicated to the line organization closes the environmental management loop through experience feed back. Environmental projects underway are significantly decreasing the extent and/or risk of pollution from offshore activities. The cradle to grave responsibility is assumed with waste separated offshore and onshore followed by disposal in audited sites. A $5 MM program is underway to control produced oily solids and reduce oil in produced water aiming to less than 20 ppm. When oil-based mud is used in deeper hole sections, drill solids disposed at sea average less than 60 g oil/kg dry cuttings using appropriate shaker screens, and a washing/centrifuge system to remove fines. Certain oily liquid wastes are being injected down hole whereas previously they were burned using a mud burner. Finally, a program is underway with a goal to eliminate sea discharge of oil on cuttings through injection disposal of oily wastes, drilling with alternative muds such as a cationic water base mud, and/or proper onshore disposal of oily wastes

  1. The significant surface-water connectivity of "geographically isolated wetlands"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Mushet, David M.; Alexander, Laurie C.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Richter, Stephen; Walls, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the current literature, coupled with our collective research expertise, on surface-water connectivity of wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” (sensu Tiner Wetlands 23:494–516, 2003a) to critically assess the scientific foundation of grouping wetlands based on the singular condition of being surrounded by uplands. The most recent research on wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” shows the difficulties in grouping an ecological resource that does not reliably indicate lack of surface water connectivity in order to meet legal, regulatory, or scientific needs. Additionally, the practice of identifying “geographically isolated wetlands” based on distance from a stream can result in gross overestimates of the number of wetlands lacking ecologically important surface-water connections. Our findings do not support use of the overly simplistic label of “geographically isolated wetlands”. Wetlands surrounded by uplands vary in function and surface-water connections based on wetland landscape setting, context, climate, and geographic region and should be evaluated as such. We found that the “geographically isolated” grouping does not reflect our understanding of the hydrologic variability of these wetlands and hence does not benefit conservation of the Nation’s diverse wetland resources. Therefore, we strongly discourage use of categorizations that provide overly simplistic views of surface-water connectivity of wetlands fully embedded in upland landscapes.

  2. Humans running in place on water at simulated reduced gravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto E Minetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On Earth only a few legged species, such as water strider insects, some aquatic birds and lizards, can run on water. For most other species, including humans, this is precluded by body size and proportions, lack of appropriate appendages, and limited muscle power. However, if gravity is reduced to less than Earth's gravity, running on water should require less muscle power. Here we use a hydrodynamic model to predict the gravity levels at which humans should be able to run on water. We test these predictions in the laboratory using a reduced gravity simulator. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We adapted a model equation, previously used by Glasheen and McMahon to explain the dynamics of Basilisk lizard, to predict the body mass, stride frequency and gravity necessary for a person to run on water. Progressive body-weight unloading of a person running in place on a wading pool confirmed the theoretical predictions that a person could run on water, at lunar (or lower gravity levels using relatively small rigid fins. Three-dimensional motion capture of reflective markers on major joint centers showed that humans, similarly to the Basilisk Lizard and to the Western Grebe, keep the head-trunk segment at a nearly constant height, despite the high stride frequency and the intensive locomotor effort. Trunk stabilization at a nearly constant height differentiates running on water from other, more usual human gaits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed that a hydrodynamic model of lizards running on water can also be applied to humans, despite the enormous difference in body size and morphology.

  3. E3 Success Story - Path Toward Sustainability Leads to Significant Water Savings: Southwire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwire—a manufacturer of wire and cable products— searched for opportunities to reduce its water use and launched a sustainability campaign that established goals to reduce water use by 15 percent and overall carbon footprint by 10 percent.

  4. Globally significant greenhouse-gas emissions from African inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Bouillon, Steven

    2017-04-01

    The relevance of inland waters to global biogeochemical cycles is increasingly recognized, and of particular importance is their contribution of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The latter remain largely unreported in African inland waters. Here we report dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O from 12 rivers in Sub-Saharan Africa acquired during >30 field expeditions and additional seasonally resolved sampling at >30 sites between 2006 and 2014. Fluxes were calculated from reported gas transfer velocity values, and upscaled using available spatial datasets, with an estimated uncertainty of about ±19%. CO2 equivalent emissions ( 0.4±0.1 PgC yr-1) match 2/3 of the overall net carbon sink previously reported for Africa. Including emissions from wetlands of the Congo, the putative total emission ( 0.9±0.1 PgC yr-1) is about half of the global oceanic or land carbon sinks. In-situ respiration supported <14% of riverine CO2 emissions, which must therefore largely be driven by mineralization in wetlands or uplands. Riverine CO2 and CH4 emissions were directly correlated to wetland coverage and aboveground vegetation biomass, implying that future changes in wetland and upland vegetation cover will strongly impact GHG emissions from African inland waters.

  5. Significant improvement of optical traps by tuning standard water immersion objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reihani, S Nader S; Mir, Shahid A; Richardson, Andrew C; Oddershede, Lene B

    2011-01-01

    Focused infrared lasers are widely used for micromanipulation and visualization of biological specimens. An inherent practical problem is that off-the-shelf commercial microscope objectives are designed for use with visible and not infrared wavelengths. Less aberration is introduced by water immersion objectives than by oil immersion ones, however, even water immersion objectives induce significant aberration. We present a simple method to reduce the spherical aberration induced by water immersion objectives, namely by tuning the correction collar of the objective to a value that is ∼ 10% lower than the physical thickness of the coverslip. This results in marked improvements in optical trapping strengths of up to 100% laterally and 600% axially from a standard microscope objective designed for use in the visible range. The results are generally valid for any water immersion objective with any numerical aperture

  6. Atlantic Coast Hindcast, Shallow-Water, Significant Wave Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    AULICS LAB N E JENSEN JAN 83 UNCLASSIFIED W SRF 21NL mEEohhohhhmhEE EhhhEmmhhmhEEEE 1111 .0= 128 llI Ir111-1 11111.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART...six data products: 1. Geographical variation in the wave climate :, 2. Twenty-year percent occurrence tables: (Continued) DD EUnclassified SECUmTY...PAOCleWff DO& MIew0O I]1 Preface In late 1976, a study to produce a wave climate for U. S. coastal waters was initiated at the U. S. Army Engineer

  7. Sodium-Reduced Meat and Poultry Products Contain a Significant Amount of Potassium from Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Arti Sharma; Goldstein, Marc B; Arcand, JoAnne; Cho, France; L'Abbé, Mary R; Darling, Pauline B

    2018-05-01

    counterparts (mean difference [95% CI]: 486 [334-638]; Padditives appearing on the product label ingredient list, did not significantly differ between the two groups. Potassium additives are frequently added to sodium-reduced MPPs in amounts that significantly contribute to the potassium load for patients with impaired renal handling of potassium caused by chronic kidney disease and certain medications. Patients requiring potassium restriction should be counseled to be cautious regarding the potassium content of sodium-reduced MPPs and encouraged to make food choices accordingly. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A pilot weight reduction program over one year significantly reduced DNA strand breaks in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Wagner

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: A sustainable lifestyle change under supervision including physical activity and diet quality over a period of one year was not only responsible to reduce body weight and BMI but also led to significant reduction in all parameters of the comet assay. These results underline the importance of body weight reduction and highlight the positive changes in DNA stability.

  9. The significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme activities: clinical, biochemical and radiological associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordekar, S R; Guthrie, P; Bonham, J R; Olpin, S E; Hargreaves, I; Baxter, P S

    2006-03-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are an important group of neurometabolic disorders in children with varied clinical presentations and diagnosis that can be difficult to confirm. To report the significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme (RCE) activity in muscle biopsy samples from children. Retrospective odds ratio was used to compare clinical and biochemical features, DNA studies, neuroimaging, and muscle biopsies in 18 children with and 48 without reduced RCE activity. Children with reduced RCE activity were significantly more likely to have consanguineous parents, to present with acute encephalopathy and lactic acidaemia and/or within the first year of life; to have an axonal neuropathy, CSF lactate >4 mmol/l; and/or to have signal change in the basal ganglia. There were positive associations with a maternal family history of possible mitochondrial cytopathy; a presentation with failure to thrive and lactic acidaemia, ragged red fibres, reduced fibroblast fatty acid oxidation and with an abnormal allopurinol loading test. There was no association with ophthalmic abnormalities, deafness, epilepsy or myopathy. The association of these clinical, biochemical and radiological features with reduced RCE activity suggests a possible causative link.

  10. Water conservation benefits of urban heat mitigation: can cooling strategies reduce water consumption in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P.; Jones, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas are at the forefront of climate mitigation and adaptation efforts given their high concentration of people, industry, and infrastructure. Many cities globally are seeking strategies to counter the consequences of both a hotter and drier climate. While urban heat mitigation strategies have been shown to have beneficial effects on health, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions, their implications for water conservation have not been widely examined. Here we show that broad implementation of cool roofs, an urban heat mitigation strategy, not only results in significant cooling of air temperature, but also meaningfully decreases outdoor water consumption by reducing evaporative and irrigation water demands. Based on a suite of satellite-supported, multiyear regional climate simulations, we find that cool roof adoption has the potential to reduce outdoor water consumption across the major metropolitan areas in California by up to 9%. Irrigation water savings per capita, induced by cool roofs, range from 1.8 to 15.4 gallons per day across 18 counties examined. Total water savings in Los Angeles county alone is about 83 million gallons per day. While this effect is robust across the 15 years examined (2001-2015), including both drought and non-drought years, we find that cool roofs are most effective during the hottest days of the year, indicating that they could play an even greater role in reducing outdoor water use in a hotter future climate. We further show that this synergistic relationship between heat mitigation and water conservation is asymmetrical - policies that encourage direct reductions in irrigation water use can lead to substantial regional warming, potentially conflicting with heat mitigation efforts designed to counter the effects of the projected warming climate.

  11. Male circumcision significantly reduces prevalence and load of genital anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy M; Hungate, Bruce A; Tobian, Aaron A R; Serwadda, David; Ravel, Jacques; Lester, Richard; Kigozi, Godfrey; Aziz, Maliha; Galiwango, Ronald M; Nalugoda, Fred; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L; Wawer, Maria J; Keim, Paul; Gray, Ronald H; Price, Lance B

    2013-04-16

    Male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV transmission. Hypothesized mechanisms for this protective effect include decreased HIV target cell recruitment and activation due to changes in the penis microbiome. We compared the coronal sulcus microbiota of men from a group of uncircumcised controls (n = 77) and from a circumcised intervention group (n = 79) at enrollment and year 1 follow-up in a randomized circumcision trial in Rakai, Uganda. We characterized microbiota using16S rRNA gene-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) and pyrosequencing, log response ratio (LRR), Bayesian classification, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), and permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PerMANOVA). At baseline, men in both study arms had comparable coronal sulcus microbiota; however, by year 1, circumcision decreased the total bacterial load and reduced microbiota biodiversity. Specifically, the prevalence and absolute abundance of 12 anaerobic bacterial taxa decreased significantly in the circumcised men. While aerobic bacterial taxa also increased postcircumcision, these gains were minor. The reduction in anaerobes may partly account for the effects of circumcision on reduced HIV acquisition. The bacterial changes identified in this study may play an important role in the HIV risk reduction conferred by male circumcision. Decreasing the load of specific anaerobes could reduce HIV target cell recruitment to the foreskin. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the benefits of male circumcision could help to identify new intervention strategies for decreasing HIV transmission, applicable to populations with high HIV prevalence where male circumcision is culturally less acceptable.

  12. A chimpanzee recognizes synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Beran, Michael J; Owren, Michael J

    2011-07-26

    A long-standing debate concerns whether humans are specialized for speech perception, which some researchers argue is demonstrated by the ability to understand synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content. We tested a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) that recognizes 128 spoken words, asking whether she could understand such speech. Three experiments presented 48 individual words, with the animal selecting a corresponding visuographic symbol from among four alternatives. Experiment 1 tested spectrally reduced, noise-vocoded (NV) synthesis, originally developed to simulate input received by human cochlear-implant users. Experiment 2 tested "impossibly unspeechlike" sine-wave (SW) synthesis, which reduces speech to just three moving tones. Although receiving only intermittent and noncontingent reward, the chimpanzee performed well above chance level, including when hearing synthetic versions for the first time. Recognition of SW words was least accurate but improved in experiment 3 when natural words in the same session were rewarded. The chimpanzee was more accurate with NV than SW versions, as were 32 human participants hearing these items. The chimpanzee's ability to spontaneously recognize acoustically reduced synthetic words suggests that experience rather than specialization is critical for speech-perception capabilities that some have suggested are uniquely human. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing Agricultural Water Footprints at the Farm Scale: A Case Study in the Beijing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beijing is one of the most water-stressed regions in the world. Reducing agricultural water use has long been the basis of local policy for sustainable water use. In this article, the potential to reduce the life cycle (cradle to gate water footprints of wheat and maize that contribute to 94% of the local cereal production was assessed. Following ISO 14046, consumptive and degradative water use for the wheat-maize rotation system was modeled under different irrigation and nitrogen (N application options. Reducing irrigation water volume by 33.3% compared to current practice did not cause a significant yield decline, but the water scarcity footprint and water eutrophication footprint were decreased by 27.5% and 23.9%, respectively. Similarly, reducing the N application rate by 33.3% from current practice did not cause a significant yield decline, but led to a 52.3% reduction in water eutrophication footprint while maintaining a similar water scarcity footprint. These results demonstrate that improving water and fertilizer management has great potential for reducing the crop water footprints at the farm scale. This situation in Beijing is likely to be representative of the challenge facing many of the water-stressed regions in China, where a sustainable means of agricultural production must be found.

  14. Defibrillator charging before rhythm analysis significantly reduces hands-off time during resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. K.; Folkestad, L.; Brabrand, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to reduce hands-off time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation as increased hands-off time leads to higher mortality. METHODS: The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2005 and ERC 2010 guidelines were compared with an alternative sequence (ALT). Pulseless ventricular...... physicians were included. All had prior experience in advanced life support. Chest compressions were shorter interrupted using ALT (mean, 6.7 vs 13.0 seconds). Analyzing data for ventricular tachycardia scenarios only, hands-off time was shorter using ALT (mean, 7.1 vs 18.2 seconds). In ERC 2010 vs ALT, 12...... physicians were included. Two physicians had not prior experience in advanced life support. Hands-off time was reduced using ALT (mean, 3.9 vs 5.6 seconds). Looking solely at ventricular tachycardia scenarios, hands-off time was shortened using ALT (mean, 4.5 vs 7.6 seconds). No significant reduction...

  15. Operation Clean Feather: Reducing oil pollution in Newfoundland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chardine, J.W.; Pelly, G.

    1994-01-01

    Oil pollution of marine waters around Newfoundland, and particularly in the vicinity of Placentia Bay, is a frequent occurrence. Many oiled seabirds are found on beaches in the bay, particularly in winter. The most likely pollution sources are ship operators who dump waste oils from bilges and slop tanks. In an effort to reduce the chronic discharge of waste oil into Placentia Bay, and thus the incidence of bird oiling, Operation Clean Feather was launched in 1991-92 and consisted of weekly surveys of Placentia Bay beaches, sampling of oil from vessels using the bay and from oiled birds and beaches, and experimentation to determine possible recovery rates of birds oiled at sea. The operation was considered a success at a number of levels. Significant reductions in numbers of oiled birds were noted in both 1991 and 1992 compared to 1989 or 1990. Estimated oil-related mortality was reduced to ca 25% of levels seen in the two years prior to the operation. The operation also provided the opportunity to test and refine an organizational framework designed to deal with the problem of chronic oil pollution reports. Communication efforts heightened the awareness of the oil pollution problem in Newfoundland waters. These efforts included distribution of pamphlets in various languages to ship operators, describing the seriousness of oil-related marine bird mortality and warning of the substantial fines that can be imposed under the Canada Shipping Act. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand; Brault, Christophe; Bruze, Magnus; Eudes, Hervé; Gadras, Catherine; Signoret, Anne-Cécile J; Mose, Kristian F; Müller, Boris P; Toulemonde, Bernard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-02-01

    Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control subjects. In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less allergic contact dermatitis in previously oak moss-sensitized individuals, suggesting that new oak moss is less allergenic to non-sensitized individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effect of electrolyzed reduced water on malondialdehyde levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) on .... dehydrated and cleared with alcohol. ... assay tubes were incubated at a temperature of ... oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent .... Oxidative Medicine and.

  18. Water stress in global transboundary river basins : Significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H A; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has

  19. Cooperative water network system to reduce carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Park, Jong Moon

    2008-08-15

    Much effort has been made in reducing the carbon footprint to mitigate climate change. However, water network synthesis has been focused on reducing the consumption and cost of freshwater within each industrial plant. The objective of this study is to illustrate the necessity of the cooperation of industrial plants to reduce the total carbon footprint of their water supply systems. A mathematical optimization model to minimize global warming potentials is developed to synthesize (1) a cooperative water network system (WNS) integrated over two plants and (2) an individual WNS consisting of two WNSs separated for each plant. The cooperative WNS is compared to the individual WNS. The cooperation reduces their carbon footprint and is economically feasible and profitable. A strategy for implementing the cooperation is suggested for the fair distribution of costs and benefits. As a consequence, industrial plants should cooperate with their neighbor plants to further reduce the carbon footprint.

  20. Deficit irrigation of peach trees to reduce water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack of water is a major limiting factor for production tree fruits such as peaches in the San Joaquin Valley of California and many other arid- or semi-arid regions in the world. Deficit irrigation can be used in some cropping systems as a water resource management strategy to reduce non-productiv...

  1. Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Manual for Minnesota's Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

    This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools? How…

  2. Four-phonon scattering significantly reduces intrinsic thermal conductivity of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tianli; Lindsay, Lucas; Ruan, Xiulin

    2017-10-01

    For decades, the three-phonon scattering process has been considered to govern thermal transport in solids, while the role of higher-order four-phonon scattering has been persistently unclear and so ignored. However, recent quantitative calculations of three-phonon scattering have often shown a significant overestimation of thermal conductivity as compared to experimental values. In this Rapid Communication we show that four-phonon scattering is generally important in solids and can remedy such discrepancies. For silicon and diamond, the predicted thermal conductivity is reduced by 30% at 1000 K after including four-phonon scattering, bringing predictions in excellent agreement with measurements. For the projected ultrahigh-thermal conductivity material, zinc-blende BAs, a competitor of diamond as a heat sink material, four-phonon scattering is found to be strikingly strong as three-phonon processes have an extremely limited phase space for scattering. The four-phonon scattering reduces the predicted thermal conductivity from 2200 to 1400 W/m K at room temperature. The reduction at 1000 K is 60%. We also find that optical phonon scattering rates are largely affected, being important in applications such as phonon bottlenecks in equilibrating electronic excitations. Recognizing that four-phonon scattering is expensive to calculate, in the end we provide some guidelines on how to quickly assess the significance of four-phonon scattering, based on energy surface anharmonicity and the scattering phase space. Our work clears the decades-long fundamental question of the significance of higher-order scattering, and points out ways to improve thermoelectrics, thermal barrier coatings, nuclear materials, and radiative heat transfer.

  3. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  4. Technological significances to reduce the material problems. Feasibility of heat flux reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Shimada, Michiya.

    1994-01-01

    For a divertor plate in a fusion power reactor, a high temperature coolant must be used for heat removal to keep thermal efficiency high. It makes the temperature and thermal stress of wall materials higher than the design limits. Issues of the coolant itself, e.g. burnout of high temperature water, will also become a serious problem. Sputtering erosion of the surface material will be a great concern of its lifetime. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the heat and particle loads to the divertor plate technologically. The feasibility of some technological methods of heat reduction, such as separatrix sweeping, is discussed. As one of the most promising ideas, the methods of radiative cooling of the divertor plasma are summarized based on the recent results of large tokamaks. The feasibility of remote radiative cooling and gas divertor is discussed. The ideas are considered in recent design studies of tokamak power reactors and experimental reactors. By way of example, conceptual designs of divertor plate for the steady state tokamak power reactor are described. (author)

  5. Nano-CL-20/HMX Cocrystal Explosive for Significantly Reduced Mechanical Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwei An

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying method was used to prepare cocrystals of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX. Raw materials and cocrystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Impact and friction sensitivity of cocrystals were tested and analyzed. Results show that, after preparation by spray drying method, microparticles were spherical in shape and 0.5–5 µm in size. Particles formed aggregates of numerous tiny plate-like cocrystals, whereas CL-20/HMX cocrystals had thicknesses of below 100 nm. Cocrystals were formed by C–H⋯O bonding between –NO2 (CL-20 and –CH2– (HMX. Nanococrystal explosives exhibited drop height of 47.3 cm, and friction demonstrated explosion probability of 64%. Compared with raw HMX, cocrystals displayed significantly reduced mechanical sensitivity.

  6. Implementation of standardized follow-up care significantly reduces peritonitis in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Alicia M; Richardson, Troy; Lawlor, John; Stuart, Jayne; Newland, Jason; McAfee, Nancy; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-06-01

    The Standardizing Care to improve Outcomes in Pediatric End stage renal disease (SCOPE) Collaborative aims to reduce peritonitis rates in pediatric chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by increasing implementation of standardized care practices. To assess this, monthly care bundle compliance and annualized monthly peritonitis rates were evaluated from 24 SCOPE centers that were participating at collaborative launch and that provided peritonitis rates for the 13 months prior to launch. Changes in bundle compliance were assessed using either a logistic regression model or a generalized linear mixed model. Changes in average annualized peritonitis rates over time were illustrated using the latter model. In the first 36 months of the collaborative, 644 patients with 7977 follow-up encounters were included. The likelihood of compliance with follow-up care practices increased significantly (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.10, 1.19). Mean monthly peritonitis rates significantly decreased from 0.63 episodes per patient year (95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.92) prelaunch to 0.42 (95% confidence interval 0.31, 0.57) at 36 months postlaunch. A sensitivity analysis confirmed that as mean follow-up compliance increased, peritonitis rates decreased, reaching statistical significance at 80% at which point the prelaunch rate was 42% higher than the rate in the months following achievement of 80% compliance. In its first 3 years, the SCOPE Collaborative has increased the implementation of standardized follow-up care and demonstrated a significant reduction in average monthly peritonitis rates. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrologic effects of large southwestern USA wildfires significantly increase regional water supply: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, M. L.; Cadol, D.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years climate change and historic fire suppression have increased the frequency of large wildfires in the southwestern USA, motivating study of the hydrological consequences of these wildfires at point and watershed scales, typically over short periods of time. These studies have revealed that reduced soil infiltration capacity and reduced transpiration due to tree canopy combustion increase streamflow at the watershed scale. However, the degree to which these local increases in runoff propagate to larger scales—relevant to urban and agricultural water supply—remains largely unknown, particularly in semi-arid mountainous watersheds co-dominated by winter snowmelt and the North American monsoon. To address this question, we selected three New Mexico watersheds—the Jemez (1223 km2), Mogollon (191 km2), and Gila (4807 km2)—that together have been affected by over 100 wildfires since 1982. We then applied climate-driven linear models to test for effects of fire on streamflow metrics after controlling for climatic variability. Here we show that, after controlling for climatic and snowpack variability, significantly more streamflow discharged from the Gila watershed for three to five years following wildfires, consistent with increased regional water yield due to enhanced infiltration-excess overland flow and groundwater recharge at the large watershed scale. In contrast, we observed no such increase in discharge from the Jemez watershed following wildfires. Fire regimes represent a key difference between the contrasting responses of the Jemez and Gila watersheds with the latter experiencing more frequent wildfires, many caused by lightning strikes. While hydrologic dynamics at the scale of large watersheds were previously thought to be climatically dominated, these results suggest that if one fifth or more of a large watershed has been burned in the previous three to five years, significant increases in water yield can be expected.

  8. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly reduces xerostomia compared with conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braam, Petra M.; Terhaard, Chris H.J. M.D.; Roesink, Judith M.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a severe complication after radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer, as the salivary glands are in close proximity with the primary tumor. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) offers theoretical advantages for normal tissue sparing. A Phase II study was conducted to determine the value of IMRT for salivary output preservation compared with conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 56 patients with oropharyngeal cancer were prospectively evaluated. Of these, 30 patients were treated with IMRT and 26 with CRT. Stimulated parotid salivary flow was measured before, 6 weeks, and 6 months after treatment. A complication was defined as a stimulated parotid flow rate <25% of the preradiotherapy flow rate. Results: The mean dose to the parotid glands was 48.1 Gy (SD 14 Gy) for CRT and 33.7 Gy (SD 10 Gy) for IMRT (p < 0.005). The mean parotid flow ratio 6 weeks and 6 months after treatment was respectively 41% and 64% for IMRT and respectively 11% and 18% for CRT. As a result, 6 weeks after treatment, the number of parotid flow complications was significantly lower after IMRT (55%) than after CRT (87%) (p = 0.002). The number of complications 6 months after treatment was 56% for IMRT and 81% for CRT (p = 0.04). Conclusions: IMRT significantly reduces the number of parotid flow complications for patients with oropharyngeal cancer

  9. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui; Alotaibi, Hamad S.; Sun, Haiding; Lin, Ronghui; Guo, Wenzhe; Torres-Castanedo, Carlos G.; Liu, Kaikai; Galan, Sergio V.; Li, Xiaohang

    2018-01-01

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  10. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui

    2018-02-23

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  11. Using lytic bacteriophages to eliminate or significantly reduce contamination of food by foodborne bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Bacteriophages (also called 'phages') are viruses that kill bacteria. They are arguably the oldest (3 billion years old, by some estimates) and most ubiquitous (total number estimated to be 10(30) -10(32) ) known organisms on Earth. Phages play a key role in maintaining microbial balance in every ecosystem where bacteria exist, and they are part of the normal microflora of all fresh, unprocessed foods. Interest in various practical applications of bacteriophages has been gaining momentum recently, with perhaps the most attention focused on using them to improve food safety. That approach, called 'phage biocontrol', typically includes three main types of applications: (i) using phages to treat domesticated livestock in order to reduce their intestinal colonization with, and shedding of, specific bacterial pathogens; (ii) treatments for decontaminating inanimate surfaces in food-processing facilities and other food establishments, so that foods processed on those surfaces are not cross-contaminated with the targeted pathogens; and (iii) post-harvest treatments involving direct applications of phages onto the harvested foods. This mini-review primarily focuses on the last type of intervention, which has been gaining the most momentum recently. Indeed, the results of recent studies dealing with improving food safety, and several recent regulatory approvals of various commercial phage preparations developed for post-harvest food safety applications, strongly support the idea that lytic phages may provide a safe, environmentally-friendly, and effective approach for significantly reducing contamination of various foods with foodborne bacterial pathogens. However, some important technical and nontechnical problems may need to be addressed before phage biocontrol protocols can become an integral part of routine food safety intervention strategies implemented by food industries in the USA. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Pharmacological kynurenine 3-monooxygenase enzyme inhibition significantly reduces neuropathic pain in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewska, Ewelina; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the involvement of the kynurenine pathway in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, but the role of this system in neuropathic pain requires further extensive research. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the role of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (Kmo), an enzyme that is important in this pathway, in a rat model of neuropathy after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. For the first time, we demonstrated that the injury-induced increase in the Kmo mRNA levels in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was reduced by chronic administration of the microglial inhibitor minocycline and that this effect paralleled a decrease in the intensity of neuropathy. Further, minocycline administration alleviated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of Kmo mRNA expression in microglial cell cultures. Moreover, we demonstrated that not only indirect inhibition of Kmo using minocycline but also direct inhibition using Kmo inhibitors (Ro61-6048 and JM6) decreased neuropathic pain intensity on the third and the seventh days after CCI. Chronic Ro61-6048 administration diminished the protein levels of IBA-1, IL-6, IL-1beta and NOS2 in the spinal cord and/or the DRG. Both Kmo inhibitors potentiated the analgesic properties of morphine. In summary, our data suggest that in neuropathic pain model, inhibiting Kmo function significantly reduces pain symptoms and enhances the effectiveness of morphine. The results of our studies show that the kynurenine pathway is an important mediator of neuropathic pain pathology and indicate that Kmo represents a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diet change—a solution to reduce water use?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalava, M; Kummu, M; Porkka, M; Varis, O; Siebert, S

    2014-01-01

    Water and land resources are under increasing pressure in many parts of the globe. Diet change has been suggested as a measure to contribute to adequate food security for the growing population. This paper assesses the impact of diet change on the blue and green water footprints of food consumption. We first compare the water consumption of the current diets with that of a scenario where dietary guidelines are followed. Then, we assess these footprints by applying four scenarios in which we gradually limit the amount of protein from animal products to 50%, 25%, 12.5% and finally 0% of the total protein intake. We find that the current water use at the global scale would be sufficient to secure a recommended diet and worldwide energy intake. Reducing the animal product contribution in the diet would decrease global green water consumption by 6%, 11%, 15% and 21% within the four applied scenarios, while for blue water, the reductions would be 4%, 6%, 9% and 14%. In Latin America, Europe, Central and Eastern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, diet change mainly reduces green water use, while in the Middle East region, North America, Australia and Oceania, both blue and green water footprints decrease considerably. At the same time, in South and Southeast Asia, diet change does not result in decreased water use. Our results show that reducing animal products in the human diet offers the potential to save water resources, up to the amount currently required to feed 1.8 billion additional people globally; however, our results show that the adjustments should be considered on a local level. (letter)

  14. Intriguing model significantly reduces boarding of psychiatric patients, need for inpatient hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As new approaches to the care of psychiatric emergencies emerge, one solution is gaining particular traction. Under the Alameda model, which has been put into practice in Alameda County, CA, patients who are brought to regional EDs with emergency psychiatric issues are quickly transferred to a designated emergency psychiatric facility as soon as they are medically stabilized. This alleviates boarding problems in area EDs while also quickly connecting patients with specialized care. With data in hand on the model's effectiveness, developers believe the approach could alleviate boarding problems in other communities as well. The model is funded by through a billing code established by California's Medicaid program for crisis stabilization services. Currently, only 22% of the patients brought to the emergency psychiatric facility ultimately need to be hospitalized; the other 78% are able to go home or to an alternative situation. In a 30-day study of the model, involving five community hospitals in Alameda County, CA, researchers found that ED boarding times were as much as 80% lower than comparable ED averages, and that patients were stabilized at least 75% of the time, significantly reducing the need for inpatient hospitalization.

  15. Significantly reduced hypoxemic events in morbidly obese patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: Predictors and practice effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gouda Goudra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing anesthesia for gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy procedures in morbidly obese patients is a challenge for a variety of reasons. The negative impact of obesity on the respiratory system combined with a need to share the upper airway and necessity to preserve the spontaneous ventilation, together add to difficulties. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with a body mass index (BMI >40 kg/m 2 that underwent out-patient GI endoscopy between September 2010 and February 2011. Patient data was analyzed for procedure, airway management technique as well as hypoxemic and cardiovascular events. Results: A total of 119 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our innovative airway management technique resulted in a lower rate of intraoperative hypoxemic events compared with any published data available. Frequency of desaturation episodes showed statistically significant relation to previous history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. These desaturation episodes were found to be statistically independent of increasing BMI of patients. Conclusion: Pre-operative history of OSA irrespective of associated BMI values can be potentially used as a predictor of intra-procedural desaturation. With suitable modification of anesthesia technique, it is possible to reduce the incidence of adverse respiratory events in morbidly obese patients undergoing GI endoscopy procedures, thereby avoiding the need for endotracheal intubation.

  16. Significantly reduced hypoxemic events in morbidly obese patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: Predictors and practice effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudra, Basavana Gouda; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Penugonda, Lakshmi C; Speck, Rebecca M; Sinha, Ashish C

    2014-01-01

    Providing anesthesia for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy procedures in morbidly obese patients is a challenge for a variety of reasons. The negative impact of obesity on the respiratory system combined with a need to share the upper airway and necessity to preserve the spontaneous ventilation, together add to difficulties. This retrospective cohort study included patients with a body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m(2) that underwent out-patient GI endoscopy between September 2010 and February 2011. Patient data was analyzed for procedure, airway management technique as well as hypoxemic and cardiovascular events. A total of 119 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our innovative airway management technique resulted in a lower rate of intraoperative hypoxemic events compared with any published data available. Frequency of desaturation episodes showed statistically significant relation to previous history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These desaturation episodes were found to be statistically independent of increasing BMI of patients. Pre-operative history of OSA irrespective of associated BMI values can be potentially used as a predictor of intra-procedural desaturation. With suitable modification of anesthesia technique, it is possible to reduce the incidence of adverse respiratory events in morbidly obese patients undergoing GI endoscopy procedures, thereby avoiding the need for endotracheal intubation.

  17. Simultaneous bilateral stereotactic procedure for deep brain stimulation implants: a significant step for reducing operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Azevedo, Angelo; Angelos, Jairo Silva Dos; Martinez, Raquel Chacon Ruiz; Navarro, Jessie; Reis, Paul Rodrigo; Sepulveda, Miguel Ernesto San Martin; Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Ghilardi, Maria Gabriela Dos Santos; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Lopez, William Omar Contreras

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Currently, bilateral procedures involve 2 sequential implants in each of the hemispheres. The present report demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous bilateral procedures during the implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads. METHODS Fifty-seven patients with movement disorders underwent bilateral DBS implantation in the same study period. The authors compared the time required for the surgical implantation of deep brain electrodes in 2 randomly assigned groups. One group of 28 patients underwent traditional sequential electrode implantation, and the other 29 patients underwent simultaneous bilateral implantation. Clinical outcomes of the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who had undergone DBS implantation of the subthalamic nucleus using either of the 2 techniques were compared. RESULTS Overall, a reduction of 38.51% in total operating time for the simultaneous bilateral group (136.4 ± 20.93 minutes) as compared with that for the traditional consecutive approach (220.3 ± 27.58 minutes) was observed. Regarding clinical outcomes in the PD patients who underwent subthalamic nucleus DBS implantation, comparing the preoperative off-medication condition with the off-medication/on-stimulation condition 1 year after the surgery in both procedure groups, there was a mean 47.8% ± 9.5% improvement in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III) score in the simultaneous group, while the sequential group experienced 47.5% ± 15.8% improvement (p = 0.96). Moreover, a marked reduction in the levodopa-equivalent dose from preoperatively to postoperatively was similar in these 2 groups. The simultaneous bilateral procedure presented major advantages over the traditional sequential approach, with a shorter total operating time. CONCLUSIONS A simultaneous stereotactic approach significantly reduces the operation time in bilateral DBS procedures, resulting in decreased microrecording time, contributing to the optimization of functional

  18. Developing Automatic Water Table Control System for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, C.; Fauzan, M. I.; Satyanto, K. S.; Budi, I. S.; Masaru, M.

    2018-05-01

    Water table in rice fields play important role to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Continuous flooding by maintenance water table 2-5 cm above soil surface is not effective and release more GHG emissions. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as alternative rice farming apply intermittent irrigation by maintaining lower water table is proven can reduce GHG emissions reducing productivity significantly. The objectives of this study were to develop automatic water table control system for SRI application and then evaluate the performances. The control system was developed based on fuzzy logic algorithms using the mini PC of Raspberry Pi. Based on laboratory and field tests, the developed system was working well as indicated by lower MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) values. MAPE values for simulation and field tests were 16.88% and 15.80%, respectively. This system can save irrigation water up to 42.54% without reducing productivity significantly when compared to manual irrigation systems.

  19. An effective way to reduce water absorption to terahertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaxiong; Su, Bo; He, Jingsuo; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Hongfei; Zhang, Shengbo; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    Since many vibrations and rotational levels of biomolecules fall within the THz band, THz spectroscopy can be used to identify biological samples. In addition, most biomolecules need to maintain their biological activity in a liquid environment, but water as polar substance has strong absorption to the THz wave. Thus, it is difficult to detect the sample information in aqueous solution using THz wave. In order to prevent the information of biological samples were masked in the solution, many research methods were used to explore how to reduce the water absorption of terahertz. In this paper, we have developed a real-time chemical methodology through transmission Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system. The material of Zeonor 1020r is used as substrate and cover plate, and PDMS as channel interlayer. The transmission of the empty microfluidic chip is more than 80% in the range of 0.2-2.6 THz by THz-TDS system. Then, experiments were carried out using chips, which were filled with different volumes of 1, 2- propanediol, and it has been proved that the microfluidic chip could reduce the water absorption of terahertz. Finally, in order to further explore the reduction of terahertz to water absorption, we inject different concentrations of electrolyte to the chip. The results show that with the addition of different electrolytes, terahertz transmission line has evident changes. It can be taken into account that the electrolyte has different effects about the hydrogen bonds in the aqueous solution. Some of them can promote water molecules clusters, while others destroy them. Based on the basis of microfluidic chip, the discovery of this phenomenon can provide a way that reduces water absorption of terahertz. This work has laid a solid foundation for the subsequent study in reducing water absorption of terahertz.

  20. Effect of electrolyzed reduced water on malondialdehyde levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and neutrophil cells in Wistar rats suffering from aggressive periodontitis. Methods: Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans before being divided into a control group and a treatment ...

  1. Study on core design for reduced-moderation water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Tsutomu

    2002-01-01

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is a water-cooled reactor with the harder neutron spectrum comparing with the LWR, resulting from low neutron moderation due to reduced water volume fraction. Based on the difference from the spectrum from the LWR, the conversion from U-238 to Pu-239 is promoted and the new cores preferable to effective utilization of uranium resource can be possible Design study of the RMWR core started in 1997 and new four core concepts (three BWR cores and one PWR core) are recently evaluated in terms of control rod worths, plutonium multiple recycle, high burnup and void coefficient. Comparative evaluations show needed incorporation of control rod programming and simplified PUREX process as well as development of new fuel cans for high burnup of 100 GW-d/t. Final choice of design specifications will be made at the next step aiming at realization of the RMWR. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Study on core design for reduced-moderation water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Tsutomu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is a water-cooled reactor with the harder neutron spectrum comparing with the LWR, resulting from low neutron moderation due to reduced water volume fraction. Based on the difference from the spectrum from the LWR, the conversion from U-238 to Pu-239 is promoted and the new cores preferable to effective utilization of uranium resource can be possible Design study of the RMWR core started in 1997 and new four core concepts (three BWR cores and one PWR core) are recently evaluated in terms of control rod worths, plutonium multiple recycle, high burnup and void coefficient. Comparative evaluations show needed incorporation of control rod programming and simplified PUREX process as well as development of new fuel cans for high burnup of 100 GW-d/t. Final choice of design specifications will be made at the next step aiming at realization of the RMWR. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Emerging contaminants of public health significance as water quality indicator compounds in the urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amrita; He, Yiliang; Jekel, Martin; Reinhard, Martin; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2014-10-01

    The contamination of the urban water cycle (UWC) with a wide array of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) increases with urbanization and population density. To produce drinking water from the UWC requires close examination of their sources, occurrence, pathways, and health effects and the efficacy of wastewater treatment and natural attenuation processes that may occur in surface water bodies and groundwater. This paper researches in details the structure of the UWC and investigates the routes by which the water cycle is increasingly contaminated with compounds generated from various anthropogenic activities. Along with a thorough survey of chemicals representing compound classes such as hormones, antibiotics, surfactants, endocrine disruptors, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, pesticides and metabolites, disinfection-by-products, algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds, this paper provides a comprehensive and holistic review of the occurrence, fate, transport and potential health impact of the emerging organic contaminants of the UWC. This study also illustrates the widespread distribution of the emerging organic contaminants in the different aortas of the ecosystem and focuses on future research needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Soil nitrate reducing processes drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, M.; Morley, N.; Baggs, E.M.; Daniell, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium\\ud (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for\\ud the loss of nitrate (NO−\\ud 3 ) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O).\\ud A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and\\ud moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms\\ud responsible for the ...

  5. Pegasus project. DLC coating and low viscosity oil reduce energy losses significantly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerwald, Dave; Jacobs, Ruud [Hauzer Techno Coating (Netherlands). Tribological Coatings

    2012-03-15

    Pegasus, the flying horse from Greek mythology, is a suitable name for the research project initiated by a German automotive OEM with participation of Hauzer Techno Coating and several automotive suppliers. It will enable future automotive vehicles to reduce fuel consumption without losing power. The project described in this article focuses on the rear differential, because reducing friction here can contribute considerably to efficiency improvement of the whole vehicle. Surfaces, coating and oil viscosity have been investigated and interesting conclusions have been reached. (orig.)

  6. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...

  7. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Daniell, Tim J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3−) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N2O production from soils. PMID:23264770

  8. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Eleanore Giles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3-¬ and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O. A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub cm areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location and potential for N2O production from soils.

  9. Soil nitrate reducing processes - drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Daniell, Tim J

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate ([Formula: see text]) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N(2)O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O(2) concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N(2)O production from soils.

  10. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  11. Blue Planet dialysis: novel water-sparing strategies for reducing dialysate flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molano-Triviño, Alejandra; Wancjer, Benjamin; Neri, Mauro M; Karopadi, Akash N; Rosner, Mitchell; Ronco, Claudio

    2017-11-08

    Hemodialysis (HD) is an expensive therapy in economic and in ecological terms, owing to a high carbon footprint and significant consumption of natural sources, especially water. Our aim was to review strategies to diminish waste of water in maintenance dialysis, exploring previously described water reuse trends and less known strategies for reducing the dialysate flow. We conducted a systematic review of water-sparing strategies, including the reuse of reverse osmosis rejected water and the reduction of dialysate flux. We performed a search in Medline, Pubmed, Scielo, OVID and Biblioteca Redentor, using key words: Dialysate flow rate, Dialysate flux, and decrease; excluding: online, peritoneal, continuous, blood access, needle, hemodiafiltration, acute, pharmacokinetics, increase. We limited our search to adult humans or in vitro trials in English, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese, between January 1980 and June 2017. We found 816 trials. 37 articles were retrieved for review, and 11 articles were analyzed. Conservation of water in chronic HD should be considered an important responsibility of healthcare practitioners all over the world. We present a wider usage of dialysate flow rates, considering that it would lead to significant water conservation without much compromise on dialysis efficacy in small patients. We believe that further investigation into the utility of reduced dialysate flux in different populations is needed to broaden our understanding of how we can use these techniques in order to significantly reduce water consumption during chronic HD while still ensuring optimum efficacy and efficiency of the therapy.

  12. Innovative methods to reduce salt water intrusion in harbours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenenboom, J.; Uittenbogaard, R.; Hulsen, L.; van der Kaaij, T.; Kielen, N.

    2017-12-01

    The availability of fresh water in densely populated estuarine environments will in the future more often be threatened due to both human (e.g. channel deepening) and natural (sea-level rise, storm surges, extremely low river discharges) causes. Here, the salt water intrusion into the New Waterway, the main navigation channel of the port of Rotterdam, is used as a case study to elaborate on two innovative ways to mitigate the effects of salt water intrusion. The first method is based on the concept that vertical mixing of a salt wedge reduces its intrusion length. The idea is to equip a vessel with cranes that hold perforated tubes close to the bed alongside the vessel. By connecting compressors to the perforated tubes, a bubble screen with an adjustable vertical location can be created. Since the horizontal location of the bubble screens is not fixed, the vessel can sail in the vicinity of the moving salt wedge therewith increasing the effectiveness of the method. Another advantage of this intervention is that it can be deployed temporarily when the urgency for the prevention of salt water intrusion is high. The second method originates from the Port of Rotterdam Authority and is inspired by a small bypass that is present between two parallel channels (New Waterway and Caland Canal) connecting the North Sea to the Port of Rotterdam. Due to the different hydrodynamic characteristics of the hinterland of both channels, a difference in salinity and water level is present between both ends of the bypass. As a result, a lateral inflow of water into the New Waterway occurs at the same moment that the flood velocities transport saline water landwards. The lateral inflow of water into this channel has no momentum in the landward direction and therefore decreases the landward flow velocity and therewith the salt water intrusion. In addition, the inflow drives a vertical circulation that mixes the water column close to the bypass. Similar to the bubble screens mentioned

  13. Improving mine-mill water network design by reducing water and energy requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunson, A.J.; Klein, B.; Veiga, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Norman B. Keevil Inst. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mining is an energy-intensive industry, and most processing mills use wet processes to separate minerals from ore. This paper discussed water reduction, reuse and recycling options for a mining and mill operation network. A mine water network design was then proposed in order to identify and reduce water and system energy requirements. This included (1) a description of site water balance, (2) a description of potential water sources, (3) a description of water consumers, (4) the construction of energy requirement matrices, and (5) the use of linear programming to reduce energy requirements. The design was used to determine a site water balance as well as to specify major water consumers during mining and mill processes. Potential water supply combinations, water metering technologies, and recycling options were evaluated in order to identify the most efficient energy and water use combinations. The method was used to highlight potential energy savings from the integration of heating and cooling systems with plant water systems. 43 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. Water Pricing as an Economic Justification for Reducing Non-Revenue Water (NRW Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Tabesh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of water demand and modification of consumption patterns are becoming increasingly essential due to the increasingly limited precipitation and the growing population which have led to both severe restrictions on renewable water resources and increasing demands for water in Iran. The most important consumption management measures involve reducing Non-Revenue Water (NRW and decreasing water losses in the water supply system. Non-revenue water is defined as the difference between the total inflow and the metered consumption in the supply system. The losses may be divided into the two components of apparent and real losses. Achieving reductions in non-revenue water calls for the careful study and evaluation of the operational procedures proposed in each case since reductions will be economical only when accurate and realistic values are considered in water pricing. The present study draws upon the data obtained from non-revenue water projects implemented in District 4 of Tehran Water and Wastewater Company, the measures proposed by the project consultant, and the economic justifications claimed for all the costs associated with the measures to eliminate water losses. The cost of the proposed measures are calculated for two different economic values of water proposed to ensure benefits, and under four different interest rates. Results confirm the profitability of the non-revenue water solutions based on the finished cost of water even at subsidized rates of public funds. However, project profitability will be in question if the economic price of water is assumed to be equivalent to the total trade price of water and if both real and apparent losses are to be reduced.

  15. The Evolution of Polymer Composition during PHA Accumulation: The Significance of Reducing Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Montano-Herrera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic investigation into monomer development during mixed culture Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA accumulation involving concurrent active biomass growth and polymer storage. A series of mixed culture PHA accumulation experiments, using several different substrate-feeding strategies, was carried out. The feedstock comprised volatile fatty acids, which were applied as single carbon sources, as mixtures, or in series, using a fed-batch feed-on-demand controlled bioprocess. A dynamic trend in active biomass growth as well as polymer composition was observed. The observations were consistent over replicate accumulations. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA was used to investigate metabolic activity through time. It was concluded that carbon flux, and consequently copolymer composition, could be linked with how reducing equivalents are generated.

  16. Significantly reduced c-axis thermal diffusivity of graphene-based papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meng; Xie, Yangsu; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jingchao; Wang, Xinwei

    2018-06-01

    Owing to their very high thermal conductivity as well as large surface-to-volume ratio, graphene-based films/papers have been proposed as promising candidates of lightweight thermal interface materials and lateral heat spreaders. In this work, we study the cross-plane (c-axis) thermal conductivity (k c ) and diffusivity (α c ) of two typical graphene-based papers, which are partially reduced graphene paper (PRGP) and graphene oxide paper (GOP), and compare their thermal properties with highly-reduced graphene paper and graphite. The determined α c of PRGP varies from (1.02 ± 0.09) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 295 K to (2.31 ± 0.18) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 12 K. This low α c is mainly attributed to the strong phonon scattering at the grain boundaries and defect centers due to the small grain sizes and high-level defects. For GOP, α c varies from (1.52 ± 0.05) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 295 K to (2.28 ± 0.08) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 12.5 K. The cross-plane thermal transport of GOP is attributed to the high density of functional groups between carbon layers which provide weak thermal transport tunnels across the layers in the absence of direct energy coupling among layers. This work sheds light on the understanding and optimizing of nanostructure of graphene-based paper-like materials for desired thermal performance.

  17. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-01-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil

  18. Potential Effects of a Water Market on Enhancing Water Productivity and Reducing Water-Related Conflicts in Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Zibaei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for water and the declining trend in renewable water resources in most regions has led to serious limitations on water availability calling for the sustainable management of the harvestable resources. This has, in turn, encouraged most planners in the water sector to focus on demand management. A number of tools are already available for realizing water demand management goals; one such tool is establishing a water market. The present study is designed and implemented in two stages to investigate the role of a water market in water resources management. In the first stage, the creation of a water market at the farm and basin levels is simulated using a mathematical planning model. The second stage involves the investigation of the combined effects of the water market and water extraction rationing policies. It is found that rationing policies lead to reduced extractions from groundwater resources. The two-stage random cluster sampling method is used to collect the required data. Pilot villages are selected based on the data obtained from the first sampling stage. Pilot farms are then selected in the second stage based on water availability in each place. The input-output data, quantities of available water, and any other data required are finally collected through interviews with local farmers. Results reveal that the volume of exchanged water accounts for 9.5% of the total water consumed and the average improvement gained in farmers’ income ranges from 15 to as high as 42%. This clearly provides enough incentives for the farmers to enter the water market. Like all other water saving policies and measures, establishing a water market might increase consumption, contrary to the national objectives, in the absence of proper supplementary preventive measures. Thus, a second scenario is designed to investigate the combined effects of both water extraction rationing and water marketing. According to this scenario, the total

  19. Reducing environmental risks in water management in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownlow, H.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of water management regarding hydroelectric generating facilities in British Columbia was discussed. BC Hydro has adopted the following three processes to address water management risks: (1) the Electric System Operating Review, (2) Water Use Plans, and (3) an Environmental Management System. The greatest concern regarding water management are the potential impacts to fish and fish habitat. More than 90 per cent of BC Hydro's installed capacity is hydroelectric, with the balance produced by natural gas and diesel. All facilities are licensed under the provincial Water Act which has been in effect for the past century and is currently way out of date. Among its inadequacies is the fact that it does not provide for the protection of fish. The B.C. Fish Protection Act suggests that effective immediately, there should be no new dams on the Fraser and other significant rivers. BC Hydro facilities impact 16 of the 2,576 streams in British Columbia that support anadromous (migrating) salmon stocks. BC Hydro has 25 dams and diversions located on these 16 rivers. It was concluded that BC Hydro's impact on fish and fish habitat, although relatively small compared to the total fish resource in the province, is significant. The technology now used by BC Hydro is claimed to have the capacity to allow for easy documentation, rapid communication and the development of a comprehensive database for use in identifying and managing the impact of the Utility's operations on the fish population. 10 refs., 12 figs

  20. Evacuation of performance and significant chemical constituents and by products in drinking water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamrah, I. A.

    1999-01-01

    Drinking water treatment is a task that comprises of several processes that eventually lead to the addition of chemicals to achieve the objectives of treatment. This study was conducted to assess treatment performance, explain the presence of significant chemical species in water, and investigate the interactions and chemical by-products that are formed during the course of treatment. Grab water samples were collected on a regular basis from the influent and effluent of Zai water treatment plant. Chemical analysis were conducted to determine the concentrations of various chemical species of interest. Turbidity, temperature, and pH of the samples were also measured. The study concluded that Zai Water Treatment Plant produces potable drinking water in accordance with Jordanian Standards. The use of treatment chemical resulted in an increase in the concentrations of certain materials, such as manganese, aluminum, and sulfate. The turbidity of the raw water and the TOC of the samples were positively correlated, and the treatment results in approximately 20% TOC reduction, which demonstrates that the measures used for the control of TOC (carbon adsorption and permanganate pre-oxidation), are not very effective. The study also showed that the TOC content of our raw water samples and the concentration of tribalomethanes resulting after disinfection were positively correlated, and that bromoform was the dominant component. Also chloroform was the minor component of tribalomethanes formed during treatment. Positive correlation between the total concentration of tribalomethanes in water and the chlorine dose used for disinfection was also observed, and the total concentration of tribalomethanes increased with temperature. The formation of tribalomethanes was enhanced as the pH of water increased and as the concentration of bromide ion in raw water became significant. (author). 25 refs., 14 figs.1 table

  1. Significantly improving trace thallium removal from surface waters during coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan; Wu, Zhengsong

    2017-02-01

    Thallium (Tl) is an element of high toxicity and significant accumulation in human body. There is an urgent need for the development of appropriate strategies for trace Tl removal in drinking water treatment plants. In this study, the efficiency and mechanism of trace Tl (0.5 μg/L) removal by conventional coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO 2 ) were explored in simulated water and two representative surface waters (a river water and a reservoir water obtained from Northeast China). Experimental results showed that nMnO 2 significantly improve Tl(I) removal from selected waters. The removal efficiency was dramatically higher in the simulated water, demonstrating by less than 0.1 μg/L Tl residual. The enhancement of trace Tl removal in the surface waters decreased to a certain extent. Both adjusting water pH to alkaline condition and preoxidation of Tl(I) to Tl(III) benefit trace Tl removal from surface waters. Data also indicated that competitive cation of Ca 2+ decreased the efficiency of trace Tl removal, resulting from the reduction of Tl adsorption on nMnO 2 . Humic acid could largely low Tl removal efficiency during nMnO 2 enhanced coagulation processes. Trace elemental Tl firstly adsorbed on nMnO 2 and then removed accompanying with nMnO 2 settling. The information obtained in the present study may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Thrombolysis significantly reduces transient myocardial ischaemia following first acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate whether thrombolysis affects residual myocardial ischaemia, we prospectively performed a predischarge maximal exercise test and early out-of-hospital ambulatory ST segment monitoring in 123 consecutive men surviving a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Seventy......-four patients fulfilled our criteria for thrombolysis, but only the last 35 patients included received thrombolytic therapy. As thrombolysis was not available in our Department at the start of the study, the first 39 patients included were conservatively treated (controls). No significant differences...... in baseline clinical characteristics were found between the two groups. In-hospital atrial fibrillation and digoxin therapy was more prevalent in controls (P less than 0.05). During exercise, thrombolysed patients reached a higher maximal work capacity compared with controls: 160 +/- 41 vs 139 +/- 34 W (P...

  3. Selenium Supplementation Significantly Reduces Thyroid Autoantibody Levels in Patients with Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichman, Johanna Eva Märta; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium supplementation may decrease circulating thyroid autoantibodies in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), but the available trials are heterogenous. This study expands and critically reappraises the knowledge on this topic. METHODS: A literature search identified...... 3366 records. Controlled trials in adults (≥18 years of age) with AIT, comparing selenium with or without levothyroxine (LT4), versus placebo and/or LT4, were eligible. Assessed outcomes were serum thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) autoantibody levels, and immunomodulatory effects...... and LT4-untreated. Heterogeneity was estimated using I(2), and quality of evidence was assessed per outcome, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. RESULTS: In LT4-treated populations, the selenium group had significantly lower TPOAb levels after...

  4. A case of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma which was significantly reduced in size by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azakami, Kiyoshi; Nishida, Kouji; Tanikawa, Ken

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization classified gastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) into three types: NET grade (G) 1, NET G2 and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). NECs are associated with a very poor prognosis. The patient was an 84-year-old female who was initially diagnosed by gastrointestinal endoscope with type 3 advanced gastric cancer with stenosis of the gastric cardia. Her overall status and performance status did not allow for operations or intensive chemotherapy. Palliative radiotherapy was performed and resulted in a significant reduction in the size of the tumor as well as the improvement of the obstructive symptoms. She died 9 months after radiotherapy. An autopsy provided a definitive diagnosis of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma, and the effectiveness of radiotherapy was pathologically-confirmed. Palliative radiotherapy may be a useful treatment option for providing symptom relief, especially for old patients with unresectable advanced gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma. (author)

  5. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched.

  6. Ad libitum Mediterranean and Low Fat Diets both Significantly Reduce Hepatic Steatosis: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, Catherine; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Sherriff, Jill L; Ching, Helena L; Jeffrey, Garry P; Buckley, Rachel F; Tibballs, Jonathan; MacQuillan, Gerry C; Garas, George; Adams, Leon A

    2018-05-05

    Although diet induced weight loss is first-line treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), long-term maintenance is difficult. The optimal diet for either improvement in NAFLD or associated cardio-metabolic risk factors regardless of weight loss, is unknown. We examined the effect of two ad libitum isocaloric diets [Mediterranean (MD) or Low Fat (LF)] on hepatic steatosis and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Subjects with NAFLD were randomized to a 12-week blinded dietary intervention (MD vs LF). Hepatic steatosis was determined via magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). From a total of 56 subjects enrolled, 49 subjects completed the intervention and 48 were included for analysis. During the intervention, subjects on the MD had significantly higher total and monounsaturated fat but lower carbohydrate and sodium intakes compared to LF subjects (pfat reduction between the groups (p=0.32), with mean (SD) relative reductions of 25.0% (±25.3%) in LF and 32.4% (±25.5%) in MD. Liver enzymes also improved significantly in both groups. Weight loss was minimal and not different between groups [-1.6 (±2.1)kg in LF vs -2.1 (±2.5)kg in MD, (p=0.52)]. Within-group improvements in the Framingham risk score, total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, and HbA1c were observed in the MD (all pvs. 64%, p=0.048). Ad libitum low fat and Mediterranean diets both improve hepatic steatosis to a similar degree. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. Public health significance of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in wildlife: Critical insights into better drinking water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zahedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is an enteric parasite that is transmitted via the faecal–oral route, water and food. Humans, wildlife and domestic livestock all potentially contribute Cryptosporidium to surface waters. Human encroachment into natural ecosystems has led to an increase in interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife populations. Increasing numbers of zoonotic diseases and spill over/back of zoonotic pathogens is a consequence of this anthropogenic disturbance. Drinking water catchments and water reservoir areas have been at the front line of this conflict as they can be easily contaminated by zoonotic waterborne pathogens. Therefore, the epidemiology of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium in free-ranging and captive wildlife is of increasing importance. This review focuses on zoonotic Cryptosporidium species reported in global wildlife populations to date, and highlights their significance for public health and the water industry.

  8. Public health significance of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in wildlife: Critical insights into better drinking water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Alireza; Paparini, Andrea; Jian, Fuchun; Robertson, Ian; Ryan, Una

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidium is an enteric parasite that is transmitted via the faecal-oral route, water and food. Humans, wildlife and domestic livestock all potentially contribute Cryptosporidium to surface waters. Human encroachment into natural ecosystems has led to an increase in interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife populations. Increasing numbers of zoonotic diseases and spill over/back of zoonotic pathogens is a consequence of this anthropogenic disturbance. Drinking water catchments and water reservoir areas have been at the front line of this conflict as they can be easily contaminated by zoonotic waterborne pathogens. Therefore, the epidemiology of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium in free-ranging and captive wildlife is of increasing importance. This review focuses on zoonotic Cryptosporidium species reported in global wildlife populations to date, and highlights their significance for public health and the water industry.

  9. The significance of water hammer events to public dose from reactor accidents: A probabilistic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amico, P.J.; Ferrell, W.L.; Rubin, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    A probabilistic assessment was made of the effects on public dose of water hammer events in LWRs. The analysis utilized actual historical water hammer data to determine if the water hammer events contributed either to system failure rates or initiating event frequencies. Representative PRAs were used to see if changes in initiating events and/or system failures caused by water hammer resulted in new values for the dominant sequences in the PRAs. New core melt frequencies were determined and carried out to the subsequent increase in public dose. It is concluded that water hammer is not a significant problem with respect to risk to the public for either BWRs or PWRs. (orig./HP)

  10. Social networking strategies that aim to reduce obesity have achieved significant although modest results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Harling, Leanne; Kerr, Karen; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues to escalate. Obesity accounts for an increasing proportion of the international socioeconomic burden of noncommunicable disease. Online social networking services provide an effective medium through which information may be exchanged between obese and overweight patients and their health care providers, potentially contributing to superior weight-loss outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of these services in modifying body mass index (BMI). Our analysis of twelve studies found that interventions using social networking services produced a modest but significant 0.64 percent reduction in BMI from baseline for the 941 people who participated in the studies' interventions. We recommend that social networking services that target obesity should be the subject of further clinical trials. Additionally, we recommend that policy makers adopt reforms that promote the use of anti-obesity social networking services, facilitate multistakeholder partnerships in such services, and create a supportive environment to confront obesity and its associated noncommunicable diseases. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Targeting Heparin to Collagen within Extracellular Matrix Significantly Reduces Thrombogenicity and Improves Endothelialization of Decellularized Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Suen, Rachel; Wertheim, Jason A; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2016-12-12

    Thrombosis within small-diameter vascular grafts limits the development of bioartificial, engineered vascular conduits, especially those derived from extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we describe an easy-to-implement strategy to chemically modify vascular ECM by covalently linking a collagen binding peptide (CBP) to heparin to form a heparin derivative (CBP-heparin) that selectively binds a subset of collagens. Modification of ECM with CBP-heparin leads to increased deposition of functional heparin (by ∼7.2-fold measured by glycosaminoglycan composition) and a corresponding reduction in platelet binding (>70%) and whole blood clotting (>80%) onto the ECM. Furthermore, addition of CBP-heparin to the ECM stabilizes long-term endothelial cell attachment to the lumen of ECM-derived vascular conduits, potentially through recruitment of heparin-binding growth factors that ultimately improve the durability of endothelialization in vitro. Overall, our findings provide a simple yet effective method to increase deposition of functional heparin on the surface of ECM-based vascular grafts and thereby minimize thrombogenicity of decellularized tissue, overcoming a significant challenge in tissue engineering of bioartificial vessels and vascularized organs.

  12. Advanced technology heavy water monitors offering reduced implementation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalechstein, W.; Hippola, K.B.

    1984-10-01

    The development of second generation heavy water monitors for use at CANDU power stations and heavy water plants has been completed and the instruments brought to the stage of commercial availability. Applications of advanced technology and reduced utilization of custom manufactured components have together resulted in instruments that are less expensive to produce than the original monitors and do not require costly station services. The design has been tested on two prototypes and fully documented, including the inspection and test procedures required for manufacture to the CSA Z299.3 quality verfication program standard. Production of the new monitors by a commercial vendor (Barringer Research Ltd.) has begun and the first instrument is scheduled for delivery to CRNL's NRU reactor in late 1984

  13. The critical singularities of water and its significance in the hydrothermal mineralization of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Baoqun; Lv Guxian; Wang Fangzheng; Sun Zhanxue; Zhu Peng

    2008-01-01

    Water is the main composition of the geo-fiuid. With the changes of temperature and pressure, its phases and physicochemical properties will vary and the critical singularity occur at the critical point of second-order phase transition. These changes of water will enormously affect the hydrothermal mineralizations. This paper has introduced the types and characteristics of water phase transitions, studied the phase transitions of water in the lithosphere and showed the critical singularity of water with the example of the isobaric heat capacity. The conclusions are as follow: (1) the critical singularities of water are the most obvious as the temperature and pressure near to the critical constants of water; (2) Because the temperature changes with the pressure according to the thermal curve in the lithosphere, it is difficult to find a place where the temperature and pressure can be at the critical constants at same time except the coupling effect of the hydrothermal processes, intermediate-acidic magmatism and faulting; (3) To the hydrothermal mineralization, the significances of water's critical singularities at least include the sharp variation of solubility and instantaneous high pressure to conduct the deposit of ore-forming materials and fault formation. (authors)

  14. Thyroid function appears to be significantly reduced in Space-borne MDS mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco; Curcio, Francesco; Fontanini, Elisabetta; Perrella, Giuseppina; Spelat, Renza; Zambito, Anna Maria; Damaskopoulou, Eleni; Peverini, Manola; Albi, Elisabetta

    It is known that prolonged space flights induced changes in human cardiovascular, muscu-loskeletal and nervous systems whose function is regulated by the thyroid gland but, until now, no data were reported about thyroid damage during space missions. We have demonstrated in vitro that, during space missions (Italian Soyuz Mission "ENEIDE" in 2005, Shuttle STS-120 "ESPERIA" in 2007), thyroid in vitro cultured cells did not respond to thyroid stimulating hor-mone (TSH) treatment; they appeared healthy and alive, despite their being in a pro-apopotic state characterised by a variation of sphingomyelin metabolism and consequent increase in ce-ramide content. The insensitivity to TSH was largely due to a rearrangement of specific cell membrane microdomains, acting as platforms for TSH-receptor (TEXUS-44 mission in 2008). To study if these effects were present also in vivo, as part of the Mouse Drawer System (MDS) Tissue Sharing Program, we performed experiments in mice maintained onboard the Interna-tional Space Station during the long-duration (90 days) exploration mission STS-129. After return to earth, the thyroids isolated from the 3 animals were in part immediately frozen to study the morphological modification in space and in part immediately used to study the effect of TSH treatment. For this purpose small fragments of tissue were treated with 10-7 or 10-8 M TSH for 1 hour by using untreated fragments as controls. Then the fragments were fixed with absolute ethanol for 10 min at room temperature and centrifuged for 20 min. at 3000 x g. The supernatants were used for cAMP analysis whereas the pellet were used for protein amount determination and for immunoblotting analysis of TSH-receptor, sphingomyelinase and sphingomyelin-synthase. The results showed a modification of the thyroid structure and also the values of cAMP production after treatment with 10-7 M TSH for 1 hour were significantly lower than those obtained in Earth's gravity. The treatment with TSH

  15. Importance of pressure reducing valves (PRVs) in water supply networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoreti, R. O. S.; Camargo, R. Z.; Canno, L. M.; Pires, M. S. G.; Ribeiro, L. C. L. J.

    2016-08-01

    Challenged with the high rate of leakage from water supply systems, these managers are committed to identify control mechanisms. In order to standardize and control the pressure Pressure Reducing Valves (VRP) are installed in the supply network, shown to be more effective and provide a faster return for the actual loss control measures. It is known that the control pressure is while controlling the occurrence of leakage. Usually the network is sectored in areas defined by pressure levels according to its topography, once inserted the VRP in the same system will limit the downstream pressure. This work aims to show the importance of VRP as loss reduction for tool.

  16. Surface water change as a significant contributor to global evapotranspiration change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, S.; Song, C.

    2017-12-01

    Water comprises a critical component of global/regional hydrological and biogeochemical cycles and is essential to all organisms including humans. In the past several decades, climate change has intensified the hydrological cycle, with significant implications for ecosystem services and feedback to regional and global climate. Evapotranspiration (ET) as a linking mechanism between land surface and atmosphere is central to the water cycle and an excellent indicator of the intensity of water cycle. Knowledge of the temporal changes of ET is crucial for accurately estimating global or regional water budgets and better understanding climate and hydrological interactions. While studies have examined changes in global ET, they were conducted using a constant land and surface water (SW) area. However, as many studies have found that global SW is very dynamic and their surface areas have generally been increasing since the 1980s. The conversion from land to water and vice versa significantly changes the local ET since water bodies evaporate at a rate that can be much higher than that of the land. Here, we quantify the global changes in ET caused by such land-water conversion using remotely-sensed SW area and various ET and potential ET products. New SW and lost SW between circa-1985 and circa-2015 were derived from remote sensing and were used to modify the local ET estimates. We found an increase in ET in all continents as consistent with the net increase in SW area. The increasing SW area lead to a global increase in ET by 30.38 ± 5.28 km3/yr. This is a significant contribution when compared to the 92.95 km3/yr/yr increase in ET between 1982-1997 and 103.43 km3/yr/yr decrease between 1998-2008 by Jung et al., (2010) assuming a constant SW. The results enhance our understanding of the water fluxes between the land and atmosphere and supplement land water budget estimates. We conclude that changes in SW lead to a significant change in global ET that cannot be neglected in

  17. Reducing phosphorus loss in tile water with managed drainage in a claypan soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Patrick R; Nelson, Kelly A; Motavalli, Peter P; Nathan, Manjula; Dudenhoeffer, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Installing subsurface tile drain systems in poorly drained claypan soils to improve corn ( L.) yields could potentially increase environmental phosphorus (P) loss through the tile drainage system. The objectives of the study were to quantify the average concentration and loss of ortho-P in tile drain water from a claypan soil and to determine whether managed subsurface drainage (MD) could reduce ortho-P loss in tile water compared with free subsurface drainage (FD). Flow-weighted ortho-P concentration in the tile water was significantly lower with MD (0.09 mg L) compared with that of FD (0.15 mg L). Ortho-P loss in the tile water of this study was reduced with MD (36 g ha) by 80% compared with FD (180 g ha). Contrary to previous research, reduced ortho-P loss observed over the 4-yr study was not solely due to the reduced amount of water drained annually (63%) with MD compared with FD. During the spring period, when flow was similar between MD and FD, the concentration of ortho-P in the tile water generally was lower with MD compared with FD, which resulted in significantly less ortho-P loss with MD. We speculate that MD's ability to conserve water during the dry summer months increased corn's uptake of water and P, which reduced the amount of P available for leaching loss in the subsequent springs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Effectiveness of oat and rye cover crops in reducing nitrate losses in drainage water

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant portion of the NO3 from agricultural fields that contaminates surface waters in the Midwest Corn Belt is transported to streams or rivers by subsurface drainage systems or “tiles”. Previous research has shown that N fertilizer management alone is not sufficient for reducing NO3 concent...

  19. Research on Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Shimada, Shoichiro

    1999-11-01

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is a next generation water-cooled reactor which aims at effective utilization of uranium resource, high burn-up and long operation cycle, and plutonium multi-recycle. These characteristics can be achieved by the high conversion ratio from 238 U to 239 Pu resulted from the higher neutron energy spectrum in comparison to conventional light water reactors. Considering the extension of LWR utilization, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) started the research on it in 1997 and then started a collaboration in the conceptual design study with the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPCO) in 1998. In the core design study of the RMWR, negative void reactivity coefficient is required from a viewpoint of safety as well as establishing hard neutron spectrum. In order to achieve the above trade-off characteristics simultaneously, several basic core design ideas should be combined, such as a tight lattice fuel assembly, a flat core, a blanket effect, a streaming effect and so on. Up to now, five core concepts have been created for the RMWR as follows: a high conversion BWR with high void fraction and super-flat core, a long operation cycle BWR using void channels, a high conversion BWR without blankets, a high conversion PWR using heavy water as a coolant, and a PWR for plutonium multi-recycle using seed-blanket type fuel assemblies. The present report summarizes the objectives, domestic and international trends, principles and characteristics, core conceptual designs and future R and D plans of the RMWR. (J.P.N.)

  20. Progress in design study on reduced-moderation water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Tsutomu; Kugo, Teruhiko; Shimada, Shoichiro; Shirakawa, Toshihisa; Iwamura, Takamichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takeda, Renzo [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yokoyama, Tsugio [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Hibi, Koki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Wada, Shigeyuki [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is a next generation water-cooled reactor which aims at effective utilization of uranium resource, high burn-up and long operation cycle, and plutonium multi-recycle. These characteristics can be achieved by the high conversion ratio from {sup 238}U to {sup 239}Pu resulted from the higher neutron energy spectrum in comparison to conventional light water reactors. Considering the extension of LWR utilization, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) started the research on it in 1997 and then started a collaboration in the conceptual design study with the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) in 1998, under technical cooperation with three Japanese reactor vendors. In the core design study of the RMWR, negative void reactivity coefficient is required from a viewpoint of safety as well as establishing hard neutron spectrum. In order to achieve the above trade-off characteristics simultaneously, several basic core design ideas should be combined, such as a tight-lattice fuel assembly, a flat core, a blanket effect, a streaming effect and so on. Up to now, five core concepts have been created for the RMWR as follows: a high conversion BWR type core with high void fraction and super-flat core, a long operation cycle BWR type core using void tube assembly, a high conversion BWR type core without blankets, a high conversion PWR type core using heavy water as a coolant, and a PWR type core for plutonium multi-recycle using seed-blanket type fuel assemblies. Detailed feasibility studies for the RMWR have been continued on core design study. The present report summarizes the recent progress in the design study for the RMWR. (author)

  1. Research on Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamura, Takamichi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Shimada, Shoichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1999-11-01

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is a next generation water-cooled reactor which aims at effective utilization of uranium resource, high burn-up and long operation cycle, and plutonium multi-recycle. These characteristics can be achieved by the high conversion ratio from {sup 238}U to {sup 239}Pu resulted from the higher neutron energy spectrum in comparison to conventional light water reactors. Considering the extension of LWR utilization, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) started the research on it in 1997 and then started a collaboration in the conceptual design study with the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPCO) in 1998. In the core design study of the RMWR, negative void reactivity coefficient is required from a viewpoint of safety as well as establishing hard neutron spectrum. In order to achieve the above trade-off characteristics simultaneously, several basic core design ideas should be combined, such as a tight lattice fuel assembly, a flat core, a blanket effect, a streaming effect and so on. Up to now, five core concepts have been created for the RMWR as follows: a high conversion BWR with high void fraction and super-flat core, a long operation cycle BWR using void channels, a high conversion BWR without blankets, a high conversion PWR using heavy water as a coolant, and a PWR for plutonium multi-recycle using seed-blanket type fuel assemblies. The present report summarizes the objectives, domestic and international trends, principles and characteristics, core conceptual designs and future R and D plans of the RMWR. (J.P.N.)

  2. Oxidation of naturally reduced uranium in aquifer sediments by dissolved oxygen and its potential significance to uranium plume persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. A.; Smith, R. L.; Bohlke, J. K.; Jemison, N.; Xiang, H.; Repert, D. A.; Yuan, X.; Williams, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of naturally reduced zones is common in alluvial aquifers in the western U.S.A. due to the burial of woody debris in flood plains. Such reduced zones are usually heterogeneously dispersed in these aquifers and characterized by high concentrations of organic carbon, reduced mineral phases, and reduced forms of metals, including uranium(IV). The persistence of high concentrations of dissolved uranium(VI) at uranium-contaminated aquifers on the Colorado Plateau has been attributed to slow oxidation of insoluble uranium(IV) mineral phases found in association with these reducing zones, although there is little understanding of the relative importance of various potential oxidants. Four field experiments were conducted within an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO, wherein groundwater associated with the naturally reduced zones was pumped into a gas-impermeable tank, mixed with a conservative tracer (Br-), bubbled with a gas phase composed of 97% O2 and 3% CO2, and then returned to the subsurface in the same well from which it was withdrawn. Within minutes of re-injection of the oxygenated groundwater, dissolved uranium(VI) concentrations increased from less than 1 μM to greater than 2.5 μM, demonstrating that oxygen can be an important oxidant for uranium in such field systems if supplied to the naturally reduced zones. Dissolved Fe(II) concentrations decreased to the detection limit, but increases in sulfate could not be detected due to high background concentrations. Changes in nitrogen species concentrations were variable. The results contrast with other laboratory and field results in which oxygen was introduced to systems containing high concentrations of mackinawite (FeS), rather than the more crystalline iron sulfides found in aged, naturally reduced zones. The flux of oxygen to the naturally reduced zones in the alluvial aquifers occurs mainly through interactions between groundwater and gas phases at the water table

  3. Conceptual designing of reduced-moderation water reactor with heavy water coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibi, Kohki; Shimada, Shoichiro; Okubo, Tsutomu E-mail: okubo@hems.jaeri.go.jp; Iwamura, Takamichi; Wada, Shigeyuki

    2001-12-01

    The conceptual designing of reduced-moderation water reactors, i.e. advanced water-cooled reactors using plutonium mixed-oxide fuel with high conversion ratios more than 1.0 and negative void reactivity coefficients, has been carried out. The core is designed on the concept of a pressurized water reactor with a heavy water coolant and a triangular tight lattice fuel pin arrangement. The seed fuel assembly has an internal blanket region inside the seed fuel region as well as upper and lower blanket regions (i.e. an axial heterogeneous core). The radial blanket fuel assemblies are introduced in a checkerboard pattern among the seed fuel assemblies (i.e. a radial heterogeneous core). The radial blanket region is shorter than the seed fuel region. This study shows that the heavy water moderated core can achieve negative void reactivity coefficients and conversion ratios of 1.06-1.11.

  4. Bacterial DNA in water and dialysate: detection and significance for patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Garry J; Megdal, Peter A; Handelman, Samuel K

    2009-01-01

    The fluid used for hemodialysis may contain DNA fragments from bacteria, which could be harmful for patient outcomes. DNA fragments from bacteria, containing the nonmethylated CpG motif, can trigger inflammation through the monocyte and lymphocyte Toll-like receptor 9, and these DNA fragments have been observed in dialysate. The fragments may transfer across the dialyzer into the patient's bloodstream during hemodialysis treatment. During hemodiafiltration, the fragments would be introduced directly into the bloodstream. The DNA fragments may arise from biofilm in the pipes of the water system, from growth of bacteria in the water, or as contaminants in the bicarbonate and salt mixture used for preparation of dialysate. Current filtration methods, such as Diasafe filters, are not able to remove these fragments. It would be prudent to seek to reduce or eliminate these contaminants. However, the cost and effort of decreasing bacterial DNA content may ultimately require substantial facility improvements; we therefore need to fund research studies to determine if modifications to reduce bacterial DNA content are clinically warranted. This research will require methods to accurately determine the species of bacteria that contribute the DNA, since this information will allow the source to be established as biofilm, bicarbonate mixtures, or other problems in the dialysis system such as bacterial growth or leakage during water preparation. In this review, the evidence for bacterial DNA fragments will be examined and suggestions for further studies will be described.

  5. The significance of natural ground-water recharge in site selection for mill tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Milling operations throughout the world have created vast amounts of waste by-products, or tailings, which are often disposed on the land surface. The wastes may be disposed behind dams, on untreated ground, or on compacted clay or synthetic liners of impoundments and trenches. Often one of the principle concerns of environmental regulatory agencies is whether seepage from the waste pile could move through the vadose zone to the water table and possibly contaminate an aquifer. The seepage may be generated by the drainage of liquids initially deposited along with the tailings or by infiltrating meteoric water which leaches soluted from the tailings. The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the commonly held assumptions regarding storage of seepage wastes in the unsaturated zone. The significance of recent studies of water movement in dry climates which pertain to tailings site selection are presented

  6. Roles and significance of water conducting features for transport models in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, J.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Medina, A.

    1999-01-01

    The term water conducting features (WCF) refers to zones of high hydraulic conductivity. In the context of waste disposal, it is further implied that they are narrow so that chances of sampling them are low. Yet, they may carry significant amounts of water. Moreover, their relatively small volumetric water content causes solutes to travel fast through them. Water-conducting features are a rather common feature of natural media. The fact that they have become a source of concern in recent years, reflects more the increased level of testing and monitoring than any intrinsic property of low permeability media. Accurate simulations of solute transport require a realistic accounting for water conducting features. Methods are presented to do so and examples are shown to illustrate these methods. Since detailed accounting of WCF's will not be possible in actual performance assessments, efforts should be directed towards typification, so as to identify the essential effects of WCF's on solute transport through different types of rocks. Field evidence suggests that, although individual WCF's may be difficult to characterize, their effects are quite predictable. (author)

  7. Significant skin burns may occur with the use of a water balloon in HIFU treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Robert; Collin, Jamie; Wu, Feng; Coussios, Constantin; Leslie, Tom; Cranston, David

    2012-10-01

    HIFU is a minimally-invasive therapy suitable for treating selected intra-abdominal tumors. Treatment is safe although skin burns may occur due to pre-focal heating. HIFU treatment of a renal transplant tumor located in the left lower abdomen was undertaken in our centre. Treatment was performed prone, requiring displacement of the abdominal wall away from the treatment field using a water balloon, constructed of natural rubber latex and filled with degassed water. Intra-operatively, ultrasound imaging and physical examination of the skin directly over the focal region was normal. Immediately post-operative, a full-thickness skin burn was evident at the periphery of the balloon location, outside the expected HIFU path. Three possibilities may account for this complication. Firstly, the water balloon may have acted as a lens, focusing the HIFU to a neo-focus off axis. Secondly, air bubbles may have been entrapped between the balloon and the skin, causing heating at the interface. Finally, heating of the isolated water within the balloon may have been sufficient to cause burning. In this case, the placement of a water balloon caused a significant skin burn. Care should be taken in their use as burns, situated off axis, may occur even if the overlying skin appears normal.

  8. Malodorous volatile organic sulfur compounds: Sources, sinks and significance in inland waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Susan B; Jüttner, Friedrich

    2017-03-01

    Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds (VOSCs) are instrumental in global S-cycling and greenhouse gas production. VOSCs occur across a diversity of inland waters, and with widespread eutrophication and climate change, are increasingly linked with malodours in organic-rich waterbodies and drinking-water supplies. Compared with marine systems, the role of VOSCs in biogeochemical processes is far less well characterized for inland waters, and often involves different physicochemical and biological processes. This review provides an updated synthesis of VOSCs in inland waters, focusing on compounds known to cause malodours. We examine the major limnological and biochemical processes involved in the formation and degradation of alkylthiols, dialkylsulfides, dialkylpolysulfides, and other organosulfur compounds under different oxygen, salinity and mixing regimes, and key phototropic and heterotrophic microbial producers and degraders (bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae) in these environs. The data show VOSC levels which vary significantly, sometimes far exceeding human odor thresholds, generated by a diversity of biota, biochemical pathways, enzymes and precursors. We also draw attention to major issues in sampling and analytical artifacts which bias and preclude comparisons among studies, and highlight significant knowledge gaps that need addressing with careful, appropriate methods to provide a more robust understanding of the potential effects of continued global development.

  9. Water enema CT examination of rectum cancer by reduced amount of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palko, A.; Gyulai, Cs.; Fedinecz, N.; Balogh, A.; Nagy, F.

    2000-01-01

    To define whether volume of water, administered during water enema CT (WE-CT) for local staging of rectal cancer, may be reduced without compromising the diagnostic value of the examination. Materials and Methods: 29 patients with rectum cancer underwent preoperative WE-CT. Contrast-enhanced CT (equilibrium phase) measurements were performed after i.v. injection of smooth muscle relaxant and rectal administration of 400 - 500 ml lukewarm tap water. Quality of the obtained scans was evaluated and the images were analyzed for depth of tumor invasion. Results of the CT examinations were compared to findings at surgery. Results: Despite reduced dose of water enema, 19/29 examinations were of excellent quality, 6/29 good, and 4/29 poor, but still diagnostic. We achieved sensitivity (90.1), specificity (70.1) and accuracy (86.2) in differentiating tumors confined to the bowel wall from those extending beyond it. Conclusion: Large volume of water enema administered during CT examination of the rectum may cause complaints and increases the risk of complications. Our results prove that using lower amount of water does not impair the quality of examination and accuracy of local staging of rectum carcinomas. (orig.) [de

  10. Reducing the Risk of Water Pollution in Vulnerable Coastal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outcomes to improve water quality The team will recommend ways to minimize exposure to contaminants and to ... for improving access to potable water will prepare a regional strategy for integrated water management. ... Total funding.

  11. Evaluation of significantly modified water bodies in Vojvodina by using multivariate statistical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the utility of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and interpretation of water quality data sets and identification of pollution sources/factors with a view to get better information about the water quality and design of monitoring network for effective management of water resources. Multivariate statistical techniques, such as factor analysis (FA/principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA, were applied for the evaluation of variations and for the interpretation of a water quality data set of the natural water bodies obtained during 2010 year of monitoring of 13 parameters at 33 different sites. FA/PCA attempts to explain the correlations between the observations in terms of the underlying factors, which are not directly observable. Factor analysis is applied to physico-chemical parameters of natural water bodies with the aim classification and data summation as well as segmentation of heterogeneous data sets into smaller homogeneous subsets. Factor loadings were categorized as strong and moderate corresponding to the absolute loading values of >0.75, 0.75-0.50, respectively. Four principal factors were obtained with Eigenvalues >1 summing more than 78 % of the total variance in the water data sets, which is adequate to give good prior information regarding data structure. Each factor that is significantly related to specific variables represents a different dimension of water quality. The first factor F1 accounting for 28 % of the total variance and represents the hydrochemical dimension of water quality. The second factor F2 accounting for 18% of the total variance and may be taken factor of water eutrophication. The third factor F3 accounting 17 % of the total variance and represents the influence of point sources of pollution on water quality. The fourth factor F4 accounting 13 % of the total variance and may be taken as an ecological dimension of water quality. Cluster analysis (CA is an

  12. Possible significance of cubic water-ice, H2O-Ic, in the atmospheric water cycle of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, James L.

    1988-01-01

    The possible formation and potential significance of the cubic ice polymorph on Mars is discussed. When water-ice crystallizes on Earth, the ambient conditions of temperature and pressure result in the formation of the hexagonal ice polymorph; however, on Mars, the much lower termperature and pressures may permit the crystallization of the cubic polymorph. Cubic ice has two properties of possible importance on Mars: it is an excellant nucleator of other volatiles (such as CO2), and it undergoes an exothermic transition to hexagonal ice at temperatures above 170 K. These properties may have significant implications for both martian cloud formation and the development of the seasonal polar caps.

  13. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  14. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-20

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  15. Water Exchange Produces Significantly Higher Adenoma Detection Rate Than Water Immersion: Pooled Data From 2 Multisite Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix W; Koo, Malcolm; Cadoni, Sergio; Falt, Premysl; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Amato, Arnaldo; Erriu, Matteo; Fojtik, Petr; Gallittu, Paolo; Hu, Chi-Tan; Leung, Joseph W; Liggi, Mauro; Paggi, Silvia; Radaelli, Franco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Smajstrla, Vit; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Urban, Ondrej

    2018-03-02

    To test the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) significantly increases adenoma detection rates (ADR) compared with water immersion (WI). Low ADR was linked to increased risk for interval colorectal cancers and related deaths. Two recent randomized controlled trials of head-to-head comparison of WE, WI, and traditional air insufflation (AI) each showed that WE achieved significantly higher ADR than AI, but not WI. The data were pooled from these 2 studies to test the above hypothesis. Two trials (5 sites, 14 colonoscopists) that randomized 1875 patients 1:1:1 to AI, WI, or WE were pooled and analyzed with ADR as the primary outcome. The ADR of AI (39.5%) and WI (42.4%) were comparable, significantly lower than that of WE (49.6%) (vs. AI P=0.001; vs. WI P=0.033). WE insertion time was 3 minutes longer than that of AI (Prate (vs. AI) of the >10 mm advanced adenomas. Right colon combined advanced and sessile serrated ADR of AI (3.4%) and WI (5%) were comparable and were significantly lower than that of WE (8.5%) (vs. AI P<0.001; vs. WI P=0.039). Compared with AI and WI, the superior ADR of WE offsets the drawback of a significantly longer insertion time. For quality improvement focused on increasing adenoma detection, WE is preferred over WI. The hypothesis that WE could lower the risk of interval colorectal cancers and related deaths should be tested.

  16. Seed Hydropriming and Smoke Water Significantly Improve Low-Temperature Germination of Lupinus angustifolius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Płażek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed imbibition under cold temperature is dangerous when dry seeds have relatively low water content. The aim of this study was to investigate germination of 20 lines/cultivars of narrow-leaf lupine at 7 °C (cold and 13 °C (control under the influence of smoke water and following seed hydropriming for 3 h at 20 °C. The efficacy of individual treatments was examined with regard to seed protection during low-temperature germination. Based on seed germination, vigour at cold was evaluated four days after sowing by means of hypocotyl length, the studied lines/cultivars were divided into three groups with low, high and very high germination rates. Germination vigour correlated with cell membrane permeability, dehydrogenase activity and abscisic acid (ABA content and was analysed in the seeds one day after sowing. Gibberellin content did not correlate with germination vigour. The seeds of weakly germinating lines/cultivars had the highest cell permeability and ABA content as well as the lowest amylolytic activity at both studied temperatures. Additionally, the vigour of weakly germinating seeds at 7 °C correlated with dehydrogenase activity. Three-hour hydropriming was the most effective for seed germination under cold due to reduced cell membrane permeability and ABA level. Stimulating effects of smoke water on germination under cold could be explained by enhanced dehydrogenase activity.

  17. Chlorination of cooling water: a source of chlorine-containing organic compounds with possible environmental significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Gehrs, C.W.; Pitt, W.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Chlorination of cooling waters may be a source of environmentally significant pollutants. Many water-soluble chlorine-containing organic compounds of low volatility were found in a sample of cooling water chlorinated to a 2-mg/l chlorine concentration in the laboratory. The compounds were separated and detected using a coupled 36 Cl-tracer--high-resolution liquid chromatographic technique developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for determination of chlorinated organics in process effluents. For a chlorination contact time of 75 min at 25 0 C, the yield of chlorine in the form of chloro-organics amounted to 0.78% of the chlorine dosage. It is estimated that the yield is about 0.5% under typical reaction conditions in the electric power plant cooling system chosen for study. Because chlorine is commonly used to remove slime films from the cooling systems of electric power plants, as a means of maintaining high operational efficiency, it is estimated that several hundred tons of chlorinated organics are produced annually in the nation by this antifoulant process. The chromatographic elution positions of some of the separated constituents correspond to those of compounds separated and partially identified from chlorinated sewage treatment plant effluents. The results of this study indicate the formation of chloro-organics during the chlorination of cooling waters should be thoroughly examined, particularly with respect to their identification and determination of possible toxicological properties

  18. Interaction between FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Based on the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality...... at advanced ages. Such significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p =0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p =0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers...... of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably...

  19. Core design study on reduced-moderation water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi, Akie; Yoshihiro, Nakano; Toshihisa, Shirakawa; Tsutomu, Okubo; Takamichi, Iwamura

    2002-01-01

    The conceptual core design study of reduced-moderation water reactors (RMWRs) with tight-pitched MOX-fuelled lattice has been carried out at JAERI. Several different RMWR core concepts based on both BWR and PWR have been proposed. All the core concepts meet with the aim to achieve both a conversion ratio of 1.0 or larger and negative void reactivity coefficient. As one of these RMWR concepts, the ABWR compatible core is also proposed. Although the conversion ratio of this core is 1.0 and the void coefficient is negative, the discharge burn-up of the fuel was about 25 GWd/t. By adopting a triangular fuel pin lattice for the reduction of moderator volume fraction and modifying axial Pu enrichment distribution, it was aimed to extend the discharge burn-up of ABWR compatible type RMWR. By using a triangular fuel lattice of smaller moderator volume fraction, discharge burn-up of 40 GWd/t seems achievable, keeping the high conversion ratio and the negative void coefficient. (authors)

  20. Current lipid extraction methods are significantly enhanced adding a water treatment step in Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaojie; Zhao, Xinhe; Turcotte, François; Deschênes, Jean-Sébastien; Tremblay, Réjean; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2017-02-11

    helps the subsequent release of intracellular lipids in the second extraction step, thus improving the global lipids extraction yield. In addition, the water treatment positively modifies the intracellular lipid class ratios of the final extract, in which TAG ratio is significantly increased without changes in the fatty acids composition. The novel method thus provides an efficient way to improve lipid extraction yield of existing methods, as well as selectively favoring TAG, a lipid of the upmost interest for biodiesel production.

  1. Reducing nitrate loss in tile drainage water with cover crops and water-table management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D; Zhang, T Q; Oloya, T O; McLaughlin, N B; Gaynor, J D

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate lost from agricultural soils is an economic cost to producers, an environmental concern when it enters rivers and lakes, and a health risk when it enters wells and aquifers used for drinking water. Planting a winter wheat cover crop (CC) and/or use of controlled tile drainage-subirrigation (CDS) may reduce losses of nitrate (NO) relative to no cover crop (NCC) and/or traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD). A 6-yr (1999-2005) corn-soybean study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of CC+CDS, CC+UTD, NCC+CDS, and NCC+UTD treatments for reducing NO loss. Flow volume and NO concentration in surface runoff and tile drainage were measured continuously, and CC reduced the 5-yr flow-weighted mean (FWM) NO concentration in tile drainage water by 21 to 38% and cumulative NO loss by 14 to 16% relative to NCC. Controlled tile drainage-subirrigation reduced FWM NO concentration by 15 to 33% and cumulative NO loss by 38 to 39% relative to UTD. When CC and CDS were combined, 5-yr cumulative FWM NO concentrations and loss in tile drainage were decreased by 47% (from 9.45 to 4.99 mg N L and from 102 to 53.6 kg N ha) relative to NCC+UTD. The reductions in runoff and concomitant increases in tile drainage under CC occurred primarily because of increases in near-surface soil hydraulic conductivity. Cover crops increased corn grain yields by 4 to 7% in 2004 increased 3-yr average soybean yields by 8 to 15%, whereas CDS did not affect corn or soybean yields over the 6 yr. The combined use of a cover crop and water-table management system was highly effective for reducing NO loss from cool, humid agricultural soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Assessing the significance of climate and community factors on urban water demand

    OpenAIRE

    Md Mahmudul Haque; Prasanna Egodawatta; Ataur Rahman; Ashantha Goonetilleke

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring adequate water supply to urban areas is a challenging task due to factors such as rapid urban growth, increasing water demand and climate change. In developing a sustainable water supply system, it is important to identify the dominant water demand factors for any given water supply scheme. This paper applies principal components analysis to identify the factors that dominate residential water demand using the Blue Mountains Water Supply System in Australia as a case study. The resul...

  3. Surface water areas significantly impacted 2014 dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Huaiyu; Huang, Shanqian [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Zhou, Sen [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modelling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bi, Peng [Discipline of Public Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Yang, Zhicong, E-mail: yangzc@gzcdc.org.cn [Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou (China); Li, Xiujun [School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Chen, Lifan [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Cazelles, Bernard [UMMISCO, UMI 209 IRD – UPMC, 93142 Bondy (France); Eco-Evolutionary Mathematic, IBENS UMR 8197, ENS, 75230 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Yang, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Luo, Lei; Jing, Qinlong [Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou (China); Yuan, Wenping [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Pei, Yao; Sun, Zhe [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modelling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Yue, Tianxiang [State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environment Information System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Kwan, Mei-Po [Department of Geography and Geographic Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); and others

    2016-10-15

    Dengue transmission in urban areas is strongly influenced by a range of biological and environmental factors, yet the key drivers still need further exploration. To better understand mechanisms of environment–mosquito–urban dengue transmission, we propose an empirical model parameterized and cross-validated from a unique dataset including viral gene sequences, vector dynamics and human dengue cases in Guangzhou, China, together with a 36-year urban environmental change maps investigated by spatiotemporal satellite image fusion. The dengue epidemics in Guangzhou are highly episodic and were not associated with annual rainfall over time. Our results indicate that urban environmental changes, especially variations in surface area covered by water in urban areas, can substantially alter the virus population and dengue transmission. The recent severe dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou may be due to the surge in an artificial lake construction, which could increase infection force between vector (mainly Aedes albopictus) and host when urban water area significantly increased. Impacts of urban environmental change on dengue dynamics may not have been thoroughly investigated in the past studies and more work needs to be done to better understand the consequences of urbanization processes in our changing world. - Highlights: • Urban dengue outbreak is associated with water area in Guangzhou, 1978–2014. • Surface water area can alter population size of dengue virus in urban area. • Urban dengue outbreak is not associated with annual rainfall in Guangzhou. • Spatiotemporal satellite image fusion can investigate urban environmental change. • Urban environmental change could induce virus, vector, and dengue epidemic change.

  4. Surface water areas significantly impacted 2014 dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Huaiyu; Huang, Shanqian; Zhou, Sen; Bi, Peng; Yang, Zhicong; Li, Xiujun; Chen, Lifan; Cazelles, Bernard; Yang, Jing; Luo, Lei; Jing, Qinlong; Yuan, Wenping; Pei, Yao; Sun, Zhe; Yue, Tianxiang; Kwan, Mei-Po

    2016-01-01

    Dengue transmission in urban areas is strongly influenced by a range of biological and environmental factors, yet the key drivers still need further exploration. To better understand mechanisms of environment–mosquito–urban dengue transmission, we propose an empirical model parameterized and cross-validated from a unique dataset including viral gene sequences, vector dynamics and human dengue cases in Guangzhou, China, together with a 36-year urban environmental change maps investigated by spatiotemporal satellite image fusion. The dengue epidemics in Guangzhou are highly episodic and were not associated with annual rainfall over time. Our results indicate that urban environmental changes, especially variations in surface area covered by water in urban areas, can substantially alter the virus population and dengue transmission. The recent severe dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou may be due to the surge in an artificial lake construction, which could increase infection force between vector (mainly Aedes albopictus) and host when urban water area significantly increased. Impacts of urban environmental change on dengue dynamics may not have been thoroughly investigated in the past studies and more work needs to be done to better understand the consequences of urbanization processes in our changing world. - Highlights: • Urban dengue outbreak is associated with water area in Guangzhou, 1978–2014. • Surface water area can alter population size of dengue virus in urban area. • Urban dengue outbreak is not associated with annual rainfall in Guangzhou. • Spatiotemporal satellite image fusion can investigate urban environmental change. • Urban environmental change could induce virus, vector, and dengue epidemic change.

  5. Metabolic rates are significantly lower in abyssal Holothuroidea than in shallow-water Holothuroidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oevelen, Dick

    2018-01-01

    Recent analyses of metabolic rates in fishes, echinoderms, crustaceans and cephalopods have concluded that bathymetric declines in temperature- and mass-normalized metabolic rate do not result from resource-limitation (e.g. oxygen or food/chemical energy), decreasing temperature or increasing hydrostatic pressure. Instead, based on contrasting bathymetric patterns reported in the metabolic rates of visual and non-visual taxa, declining metabolic rate with depth is proposed to result from relaxation of selection for high locomotory capacity in visual predators as light diminishes. Here, we present metabolic rates of Holothuroidea, a non-visual benthic and benthopelagic echinoderm class, determined in situ at abyssal depths (greater than 4000 m depth). Mean temperature- and mass-normalized metabolic rate did not differ significantly between shallow-water (less than 200 m depth) and bathyal (200–4000 m depth) holothurians, but was significantly lower in abyssal (greater than 4000 m depth) holothurians than in shallow-water holothurians. These results support the dominance of the visual interactions hypothesis at bathyal depths, but indicate that ecological or evolutionary pressures other than biotic visual interactions contribute to bathymetric variation in holothurian metabolic rates. Multiple nonlinear regression assuming power or exponential models indicates that in situ hydrostatic pressure and/or food/chemical energy availability are responsible for variation in holothurian metabolic rates. Consequently, these results have implications for modelling deep-sea energetics and processes. PMID:29892403

  6. Identification of significant process variables for a flow-through supercritical water oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    The effects of four process variables on the destruction efficiency of a flow-through supercritical water oxidation reactor were investigated. These process variables included: (1) reactor throughput (GPH), (2) concentration of the surrogate waste (% acetone), (3) maximum reactor tube-wall temperature (OC), and (4) applied stoichiometric oxygen. The analysis was conducted utilizing two-level factorial experiments, steepest ascent methods, and central composite designs. This experimental protocol assures efficient experimentation and allows for an empirical response surface model of the system to be developed. This experimentation identified a significant positive effect for stoichiometric oxygen applied and temperature variations between 400 to 500 degrees C. The increase in destruction efficiency due to stoichiometric 0 2 provides strong evidence that supercritical water oxidations are catalyzed by excess oxygen, and the strong temperature effect is a result of large increases in the kinetic rates for this temperature range. However, increasing temperature between 550 to 650 degrees C does not provide substantial increases in destruction efficiency. In addition, destruction efficiency is significantly unproved by increasing the Reynolds number and residence time. The destruction efficiency of the reactor is also dependent upon the initial concentration of surrogate waste. This concentration dependence may indicate first-order supercritical CO kinetics is inadequate for describing all waste types and reactor configurations. Alternatively, it may indicate reactant mixing, caused by local turbulence at the oxidation fronts of these higher concentration waste streams, results in higher destruction efficiencies

  7. A Recombinant Multi-Stage Vaccine against Paratuberculosis Significantly Reduces Bacterial Level in Tissues without Interference in Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, C.

    , PPDj-specific IFN-γ responses or positive PPDa or PPDb skin tests developed in vaccinees. Antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses were developed against FET11 antigens, however. At necropsy 8 or 12 months of age, relative Map burden was determined in a number of gut tissues by quantitative IS900...... PCR and revealed significantly reduced levels of Map and reduced histopathology. Diagnostic tests for antibody responses and cell-mediated immune responses, used as surrogates of infection, corroborated the observed vaccine efficacy: Five of seven non‐vaccinated calves seroconverted in ID Screen......-γ assay responses from 40 to 52 weeks compared to non-vaccinated calves. These results indicate the FET11 vaccine can be used to accelerate eradication of paratuberculosis while surveillance or test-and-manage control programs for tuberculosis and Johne’s disease remain in place. Funded by EMIDA ERA...

  8. Nitric oxide reduces oxidative damage induced by water stress in sunflower plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Cechin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the main environmental constraints that can reduce plant yield. Nitric oxide (NO is a signal molecule involved in plant responses to several environmental stresses. The objective of this study was to investigate the cytoprotective effect of a single foliar application of 0, 1, 10 or 100 µM of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP in sunflower plants under water stress. Water stressed plants treated with 1μM SNP showed an increase in the relative water content compared with 0 μM SNP. Drought reduced the shoot dry weight but SNP applications did not result in alleviation of drought effects. Neither drought nor water stress plus SNP applications altered the content of photosynthetic pigments. Stomatal conductance was reduced by drought and this reduction was accompanied by a significant reduction in intercellular CO2 concentration and photosynthesis. Treatment with SNP did not reverse the effect of drought on the gas exchange characteristics. Drought increased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA and proline and reduced pirogalol peroxidase (PG-POD activity, but did not affect the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD. When the water stressed plants were treated with 10 μM SNP, the activity of PG-POD and the content of proline were increased and the level of MDA was decreased. The results show that the adverse effects of water stress on sunflower plants are dependent on the external NO concentration. The action of NO may be explained by its ability to increase the levels of antioxidant compounds and the activity of ROS-scavenging enzymes.

  9. Drinking water distribution systems: assessing and reducing risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Public Water Supply Distribution Systems: Assessing and Reducing Risks, National Research Council

    2006-01-01

    .... Distribution systems -- consisting of pipes, pumps, valves, storage tanks, reservoirs, meters, fittings, and other hydraulic appurtenances -- carry drinking water from a centralized treatment plant...

  10. Reducing water use for animal production through aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdegem, M.C.J.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Animals fed formulated diets indirectly consume large quantities of water. Globally, about 1.2 m3 of water is needed to produce 1 kg of grain used in animal feeds. Cattle in feedlots consume about 7 kg of feed concentrate to gain 1 kg in weight. For pigs this is close to 4 kg and for poultry

  11. Significance of water fluxes in a deep arid-region vadose zone to waste disposal strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnejack, K.R.; Blout, D.O.; Sully, M.J.; Emer, D.F.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Dever, L.G.; O'Neill, L.J.; Tyler, S.W.; Chapman, J.

    1994-01-01

    Recently collected subsurface site characterization data have led to the development of a conceptual model of water movement beneath the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that differs significantly from the conceptual model of water movement inherent in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. At the Area 5 RWMS, water fluxes in approximately the upper 75 m (250 ft) of the vadose zone point in the upward direction (rather than downward) which effectively isolates this region from the deep (approximately 250 m (820 ft)) uppermost aquifer. Standard RCRA approaches for detection and containment (groundwater monitoring and double liners/leachate collection/leak detection systems) are not able to fulfill their intended function in this rather unique hydrogeologic environment. In order to better fulfill the waste detection and containment intentions of RCRA for mixed waste disposal at the Area 5 RWMS, the Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) is preparing a single petition for both a waiver from groundwater monitoring and an exemption from double liners with leachate collection/leak detection. DOE/NV proposes in this petition that the containment function of liners and leachate collection is better accomplished by the natural hydrogeologic processes operating in the upper vadose zone; and the detection function of groundwater monitoring and the leak detection system in liners is better fulfilled by an alternative vadose zone monitoring system. In addition, an alternative point of compliance is proposed that will aid in early detection, as well as limit the extent of potential contamination before detection. Finally, special cell design features and operation practices will be implemented to limit leachate formation, especially while the cell is open to the atmosphere during waste emplacement

  12. Uniquely significant fresh water fishes of Iran are exposure to environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeolahy, J.

    2000-01-01

    The native fishes of springs, Ghana ts and Caves of Iran are uniquely significant, since they are rear and, because of pollution, dryness, purposeful or accidental introduction of exotic species and over all, because of industrialization are in danger. The stock of valuable fishes of Iran are declining while they have not been completely identified. The stock of these fishes, particular y those of economic value, such as large Bar bus sp. at western part of Iran are declining. In an attempt fishes among the 140 station and average of three unit of effort for catch of fish in every station (total of 400 unit of effort) about 80 specimen of large Bar bus were caught. Fishes were caught by electroshock and various kind of net with mesh size of 2 cm to 4 cm. The Gamasib River was known to have large Carp, but this result showed that nowadays the stock of large Bar bus substantially damaged. The stock of: B. subquincunciatus and B. grypus severely damaged. The purpose of this paper is to describe those factors, which affect the stock and abundance of Iranian freshwater fishes, and to suggest measures for the conservation of this fauna. These factors include pre-industrial, and such factors related to industrialization and population increases as de vegetation, water abstracting, fishing, pollution and faun al introductions. Introduction of new species to increase fish production and exploit the fishery potential of water bodies, can be great utility; but has many hazardous impacts on native species, Biodiversity and Ecology of the Water bodies. Some aspect of theses impacts are outlined

  13. Lime and Phosphate Amendment Can Significantly Reduce Uptake of Cd and Pb by Field-Grown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongbo Xiao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soils are suffering from increasing heavy metal pollution, among which, paddy soil polluted by heavy metals is frequently reported and has elicited great public concern. In this study, we carried out field experiments on paddy soil around a Pb-Zn mine to study amelioration effects of four soil amendments on uptake of Cd and Pb by rice, and to make recommendations for paddy soil heavy metal remediation, particularly for combined pollution of Cd and Pb. The results showed that all the four treatments can significantly reduce the Cd and Pb content in the late rice grain compared with the early rice, among which, the combination amendment of lime and phosphate had the best remediation effects where rice grain Cd content was reduced by 85% and 61%, respectively, for the late rice and the early rice, and by 30% in the late rice grain for Pb. The high reduction effects under the Ca + P treatment might be attributed to increase of soil pH from 5.5 to 6.7. We also found that influence of the Ca + P treatment on rice production was insignificant, while the available Cd and Pb content in soil was reduced by 16.5% and 11.7%, respectively.

  14. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses

  15. Ranking of risk significant components for the Davis-Besse Component Cooling Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seniuk, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Utilities that run nuclear power plants are responsible for testing pumps and valves, as specified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) that are required for safe shutdown, mitigating the consequences of an accident, and maintaining the plant in a safe condition. These inservice components are tested according to ASME Codes, either the earlier requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, or the more recent requirements of the ASME Operation and Maintenance Code, Section IST. These codes dictate test techniques and frequencies regardless of the component failure rate or significance of failure consequences. A probabilistic risk assessment or probabilistic safety assessment may be used to evaluate the component importance for inservice test (IST) risk ranking, which is a combination of failure rate and failure consequences. Resources for component testing during the normal quarterly verification test or postmaintenance test are expensive. Normal quarterly testing may cause component unavailability. Outage testing may increase outage cost with no real benefit. This paper identifies the importance ranking of risk significant components in the Davis-Besse component cooling water system. Identifying the ranking of these risk significant IST components adds technical insight for developing the appropriate test technique and test frequency

  16. The potential for energy savings when reducing the water consumption in a kraft pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, Ulrika; Berntsson, Thore [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science; Stuart, Paul [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    In this paper an existing pulp and paper mill has been studied in a systematic way regarding the reduction of water consumption, and the resulting increased potential for energy integration. It has been found that when the mill's hot water consumption is decreased, the live steam demand for the mill also decreases. Also when decreasing the hot water consumption, the quantity and temperature of available excess heat increases. This excess heat can be used for evaporation, thereby reducing the live steam demand further by up to 1.5 GJ/t. A pinch analysis was performed at an existing mill and it was found that if pinch violations are removed, the hot water consumption is not an important factor any more. Removing all the pinch violations and using the remaining excess heat for evaporation yields a significantly larger energy savings for the mill (4.0 GJ/t). From an economic optimum perspective it is probably most profitable to do a combination of reducing water consumption, removing pinch violations, and use the remaining excess heat for evaporation.

  17. Reduced bone mineral density is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Dennis T; Kotyk, John J; Armamento-Villareal, Reina C; Kenguva, Venkata; Seaman, Pamela; Shahar, Allon; Wald, Michael J; Kleerekoper, Michael; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-02-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces bone quantity but not bone quality in rodents. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of CR with adequate intake of vitamin and minerals on bone quantity and quality in middle-aged lean individuals. In this study, we evaluated body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and serum markers of bone turnover and inflammation in 32 volunteers who had been eating a CR diet (approximately 35% less calories than controls) for an average of 6.8 ± 5.2 years (mean age 52.7 ± 10.3 years) and 32 age- and sex-matched sedentary controls eating Western diets (WD). In a subgroup of 10 CR and 10 WD volunteers, we also measured trabecular bone (TB) microarchitecture of the distal radius using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the CR volunteers had significantly lower body mass index than the WD volunteers (18.9 ± 1.2 vs. 26.5 ± 2.2 kg m(-2) ; P = 0.0001). BMD of the lumbar spine (0.870 ± 0.11 vs. 1.138 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) and hip (0.806 ± 0.12 vs. 1.047 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) was also lower in the CR than in the WD group. Serum C-terminal telopeptide and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase concentration were similar between groups, while serum C-reactive protein (0.19 ± 0.26 vs. 1.46 ± 1.56 mg L(-1) , P = 0.0001) was lower in the CR group. Trabecular bone microarchitecture parameters such as the erosion index (0.916 ± 0.087 vs. 0.877 ± 0.088; P = 0.739) and surface-to-curve ratio (10.3 ± 1.4 vs. 12.1 ± 2.1, P = 0.440) were not significantly different between groups. These findings suggest that markedly reduced BMD is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in middle-aged men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

  18. Smoking cessation programmes in radon affected areas: can they make a significant contribution to reducing radon-induced lung cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Timson, K.; Shield, G.; Rogers, S.; Phillips, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic radon levels in parts of the UK are sufficiently high to increase the risk of lung cancer in the occupants. Public health campaigns in Northamptonshire, a designated radon affected area with 6.3% of homes having average radon levels over the UK action level of 200 Bq m -3 , have encouraged householders to test for radon and then to carry out remediation in their homes, but have been only partially successful. Only 40% of Northamptonshire houses have been tested, and only 15% of householders finding raised levels proceed to remediate. Of those who did remediate, only 9% smoked, compared to a countywide average of 28.8%. This is unfortunate, since radon and smoking combine to place the individual at higher risk by a factor of around 4, and suggests that current strategies to reduce domestic radon exposure are not reaching those most at risk. During 2004-5, the NHS Stop Smoking Services in Northamptonshire assisted 2,808 smokers to quit to the 4-week stage, with some 30% of 4-week quitters remaining quitters at 1 year. We consider whether smoking cessation campaigns make significant contributions to radon risk reduction on their own, by assessing individual occupants' risk of developing lung cancer from knowledge of their age, gender, and smoking habits, together with he radon level in their house. The results demonstrate that smoking cessation programmes have significant added value in radon affected areas, and contribute a greater health benefit than reducing radon levels in the smokers' homes, whilst they remain smokers. Additionally, results are presented from a questionnaire-based survey of quitters, addressing their reasons for seeking help in quitting smoking, and whether knowledge of radon risks influenced this decision. The impact of these findings on future public health campaigns to reduce the impact of radon and smoking are discussed. (author)

  19. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CUMULATIVE WATER BALANCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY COMPLICATIONS AFTER MAJOR ABDOMINAL SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaeva, T S; Karipidi, M K; Zabolotskikh, I B

    2016-11-01

    a comprehensive assessment of the water balance on the basis of daily, cumulative balance and 10% of the body weight gain and their role in the development of early complications after major abdominal surgery. A retrospective study of the perioperative period in 150 patients who underwent major abdomi- nal surgery was performed. The physical condition of the patients corresponded to ASA 3 class. The average age was 46 (38-62) years. The following stages ofresearch: an analysis of daily balance and cumulative balance in complicated and uncomplicated group and their role in the development of complications; the timing of development ofcomplications and possible relationship with fluid overload and the development of complications; changes in the level of albumin within 10 days of the postoperative period. The analysis of complications didn't show significant differences between complicated and uncomplicated groups according to the water balance during the surgery and by the end of the first day. When constructing the area under the ROC curve (A UROC) low resolution ofthe balance in intraoperative period and the first day and the balance on the second day to predict complications was shown. Significant diferences according to the cumulative balance was observed from the third day of the postoperative period Also with the third day of the postoperative period there is a good resolution for prediction ofpostoperative complications according to the cumulative balance with the cut-offpoint > of 50,7 ml/kg. the excessive infusion therapy is a predictor of adverse outcome in patients after major abdominal surgery. Therefore, after 3 days of postoperative period it is important to maintain mechanisms for the excretion of excess fluid or limitations of infusion therapy.

  20. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  1. Significant Association between Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Uranium-Reducing Microbial Communities as Revealed by a Combined Massively Parallel Sequencing-Indicator Species Approach▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Jardine, Philip M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Marsh, Terence L.; Tiedje, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared. PMID:20729318

  2. Significant association between sulfate-reducing bacteria and uranium-reducing microbial communities as revealed by a combined massively parallel sequencing-indicator species approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K; Jardine, Philip M; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S; Marsh, Terence L; Tiedje, James M

    2010-10-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared.

  3. Reducing Eating Disorder Onset in a Very High Risk Sample with Significant Comorbid Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. Barr; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated on-line eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. Method 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or non-clinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or wait-list control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Results ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = 0.28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% versus 42%, p = 0.025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% versus 57%, NNT = 4). Conclusions An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. PMID:26795936

  4. Reducing eating disorder onset in a very high risk sample with significant comorbid depression: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C Barr; Kass, Andrea E; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-05-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated online eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or nonclinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or waitlist control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = .28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% vs. 42%, p = .025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% vs. 57%, NNT = 4). An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. 3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is important to train school officials to raise awareness of the potential occurrences, causes, and health effects of lead in drinking water; assist school officials in identifying potential areas where elevated lead may occur.

  6. REDUCING ARSENIC LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER DURING IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides an overview of iron removal technology for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. The presentation is divided into several topic topics: Arsenic Chemistry, Treatment Selection, Treatment Options, Case Studies and Iron Removal Processes. Each topic i...

  7. The performance of cassava flour as a water reducing admixture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHINYERE

    were then ground to a fine texture in a mill and the flour obtained sieved ... Figure 1: Effect of Water/cement Ratio Upon Slump and Compacting Factor. Saturated Density ... attributed to the bleeding and segregation observed in these mixes.

  8. Drinking water distribution systems: assessing and reducing risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Public Water Supply Distribution Systems: Assessing and Reducing Risks, National Research Council

    2006-01-01

    ... or well supplies to consumers’ taps. Spanning almost 1 million miles in the United States, distribution systems represent the vast majority of physical infrastructure for water supplies, and thus constitute the primary management...

  9. Reducing phosphorus loading of surface water using iron-coated sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, J.E.; Chardon, W.J.; Koopmans, G.F.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus losses from agricultural soils is an important source of P in surface waters leading to surface water quality impairment. In addition to reducing P inputs, mitigation measures are needed to reduce P enrichment of surface waters. Because drainage of agricultural land by pipe drainage is an

  10. Distinct germination response of endangered and common arable weeds to reduced water potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühl, A T; Eckstein, R L; Otte, A; Donath, T W

    2016-01-01

    Arable weeds are one of the most endangered species groups in Europe. Modern agriculture and intensive land-use management are the main causes of their dramatic decline. However, besides the changes in land use, climate change may further challenge the adaptability of arable weeds. Therefore, we investigated the response pattern of arable weeds to different water potential and temperature regimes during the phase of germination. We expected that endangered arable weeds would be more sensitive to differences in water availability and temperature than common arable weeds. To this end, we set up a climate chamber experiment where we exposed seeds of five familial pairs of common and endangered arable weed species to different temperatures (5/15, 10/20 °C) and water potentials (0.0 to -1.2 MPa). The results revealed a significant relationship between the reaction of arable weed species to water availability and their Red List status. The effects of reduced water availability on total germination, mean germination time and synchrony were significantly stronger in endangered than in common arable weeds. Therefore, global climate change may present a further threat to the survival of endangered arable weed species. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Potent corticosteroid cream (mometasone furoate) significantly reduces acute radiation dermatitis: results from a double-blind, randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Aasa; Lindman, Henrik; Swartling, Carl; Berne, Berit; Bergh, Jonas

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy, and may necessitate interruption of the therapy. There is a substantial lack of evidence-based treatments for this condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mometasone furoate cream (MMF) on radiation dermatitis in a prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Material and methods: The study comprised 49 patients with node-negative breast cancer. They were operated on with sector resection and scheduled for postoperative radiotherapy using photons with identical radiation qualities and dosage to the breast parenchyma. The patients were randomized to receive either MMF or emollient cream. The cream was applied on the irradiated skin twice a week from the start of radiotherapy until the 12th fraction (24 Gy) and thereafter once daily until 3 weeks after completion of radiation. Both groups additionally received non-blinded emollient cream daily. The intensity of the acute radiation dermatitis was evaluated on a weekly basis regarding erythema and pigmentation, using a reflectance spectrophotometer together with visual scoring of the skin reactions. Results: MMF in combination with emollient cream treatment significantly decreased acute radiation dermatitis (P=0.0033) compared with emollient cream alone. There was no significant difference in pigmentation between the two groups. Conclusions: Adding MMF, a potent topical corticosteroid, to an emollient cream is statistically significantly more effective than emollient cream alone in reducing acute radiation dermatitis

  12. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    -reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or footprint of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

  13. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    -reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

  14. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James W. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Rodgers, John H. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Alley, Bethany [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Beebe, Alex [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Coffey, Ruthanne [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Jurinko, Kristen [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Pardue, Michael [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Ritter, Tina [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Spacil, Michael M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2013-08-08

    -reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or footprint of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

  15. Transient turbid water mass reduces temperature-induced coral bleaching and mortality in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is seen as one of the greatest threats to the world’s coral reefs and, with the continued rise in sea surface temperature predicted into the future, there is a great need for further understanding of how to prevent and address the damaging impacts. This is particularly so for countries whose economies depend heavily on healthy reefs, such as those of the eastern Caribbean. Here, we compare the severity of bleaching and mortality for five dominant coral species at six representative reef sites in Barbados during the two most significant warm-water events ever recorded in the eastern Caribbean, i.e., 2005 and 2010, and describe prevailing island-scale sea water conditions during both events. In so doing, we demonstrate that coral bleaching and subsequent mortality were considerably lower in 2010 than in 2005 for all species, irrespective of site, even though the anomalously warm water temperature profiles were very similar between years. We also show that during the 2010 event, Barbados was engulfed by a transient dark green turbid water mass of riverine origin coming from South America. We suggest that reduced exposure to high solar radiation associated with this transient water mass was the primary contributing factor to the lower bleaching and mortality observed in all corals. We conclude that monitoring these episodic mesoscale oceanographic features might improve risk assessments of southeastern Caribbean reefs to warm-water events in the future. PMID:27326377

  16. Reduced Efficiency of Chlorine Disinfection of Naegleria fowleri in a Drinking Water Distribution Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Haylea C; Wylie, Jason; Dejean, Guillaume; Kaksonen, Anna H; Sutton, David; Braun, Kalan; Puzon, Geoffrey J

    2015-09-15

    Naegleria fowleri associated with biofilm and biological demand water (organic matter suspended in water that consumes disinfectants) sourced from operational drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) had significantly increased resistance to chlorine disinfection. N. fowleri survived intermittent chlorine dosing of 0.6 mg/L for 7 days in a mixed biofilm from field and laboratory-cultured Escherichia coli strains. However, N. fowleri associated with an attached drinking water distribution biofilm survived more than 30 times (20 mg/L for 3 h) the recommended concentration of chlorine for drinking water. N. fowleri showed considerably more resistance to chlorine when associated with a real field biofilm compared to the mixed laboratory biofilm. This increased resistance is likely due to not only the consumption of disinfectants by the biofilm and the reduced disinfectant penetration into the biofilm but also the composition and microbial community of the biofilm itself. The increased diversity of the field biofilm community likely increased N. fowleri's resistance to chlorine disinfection compared to that of the laboratory-cultured biofilm. Previous research has been conducted in only laboratory scale models of DWDSs and laboratory-cultured biofilms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating how N. fowleri can persist in a field drinking water distribution biofilm despite chlorination.

  17. Biophysical properties and functional significance of stem water storage tissues in Neotropical savanna trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.G. Scholz; S.J. Bucci; G. Goldstein; F.C. Meinzer; A.C. Franco; F. Miralles-Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    Biophysical characteristics of sapwood and outer parenchyma water storage compartments were studied in stems of eight dominant Brazilian Cerrado tree species to assess the impact of differences in tissue capacitance on whole-plant water relations. Both the sapwood and outer parenchyma tissues played an important role in regulation of internal water deficits of Cerrado...

  18. Reduced frontal and occipital lobe asymmetry on the CT-scans of schizophrenic patients. Its specificity and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Schneider, T.; Greve, B.; Klieser, E.; Bogerts, B.

    1995-01-01

    Frontal and occipital lobe widths were determined in the computed tomographic (CT) scans of 135 schizophrenic patients, 158 neuro psychiatrically healthy and 102 psychiatric control subjects, including patients with affective psychosis, neurosis and schizoaffective psychosis. Most healthy right-handed subjects demonstrate a relative enlargement of the right frontal as well as left occipital lobe compared to the opposite hemisphere. These normal frontal and occipital lobe asymmetries were selectively reduced in schizophrenics (f.: 5%, p < .0005; o.: 3%, p < .05), irrespective of the pathophysiological subgroup. Schizophrenic neuroleptic non-responders revealed a significant reduction of frontal lobe asymmetry (3%, p < .05), while no correlation between BPRS-sub scores and disturbed cerebral laterality could be detected. In sum the present study demonstrates the disturbed cerebral lateralisation in schizophrenic patients supporting the hypothesis of interrupted early brain development in schizophrenia. (author)

  19. Dynamic Simulation of Water Networks to Control and Reduce Physical Unaccounted-for Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Zorriasateyn

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant percentage of unaccounted-for water consists of leakage in water distribution networks in Iran. To detect leakage area with less costs and time spending and then identify the exact  place of it with special instruments, would be economical and a better water resource management. In this research, a real case has been selected and examined with dynamic simulation using MIKE NET. The method that has been carried out in this research based on maximizing the correlation coefficient and minimizing the sum of error squares between pressure measured inputs (observed data and calculated pressure (by model. According to the results, dynamic simulation of municipal water distribution system can be used as a guide to determine the place and the amount of leakage.Thereby the area of  large leakage can be simulated with appropriate accuracy through measured pressure. Therefor from management aspect, dynamic simulation can be used to decrease time consumption and to save costs for detecting leakage.

  20. Environmental sustainability control by water resources carrying capacity concept: application significance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuwansyah, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reviews the use of Water Resources carrying capacity concept to control environmental sustainability with the particular note for the case in Indonesia. Carrying capacity is a capability measure of an environment or an area to support human and the other lives as well as their activities in a sustainable manner. Recurrently water-related hazards and environmental problems indicate that the environments are exploited over its carrying capacity. Environmental carrying capacity (ECC) assessment includes Land and Water Carrying Capacity analysis of an area, suggested to always refer to the dimension of the related watershed as an incorporated hydrologic unit on the basis of resources availability estimation. Many countries use this measure to forecast the future sustainability of regional development based on water availability. Direct water Resource Carrying Capacity (WRCC) assessment involves population number determination together with their activities could be supported by available water, whereas indirect WRCC assessment comprises the analysis of supply-demand balance status of water. Water resource limits primarily environmental carrying capacity rather than the land resource since land capability constraints are easier. WRCC is a crucial factor known to control land and water resource utilization, particularly in a growing densely populated area. Even though capability of water resources is relatively perpetual, the utilization pattern of these resources may change by socio-economic and cultural technology level of the users, because of which WRCC should be evaluated periodically to maintain usage sustainability of water resource and environment.

  1. Benchmarking Water Quality from Wastewater to Drinking Waters Using Reduced Transcriptome of Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Pu; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Hanxin; Wang, Pingping; Tian, Mingming; Yu, Hongxia

    2017-08-15

    One of the major challenges in environmental science is monitoring and assessing the risk of complex environmental mixtures. In vitro bioassays with limited key toxicological end points have been shown to be suitable to evaluate mixtures of organic pollutants in wastewater and recycled water. Omics approaches such as transcriptomics can monitor biological effects at the genome scale. However, few studies have applied omics approach in the assessment of mixtures of organic micropollutants. Here, an omics approach was developed for profiling bioactivity of 10 water samples ranging from wastewater to drinking water in human cells by a reduced human transcriptome (RHT) approach and dose-response modeling. Transcriptional expression of 1200 selected genes were measured by an Ampliseq technology in two cell lines, HepG2 and MCF7, that were exposed to eight serial dilutions of each sample. Concentration-effect models were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and to calculate effect concentrations (ECs) of DEGs, which could be ranked to investigate low dose response. Furthermore, molecular pathways disrupted by different samples were evaluated by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. The ability of RHT for representing bioactivity utilizing both HepG2 and MCF7 was shown to be comparable to the results of previous in vitro bioassays. Finally, the relative potencies of the mixtures indicated by RHT analysis were consistent with the chemical profiles of the samples. RHT analysis with human cells provides an efficient and cost-effective approach to benchmarking mixture of micropollutants and may offer novel insight into the assessment of mixture toxicity in water.

  2. Walking with a four wheeled walker (rollator) significantly reduces EMG lower-limb muscle activity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suica, Zorica; Romkes, Jacqueline; Tal, Amir; Maguire, Clare

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the immediate effect of four-wheeled- walker(rollator)walking on lower-limb muscle activity and trunk-sway in healthy subjects. In this cross-sectional design electromyographic (EMG) data was collected in six lower-limb muscle groups and trunk-sway was measured as peak-to-peak angular displacement of the centre-of-mass (level L2/3) in the sagittal and frontal-planes using the SwayStar balance system. 19 subjects walked at self-selected speed firstly without a rollator then in randomised order 1. with rollator 2. with rollator with increased weight-bearing. Rollator-walking caused statistically significant reductions in EMG activity in lower-limb muscle groups and effect-sizes were medium to large. Increased weight-bearing increased the effect. Trunk-sway in the sagittal and frontal-planes showed no statistically significant difference between conditions. Rollator-walking reduces lower-limb muscle activity but trunk-sway remains unchanged as stability is likely gained through forces generated by the upper-limbs. Short-term stability is gained but the long-term effect is unclear and requires investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary strategies for reduced phosphorus excretion and improved water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maguire, R.O.; Dou, Z.; Sims, J.T.; Brake, J.; Joern, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    Received for publication October 29, 2004. Cost effective feeding strategies are essential to deal with P surpluses associated with intensive animal agriculture and the consequent impact on water quality. Reduction of P overfeeding, use of feed additives to enhance dietary P utilization, and

  4. Riparian shrub buffers reduce surface water pollutant loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. A. Geyer; C. Barden; K. Mankin; D. Devlin

    2003-01-01

    Surface water resources in Kansas often contain concentrations of pesticides, nutrients, and sediments that are of concern to local citizens. The United States Geological Survey reported in 1999 that 97 percent of streams and 82 percent of lakes in Kansas would not fully support all uses as designated by state statutes (U.S. Geological Survey 1999). Bacteria and...

  5. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi, E-mail: thashimo@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Iwanaka, Nobumasa [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Higashida, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192 (Japan); Taguchi, Sadayoshi [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  6. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Taguchi, Sadayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O 2 for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  7. Sulfate Reducing Bacteria and Mycobacteria Dominate the Biofilm Communities in a Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Smith, C Kimloi; LaPara, Timothy M; Hozalski, Raymond M

    2015-07-21

    The quantity and composition of bacterial biofilms growing on 10 water mains from a full-scale chloraminated water distribution system were analyzed using real-time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene and next-generation, high-throughput Illumina sequencing. Water mains with corrosion tubercles supported the greatest amount of bacterial biomass (n = 25; geometric mean = 2.5 × 10(7) copies cm(-2)), which was significantly higher (P = 0.04) than cement-lined cast-iron mains (n = 6; geometric mean = 2.0 × 10(6) copies cm(-2)). Despite spatial variation of community composition and bacterial abundance in water main biofilms, the communities on the interior main surfaces were surprisingly similar, containing a core group of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to only 17 different genera. Bacteria from the genus Mycobacterium dominated all communities at the main wall-bulk water interface (25-78% of the community), regardless of main age, estimated water age, main material, and the presence of corrosion products. Further sequencing of the mycobacterial heat shock protein gene (hsp65) provided species-level taxonomic resolution of mycobacteria. The two dominant Mycobacteria present, M. frederiksbergense (arithmetic mean = 85.7% of hsp65 sequences) and M. aurum (arithmetic mean = 6.5% of hsp65 sequences), are generally considered to be nonpathogenic. Two opportunistic pathogens, however, were detected at low numbers: M. hemophilum (arithmetic mean = 1.5% of hsp65 sequences) and M. abscessus (arithmetic mean = 0.006% of hsp65 sequences). Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfovibrio, which have been implicated in microbially influenced corrosion, dominated all communities located underneath corrosion tubercules (arithmetic mean = 67.5% of the community). This research provides novel insights into the quantity and composition of biofilms in full-scale drinking water distribution systems, which is critical for assessing the risks to public health and to the

  8. A pilot study: Horticulture-related activities significantly reduce stress levels and salivary cortisol concentration of maladjusted elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Oh, Wook; Jang, Ja Soon; Lee, Ju Young

    2018-04-01

    The effects of three horticulture-related activities (HRAs), including floral arranging, planting, and flower pressing were compared to see if they influenced changes on a stress scale and on salivary cortisol concentrations (SCC) in maladjusted elementary school children. Twenty maladjusted elementary school children were randomly assigned either to an experimental or control group. The control group carried out individual favorite indoor activities under the supervision of a teacher. Simultaneously, the ten children in the experimental group participated in a HRA program consisting of flower arrangement (FA), planting (P), and flower pressing (PF) activities, in which the other ten children in the control group did not take part. During nine sessions, the activities were completed as follows: FA-FA-FA, P-P-P, and PF-PF-PF; each session lasted 40 min and took place once a week. For the quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol, saliva was collected from the experimental group one week before the HRAs and immediately after the activities for 9 consecutive weeks at the same time each session. In the experimental group, stress scores of interpersonal relationship, school life, personal problems, and home life decreased after the HRAs by 1.3, 1.8, 4.2, and 1.3 points, respectively. In particular, the stress score of school life was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In addition, from the investigation of the SCCs for the children before and after repeating HRAs three times, it was found that flower arrangement, planting, and flower pressing activities reduced the SCCs by ≥37% compared to the SCCs prior to taking part in the HRAs. These results indicate that HRAs are associated with a reduction in the stress levels of maladjusted elementary school children. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Water quality audits can improve availability and reduce costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorin, R.S.; Schlesinger, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Water Quality Audit (WQA) is an independent, detailed review and thorough analysis of an operating plant's water technology control systems and operator education (as distinguished from operator training). The need for such an audit and its role in improving the reliability and availability of both nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants is discussed. Instances of how the failure of either system hardware or operational control has caused injection of seawater, acid, caustic, or ion exchange resin into the condensate-feedwater system and steam generator are revealed. The systems to be audited are described, and the stage-wise nature of the audit explained. The potential savings of an audit are outlined and the timing and range of costs of a WQA are given

  10. Cerebral Embolic Protection During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Significantly Reduces Death and Stroke Compared With Unprotected Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Julia; Gonska, Birgid; Otto, Markus; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Wöhrle, Jochen

    2017-11-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cerebral embolic protection on stroke-free survival in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Imaging data on cerebral embolic protection devices have demonstrated a significant reduction in number and volume of cerebral lesions. A total of 802 consecutive patients were enrolled. The Sentinel cerebral embolic protection device (Claret Medical Inc., Santa Rosa, California) was used in 34.9% (n = 280) of consecutive patients. In 65.1% (n = 522) of patients TAVR was performed in the identical setting except without cerebral embolic protection. Neurological follow-up was done within 7 days post-procedure. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality or all-stroke according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria within 7 days. Propensity score matching was performed to account for possible confounders. Both filters of the device were successfully positioned in 280 of 305 (91.8%) consecutive patients. With use of cerebral embolic protection rate of disabling and nondisabling stroke was significantly reduced from 4.6% to 1.4% (p = 0.03; odds ratio: 0.29, 95% confidence interval: 0.10 to 0.93) in the propensity-matched population (n = 560). The primary endpoint occurred significantly less frequently, with 2.1% (n = 6 of 280) in the protected group compared with 6.8% (n = 19 of 280) in the control group (p = 0.01; odds ratio: 0.30; 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.77). In multivariable analysis Society of Thoracic Surgeons score for mortality (p = 0.02) and TAVR without protection (p = 0.02) were independent predictors for the primary endpoint. In patients undergoing TAVR use of a cerebral embolic protection device demonstrated a significant higher rate of stroke-free survival compared with unprotected TAVR. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Costs of reducing water use of concentrating solar power to sustainable levels: Scenarios for North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerau, Kerstin; Williges, Keith; Patt, Anthony G.; Gauche, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) has the potential to become a leading sustainable energy technology for the European electricity system. In order to reach a substantial share in the energy mix, European investment in CSP appears most profitable in North Africa, where solar potential is significantly higher than in southern Europe. As well as sufficient solar irradiance, however, the majority of today's CSP plants also require a considerable amount of water, primarily for cooling purposes. In this paper we examine water usage associated with CSP in North Africa, and the cost penalties associated with technologies that could reduce those needs. We inspect four representative sites to compare the ecological and economical drawbacks from conventional and alternative cooling systems, depending on the local environment, and including an outlook with climate change to the mid-century. Scaling our results up to a regional level indicates that the use of wet cooling technologies would likely be unsustainable. Dry cooling systems, as well as sourcing of alternative water supplies, would allow for sustainable operation. Their cost penalty would be minor compared to the variance in CSP costs due to different average solar irradiance values. - Highlights: → Scaling up CSP with wet cooling from ground water will be unsustainable in North Africa. → Desalination and alternative cooling systems can assure a sustainable water supply. → On large-scale, the cost penalties of alternative cooling technologies appear minor.

  12. Dermal application of nitric oxide releasing acidified nitrite-containing liniments significantly reduces blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opländer, Christian; Volkmar, Christine M; Paunel-Görgülü, Adnana; Fritsch, Thomas; van Faassen, Ernst E; Mürtz, Manfred; Grieb, Gerrit; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Hemmrich, Karsten; Windolf, Joachim; Suschek, Christoph V

    2012-02-15

    Vascular ischemic diseases, hypertension, and other systemic hemodynamic and vascular disorders may be the result of impaired bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). NO but also its active derivates like nitrite or nitroso compounds are important effector and signal molecules with vasodilating properties. Our previous findings point to a therapeutical potential of cutaneous administration of NO in the treatment of systemic hemodynamic disorders. Unfortunately, no reliable data are available on the mechanisms, kinetics and biological responses of dermal application of nitric oxide in humans in vivo. The aim of the study was to close this gap and to explore the therapeutical potential of dermal nitric oxide application. We characterized with human skin in vitro and in vivo the capacity of NO, applied in a NO-releasing acidified form of nitrite-containing liniments, to penetrate the epidermis and to influence local as well as systemic hemodynamic parameters. We found that dermal application of NO led to a very rapid and significant transepidermal translocation of NO into the underlying tissue. Depending on the size of treated skin area, this translocation manifests itself through a significant systemic increase of the NO derivates nitrite and nitroso compounds, respectively. In parallel, this translocation was accompanied by an increased systemic vasodilatation and blood flow as well as reduced blood pressure. We here give evidence that in humans dermal application of NO has a therapeutic potential for systemic hemodynamic disorders that might arise from local or systemic insufficient availability of NO or its bio-active NO derivates, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Significant change of local atomic configurations at surface of reduced activation Eurofer steels induced by hydrogenation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greculeasa, S.G.; Palade, P.; Schinteie, G. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, A.; Stanciu, A. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Lungu, G.A. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Porosnicu, C.; Lungu, C.P. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, V., E-mail: kuncser@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Engineering of Eurofer slab properties by hydrogenation treatments. • Hydrogenation modifies significantly the local atomic configurations at the surface. • Hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the very surface. • Approaching binomial atomic distribution by hydrogenation in the next surface 100 nm. - Abstract: Reduced-activation steels such as Eurofer alloys are candidates for supporting plasma facing components in tokamak-like nuclear fusion reactors. In order to investigate the impact of hydrogen/deuterium insertion in their crystalline lattice, annealing treatments in hydrogen atmosphere have been applied on Eurofer slabs. The resulting samples have been analyzed with respect to local structure and atomic configuration both before and after successive annealing treatments, by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The corroborated data point out for a bcc type structure of the non-hydrogenated alloy, with an average alloy composition approaching Fe{sub 0.9}Cr{sub 0.1} along a depth of about 100 nm. EDS elemental maps do not indicate surface inhomogeneities in concentration whereas the Mössbauer spectra prove significant deviations from a homogeneous alloying. The hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the surface layer and decreases their oxidation, with considerable influence on the surface properties of the steel. The hydrogenation treatment is therefore proposed as a potential alternative for a convenient engineering of the surface of different Fe-Cr based alloys.

  14. Significant Features of Warm Season Water Vapor Flux Related to Heavy Rainfall and Draught in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Koji; Iseri, Yoshihiko; Jinno, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    In this study, our objective is to reveal complicated relationships between spatial water vapor inflow patterns and heavy rainfall activities in Kyushu located in the western part of Japan, using the outcomes of pattern recognition of water vapor inflow, based on the Self-Organizing Map. Consequently, it could be confirmed that water vapor inflow patterns control the distribution and the frequency of heavy rainfall depending on the direction of their fluxes and the intensity of Precipitable water. Historically serious flood disasters in South Kyushu in 1993 were characterized by high frequency of the water vapor inflow patterns linking to heavy rainfall. On the other hand, severe draught in 1994 was characterized by inactive frontal activity that do not related to heavy rainfall.

  15. Optical trapping of nanoparticles with significantly reduced laser powers by using counter-propagating beams (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenglong; LeBrun, Thomas W.

    2015-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNP) have wide applications ranging from nanoscale heating to cancer therapy and biological sensing. Optical trapping of GNPs as small as 18 nm has been successfully achieved with laser power as high as 855 mW, but such high powers can damage trapped particles (particularly biological systems) as well heat the fluid, thereby destabilizing the trap. In this article, we show that counter propagating beams (CPB) can successfully trap GNP with laser powers reduced by a factor of 50 compared to that with a single beam. The trapping position of a GNP inside a counter-propagating trap can be easily modulated by either changing the relative power or position of the two beams. Furthermore, we find that under our conditions while a single-beam most stably traps a single particle, the counter-propagating beam can more easily trap multiple particles. This (CPB) trap is compatible with the feedback control system we recently demonstrated to increase the trapping lifetimes of nanoparticles by more than an order of magnitude. Thus, we believe that the future development of advanced trapping techniques combining counter-propagating traps together with control systems should significantly extend the capabilities of optical manipulation of nanoparticles for prototyping and testing 3D nanodevices and bio-sensing.

  16. Reducing water losses via intelligent pressure management; Reduzierung von Wasserverlusten durch intelligentes Druckmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppinger, Peter [VAG-Armaturen GmbH, Mannheim (Germany). Marketing

    2008-03-15

    Leaks in water pipes and leaking municipal water-transmission and piping systems, particularly in developing and threshold countries account for water-losses of up to 50% of the water supplied by the waterworks. This article examines three different solutions for effective pressure management on the basis of an intelligent control system, by means of which water-losses can be reduced to a stable and economically rational level. (orig.)

  17. Sanitization of an Automatic Reverse-Osmosis Watering System: Removal of a Clinically Significant Biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molk, Denise M; Karr-May, Charlene L; Trang, Elaine D; Sanders, George E

    2013-01-01

    During environmental monitoring of our institution's rodent watering systems, one vivarium was found to have high bacterial loads in the reverse-osmosis (RO) automatic water system. These findings prompted evaluation of the entire RO water production and distribution system. Investigation revealed insufficient rack and RO system sanitization, leading to heavy biofilm accumulation within the system. Approximately 2 wk after discovery in the water system, one of the bacterial organisms isolated in the water supply, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, was isolated from a peritoneal abscess of a severely immunodeficient B6.Cg-Slc11a1r Rag1tm1Mom/Cwi mouse housed in the same vivarium, suggesting that rodents drinking from this system were being exposed randomly to fragments of biofilm. Plans were developed to sanitize the entire system. Hypercholorination was used first, followed by treatment with a combination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Between system sanitizations, a low-level chlorine infusion was added to the system as a biocide. Heterotrophic plate counts and bacterial isolation were performed on water samples obtained before and after sanitization procedures. We here discuss the process of identifying and correcting this important water-quality issue. PMID:23562105

  18. Morphological divergence between three Arctic charr morphs - the significance of the deep-water environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, Sigrid; Siwertsson, Anna; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Knudsen, Rune

    2015-08-01

    Morphological divergence was evident among three sympatric morphs of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) that are ecologically diverged along the shallow-, deep-water resource axis in a subarctic postglacial lake (Norway). The two deep-water (profundal) spawning morphs, a benthivore (PB-morph) and a piscivore (PP-morph), have evolved under identical abiotic conditions with constant low light and temperature levels in their deep-water habitat, and were morphologically most similar. However, they differed in important head traits (e.g., eye and mouth size) related to their different diet specializations. The small-sized PB-morph had a paedomorphic appearance with a blunt head shape, large eyes, and a deep body shape adapted to their profundal lifestyle feeding on submerged benthos from soft, deep-water sediments. The PP-morph had a robust head, large mouth with numerous teeth, and an elongated body shape strongly related to their piscivorous behavior. The littoral spawning omnivore morph (LO-morph) predominantly utilizes the shallow benthic-pelagic habitat and food resources. Compared to the deep-water morphs, the LO-morph had smaller head relative to body size. The LO-morph exhibited traits typical for both shallow-water benthic feeding (e.g., large body depths and small eyes) and planktivorous feeding in the pelagic habitat (e.g., streamlined body shape and small mouth). The development of morphological differences within the same deep-water habitat for the PB- and PP-morphs highlights the potential of biotic factors and ecological interactions to promote further divergence in the evolution of polymorphism in a tentative incipient speciation process. The diversity of deep-water charr in this study represents a novelty in the Arctic charr polymorphism as a truly deep-water piscivore morph has to our knowledge not been described elsewhere.

  19. Water Injection on Commercial Aircraft to Reduce Airport Nitrogen Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Fucke, Lars; Eames, David J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The potential nitrogen oxide (NO(x) reductions, cost savings, and performance enhancements identified in these initial studies of waterinjection technology strongly suggest that it be further pursued. The potential for engine maintenance cost savings from this system should make it very attractive to airline operators and assure its implementation. Further system tradeoff studies and engine tests are needed to answer the optimal system design question. Namely, would a low-risk combustor injection system with 70- to 90-percent NO(x) reduction be preferable, or would a low-pressure compressor (LPC) misting system with only 50-percent NO(x) reduction but larger turbine inlet temperature reductions be preferable? The low-pressure compressor injection design and operability issues identified in the report need to be addressed because they might prevent implementation of the LPC type of water-misting system. If water-injection technology challenges are overcome, any of the systems studied would offer dramatic engine NO(x) reductions at the airport. Coupling this technology with future emissions-reduction technologies, such as fuel-cell auxiliary power units will allow the aviation sector to address the serious challenges of environmental stewardship, and NO(x) emissions will no longer be an issue at airports.

  20. Reducing Operating Costs and Energy Consumption at Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their unique combination of high energy usage and potential for significant savings, utilities are turning to energy-efficient technologies to help save money. Learn about cost and energy saving technologies from this brochure.

  1. Shark Spotters: Successfully reducing spatial overlap between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and recreational water users in False Bay, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Tamlyn; Kock, Alison; Waries, Sarah; O'Riain, M Justin

    2017-01-01

    White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are apex predators that play an important role in the structure and stability of marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance and protected status, white sharks are still subject to lethal control to reduce the risk of shark bites for recreational water users. The Shark Spotters program, pioneered in Cape Town, South Africa, provides a non-lethal alternative for reducing the risk of human-shark conflict. In this study we assessed the efficacy of the Shark Spotters program in reducing overlap between water users and white sharks at two popular beaches in False Bay, South Africa. We investigated seasonal and diel patterns in water use and shark presence at each beach, and thereafter quantified the impact of different shark warnings from shark spotters on water user abundance. We also assessed the impact of a fatal shark incident on patterns of water use. Our results revealed striking diel and seasonal overlap between white sharks and water users at both beaches. Despite this, there was a low rate of shark-human incidents (0.5/annum) which we attribute partly to the success of the Shark Spotters program. Shark spotters use visual (coloured flags) and auditory (siren) cues to inform water users of risk associated with white shark presence in the surf zone. Our results showed that the highest risk category (denoted by a white flag and accompanying siren) caused a significant reduction in water user abundance; however the secondary risk category (denoted by a red flag with no siren) had no significant effect on water users. A fatal shark incident was shown to negatively impact the number of water users present for at least three months following the incident. Our results indicate that the Shark Spotters program effectively reduces spatial overlap between white sharks and water users when the risk of conflict is highest.

  2. Irrigation with oxygen-nanobubble water can reduce methane emission and arsenic dissolution in a flooded rice paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masayoshi; Makino, Tomoyuki; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito

    2015-08-01

    A remarkable feature of nanobubbles (pot experiment and measuring redox-related variables. The NBs were introduced into control water (with properties similar to those of river water) using a commercially available generator. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth did not differ between plants irrigated with NB water and those irrigated with control water, but NB water significantly (p rice-growing season by 21%. The amounts of iron, manganese, and arsenic that leached into the drainage water before full rice heading were also reduced by the NB water. Regardless of the water type, weekly-measured CH4 flux was linearly correlated with the leached iron concentration during the rice-growing season (r = 0.74, p pots without rice plants, soil reduction was not enhanced, regardless of the water type. The results indicate that NB water reduced CH4 emission and arsenic dissolution through an oxidative shift of the redox conditions in the flooded soil. We propose the use of NB water as a tool for controlling redox conditions in flooded paddy soils.

  3. Reducing dissolved inorganic nitrogen in surface runoff water from sugarcane production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A J; Bartley, R; Armour, J D; Brodie, J E; Thorburn, P J

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) lost from farms, especially as the highly bioavailable dissolved inorganic form, may be damaging Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR). As sugarcane is the dominant cropping system in GBR catchments, its N management practises are coming under increasing scrutiny. This study measured dissolved inorganic N lost in surface runoff water and sugarcane productivity over 3 years. The experiment compared the conventional fertiliser N application rate to sugarcane (average 180kg N/ha/year) and a rate based on replacing N exported in the previous crop (average 94kg N/ha/year). Dissolved inorganic N losses in surface water were 72%, 48% and 66% lower in the three monitored years in the reduced N fertiliser treatment. There was no significant difference in sugarcane yield between the two fertiliser N treatments, nor any treatment difference in soil mineral N - both of these results are indicators of the sustainability of the lower fertiliser N applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Remediation options and the significance of water treatment at former uranium production sites in Eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatzweiler, R.; Jakubick, A.T.; Kiessig, G.

    2000-01-01

    The WISMUT remediation project in the States of Saxony and Thuringia, Germany, comprises several mine and mill sites including large volumes of production residues. Due to the climate, the intensive land use and the regulatory conditions, the water path is most important in evaluating remediation options. Water treatment is an integral part of mine flooding, mine dump and tailings remediation, and treatment costs represent a major portion of the overall costs of the project. Uncertainties in the estimations of quantities of mine and seepage waters, variations in quality from site to site, and changing conditions in time demand a strategic approach to the selection and optimization of water treatment methods. The paper describes options considered and experience gained including efforts to limit long-term treatment costs by developing and applying passive treatment systems and negotiating acceptable discharge limits. (author)

  5. Significance of microcystin production by benthic communities in water treatment systems of arid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, I; Aboal, M; Zafra, E; Campillo, D

    2008-02-01

    The study of the dynamics of phytobenthic and phytoplankton communities was undertaken, during a year, in the regulation reservoir associated with a water treatment plant (WTP), which provides the city of Murcia (Spain) with drinking water. Water samples were collected in different stages of the treatment. In the reservoir, the presence of dissolved and intracellular microcystins is constant, both in benthos and in plankton. The collected samples show a positive correlation between the dissolved microcystins and the benthic ones in the reservoir itself, as well as in an upstream reservoir (Ojós Reservoir). The treatment process (ozone+clarification+ozone+activated carbon) is very effective in the removal of toxins, and the drinking water produced is totally free of microcystins. The incorporation of the benthic communities in the routine check for the presence of microcystins is recommended, since it is not compulsory according to the current legislation.

  6. Advances in understanding phosphorus cycling in inland waters - Their significance for South African limnology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Twinch, AJ

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available The definitions of the different phosphorus compound fractions present in inland waters are reviewed and the limitations of the definitions discussed. The development of models of phosphorus cycling is summarized. Attempts to establish...

  7. Significance of bacteria associated with invertebrates in drinking water distribution networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, E; du Preez, H H; de Wet, C M E; Venter, S N

    2005-01-01

    The implication of invertebrates found in drinking water distribution networks to public health is of concern to water utilities. Previous studies have shown that the bacteria associated with the invertebrates could be potentially pathogenic to humans. This study investigated the level and identity of bacteria commonly associated with invertebrates collected from the drinking water treatment systems as well as from the main pipelines leaving the treatment works. On all sampling occasions bacteria were isolated from the invertebrate samples collected. The highest bacterial counts were observed for the samples taken before filtration as was expected. There were, however, indications that optimal removal of invertebrates from water did not always occur. During the investigation, 116 colonies were sampled for further identification. The isolates represent several bacterial genera and species that are pathogenic or opportunistic pathogens of humans. Diarrhoea, meningitis, septicaemia and skin infections are among the diseases associated with these organisms. The estimated number of bacteria that could be associated with a single invertebrate (as based on average invertebrate numbers) could range from 10 to 4000 bacteria per organism. It can, therefore, be concluded that bacteria associated with invertebrates might under the worst case scenario pose a potential health risk to water users. In the light of the above findings it is clear that invertebrates in drinking water should be controlled at levels as low as technically and economically feasible.

  8. Identification of Water Quality Significant Parameter with Two Transformation/Standardization Methods on Principal Component Analysis and Scilab Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Putranda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water quality monitoring is prone to encounter error on its recording or measuring process. The monitoring on river water quality not only aims to recognize the water quality dynamic, but also to evaluate the data to create river management policy and water pollution in order to maintain the continuity of human health or sanitation requirement, and biodiversity preservation. Evaluation on water quality monitoring needs to be started by identifying the important water quality parameter. This research objected to identify the significant parameters by using two transformation or standardization methods on water quality data, which are the river Water Quality Index, WQI (Indeks Kualitas Air, Sungai, IKAs transformation or standardization method and transformation or standardization method with mean 0 and variance 1; so that the variability of water quality parameters could be aggregated with one another. Both of the methods were applied on the water quality monitoring data which its validity and reliability have been tested. The PCA, Principal Component Analysis (Analisa Komponen Utama, AKU, with the help of Scilab software, has been used to process the secondary data on water quality parameters of Gadjah Wong river in 2004-2013, with its validity and reliability has been tested. The Scilab result was cross examined with the result from the Excel-based Biplot Add In software. The research result showed that only 18 from total 35 water quality parameters that have passable data quality. The two transformation or standardization data methods gave different significant parameter type and amount result. On the transformation or standardization mean 0 variances 1, there were water quality significant parameter dynamic to mean concentration of each water quality parameters, which are TDS, SO4, EC, TSS, NO3N, COD, BOD5, Grease Oil and NH3N. On the river WQI transformation or standardization, the water quality significant parameter showed the level of

  9. UV disinfection and flocculation-chlorination sachets to reduce hepatitis E virus in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Latorre, Laura; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Sommer, Regina; Rosina, Girones

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is a major cause of waterborne outbreaks in areas with poor sanitation. As safe water supplies are the keystone for preventing HEV outbreaks, data on the efficacy of disinfection treatments are urgently needed. Here, we evaluated the ability of UV radiation and flocculation-chlorination sachets (FCSs) to reduce HEV in water matrices. The HEV-p6-kernow strain was replicated in the HepG2/C3A cell line, and we quantified genome number using qRT-PCR and infectivity using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). UV irradiation tests using low-pressure radiation showed inactivation kinetics for HEV of 99.99% with a UV fluence of 232J/m(2) (IC 95%, 195,02-269,18). Moreover, the FCSs preparations significantly reduced viral concentrations in both water matrices, although the inactivation results were under the baseline of reduction (4.5 LRV) proposed by WHO guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of sanitized ice in reducing bacterial load on fish fillet and in the water collected from the melted ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Lee, Jaesung; Lopes, John A; Pascall, Melvin A

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of sanitized ice for the reduction of bacteria in the water collected from the ice that melted during storage of whole and filleted Tilapia fish. Also, bacterial reductions on the fish fillets were investigated. The sanitized ice was prepared by freezing solutions of PRO-SAN (an organic acid formulation) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW). For the whole fish study, the survival of the natural microflora was determined from the water of the melted ice prepared with PRO-SAN and tap water. These water samples were collected during an 8 h storage period. For the fish fillet study, samples were inoculated with Escherichia coli K12, Listeria innocua, and Pseudomonas putida then stored on crushed sanitized ice. The efficacies of these were tested by enumerating each bacterial species on the fish fillet and in the water samples at 12 and 24 h intervals for 72 h, respectively. Results showed that each bacterial population was reduced during the test. However, a bacterial reduction of fillet samples. A maximum of approximately 2 log CFU and > 3 log CFU reductions were obtained in the waters sampled after the storage of whole fish and the fillets, respectively. These reductions were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the water from sanitized ice when compared with the water from the unsanitized melted ice. These results showed that the organic acid formulation and NEW considerably reduced the bacterial numbers in the melted ice and thus reduced the potential for cross-contamination.

  11. New scanning technique using Adaptive Statistical lterative Reconstruction (ASIR) significantly reduced the radiation dose of cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550mA (450–600) vs. 650mA (500–711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P<0.001. There was 27% effective radiation dose reduction in the ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29mSv (2.84–6.02) vs. 5.84mSv (3.88–8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P<0.001. Although ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93±10.22 vs. 37.63±18.79 (mean ±standard deviation), respectively, P<001), it did not affect the signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio or the diagnostic quality of CCTA. Application of ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality.

  12. New scanning technique using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) significantly reduced the radiation dose of cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus

    2013-06-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550 mA (450-600) vs. 650 mA (500-711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29 mSv (2.84-6.02) vs. 5.84 mSv (3.88-8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93 ± 10.22 vs. 37.63 ± 18.79 (mean ± standard deviation), respectively, P ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  13. Secukinumab Significantly Reduces Psoriasis-Related Work Impairment and Indirect Costs Compared With Ustekinumab and Etanercept in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R B; Halliday, A; Graham, C N; Gilloteau, I; Miles, L; McBride, D

    2018-05-30

    Psoriasis causes work productivity impairment that increases with disease severity. Whether differential treatment efficacy translates into differential indirect cost savings is unknown. To assess work hours lost and indirect costs associated with secukinumab versus ustekinumab and etanercept in the United Kingdom (UK). This was a post hoc analysis of work impairment data collected in the CLEAR study (secukinumab vs. ustekinumab) and applied to the FIXTURE study (secukinumab vs. etanercept). Weighted weekly and annual average indirect costs per patient per treatment were calculated from (1) overall work impairment derived from Work Productivity and Activity Impairment data collected in CLEAR at 16 and 52 weeks by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) response level; (2) weekly/annual work productivity loss by PASI response level; (3) weekly and annual indirect costs by PASI response level, based on hours of work productivity loss; and (4) weighted average indirect costs for each treatment. In the primary analysis, work impairment data for employed patients in CLEAR at Week 16 were used to compare secukinumab and ustekinumab. Secondary analyses were conducted at different timepoints and with patient cohorts, including FIXTURE. In CLEAR, 452 patients (67%) were employed at baseline. At Week 16, percentages of weekly work impairment/mean hours lost decreased with higher PASI: PASI hours; PASI 50-74: 13.3%/4.45 hours; PASI 75-89: 6.4%/2.14 hours; PASI ≥90: 4.9%/1.65 hours. Weighted mean weekly/annual work hours lost were significantly lower for secukinumab than ustekinumab (1.96/102.51 vs. 2.40/125.12; P=0.0006). Results were consistent for secukinumab versus etanercept (2.29/119.67 vs. 3.59/187.17; Ρreduced work impairment and associated indirect costs of psoriasis compared with ustekinumab and etanercept at Week 16 through 52 in the UK. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Drops of energy: conserving urban water to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanchun; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Haikun; Bi, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Water and energy are two essential resources of modern civilization and are inherently linked. Indeed, the optimization of the water supply system would reduce energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions in the municipal water sector. This research measured the climatic cobenefit of water conservation based on a water flow analysis. The results showed that the estimated energy consumption of the total water system in Changzhou, China, reached approximately 10% of the city's total energy consumption, whereas the industrial sector was found to be more energy intensive than other sectors within the entire water system, accounting for nearly 70% of the total energy use of the water system. In addition, four sustainable water management scenarios would bring the cobenefit of reducing the total energy use of the water system by 13.9%, and 77% of the energy savings through water conservation was indirect. To promote sustainable water management and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, China would require its water price system, both for freshwater and recycled water, to be reformed.

  15. DEFICIT IRRIGATION TECHNIQUE FOR REDUCING WATER USE OF TOMATO UNDER POLYTUNNEL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladjana SAVIC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of paper was to asses the use of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI for production of two tomato cultivars (Cedrico and Abellus in polytunnels in Serbia. RDI plants received 60% of the water that was applied to FI plants and significant saving of water for irrigation and increased in irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE were achieved. Yield data for Cedrico cultivar showed no differences between RDI and FI, while due to the bigger sensitivity to drought, yield of Abellus was reduced under RDI. In general, fruit quality (soluble solids, titrable acidity was sustained or improved in both cultivars under RDI. Economic analyses showed that due to the current low prices of water and electricity in Serbia, the profit increase of Cedrico, similarly to the previously trialed cultivar Amati, was not high under RDI comparing to FI. Reduction of yield and consequent profit for Abellus, indicated that for future commercial growing of tomato under RDI should be used drought resistant cultivars.

  16. The significance of water ionic strength on aluminium toxicity in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstad, Nina E.W.; Kjelsberg, Birgitte M.; Voellestad, L. Asbjoern; Lydersen, Espen; Poleo, Antonio B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The toxicity of aluminium to fish is related to interactions between aluminium and the gill surface. We investigated the possible effect of water ionic strength on this interaction. The mortality of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) exposed to three different degrees of Al polymerisation was compared in water with increased ionic strength (mean 7.31 x 10 -4 M) after additions of the base cations Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + or K + , and in water with no such addition (mean ionic strength 5.58 x 10 -4 M). Only a very slight ameliorating effect of increased ionic strength was observed, while the degree of Al polymerisation was of major importance in fish mortality. In addition, it was observed that smaller fish survived the Al exposures for a longer time than larger fish. We hypothesise that this is because larger fish are more susceptible to hypoxia than smaller fish. - Ionic strength has a slight ameliorating effect on Al toxicity in brown trout

  17. Relative frequencies and significance of faecal coliforms as indicators related to water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auban, E G; Ripolles, A A; Domarco, M J

    1983-01-01

    The faecal coliforms at different sites of a hypereutrophic lake near Valencia (Albufera) were identified and their relative amounts established along an annual cycle. Using lauryl tryptose broth at 35 degrees C, followed by incubation at 44.4 degrees C in 2% brilliant green bile, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are practically the only coliforms present. A positive correlation was found between the water temperature and the relative amount of these two coliforms: K. pneumoniae predominates at high water temperatures, whereas E. coli shows preponderance during the cold period. The role of K. pneumoniae as the only faecal indicator under the circumstances described in the work is emphasized and discussed.

  18. Significance of Algal Assemblages in Assessing Water Quality of the River Nile at Minia,Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shahed, A.M.; Ibrahim, H.A.

    1999-01-01

    A sector of the Nile system in the Providence Minia, has been studied for physicochemical properties of waters and characteristics of the inhabiting algal communities. Monthly samples in the period April, 1994-Marsh, 1995 were collected from three sites on the Nile and one site on a drainage canal connected to it. Samples were analysed for water temperature, ph, inorganic forms of nitrogen, inorganic phosphates, silicates, chemical oxygen demand, total carbohydrates, total proteins, and the major nutritive metal ions; Na +, K +, Ca + + a nd Mg + + . Algal samples, collected at the same intervals, were studied for the characteristics of algal communities including diversity of species, abundance of populations and species co,position. A total of 124 taxa were recorded during the period of study of which 27 cyanophytes, 34 chlorophyte, 6 euglenophytes and 57 bacillariophytes. Changes in water chemistry of the river Nile, on receiving discharges from domestic, agricultural and industrial effluents, have been shown to be accompanied with alterations in the algal communities including species composition, species diversity and abundance of populations. Water quality was assessed on the basis of both chemical and biological data and results have indicated that the Nile at the area of study is subjected to eutrophication and organic pollution. Bio indicator species have also used to distinguish polluted and relatively clean localities

  19. The Significant Surface-Water Connectivity of “Geographically Isolated Wetlands”

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the current literature, coupled with our collective research expertise, on surface-water connectivity of wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” (sensu Tiner Wetlands 23:494–516, 2003a) to critically assess the scientific foundation of g...

  20. Significance of apparent discrepanices in water ages derived from atmospheric radionuclides at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Wolfsberg, A.; Robinson, B.; Sharma, P.

    1995-01-01

    Cosmogenic 36 Cl and 14 C produced in the atmosphere are being used to estimate water residence times in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Results thus far show a systematic discordance in that 14 C-based ages are generally one to two orders of magnitude younger than 36 Cl-based ages. This lack of concordance probably arises from one or more of the following reasons: (1) different transport mechanisms, e.g., vapor transport for 14 C; (2) different magnitudes and timing of bomb-pulse signals; (3) mixing of waters from different flow paths; and (4) possibly inadequate methods for correcting for the effect of sample contamination by carbon or chlorine from sources other than the infiltrating water. Preliminary numerical simulation results using the FEHMN code suggest that spatial variation in infiltration rates can enhance lateral flow and mixing that leads to discordance in apparent ages depending on the dating technique. Examples are presented to show that disparate radiometric ages are inevitable and to be expected where mixing of waters of markedly different ages occurs

  1. Identification of significant pressures and assessment of wastewater discharge on Krivaja River water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Vesna Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key stages of the process of preparing management plans for the river basin is the analysis of pressures and impacts, as well as the risk assessment of failing to achieve the environmental objectives. DPSIR framework (Driving Forces-Pressure-State-Impact-Response was developed by the European Agency for the environmental protection, and makes the conceptual basis for the pressures and impacts analysis, taking into account the complexity of the interactions in the environment and represents the tool for their analysis. Impact assessment of the water body requires some quantitative information to describe the condition of the water body and/or the pressures that act on it. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of wastewater discharge on Krivaja watercourse. Impact assessment is carried out based on data of polluters’ wastewater and monitoring information for water in Krivaja. For each site at which sampling was performed, the specific risk quotients for surface water were calculated, as the ratio of the each pollutant concentration in surface water at the sampling point and environmental quality standards for pollutants, as well as their sum that represents the risk index. In order to have the integrated perceive of processes in the Krivaja River, taking into account cumulative effects from point sources, the concept of total maximum daily load was applied, using which the pollution amount, that can be discharged daily in a water body without degrading his prescribed/required quality, was calculated. Comparison of emitted loads from pollution point sources with maximum allowable ones was performed. Wastewaters of different polluters located on Krivaja are, due to insufficient treatment, very loaded with organic matter and nutrients. Krivaja receives daily 1332 m3 of wastewater, 999 kg COD, 722 kg BOD, 144 kg of nitrogen, 4.3 kg of phosphorus and 627 kg of suspended solids. Of the total wastewater volume, the majority (69

  2. Increased water intake to reduce headache: learning from a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amy; Burls, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Water intake is a cost effective, non-invasive and low-risk intervention to reduce or prevent headache pain. Chronic mild dehydration may trigger headache. Increased water intake could help. A small trial shows modest benefit; however, a larger methodologically sound randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm efficacy. Spigt, M., Weerkamp, N., Troost, J., van Schayck, C. P., & Knottnerus, J. A. (2012). 'A randomized trial on the effects of regular water intake in patients with recurrent headaches.' Family practice, 29(4), 370-5. Doi: 10.1093/fampra/cmr112 CLINICAL SCENARIO: Patients from primary care registered as 'headache', 'tension headache' and/or 'migraine' for more than one year who suffer at least two episodes of moderately intense headache or more than four mildly intense episodes of headache per month with a daily fluid intake of less than 2.5 litres per day. Patient/Problem = Headache > 1 year with 2 moderately intense or 4 mildly intense episodes per month Intervention = 1.5 litres water per day + stress control and sleep hygiene Comparison/Control = stress control and sleep hygiene Outcome = Reduce or eliminate headache Methodology = Therapy RCT Table 1: Final Search Terms TRIP Data Base: hits = 517 used filter Extended Primary research 4 found 1 paper applicable 'Water intake '[MeSH Terms] AND 'Headache '[All Fields]' Best match to PICO, (2012) RCT SELECTION CRITERION AND OVERALL RESULTS: 102 headache patients in16 primary care clinics were randomized into control (n = 50) and intervention groups (n = 52) Inclusion criteria = two > episodes of moderately intense headache or five > mildly intense headaches per month and total fluid intake > 2.5 litres per day, Follow-up @ 3 months. 79% intervention and 66% of controls completed RCT. Drinking more water resulted in a statistically significant improvement of 4.5 (confidence interval: 1.3-7.8) points on Migraine-Specific Quality of Life (MSQOL

  3. Reducing the 2, 4 D+MCPA Antagonism from Hard Spray Waters by Ammonium Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Torabi

    2017-03-01

    1.5 L-ha applied once on July. The density and dry matter of clover and turf were recorded. Results and Discussion: Full performance of 2, 4 D + MCPA herbicide to control clover, regardless of the amount of ammonium sulfate used, was obtained in soft water. Adding just 4%, AMS to Carrier water with a hardness of 45 ppm could recover effectiveness of herbicide up to DI water, whereas in 90 ppm of hardness adding only 2 percent ammonium sulfate was enough to increase herbicide efficacy to twice as no ammonium sulfate treatment. The most significant antagonism effect was obtained in 180 ppm hardness level without AMS reducing 84% of 2, 4 D + MCPA performance compared to soft water. The highest antagonism effect of the herbicide carrier went to 180 ppm, 90 ppm and 45 ppm of hardness respectively. Overall, the study revealed that only in 45 ppm of CH the addition of 4% of AMS will help to restore the toxicity of 2, 4 D + MCPA while in 90 ppm and 180 ppm of CH add more than 2% of AMS to 2, 4 D + MCPA carrier water will not benefit the herbicide toxicity. Most reports have considered sufficient two percent of AMS to neutralize the inhibitory effect of CH on the weak acid herbicides. Three weeks after spraying, no phytotoxicity was found in the grass. At the same time interaction between CH and AMS on the lawn dry weight was significant (P

  4. Can virtual water 'trade' reduce water scarcity in semi-arid countries? The case of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Alberto; Novo, Paula; Rodriguez Casado, Roberto; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural trade is by far the largest vehicle to ‘move’ water virtually around the world. Observing that most countries import and export water embedded in the exchanged products, the objective of this study is to assess the virtual water ‘trade’ in Spain for the period 1997-2006. We differentiate between the green and blue components of virtual water from a hydrological and economic perspective. The combination of spatial and time dimensions offers a unique empirical setting to determine ...

  5. Daily tritium intakes by people living near a heavy-water research reactor facility: dosimetric significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Cornett, R.J.; Galeriu, D.; Workman, W.; Brown, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    We have estimated the relative daily intakes of tritiated water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT), and have measured HTO-in-urine, in an adult population residing in the town of Deep River, Ontario, near a heavy-water research reactor facility at Chalk River. The daily intake of elevated levels of atmospheric tritium has been estimated from its concentration in environmental and biological samples, and various food items from a local tritium-monitoring program. Where the available data were inadequate, we used estimates generated by an environmental tritium-transfer model. From these data and estimates, we calculated a total daily tritium intake of about 55 Bq. Of this amount, 2.5 Bq is obtained from OBT-in-diet. Inhalation of HTO-in-air (15 Bq d -1 ) and HTO-in-drinking water (15 Bq d -1 ) accounts for more than half of the HTO intake. Skin absorption of HTO from air and bathing or swimming (for 30 min d -1 ) accounts for another 9 Bq d -1 and 0.1 Bq d -1 , respectively. The remaining intake of HTO is from food as tissue-free water tritium. The International Commission on Radiological Protection's recommended two-compartment metabolic model for tritium predicts an equilibrium body burden of about 900 Bq from HTO (818 Bq) and OBT (83 Bq) in the body, which corresponds to an annual tritium dose of 0.41 μSv. The model-predicted urinary excretion of HTO (∼18 Bq L -1 ) agrees well with measured HTO-in-urine (range, 10-32 Bq L -1 ). The OBT dose contribution to the total tritium dose is about 16%. We conclude that for the people living near the Chalk River research reactor facility, the bulk of the tritium dose is due to HTO intake. (author)

  6. Irrigation with oxygen-nanobubble water can reduce methane emission and arsenic dissolution in a flooded rice paddy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamikawa, Kazunori; Makino, Tomoyuki; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Takahashi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable feature of nanobubbles (<10 –6 m in diameter) is their long lifetime in water. Supplying oxygen-nanobubbles (NBs) to continuously flooded paddy soil may retard the development of reductive conditions, thereby reducing the emission of methane (CH 4 ), a potent greenhouse gas, and dissolution of arsenic, an environmental load. We tested this hypothesis by performing a pot experiment and measuring redox-related variables. The NBs were introduced into control water (with properties similar to those of river water) using a commercially available generator. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth did not differ between plants irrigated with NB water and those irrigated with control water, but NB water significantly (p < 0.05) reduced cumulative CH 4 emission during the rice-growing season by 21%. The amounts of iron, manganese, and arsenic that leached into the drainage water before full rice heading were also reduced by the NB water. Regardless of the water type, weekly-measured CH 4 flux was linearly correlated with the leached iron concentration during the rice-growing season (r = 0.74, p < 0.001). At the end of the experiment, the NB water significantly lowered the soil pH in the 0–5 cm layer, probably because of the raised redox potential. The population of methanogenic Archaea (mcrA copy number) in the 0–5 cm layer was significantly increased by the NB water, but we found no correlation between the mcrA copy number and the cumulative CH 4 emission (r = –0.08, p = 0.85). In pots without rice plants, soil reduction was not enhanced, regardless of the water type. The results indicate that NB water reduced CH 4 emission and arsenic dissolution through an oxidative shift of the redox conditions in the flooded soil. We propose the use of NB water as a tool for controlling redox conditions in flooded paddy soils. (letter)

  7. The significance of water ionic strength on aluminium toxicity in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstad, Nina E.W. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Kjelsberg, Birgitte M. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Voellestad, L. Asbjoern [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Lydersen, Espen [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, P.O. Box 173 Kjelsaas, N-0411 Oslo (Norway); Poleo, Antonio B.S. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: toni.poleo@bio.uio.no

    2005-01-01

    The toxicity of aluminium to fish is related to interactions between aluminium and the gill surface. We investigated the possible effect of water ionic strength on this interaction. The mortality of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) exposed to three different degrees of Al polymerisation was compared in water with increased ionic strength (mean 7.31 x 10{sup -4} M) after additions of the base cations Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +} or K{sup +}, and in water with no such addition (mean ionic strength 5.58 x 10{sup -4} M). Only a very slight ameliorating effect of increased ionic strength was observed, while the degree of Al polymerisation was of major importance in fish mortality. In addition, it was observed that smaller fish survived the Al exposures for a longer time than larger fish. We hypothesise that this is because larger fish are more susceptible to hypoxia than smaller fish. - Ionic strength has a slight ameliorating effect on Al toxicity in brown trout.

  8. Advances in Nuclear Power Plant Water Chemistry in Reducing Radiation Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Febrianto

    2005-01-01

    Water quality in light water reactor in Pressurized Water Reactor as well as in Boiling Water Reactor has being gradually improved since the beginning, to reduce corrosion risk and radiation exposure level. Corrosion problem which occurred to both type of reactors can reduce the plants availability, increase the operation and maintenance cost and increase the radiation exposure. Corrosion and radiation exposure risk in both reactor rare different. BWR type reactor has more experiences in corrosion problem because at the type of reactor lets water to boil in the core, while at PWR type reactor, water is kept not to boil. The BWR reactor has also higher radiation exposure rather than the PWR one. Many collaborative efforts of plants manufacturers and plant operator utilities have been done to reduce the radiation exposure level and corrosion risk. (author)

  9. Sugar and hexokinase suppress expression of PIP aquaporins and reduce leaf hydraulics that preserves leaf water potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gilor; Sade, Nir; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Lerner, Stephen; Shatil-Cohen, Arava; Yeselson, Yelena; Egbaria, Aiman; Kottapalli, Jayaram; Schaffer, Arthur A; Moshelion, Menachem; Granot, David

    2017-07-01

    Sugars affect central aspects of plant physiology, including photosynthesis, stomatal behavior and the loss of water through the stomata. Yet, the potential effects of sugars on plant aquaporins (AQPs) and water conductance have not been examined. We used database and transcriptional analyses, as well as cellular and whole-plant functional techniques to examine the link between sugar-related genes and AQPs. Database analyses revealed a high level of correlation between the expression of AQPs and that of sugar-related genes, including the Arabidopsis hexokinases 1 (AtHXK1). Increased expression of AtHXK1, as well as the addition of its primary substrate, glucose (Glc), repressed the expression of 10 AQPs from the plasma membrane-intrinsic proteins (PIP) subfamily (PIP-AQPs) and induced the expression of two stress-related PIP-AQPs. The osmotic water permeability of mesophyll protoplasts of AtHXK1-expressing plants and the leaf hydraulic conductance of those plants were significantly reduced, in line with the decreased expression of PIP-AQPs. Conversely, hxk1 mutants demonstrated a higher level of hydraulic conductance, with increased water potential in their leaves. In addition, the presence of Glc reduced leaf water potential, as compared with an osmotic control, indicating that Glc reduces the movement of water from the xylem into the mesophyll. The production of sugars entails a significant loss of water and these results suggest that sugars and AtHXK1 affect the expression of AQP genes and reduce leaf water conductance, to coordinate sugar levels with the loss of water through transpiration. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Removal heavy metals and sulphate from waste waters by sulphate-reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnierová Mária

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the process of bacterial sulphate reduction, which is used to removal of heavy metals and sulphate ions from waste waters.The life of animals and plants depends on the existence of microscopic organisms – microorganisms (MO, which play an important role in cycle changes of biogenic elements on the earth. The sulphur cycle in the nature is considered as one of the oldest and most significant biological systems (Fig. 1. The sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB miss the assimilatory part of the cycle and produce sulphides. The microbial population of this dissimilatory part is called “sulfuretum”. The SRB can be found in anaerobic mud and sediments of freshwater, thermal or non-thermal sulphur springs, mining waters from sulphide deposits, oil deposits, sea and ocean beds, and in the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals. The SRB represent a group of chemoorganotrophic, strictly anaerobic and gramnegative bacteria, which exhibit a great morphological and physiological diversity. Despite of their considerable morphological variety, they have one property in common, which is the ability to utilise preferentially sulphates (occasionally sulphites, thiosulphates, tetrathionates as electron acceptors, which are reduced to sulphides, during anaerobic respiration. The electron donors in these processes are simple organic compounds as lactate, malate, etc.,(heterotrophically reduction or gaseous hydrogen (autotrophically reduction. SRB can produce a considerable amount of hydrogen sulphide, which reacts easily in aqueous solution with the cations of heavy metals, forming metal sulphides that have low solubility. The bacterial sulphate reduction can be used for the treatment of acid mine drainage waters, which is considered to be the major problem associated with mining activities.In order to remove heavy metals from waste waters, e.g., from galvanizing plants, mine waters (Smolnik, Šobov locality and metallurgic plants (works

  11. Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water.

  12. Vaccination of pigs two weeks before infection significantly reduces transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eble, P.L.; Bouma, A.; Bruin, de M.G.M.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van F.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Dekker, A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether and at what time interval could vaccination reduce transmission of foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV) among pigs. Reduction of virus transmission by vaccination was determined experimentally. Transmission of FMDV was studied in three groups of

  13. Fish-protection devices at unscreened water diversions can reduce entrainment: evidence from behavioural laboratory investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; Mussen, Timothy D.; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M. Levent; Cech, Joseph J.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2015-01-01

    Diversion (i.e. extraction) of water from rivers and estuaries can potentially affect native wildlife populations if operation is not carefully managed. For example, open, unmodified water diversions can act as a source of injury or mortality to resident or migratory fishes from entrainment and impingement, and can cause habitat degradation and fragmentation. Fish-protection devices, such as exclusion screens, louvres or sensory deterrents, can physically or behaviourally deter fish from approaching or being entrained into water diversions. However, empirical assessment of their efficacy is often lacking or is investigated only for particular economically or culturally important fishes, such as salmonids. The Southern population of anadromous green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) is listed as threatened in California, and there is a high density of water diversions located within their native range (the Sacramento–San Joaquin watershed). Coupled with their unique physiology and behaviour compared with many other fishes native to California, the green sturgeon is susceptible to entrainment into diversions and is an ideal species with which to study the efficacy of mitigation techniques. Therefore, we investigated juvenile green sturgeon (188–202 days post-hatch) in the presence of several fish-protection devices to assess behaviour and entrainment risk. Using a large experimental flume (∼500 kl), we found that compared with an open diversion pipe (control), the addition of a trash-rack box, louvre box, or perforated cylinder on the pipe inlet all significantly reduced the proportion of fish that were entrained through the pipe (P = 0.03, P = 0.028, and P = 0.028, respectively). Likewise, these devices decreased entrainment risk during a single movement past the pipe by between 60 and 96%. These fish-protection devices should decrease the risk of fish entrainment during water-diversion activities. PMID:27293725

  14. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted in sandpacks to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration and displacement of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels. A similar study of DPR was conducted in Berea sandstone cores. Both oil and water permeabilities were reduced by much smaller factors in Berea sandstone cores than in similar treatments in sandpacks. Poor maturation of the gelant in the Berea rock was thought to be caused by fluid-rock interactions that interfered with the gelation process.

  15. Improving water management practices to reduce nutrient export from rice paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Yao, Ju-Xiang; Wang, Zhao-De; Xu, Xin; Lin, Xian-Yong; Czapar, George F; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from rice paddy fields represents a significant threat to water quality in China. In this project, three irrigation-drainage regimes were compared, including one conventional irrigation-drainage regime, i.e. continuous submergence regime (CSR), and two improved regimes, i.e. the alternating submergence-nonsubmergence regime (ASNR) and the zero-drainage irrigation technology (ZDIT), to seek cost-effective practices for reducing nutrient loss. The data from these comparisons showed that, excluding the nutrient input from irrigation, the net exports of total N and total P via surface field drainage ranged from -3.93 to 2.39 kg ha and 0.17 to 0.95 g ha(-1) under the CSR operation, respectively, while N loss was -2.46 to -2.23 kg ha(-1) and P export was -0.65 to 0.31 kg ha(-1) under the improved regimes. The intensity of P export was positively correlated to the rate of P application. Reducing the draining frequency or postponing the draining operation would shift the ecological role of the paddy field from a nutrient export source to an interception sink when ASNR or the zero-drainage water management was used. In addition, since the rice yields are being guaranteed at no additional cost, the improved irrigation-drainage operations would have economic as well as environmental benefits.

  16. Simulation study of soil water and heat dynamics at two sites with significant preferential flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votrubova, J.; Vogel, T.; Dohnal, M.; Tesar, M.

    2012-04-01

    Numerical models based on two hydraulically contrasting flow domains coupled through a simple transfer formula have become a useful tool for modeling both water flow and associated substance transport in structured soils. A comparative numerical study focused on the preferential flow effects on the soil heat transport is presented. Sites located in two different headwater catchments were included. Experimental catchment Liz is situated in a forested mountain area of Sumava Mts. in the southern part of the Czech Republic (altitude: 830 m, mean annual temperature: 6.3°C, mean annual precipitation: 861 mm). Uhlirska catchment is located in the north-west of the Czech Republic in Jizera Mts. and is currently undergoing reforestation (altitude: 820 m, mean annual temperature: 4.6°C, mean annual precipitation: 1400 mm). Both sites are instrumented for monitoring of the relevant meteorological and hydrological variables, as well as the soil moisture and temperature distribution. Changes of the soil water content and temperature during vegetation season were simulated. Model performance was qualitatively evaluated and shown to replicate the field measurements. The soils' heat budgets and the preferential flow effect thereon was compared and analyzed.

  17. ClusterSignificance: A bioconductor package facilitating statistical analysis of class cluster separations in dimensionality reduced data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serviss, Jason T.; Gådin, Jesper R.; Eriksson, Per

    2017-01-01

    , e.g. genes in a specific pathway, alone can separate samples into these established classes. Despite this, the evaluation of class separations is often subjective and performed via visualization. Here we present the ClusterSignificance package; a set of tools designed to assess the statistical...... significance of class separations downstream of dimensionality reduction algorithms. In addition, we demonstrate the design and utility of the ClusterSignificance package and utilize it to determine the importance of long non-coding RNA expression in the identity of multiple hematological malignancies....

  18. Climate Change, Forests, and Water Supply: Managing to Reduce Vulnerability in Central Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, J.; Duinker, P.

    2009-12-01

    Global climate change is increasingly relevant in managing Canada’s forests sustainably. Forest managers are faced with the necessity of incorporating climate change into forest management plans. The formulation and evaluation of potential management strategies to contend with expected impacts of climate change will be necessary to reduce forest sector vulnerability. The Halifax Regional Water Commission manages forest watersheds for the purpose of supplying clean water to much of the Halifax Regional Municipality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the future forest structure of the two principal watersheds supplying the Halifax Regional Municipality using simulation modelling and to develop a framework of adaptive forest management. A combination of uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis, and field data collection are used to refine, calibrate, and validate the spatially dynamic landscape disturbance model LANDIS-II prior to the incorporation of climate change scenarios into model simulations. Final model-based analysis will inform framework development dedicated to improving watershed resilience in the face of future climate change. This study is applicable to forest management under a changing climate, but also has further significance to water security, as watershed management and point-source protection are tightly linked to forest management.

  19. Monitoring of water supply connections as an element to reduce apparent losses of water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwoździej-Mazur, Joanna

    2017-11-01

    Measuring instruments are designed to measure a given physical value, to process the obtained information and forward it to the observer. They are designed to perform specific tasks in specific working conditions and meeting the envisaged requirements. The most important requirement to be met by measuring instruments, is to preserve the established metrological characteristics. The basic and most common instrument for measuring the volume of flowing water is the water meter. Selecting the right water meter in the operating conditions is not an easy issue. The problem has been further intensified by decrease of water consumption which began in the 90s of the twentieth century and continuing to the present day. As a result, there has changed the structure of water consumption in both the residential and industrial applications. In this situation, a right selection of the optimal water meter it is an important case. The article presents the results of research in the field of characteristic flows in the water supply connections in multi-family housing using modern monitoring systems. It has been presented the calculated inequality ratio of water consumption, which can be helpful when designing a plumbing systems. In addition, the structure of water consumption due to the typical flow ranges was determined.

  20. Monitoring of water supply connections as an element to reduce apparent losses of water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwoździej-Mazur Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring instruments are designed to measure a given physical value, to process the obtained information and forward it to the observer. They are designed to perform specific tasks in specific working conditions and meeting the envisaged requirements. The most important requirement to be met by measuring instruments, is to preserve the established metrological characteristics. The basic and most common instrument for measuring the volume of flowing water is the water meter. Selecting the right water meter in the operating conditions is not an easy issue. The problem has been further intensified by decrease of water consumption which began in the 90s of the twentieth century and continuing to the present day. As a result, there has changed the structure of water consumption in both the residential and industrial applications. In this situation, a right selection of the optimal water meter it is an important case. The article presents the results of research in the field of characteristic flows in the water supply connections in multi-family housing using modern monitoring systems. It has been presented the calculated inequality ratio of water consumption, which can be helpful when designing a plumbing systems. In addition, the structure of water consumption due to the typical flow ranges was determined.

  1. Use of Moringa oleifera seed extracts to reduce helminth egg numbers and turbidity in irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Mita E; Keraita, Bernard; Olsen, Annette; Boateng, Osei K; Thamsborg, Stig M; Pálsdóttir, Guðný R; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-07-01

    Water from wastewater-polluted streams and dug-outs is the most commonly used water source for irrigation in urban farming in Ghana, but helminth parasite eggs in the water represent health risks when used for crop production. Conventional water treatment is expensive, requires advanced technology and often breaks down in less developed countries so low cost interventions are needed. Field and laboratory based trials were carried out in order to investigate the effect of the natural coagulant Moringa oleifera (MO) seed extracts in reducing helminh eggs and turbidity in irrigation water, turbid water, wastewater and tap water. In medium to high turbid water MO extracts were effective in reducing the number of helminth eggs by 94-99.5% to 1-2 eggs per litre and the turbidity to 7-11 NTU which is an 85-96% reduction. MO is readily available in many tropical countries and can be used by farmers to treat high turbid water for irrigation, however, additional improvements of water quality, e.g. by sand filtration, is suggested to meet the guideline value of ≤ 1 helminth egg per litre and a turbidity of ≤ 2 NTU as recommended by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water intended for irrigation. A positive correlation was established between reduction in turbidity and helminth eggs in irrigation water, turbid water and wastewater treated with MO. This indicates that helminth eggs attach to suspended particles and/or flocs facilitated by MO in the water, and that turbidity and helminth eggs are reduced with the settling flocs. However, more experiments with water samples containing naturally occurring helminth eggs are needed to establish whether turbidity can be used as a proxy for helminth eggs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maintenance of water uptake and reduced water loss contribute to water stress tolerance of Spiraea alba Du Roi and Spiraea tomentosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Kelly M; Mickelbart, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Two primarily eastern US native shrubs, Spiraea alba Du Roi and Spiraea tomentosa L., are typically found growing in wet areas, often with standing water. Both species have potential for use in the landscape, but little is known of their environmental requirements, including their adaptation to water stress. Two geographic accessions of each species were evaluated for their response to water stress under greenhouse conditions. Above-ground biomass, water relations and gas exchange were measured in well-watered and water stress treatments. In both species, water stress resulted in reduced growth, transpiration and pre-dawn water potential. However, both species also exhibited the ability to osmotically adjust to lower soil water content, resulting in maintained midday leaf turgor potential in all accessions. Net CO2 assimilation was reduced only in one accession of S. alba, primarily due to large reductions in stomatal conductance. S. tomentosa lost a larger proportion of leaves than S. alba in response to water stress. The primary water stress tolerance strategies of S. alba and S. tomentosa appear to be the maintenance of water uptake and reduced water loss.

  3. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, N.

    2016-09-06

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure.

  4. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, N.; Michoud, Gregoire; Cario, A.; Ollivier, J.; Franzetti, B.; Jebbar, M.; Oger, P.; Peters, J.

    2016-01-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure.

  5. Study on spraying water soluble resin to reduce pollution for Fukushima daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiong; Guo Ruiping; Zhang Chunming; Han Fujuan; Hua Jie; Zhang Jiankui

    2012-01-01

    After Fukushima nuclear accident, Tokyo electric power company used the method of spraying water soluble resin synthesis at the scene of the accident, to restrain and control the spread of the radioactive dust, by forming consolidation layer in pollution area surface. This paper briefly introduced the accident, motivation of spraying water soluble resin, spraying range and implementation process. According to the relevant report on Fukushima nuclear accident, the effect of spraying water soluble resin for reducing pollution was analyzed. The mechanism of reducing pollution for water soluble resin and the application prospect were discussed. Spraying water soluble resin for fixing radioactive dust has reasonable reducing pollution effect. It is worth to use as reference and study in China. (authors)

  6. Bio-corrosion of water pipeline by sulphate-reducing bacteria in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    esiri

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... Key words: Sulphate-reducing bacteria, corrosion, water pipeline, biocide. INTRODUCTION ... small amount of organic material required to produce biomass):. )1(. 3. 2 .... Oil, gas and shipping industries are seriously affected.

  7. Thickened water-based hydraulic fluid with reduced dependence of viscosity on temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deck, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    Improved hydraulic fluids or metalworking lubricants, utilizing mixtures of water, metal lubricants, metal corrosion inhibitors, and an associative polyether thickener, have reduced dependence of the viscosity on temperature achieved by the incorporation therein of an ethoxylated polyether surfactant.

  8. Properties of experimental titanium cast investment mixing with water reducing agent solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zutai; Ding, Ning; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Han-Cheol, Cho; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a dental investment for titanium casting. ZrO(2) and Al(2)O(3) were selected as refractory materials to prepare three investments (Codes: A-C) according to the quantity of Zr. Al(2)O(3) cement was used as a binder at a ratio of 15%, they were mixed with special mixing liquid. B1 was used as a control mixed with water. Fundamental examinations were statistically evaluated. A casting test was performed with investment B. Fluidities, setting times, and green strengths showed no remarkable differences; however, they were significantly different from those of B1. Expansion values for A, B, C, and B1 at 850°C were 1.03%±0.08%, 1.96%±0.17%, 4.35%±0.23%, and 1.50%±0.28%, respectively. Castings were covered by only small amounts of mold materials. The hardness test showed no significant differences between castings from B and the ones from commercial investments. The experimental special mixing liquid effectively reduced the water/powder ratio and improved the strength and thermal expansion.

  9. Light water reactor sequence timing: its significance to probabilistic safety assessment modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bley, D.C.; Buttemer, D.R.; Stetkar, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines event sequence timing in light water reactor plants from the viewpoint of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The analytical basis for the ideas presented here come primarily from the authors' work in support of more than 20 PSA studies over the past several years. Timing effects are important for establishing success criteria for support and safety system response and for identifying the time available for operator recovery actions. The principal results of this paper are as follows: 1. Analysis of event sequence timing is necessary for meaningful probabilistic safety assessment - both the success criteria for systems performance and the probability of recovery are tightly linked to sequence timing. 2. Simple engineering analyses based on first principles are often sufficient to provide adequate resolution of the time available for recovery of PSA scenarios. Only those parameters that influence sequence timing and its variability and uncertainty need be examined. 3. Time available for recovery is the basic criterion for evaluation of human performance, whether time is an explicit parameter of the operator actions analysis or not. (author)

  10. Reducing nitrogen leaching from fertilizers to surface waters: catchment specific indicators of economic benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Levin, Gregor; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard

    2018-01-01

    We explore with impact pathway methodology the economic benefits of reducing nitrogen leaching to transitional surface waters, as expected for a proportionality test under the EU’s Water Framework Directive article 4. Ten different catchments is analyzed for a policy scenario where downstream dis...

  11. Interspecific variation in physiological and foliar metabolic responses to reduced soil water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climatic uncertainty, particularly in regard to water resources, may alter irrigation management of rice, an essential cereal grain acknowledged as the primary food source for more than half the world’s population. To reduce water use, an alternate wetting and drying (AWD) system has been developed...

  12. Significance analysis of the regional differences on icing time of water onto fire protective clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Jing, L. S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, T.; Hu, C.; Bao, Z. M.; Fu, X. C.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. J.

    2017-09-01

    The object of this work was to determine the icing temperature in icing experiment. Firstly, a questionnaire investigation was carried out on 38 fire detachments in different regions. These Statistical percentage results were divided into northern east group and northern west group. Secondly, a significance analysis between these two results was made using Mann-Whitney U test. Then the icing temperature was determined in different regions. Thirdly, the icing experiment was made in the environment of -20°C in Daxing’an Mountain. The anti-icing effect of new fire protective clothing was verified in this icing.

  13. Identification of significant problems related to light water reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    Work on the project was divided into three tasks. In Task 1, past surveys of LWR piping system problems and recent Licensee Event Report summaries are studied to identify the significant problems of LWR piping systems and the primary causes of these problems. Pipe cracking is identified as the most recurring problem and is mainly due to the vibration of pipes due to operating pump-pipe resonance, fluid-flow fluctuations, and vibration of pipe supports. Research relevant to the identified piping system problems is evaluated. Task 2 studies identify typical LWR piping systems and the current loads and load combinations used in the design of these systems. Definitions of loads are reviewed. In Task 3, a comparative study is carried out on the use of nonlinear analysis methods in the design of LWR piping systems. The study concludes that the current linear-elastic methods of analysis may not predict accurately the behavior of piping systems under seismic loads and may, under certain circumstances, result in nonconservative designs. Gaps at piping supports are found to have a significant effect on the response of the piping systems

  14. Morphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhang, Yulong; Sun, Zhanxiang; Zheng, Jiaming; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Yang; Feng, Liangshan; Feng, Chen; Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Ning; Evers, Jochem B.; Zhang, Lizhen

    2017-08-01

    A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L.) production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above- and below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU) and water use efficiency (WUE). Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but increased root diameter, resulting in no effect on root surface area. Due to the morphological plasticity in root growth and the increase in root / shoot ratio, WU under water stress was decreased, and overall WUE for both above-ground dry matter and grain yield increased. Our results demonstrate that an irrigation system might be not economically and ecologically necessary because the frequently occurring mild water stress did not reduce crop yield much. The study helps us to understand crop responses to water stress during a critical water-sensitive period (middle of the crop-growing season) and to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.

  15. Morphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Cai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L. production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above- and below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU and water use efficiency (WUE. Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but increased root diameter, resulting in no effect on root surface area. Due to the morphological plasticity in root growth and the increase in root ∕ shoot ratio, WU under water stress was decreased, and overall WUE for both above-ground dry matter and grain yield increased. Our results demonstrate that an irrigation system might be not economically and ecologically necessary because the frequently occurring mild water stress did not reduce crop yield much. The study helps us to understand crop responses to water stress during a critical water-sensitive period (middle of the crop-growing season and to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.

  16. A novel multi-stage subunit vaccine against paratuberculosis induces significant immunity and reduces bacterial burden in tissues (P4304)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Riber, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Effective control of paratuberculosis is hindered by lack of a vaccine preventing infection, transmission and without diagnostic interference with tuberculosis. We have developed a novel multi-stage recombinant subunit vaccine in which a fusion of four early expressed MAP antigens is combined...... characterized by a significant containment of bacterial burden in gut tissues compared to non-vaccinated animals. There was no cross-reaction with bovine tuberculosis in vaccinated animals. This novel multi-stage vaccine has the potential to become a marker vaccine for paratuberculosis....

  17. Monitoring of water supply connections as an element to reduce apparent losses of water?

    OpenAIRE

    Gwoździej-Mazur Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Measuring instruments are designed to measure a given physical value, to process the obtained information and forward it to the observer. They are designed to perform specific tasks in specific working conditions and meeting the envisaged requirements. The most important requirement to be met by measuring instruments, is to preserve the established metrological characteristics. The basic and most common instrument for measuring the volume of flowing water is the water meter. Selecting the rig...

  18. Reduced expression of circRNA hsa_circ_0003159 in gastric cancer and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mengqian; Chen, Ruoyu; Li, Tianwen; Xiao, Bingxiu

    2018-03-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play a crucial role in the occurrence of several diseases including cancers. However, little is known about circRNAs' diagnostic values for gastric cancer, one of the worldwide most common diseases of mortality. The hsa_circ_0003159 levels in 108 paired gastric cancer tissues and adjacent non-tumorous tissues from surgical patients with gastric cancer were first detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, the relationships between hsa_circ_0003159 expression levels in gastric cancer tissues and the clinicopathological factors of patients with gastric cancer were analyzed. Finally, its diagnostic value was evaluated through the receiver operating characteristic curve. Compared with paired adjacent non-tumorous tissues, hsa_circ_0003159 expression was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues. What is more, we found that hsa_circ_0003159 expression levels were significantly negatively associated with gender, distal metastasis, and tumor-node-metastasis stage. All of the results suggest that hsa_circ_0003159 may be a potential cancer marker of patients with gastric cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation and resistance exercise significantly reduce abdominal adiposity in healthy elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Moon, Jordan R; Hoffman, Jay R

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 12-weeks of HMB ingestion and resistance training (RT) on abdominal adiposity were examined in 48 men (66-78 yrs). All participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: no-training placebo (NT-PL), HMB only (NT-HMB), RT with PL (RT-PL), or HMB with RT (RT-HMB). DXA was used to estimate abdominal fat mass (AFM) by placing the region of interest over the L1-L4 region of the spine. Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA, with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons. Baseline AFM values were used as the covariate. The ANCOVA indicated a significant difference (p = 0.013) between group means for the adjusted posttest AFM values (mean (kg) ± SE: NT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.06; NT-HMB = 2.59 ± 0.61; RT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.62; RT-HMB = 2.34 ± 0.61). The pairwise comparisons indicated that AFM following the intervention period in the RT-HMB group was significantly less than NT-PL (p = 0.013), NT-HMB (p = 0.011), and RT-PL (p = 0.010). These data suggested that HMB in combination with 12 weeks of RT decreased AFM in elderly men. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Wind Erosion Caused by Land Use Changes Significantly Reduces Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Carbon Sequestration Potentials in Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Chi, Y. G.; Wang, J.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Wind erosion exerts a fundamental influence on the biotic and abiotic processes associated with ecosystem carbon (C) cycle. However, how wind erosion under different land use scenarios will affect ecosystem C balance and its capacity for future C sequestration are poorly quantified. Here, we established an experiment in a temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia, and simulated different intensity of land uses: control, 50% of aboveground vegetation removal (50R), 100% vegetation removal (100R) and tillage (TI). We monitored lateral and vertical carbon flux components and soil characteristics from 2013 to 2016. Our study reveals three key findings relating to the driving factors, the magnitude and consequence of wind erosion on ecosystem C balance: (1) Frequency of heavy wind exerts a fundamental control over the severity of soil erosion, and its interaction with precipitation and vegetation characteristics explained 69% variation in erosion intensity. (2) With increases in land use intensity, the lateral C flux induced by wind erosion increased rapidly, equivalent to 33%, 86%, 111% and 183% of the net ecosystem exchange of the control site under control, 50R, 100R and TI sites, respectively. (3) After three years' treatment, erosion induced decrease in fine fractions led to 31%, 43%, 85% of permanent loss of C sequestration potential in the surface 5cm soil for 50R, 100R and TI sites. Overall, our study demonstrates that lateral C flux associated with wind erosion is too large to be ignored. The loss of C-enriched fine particles not only reduces current ecosystem C content, but also results in irreversible loss of future soil C sequestration potential. The dynamic soil characteristics need be considered when projecting future ecosystem C balance in aeolian landscape. We also propose that to maintain the sustainability of grassland ecosystems, land managers should focus on implementing appropriate land use rather than rely on subsequent managements on degraded soils.

  1. Steam versus hot-water scalding in reducing bacterial loads on the skin of commercially processed poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, T E; Goodwin, T L; Collins, J A; Wyche, R C; Love, B E

    1972-04-01

    A comparison of two types of scalders was conducted to determine their effectiveness in reducing bacterial contamination of poultry carcasses. A conventional hot-water scalder and a prototype model of a steam scalder were tested under commercial conditions. Total plate counts from steam-scalded birds were significantly lower than the counts of water-scalded birds immediately after scalding and again after picking. No differences in the two methods could be found after chilling. Coliform counts from steam-scalded birds were significantly lower than the counts from water-scalded birds immediately after scalding. No significant differences in coliform counts were detected when the two scald methods were compared after defeathering and chilling.

  2. Postoperative Stiffness Requiring Manipulation Under Anesthesia Is Significantly Reduced After Simultaneous Versus Staged Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, John P; Monazzam, Shafagh; Miles, Troy; Danielsen, Beate; White, Richard H

    2017-12-20

    adjust for relevant risk factors, the 90-day odds ratio (OR) of undergoing manipulation after simultaneous bilateral TKA was significantly lower than that for unilateral TKA (OR = 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.86) and staged bilateral TKA (OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.90). Similarly, at 180 days, the odds of undergoing manipulation were significantly lower after simultaneous bilateral TKA than after both unilateral TKA (OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.84) and staged bilateral TKA (OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.93). The frequency of manipulation was significantly associated with younger age, fewer comorbidities, black race, and the absence of obesity. Although the ORs were small (close to 1), simultaneous bilateral TKA had a significantly decreased rate of stiffness requiring manipulation under anesthesia at 90 days and 180 days after knee replacement compared with that after staged bilateral TKA and unilateral TKA. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. Application of Titanium Compounds to Reduce Fluoride Ion in Water Resources with High Fluoride Ion Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Riahi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes studies on the sorption of fluoride ions from water by titanium compounds used in water treatment to reduce fluoride content in water resources. There are different methods of reducing fluoride ion in water, each associated with specific problems such as secondary contamination, environmental contamination, high costs, or the need for primary and secondary treatment. In this study, application of titanium sulfate and Metatitanic acid produced from titanium ore concentrate (ileminite is investigated in the removal of fluoride ion and the possibility of complete purification of fluorine containing wastewater is examined to determine the optimal conditions. Metatitanic acid has a great sorption property for fluoride ion. Also titanium sulfate is a suitable and more effective material for this purpose. Efficiency of this material in reducing fluoride ion content is 99.9% and it is possible to refresh sorbet material for reuse without problems arising from Ti+4 ion contamination.

  4. Significance of reheat cracks to the integrity of pressure vessels for light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Reheat cracks usually manifest themselves as macroscopic defects, which are centimeters long and deep, and are detectable by the usual nondestructive examination (NDE) procedures or as microscopic grain boundary decohesions (GBD) that are beyond the limit of detection by commercial NDE procedures. This report has concentrated on the significance of the microscopic cracks that may go undetected. The probability that GBD exist in the heat-affected zones (HAZ) of weldments of pressure vessel steels is high; particularly in SA 508 Class 2 weldments. A sample of the HAZ from the prolongation-weldment from the Heavy Section Steel Technology program Intermediate Test Vessel (ITV) No. 4 was examined by the Staatliche Materialprufungsanstalt (MPA). They reported GBD 5 mm (0.2 in.) long. This prompted an examination of the HAZ from the ITV vessel that had been tested to failure at 24 0 C (75 0 F). During testing, the region of the weld which contained the flaw that initiated the failure was strained up to 0.5%. A metallographic examination of this region of the weldment revealed GBD, but none of the size reported by the MPA. Further, there was no evidence that the GBD had extended as a consequence of the tests. Fracture toughness tests were made of the HAZ of welds from ITV-4. The electron-beam welding procedure, which permits more accurate siting of the crack, was used. Fracture toughness values in excess of 220 MPa root m (200 ksi root in.) were obtained at -18 0 C

  5. Managing urban water systems with significant adaptation deficits - a unified framework for secondary cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, A.; Radhakrishnan, M.; Zevenbergen, C.; Quan, N. H.

    2016-12-01

    The need to address the shortcomings of urban systems - adaptation deficit - and shortcomings in response to climate change - `adaptation gap' - are both major challenges in maintaining the livability and sustainability of cities. However, the adaptation actions defined in terms of type I (addressing adaptation deficits) and type II (addressing adaptation gaps), often compete and conflict each other in the secondary cities of the global south. Extending the concept of the environmental Kuznets curve, this paper argues that a unified framework that calls for synergistic action on type I and type II adaptation is essential in order for these cities to maintain their livability, sustainability and resilience facing extreme rates of urbanization and rapid onset of climate change. The proposed framework has been demonstrated in Can Tho, Vietnam, where there are significant adaptation deficits due to rapid urbanisation and adaptation gaps due to climate change and socio-economic changes. The analysis in Can Tho reveals the lack of integration between type I and type II measures that could be overcome by closer integration between various stakeholders in terms of planning, prioritising and implementing the adaptation measures.

  6. Significance of surface functionalization of Gold Nanorods for reduced effect on IgG stability and minimization of cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, Sruthi Ann; Rajiv, Sundaramoorthy [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Chakravarty, Sujay [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam, Node, Kokilamedu (India); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2017-02-01

    side effect of AuNRs by modifying capping. • Polymer-coated AuNRs safe for in vitro assays, but hamper protein functioning. • PEG-AuNRs reduced toxicity to lymphocyte cells and lesser effect on IgG. • Highlights importance of neutral PEGylated particles for theranostic applications.

  7. Significance of surface functionalization of Gold Nanorods for reduced effect on IgG stability and minimization of cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Sruthi Ann; Rajiv, Sundaramoorthy; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-01-01

    side effect of AuNRs by modifying capping. • Polymer-coated AuNRs safe for in vitro assays, but hamper protein functioning. • PEG-AuNRs reduced toxicity to lymphocyte cells and lesser effect on IgG. • Highlights importance of neutral PEGylated particles for theranostic applications.

  8. [Intra-Articular Application of Tranexamic Acid Significantly Reduces Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirement in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lošťák, J; Gallo, J; Špička, J; Langová, K

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of topical application of tranexamic acid (TXA, Exacyl) on the amount of post-operative blood loss, and blood transfusion requirement in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Attention was paid to early complications potentially associated with TXA administration, such as haematoma, wound exudate, or knee swelling. In addition, the economic benefit of TXA treatment was also taken into account. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 238 patients (85 men and 153 women) who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at our department between January 2013 and November 2015. A group of 119 patients (41 men and 78 women) received intraarticular TXA injections according to the treatment protocol (TXA group). A control group matched in basic characteristics to the TXA group also consisted of 119 patients. The average age in the TXA group was 69.8 years, and the most frequent indication for TKA surgery was primary knee osteoarthritis (81.5%). In each patient, post-operative volume of blood lost from drains and total blood loss including hidden blood loss were recorded, as well as post-operative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. On discharge of each patient from hospital, the size and site of a haematoma; wound exudate, if present after post-operative day 4; joint swelling; range of motion and early revision surgery, if performed, were evaluated. Requirements of analgesic drugs after surgery were also recorded. RESULTS In the TXA group, blood losses from drains were significantly lower than in the control group (456.7 ± 270.8 vs 640.5 ±448.2; p = 0.004). The median value for blood losses from drains was lower by 22% and the average value for total blood loss, including hidden losses, was also lower than in the control group (762.4 ± 345.2 ml vs 995.5 ± 457.3 ml). The difference in the total amount of blood loss between the two groups was significant (p = 0

  9. An upper-bound assessment of the benefits of reducing perchlorate in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Randall

    2014-10-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency plans to issue new federal regulations to limit drinking water concentrations of perchlorate, which occurs naturally and results from the combustion of rocket fuel. This article presents an upper-bound estimate of the potential benefits of alternative maximum contaminant levels for perchlorate in drinking water. The results suggest that the economic benefits of reducing perchlorate concentrations in drinking water are likely to be low, i.e., under $2.9 million per year nationally, for several reasons. First, the prevalence of detectable perchlorate in public drinking water systems is low. Second, the population especially sensitive to effects of perchlorate, pregnant women who are moderately iodide deficient, represents a minority of all pregnant women. Third, and perhaps most importantly, reducing exposure to perchlorate in drinking water is a relatively ineffective way of increasing iodide uptake, a crucial step linking perchlorate to health effects of concern. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Weight loss significantly reduces serum lipocalin-2 levels in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiou, Ekaterini; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Katsikis, Ilias; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Kalaitzakis, Emmanuil; Delkos, Dimitrios; Vosnakis, Christos; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Serum lipocalin-2 levels are elevated in obese patients. We assessed serum lipocalin-2 levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the effects of weight loss or metformin on these levels. Forty-seven overweight/obese patients with PCOS [body mass index (BMI) >27 kg/m(2)] were instructed to follow a low-calorie diet, to exercise and were given orlistat or sibutramine for 6 months. Twenty-five normal weight patients with PCOS (BMI weight and 25 overweight/obese healthy female volunteers comprised the control groups. Serum lipocalin-2 levels did not differ between overweight/obese patients with PCOS and overweight/obese controls (p = 0.258), or between normal weight patients with PCOS and normal weight controls (p = 0.878). Lipocalin-2 levels were higher in overweight/obese patients with PCOS than in normal weight patients with PCOS (p weight loss resulted in a fall in lipocalin-2 levels (p weight patients with PCOS, treatment with metformin did not affect lipocalin-2 levels (p = 0.484). In conclusion, PCOS per se is not associated with elevated lipocalin-2 levels. Weight loss induces a significant reduction in lipocalin-2 levels in overweight/obese patients with PCOS.

  11. Can Mobile-Enabled Payment Methods Reduce Petty Corruption in Urban Water Provision?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Krolikowski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in the urban water sector constrains economic growth and human development in low-income countries. This paper empirically evaluates the ability of novel mobile-enabled payment methods to reduce information asymmetries and mitigate petty corruption in the urban water sector’s billing and payment processes. Overcoming these barriers may promote improved governance and water service delivery. The case of Dar es Salaam is used to explore the role of mobile-enabled payment instruments through the use of a stratified random sample of 1097 water utility customers and 42 interviews with representatives from the water sector, the telecommunications industry, civil society, and banking institutions. Results show that mobile-enabled payment methods can reduce information asymmetries and the incidence of petty corruption to promote improved financial management by making payment data more transparent and limiting the availability of economic rents in the billing and payment process. Implications for African urban water services include wider availability and more effective use of human and financial resources. These can be used to enhance water service delivery and citizen participation in the production of urban water supplies. The use of mobile-enabled payment methods in the urban water sector represents an application of mobile communication technologies in a low-income country with proven potential for scalability that simultaneously supports the achievement of development objectives.

  12. Chronic water stress reduces tree growth and the carbon sink of deciduous hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzostek, Edward R; Dragoni, Danilo; Schmid, Hans Peter; Rahman, Abdullah F; Sims, Daniel; Wayson, Craig A; Johnson, Daniel J; Phillips, Richard P

    2014-08-01

    Predicted decreases in water availability across the temperate forest biome have the potential to offset gains in carbon (C) uptake from phenology trends, rising atmospheric CO2 , and nitrogen deposition. While it is well established that severe droughts reduce the C sink of forests by inducing tree mortality, the impacts of mild but chronic water stress on forest phenology and physiology are largely unknown. We quantified the C consequences of chronic water stress using a 13-year record of tree growth (n = 200 trees), soil moisture, and ecosystem C balance at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (MMSF) in Indiana, and a regional 11-year record of tree growth (n > 300 000 trees) and water availability for the 20 most dominant deciduous broadleaf tree species across the eastern and midwestern USA. We show that despite ~26 more days of C assimilation by trees at the MMSF, increasing water stress decreased the number of days of wood production by ~42 days over the same period, reducing the annual accrual of C in woody biomass by 41%. Across the deciduous forest region, water stress induced similar declines in tree growth, particularly for water-demanding 'mesophytic' tree species. Given the current replacement of water-stress adapted 'xerophytic' tree species by mesophytic tree species, we estimate that chronic water stress has the potential to decrease the C sink of deciduous forests by up to 17% (0.04 Pg C yr(-1) ) in the coming decades. This reduction in the C sink due to mesophication and chronic water stress is equivalent to an additional 1-3 days of global C emissions from fossil fuel burning each year. Collectively, our results indicate that regional declines in water availability may offset the growth-enhancing effects of other global changes and reduce the extent to which forests ameliorate climate warming. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Thorium fuel for light water reactors - reducing proliferation potential of nuclear power fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galperin, A; Radkowski, A [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel)

    1996-12-01

    The proliferation potential of the light water reactor fuel cycle may be significantly reduced by utilization of thorium as a fertile component of the nuclear fuel. The main challenge of Th utilization is to design a core and a fuel cycle, which would be proliferation-resistant and economically feasible. This challenge is met by the Radkowsky Thorium Reactor (RTR) concept. So far the concept has been applied to a Russian design of a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor, known as a WWER-1000, and designated as VVERT. The following are the main results of the preliminary reference design: * The amount of Pu contained in the RTR spent fuel stockpile is reduced by 80% in comparison with a VVER of a current design. * The isotopic composition of the RTR-Pu greatly increases the probability of pre-initiation and yield degradation of a nuclear explosion. An extremely large Pu-238 content causes correspondingly large heat emission, which would complicate the design of an explosive device based on RTR-Pu. The economic incentive to reprocess and reuse the fissile component of the RTR spent fuel is decreased. The once-through cycle is economically optimal for the RTR core and cycle. To summarize all the items above: the replacement of a standard (U-based) fuel for nuclear reactors of current generation by the RTR fuel will provide an inherent barrier for nuclear weapon proliferation. This inherent barrier, in combination with existing safeguard measures and procedures is adequate to unambiguously disassociate civilian nuclear power from military nuclear power. * The RTR concept is applied to existing power plants to assure its economic feasibility. Reductions in waste disposal requirements, as well as in natural U and fabrication expenses, as compared to a standard WWER fuel, provide approximately 20% reduction in fuel cycle (authors).

  14. Quantification of water uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae and its significance for leaf growth, water relations, and gas exchange of barley subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalvati, M A; Hu, Y; Mozafar, A; Schmidhalter, U

    2005-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate drought stress in their host plants via the direct uptake and transfer of water and nutrients through the fungal hyphae to the host plants. To quantify the contribution of the hyphae to plant water uptake, a new split-root hyphae system was designed and employed on barley grown in loamy soil inoculated with Glomus intraradices under well-watered and drought conditions in a growth chamber with a 14-h light period and a constant temperature (15 degrees C; day/night). Drought conditions were initiated 21 days after sowing, with a total of eight 7-day drying cycles applied. Leaf water relations, net photosynthesis rates, and stomatal conductance were measured at the end of each drying cycle. Plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Compared to the control treatment, the leaf elongation rate and the dry weight of the shoots and roots were reduced in all plants under drought conditions. However, drought resistance was comparatively increased in the mycorrhizal host plants, which suffered smaller decreases in leaf elongation, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and turgor pressure compared to the non-mycorrhizal plants. Quantification of the contribution of the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae to root water uptake showed that, compared to the non-mycorrhizal treatment, 4 % of water in the hyphal compartment was transferred to the root compartment through the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. This indicates that there is indeed transport of water by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. Although only a small amount of water transport from the hyphal compartment was detected, the much higher hyphal density found in the root compartment than in the hyphal compartment suggests that a larger amount of water uptake by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae may occur in the root compartment.

  15. The use of Powdered Activated Carbon in reducing the Doc in water treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikravesh, S. H.; Etemad-Shahidi, A.; Razeghi, N.

    2003-01-01

    Today as the technology improves and the application of energy and chemicals enhances, the organic pollutants increases in surface waters in which waste waters are discharged into. In order to reduce water-born diseases, necessary actions should be taken to decrease the pollutants. Common methods of surface water treatment are not sufficient anymore. Therefore complementary methods like using activated carbon, aeration, oxidation and reverse osmosis should be used. In this paper the use of powdered activated carbon, Total organic carbon test and jar test in reducing the concentration of organic carbons in water treatment is investigated. Initial experimental results showed large errors in total organic carbon evaluation so dissolved organic carbon was measured instead. The results showed that using the powdered activated carbon in addition to conventional treatment method using ferric chloride, greatly reduces organic pollutants. Adding about 60 mg/lit of powdered activated carbon may reduce dissolved organic carbon up to 90% in optimum conditions. However, different factors like the quality of surface water, experimental errors, instrumental errors and tool errors can influence the experimental results

  16. Removal of sulphates from waste waters by sulphate-reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available are present in almost all types of water, usually as a simple anion SO42-. The sulphates together with hydrogencarbonates and chlorides are principal anions in natural waters. In typical underground and surface waters, the concentration of sulphates is in the range from ten to hundreds milligrams per litre.Nowadays, the importance of the control of sulphate concentration in waste waters increases. According to the Slovak legislation the limit concentration of sulphates in surface and drinking waters is 250 mg.l-1 . In rivers the contents of sulphates increases mainly by the discharge of waste waters, which are coming mainly from chemical, textile, metallurgical, pharmaceutical, paper and mining industry. The concentration of sulphates in these waters is in the order of grams per litre.Many technologies for the sulphates removal from waste waters exist, including biologico-chemical processes. The principle of one of these methods is the reduction of sulphates by sulphate-reducing bacteria to hydrogen-sulphide.The objective of this work was to study the effect of initial sulphates concentration on the activity of anaerobic sulphate reducers as well as the kinetics of the anaerobic sulphate reduction. The batch reactor was used at temperature of 30°C and pH 7,5. Lactate was used as the carbon source.

  17. Methods and means for reducing pressure in systems for fire fighting and water spraying in mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlyuk, A I; Grin' , G V; Yushchenko, Yu N

    1986-01-01

    Valves are evaluated used in water systems for fire fighting and dust suppression in underground black coal mines in the USSR. Specifications of the KR-2, the KR-3 and the R-86 pressure-reducing valves used in deep mines are analyzed. The valves are characterized by low reliability, low capacity and low pressure reducing range. Therefore groups (parallel arrangement) of pressure-reducing valves are used. Using valve groups increases equipment cost. The pressure-reducing systems should consist of no more than 2 valves. The VNIIGD Institute developed the RKGD pressure-reducing valve with the following specifications: inlet pressure 6.87 MPa, outlet pressure from 0.98 to 2.45 MPa, water discharge 100 m/sup 3//h). The RKGD valves are characterized by high reliability but extremely high weight. Therefore, the VNIIGD Institute developed a modified version of pressure-reducing valve, called the PRK (with maximum inlet pressure of 5 MPa, outlet pressure ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 MPa, water discharge 80 m/sup 3//h and weighing 5 kg). Design of the PRK pressure-reducing valve is shown.

  18. Analisis Kuat Tekan Beton Dengan Bahan Tambah Reduced Water Dan Accelerated Admixture

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat, Rahmat; Hendriyani, Irna; Anwar, Moh. Syaiful

    2016-01-01

    Concrete consist of: cement mortar, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, water, and addictive materials. The main ingredient in manufacturing of concrete: rock material that called as aggregates. Aggregate has an important role on the quality of the concrete. Various types and trademarks for admixture of concrete that can be used as addictive of the concrete mix with specific purpose. The study aims to determine the effect of the added material of Reduced Water and Accelerated Admixture (Bestmit...

  19. Achieving reduced fouling of cooling water exchangers with stainless steel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, A.; Mir, N.

    2010-01-01

    Good performance of cooling water heat exchangers plays a vital role in the over all energy efficiency of a chemical plant. Heavy fouling on carbon steel tubes of the cooling water exchangers was causing poor performance and frequent cleaning requirement. The carbon steel tubes were replaced with stainless steel tubes. Improved performance was achieved and cleaning frequency reduced. The paper covers the details of study and methodology applied for the above changes along with summary of results. (author)

  20. Experimental and Numerical Study of Water Entry Supercavity Influenced by Turbulent Drag-Reducing Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Xing Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The configurational and dynamic characteristics of water entry supercavities influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives were studied through supercavitating projectile approach, experimentally and numerically. The projectile was projected vertically into water and aqueous solution of CTAC with weight concentrations of 100, 500, and 1000 ppm, respectively, using a pneumatic nail gun. The trajectories of the projectile and the supercavity configuration were recorded by a high-speed CCD camera. Besides, water entry supercavities in water and CTAC solution were numerically simulated based on unsteady RANS scheme, together with application of VOF multiphase model. The Cross viscosity model was adopted to represent the fluid property of CTAC solution. It was obtained that the numerical simulation results are in consistence with experimental data. Numerical and experimental results all show that the length and diameter of supercavity in drag-reducing solution are larger than those in water, and the drag coefficient is smaller than that in water; the maintaining time of supercavity is longer in solution as well. The surface tension plays an important role in maintaining the cavity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the potential in enhancement of supercavitation and drag reduction.

  1. Reduced irrigation increases the water use efficiency and productivity of winter wheat-summer maize rotation on the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqi; Zhang, Yinghua; Zhang, Rui; Li, Jinpeng; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shunli; Wang, Zhimin

    2018-03-15

    The groundwater table has fallen sharply over the last 30years on the North China Plain, resulting in a shortage of water for winter wheat irrigation. Reducing irrigation may be an important strategy to maintain agricultural sustainability in the region; however, few studies have evaluated the transition from conventional irrigation management practices to reduced irrigation management practices in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system. Here, we compare the yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency of winter wheat-summer maize rotation under conventional irrigation and reduced irrigation on the North China Plain from 2012 to 2015. Reducing irrigation decreased the yield but increased the water use efficiency and significantly advanced the harvest date of winter wheat. As a result, the summer maize sowing date advanced significantly, and the flowering date subsequently advanced 2-8days, thus extending the summer maize grain-filling stage. Therefore, the yield and water use efficiency of summer maize were higher under reduced irrigation than conventional irrigation, which compensated for the winter wheat yield loss under reduced irrigation. In addition, under reduced irrigation from 2012 to 2015, the yield and water use efficiency advantage of the winter wheat-summer maize rotation ranged from 0.0 to 9.7% and from 4.1 to 14.7%, respectively, and water consumption and irrigated water decreased by 20-61mm and 150mm, respectively, compared to conventional irrigation. Overall, the reduced irrigation management practice involving no irrigation after sowing winter wheat, and sowing summer maize on June 7 produced the most favorable grain yield with superb water use efficiency in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation. This study indicates that reducing irrigation could be an efficient means to cope with water resource shortages while maintaining crop production sustainability on the North China Plain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effects of reduced water quality on coral reefs in and out of no-take marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Amelia S; Williamson, David H; da Silva, Eduardo T; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Browne, Nicola K; Petus, Caroline; Devlin, Michelle J

    2016-02-01

    Near-shore marine environments are increasingly subjected to reduced water quality, and their ability to withstand it is critical to their persistence. The potential role marine reserves may play in mitigating the effects of reduced water quality has received little attention. We investigated the spatial and temporal variability in live coral and macro-algal cover and water quality during moderate and major flooding events of the Fitzroy River within the Keppel Bay region of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park from 2007 to 2013. We used 7 years of remote sensing data on water quality and data from long-term monitoring of coral reefs to quantify exposure of coral reefs to flood plumes. We used a distance linear model to partition the contribution of abiotic and biotic factors, including zoning, as drivers of the observed changes in coral and macro-algae cover. Moderate flood plumes from 2007 to 2009 did not affect coral cover on reefs in the Keppel Islands, suggesting the reef has intrinsic resistance against short-term exposure to reduced water quality. However, from 2009 to 2013, live coral cover declined by ∼ 50% following several weeks of exposure to turbid, low salinity water from major flood plume events in 2011 and subsequent moderate events in 2012 and 2013. Although the flooding events in 2012 and 2013 were smaller than the flooding events between 2007 to 2009, the ability of the reefs to withstand these moderate floods was lost, as evidenced by a ∼ 20% decline in coral cover between 2011 to 2013. Although zoning (no-take reserve or fished) was identified a significant driver of coral cover, we recorded consistently lower coral cover on reserve reefs than on fished reefs throughout the study period and significantly lower cover in 2011. Our findings suggest that even reefs with an inherent resistance to reduced water quality are not able to withstand repeated disturbance events. The limitations of reserves in mitigating the effects of reduced water

  3. Agricultural implications of reduced water supplies in the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, R. R.; Roach, F.; Gollehon, N. R.; Creel, B. J.

    1982-02-01

    The growth of the energy sector in the energy-rich but water-restricted Western US has presented a potential conflict with the irrigated agricultural sector. This study measures the direct impacts on farm income and employment resulting from the transfer of water from agriculture to energy in two specific geographical areas - the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins. We used a linear programming model to evaluate the impacts of reduced water supplies. Through the use of regional multipliers, we expanded our analysis to include regional impacts. Volume I provides the major analysis of these impacts. Volume II provides further technical data.

  4. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  5. Environmental response nanosilica for reducing the pressure of water injection in ultra-low permeability reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peisong; Niu, Liyong; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-12-01

    The super-hydrophobic silica nanoparticles are applied to alter the wettability of rock surface from water-wet to oil-wet. The aim of this is to reduce injection pressure so as to enhance water injection efficiency in low permeability reservoirs. Therefore, a new type of environmentally responsive nanosilica (denote as ERS) is modified with organic compound containing hydrophobic groups and "pinning" groups by covalent bond and then covered with a layer of hydrophilic organic compound by chemical adsorption to achieve excellent water dispersibility. Resultant ERS is homogeneously dispersed in water with a size of about 4-8 nm like a micro-emulsion system and can be easily injected into the macro or nano channels of ultra-low permeability reservoirs. The hydrophobic nanosilica core can be released from the aqueous delivery system owing to its strong dependence on the environmental variation from normal condition to injection wells (such as pH and salinity). Then the exposed silica nanoparticles form a thin layer on the surface of narrow pore throat, leading to the wettability from water-wet to oil-wet. More importantly, the two rock cores with different permeability were surface treated with ERS dispersion with a concentration of 2 g/L, exhibit great reduce of water injection pressure by 57.4 and 39.6%, respectively, which shows great potential for exploitation of crude oil from ultra-low permeability reservoirs during water flooding. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Subsurface watering resulted in reduced soil N2O and CO2 emissions and their global warming potentials than surface watering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong; Liao, Linxian; Jin, Guangqiu; Li, Yawei; Hameed, Fazli

    2018-01-01

    Water management is an important practice with significant effect on greenhouse gases (GHG) emission from soils. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their global warming potentials (GWPs) from subsurface watering soil (SUW) were investigated, with surface watering (SW) as a control. Results indicated that the N2O and CO2 emissions from SUW soils were somewhat different to those from SW soil, with the peak N2O and CO2 fluxes from SUW soil reduced by 28.9% and 19.4%, and appeared 72 h and 168 h later compared with SW. The fluxes of N2O and CO2 from SUW soils were lower than those from SW soil in both pulse and post-pulse periods, and the reduction was significantly (p0.1) lower that from SW soil. Moreover, N2O and CO2 fluxes from both watering treatments increased exponentially with increase of soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) and temperature. Our results suggest that watering soil from subsurface could significantly reduce the integrative greenhouse effect caused by N2O and CO2 and is a promising strategy for soil greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation. And the pulse period, contributed most to the reduction in emissions of N2O and CO2 from soils between SW and SUW, should be a key period for mitigating GHGs emissions. Response of N2O and CO2 emissions to soil WFPS and temperature illustrated that moisture was the dominant parameters that triggering GHG pulse emissions (especially for N2O), and temperature had a greater effect on the soil microorganism activity than moisture in drier soil. Avoiding moisture and temperature are appropriate for GHG emission at the same time is essential for GHGs mitigation, because peak N2O and CO2 emission were observed only when moisture and temperature are both appropriate.

  7. From meatless Mondays to meatless Sundays: motivations for meat reduction among vegetarians and semi-vegetarians who mildly or significantly reduce their meat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2014-01-01

    This study explores vegetarians' and semi-vegetarians' motives for reducing their meat intake. Participants are categorized as vegetarians (remove all meat from their diet); semi-vegetarians (significantly reduce meat intake: at least three days a week); or light semi-vegetarians (mildly reduce meat intake: once or twice a week). Most differences appear between vegetarians and both groups of semi-vegetarians. Animal-rights and ecological concerns, together with taste preferences, predict vegetarianism, while an increase in health motives increases the odds of being semi-vegetarian. Even within each group, subgroups with different motives appear, and it is recommended that future researchers pay more attention to these differences.

  8. Summary of the 3rd workshop on the reduced-moderation water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Nakatsuka, Tohru; Iwamura, Takamichi

    2000-06-01

    The research activities of a Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) are being performed for a development of the next generation water-cooled reactor. A workshop on the RMWR was held on March 3rd 2000 aiming to exchange information between JAERI and other organizations such as universities, laboratories, utilities and vendors. This report summarizes the contents of lectures and discussions on the workshop. The 1st workshop was held on March 1998 focusing on the review of the research activities and future research plan. The succeeding 2nd workshop was held on March 1999 focusing on the topics of the plutonium utilization in water-cooled reactors. The 3rd workshop was held on March 3rd 2000, which was attended by 77 participants. The workshop began with a lecture titled 'Recent Situation Related to Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR)', followed by 'Program on MOX Fuel Utilization in Light Water Reactors' which is the mainstream scenario of plutonium utilization by utilities, and 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Breeder Reactor Cycle System' mainly conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). Also, following lectures were given as the recent research activities in JAERI: 'Progress in Design Study on Reduced-Moderation Water Reactors', 'Long-Term Scenarios of Power Reactors and Fuel Cycle Development and the Role of Reduced Moderation Water Reactors', 'Experimental and Analytical Study on Thermal Hydraulics' and Reactor Physics Experiment Plan using TCA'. At the end of the workshop, a general discussion was performed about the research and development of the RMWR. This report includes the original papers presented at the workshop and summaries of the questions and answers for each lecture and general discussion, as well as presentation viewgraphs, program and participant list as appendixes. The 7 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. Summary of the 3rd workshop on the reduced-moderation water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Nakatsuka, Tohru; Iwamura, Takamichi [eds.

    2000-06-01

    The research activities of a Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) are being performed for a development of the next generation water-cooled reactor. A workshop on the RMWR was held on March 3rd 2000 aiming to exchange information between JAERI and other organizations such as universities, laboratories, utilities and vendors. This report summarizes the contents of lectures and discussions on the workshop. The 1st workshop was held on March 1998 focusing on the review of the research activities and future research plan. The succeeding 2nd workshop was held on March 1999 focusing on the topics of the plutonium utilization in water-cooled reactors. The 3rd workshop was held on March 3rd 2000, which was attended by 77 participants. The workshop began with a lecture titled 'Recent Situation Related to Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR)', followed by 'Program on MOX Fuel Utilization in Light Water Reactors' which is the mainstream scenario of plutonium utilization by utilities, and 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Breeder Reactor Cycle System' mainly conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). Also, following lectures were given as the recent research activities in JAERI: 'Progress in Design Study on Reduced-Moderation Water Reactors', 'Long-Term Scenarios of Power Reactors and Fuel Cycle Development and the Role of Reduced Moderation Water Reactors', 'Experimental and Analytical Study on Thermal Hydraulics' and Reactor Physics Experiment Plan using TCA'. At the end of the workshop, a general discussion was performed about the research and development of the RMWR. This report includes the original papers presented at the workshop and summaries of the questions and answers for each lecture and general discussion, as well as presentation viewgraphs, program and participant list as appendixes. The 7 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Significance of the application of oral rehydration solution to maintain water and electrolyte balance in infants with ileostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ileostomy represents a necessary procedure to solve various surgical diseases in children. As the result of increased fluid loss and colonic exclusion in its regulation, it is often followed, particularly during the first months after birth, by chronic dehydration and failure to thrive. Objective. The aim of the paper was to present our experience related to the application of oral rehydration solution (ORS to compensate the intestinal loss of water and electrolytes in infants with ileostomy. Methods. Treatment was performed with ORS containing 65 mmol/L of sodium in five infants aged 1.5-8 months (3.8±2.46 months with dehydration and undernutrition after ileostomy performed in the first five days after birth. Results. After rehydration, the continual application of ORS in the daily dosage of 63.90±25.03 ml/kg, i.e. approximately matching the volume of intestinal content elimination (57.00±19.23 ml/kg, resulted in all infants in optimal water and electrolyte homeostasis, and in further course also in the improvement of their nutritional status (p=0.023. Conclusion. Our experience indicates that continual application of reduced sodium content of ORS in the approximate equal quantity of intestinal content loss represents the method of choice in water and electrolyte homeostasis maintenance in infants with ileostomy.

  11. Sediment filtration can reduce the N load of the waste water discharge - a full-scale lake experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Sanni L.; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Karvinen, Anu; Rissanen, Antti J.; Ropponen, Janne; Juntunen, Janne; Tiirola, Marja

    2016-04-01

    European commission has obliged Baltic states to reduce nitrate load, which requires high investments on the nitrate removal processes and may increase emissions of greenhouse gases, e.g. N2O, in the waste water treatment plants. We used ecosystem-scale experimental approach to test a novel sediment filtration method for economical waste water N removal in Lake Keurusselkä, Finland between 2014 and 2015. By spatially optimizing the waste water discharge, the contact area and time of nitrified waste water with the reducing microbes of the sediment was increased. This was expected to enhance microbial-driven N transformation and to alter microbial community composition. We utilized 15N isotope pairing technique to follow changes in the actual and potential denitrification rates, nitrous oxide formation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in the lake sediments receiving nitrate-rich waste water input and in the control site. In addition, we investigated the connections between observed process rates and microbial community composition and functioning by using next generation sequencing and quantitative PCR. Furthermore, we estimated the effect of sediment filtration method on waste water contact time with sediment using the 3D hydrodynamic model. We sampled one year before the full-scale experiment and observed strong seasonal patterns in the process rates, which reflects the seasonal variation in the temperature-related mixing patterns of the waste water within the lake. During the experiment, we found that spatial optimization enhanced both actual and potential denitrification rates of the sediment. Furthermore, it did not significantly promote N2O emissions, or N retention through DNRA. Overall, our results indicate that sediment filtration can be utilized as a supplemental or even alternative method for the waste water N removal.

  12. Azimuth cut-off model for significant wave height investigation along coastal water of Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghany, Maged; Ibrahim, Zelina; Van Genderen, Johan

    2002-11-01

    The present work is used to operationalize the azimuth cut-off concept in the study of significant wave height. Three ERS-1 images have been used along the coastal waters of Terengganu, Malaysia. The quasi-linear transform was applied to map the SAR wave spectra into real ocean wave spectra. The azimuth cut-off was then used to model the significant wave height. The results show that azimuth cut-off varied with the different period of the ERS-1 images. This is because of the fact that the azimuth cut-off is a function of wind speed and significant wave height. It is of interest to find that the significant wave height modeled from azimuth cut-off is in good relation with ground wave conditions. It can be concluded that ERS-1 can be used as a monitoring tool in detecting the significant wave height variation. The azimuth cut-off can be used to model the significant wave height. This means that the quasi-linear transform could be a good application to significant wave height variation during different seasons.

  13. Modelling mitigation options to reduce diffuse nitrogen water pollution from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouraoui, Fayçal; Grizzetti, Bruna

    2014-01-15

    Agriculture is responsible for large scale water quality degradation and is estimated to contribute around 55% of the nitrogen entering the European Seas. The key policy instrument for protecting inland, transitional and coastal water resources is the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is crucial to the successful implementation of the WFD. There are several mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural areas to surface and ground waters. For the selection of appropriate measures, models are useful for quantifying the expected impacts and the associated costs. In this article we review some of the models used in Europe to assess the effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation measures, ranging from fertilizer management to the construction of riparian areas and wetlands. We highlight how the complexity of models is correlated with the type of scenarios that can be tested, with conceptual models mostly used to evaluate the impact of reduced fertilizer application, and the physically-based models used to evaluate the timing and location of mitigation options and the response times. We underline the importance of considering the lag time between the implementation of measures and effects on water quality. Models can be effective tools for targeting mitigation measures (identifying critical areas and timing), for evaluating their cost effectiveness, for taking into consideration pollution swapping and considering potential trade-offs in contrasting environmental objectives. Models are also useful for involving stakeholders during the development of catchments mitigation plans, increasing their acceptability. © 2013.

  14. Effect of water hyacinth on distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laub, on the distribution of populations of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sediments from various stations on the shores of Lake Victoria around Mwanza Municipality, Tanzania, was studied. Lactate-utilising SRB were observed to be the dominant ...

  15. Using microbial desalination cells to reduce water salinity prior to reverse osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Mehanna, Maha; Saito, Tomonori; Yan, Jingling; Hickner, Michael; Cao, Xiaoxin; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    type of air-cathode MDC containing three equally sized chambers. A single cycle of operation using a 1 g L -1 acetate solution reduced the conductivity of salt water (5 g L-1 NaCl) by 43 ± 6%, and produced a maximum power density of 480 mW m-2 with a

  16. The Use of Water-filled Bags to Reduce the Effects of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    of Water-filled Bags to Reduce the Effects of Explosives. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Heery inc (and designed at Edinburgh University by Matthew Rea) is already in operation not far from here in the Disneyland ’Typhoon Lagoon’ at Orlando

  17. Mechanisms and Effectivity of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors Using a Chitinous Substrate in Treating Mining Influenced Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining-influenced water (MIW) is the main environmental challenge associated with the mining industry. Passive MIW remediation can be achieved through microbial activity in sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs), but their actual removal rates depend on different factors, one of wh...

  18. Estabilishing requirements for the next generation of pressurized water reactors--reducing the uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernock, W.P.; Corcoran, W.R.; Rasin, W.H.; Stahlkopf, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute is managing a major effort to establish requirements for the next generation of U.S. light water reactors. This effort is the vital first step in preserving the viability of the nuclear option to contribute to meet U.S. national electric power capacity needs in the next century. Combustion Engineering, Inc. and Duke Power Company formed a team to participate in the EPRI program which is guided by a Utility Steering committee consisting of experienced utility technical executives. A major thrust of the program is to reduce the uncertainties which would be faced by the utility executives in choosing the nuclear option. The uncertainties to be reduced include those related to safety, economic, operational, and regulatory aspects of advanced light water reactors. This paper overviews the Requirements Document program as it relates to the U.S. Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) effort in reducing these uncertainties and reports the status of efforts to establish requirements for the next generation of pressurized water reactors. It concentrates on progress made in reducing the uncertainties which would deter selection of the nuclear option for contributing to U.S. national electric power capacity needs in the next century and updates previous reports in the same area. (author)

  19. Physiological response of Pseudomonas putida S12 subjected to reduced water activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.; Bont, de J.A.M.; Heipieper, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of osmotic stress, given as decreased water activity (aw), on growth and the accumulation of potassium and the compatible solute betaine by Pseudomonas putida S12 was investigated. Reduced aw was imposed by addition of sodium chloride, sucrose, glycerol or polyethylene glycol to the

  20. Competition-Induced Reductions in Soil Water Availability Reduced Pine Root Extension Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.H. Ludovici; L.A. Morris

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between soil water availability, root extension, and shoot growth of loblolly pine seedlings (Pinus taeda L.) was evaluated in a rhizotron sand mixture in the absence and presence of crabgrass (Digitaria spp.) competition. Heights and diameters of seedlings grown with crabgrass were reduced 33 and SO%, respectively, compared with...

  1. Water Chemistry Control in Reducing Corrosion and Radiation Exposure at PWR Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Febrianto

    2006-01-01

    Water chemistry control plays an important role in relation to plant availability, reliability and occupational radiation exposures. Radiation exposures of nuclear plant workers are determined by the radiation rate dose and by the amount maintenance and repair work time Water chemistry has always been, from beginning of operation of power Pressurized Water Reactor, an important factor in determining the integrity of reactor components, fuel cladding integrity and minimize out of core radiation exposures. For primary system, the parameters to control the quality of water chemistry have been subject to change in time. Reactor water coolant pH need to be optimally controlled and be operated in range pH 6.9 to 7.4. At pH lower than 6.9, cause increasing the radiation exposure level and increasing coolant water pH higher than 7.4 will decrease radiation exposure level but increasing risk to fuel cladding and steam generator tube. Since beginning 90 decade, PWR water coolant pH tend to be operated at pH 7.4. This paper will discuss concerning water chemistry development in reducing corrosion and radiation exposure dose in PWR reactor. (author)

  2. Reduced nighttime transpiration is a relevant breeding target for high water-use efficiency in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Lebon, Eric; Christophe, Angélique; Gallo, Agustina; Gago, Pilar; Pantin, Florent; Doligez, Agnès; Simonneau, Thierry

    2016-08-09

    Increasing water scarcity challenges crop sustainability in many regions. As a consequence, the enhancement of transpiration efficiency (TE)-that is, the biomass produced per unit of water transpired-has become crucial in breeding programs. This could be achieved by reducing plant transpiration through a better closure of the stomatal pores at the leaf surface. However, this strategy generally also lowers growth, as stomatal opening is necessary for the capture of atmospheric CO2 that feeds daytime photosynthesis. Here, we considered the reduction in transpiration rate at night (En) as a possible strategy to limit water use without altering growth. For this purpose, we carried out a genetic analysis for En and TE in grapevine, a major crop in drought-prone areas. Using recently developed phenotyping facilities, potted plants of a cross between Syrah and Grenache cultivars were screened for 2 y under well-watered and moderate soil water deficit scenarios. High genetic variability was found for En under both scenarios and was primarily associated with residual diffusion through the stomata. Five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected that underlay genetic variability in En Interestingly, four of them colocalized with QTLs for TE. Moreover, genotypes with favorable alleles on these common QTLs exhibited reduced En without altered growth. These results demonstrate the interest of breeding grapevine for lower water loss at night and pave the way to breeding other crops with this underexploited trait for higher TE.

  3. In Situ Analysis of the Li-O2 Battery with Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Cathode: Influence of Water Addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Christensen, Mathias Kjærgård; Younesi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The Li-O2 battery technology holds the promise to deliver a battery with significantly increased specific energy compared to today's Li-ion batteries. As a cathode support material, reduced graphene oxide has received increasing attention in the Li-O2 battery community due to the possibility...... of increased discharge capacity, increased battery cyclability, and decreased, charging, overpotential. In this. article we investigate the effect of water on a thermally, redircedigraphene, oxide cathode in a Li-O2 battery. Differential electrochemical mass spectrciscnieveals a, decreased electron count......-of-the cathode and not only on addition of water to the electrolyte as demonstrated by the solution-based mechanism In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiment using a new design of a capillary-based Li-O2 cell with a thermally reduced graphene oxide cathode shows formation of LiOH along with Li2O2....

  4. The role of wastewater treatment in reducing pollution of surface waters with zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromadzka, Karolina; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Świetlik, Joanna; Bocianowski, Jan; Goliński, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species in food and feed. The toxicity of ZEA and its metabolites is related to the chemical structure of the mycotoxin, which is similar to naturally occurring oestrogens. Currently, there is increasing awareness of the presence of fungi and their toxic metabolites in the aquatic environment. One of the sources of these compounds are the effluents from wastewater treatment plants. The average annual efficiency of zearalenone reduction in the Łęczyca plant in our three-year study was in the range from 51.35 to 69.70 %. The threeway analysis of variance (year, month, and kind of wastewater) shows that the main effects of all factors and all interactions between them were significant for zearalenone and dissolved organic carbon content. Our findings suggest that wastewater is not the main source of surface water pollution with zearalenone. Future research should investigate the means to reduce ZEA and its migration from the fields through prevention strategies such as breeding for crops, plant debris management (crop rotation, tillage), and/or chemical and biological control.

  5. Summary of the 4th workshop on the reduced-moderation water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, Toru; Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Iwamura, Takamichi (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The research on Reduced-Moderation Water Reactors (RMWRs) has been performed in JAERI for the development of future innovative reactors. The workshop on the RMWRs has been held every year since fiscal 1997 aimed at information exchange between JAERI and other organizations such as universities, laboratories, utilities and vendors. The 4th workshop was held on March 2, 2001 under the joint auspices of JAERI and North Kanto branch of Atomic Energy Society of Japan. The workshop began with three lectures on recent research activities in JAERI entitled 'Recent Situation of Research on Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor', 'Analysis on Electricity Generation Costs of Reduced Moderation Water Reactors' and 'Reprocessing Technology for Spent Mixed-Oxides Fuel from LWR'. Then five lectures followed: 'Micro Reactor Physics of MOX Fueled LWR' which shows the recent results of reactor physics, Fast Reactor Cooled by Supercritical Light Water' which is another type of reduced-moderation reactor, 'Phase 1 of Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Breeder Reactor Cycle System' mainly conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), 'Integral Type Small PWR with Stand-alone Safety' which is intended to suit for the future consumers' needs, and Utilization of Plutonium in Reduced-Moderation Water Reactors' which dictates benefits of plutonium utilization with RMWRs. This report includes the original papers presented at the workshop and summaries of the questions and answers for each lecture, as well as presentation handouts, program and participant list as appendixes. The 8 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. Summary of the 4th workshop on the reduced-moderation water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Toru; Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Iwamura, Takamichi

    2001-09-01

    The research on Reduced-Moderation Water Reactors (RMWRs) has been performed in JAERI for the development of future innovative reactors. The workshop on the RMWRs has been held every year since fiscal 1997 aimed at information exchange between JAERI and other organizations such as universities, laboratories, utilities and vendors. The 4th workshop was held on March 2, 2001 under the joint auspices of JAERI and North Kanto branch of Atomic Energy Society of Japan. The workshop began with three lectures on recent research activities in JAERI entitled 'Recent Situation of Research on Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor', 'Analysis on Electricity Generation Costs of Reduced Moderation Water Reactors' and 'Reprocessing Technology for Spent Mixed-Oxides Fuel from LWR'. Then five lectures followed: 'Micro Reactor Physics of MOX Fueled LWR' which shows the recent results of reactor physics, Fast Reactor Cooled by Supercritical Light Water' which is another type of reduced-moderation reactor, 'Phase 1 of Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Breeder Reactor Cycle System' mainly conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), 'Integral Type Small PWR with Stand-alone Safety' which is intended to suit for the future consumers' needs, and Utilization of Plutonium in Reduced-Moderation Water Reactors' which dictates benefits of plutonium utilization with RMWRs. This report includes the original papers presented at the workshop and summaries of the questions and answers for each lecture, as well as presentation handouts, program and participant list as appendixes. The 8 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. Significance of excipients to enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs in oral solid dosage forms: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamudi, Manoj Kumar; Dhanaraj, Sangeetha

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays most of the drug substances are coming into the innovation pipeline with poor water solubility. Here, the influence of excipients will play a significant role to improve the dissolution of poorly aqueous soluble compounds. The drug substance needs to be dissolved in gastric fluids to get the better absorption and bioavailability of an orally administered drug. Dissolution is the rate-controlling stage for drugs which controls the rate and degree of absorption. Usually, poorly soluble oral administrated drugs show a slower dissolution rate, inconsistent and incomplete absorption which can lead to lower bioavailability. The low aqueous solubility of BCS class II and IV drugs is a major challenge in the drug development and delivery process. Several technologies have been used in an attempt to progress the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drug compounds which include solid dispersions, lipid-based formulations, micronization, solvent evaporation, co-precipitation, ordered mixing, liquid-solid compacts, solvent deposition inclusion complexation, and steam aided granulation. In fact, most of the technologies require excipient as a carrier which plays a significant role in improving the bioavailability using Hypromellose acetate succinate, Cyclodextrin, Povidone, Copovidone, Hydroxypropyl cellulose, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, Crospovidone, Starch, Dimethylacetamide, Polyethylene glycol, Sodium lauryl sulfate, Polysorbate, Poloxamer. Mesoporous silica and so on. This review deliberates about the excipients significance on bioavailability enhancement of drug products in a single platform along with pragmatically proved applications so that user can able to select the right excipients as per the molecule.

  8. Optimizing withdrawal from drinking water reservoirs to reduce downstream temperature pollution and reservoir hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M; Rinke, K; Hipsey, M R; Boehrer, B

    2017-07-15

    Sustainable management of drinking water reservoirs requires balancing the demands of water supply whilst minimizing environmental impact. This study numerically simulates the effect of an improved withdrawal scheme designed to alleviate the temperature pollution downstream of a reservoir. The aim was to identify an optimal withdrawal strategy such that water of a desirable discharge temperature can be supplied downstream without leading to unacceptably low oxygen concentrations within the reservoir. First, we calibrated a one-dimensional numerical model for hydrodynamics and oxygen dynamics (GLM-AED2), verifying that the model reproduced water temperatures and hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen concentrations accurately over a 5 year period. Second, the model was extended to include an adaptive withdrawal functionality, allowing for a prescribed withdrawal temperature to be found, with the potential constraint of hypolimnetic oxygen concentration. Scenario simulations on epi-/metalimnetic withdrawal demonstrate that the model is able to autonomously determine the best withdrawal height depending on the thermal structure and the hypolimnetic oxygen concentration thereby optimizing the ability to supply a desirable discharge temperature to the downstream river during summer. This new withdrawal strategy also increased the hypolimnetic raw water volume to be used for drinking water supply, but reduced the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the deep and cold water layers (hypolimnion). Implications of the results for reservoir management are discussed and the numerical model is provided for operators as a simple and efficient tool for optimizing the withdrawal strategy within different reservoir contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A New System for Households in Spain to Evaluate and Reduce Their Water Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gutierrez-Escolar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe a developed model and its corresponding application, known as System to Evaluate the Water Consumption at Home (SEWAT. The aim is to create a new model to evaluate the efficiency of water consumption. Thanks to the input of the water bills by users, the model allows them to check if water consumption is efficient, in order to give them an opportunity to evaluate their water usage. To succeed in it, several researches were tracked in order to establish consumer trends and to identify the most efficient value for this magnitude. Furthermore, a survey was conducted to obtain updated values to validate information from previous studies. However, the main aim of this model is to use the resources efficiently, so it has to be useful accordingly. Therefore, after the evaluation, the application has a section with recommendations for the users to reduce their water consumption through a range of different indications. This section is divided into four: bathroom, kitchen, new appliance and reusing water. Each section shows the expected benefits if the users follow the recommended options. The main result is a unique application in Spain, which includes a system of evaluation, comparison and a section of recommendations for the users. Eventually, the model will have a promising outcome, because it surely will change the awareness of citizens about this subject.

  10. On the detection and monitoring of reduced water content in plants using spectral responses in the visible domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Van Leeuwen, Spencer; Chen, Tenn F.

    2016-05-01

    The water status of cultivated plants can have a significant impact not only on food production, but also on the appropriate usage of increasingly scarce freshwater supplies. Accordingly, the cost-effective detection and monitoring of changes in their water content are longstanding remote sensing goals. Existing procedures employed to achieve these goals are largely based on the spectral responses of plant leaves in the infrared domain where the light absorption within the foliar tissues is dominated by water. Recently, it has been suggested that such procedures could be implemented using spectral responses, more specifically spectral subsurface reflectance to transmittance ratios, obtained in the visible domain. The basis for this proposition resides on the premise that a reduced water content (RWC) can result in histological changes whose effects on the foliar optical properties may not be limited to the infrared domain. However, the experiments leading to this proposition were performed on detached leaves, which were not influenced by the whole plant's adaptation mechanisms to water stress. In this work, we investigate whether the spectral responses of living plant leaves in the visible domain can lead to reliable RWC estimations. We employ measured biophysical data and predictive light transport simulations in order to extend qualitatively and quantitatively the scope of previous studies in this area. Our findings indicate that the living specimens' physiological responses to water stress should be taken into account in the design of new procedures for the cost-effective RWC estimation using visible subsurface reflectance to transmittance ratios.

  11. Is the fresh water fish consumption a significant determinant of the internal exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Sébastien; Fraize-Frontier, Sandrine; Moussa, Oumar; Le Bizec, Bruno; Veyrand, Bruno; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2014-12-01

    PFAS are man-made compounds that are highly spread in the environment. Human dietary exposure to such contaminants is of high concern as they may accumulate in the food chain. Different studies already demonstrated the importance of the fish consumption in the dietary exposure of these molecules and the potential increase of internal doses of PFAS following the consumption of PFAS. However, so far few study aimed to study the link between the consumption of fresh water fishes and the internal exposure to PFAS. Objectives of this study were (i) to estimate the internal exposure of populations that are potentially high consumers of fresh water fishes and (ii) to determine whether the consumption of fish caught from fresh water is a significant determinant of the internal exposure of PFAS. In this work, a large sample of adult freshwater anglers from the French metropolitan population (478 individuals) was constituted randomly from participants lists of anglers associations. Questionnaires provided social and demographic information and diet information for each subject. In addition, analyses of blood serum samples provided the internal concentration of 14 PFAS. The survey design allowed to extrapolate the data obtained on the 478 individuals to the freshwater angler population. Descriptive data regarding internal levels of PFAS were discussed at the population level, whereas identification of the determinants were done at the 478 individuals level as sufficient contrast was required in terms of fresh water fish consumption. Only molecules for which the detection frequency were above 80% in blood were considered, i.e., PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFHpS, and PFDA. Distribution profiles showed log-normal distribution and PFOS and PFOA were the main contributors of the PFAS sum. For PFOS, the results obtained on the 478 individuals showed that upper percentiles were higher as compared to upper percentiles obtained on occidental general population. This confirmed an over

  12. Effect of Gum Arabic Karroo as a water-reducing admixture in cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Mbugua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop Gum Acacia Karroo (GAK as set retarding-water reducing admixture in cement mortars. Retarding admixtures are used to counter effect the accelerated hydration of cement at elevated temperatures by slowing down the retarding process especially during the day when concreting work is done. However most retarding admixtures available in the market are expensive, thereby making them out of reach for small consumers of concrete in Africa are expensive and not readily available. GAK, which contains soluble sugars, was investigated as a set-retarding water reducing-admixture. Setting time was measured in cement pastes with different dosages of GAK and a commercial retarding agent (Tard CE. Compressive strength, bleeding and flow test were investigated on cement mortars with the control being cement mortar without admixture. GAK was found to increase final setting time by 6 h above control. Compressive strength increased when water cement ratio was reduced from 0.5 to 0.4. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed increased dosage of GAK reduced hydration rate.

  13. Using microbial desalination cells to reduce water salinity prior to reverse osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Mehanna, Maha

    2010-01-01

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new method to reduce the salinity of one solution while generating electrical power from organic matter and bacteria in another (anode) solution. Substantial reductions in the salinity can require much larger volumes of the anode solution than the saline water, but any reduction of salinity will benefit the energy efficiency of a downstream reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system. We investigated here the use of an MDC as an RO pre-treatment method using a new type of air-cathode MDC containing three equally sized chambers. A single cycle of operation using a 1 g L -1 acetate solution reduced the conductivity of salt water (5 g L-1 NaCl) by 43 ± 6%, and produced a maximum power density of 480 mW m-2 with a coulombic efficiency of 68 ± 11%. A higher concentration of acetate (2 g L-1) reduced solution conductivity by 60 ± 7%, and a higher salt concentration (20 g L-1 NaCl) reduced solution conductivity by 50 ± 7%. The use of membranes with increased ion exchange capacities further decreased the solution conductivity by 63 ± 2% (20 g L-1 NaCl). These results demonstrate substantial (43-67%) desalination of water is possible using equal volumes of anode solution and salt water. These results show that MDC treatment could be used to substantially reduce salt concentrations and thus energy demands for downstream RO processing, while at the same time producing electrical power. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Advanced concept of reduced-moderation water reactor (RMWR) for plutonium multiple recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, T.; Iwamura, T.; Takeda, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Okada, H.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced water-cooled reactor concept named the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has been proposed to attain a high conversion ratio more than 1.0 and to achieve the negative void reactivity coefficient. At present, several types of design concepts satisfying both the design targets have been proposed based on the evaluation for the fuel without fission products and minor actinides. In this paper, the feasibility of the RMWR core is investigated for the plutonium multiple recycling under advanced reprocessing schemes with low decontamination factors as proposed for the FBR fuel cycle. (author)

  15. Evaluating the Performance of a Surface Barrier on Reducing Soil-Water Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2012-08-31

    One of the most common effective techniques for contaminant remediation in the vadose zone is to use a surface barrier to reduce or eliminate soil-water flow to reduce the contaminant flux to the underlying groundwater. Confirming the reduction of the soil-water flux rate is challenging because of the difficulty of determining the very low soil-water flux beneath the barrier. We propose a hydraulic-conductivity factor, fK, as a conservative indicator for quantifying the reduction of soil-water flow. The factor can be calculated using the measured soil-water content or pressure but does not require the knowledge of the saturated hydraulic conductivity or the hydraulic gradient. The formulas were tested by comparing with changes in hydraulic conductivity, K, from a drainage experiment. The pressure-based formula was further applied to evaluate the performance of the interim surface barrier at T Tank Farm on Hanford Site. Three years after barrier emplacement, the hydraulic conductivity decreased by a factor between 3.8 and 13.0 at the 1-, 2- and 5-m depths. The difference between the conductivity-reduction factor and the flux-rate-reduction factor, fq, was quantified with a numerical simulation. With the calculated fK, the numerically determined fK/fq ratio, and the assumed pre-barrier soil-water flux rate of 100 mm yr-1, the estimated soil-water flux rate 3 years after barrier emplacement was no more than 8.5 mm yr-1 at or above the 5-m depth.

  16. Strategies to Reduce Water Footprint in Palm Oil Production: A Case of PTP Mitra Ogan, Baturaja, South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Kospa Herda Sabriyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The massive expansion of palm oil industry in Indonesia has triggered environmental issues including water-related problems which have become an important concern. Regarding the issues, sustainable practice standard has been set up as a requirement for palm oil to enter global market. Inevitably, water consumption in this sector is very crucial to be analyzed. One of the methods that can be used as a tool for sustainable appropriation of fresh water resources is water footprint analysis. The primary aim of this study was to formulate the strategies to reduce the water footprint in the palm oil production based on the best practice criteria. Both quantitative and qualitative research was conducted to get the value blue water (volume of surface or groundwater evaporated and grey water (dilution volume to dilute pollutants according to agreed water quality standards. The values of water footprint in palm oil production obtained were used to represent the existing water use and were utilized as the basis for formulating strategies in reducing water use in the palm oil milling processes which was compared with the best practice criteria. The result showed that the blue water of CPO was 109.6 m3/ton and the grey water was 537.7 m3/ton, while the blue water of palm kernel was 62,4 m3/ton and grey water was 306,2 m3/ton. The value indicated that there was an inefficient use of water in the production of palm oil. The use of steam accumulator has been proposed to reduce the use of blue water by optimizing the steam supply. Besides, the reuse of water from fat-pit pond for pressing purposes, or recovery of condensate water as dilution water in the press unit which will affect the amount of wastewater discharged can be done as the strategies in reducing both blue and grey water, as well as reuse of cooling water turbines.

  17. Electrochemically reduced water exerts superior reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in HT1080 cells than the equivalent level of hydrogen-dissolved water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeki Hamasaki

    Full Text Available Electrochemically reduced water (ERW is produced near a cathode during electrolysis and exhibits an alkaline pH, contains richly dissolved hydrogen, and contains a small amount of platinum nanoparticles. ERW has reactive oxygen species (ROS-scavenging activity and recent studies demonstrated that hydrogen-dissolved water exhibits ROS-scavenging activity. Thus, the antioxidative capacity of ERW is postulated to be dependent on the presence of hydrogen levels; however, there is no report verifying the role of dissolved hydrogen in ERW. In this report, we clarify whether the responsive factor for antioxidative activity in ERW is dissolved hydrogen. The intracellular ROS scavenging activity of ERW and hydrogen-dissolved water was tested by both fluorescent stain method and immuno spin trapping assay. We confirm that ERW possessed electrolysis intensity-dependent intracellular ROS-scavenging activity, and ERW exerts significantly superior ROS-scavenging activity in HT1080 cells than the equivalent level of hydrogen-dissolved water. ERW retained its ROS-scavenging activity after removal of dissolved hydrogen, but lost its activity when autoclaved. An oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and chemiluminescence assay could not detect radical-scavenging activity in both ERW and hydrogen-dissolved water. These results indicate that ERW contains electrolysis-dependent hydrogen and an additional antioxidative factor predicted to be platinum nanoparticles.

  18. The relative cost of bent-hip bent-knee walking is reduced in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliukas, Algis V; Milne, Nick; Fournier, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The debate about how early hominids walked may be characterised as two competing hypotheses: They moved with a fully upright (FU) gait, like modern humans, or with a bent-hip, bent-knee (BK) gait, like apes. Both have assumed that this bipedalism was almost exclusively on land, in trees or a combination of the two. Recent findings favoured the FU hypothesis by showing that the BK gait is 50-60% more energetically costly than a FU human gait on land. We confirm these findings but show that in water this cost differential is markedly reduced, especially in deeper water, at slower speeds and with greater knee flexion. These data suggest that the controversy about australopithecine locomotion may be eased if it is assumed that wading was a component of their locomotor repertoire and supports the idea that shallow water might have been an environment favourable to the evolution of early forms of "non-optimal" hominid bipedalism.

  19. Control Strategies to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Central Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Ansanelli, Eric [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Henderson, Hugh [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Varshney, Kapil [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions

    2016-06-23

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  20. Control Strategies to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Central Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric; Henderson, Hugh; Varshney, Kapil

    2016-06-03

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  1. Calcification of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa, under ambient and reduced pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Gattuso

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa is one of the few species able to build reef-like structures and a 3-dimensional coral framework in the deep oceans. Furthermore, deep cold-water coral bioherms may be among the first marine ecosystems to be affected by ocean acidification. Colonies of L. pertusa were collected during a cruise in 2006 to cold-water coral bioherms of the Mingulay reef complex (Hebrides, North Atlantic. Shortly after sample collection onboard these corals were labelled with calcium-45. The same experimental approach was used to assess calcification rates and how those changed due to reduced pH during a cruise to the Skagerrak (North Sea in 2007. The highest calcification rates were found in youngest polyps with up to 1% d−1 new skeletal growth and average rates of 0.11±0.02% d−1±S.E.. Lowering pH by 0.15 and 0.3 units relative to the ambient level resulted in calcification being reduced by 30 and 56%. Lower pH reduced calcification more in fast growing, young polyps (59% reduction than in older polyps (40% reduction. Thus skeletal growth of young and fast calcifying corallites suffered more from ocean acidification. Nevertheless, L. pertusa exhibited positive net calcification (as measured by 45Ca incorporation even at an aragonite saturation state (Ωa below 1.

  2. Exchanges across land-water-scape boundaries in urban systems: strategies for reducing nitrate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenasso, M L; Pickett, S T A; Groffman, P M; Band, L E; Brush, G S; Galvin, M F; Grove, J M; Hagar, G; Marshall, V; McGrath, B P; O'Neil-Dunne, J P M; Stack, W P; Troy, A R

    2008-01-01

    Conservation in urban areas typically focuses on biodiversity and large green spaces. However, opportunities exist throughout urban areas to enhance ecological functions. An important function of urban landscapes is retaining nitrogen thereby reducing nitrate pollution to streams and coastal waters. Control of nonpoint nitrate pollution in urban areas was originally based on the documented importance of riparian zones in agricultural and forested ecosystems. The watershed and boundary frameworks have been used to guide stream research and a riparian conservation strategy to reduce nitrate pollution in urban streams. But is stream restoration and riparian-zone conservation enough? Data from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study and other urban stream research indicate that urban riparian zones do not necessarily prevent nitrate from entering, nor remove nitrate from, streams. Based on this insight, policy makers in Baltimore extended the conservation strategy throughout larger watersheds, attempting to restore functions that no longer took place in riparian boundaries. Two urban revitalization projects are presented as examples aimed at reducing nitrate pollution to stormwater, streams, and the Chesapeake Bay. An adaptive cycle of ecological urban design synthesizes the insights from the watershed and boundary frameworks, from new data, and from the conservation concerns of agencies and local communities. This urban example of conservation based on ameliorating nitrate water pollution extends the initial watershed-boundary approach along three dimensions: 1) from riparian to urban land-water-scapes; 2) from discrete engineering solutions to ecological design approaches; and 3) from structural solutions to inclusion of individual, household, and institutional behavior.

  3. Status of research and development on reduced-moderation water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi

    2002-01-01

    To improve uranium utilization, a design study of the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has been carried out intensively since 1998 at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). In this reactor, the nuclear fission reaction is designed to be realized mainly by high energy neutrons. To achieve this, the volume of water used to cool the fuel rods is decreased by reducing the gap width between the fuel rods. Conversion ratio greater than 1.0 is expected whether the core i-s cooled by boiling water or pressurized water and whether the core size is small or large. Status of the RMWR design is reviewed and planning of R and D for future deployment of this reactor after 20-20 is presented. To improve economics of this reactor, development of fuel cans for high burnup and low-cost reprocessing technology of mixed oxide spect fuels are highly needed. R and D has been conducted under the cooperation with utilities, industry, research organization and academia. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Status of research and development on reduced-moderation water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamura, Takamichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    To improve uranium utilization, a design study of the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has been carried out intensively since 1998 at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). In this reactor, the nuclear fission reaction is designed to be realized mainly by high energy neutrons. To achieve this, the volume of water used to cool the fuel rods is decreased by reducing the gap width between the fuel rods. Conversion ratio greater than 1.0 is expected whether the core i-s cooled by boiling water or pressurized water and whether the core size is small or large. Status of the RMWR design is reviewed and planning of R and D for future deployment of this reactor after 20-20 is presented. To improve economics of this reactor, development of fuel cans for high burnup and low-cost reprocessing technology of mixed oxide spect fuels are highly needed. R and D has been conducted under the cooperation with utilities, industry, research organization and academia. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Habituation of Salmonella spp. at Reduced Water Activity and Its Effect on Heat Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, K. L.; Jørgensen, F.; Legan, J. D.; Lappin-Scott, H. M.; Humphrey, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of habituation at reduced water activity (aw) on heat tolerance of Salmonella spp. was investigated. Stationary-phase cells were exposed to aw 0.95 in broths containing glucose-fructose, sodium chloride, or glycerol at 21°C for up to a week prior to heat challenge at 54°C. In addition, the effects of different aws and heat challenge temperatures were investigated. Habituation at aw 0.95 resulted in increased heat tolerance at 54°C with all solutes tested. The extent of the increase and the optimal habituation time depended on the solute used. Exposure to broths containing glucose-fructose (aw 0.95) for 12 h resulted in maximal heat tolerance, with more than a fourfold increase in D54 values. Cells held for more than 72 h in these conditions, however, became as heat sensitive as nonhabituated populations. Habituation in the presence of sodium chloride or glycerol gave rise to less pronounced but still significant increases in heat tolerance at 54°C, and a shorter incubation time was required to maximize tolerance. The increase in heat tolerance following habituation in broths containing glucose-fructose (aw 0.95) was RpoS independent. The presence of chloramphenicol or rifampin during habituation and inactivation did not affect the extent of heat tolerance achieved, suggesting that de novo protein synthesis was probably not necessary. These data highlight the importance of cell prehistory prior to heat inactivation and may have implications for food manufacturers using low-aw ingredients. PMID:11055944

  6. Purifying fluoride-contaminated water by a novel forward osmosis design with enhanced flux under reduced concentration polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Madhubonti; Chakrabortty, Sankha; Pal, Parimal; Linnanen, Lassi

    2015-08-01

    For purifying fluoride-contaminated water, a new forward osmosis scheme in horizontal flat-sheet cross flow module was designed and investigated. Effects of pressure, cross flow rate, draw solution and alignment of membrane module on separation and flux were studied. Concentration polarization and reverse salt diffusion got significantly reduced in the new hydrodynamic regime. This resulted in less membrane fouling, better solute separation and higher pure water flux than in a conventional module. The entire scheme was completed in two stages-an upstream forward osmosis for separating pure water from contaminated water and a downstream nanofiltration operation for continuous recovery and recycle of draw solute. Synchronization of these two stages of operation resulted in a continuous, steady-state process. From a set of commercial membranes, two polyamide composite membranes were screened out for the upstream and downstream filtrations. A 0.3-M NaCl solution was found to be the best one for forward osmosis draw solution. Potable water with less than 1% residual fluoride could be produced at a high flux of 60-62 L m(-2) h(-1) whereas more than 99% draw solute could be recovered and recycled in the downstream nanofiltration stage from where flux was 62-65 L m(-2) h(-1).

  7. How uncertainty analysis of streamflow data can reduce costs and promote robust decisions in water management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Hilary; Seibert, Jan; Petersen-Overleir, Asgeir; Lang, Michel; White, Paul; Snelder, Ton; Rutherford, Kit; Krueger, Tobias; Mason, Robert; Kiang, Julie

    2017-07-01

    Streamflow data are used for important environmental and economic decisions, such as specifying and regulating minimum flows, managing water supplies, and planning for flood hazards. Despite significant uncertainty in most flow data, the flow series for these applications are often communicated and used without uncertainty information. In this commentary, we argue that proper analysis of uncertainty in river flow data can reduce costs and promote robust conclusions in water management applications. We substantiate our argument by providing case studies from Norway and New Zealand where streamflow uncertainty analysis has uncovered economic costs in the hydropower industry, improved public acceptance of a controversial water management policy, and tested the accuracy of water quality trends. We discuss the need for practical uncertainty assessment tools that generate multiple flow series realizations rather than simple error bounds. Although examples of such tools are in development, considerable barriers for uncertainty analysis and communication still exist for practitioners, and future research must aim to provide easier access and usability of uncertainty estimates. We conclude that flow uncertainty analysis is critical for good water management decisions.

  8. Elevated water temperature reduces the acute toxicity of the widely used herbicide diuron to a green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmin, Rumana; Shimasaki, Yohei; Tsuyama, Michito; Qiu, Xuchun; Khalil, Fatma; Okino, Nozomu; Yamada, Naotaka; Fukuda, Shinji; Kang, Ik-Joon; Oshima, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    In the actual environment, temperatures fluctuate drastically through season or global warming and are thought to affects risk of pollutants for aquatic biota; however, there is no report about the effect of water temperature on toxicity of widely used herbicide diuron to fresh water microalgae. The present research investigated inhibitory effect of diuron on growth and photosynthetic activity of a green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at five different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C) for 144 h of exposure. As a result, effective diuron concentrations at which a 50% decrease in algal growth occurred was increased with increasing water temperature ranging from 9.2 to 20.1 μg L(-1) for 72 h and 9.4-28.5 μg L(-1) for 144 h. The photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F v/F m ratio) was significantly reduced at all temperatures by diuron exposure at 32 μg L(-1) after 72 h. Inhibition rates was significantly increased with decreased water temperature (P diuron treatment groups and were about 2.5 times higher in diuron treatment groups than that of controls (P diuron in freshwater and should therefore be considered in environmental risk assessment.

  9. The Effect of Land Use on Availability of Japanese Freshwater Resources and Its Significance for Water Footprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Motoshita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All relevant effects on water must be assessed in water footprinting for identifying hotspots and managing the impacts of products, processes, and services throughout the life cycle. Although several studies have focused on physical water scarcity and degradation of water quality, the relevance of land use in water footprinting has not been widely addressed. Here, we aimed to verify the extent of land-use effect in the context of water footprinting. Intensity factors of land use regarding the loss of freshwater availability are modeled by calculating water balance at grid scale in Japan. A water footprint inventory and impacts related to land use are assessed by applying the developed intensity factors and comparing them with those related to water consumption and degradation. Artificial land use such as urban area results in the loss of many parts of available freshwater input by precipitation. When considering water footprint inventory, the dominance of land use is less than that of water consumption. However, the effect of land use is relevant to the assessment of water footprint impact by differentiating stress on water resources. The exclusion of land use effect underestimates the water footprint of goods produced in Japan by an average of around 37%.

  10. Reduced Graphene Oxide Membranes: Applications in Fog Collection and Water Purification

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has attracted considerable interest recently as the low cost and chemical stable derivative of pristine graphene with application in many applications such as energy storage, water purification and electronic devices. This dissertation thoroughly investigated stacked rGO membrane fabrication process by vacuum-driven filtration, discovered asymmetry of the two surfaces of the rGO membrane, explored application perspectives of the asymmetric rGO membrane in fog collection and microstructure patterning, and disclosed membrane compaction issue during water filtration and species rejection. In more details, this dissertation revealed that, with suitable pore size, the filtration membrane substrate would leave its physical imprint on the bottom surface of the rGO membrane in the form of surface microstructures, which result in asymmetric dynamic water wettability properties of the two surfaces of the rGO membrane. The asymmetric wettability of the rGO membrane would lead to contrasting fog harvesting behavior of its two surfaces. The physical imprint mechanism was further extended to engineering pre-designed patterns selectively on the bottom surface of the rGO membrane. This dissertation, for the first time, reported the water flux and rejection kinetics, which was related to the compaction of the rGO membrane under pressure in the process of water filtration.

  11. Increased food production and reduced water use through optimized crop distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Seveso, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    Growing demand for agricultural commodities for food, fuel and other uses is expected to be met through an intensification of production on lands that are currently under cultivation. Intensification typically entails investments in modern technology — such as irrigation or fertilizers — and increases in cropping frequency in regions suitable for multiple growing seasons. Here we combine a process-based crop water model with maps of spatially interpolated yields for 14 major food crops to identify potential differences in food production and water use between current and optimized crop distributions. We find that the current distribution of crops around the world neither attains maximum production nor minimum water use. We identify possible alternative configurations of the agricultural landscape that, by reshaping the global distribution of crops within current rainfed and irrigated croplands based on total water consumption, would feed an additional 825 million people while reducing the consumptive use of rainwater and irrigation water by 14% and 12%, respectively. Such an optimization process does not entail a loss of crop diversity, cropland expansion or impacts on nutrient and feed availability. It also does not necessarily invoke massive investments in modern technology that in many regions would require a switch from smallholder farming to large-scale commercial agriculture with important impacts on rural livelihoods.

  12. Reducing water consumption of an industrial plant cooling unit using hybrid cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Ebrahim; Shafiei, Sirous; Abdollahnezhad, Aydin

    2010-01-01

    Water consumption is an important problem in dry zones and poor water supply areas. For these areas use of a combination of wet and dry cooling towers (hybrid cooling) has been suggested in order to reduce water consumption. In this work, wet and dry sections of a hybrid cooling tower for the estimation of water loss was modeled. A computer code was also written to simulate such hybrid cooling tower. To test the result of this simulation, a pilot hybrid tower containing a wet tower and 12 compact air cooled heat exchangers was designed and constructed. Pilot data were compared with simulation data and a correction factor was added to the simulation. Ensuring that the simulation represents the actual data, it was applied to a real industrial case and the effect of using a dry tower on water loss reduction of this plant cooling unit was investigated. Finally feasibility study was carried out to choose the best operating conditions for the hybrid cooling tower configuration proposed for this cooling unit.

  13. Evaluation of policy measures and methods to reduce diffuse water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Ute; Doehler, Helmut; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Goemann, Horst; Jaeger, Peter; Kreins, Peter; Moeller, Christine; Prigge, Achim; Ristenpart, Erik; Schultheiss, Ute

    2006-11-15

    After considerable improvements of wastewater treatment, the loads of nutrients and plant protection agents, deriving from agriculture and heavy metals from urban drainages effluents as well as from erosion of agricultural soils are the main sources of nutrients and harmful substances in the loads of water bodies. The targets of the project were on the one hand the analysis of the political and legislative framework of both policy fields and on the other hand the evaluation of several, selected water protection measures with regard to their contribution to reduce water pollution, their economical effects as well as their political enforceability. The focus was laid on diffuse water pollution caused by agriculture. As main reasons for the diffuse water pollution stagnating at high level, the analysis of the political framework identified a lack of implementation discipline of water law, followed by the fragmented and insufficient water protection legislation itself and the previous design of the common agricultural policy slanted towards increasing productivity. For the future co-operation of agricultural and water authorities in implementation of their reforms and better definition of 'Good Farming Practice' are recommended. The second investigation level focuses on the analysis and assessment of selected measures to reduce the input of nutrients and plant protection agents. This part was done with help of calculation models focussing on the specific cost/benefit ratios for water protection. In detail the following measures have been analysed: decoupling of direct payments, coupling of livestock farming to areas, tax on mineral nitrogen, pesticide levy, buffer stripes alongside of watercourses, all season crop cover on arable land, soil cultivation procedures, changing the use of arable land, optimisation of animal nutrition, optimisation of manure storage and application, co-operative agreements, education and training. Co-operations and water protection

  14. Can Temperate-Water Immersion Effectively Reduce Rectal Temperature in Exertional Heat Stroke? A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truxton, Tyler T; Miller, Kevin C

    2017-09-01

    Clinical Scenario: Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a medical emergency which, if left untreated, can result in death. The standard of care for EHS patients includes confirmation of hyperthermia via rectal temperature (T rec ) and then immediate cold-water immersion (CWI). While CWI is the fastest way to reduce T rec , it may be difficult to lower and maintain water bath temperature in the recommended ranges (1.7°C-15°C [35°F-59°F]) because of limited access to ice and/or the bath being exposed to high ambient temperatures for long periods of time. Determining if T rec cooling rates are acceptable (ie, >0.08°C/min) when significantly hyperthermic humans are immersed in temperate water (ie, ≥20°C [68°F]) has applications for how EHS patients are treated in the field. Are T rec cooling rates acceptable (≥0.08°C/min) when significantly hyperthermic humans are immersed in temperate water? T rec cooling rates of hyperthermic humans immersed in temperate water (≥20°C [68°F]) ranged from 0.06°C/min to 0.19°C/min. The average T rec cooling rate for all examined studies was 0.11±0.06°C/min. Clinical Bottom Line: Temperature water immersion (TWI) provides acceptable (ie, >0.08°C/min) T rec cooling rates for hyperthermic humans post-exercise. However, CWI cooling rates are higher and should be used if feasible (eg, access to ice, shaded treatment areas). Strength of Recommendation: The majority of evidence (eg, Level 2 studies with PEDro scores ≥5) suggests TWI provides acceptable, though not ideal, T rec cooling. If possible, CWI should be used instead of TWI in EHS scenarios.

  15. Reduced risk estimations after remediation of lead (Pb) in drinking water at two US school districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Le, Trung; Gallagher, Daniel; Edwards, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The risk of students to develop elevated blood lead from drinking water consumption at schools was assessed, which is a different approach from predictions of geometric mean blood lead levels. Measured water lead levels (WLLs) from 63 elementary schools in Seattle and 601 elementary schools in Los Angeles were acquired before and after voluntary remediation of water lead contamination problems. Combined exposures to measured school WLLs (first-draw and flushed, 50% of water consumption) and home WLLs (50% of water consumption) were used as inputs to the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model for each school. In Seattle an average 11.2% of students were predicted to exceed a blood lead threshold of 5 μg/dL across 63 schools pre-remediation, but predicted risks at individual schools varied (7% risk of exceedance at a "low exposure school", 11% risk at a "typical exposure school", and 31% risk at a "high exposure school"). Addition of water filters and removal of lead plumbing lowered school WLL inputs to the model, and reduced the predicted risk output to 4.8% on average for Seattle elementary students across all 63 schools. The remnant post-remediation risk was attributable to other assumed background lead sources in the model (air, soil, dust, diet and home WLLs), with school WLLs practically eliminated as a health threat. Los Angeles schools instead instituted a flushing program which was assumed to eliminate first-draw WLLs as inputs to the model. With assumed benefits of remedial flushing, the predicted average risk of students to exceed a BLL threshold of 5 μg/dL dropped from 8.6% to 6.0% across 601 schools. In an era with increasingly stringent public health goals (e.g., reduction of blood lead safety threshold from 10 to 5 μg/dL), quantifiable health benefits to students were predicted after water lead remediation at two large US school systems. © 2013.

  16. Local drinking water filters reduce diarrheal disease in Cambodia: a randomized, controlled trial of the ceramic water purifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D; Loomis, Dana

    2008-09-01

    A randomized, controlled intervention trial of two household-scale drinking water filters was conducted in a rural village in Cambodia. After collecting four weeks of baseline data on household water quality, diarrheal disease, and other data related to water use and handling practices, households were randomly assigned to one of three groups of 60 households: those receiving a ceramic water purifier (CWP), those receiving a second filter employing an iron-rich ceramic (CWP-Fe), and a control group receiving no intervention. Households were followed for 18 weeks post-baseline with biweekly follow-up. Households using either filter reported significantly less diarrheal disease during the study compared with a control group of households without filters as indicated by longitudinal prevalence ratios CWP: 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41-0.63); CWP-Fe: 0.58 (95% CI: 0.47-0.71), an effect that was observed in all age groups and both sexes after controlling for clustering within households and within individuals over time.

  17. Is It Safe to Reduce Water Intake in the Overactive Bladder Population? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lauren N; Markowitz, Melissa A; Parameshwar, Pooja S; Hannemann, Alex J; Ogawa, Shellee L; Anger, Jennifer T; Eilber, Karyn S

    2018-03-01

    Overactive bladder imposes a significant socioeconomic burden on the health care system. It is a commonly held belief that increased fluid intake (8 glasses of water per day) is beneficial for health. However, increased fluid intake exacerbates overactive bladder symptoms. Thus, it is imperative that clinicians appropriately educate patients for whom increased water intake may be detrimental (women with overactive bladder), in contrast to patients with comorbidities that necessitate increased water intake (nephrolithiasis). We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the potential health advantages of increased water intake and identify specific subpopulations that need increased hydration. We systematically reviewed published articles from 1972 through 2017 on PubMed® and the Cochrane Library. The data were reviewed independently by 2 individuals. Studies were included if they explored water intake in relation to the risk of a particular disease. Level 1 evidence supported increased fluid intake in patients with nephrolithiasis. There was no available evidence to support increased fluid intake in patients with cardiovascular disease, constipation, venous thromboembolism, headaches, cognitive function or bladder cancer. Dehydration may exacerbate some conditions, specifically chronic constipation and headache intensity. Increased fluid intake may have a role in preventing stroke recurrence but not in preventing primary stroke. The available reviewed literature suggests no benefit to drinking 8 glasses of water per day in patients without nephrolithiasis. Also, excess fluid intake can exacerbate symptoms of overactive bladder. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Water-Based Automobile Paints Potentially Reduce the Exposure of Refinish Painters to Toxic Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Jen Hsu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to lead-containing dusts is a global public health concern. This work addresses an important issue of whether eco-friendly water-based paints reduce the exposure potential of auto-repainting workers to metals. With this aim, metal levels in automobile paints and worker metal exposure were measured using both solvent- and water-based paints. The levels of metals, and particularly Pb, Cr (total, Fe, and Cu, in solvent-based paints varied greatly among colors and brands. Lead concentrations ranged from below the detection limit (~0.25 μg/g to 107,928 μg/g (dry film across all samples. In water-based paints, the concentrations of Pb and Cr (total were generally two to three orders of magnitude lower, but the concentrations of Al and Cu exceeded those in some solvent-based paints. The personal short-term exposure of workers who applied water-based paints of popular colors, such as black and white, were generally low, with Pb levels of less than <4 µg/m3 and Cr (total levels of less than 1 µg/m3. Conversely, mean short-term exposure to Pb during the painting of a yellow cab using solvent-based paints were 2028 µg/m3, which was ~14 times the Taiwan short-term permissible exposure limit, while the mean level of exposure to Cr (total was 290 µg/m3, which was well below the exposure limit. This study demonstrates that water-based paints reduce the exposure potential to lead, and highlights the importance of source control in limiting the toxic metals in paints.

  19. Human Health Screening and Public Health Significance of Contaminants of Emerging Concern Detected in Public Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010 – 2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are no...

  20. The significance of drinking water for population migration in the Sahel zone of the Republic of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, H

    1991-01-01

    This study examines how the availability of water supplies affects migration in the Sahel region of Sudan. More particularly, the author shows that "through the development of watering-places and the opening-up of new water resources, the government influences considerably processes of population migration and regional concentrations of population groups." excerpt

  1. DIFFERENCES IN WATER VAPOR RADIATIVE TRANSFER AMONG 1D MODELS CAN SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECT THE INNER EDGE OF THE HABITABLE ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwei [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, François [Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, CNRS, Paris (France); Wolf, Eric T. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado in Boulder, CO (United States); Goldblatt, Colin [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Feldl, Nicole [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, CA (United States); Merlis, Timothy [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at McGill University, Montréal (Canada); Koll, Daniel D. B.; Ding, Feng; Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: junyang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: abbot@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    An accurate estimate of the inner edge of the habitable zone is critical for determining which exoplanets are potentially habitable and for designing future telescopes to observe them. Here, we explore differences in estimating the inner edge among seven one-dimensional radiative transfer models: two line-by-line codes (SMART and LBLRTM) as well as five band codes (CAM3, CAM4-Wolf, LMDG, SBDART, and AM2) that are currently being used in global climate models. We compare radiative fluxes and spectra in clear-sky conditions around G and M stars, with fixed moist adiabatic profiles for surface temperatures from 250 to 360 K. We find that divergences among the models arise mainly from large uncertainties in water vapor absorption in the window region (10 μ m) and in the region between 0.2 and 1.5 μ m. Differences in outgoing longwave radiation increase with surface temperature and reach 10–20 W m{sup 2}; differences in shortwave reach up to 60 W m{sup 2}, especially at the surface and in the troposphere, and are larger for an M-dwarf spectrum than a solar spectrum. Differences between the two line-by-line models are significant, although smaller than among the band models. Our results imply that the uncertainty in estimating the insolation threshold of the inner edge (the runaway greenhouse limit) due only to clear-sky radiative transfer is ≈10% of modern Earth’s solar constant (i.e., ≈34 W m{sup 2} in global mean) among band models and ≈3% between the two line-by-line models. These comparisons show that future work is needed that focuses on improving water vapor absorption coefficients in both shortwave and longwave, as well as on increasing the resolution of stellar spectra in broadband models.

  2. DIFFERENCES IN WATER VAPOR RADIATIVE TRANSFER AMONG 1D MODELS CAN SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECT THE INNER EDGE OF THE HABITABLE ZONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwei; Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, François; Wolf, Eric T.; Goldblatt, Colin; Feldl, Nicole; Merlis, Timothy; Koll, Daniel D. B.; Ding, Feng; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate estimate of the inner edge of the habitable zone is critical for determining which exoplanets are potentially habitable and for designing future telescopes to observe them. Here, we explore differences in estimating the inner edge among seven one-dimensional radiative transfer models: two line-by-line codes (SMART and LBLRTM) as well as five band codes (CAM3, CAM4-Wolf, LMDG, SBDART, and AM2) that are currently being used in global climate models. We compare radiative fluxes and spectra in clear-sky conditions around G and M stars, with fixed moist adiabatic profiles for surface temperatures from 250 to 360 K. We find that divergences among the models arise mainly from large uncertainties in water vapor absorption in the window region (10 μ m) and in the region between 0.2 and 1.5 μ m. Differences in outgoing longwave radiation increase with surface temperature and reach 10–20 W m 2 ; differences in shortwave reach up to 60 W m 2 , especially at the surface and in the troposphere, and are larger for an M-dwarf spectrum than a solar spectrum. Differences between the two line-by-line models are significant, although smaller than among the band models. Our results imply that the uncertainty in estimating the insolation threshold of the inner edge (the runaway greenhouse limit) due only to clear-sky radiative transfer is ≈10% of modern Earth’s solar constant (i.e., ≈34 W m 2 in global mean) among band models and ≈3% between the two line-by-line models. These comparisons show that future work is needed that focuses on improving water vapor absorption coefficients in both shortwave and longwave, as well as on increasing the resolution of stellar spectra in broadband models.

  3. Effect of Gum Arabic karroo as a Water-Reducing Admixture in Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugua, Rose; Salim, Ramadhan; Ndambuki, Julius

    2016-01-28

    Concrete is one of the most popular construction materials in the world. Chemical admixtures are ingredients added to concrete to enhance its properties. However, most chemical admixtures on the market today are expensive, thereby making them out of reach for small consumers of concrete. In Africa, use of chemical admixtures is rare despite the harsh weather conditions. In the current study, Gum from Acacia karroo (GAK) was used as a water-reducing admixture in concrete. A slump test, density and compressive strength were studied using different dosages of GAK while neat concrete was the control. Results showed that slump increased by 200% at a 2% dosage of GAK. This enabled reduction of water-to-binder (w/b) ratio from 0.61 to 0.48 for samples with a 3% dosage. Reduction in w/b resulted in increased compressive strength of 37.03% above the control after 180 days of curing for a 3% dosage. XRD studies also showed a decreased rate of hydration in the presence of GAK in concrete. It was concluded that GAK can be used in concrete as a water-reducing admixture, which is environmentally-friendly, thus producing sustainable and greener concrete.

  4. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC DYES FROM CONTAMINATED WATER USING COFE2O4 /REDUCED GRAPHENE OXIDE NANOCOMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sakhaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, lots of materials such as active carbon, iron, manganese, zirconium, and metal oxides have been widely used for removal of dyes from contaminated water. Among these, ferrite nanoparticle is an interesting magnetic material due to its moderate saturation magnetization, excellent chemical stability and mechanical hardness. Graphene, a new class of 2D carbonaceous material with atom thick layer features, has attracted much attention recently due to its high specific surface area. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO has also been of great interest because of its unique properties, which are similar to those of graphene, such as specific surface area, making it an ideal candidate for dye removal. Thus far, few works have been carried out on the preparation of CoFe2O4-rGO composite and its applications in removal of contaminants from water. In this paper, CoFe2O4 reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite was fabricated using hydrothermal process. During the hydrothermal process, the reduction of graphene oxide and growth of CoFe2O4 simultaneously occurred on the carbon basal planes under the conditions generated in the hydrothermal system. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy contaminant and UV-Vis spectroscopy as the analytical method. The experimental results suggest that this material has great potential for treating Congo red contaminated water.

  5. Effect of Gum Arabic karroo as a Water-Reducing Admixture in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugua, Rose; Salim, Ramadhan; Ndambuki, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Concrete is one of the most popular construction materials in the world. Chemical admixtures are ingredients added to concrete to enhance its properties. However, most chemical admixtures on the market today are expensive, thereby making them out of reach for small consumers of concrete. In Africa, use of chemical admixtures is rare despite the harsh weather conditions. In the current study, Gum from Acacia karroo (GAK) was used as a water-reducing admixture in concrete. A slump test, density and compressive strength were studied using different dosages of GAK while neat concrete was the control. Results showed that slump increased by 200% at a 2% dosage of GAK. This enabled reduction of water-to-binder (w/b) ratio from 0.61 to 0.48 for samples with a 3% dosage. Reduction in w/b resulted in increased compressive strength of 37.03% above the control after 180 days of curing for a 3% dosage. XRD studies also showed a decreased rate of hydration in the presence of GAK in concrete. It was concluded that GAK can be used in concrete as a water-reducing admixture, which is environmentally-friendly, thus producing sustainable and greener concrete. PMID:28787879

  6. Water cycle and its management for plant habitats at reduced pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygalov, Vadim Y.; Fowler, Philip A.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Bucklin, Ray A.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and mathematical models were developed for describing and testing temperature and humidity parameters for plant production in bioregenerative life support systems. A factor was included for analyzing systems operating at low (10-101.3 kPa) pressure to reduce gas leakage and structural mass (e.g., inflatable greenhouses for space application). The expected close relationship between temperature and relative humidity was observed, along with the importance of heat exchanger coil temperature and air circulation rate. The presence of plants in closed habitats results in increased water flux through the system. Changes in pressure affect gas diffusion rates and surface boundary layers, and change convective transfer capabilities and water evaporation rates. A consistent observation from studies with plants at reduced pressures is increased evapotranspiration rates, even at constant vapor pressure deficits. This suggests that plant water status is a critical factor for managing low-pressure production systems. The approach suggested should help space mission planners design artificial environments in closed habitats.

  7. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  8. Reducing surface water total and methyl mercury concentrations and bioavailability using a coagulation-wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, T. E.; Fleck, J.; Henneberry, Y. K.; Stumpner, E. B.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Bachand, P.; Randall, P.

    2013-12-01

    With the recent passage of laws regulating concentrations and loads of mercury (Hg) in surface waters, there is a need to develop management practices that will reduce the export of Hg from both point and non-point sources. Coagulation with metal based salts to remove particles and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from solution is a practice commonly employed by drinking water utilities. Because dissolved Hg is associated with particles and DOM, it follows that Hg should also be removed during the coagulation process and end up associated with the organo-metal precipitate, termed flocculate (floc). The effectiveness of iron- and aluminum-based coagulants for removing both inorganic and methyl mercury (IHg and MeHg, respectively) from solution was demonstrated in laboratory studies conducted on agricultural drainage waters of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta: dissolved concentrations of MeHg decreased by 80% while IHg decreased by 97% following coagulation. To test the field application of this technology, samples were collected from the inflows and outflows of wetland treatment cells constructed in the central Delta of California. This replicated field experiment includes three replicates each of three inflow waters treatments: (1) iron sulfate addition, (2) polyaluminum chloride addition, and (3) untreated controls. Water entering and exiting the nine treatment cells was sampled approximately monthly over a 1-year period for total Hg and MeHg in both the dissolved and particulate aqueous phases. Initial results confirm that coagulant addition is removing Hg (total and methyl, particulate and dissolved) from solution and sequestering it in the floc. Seasonal effects on DOM concentration and other factors appear to effect whether passage through the wetland cells alters surface water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Hg concentrations. Related studies will examine whether the presence of the floc affects the production and fate of MeHg within the wetland cells. If

  9. Fullerene-reduced graphene oxide composites obtained by ultrashort laser ablation of fullerite in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bonis, A., E-mail: angela.debonis@unibas.it [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano, 10-85100, Potenza (Italy); Curcio, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano, 10-85100, Potenza (Italy); Santagata, A. [CNR-ISM, U.O.S. Tito Scalo, Zona Industriale, 85050, Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); Rau, J.V. [CNR-ISM, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133, Rome (Italy); Galasso, A.; Teghil, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano, 10-85100, Potenza (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Laser ablation of a fullerite target in water performed by an ultra-short laser source has been reported. • The formation of reduced graphene oxide has been described considering the laser ablation in liquid mechanism. • Fullerene-reduced graphene oxide composite, in the form of self assembled microtubes, has been described. - Abstract: The laser ablation in liquid of carbon-based solid targets is of particular interest thanks to the possibility of obtaining different carbon allotropes by varying the experimental parameters employed. The ablation of a fullerite target in water using a frequency-doubled Nd:glass laser source with a pulse duration of 250 fs and a frequency repetition rate of 10 Hz is presented. The obtained products have been characterized by transmission electron and atomic force microscopies and by X-ray photoelectron and micro-Raman spectroscopies. During the femtosecond laser ablation, the collapse of fullerene cages has been considered with the consequent formation of graphene oxide (GO) and its successive hydrogenation. The process of self-assembling in microtube structures of the formed reduced graphene oxide-fullerene composites has then been reported.

  10. Low internal pressure in femtoliter water capillary bridges reduces evaporation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kun; Hwang, In Gyu; Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Lim, Jun; Kim, Joon Heon; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2016-03-01

    Capillary bridges are usually formed by a small liquid volume in a confined space between two solid surfaces. They can have a lower internal pressure than the surrounding pressure for volumes of the order of femtoliters. Femtoliter capillary bridges with relatively rapid evaporation rates are difficult to explore experimentally. To understand in detail the evaporation of femtoliter capillary bridges, we present a feasible experimental method to directly visualize how water bridges evaporate between a microsphere and a flat substrate in still air using transmission X-ray microscopy. Precise measurements of evaporation rates for water bridges show that lower water pressure than surrounding pressure can significantly decrease evaporation through the suppression of vapor diffusion. This finding provides insight into the evaporation of ultrasmall capillary bridges.

  11. Low internal pressure in femtoliter water capillary bridges reduces evaporation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kun; Hwang, In Gyu; Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Lim, Jun; Kim, Joon Heon; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2016-01-01

    Capillary bridges are usually formed by a small liquid volume in a confined space between two solid surfaces. They can have a lower internal pressure than the surrounding pressure for volumes of the order of femtoliters. Femtoliter capillary bridges with relatively rapid evaporation rates are difficult to explore experimentally. To understand in detail the evaporation of femtoliter capillary bridges, we present a feasible experimental method to directly visualize how water bridges evaporate between a microsphere and a flat substrate in still air using transmission X-ray microscopy. Precise measurements of evaporation rates for water bridges show that lower water pressure than surrounding pressure can significantly decrease evaporation through the suppression of vapor diffusion. This finding provides insight into the evaporation of ultrasmall capillary bridges. PMID:26928329

  12. Hierarchically porous, ultra-strong reduced graphene oxide-cellulose nanocrystal sponges for exceptional adsorption of water contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefi, Nariman; Wong, Kerwin K.W.; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab

    2018-01-01

    Self-assembly of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets into porous 3D sponges is a promising approach to exploit their capacity to adsorb contaminants while facilitating the recovery of the nanosheets from treated water. Yet, forming mechanically robust sponges with suitable adsorption properties presents...... a significant challenge. Ultra-strong and highly porous 3D sponges are formed using GO, vitamin C (VC), and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) - natural nanorods isolated from wood pulp. CNCs provide a robust scaffold for the partially reduced GO (rGO) nanosheets resulting in an exceptionally stiff nanohybrid....... The concentration of VC as a reducing agent plays a critical role in tailoring the pore architecture of the sponges. By using excess amounts of VC, a unique hierarchical pore structure is achieved, where VC grains act as soft templates for forming millimeter-sized pores, the walls of which are also porous...

  13. Improving rice production sustainability by reducing water demand and greenhouse gas emissions with biodegradable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Liu, Chunyan; Lin, Shan; Zuo, Qiang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    In China, rice production is facing unprecedented challenges, including the increasing demand, looming water crisis and on-going climate change. Thus, producing more rice at lower environmental cost is required for future development, i.e., the use of less water and the production of fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) per unit of rice. Ground cover rice production systems (GCRPSs) could potentially address these concerns, although no studies have systematically and simultaneously evaluated the benefits of GCRPS regarding yields and considering water use and GHG emissions. This study reports the results of a 2-year study comparing conventional paddy and various GCRPS practices. Relative to conventional paddy, GCRPSs had greater rice yields and nitrogen use efficiencies (8.5% and 70%, respectively), required less irrigation (-64%) and resulted in less total CH4 and N2O emissions (-54%). On average, annual emission factors of N2O were 1.67% and 2.00% for conventional paddy and GCRPS, respectively. A cost-benefit analysis considering yields, GHG emissions, water demand and labor and mulching costs indicated GCRPSs are an environmentally and economically profitable technology. Furthermore, substituting the polyethylene film with a biodegradable film resulted in comparable benefits of yield and climate. Overall, GCRPSs, particularly with biodegradable films, provide a promising solution for farmers to secure or even increase yields while reducing the environmental footprint.

  14. Simulation of water management for fodder beet to reduce yield losses under late season drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Noreldin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to calibrate CropSyst model for fodder beet grown under full and late season drought and to use the simulation results to analyze the relationship between irrigation amount and yield, as well as in water management to reduce yield losses under full and late season drought. For this reason, two field experiments were implemented at El-Serw Agricultural Research Station in Demiatte governorate, during 2011/12 and 2012/13 growing seasons. Two irrigation treatments were studied: full irrigation and late season drought. The model was calibrated using the data obtained from the two seasons. Results indicated that the reduction in fodder beet yield under late season drought was 11 and 12% in 2011/12 and 2012/13 growing seasons, respectively. Calibration of CropSyst revealed that the percentage of difference between measured and predicted values were low in both growing seasons. The results also indicated that changing irrigation schedule after examining water stress index under full and late season drought led to increase in fodder beet yield, as well as water and land productivity. Thus, CropSyst model can give insight into when to apply irrigation water to minimize yield losses under late season drought.

  15. Water contamination reduces the tolerance of coral larvae to thermal stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Negri

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are highly susceptible to climate change, with elevated sea surface temperatures (SST posing one of the main threats to coral survival. Successful recruitment of new colonies is important for the recovery of degraded reefs following mortality events. Coral larvae require relatively uncontaminated substratum on which to metamorphose into sessile polyps, and the increasing pollution of coastal waters therefore constitutes an additional threat to reef resilience. Here we develop and analyse a model of larval metamorphosis success for two common coral species to quantify the interactive effects of water pollution (copper contamination and SST. We identify thresholds of temperature and pollution that prevent larval metamorphosis, and evaluate synergistic interactions between these stressors. Our analyses show that halving the concentration of Cu can protect corals from the negative effects of a 2-3°C increase in SST. These results demonstrate that effective mitigation of local impacts can reduce negative effects of global stressors.

  16. Defensive spending on tap water substitutes: the value of reducing perceived health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Diane P; Jahan, Nowshin

    2012-03-01

    We examine factors that explain consumer spending on tap water substitutes using information from a national survey undertaken with a representative set of Canadian respondents. We develop a model to predict the percentage of households that undertake such spending for the purpose of reducing perceived health risks from tap water consumption. Using results from the model we estimate the magnitude of defensive expenditures to be over half a billion dollars (2010 US$) per year for Canada, as a whole. This is equivalent to approximately $48 per household per year or about $19 per person per year. Residents of Ontario, the province in which an Escherichia coli incident took place in 2000, have the highest willingness-to-pay of approximately $60 per household per year.

  17. A jazz-based approach for optimal setting of pressure reducing valves in water distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paola, Francesco; Galdiero, Enzo; Giugni, Maurizio

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a model for valve setting in water distribution networks (WDNs), with the aim of reducing the level of leakage. The approach is based on the harmony search (HS) optimization algorithm. The HS mimics a jazz improvisation process able to find the best solutions, in this case corresponding to valve settings in a WDN. The model also interfaces with the improved version of a popular hydraulic simulator, EPANET 2.0, to check the hydraulic constraints and to evaluate the performances of the solutions. Penalties are introduced in the objective function in case of violation of the hydraulic constraints. The model is applied to two case studies, and the obtained results in terms of pressure reductions are comparable with those of competitive metaheuristic algorithms (e.g. genetic algorithms). The results demonstrate the suitability of the HS algorithm for water network management and optimization.

  18. Water management impacts on arsenic speciation and iron-reducing bacteria in contrasting rice-rhizosphere compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somenahally, Anil C; Hollister, Emily B; Yan, Wengui; Gentry, Terry J; Loeppert, Richard H

    2011-10-01

    Rice cultivated on arsenic (As) contaminated-soils will accumulate variable grain-As concentrations, as impacted by varietal differences, soil variables, and crop management. A field-scale experiment was conducted to study the impact of intermittent and continuous flooding on As speciation and microbial populations in rice rhizosphere compartments of soils that were either historically amended with As pesticide or unamended with As. Rhizosphere-soil, root-plaque, pore-water and grain As were quantified and speciated, and microbial populations in rhizosphere soil and root-plaque were characterized. Total-As concentrations in rhizosphere and grain were significantly lower in intermittently flooded compared to the continuously flooded plots (86% lower in pore-water, 55% lower in root-plaque and 41% lower in grain samples). iAs(V), iAs(III), and DMAs(V) were the predominant As species detected in rhizosphere-soil and root-plaque, pore-water and grain samples, respectively. Relative proportions of Archaea and iron-reducing bacteria (FeRB) were higher in rhizosphere soil compared to root-plaque. In rhizosphere soil, the relative abundance of FeRB was lower in intermittently flooded compared to continuously flooded plots, but there were no differences between root-plaque samples. This study has demonstrated that reductions in dissolved As concentrations in the rhizosphere and subsequent decreases in grain-As concentration can be attained through water management.

  19. Grazing by sheep Ovis aries reduces island populations of water voles Arvicola amphibius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Frafjord

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The population of water voles Arvicola amphibius was surveyed on 21 islands in the Solvær archipelago, northern Norway, in August 2012; 11 islands with semi-wild domestic sheep Ovis aries and 10 islands without sheep. Signs from water voles are very easy to detect and were used as a measure of the population (on a scale 0-10, and the numbers of sheep were counted. The ranking of signs on islands with and without sheep was compared, and a significant difference was found. Islands with sheep had, with one exception, only very small and fragmented populations of water voles, the one exception being a fairly large Carex swamp that was not grazed by the sheep and where a moderate-sized population of voles was found. Islands without sheep had much larger populations of water voles, giving a ranking about four times higher. One reason for the devastating effect of sheep on water voles is probably the fact that the sheep are living year-round on these islands with no supplemental food.

  20. Longevity and effectiveness of aluminum addition to reduce sediment phosphorus release and restore lake water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huser, Brian J; Egemose, Sara; Harper, Harvey

    2016-01-01

    114 lakes treated with aluminum (Al) salts to reduce internal phosphorus (P) loading were analyzed to identify factors driving longevity of post-treatment water quality improvements. Lakes varied greatly in morphology, applied Al dose, and other factors that may have affected overall treatment...... (OI, a morphological index), and watershed to lake area ratio (related to hydraulic residence time, WA:LA) were the most important variables determining treatment longevity. Multiple linear regression showed that Al dose, WA:LA, and OI explained 47, 32 and 3% respectively of the variation in treatment...

  1. Reduced precipitation over large water bodies in the Brazilian Amazon shown from TRMM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Rodrigo Cauduro Dias; Buarque, Diogo Costa; Clarke, Robin T.; Collischonn, Walter; Allasia, Daniel Gustavo

    2011-02-01

    Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) data show lower rainfall over large water bodies in the Brazilian Amazon. Mean annual rainfall (P), number of wet days (rainfall > 2 mm) (W) and annual rainfall accumulated over 3-hour time intervals (P3hr) were computed from TRMM 3B42 data for 1998-2009. Reduced rainfall was marked over the Rio Solimões/Amazon, along most Amazon tributaries and over the Balbina reservoir. In a smaller test area, a heuristic argument showed that P and W were reduced by 5% and 6.5% respectively. Allowing for TRMM 3B42 spatial resolution, the reduction may be locally greater. Analyses of diurnal rainfall patterns showed that rainfall is lowest over large rivers during the afternoon, when most rainfall is convective, but at night and early morning the opposite occurs, with increased rainfall over rivers, although this pattern is less marked. Rainfall patterns reported from studies of smaller Amazonian regions therefore exist more widely.

  2. The effectiveness of the anti-CD11d treatment is reduced in rat models of spinal cord injury that produce significant levels of intraspinal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, N M; Hryciw, T; Bao, F; Streijger, F; Okon, E; Lee, J H T; Weaver, L C; Dekaban, G A; Kwon, B K; Brown, A

    2017-09-01

    We have previously reported that administration of a CD11d monoclonal antibody (mAb) improves recovery in a clip-compression model of SCI. In this model the CD11d mAb reduces the infiltration of activated leukocytes into the injured spinal cord (as indicated by reduced intraspinal MPO). However not all anti-inflammatory strategies have reported beneficial results, suggesting that success of the CD11d mAb treatment may depend on the type or severity of the injury. We therefore tested the CD11d mAb treatment in a rat hemi-contusion model of cervical SCI. In contrast to its effects in the clip-compression model, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve forelimb function nor did it significantly reduce MPO levels in the hemi-contused cord. To determine if the disparate results using the CD11d mAb were due to the biomechanical nature of the cord injury (compression SCI versus contusion SCI) or to the spinal level of the injury (12th thoracic level versus cervical) we further evaluated the CD11d mAb treatment after a T12 contusion SCI. In contrast to the T12 clip compression SCI, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve locomotor recovery or significantly reduce MPO levels after T12 contusion SCI. Lesion analyses revealed increased levels of hemorrhage after contusion SCI compared to clip-compression SCI. SCI that is accompanied by increased intraspinal hemorrhage would be predicted to be refractory to the CD11d mAb therapy as this approach targets leukocyte diapedesis through the intact vasculature. These results suggest that the disparate results of the anti-CD11d treatment in contusion and clip-compression models of SCI are due to the different pathophysiological mechanisms that dominate these two types of spinal cord injuries. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D.; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L.; Boone, J. Scott; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Mash, Heath

    2017-01-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010–2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information.

  4. Subchannel analysis of 37-rod tight-lattice bundle experiments for reduced-moderation water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Toru; Tamai, Hidesada; Akimoto, Hajime

    2005-01-01

    R and D project to investigate thermal-hydraulic performance of tight-lattice fuel bundles for Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in collaboration with utilities, reactor vendors and universities from 2002. The RMWR realizes a high conversion ratio larger than 0.1 for sustainable energy supply through plutonium multiple recycling based on the well-experienced LWR technologies. The reactor core comprises tight-lattice fuel assemblies with gap clearance of around 1.0 mm to reduce the water volume ratio to achieve the high conversion ratio. A problem of utmost importance from a thermal-hydraulic point of view is the coolability of the tight-lattice assembly with such a small gap width. JAERI has been carrying out experimental study to investigate the system parameter effects on the thermal-hydraulic performance and to confirm the feasibility of the core. In the present study, the subchannel analysis code NASCA was applied to 37-rod tight-lattice bundle experiments. The NASCA can give good predictions of critical power for the gap width of 1.3 mm while the prediction accuracy decreases for the gap width of 1.0 mm. To improve the prediction accuracy, the code will be modified to take the effect of film thickness distribution around fuel rods on boiling transition. (author)

  5. Increased Hydrologic Connectivity: Consequences of Reduced Water Storage Capacity in the Delmarva Peninsula (U.S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, D. L.; Jones, C. N.; Evenson, G. R.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; Alexander, L. C.; Lang, M.

    2017-12-01

    Combined geospatial and modeling approaches are required to fully enumerate wetland hydrologic connectivity and downstream effects. Here, we utilized both geospatial analysis and hydrologic modeling to explore drivers and consequences of modified surface water connectivity in the Delmarva Peninsula, with particular focus on increased connectivity via pervasive wetland ditching. Our geospatial analysis quantified both historical and contemporary wetland storage capacity across the region, and suggests that over 70% of historical storage capacity has been lost due to this ditching. Building upon this analysis, we applied a catchment-scale model to simulate implications of reduced storage capacity on catchment-scale hydrology. In short, increased connectivity (and concomitantly reduced wetland water storage capacity) decreases catchment inundation extent and spatial heterogeneity, shortens cumulative residence times, and increases downstream flow variation with evident effects on peak and baseflow dynamics. As such, alterations in connectivity have implications for hydrologically mediated functions in catchments (e.g., nutrient removal) and downstream systems (e.g., maintenance of flow for aquatic habitat). Our work elucidates such consequences in Delmarva Peninsula while also providing new tools for broad application to target wetland restoration and conservation. Views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect policies of the US EPA or US FWS.

  6. Development of a higher capacity, lower pressure drop steam/water separator with reduced primary-to-secondary spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruster, W.P.; Kidwell, J.H.; Eaton, A.M.; Wall, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of this development effort was to double the steam flow capacity of an existing module steam/water separator design without significantly increasing the pressure drop while simultaneously minimizing the vertical distance (spacing) between the primary and secondary separation stages. The development work included extensive air/water and steam/water testing. The steam/water tests were performed at a common pressure of 300 psia (2.1 MPa) with comparable water and steam flows

  7. Summary report of the 7th reduced-moderation water reactor workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akie, Hiroshi; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Uchikawa, Sadao

    2005-08-01

    As a research on the future innovative water reactor, the development of Reduced-Moderation Water Reactors (RMWRs) has been performed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The workshop on RMWRs is aiming at information exchange between JAERI and other organizations such as universities, laboratories, utilities and vendors, and has been held every year since 1998. The 7th workshop was held on March 5, 2004 under the joint auspices of JAERI and North Kanto branch of Atomic Energy Society of Japan. The program of the workshop was composed of 5 lectures and an overall discussion time. The workshop started with the lecture by JAERI on the status and future program of PMWR research and development, followed by the two presentations by JAERI and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, respectively, on the investigation and evaluation of water cooled reactor in Feasibility Study Program on Commercialized Fast Reactor Systems. The lectures were also made on the Japan's nuclear fuel cycle and scenarios for RMWRs deployment by JAERI, and on the next generation reactor development activity by Hitachi, Ltd. The main subjects of the overall discussion time were Na cooled fast reactor, deployment effects of RMWRs and the future plan of the RMWR research and development. This report includes the original papers presented at the workshop and summaries of the questions and answers for each lecture, as well as of the discussion time. In addition in the Appendices, there are included presentation handouts of each lecture, program of the workshop and the participants list. (author)

  8. The behaviour of a floating water bridge under reduced gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Elmar C.; Agostinho, Luewton L. F.; Wexler, Adam; Wagterveld, R. Martijn; Tuinstra, Jan; Woisetschläger, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    When high voltage is applied to pure water filled into two beakers close to each other, a connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge (Armstrong 1893 The Electrical Engineer pp 154-45, Uhlig W 2005 personal communication, Fuchs et al 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 6112-4, Fuchs et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 185502, Fuchs et al 2009 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42 065502, Fuchs et al 2010 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 105502, Woisetschläger et al 2010 Exp. Fluids 48 121-31, Nishiumi and Honda 2009 Res. Lett. Phys. Chem. 2009 371650). This phenomenon is of special interest, since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science. In this work, the behaviour of this phenomenon under reduced gravity conditions during a parabolic flight is presented by the means of high speed imaging with fringe projection. An analysis of the behaviour is presented and compared with theoretical considerations.

  9. The behaviour of a floating water bridge under reduced gravity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Agostinho, Luewton L F; Wexler, Adam; Wagterveld, R Martijn; Tuinstra, Jan; Woisetschlaeger, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    When high voltage is applied to pure water filled into two beakers close to each other, a connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge (Armstrong 1893 The Electrical Engineer pp 154-45, Uhlig W 2005 personal communication, Fuchs et al 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 6112-4, Fuchs et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 185502, Fuchs et al 2009 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42 065502, Fuchs et al 2010 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 105502, Woisetschlaeger et al 2010 Exp. Fluids 48 121-31, Nishiumi and Honda 2009 Res. Lett. Phys. Chem. 2009 371650). This phenomenon is of special interest, since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science. In this work, the behaviour of this phenomenon under reduced gravity conditions during a parabolic flight is presented by the means of high speed imaging with fringe projection. An analysis of the behaviour is presented and compared with theoretical considerations.

  10. The behaviour of a floating water bridge under reduced gravity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Agostinho, Luewton L F; Wexler, Adam; Wagterveld, R Martijn; Tuinstra, Jan [Wetsus, Center of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Agora 1, 8900 CC Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Woisetschlaeger, Jakob, E-mail: elmar.fuchs@wetsus.nl [Institute for Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 25A, Graz (Austria)

    2011-01-19

    When high voltage is applied to pure water filled into two beakers close to each other, a connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge (Armstrong 1893 The Electrical Engineer pp 154-45, Uhlig W 2005 personal communication, Fuchs et al 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 6112-4, Fuchs et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 185502, Fuchs et al 2009 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42 065502, Fuchs et al 2010 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 105502, Woisetschlaeger et al 2010 Exp. Fluids 48 121-31, Nishiumi and Honda 2009 Res. Lett. Phys. Chem. 2009 371650). This phenomenon is of special interest, since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science. In this work, the behaviour of this phenomenon under reduced gravity conditions during a parabolic flight is presented by the means of high speed imaging with fringe projection. An analysis of the behaviour is presented and compared with theoretical considerations.

  11. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  12. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Low LET radiolysis escape yields for reducing radicals and H2 in pressurized high temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterniczuk, Marcin; Yakabuskie, Pamela A.; Wren, J. Clara; Jacob, Jasmine A.; Bartels, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiolysis escape yields (G values) are reported for the sum (G(radH)+G(e-)aq) and for G(H2) in subcritical water up to 350 °C. The scavenger system 1-10 mM acetate/0.001 M hydroxide/0.00048 M N2O was used with simultaneous mass spectroscopic detection of H2 and N2 product. Temperature-dependent measurements were carried out with 2.5 MeV electrons from a van de Graaff accelerator, while room temperature calibration measurements were done with a 60Co gamma source. The concentrations and dose range were carefully chosen so that initial spur chemistry is not perturbed and the N2 product yield corresponds to those reducing radicals that escape recombination in pure water. In comparison with a recent review recommendation of Elliot and Bartels (AECL report 153-127160-450-001, 2009), the measured reducing radical yield is seven percent smaller at room temperature but in fairly good agreement above 150 °C. The H2 escape yield is in good agreement throughout the temperature range with several previous studies that used much larger radical scavenging rates. Previous analysis of earlier high temperature measurements of Gesc(radOH) is shown to be flawed, although the actual G values may be nearly correct. The methodology used in the present report greatly reduces the range of possible error and puts the high temperature escape yields for low-LET radiation on a much firmer quantitative foundation than was previously available.

  14. Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

  15. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found in some metal water taps, interior water pipes, or pipes connecting a house to ... reduce or eliminate lead. See resources below. 5. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the ...

  16. Drinking water to reduce alcohol craving? A randomized controlled study on the impact of ghrelin in mediating the effects of forced water intake in alcohol addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Anne; Lippmann, Katharina; Schuster, Rilana; Reinhard, Iris; Bach, Patrick; Weil, Georg; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Wiedemann, Klaus; Kiefer, Falk

    2017-11-01

    Recent data suggest that ghrelin is involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders, affecting alcohol self-administration and craving. Gastric ghrelin secretion is reduced by stomach distension. We now tested the hypothesis whether the clinically well-known effects of high-volume water intake on craving reduction in alcoholism is mediated by acute changes in ghrelin secretion. In this randomized human laboratory study, we included 23 alcohol-dependent male inpatient subjects who underwent alcohol cue exposure. Participants of the intervention group drank 1000ml of mineral water within 10min directly thereafter, compared to the participants of the control group who did not. Craving and plasma concentrations of acetylated ghrelin were measured ten times during the 120min following the alcohol cue exposure session. In the intervention group, a significant decrease in acetylated ghrelin in plasma compared to the control group was observed. This decrease was correlated to a reduction in patients' subjective level of craving. In the control group, no decrease of acetylated ghrelin in plasma and no association between alcohol craving and changes in plasma concentrations of acetylated ghrelin were observed. Our results present new evidence that the modulation in the ghrelin system by oral water intake mediates the effects of volume intake with craving reduction in alcohol use disorders. Hence, in addition to pharmacological interventions with ghrelin antagonists, the reduction of physiological ghrelin secretion might be a target for future interventions in the treatment of alcohol craving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs.

  18. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs

  19. Proposing of an aerated water treatment plant for reducing water pollution problem in Losari Beach after reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Sri; Maharani, Hamzah, Muhammad Alimuddin

    2017-01-01

    Losari Beach is the most important site in Makassar. It lies at the west side of Makassar city. This place is known as the place where people are relaxed and gathering with friends or family after working, and now it becomes the icon of Makassar city. As the biggest city in eastern Indonesia, Makassar grows very fast. We can find constructions for building hospitals, shopping malls, bussines activities, and residences everywhere. The most important construction activities that will effect Losari Beach is the reclamation to build the Center Point of Indonesia that takes an area of 157 hectares and it is located at the west side of Losari Beach. In the last research presented in 9th International Conference on Marine Technology (October 2014) using surface-water modeling system (SMS) software showed that reclamation will significantly increase concentrations of BOD and COD (± 7 mg/L for BOD and 6.2 mg/L for COD). This condition will cause Losari Beach becomes very polluted. A probable solution to overcome this problem is to clean the wastewater before introducing to the sea. This paper will describe the type of the wastewater treatment plant that can be used to solve the water pollution problem in Losari Beach.

  20. A paddy eco-ditch and wetland system to reduce non-point source pollution from rice-based production system while maintaining water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yujiang; Peng, Shizhang; Luo, Yufeng; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong

    2015-03-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution from agricultural drainage has aroused widespread concerns throughout the world due to its contribution to eutrophication of water bodies. To remove nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from agricultural drainage in situ, a Paddy Eco-ditch and Wetland System (PEDWS) was designed and built based on the characteristics of the irrigated rice district. A 2-year (2012-2013) field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of this system in Gaoyou Irrigation District in Eastern China. The results showed that the reduction in water input in paddy field of the PEDWS enabled the maintenance of high rice yield; it significantly increased irrigation water productivity (WPI), gross water productivity (WPG), and evapotranspiration water productivity (WPET) by 109.2, 67.1, and 17.6%, respectively. The PEDWS dramatically decreased N and P losses from paddy field. Compared with conventional irrigation and drainage system (CIDS), the amount of drainage water from PEDWS was significantly reduced by 56.2%, the total nitrogen (TN) concentration in drainage was reduced by 42.6%, and thus the TN and total phosphorus (TP) losses were reduced by 87.8 and 70.4%. PEDWS is technologically feasible and applicable to treat nutrient losses from paddy fields in situ and can be used in similar areas.

  1. Synthesis of reduced carbon nitride at the reduction by hydroquinone of water-soluble carbon nitride oxide (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4})O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharlamov, Alexey [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science of NASU, Krzhyzhanovsky St. 3, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Bondarenko, Marina, E-mail: mebondarenko@ukr.net [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science of NASU, Krzhyzhanovsky St. 3, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Kharlamova, Ganna [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, Volodymyrs' ka St. 64, 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Fomenko, Veniamin [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science of NASU, Krzhyzhanovsky St. 3, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2016-09-15

    For the first time at the reduction by hydroquinone of water-soluble carbon nitride oxide (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4})O reduced carbon nitride (or reduced multi-layer azagraphene) is obtained. It is differed from usually synthesized carbon nitride by a significantly large (on 0.09 nm) interplanar distance is. At the same time, the chemical bonds between atoms in a heteroatomic plane of reduced carbon nitride correspond to the bonds in a synthesized g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The samples of water-soluble carbon nitride oxide were synthesized under the special reactionary conditions of a pyrolysis of melamine and urea. We believe that reduced carbon nitride consists of weakly connected carbon-nitrogen monosheets (azagraphene sheets) as well as reduced (from graphene oxide) graphene contains weakly connected graphene sheets. - Graphical abstract: XRD pattern and schematic atomic model of one layer of reduced carbon nitride, carbon nitride oxide and synthesized carbon nitride. For the first time at the reduction by hydroquinone of the water-soluble carbon nitride oxide (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4})O is obtained the reduced carbon nitride (or reduced multi-layer azagraphene). Display Omitted - Highlights: • First the reduced carbon nitride (RCN) at the reduction of the carbon nitride oxide was obtained. • Water-soluble carbon nitride oxide was reduced by hydroquinone. • The chemical bonds in a heteroatomic plane of RCN correspond to the bonds in a synthesized g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Reduced carbon nitride consists of poorly connected heteroatomic azagraphene layers.

  2. Biogeochemistry of a Field-Scale Sulfate Reducing Bioreactor Treating Mining Influenced Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, D.; Lee, I.; Landkamer, L.; Figueroa, L. A.; Webb, S.; Sharp, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    Acidity, metal release, and toxicity may be environmental health concerns in areas influenced by mining. Mining influenced waters (MIW) can be remediated through the establishment of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors (SRBRs) as part of engineered passive treatment systems. The objective of our research is an enhanced understanding of the biogeochemistry in SRBRs by combining molecular biological and geochemical techniques. Bioreactor reactive substrate, settling pond water, and effluent (from the SRBR) were collected from a field scale SRBR in Arizona, which has been in operation for approximately 3 years. Schematically, the water passes through the SRBR; combines with flow that bypasses the SRBR into the and goes into the mixing pond, and finally is released as effluent to aerobic polishing cells. High throughput sequencing of extracted DNA revealed that Proteobacteria dominated the reactive substrate (61%), settling pond (93%), and effluent (50%), with the next most abundant phylum in all samples (excluding uncultured organisms) being Bacteriodes (1-17%). However, at the superclass level, the three samples were more variable. Gammaproteobacteria dominated the reactive substrate (35%), Betaproteobacteria in the settling pond (63%) and finally the effluent was dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria (Helicobacteraceae) (43%). Diversity was most pronounced in association with the reactor matrix, and least diverse in the settling pond. Putative functional analysis revealed a modest presence of sulfate/sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB) (>5%) in both the matrix and settling pond but a much higher abundance (43%) of sulfur reducing bacteria in the effluent. Interestingly this effluent population was composed entirely of the family Helicobacteraceae (sulfur reduction II via polysulfide pathway). Other putative functions of interest include metal reduction in the matrix (3%) and effluent (3%), as well as polysaccharide degradation, which was largely abundant in all samples (21

  3. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong, E-mail: tong.yu@ualberta.ca; Liu, Yang, E-mail: yang.liu@ualberta.ca

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H{sub 2}S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the

  4. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H 2 S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H 2 S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H 2 S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the biofilm.

  5. In situ evaluation of water and energy consumptions at the end use level: The influence of flow reducers and temperature in baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, C; Briga-Sá, A; Bentes, I; Faria, D; Pereira, S

    2017-05-15

    Nowadays, water and energy consumption is intensifying every year in most of the countries. This perpetual increase will not be supportable in the long run, making urgently to manage these resources on a sustainable way. Domestic consumptions of water and electric energy usually are related and it's important to study that relation, identifying opportunities for use efficient improvement. In fact, without an understanding of water-energy relations, there are water efficiency measures that may lead to unintentional costs in the energy efficiency field. In order to take full advantage of combined effect between water and energy water management methodologies, it is necessary to collect data to ensure that the efforts are directed through the most effective paths. This paper presents a study based in the characterization, measurement and analysis of water and electricity consumption in a single family house (2months period) in order to find an interdependent relationship between consumptions at the end user level. The study was carried out on about 200 baths, divided in four different scenarios where the influence of two variables was tested: the flow reducer valve and the bath temperature. Data showed that the presence of flow reducer valve decreased electric energy consumption and water consumption, but increased the bath duration. Setting a lower temperature in water-heater, decreased electric consumption, water consumption and bath duration. Analysing the influence of the flow reducer valve and 60°C temperature simultaneously, it was concluded that it had a significant influence on electric energy consumption and on the baths duration but had no influence on water consumption. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and Analysis of Thorium-fueled Reduced Moderation Boiling Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Phillip Michael

    then created for each design, using the Serpent/PARCS 3-D core simulator, and the full core performance was assessed. The RBWR-SS benefited from a harder spectrum than the RBWR-TR; a hard spectrum promotes breeding and increases the discharge burnup, but reduces the TRU transmutation rate. This led the RBWR-SS to have a very tight lattice, which has a lot of experimental uncertainty in the thermal hydraulic correlations. Two different RBWR-SS designs were created assuming different thermal hydraulic assumptions: the RBWR-SSH used the same assumptions as Hitachi used for the RBWR-AC, while the RBWR-SSM used more conservative correlations recommended by collaborators at MIT. However, the void feedback of the pure Th-fed system was too strongly negative, even with a single elongated seed. Therefore, instead of using just thorium, the self-sustaining designs were fed with a mix of between 30% and 50% DU and the rest thorium in order to keep the void feedback as close to zero as possible. This was not necessary for the RBWR-TR, as the external TRU feed fulfilled a similar role. Unfortunately, it was found that the RBWR-SSM could not sustain a critical cycle without either significantly downgrading the power or supplying an external feed of fissile material. While the RBWR-SSH and the RBWR-TR could reach similar burnups and transmutation rates to their DU-fueled counterparts as designed by Hitachi, the thorium designs were unable to simultaneously have negative void feedback and sufficient shutdown margin to shut down the core. The multi-seed approach of the Hitachi designs allowed their reactors to have much lower magnitudes of Doppler feedback than the single-seed designs, which helps them to have sufficient shutdown margin. It is expected that thorium-fueled RBWRs designed to have multiple seeds would permit adequate shutdown margin, although care would need to be taken in order to avoid running into the same issues as the DU fueled RBWRs. Alternatively, it may be

  7. Numerical study of water entry supercavitating flow around a vertical circular cylinder influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C X; Cheng, J P; Li, F C

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to introduce a numerical simulation procedure to simulate water-entry problems influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives in a viscous incompressible medium. Firstly we performed a numerical investigation on water-entry supercavities in water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at the impact velocity of 28.4 m/s to confirm the accuracy of the numerical method. Based on the verification, projectile entering water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at relatively high velocity of 142.7 m/s (phase transition is considered) is simulated. The cross viscosity equation was adopted to represent the shear-thinning characteristic of aqueous solution of drag-reducing additives. The configuration and dynamic characteristics of water entry supercavity, flow resistance were discussed respectively. It was obtained that the numerical simulation results are in consistence with experimental data. Numerical results show that the supercavity length in drag-reducing solution is larger than one in water and the velocity attenuates faster at high velocity than at low velocity; the influence of drag-reducing solution is more obvious at high impact velocity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the great potential for enhancement of supercavity

  8. Glycophospholipid Formulation with NADH and CoQ10 Significantly Reduces Intractable Fatigue in Western Blot-Positive ‘Chronic Lyme Disease’ Patients: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth L. Nicolson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An open label 8-week preliminary study was conducted in a small number of patients to determine if a combination oral supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids, coenzyme Q10 and microencapsulated NADH and other nutrients could affect fatigue levels in long-term, Western blot-positive, multi-symptom ‘chronic Lyme disease’ patients (also called ‘post-treatment Lyme disease’ or ‘post Lyme syndrome’ with intractable fatigue. Methods: The subjects in this study were 6 males (mean age = 45.1 ± 12.4 years and 10 females (mean age = 54.6 ± 7.4 years with ‘chronic Lyme disease’ (determined by multiple symptoms and positive Western blot analysis that had been symptomatic with chronic fatigue for an average of 12.7 ± 6.6 years. They had been seen by multiple physicians (13.3 ± 7.6 and had used many other remedies, supplements and drugs (14.4 ± 7.4 without fatigue relief. Fatigue was monitored at 0, 7, 30 and 60 days using a validated instrument, the Piper Fatigue Scale.Results: Patients in this preliminary study responded to the combination test supplement, showing a 26% reduction in overall fatigue by the end of the 8-week trial (p< 0.0003. Analysis of subcategories of fatigue indicated that there were significant improvements in the ability to complete tasks and activities as well as significant improvements in mood and cognitive abilities. Regression analysis of the data indicated that reductions in fatigue were consistent and occurred with a high degree of confidence (R2= 0.998. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(3:35-47 Conclusions: The combination supplement was a safe and effective method to significantly reduce intractable fatigue in long-term patients with Western blot-positive ‘chronic Lyme disease.’

  9. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivinius R

    2016-02-01

    group (P=0.0123. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596, 2-year (P=0.8620, 5-year (P=0.2737, or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049. Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786.Conclusion: Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with increased mortality after HTX. Keywords: amiodarone, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, heart transplantation, mortality

  10. A proper choice of route significantly reduces air pollution exposure--a study on bicycle and bus trips in urban streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Ole; Hvidberg, Martin; Ketzel, Matthias; Storm, Lars; Stausgaard, Lizzi

    2008-01-15

    A proper selection of route through the urban area may significantly reduce the air pollution exposure. This is the main conclusion from the presented study. Air pollution exposure is determined for two selected cohorts along the route going from home to working place, and back from working place to home. Exposure is determined with a street pollution model for three scenarios: bicycling along the shortest possible route, bicycling along the low exposure route along less trafficked streets, and finally taking the shortest trip using public transport. Furthermore, calculations are performed for the cases the trip takes place inside as well as outside the traffic rush hours. The results show that the accumulated air pollution exposure for the low exposure route is between 10% and 30% lower for the primary pollutants (NO(x) and CO). However, the difference is insignificant and in some cases even negative for the secondary pollutants (NO(2) and PM(10)/PM(2.5)). Considering only the contribution from traffic in the travelled streets, the accumulated air pollution exposure is between 54% and 67% lower for the low exposure route. The bus is generally following highly trafficked streets, and the accumulated exposure along the bus route is therefore between 79% and 115% higher than the high exposure bicycle route (the short bicycle route). Travelling outside the rush hour time periods reduces the accumulated exposure between 10% and 30% for the primary pollutants, and between 5% and 20% for the secondary pollutants. The study indicates that a web based route planner for selecting the low exposure route through the city might be a good service for the public. In addition the public may be advised to travel outside rush hour time periods.

  11. Pressure drop characteristics in tight-lattice bundles for reduced-moderation water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Hidesada; Kureta, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2004-01-01

    The reduced-moderation water reactor (RMWR) consists of several distinctive structures; a triangular tight-lattice configuration and a double-flat core. In order to design the RMWR core from the point of view of thermal-hydraulics, an evaluation method on pressure drop characteristics in the rod bundles at the tight-lattice configuration is required. In this study, calculated results by the Martinelli-Nelson's and Hancox's correlations were compared with experimental results in 4 x 5 rod bundles and seven-rod bundles. Consequently, the friction loss in two-phase flows becomes smaller at the tight-lattice configuration with the hydraulic diameter less than about 3 mm. This reason is due to the difference of the configuration between the multi-rod bundle and the circular tube and due to the effect of the small hydraulic diameter on the two-phase multiplier. (author)

  12. Orthogonal optimization of a water hydraulic pilot-operated pressure-reducing valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuyao; Wu, Chao; Li, Bin; Wu, Di

    2017-12-01

    In order to optimize the comprehensive characteristics of a water hydraulic pilot-operated pressure-reducing valve, numerical orthogonal experimental design was adopted. Six parameters of the valve, containing diameters of damping plugs, volume of spring chamber, half cone angle of main spool, half cone angle of pilot spool, mass of main spool and diameter of main spool, were selected as the orthogonal factors, and each factor has five different levels. An index of flowrate stability, pressure stability and pressure overstrike stability (iFPOS) was used to judge the merit of each orthogonal attempt. Embedded orthogonal process turned up and a final optimal combination of these parameters was obtained after totally 50 numerical orthogonal experiments. iFPOS could be low to a fairly low value which meant that the valve could have much better stabilities. During the optimization, it was also found the diameters of damping plugs and main spool played important roles in stability characteristics of the valve.

  13. Redistributing environmental tax revenue to reduce poverty in South Africa: The cases of energy and water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JH Van Heerden

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa, as an upper middle-income, resource-intensive developing country with an open economy, has to find innovative ways to combat poverty, promote economic growth and reduce the intensity of resource use, simultaneously.  One option is to explore the plausibility of achieving a double dividend by levying a tax on water and energy and recycling the revenue back to the economy by allowing for a reduction in other forms of taxation.  According to the double dividend theory it is possible, under some conditions, to achieve both environmental and economic objectives.  We investigated such a possibility in the South African economy using an integrated economy/environment CGE model and found that it is indeed possible to achieve such double dividend benefits.  Given the prevailing economic and environmental contexts, government should actively search for ways to achieve such dividends.

  14. Water extract of Acer tegmentosum reduces bone destruction by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hyunil; Shim, Ki-Shuk; Kim, Taesoo; An, Hyosun; Lee, Chung-Jo; Lee, Kwang Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-04-01

    The stem of Acer tegmentosum has been widely used in Korea for the treatment of hepatic disorders. In this study, we investigated the bone protective effect of water extract of the stem of Acer tegmentosum (WEAT). We found that WEAT inhibits osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), an essential cytokine for osteoclast differentiation. In osteoclast precursor cells, WEAT inhibited RANKL-induced activation of JNK, NF-κB, and cAMP response element-binding protein, leading to suppression of the induction of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, key transcription factors for osteoclast differentiation. In addition, WEAT inhibited bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Furthermore, the oral administration of WEAT reduced RANKL-induced bone resorption and trabecular bone loss in mice. Taken together, our study demonstrates that WEAT possesses a protective effect on bone destruction by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and function.

  15. Water hardness reduces the accumulation and toxicity of uranium in a freshwater macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markich, Scott J., E-mail: smarkich@optusnet.com.au

    2013-01-15

    There is a lack of good quality data and mechanistic understanding on the effects of true water hardness (calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)) on the bioavailability and toxicity of uranium (U) to freshwater biota. This study determined the effect of true water hardness (20, 75, 150, 275 and 400 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup −1}) on the cell surface binding affinity (log K), accumulation and toxicity (growth inhibition) of U in a submerged, rootless, macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum) in a synthetic freshwater with constant alkalinity (13 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup −1}) and pH (6.2) over 7 days. A 20-fold increase in water hardness resulted in a 4-fold decrease in U toxicity (median effect concentration (EC50) = 134 μg L{sup −1} U at 20 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup −1} hardness, increasing to 547 μg L{sup −1} U at 400 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup −1} hardness), cell surface binding affinity (log K = 6.25 at 20 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup −1} hardness, decreasing to log K = 5.64 at 400 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup −1} hardness) and accumulation (the concentration factor decreased from 63 at 20 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup −1} hardness to 15 at 400 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup −1} hardness) of U. Calcium provided a 4-fold greater protective effect against U accumulation and toxicity compared to Mg. Speciation calculations indicated negligible differences in the percentages of key U species (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}OH{sup +}, UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}) over the range of water hardness tested. The inhibition of U binding at the cell surface, and subsequent uptake, by C. demersum, with increasing Ca and/or Mg concentration, may be explained in terms of (i) competition between Ca{sup 2+}/Mg{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} (and/or UO{sub 2}OH{sup +}) for physiologically active sites at the cell surface, and/or (ii) reduced negative charge (electrical potential) at the cell surface, resulting in a decrease in the activity of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} (and/or UO{sub 2}OH{sup +}) at the plant/water interface (boundary layer

  16. Efficient degradation of trichloroethylene in water using persulfate activated by reduced graphene oxide-iron nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayyaz; Gu, Xiaogang; Li, Li; Lv, Shuguang; Xu, Yisheng; Guo, Xuhong

    2015-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and nano-sized zero-valent iron-reduced graphene oxide (nZVI-rGO) composite were prepared. The GO and nZVI-rGO composite were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy. The size of nZVI was about 6 nm as observed by TEM. The system of nZVI-rGO and persulfate (PS) was used for the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water, and showed 26.5% more efficiency as compared to nZVI/PS system. The different parameters were studied to determine the efficiency of nZVI-rGO to activate the PS system for the TCE degradation. By increasing the PS amount, TCE removal was also improved while no obvious effect was observed by varying the catalyst loading. Degradation was decreased as the TCE initial concentration was increased from 20 to 100 mg/L. Moreover, when initial solution pH was increased, efficiency deteriorated to 80%. Bicarbonate showed more negative effect on TCE removal among the solution matrix. To better understand the effects of radical species in the system, the scavenger tests were performed. The •SO4(-) and •O2(-) were predominant species responsible for TCE removal. The nZVI-rGO-activated PS process shows potential applications in remediation of highly toxic organic contaminants such as TCE present in the groundwater. Graphical abstract Persulfate activated by reduced graphene oxide and nano-sized zero-valent iron composite can be used for efficient degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water.

  17. Mitigating with macrophytes: submersed plants reduce the toxicity of pesticide-contaminated water to zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2013-03-01

    In ecotoxicology, appreciation is growing for the influence that ecological interactions have on the toxicity of contaminants, such as insecticides, to sensitive species. Most previous studies, however, have focused on factors that exacerbate insecticide effects on species, while factors that may mitigate these effects have been relatively ignored. In aquatic habitats, a small number of studies have shown that submersed macrophytes can remove some insecticides from the water column via sorption. Although examining sorption dynamics is important for understanding the environmental fate of insecticides, whether and to what extent macrophytes actually mitigate insecticide effects on aquatic species remains unknown. In the present study, the authors examined how much and how quickly several realistic densities of the macrophyte Elodea canadensis decreased the toxicity of the insecticide malathion to Daphnia magna, a keystone aquatic herbivore. To do this, the authors quantified Daphnia survival in outdoor test systems (0.95 L) exposed to a factorial combination of five Elodea densities crossed with five malathion concentrations. The authors discovered that malathion's lethality to Daphnia decreased with increasing Elodea density. Furthermore, the rate at which Elodea reduced malathion's toxicity in the water column increased with macrophyte density. These results provide strong evidence that submersed macrophytes can mitigate the ecological impacts of a popular insecticide and further support that ecological interactions can strongly influence contaminant environmental effects. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  18. Physico-Chemical, Biological and Therapeutic Characteristics of Electrolyzed Reduced Alkaline Water (ERAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Henry

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of alkaline reduced water produced by domestic electrolysis devices was approved in Japan in 1965 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare for the cure of gastro-intestinal disorders. Today, these devices are freely available in several countries and can be easily purchased without reserve. The commercial information included with the device recommends the consumption of 1–1.5 L of water per day, not only for gastro-intestinal disorders but also for numerous other illnesses such as diabetes, cancer, inflammation, etc. Academic research in Japan on this subject has been undergoing since 1990 only but has established that the active ingredient is dissolved dihydrogen that eliminates the free radical HO• in vivo. In addition, it was demonstrated that degradation of the electrodes during functioning of the device releases very reactive nanoparticles of platinum, the toxicity of which has not yet been clearly proven. This report recommends alerting health authorities of the uncontrolled availability of these devices used as health products, but which generate drug substances and should therefore be sold according to regulatory requirements.

  19. A Rosa canina - Urtica dioica - Harpagophytum procumbens/zeyheri Combination Significantly Reduces Gonarthritis Symptoms in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Margret; Gruenwald, Joerg; Pohl, Ute; Uebelhack, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    The special formulation MA212 (Rosaxan) is composed of rosehip ( Rosa canina L.) puree/juice concentrate, nettle ( Urtica dioica L.) leaf extract, and devil's claw ( Harpagophytum procumbens DC. ex Meisn. or Harpagophytum zeyheri Decne.) root extract and also supplies vitamin D. It is a food for special medical purposes ([EU] No 609/2013) for the dietary management of pain in patients with gonarthritis.This 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind parallel-design study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of MA212 versus placebo in patients with gonarthritis.A 3D-HPLC-fingerprint (3-dimensional high pressure liquid chromatography fingerprint) of MA212 demonstrated the presence of its herbal ingredients. Ninety-two randomized patients consumed 40 mL of MA212 (n = 46) or placebo (n = 44) daily. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), quality-of-life scores at 0, 6, and 12 weeks, and analgesic consumption were documented. Statistically, the initial WOMAC subscores/scores did not differ between groups. During the study, their means significantly improved in both groups. The mean pre-post change of the WOMAC pain score (primary endpoint) was 29.87 in the MA212 group and 10.23 in the placebo group. The group difference demonstrated a significant superiority in favor of MA212 (p U  < 0.001; p t  < 0.001). Group comparisons of all WOMAC subscores/scores at 6 and 12 weeks reached same significances. Compared to placebo, both physical and mental quality of life significantly improved with MA212. There was a trend towards reduced analgesics consumption with MA212, compared to placebo. In the final efficacy evaluation, physicians (p Chi  < 0.001) and patients (p Chi  < 0.001) rated MA212 superior to placebo. MA212 was well tolerated.This study demonstrates excellent efficacy for MA212 in gonarthritis patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Climate change reduces water availability for agriculture by decreasing non-evaporative irrigation losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Keyvan; Adam, Jennifer C.; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Peters, R. Troy

    2018-06-01

    Irrigation efficiency plays an important role in agricultural productivity; it affects farm-scale water demand, and the partitioning of irrigation losses into evaporative and non-evaporative components. This partitioning determines return flow generation and thus affects water availability. Over the last two decades, hydrologic and agricultural research communities have significantly improved our understanding of the impacts of climate change on water availability and food productivity. However, the impacts of climate change on the efficiency of irrigation systems, particularly on the partitioning between evaporative and non-evaporative losses, have received little attention. In this study, we incorporated a process-based irrigation module into a coupled hydrologic/agricultural modeling framework (VIC-CropSyst). To understand how climate change may impact irrigation losses, we applied VIC-CropSyst over the Yakima River basin, an important agricultural region in Washington State, U.S. We compared the historical period of 1980-2010 to an ensemble of ten projections of climate for two future periods: 2030-2060 and 2060-2090. Results averaged over the watershed showed that a 9% increase in evaporative losses will be compensated by a reduction of non-evaporative losses. Therefore, overall changes in future efficiency are negligible (-0.4%) while the Evaporative Loss Ratio (ELR) (defined as the ratio of evaporative to non-evaporative irrigation losses) is enhanced by 10%. This higher ELR is associated with a reduction in return flows, thus negatively impacting downstream water availability. Results also indicate that the impact of climate change on irrigation losses depend on irrigation type and climate scenarios.

  1. Investigating the significance of zero-point motion in small molecular clusters of sulphuric acid and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinson, Jake L.; Ford, Ian J.; Kathmann, Shawn M.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleation of particles from trace gases in the atmosphere is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei, and these are vital for the formation of clouds in view of the high supersaturations required for homogeneous water droplet nucleation. The methods of quantum chemistry have increasingly been employed to model nucleation due to their high accuracy and efficiency in calculating configurational energies; and nucleation rates can be obtained from the associated free energies of particle formation. However, even in such advanced approaches, it is typically assumed that the nuclei have a classical nature, which is questionable for some systems. The importance of zero-point motion (also known as quantum nuclear dynamics) in modelling small clusters of sulphuric acid and water is tested here using the path integral molecular dynamics method at the density functional level of theory. The general effect of zero-point motion is to distort the mean structure slightly, and to promote the extent of proton transfer with respect to classical behaviour. In a particular configuration of one sulphuric acid molecule with three waters, the range of positions explored by a proton between a sulphuric acid and a water molecule at 300 K (a broad range in contrast to the confinement suggested by geometry optimisation at 0 K) is clearly affected by the inclusion of zero point motion, and similar effects are observed for other configurations

  2. Optimisation and significance of ATP analysis for measuring active biomass in granular activated carbon filters used in water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magic-Knezev, A.; Kooij, van der D.

    2004-01-01

    A method for determining the concentration of active microbial biomass in granular activated carbon (GAC) filters used in water treatment was developed to facilitate studies on the interactions between adsorption processes and biological activity in such filters. High-energy sonication at a power

  3. Significance, evolution and recent advances in adsorption technology, materials and processes for desalination, water softening and salt removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaei Shahmirzadi, Mohammad Amin; Hosseini, Seyed Saeid; Luo, Jianquan; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2018-06-01

    Desalination and softening of sea, brackish, and ground water are becoming increasingly important solutions to overcome water shortage challenges. Various technologies have been developed for salt removal from water resources including multi-stage flash, multi-effect distillation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, electrodialysis, as well as adsorption. Recently, removal of solutes by adsorption onto selective adsorbents has shown promising perspectives. Different types of adsorbents such as zeolites, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), activated carbons, graphenes, magnetic adsorbents, and low-cost adsorbents (natural materials, industrial by-products and wastes, bio-sorbents, and biopolymer) have been synthesized and examined for salt removal from aqueous solutions. It is obvious from literature that the existing adsorbents have good potentials for desalination and water softening. Besides, nano-adsorbents have desirable surface area and adsorption capacity, though are not found at economically viable prices and still have challenges in recovery and reuse. On the other hand, natural and modified adsorbents seem to be efficient alternatives for this application compared to other types of adsorbents due to their availability and low cost. Some novel adsorbents are also emerging. Generally, there are a few issues such as low selectivity and adsorption capacity, process efficiency, complexity in preparation or synthesis, and problems associated to recovery and reuse that require considerable improvements in research and process development. Moreover, large-scale applications of sorbents and their practical utility need to be evaluated for possible commercialization and scale up. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Combined subcritical water and enzymatic hydrolysis for reducing sugar production from coconut husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharja, Maktum; Junianti, Fitri; Nurtono, Tantular; Widjaja, Arief

    2017-05-01

    Coconut husk wastes are abundantly available in Indonesia. It has a potential to be used into alternative renewable energy sources such as hydrogen using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by a fermentation process. Unfortunately, enzymatic hydrolysis is hampered by the complex structure of lignocellulose, so the cellulose component is hard to degrade. In this study, Combined Subcritical Water (SCW) and enzymatic hydrolysis are applied to enhance fermentable, thereby reducing production of sugar from coconut husk. There were two steps in this study, the first step was coconut husk pretreated by SCW in batch reactor at 80 bar and 150-200°C for 60 minutes reaction time. Secondly, solid fraction from the results of SCW was hydrolyzed using the mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes. Analysis was conducted on untreated and SCW-treated by gravimetric assay, liquid fraction after SCW and solid fraction after enzymatic hydrolysis using DNS assay. The maximum yield of reducing sugar (including xylose, arabinose glucose, galactose, mannose) was 1.254 gr per 6 gr raw material, representing 53.95% of total sugar in coconut husk biomass which was obtained at 150°C 80 bar for 60 minutes reaction time of SCW-treated and 6 hour of enzymatic hydrolysis using mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes (18.6 U /gram of coconut husk).

  5. Biotreatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters by sulphate reducing bacteria fed with ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnanelli, F., E-mail: francesca.pagnanelli@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cruz Viggi, C., E-mail: carolina.cruzviggi@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cibati, A., E-mail: alessio.cibati@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Uccelletti, D., E-mail: daniela.uccelletti@uniroma1.it [Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Toro, L., E-mail: luigi.toro@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Palleschi, C., E-mail: claudio.palleschi@uniroma1.it [Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of ethanol as electron donor for sulphate-reducing bacteria for the treatment of Cr(VI). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation of contribution in Cr removal (adsorption vs. bioprecipitation). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioassessment of the process effectiveness by ecotoxicological in vivo tests using C. elegans. - Abstract: Biological treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters was performed in fixed bed reactors inoculated with SRB (sulphate-reducing bacteria) growing on ethanol. Treatment efficiency was evaluated by checking chemical abatement of Cr(VI) and by ecotoxicological tests using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A preliminary comparison between ethanol and lactate was performed, denoting that using ethanol, the same values of final sulphate abatement were obtained. In addition ethanol showed to be a substrate more competitive than lactate in kinetic terms. Fixed bed column reactors were continuously fed with a solution containing sulphates (3 g L{sup -1}), ethanol (1.5 g L{sup -1}) and Cr(VI) (50 mg L{sup -1}). At steady state the column inoculated with SRB removed 65 {+-} 5% of sulphate and 95 {+-} 5% of chromium. Bioactive removal mechanisms predominated over biosorption. Diminution of Cr(VI) toxicity was assessed by using the nematode C. elegans as a test organism showing that the survival of nematodes was 20% in the presence of the untreated influent and raised up to 53% when the nematodes were exposed to the treated effluent.

  6. Biotreatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters by sulphate reducing bacteria fed with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnanelli, F.; Cruz Viggi, C.; Cibati, A.; Uccelletti, D.; Toro, L.; Palleschi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Use of ethanol as electron donor for sulphate-reducing bacteria for the treatment of Cr(VI). ► Isolation of contribution in Cr removal (adsorption vs. bioprecipitation). ► Bioassessment of the process effectiveness by ecotoxicological in vivo tests using C. elegans. - Abstract: Biological treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters was performed in fixed bed reactors inoculated with SRB (sulphate-reducing bacteria) growing on ethanol. Treatment efficiency was evaluated by checking chemical abatement of Cr(VI) and by ecotoxicological tests using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A preliminary comparison between ethanol and lactate was performed, denoting that using ethanol, the same values of final sulphate abatement were obtained. In addition ethanol showed to be a substrate more competitive than lactate in kinetic terms. Fixed bed column reactors were continuously fed with a solution containing sulphates (3 g L −1 ), ethanol (1.5 g L −1 ) and Cr(VI) (50 mg L −1 ). At steady state the column inoculated with SRB removed 65 ± 5% of sulphate and 95 ± 5% of chromium. Bioactive removal mechanisms predominated over biosorption. Diminution of Cr(VI) toxicity was assessed by using the nematode C. elegans as a test organism showing that the survival of nematodes was 20% in the presence of the untreated influent and raised up to 53% when the nematodes were exposed to the treated effluent.

  7. Myocardial fatty acid imaging with 123I-BMIPP in patients with chronic right ventricular pressure overload. Clinical significance of reduced uptake in interventricular septum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Yoshiro; Ishida, Yoshio; Fukuchi, Kazuki; Hayashida, Kouhei; Takamiya, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    Regionally reduced 123 I-beta-methyliodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) uptake in the interventricular septum (SEP) is observed in some patients with chronic right ventricular (RV) pressure overload. We studied the significance of this finding by comparing it with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP). 123 I-BMIPP SPECT imaging was carried out in 21 patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH; 51+-14 years; 11 men and 10 women; 7 with primary pulmonary hypertension, 11 with pulmonary thromboembolism, and 3 with atrial septal defect). mPAP ranged from 25 to 81 mmHg (49±16 mmHg). Using a midventricular horizontal long-axis plane, regional BMIPP distributions in the RV free wall and SEP were estimated by referring to those in the LV free wall. Count ratios of the RV free wall and SEP to the LV free wall (RV/LV, SEP/LV) were determined by ROI analysis. RV/LV showed a linear correlation with mPAP (r=0.42). However, SEP/LV was inversely correlated with mPAP (r=-0.49). When SEP/RV was compared among three regions of SEP in each patient, basal SEP/RV was most sensitively decreased in response to increased mPAP (r=-0.70). These results suggest that the assessment of septal tracer uptake in 123 I-BMIPP SPECT imaging is useful for evaluating the severity of RV pressure overload in patients with PH. (author)

  8. A critical review of measures to reduce radioactive doses from drinking water and consumption of freshwater foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.T.; Voitsekhovitch, O.V.; Haakanson, L.; Hilton, J.

    2001-01-01

    Following a radioactive fallout event, there are a number of possible intervention measures to reduce radioactive doses to the public via the surface water pathway. We have critically reviewed the options available to decision-makers in the event of radioactive contamination of surface waters. We believe that the most effective and viable measures to reduce radioactivity in drinking water are those which operate at the water treatment and distribution stage. Intervention measures to reduce concentrations of radioactivity in rivers and reservoirs are expected to be much less viable and efficient at reducing doses via the drinking water pathway. Bans on consumption of freshwater fish can be effective, but there are few viable measures to reduce radioactivity in fish prior to the preparation stage. Lake liming and biomanipulation have been found to be ineffective for radiocaesium, although the addition of potassium to lakewaters appears promising in some situations. Lake liming may be effective in reducing radiostrontium in fish, though this has not, to our knowledge, been tested. De-boning fish contaminated by strontium is probably the most effective food preparation measure, but salting and freezing can also reduce radiocaesium concentrations in fish. The provision of accurate information to the public is highlighted as a key element of countermeasure implementation

  9. Research and development on reduced-moderation light water reactor with passive safety features (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Akie, Hiroshi; Kugo, Teruhiko; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Kureta, Masatoshi; Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Nagaya, Yasunobu; Araya, Fumimasa; Okajima, Shigeaki; Okumura, Keisuke; Suzuki, Motoe; Mineo, Hideaki; Nakatsuka, Toru

    2004-06-01

    The present report contains the achievement of 'Research and Development on Reduced-moderation Light Water Reactor with Passive Safety Features', which was performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Hitachi Ltd., Japan Atomic Power Company and Tokyo Institute of Technology in FY2000-2002 as the innovative and viable nuclear energy technology (IVNET) development project operated by the Institute of Applied Energy (IAE). In the present project, the reduced-moderation water reactor (RMWR) has been developed to ensure sustainable energy supply and to solve the recent problems of nuclear power and nuclear fuel cycle, such as economical competitiveness, effective use of plutonium and reduction of spent fuel storage. The RMWR can attain the favorable characteristics such as high burnup, long operation cycle, multiple recycling of plutonium (Pu) and effective utilization of uranium resources based on accumulated LWR technologies. Our development target is 'Reduced-moderation Light Water Reactor with Passive Safety Features' with innovative technologies to achieve above mentioned requirement. Electric power is selected as 300 MWe considering anticipated size required for future deployment. The reactor core consists of MOX fuel assemblies with tight lattice arrangement to increase the conversion ratio. Design targets of the core specification are conversion ratio more than unity, negative void reactivity feedback coefficient to assure safety, discharged burnup more than 60 GWd/t and operation cycle more than 2 years. As for the reactor system, a small size natural circulation BWR with passive safety systems is adopted to increase safety and reduce construction cost. The results obtained are as follows: As regards core design study, core design was performed to meet the goal. Sequence of startup operation was constructed for the RMWR. As the plant design, plant system was designed to achieve enhanced economy using passive safety system effectively. In

  10. Nitrate and sulfate reducers-retrievable number of bacteria and their activities in Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    Culturable heterotrophic, nitrate reducing and sulfate reducing bacteria (HB, NRB and SRB) were enumerated from 25, 50, 100 and 200 m depths at 15 stations and their potential activities viz. Nitrate reducing (NRA) and Sulfate reducing (SRA) were...

  11. Physicochemical interactions at metal-water interfaces and their significance to deposition problems at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswaran, G; VENKATESWARLU, K S [BHABHA ATOMIC RESEARCH CENTRE, BOMBAY (INDIA). CHEMISTRY DIV.

    1977-01-01

    An attempt has been made to understand deposit formation in the general framework of interface processes involving : (1) surface potentials of the oxide particles which when released from the constructional materials are the main contaminants in the high temperature coolant water, (2) pH and (3) factors such as conductivity, temperature and velocity of coolant which influence surface potential. Measures suggested to avoid deposition formation are : (1) for new reactors, proper adjustment of the pH of various water systems and change of material of construction so as to minimise the force of attraction between the system surfaces and deposit forming species and (2) for existing reactors, replacement of certain parts like valve seals, orifice plate, strainers etc. by better compatible materials and even metallising certain surfaces so as to repel the circulating crud.

  12. The soil sulphate effect and maize plant (Zea mays L.) growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) inoculation in acid sulfate soils with the different soil water condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmarlaili, S.; Rauf, A.; Hanafiah, D. S.; Sudarno, Y.; Abdi, P.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the potential application of sulphate reducing bacteria on acid sulfate soil with different water content in the green house. The research was carried out in the Laboratory and Green House, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sumatera Utara. This research used Randomized Block Design with two treatments factors, ie sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) isolate (control, LK4, LK6, TSM4, TSM3, AP4, AP3, LK4 + TSM3, LK4 + AP4, LK4 + AP3, LK6 + TSM3, LK6 + AP4, LK6 + AP3, TSM4 + TSM3, TSM4 + AP4, TSM4 + AP3) and water condition (100% field capacity and 110% field capacity). The results showed that application of isolate LK4 + AP4 with water condition 110% field capacity decreased the soil sulphate content (27.38 ppm) significantly after 6 weeks. Application of isolate LK4 + AP3 with water condition 110% field capacity increased soil pH (5.58) after-week efficacy 6. Application of isolate LK4 with water condition 110% field capacity increased plant growth (140 cm; 25.74 g) significantly after week 6. The best treatment was application isolate LK4 with water condition 110% field Capacity (SRB population 2.5x108; soil sulphate content 29.10ppm; soil acidity 4.78; plant height 140cm; plant weight 25.74g).

  13. PARP-1 depletion in combination with carbon ion exposure significantly reduces MMPs activity and overall increases TIMPs expression in cultured HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Sarma, Asitikantha; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Ghosh, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Hadron therapy is an innovative technique where cancer cells are precisely killed leaving surrounding healthy cells least affected by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation like carbon ion beam. Anti-metastatic effect of carbon ion exposure attracts investigators into the field of hadron biology, although details remain poor. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors are well-known radiosensitizer and several PARP-1 inhibitors are in clinical trial. Our previous studies showed that PARP-1 depletion makes the cells more radiosensitive towards carbon ion than gamma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate combining effects of PARP-1 inhibition with carbon ion exposure to control metastatic properties in HeLa cells. Activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, MMP-9) were measured using the gelatin zymography after 85 MeV carbon ion exposure or gamma irradiation (0- 4 Gy) to compare metastatic potential between PARP-1 knock down (HsiI) and control cells (H-vector - HeLa transfected with vector without shRNA construct). Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of MMPs such as TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 were checked by immunofluorescence and western blot. Cell death by trypan blue, apoptosis and autophagy induction were studied after carbon ion exposure in each cell-type. The data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and 2-tailed paired-samples T-test. PARP-1 silencing significantly reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and carbon ion exposure further diminished their activities to less than 3 % of control H-vector. On the contrary, gamma radiation enhanced both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in H-vector but not in HsiI cells. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in H-vector and HsiI showed different pattern after carbon ion exposure. All three TIMPs were increased in HsiI, whereas only TIMP-1 was up-regulated in H-vector after irradiation. Notably, the expressions of all TIMPs were significantly higher in HsiI than H-vector at 4 Gy. Apoptosis was

  14. Symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n reduce methylation of RARB and PTEN while significantly increase methylation of rRNA genes in MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Kostyuk

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome.It is shown that DBP(n are able to penetrate the cellular membranes and accumulate in breast carcinoma cell MCF-7, mainly in the mitochondria and in the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. The DBP(n are non-toxic to the cells and have a weak overall demethylation effect on genomic DNA. DBP(n demethylate the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and RARB. DBP(n promotes expression of the genes RARB, PTEN, CDKN2A, RUNX3, Apaf-1 and APC "silent" in the MCF-7 because of the hypermethylation of their promoter regions. Simultaneously with the demethylation of the DNA in the nucleus a significant increase in the methylation level of rRNA genes in the nucleolus was detected. Increased rDNA methylation correlated with a reduction of the rRNA amount in the cells by 20-30%. It is assumed that during DNA methyltransferase activity inhibition by the DBP(n in the nucleus, the enzyme is sequestered in the nucleolus and provides additional methylation of the rDNA that are not shielded by DBP(n.It is concluded that DBP (n are able to accumulate in the nucleus (excluding the nucleolus area and in the mitochondria of cancer cells, reducing mitochondrial potential. The DBP (n induce the demethylation of a cancer cell's genome, including the demethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. DBP (n significantly increase the methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the nucleoli. Therefore the further study of these compounds is needed

  15. Holstein-Friesian calves selected for divergence in residual feed intake during growth exhibited significant but reduced residual feed intake divergence in their first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Pryce, J E; Spelman, R J; Davis, S R; Wales, W J; Waghorn, G C; Williams, Y J; Marett, L C; Hayes, B J

    2014-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), as a measure of feed conversion during growth, was estimated for around 2,000 growing Holstein-Friesian heifer calves aged 6 to 9 mo in New Zealand and Australia, and individuals from the most and least efficient deciles (low and high RFI phenotypes) were retained. These animals (78 New Zealand cows, 105 Australian cows) were reevaluated during their first lactation to determine if divergence for RFI observed during growth was maintained during lactation. Mean daily body weight (BW) gain during assessment as calves had been 0.86 and 1.15 kg for the respective countries, and the divergence in RFI between most and least efficient deciles for growth was 21% (1.39 and 1.42 kg of dry matter, for New Zealand and Australia, respectively). At the commencement of evaluation during lactation, the cows were aged 26 to 29 mo. All were fed alfalfa and grass cubes; it was the sole diet in New Zealand, whereas 6 kg of crushed wheat/d was also fed in Australia. Measurements of RFI during lactation occurred for 34 to 37 d with measurements of milk production (daily), milk composition (2 to 3 times per week), BW and BW change (1 to 3 times per week), as well as body condition score (BCS). Daily milk production averaged 13.8 kg for New Zealand cows and 20.0 kg in Australia. No statistically significant differences were observed between calf RFI decile groups for dry matter intake, milk production, BW change, or BCS; however a significant difference was noted between groups for lactating RFI. Residual feed intake was about 3% lower for lactating cows identified as most efficient as growing calves, and no negative effects on production were observed. These results support the hypothesis that calves divergent for RFI during growth are also divergent for RFI when lactating. The causes for this reduced divergence need to be investigated to ensure that genetic selection programs based on low RFI (better efficiency) are robust. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy

  16. A water extract of Mucuna pruriens provides long-term amelioration of parkinsonism with reduced risk for dyskinesias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Christopher A; Kunselman, Allen R; Manyam, Bala V; Venkiteswaran, Kala; Subramanian, Thyagarajan

    2010-08-01

    Dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian medications, such as levodopa (LD) cause drug-induced dyskinesias (DID) in majority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Mucuna pruriens, a legume extensively used in Ayurveda to treat PD, is reputed to provide anti-parkinsonian benefits without inducing DID. We compared the behavioral effects of chronic parenteral administration of a water extract of M. pruriens seed powder (MPE) alone without any additives, MPE combined with the peripheral dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor (DDCI) benserazide (MPE+BZ), LD+BZ and LD alone without BZ in the hemiparkinsonian rat model of PD. A battery of behavioral tests assessed by blinded investigators served as outcome measures in these randomized trials. In experiment 1, animals that received LD+BZ or MPE+BZ at high (6mg/kg) and medium (4mg/kg) equivalent doses demonstrated significant alleviation of parkinsonism, but, developed severe dose-dependent DID. LD+BZ at low doses (2mg/kg) did not provide significant alleviation of parkinsonism. In contrast, MPE+BZ at an equivalent low dose significantly ameliorated parkinsonism. In experiment 2, MPE without any additives (12mg/kg and 20mg/kg LD equivalent dose) alleviated parkinsonism with significantly less DID compared to LD+BZ or MPE+BZ. In experiment 3, MPE without additives administered chronically provided long-term anti-parkinsonian benefits without causing DID. In experiment 4, MPE alone provided significantly more behavioral benefit when compared to the equivalent dose of synthetic LD alone without BZ. In experiment 5, MPE alone reduced the severity of DID in animals initially primed with LD+BZ. These findings suggest that M. pruriens contains water-soluble ingredients that either have an intrinsic DDCI-like activity or mitigate the need for an add-on DDCI to ameliorate parkinsonism. These unique long-term anti-parkinsonian effects of a parenterally administered water extract of M. pruriens seed powder may provide a platform for future drug

  17. Dark chocolate reduces endothelial dysfunction after successive breath-hold dives in cool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Sigrid; Schumacker, Julie; Guerrero, François; Tillmans, Frauke; Boutros, Antoine; Lambrechts, Kate; Mazur, Aleksandra; Pieri, Massimo; Germonpré, Peter; Balestra, Costantino

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to observe the effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function after a series of successive apnea dives in non-thermoneutral water. Twenty breath-hold divers were divided into two groups: a control group (8 males and 2 females) and a chocolate group (9 males and 1 female). The control group was asked to perform a series of dives to 20 m adding up to 20 min in the quiet diving pool of Conflans-Ste-Honorine (Paris, France), water temperature was 27 °C. The chocolate group performed the dives 1 h after ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), digital photoplethysmography, nitric oxide (NO), and peroxynitrite ONOO−) levels were measured before and after each series of breath-hold dives. A significant decrease in FMD was observed in the control group after the dives (95.28 ± 2.9 % of pre-dive values, p chocolate group (104.1 ± 2.9 % of pre-dive values, p chocolate group (98.44 ± 31.86 %, p > 0.05). No differences in digital photoplethysmography and peroxynitrites were observed between before and after the dives. Antioxidants contained in dark chocolate scavenge free radicals produced during breath-hold diving. Ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate 1 h before the dive can thus prevent endothelial dysfunction which can be observed after a series of breath-hold dives.

  18. Multiple Ceratocystis smalleyi infections associated with reduced stem water transport in bitternut hickory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J-H; Juzwik, J; Cavender-Bares, J

    2013-06-01

    Hundreds of cankers caused by Ceratocystis smalleyi are associated with hickory bark beetle-attacked bitternut hickory exhibiting rapid crown decline in the north-central and northeastern United States. Discolored sapwood colonized by the fungus commonly underlies the cankers. Field studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that C. smalleyi infections cause vascular system dysfunction in infected trees. Fifty C. smalleyi inoculations made at 1.8 to 3.8 m in height on stems of healthy bitternut hickory trees (13 to 28 cm in diameter at 1.4 m in height) resulted in extensive canker formation and sapwood discoloration 12 to 14 months after treatment compared with water-inoculated and noninoculated controls. Sap flow velocity (midday) was significantly lower in the infected trees compared with that in the controls. Sap flow velocity also was inversely correlated with the proportion of bark area with cankered tissues and with tylose abundance in the youngest two growth rings. Tylose formation in current-year vessels associated with C. smalleyi infections is likely responsible for much of the water transport disruption. It is hypothesized that multiple stem infections of C. smalleyi and the resulting xylem dysfunction contribute to crown wilt development in bitternut hickory exhibiting rapid crown decline.

  19. Optimization of the graph model of the water conduit network, based on the approach of search space reducing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovin, Iakov S.; Tkachenko, Maxim G.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we present a heuristic approach, improving the efficiency of methods, used for creation of efficient architecture of water distribution networks. The essence of the approach is a procedure of search space reduction the by limiting the range of available pipe diameters that can be used for each edge of the network graph. In order to proceed the reduction, two opposite boundary scenarios for the distribution of flows are analysed, after which the resulting range is further narrowed by applying a flow rate limitation for each edge of the network. The first boundary scenario provides the most uniform distribution of the flow in the network, the opposite scenario created the net with the highest possible flow level. The parameters of both distributions are calculated by optimizing systems of quadratic functions in a confined space, which can be effectively performed with small time costs. This approach was used to modify the genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed GA provides a variable number of variants of each gene, according to the number of diameters in list, taking into account flow restrictions. The proposed approach was implemented to the evaluation of a well-known test network - the Hanoi water distribution network [1], the results of research were compared with a classical GA with an unlimited search space. On the test data, the proposed trip significantly reduced the search space and provided faster and more obvious convergence in comparison with the classical version of GA.

  20. Noncovalently-functionalized reduced graphene oxide sheets by water-soluble methyl green for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Xiaoying; Hu, Zhongai, E-mail: zhongai@nwnu.edu.cn; Hu, Haixiong; Qiang, Ruibin; Li, Li; Li, Zhimin; Yang, Yuying; Zhang, Ziyu; Wu, Hongying

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Electroactive methyl green (MG) is selected to functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through non-covalent modification and the composite achieves high specific capacitance, good rate capability and excellent long life cycle. - Highlights: • MG–RGO composites were firstly prepared through non-covalent modification. • The mass ratio in composites is a key for achieving high specific capacitance. • MG–RGO 5:4 exhibits the highest specific capacitance of 341 F g{sup −1}. • MG–RGO 5:4 shows excellent rate capability and long life cycle. - Abstract: In the present work, water-soluble electroactive methyl green (MG) has been used to non-covalently functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for enhancing supercapacitive performance. The microstructure, composition and morphology of MG–RGO composites are systematically characterized by UV–vis absorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical performances are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The fast redox reactions from MG could generate additional pseudocapacitance, which endows RGO higher capacitances. As a result, the MG–RGO composite (with the 5:4 mass ratio of MG:RGO) achieve a maximum value of 341 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} within the potential range from −0.25 to 0.75 V and provide a 180% enhancement in specific capacitance in comparison with pure RGO. Furthermore, excellent rate capability (72% capacitance retention from 1 A g{sup −1} to 20 A g{sup −1}) and long life cycle (12% capacitance decay after 5000 cycles) are achieved for the MG–RGO composite electrode.

  1. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. S-TiO2/S-reduced graphene oxide for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakkay, Mohamed H.; El Rouby, Waleed M. A.; El-Dek, S. I.; Farghali, Ahmed A.

    2018-05-01

    Sulfur-doped titanium oxide on the surface of sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (S-TiO2/S-RGO) were successfully synthesized for the first time through a simple low cost solvothermal reaction process. The sulfur doping was detected in both TiO2 matrix and carbon framework structure of reduced graphene oxide using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Cross-sectional AFM analysis of S-RGO nanosheets reveals a thickness of 0.51 nm which is much thinner than those previously reported of heteroatom doped-RGO, confirming the single-layer feature. When the as-prepared (S-TiO2/S-RGO) nanocomposites are utilized as photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, they exhibited an enhanced photoelectrochemical performance and long-term stability. The photocurrent density of S-TiO2/S-RGO(0.2) photoanode revealed 3.36 mA/cm2 at 1 V vs Ag/AgCl which is considered 3 times compared to bare synthesized TiO2. This improvement in the photocurrent density was attributed to the increased separation rate of photogenerated electrons and holes and efficient visible light harvesting as a result of the successful combination of the S-TiO2 and the S-RGO in the same nanocomposite photoanode. This promising result presents a new approach for the synthesis of high-efficient future metal-free photoelectrocatalysts.

  3. Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site's river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site's river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft)

  4. Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site`s river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site`s river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft).

  5. A non-linear reduced order methodology applicable to boiling water reactor stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prill, Dennis Paul

    2013-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic coupling between power, flow rate and density, intensified by neutronics feedback are the main drivers of boiling water reactor (BWR) stability behavior. High-power low-flow conditions in connection with unfavorable power distributions can lead the BWR system into unstable regions where power oscillations can be triggered. This important threat to operational safety requires careful analysis for proper understanding. Analyzing an exhaustive parameter space of the non-linear BWR system becomes feasible with methodologies based on reduced order models (ROMs), saving computational cost and improving the physical understanding. Presently within reactor dynamics, no general and automatic prediction of high-dimensional ROMs based on detailed BWR models are available. In this thesis a systematic self-contained model order reduction (MOR) technique is derived which is applicable for several classes of dynamical problems, and in particular to BWRs of any degree of details. Expert knowledge can be given by operational, experimental or numerical transient data and is transfered into an optimal basis function representation. The methodology is mostly automated and provides the framework for the reduction of various different systems of any level of complexity. Only little effort is necessary to attain a reduced version within this self-written code which is based on coupling of sophisticated commercial software. The methodology reduces a complex system in a grid-free manner to a small system able to capture even non-linear dynamics. It is based on an optimal choice of basis functions given by the so-called proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Required steps to achieve reliable and numerical stable ROM are given by a distinct calibration road-map. In validation and verification steps, a wide spectrum of representative test examples is systematically studied regarding a later BWR application. The first example is non-linear and has a dispersive character

  6. Research on the Preparation and Performance of Binary Modified Maltodextrin Water-Reducing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhi Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using maltodextrin (MD of different dextrose equivalent (DE values, 1,3-propanesultone, and maleic anhydride as raw materials, a novel binary modified maltodextrin (BMMD was synthesized and further applied as a water-reducing agent. Its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and UV. The rheological behavior of the sample solution and strengths for concrete were also determined and the adsorption was tested by TOC. The influence of the process parameters to degree of substitution (DS and the dosage on the fluidity of cement paste were investigated. The results show that the optimal conditions of sulfonation were the MD of DE 15, m (sulfonated agent/m (MD of 1.4, the catalyst amount of 1% by mass MD, and the reaction time of 12 h; the optimal conditions of esterification were m (esterified agent/m (SMD of 0.6, the reaction temperature of 90°C, and the reaction time of 4 h. The optimal dosages of sulfonated maltodextrin (SMD and BMMD were 0.475% and 0.45%, respectively. In this dosage, the main dispersion capacity of BMMD attributes to two kinds of anchoring groups (SO3-  &  COO- and the appropriate molecular weight of MD.

  7. Reduced-order prediction of rogue waves in two-dimensional deep-water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsis, Themistoklis; Farazmand, Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    We consider the problem of large wave prediction in two-dimensional water waves. Such waves form due to the synergistic effect of dispersive mixing of smaller wave groups and the action of localized nonlinear wave interactions that leads to focusing. Instead of a direct simulation approach, we rely on the decomposition of the wave field into a discrete set of localized wave groups with optimal length scales and amplitudes. Due to the short-term character of the prediction, these wave groups do not interact and therefore their dynamics can be characterized individually. Using direct numerical simulations of the governing envelope equations we precompute the expected maximum elevation for each of those wave groups. The combination of the wave field decomposition algorithm, which provides information about the statistics of the system, and the precomputed map for the expected wave group elevation, which encodes dynamical information, allows (i) for understanding of how the probability of occurrence of rogue waves changes as the spectrum parameters vary, (ii) the computation of a critical length scale characterizing wave groups with high probability of evolving to rogue waves, and (iii) the formulation of a robust and parsimonious reduced-order prediction scheme for large waves. T.S. has been supported through the ONR Grants N00014-14-1-0520 and N00014-15-1-2381 and the AFOSR Grant FA9550-16-1-0231. M.F. has been supported through the second Grant.

  8. A New System to Estimate and Reduce Electrical Energy Consumption of Domestic Hot Water in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gutierrez-Escolar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption rose about 28% over the 2001 to 2011 period in the Spanish residential sector. In this environment, domestic hot water (DHW represents the second highest energy demand. There are several methodologies to estimate DHW consumption, but each methodology uses different inputs and some of them are based on obsolete data. DHW energy consumption estimation is a key tool to plan modifications that could enhance this consumption and we decided to update the methodologies. We studied DHW consumption with data from 10 apartments in the same building during 18 months. As a result of the study, we updated one chosen methodology, adapting it to the current situation. One of the challenges to improve efficiency of DHW use is that most of people are not aware of how it is consumed in their homes. To help this information to reach consumers, we developed a website to allow users to estimate the final electrical energy needed for DHW. The site uses three estimation methodologies and chooses the best fit based on information given by the users. Finally, the application provides users with recommendations and tips to reduce their DHW consumption while still maintaining the desired comfort level.

  9. Participation in water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery: Experiences of significant factors for continuing exercising as a part of cancer rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enblom, A; Lindquist, H; Bergmark, K

    2018-01-01

    Although physical exercising has great benefits, little is known regarding factors of significance for cancer survivors to continue exercising within their rehabilitation. The objective was to describe factors experienced to be of significance for cancer survivors to continue with water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery. Women (n = 29) who had undergone breast cancer surgery (mastectomy 79%, axillary surgery 86%, and radiotherapy 86%) for median (md) 13 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) was followed up regarding their rehabilitation, arm function Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (md 14, IQR 7-32), EQ-5D score (md 0.8, IQR 0.73-1.0) and quality of life EQ health barometer (md 80, IQR 64-95). We performed qualitative focus-group interviews regarding the women's views (n = 24). The women had participated in water-exercising 1-46 semesters, md 8 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) semesters. Nearly all, 97%, participated in the water-exercising group every week, and 21 (72%) had participated in the water-exercising group at least half of the time since their breast cancer surgery, without complications. The women experienced that factors of significance to continue with water-exercising were the convenience of easily modified weightless exercising in the water, social interaction, and access to a private dressing room. These factors would be important to consider to encourage continuing in exercising. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Intelligent Pressure Management to Reduce Leakage in Urban Water Supply Networks, A Case Study of Sarafrazan District, Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Soltani Asl

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Water losses are inevitable in urban water distribution systems. The two approaches adopted nowadays to combat this problem include management of hydraulic parameters such as pressure and leakage detection in the network. Intellitgent pressure management is a suitable technique for controlling leakage and reducing damages due to high operating pressures in a network. This paper aims to investigate the effects of pressure reduction on leakage. The EPANET 2.10 software is used to simulate the water distribution network in the Sarafrazan District,Mashhad, assuming leakage from network nodes. The results are then used to develop a pressure variation program based on the patterns obtained from the simulation, which is applied to the pressure reducing valve. The results show that pressure management can reduce nightly leakage by up to 35% while maintaining a more uniform pressure distribution. Implementation of the time-dependent pressure pattern by applying programmable pressure reducing valves in a real urban water distribution network is feasible and plays a key role in reducing water losses to leakage.

  11. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-07-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P-E). Here, we compute P-E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P-E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P-E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P-E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making.

  12. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-07-08

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P-E). Here, we compute P-E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P-E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P-E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P-E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making.

  13. The Effectivity of Green Coconut Water To Reduce Mercury Level In The Blood And To Improve Blood Profiles And Liver Cells Appearance (Study In Sprague Dawley Rats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrzag, Ehmeeda M.; Nur Kristina, Tri; Suwondo, Ari; Sunoko, Henna Rya

    2018-02-01

    When people are exposed to mercury chloride, it can produce a variety of health effects in the blood and liver. Coconut water contains Zn, Fe, Vit. C, Vit B11, Vit. B6, and Se to reduce mercury chloride level in the blood and improve blood profile and liver cells. Aim of this study was to analysis the effect of green coconut water supplementation in overcoming the toxic effect of Hg chlorid in the blood and liver of Sprague dawley rats exposed to Hg chloride. Samples were randomly about 36 animals rats exposed to HgCl2 through forced feeding by 20 mg/kgBW sondage per day for 14 days, which divided into control group, and intervention groups were given fresh green coconut water in each by 6, 8, and 10 mL/kgBW for intervention 7 and 17 days. The result of this study showed that there is a significant effect and the decrease in mercury levels in the blood. There is no significant affect on the hemoglobin level, hematocrit level and platelet count with the treatment of green coconut water in the mice with exposure Hg. There is no significant effect between treatments using green coconut water with SGPT levels; there is a decrease in SGPT levels at the increasing number of doses of green coconut water and the length of treatment.

  14. Efforts to Reduce International Space Station Crew Maintenance for the Management of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Loop Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John W.; Etter, David; Rector, Tony; Boyle, Robert; Vandezande, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) contains a semi-closed-loop re-circulating water circuit (Transport Loop) to absorb heat into a LCVG (Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment) worn by the astronaut. A second, single-pass water circuit (Feed-water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) containing porous plates, and that water sublimates through the porous plates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. The quality of the EMU Transport Loop water is maintained through the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR Airlock Cooling Loop Remediation) that is used to periodically clean and disinfect the water circuit. Opportunities to reduce crew time associated with on-orbit ALCLR operations include a detailed review of the historical water quality data for evidence to support an extension to the implementation cycle. Furthermore, an EMU returned after 2-years of use on the ISS (International Space Station) is being used as a test bed to evaluate the results of extended and repeated ALCLR implementation cycles. Finally, design, use and on-orbit location enhancements to the ALCLR kit components are being considered to allow the implementation cycle to occur in parallel with other EMU maintenance and check-out activities, and to extend the life of the ALCLR kit components. These efforts are undertaken to reduce the crew-time and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a post-Shuttle 6-year service life.

  15. Subsidized Sachet Water to Reduce Diarrheal Disease in Young Children: A Feasibility Study in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, James; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Fink, Günther; Wardrop, Nicola A; Aryeetey, Genevieve C; Adanu, Richard M; Hill, Allan G

    2016-07-06

    Use of drinking water sold in plastic bags (sachet water) is growing rapidly in west Africa. The impact on water consumption and child health remains unclear, and a debate on the taxation and regulation of sachet water is ongoing. This study assessed the feasibility of providing subsidized sachet water to low-income urban households in Accra and measured the resultant changes in water consumption. A total of 86 children, 6-36 months of age in neighborhoods lacking indoor piped water, were randomized to three study arms. The control group received education about diarrhea. The second arm received vouchers for 15 L/week/child of free water sachets (value: $0.63/week) plus education. The third arm received vouchers for the same water sachet volume at half price plus education. Water consumption was measured at baseline and followed for 4 months thereafter. At baseline, 66 of 81 children (82%) drank only sachet water. When given one voucher/child/week, households redeemed an average 0.94 vouchers/week/child in the free-sachet-voucher arm and 0.82 vouchers/week/child in the half-price arm. No change in water consumption was observed in the half-price arm, although the study was not powered to detect such differences. In the free-sachet-voucher arm, estimated sachet water consumption increased by 0.27 L/child/day (P = 0.03). The increase in sachet water consumption by children in the free-sachet-voucher arm shows that provision of fully subsidized water sachets might improve the quality of drinking water consumed by children. Further research is needed to quantify this and any related child health impacts. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Bio-corrosion of water pipeline by sulphate-reducing bacteria in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the presence of SRB in water, in a water pipeline and in the soil near the pipeline at a mining operation, under conditions that would be expected to be stable toward corrosion. Samples of water in pipes showed a high frequency of SRB. Cast iron coupons placed in pipes gave positive results for SRB ...

  17. Practical ways to abate air and water pollution worldwide including a unique way to significantly curb global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper points out that in the next 50 years it will largely be the developing countries of the world which will continue to industrialize rapidly and hence pollute the water and air of not only their countries but that this pollution is becoming global (80% of the World's population.) From the author's 25 years of consulting experience in the developing countries, their greatest need is to have available to them low cost, innovative processes for pollution abatement will be neglected and the whole world will suffer immensely. The paper discusses in some detail the type of innovative low cost methods which have successfully been used in the categories of wastewater and solid wastes and names 6 other categories where many others exist. All these innovative methods need to be discovered, listed, and tested for quality and dependability, and then made widely available. Large Environmental Engineering Universities and International Consulting Engineering firms need to be organized to undertake these important tasks. The paper also points out the connection between Global Warming and the Solid waste industry and shows how it can be controlled inexpensively by employing a new, unique, and rapid method of converting municipal refuse into methane and then using that to make electricity. Information given in this paper could lead to a vast reduction in future pollution, with the resulting better global health and at the same time save trillions of dollars.

  18. The preparation of solid acid and acid water reducing agent for slag is prepared by adsorption method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Su; Wang, Jinpeng; Zhu, Xitong

    2018-03-01

    Solid polycarboxylate superplasticizer can not only solve the problems caused by water reducing agent in storage and transportation, but also meet the needs of some special projects. We can choose to use the mineral slag, which is larger than surface area and has stronger adsorption, as adsorbent to absorb liquid polycarboxylate superplasticizer and absorb its moisture, and then makes solid polycarboxylate superplasticizer after drying. It determines the solid-liquid ratio to prepare the solid polycarboxylate superplasticizer to be 3:1. The temperature change within 100°C will not cause changes in the functional group and structure of the water reducing agent molecule. The application of the solid polycarboxylate superplasticizer was basically unchanged compared with its liquid water reducing agent.

  19. Improving winter leaf area index estimation in evergreen coniferous forests and its significance in carbon and water fluxes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Chen, J. M.; Luo, X.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of carbon and water fluxes at the continental and global scales requires remotely sensed LAI as inputs. For evergreen coniferous forests (ENF), severely underestimated winter LAI has been one of the issues for mostly available remote sensing products, which could cause negative bias in the modeling of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Unlike deciduous trees which shed all the leaves in winter, conifers retains part of their needles and the proportion of the retained needles depends on the needle longevity. In this work, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used to model GPP and ET at eight FLUXNET Canada ENF sites. Two sets of LAI were used as the model inputs: the 250m 10-day University of Toronto (U of T) LAI product Version 2 and the corrected LAI based on the U of T LAI product and the needle longevity of the corresponding tree species at individual sites. Validating model daily GPP (gC/m2) against site measurements, the mean RMSE over eight sites decreases from 1.85 to 1.15, and the bias changes from -0.99 to -0.19. For daily ET (mm), mean RMSE decreases from 0.63 to 0.33, and the bias changes from -0.31 to -0.16. Most of the improvements occur in the beginning and at the end of the growing season when there is large correction of LAI and meanwhile temperature is still suitable for photosynthesis and transpiration. For the dormant season, the improvement in ET simulation mostly comes from the increased interception of precipitation brought by the elevated LAI during that time. The results indicate that model performance can be improved by the application the corrected LAI. Improving the winter RS LAI can make a large impact on land surface carbon and energy budget.

  20. De-oiled two-phase olive mill waste may reduce water contamination by metribuzin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, David; López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Albarrán, Ángel; Rato-Nunes, José Manuel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier; Becerra, Daniel; Ramírez, Manuel

    2016-01-15

    The impact of de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DW) on the behavior of metribuzin in Mediterranean agricultural soils is evaluated, and the effects of the transformation of organic matter from this waste under field conditions are assessed. Four soils were selected and amended in the laboratory with DW at the rates of 2.5% and 5%. One of these soils was also amended in the field with 27 and 54 Mg ha(-1) of DW for 9 years. Significant increases in metribuzin sorption were observed in all the amended soils. In the laboratory, the 5% DW application rate increased the t1/2 values of metribuzin from 22.9, 35.8, 29.1, and 20.0 d for the original soils to 59.2, 51.1, 45.7, and 29.4d, respectively. This was attributable mainly to the inhibitory effect of the amendment on microbial activity. However, the addition of DW transformed naturally under field conditions decreased the persistence down to 3.93 d at the greater application rate. Both amendments (fresh and field-aged DW) significantly reduced the amount of metribuzin leached. This study showed that DW amendment may be an effective and sustainable management practice for controlling groundwater contamination by metribuzin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Intelligent Pressure Management to Reduce Leakage in Urban Water Supply Networks, A Case Study of Sarafrazan District, Mashhad

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Soltani Asl; Mahmoud Faghfour Maghrebi

    2009-01-01

    Water losses are inevitable in urban water distribution systems. The two approaches adopted nowadays to combat this problem include management of hydraulic parameters such as pressure and leakage detection in the network. Intellitgent pressure management is a suitable technique for controlling leakage and reducing damages due to high operating pressures in a network. This paper aims to investigate the effects of pressure reduction on leakage. The EPANET 2.10 software is used to simulate the w...

  2. Leukocyte-depletion of blood components does not significantly reduce the risk of infectious complications. Results of a double-blinded, randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titlestad, I. L.; Ebbesen, L. S.; Ainsworth, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusions are claimed to be an independent risk factor for postoperative infections in open colorectal surgery due to immunomodulation. Leukocyte-depletion of erythrocyte suspensions has been shown in some open randomized studies to reduce the rate of postoperative infection t...

  3. Reducing ultrafiltration membrane fouling during potable water reuse using pre-ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Park, Minkyu; Liang, Heng; Wu, Shimin; Lopez, Israel J; Ji, Weikang; Li, Guibai; Snyder, Shane A

    2017-11-15

    Wastewater reclamation has increasingly become popular to secure potable water supply. Low-pressure membrane processes such as microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) play imperative roles as a barrier of macromolecules for such purpose, but are often limited by membrane fouling. Effluent organic matter (EfOM), including biopolymers and particulates, in secondary wastewater effluents have been known to be major foulants in low-pressure membrane processes. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-ozonation as a pre-treatment for UF on the membrane fouling caused by EfOM in secondary wastewater effluents for hydrophilic regenerated cellulose (RC) and hydrophobic polyethersulfone (PES) UF membranes. It was found that greater fouling reduction was achieved by pre-ozonation for the hydrophilic RC membrane than the hydrophobic PES membrane at increasing ozone doses. In addition, the physicochemical property changes of EfOM, including biopolymer fractions, by pre-ozonation were systemically investigated. The classical pore blocking model and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theories were employed to scrutinize the fouling alleviation mechanism by pre-ozonation. As a result, the overarching mechanisms of fouling reduction were attributed to the following key reasons: (1) Ozone degraded macromolecules such as biopolymers like proteins and polysaccharides into smaller fractions, thereby increasing free energy of cohesion of EfOM and rendering them more hydrophilic and stable; (2) pre-ozonation augmented the interfacial free energy of adhesion between foulants and the RC/PES membranes, leading to the increase of repulsions and/or the decrease of attractions; and (3) pre-ozonation prolonged the transition from pore blocking to cake filtration that was a dominant fouling mechanism, thereby reducing fouling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DFD-01 Reduces Transepidermal Water Loss and Improves Skin Hydration and Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J Mark; Grove, Gary L; Allenby, Kent; Houser, Tim

    2017-12-01

    In plaque psoriasis, the benefit of topical steroids is well established. The vehicle formulation of topical steroids may also provide benefit in addition to the effects of the steroid itself. DFD-01 (betamethasone dipropionate spray, 0.05%) is a formulation composed of a topical steroid in an emollient-like vehicle that enhances penetration to the target site of inflammation in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of DFD-01 and its vehicle on skin hydration and barrier function in compromised skin and to evaluate its effect on flexibility in healthy skin. Eighteen healthy white volunteers were enrolled in each of two studies. In Study 1, dry shaving of volar forearms created a compromised skin barrier, through which transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured using an evaporimeter. Capacitance, a measure of epidermal hydration, was also measured at baseline and at 1, 2 and 4 h after application of DFD-01 or its vehicle formulation. In Study 2, intact skin flexibility was tested with a cutometer before and at 1, 2 and 4 h after application of DFD-01 or vehicle. In Study 1, both DFD-01 and its vehicle were effective at reducing TEWL through the compromised stratum corneum. Capacitance measurements confirmed this finding; razor-chafed skin treated with either DFD-01 or vehicle exhibited levels of skin hydration similar to unshaved control skin. Study 2 found softening and greater flexibility of normal skin treated with either DFD-01 or vehicle compared with nontreated control skin samples. These tests suggest that the DFD-01 formulation and its vehicle are each effective at retaining moisture within a damaged skin barrier and for softening and increasing the flexibility of intact skin. Dr. Reddy's Laboratories.

  5. Comparative study of carbonic anhydrase activity in waters among different geological eco-environments of Yangtze River basin and its ecological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzung'a, Sila Onesmus; Pan, Weizhi; Shen, Taiming; Li, Wei; Qin, Xiaoqun; Wang, Chenwei; Zhang, Liankai; Yu, Longjiang

    2018-04-01

    This study provides the presence of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in waters of the Yangtze River basin, China, as well as the correlation of CA activity with HCO 3 - concentration and CO 2 sink flux. Different degrees of CA activity could be detected in almost all of the water samples from different geological eco-environments in all four seasons. The CA activity of water samples from karst areas was significantly higher than from non-karst areas (PP3 - concentration (r=0.672, P2 sink flux (r=0.602, P=0.076) in karst areas. This suggests that CA in waters might have a promoting effect on carbon sinks for atmospheric CO 2 in karst river basins. In conditions of similar geological type, higher CA activity was generally detected in water samples taken from areas that exhibited better eco-environments, implying that the CA activity index of waters could be used as an indicator for monitoring ecological environments and protection of river basins. These findings suggest that the role of CA in waters in the karst carbon sink potential of river basins is worthy of further in-depth studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Gastric washing by distilled water can reduce free gastric cancer cells exfoliated into the stomach lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Atsuko; Abe, Nobutsugu; Yoshimoto, Eri; Hashimoto, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Hirohisa; Nagao, Gen; Masaki, Tadahiko; Mori, Toshiyuki; Ohkura, Yasuo; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2018-04-25

    Intragastric free cancer cells in patients with gastric cancer have rarely been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detection rate of intragastric free cancer cells in gastric washes using two types of solutions during endoscopic examination. We further clarified risk factors affecting the presence of exfoliated free cancer cells. A total of 175 patients with gastric cancer were enrolled. Lactated Ringer's solution (N = 89) or distilled water (DW; N = 86) via endoscopic working channel was sprayed onto the tumor surface, and the resultant fluid was collected for cytological examination. We compared the cancer-cell positivity rate between the two (Ringer and DW) groups. We also tested the correlation between cancer-cell positivity and clinicopathological factors in the Ringer group to identify risk factors for the presence of exfoliated cancer cells. The cancer-cell positivity rate was significantly higher in the Ringer group than that in the DW group (58 vs 6%). Cytomorphology in the Ringer group was well maintained, but not in the DW group. The larger tumor size (≥ 20 mm) and positive lymphatic involvement were significant risk factors of exfoliated free cancer cells. Cancer cells can be highly exfoliated from the tumor surface into the gastric lumen by endoscopic irrigation in large gastric cancer with lymphatic involvement. Gastric washing by DW can lead to cytoclasis of free cancer cells; therefore, it may minimize the possibility of cancer-cell seeding in procedures carrying potential risks of tumor-cell seeding upon transluminal communication, such as endoscopic full-thickness resection and laparoscopy-endoscopy cooperative surgery.

  7. A more robust model of the biodiesel reaction, allowing identification of process conditions for significantly enhanced rate and water tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Valentine C; Phan, Anh N; Harvey, Adam P

    2014-03-01

    A more robust kinetic model of base-catalysed transesterification than the conventional reaction scheme has been developed. All the relevant reactions in the base-catalysed transesterification of rapeseed oil (RSO) to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) were investigated experimentally, and validated numerically in a model implemented using MATLAB. It was found that including the saponification of RSO and FAME side reactions and hydroxide-methoxide equilibrium data explained various effects that are not captured by simpler conventional models. Both the experiment and modelling showed that the "biodiesel reaction" can reach the desired level of conversion (>95%) in less than 2min. Given the right set of conditions, the transesterification can reach over 95% conversion, before the saponification losses become significant. This means that the reaction must be performed in a reactor exhibiting good mixing and good control of residence time, and the reaction mixture must be quenched rapidly as it leaves the reactor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Future electricity: The challenge of reducing both carbon and water footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-11-01

    We estimate the consumptive water footprint (WF) of electricity and heat in 2035 for the four energy scenarios of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and a fifth scenario with a larger percentage of solar energy. Counter-intuitively, the 'greenest' IEA scenario (with the smallest carbon footprint) shows the largest WF increase over time: an increase by a factor four over the period 2010-2035. In 2010, electricity from solar, wind, and geothermal contributed 1.8% to the total. The increase of this contribution to 19.6% in IEA's '450 scenario' contributes significantly to the decrease of the WF of the global electricity and heat sector, but is offset by the simultaneous increase of the use of firewood and hydropower. Only substantial growth in the fractions of energy sources with small WFs - solar, wind, and geothermal energy - can contribute to a lowering of the WF of the electricity and heat sector in the coming decades. The fifth energy scenario - adapted from the IEA 450 scenario but based on a quick transition to solar, wind and geothermal energy and a minimum in bio-energy - is the only scenario that shows a strong decline in both carbon footprint (-66%) and consumptive WF (-12%) in 2035 compared to the reference year 2010. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Forage Options for Dairy Farms with Reduced Water Availability in the Southern Murray Darling Basin of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Jane Rogers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The dairy industry in the southern Murray Darling Basin region of Australia is a major consumer of irrigation water because rainfall is low relative to evapotranspiration and the industrys relies heavily on irrigated temperate pastures and fodder crops. Water reforms, and potential climate change scenarios for this region suggest that there will be an overall decline in rainfall and water available for irrigation in the future. For the irrigated dairy industry to remain economically viable, there is a need for dairy farmers to improve the water productivity (WP of their forage systems and to be able to respond to year-to-year, and within year, variation in water availability. Researchers and dairy farmers are evaluating strategies to increase WP. These include: (i selecting better-adapted species for current and predicted climatic conditions; (ii using species that can survive and still be productive under reduced irrigation and then recover when full irrigation is restored; (iii modifying irrigation strategies to reduce water use whilst maintaining WP; and (iv grazing management strategies that facilitate the survival during, and recovery after, periods of moisture stress. This review will examine these strategies and discusses their potential to optimise forage production from irrigation water inputs so that the dairy industry in the southern Murray Darling Basin remains viable in the future.

  10. Postmortem aging can significantly enhance water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle measured by the salt-induced swelling/centrifuge method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-holding capacity (WHC) is one of the most important functional properties of fresh meat and can be significantly affected by postmortem muscle changes. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of postmortem aging on WHC of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle indicated with % s...

  11. Reduced cerebral perfusion on sudden immersion in ice water: a possible cause of drowning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantoni, Teit; Belhage, Bo; Pedersen, Lars M

    2007-01-01

    Near-drowning incidents and drowning deaths after accidental immersion in open waters have been linked to cold shock response. It consists of inspiratory gasps, hyperventilation, tachycardia, and hypertension in the first 2-3 min of cold-water immersion. This study explored the immediate changes...... in cerebral blood flow velocity (Vmean) during cold-water immersion since cold shock induced hyperventilation may diminish Vmean and lead to syncope and drowning....

  12. Increases in soil water content after the mortality of non-native trees in oceanic island forest ecosystems are due to reduced water loss during dry periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Kenji; Kawakami, Kazuto; Kachi, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The control of dominant, non-native trees can alter the water balance of soils in forest ecosystems via hydrological processes, which results in changes in soil water environments. To test this idea, we evaluated the effects of the mortality of an invasive tree, Casuarina equisetifolia Forst., on the water content of surface soils on the Ogasawara Islands, subtropical islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, using a manipulative herbicide experiment. Temporal changes in volumetric water content of surface soils at 6 cm depth at sites where all trees of C. equisetifolia were killed by herbicide were compared with those of adjacent control sites before and after their mortality with consideration of the amount of precipitation. In addition, the rate of decrease in the soil water content during dry periods and the rate of increase in the soil water content during rainfall periods were compared between herbicide and control sites. Soil water content at sites treated with herbicide was significantly higher after treatment than soil water content at control sites during the same period. Differences between initial and minimum values of soil water content at the herbicide sites during the drying events were significantly lower than the corresponding differences in the control quadrats. During rainfall periods, both initial and maximum values of soil water contents in the herbicided quadrats were higher, and differences between the maximum and initial values did not differ between the herbicided and control quadrats. Our results indicated that the mortality of non-native trees from forest ecosystems increased water content of surface soils, due primarily to a slower rate of decrease in soil water content during dry periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Luke A; Sands, Helen; Jones, Lewis; Clow, Angela; Evans, Phil; Stalder, Tobias; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the neurocognitive performance of recent users of recreational Ecstasy and investigate whether it was associated with the stress hormone cortisol. The 101 participants included 27 recent light users of Ecstasy (one to four times in the last 3 months), 23 recent heavier Ecstasy users (five or more times) and 51 non-users. Rivermead paragraph recall provided an objective measure for immediate and delayed recall. The prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire provided a subjective index of memory deficits. Cortisol levels were taken from near-scalp 3-month hair samples. Cortisol was significantly raised in recent heavy Ecstasy users compared with controls, whereas hair cortisol in light Ecstasy users was not raised. Both Ecstasy groups were significantly impaired on the Rivermead delayed word recall, and both groups reported significantly more retrospective and prospective memory problems. Stepwise regression confirmed that lifetime Ecstasy predicted the extent of these memory deficits. Recreational Ecstasy is associated with increased levels of the bio-energetic stress hormone cortisol and significant memory impairments. No significant relationship between cortisol and the cognitive deficits was observed. Ecstasy users did display evidence of a metacognitive deficit, with the strength of the correlations between objective and subjective memory performances being significantly lower in the Ecstasy users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Reducing Volatile Disinfection By-Products in Treated Drinking Water Using Aeration Technologies (WaterRF Report 4441)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address TTHM compliance at a water treatment plant clearwell. The project team worked closely with EPA Region 6 and the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to identify a...

  15. Water savings from reduced alfalfa cropping in California's Upper San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. K.; Gray, J.

    2017-12-01

    Water and food and forage security are inextricably linked. In fact, 90% of global freshwater is consumed for food production. Food demand increases as populations grow and diets change, making water increasingly scarce. This tension is particularly acute, contentious, and popularly appreciated in California's Central Valley, which is one of the most important non-grain cropping areas in the United States. While the water-intensive production of tree nuts like almonds and pistachios has received the most popular attention, it is California's nation-leading alfalfa production that consumes the most water. Alfalfa, the "Queen of Forages" is the preferred feedstock for California's prodigious dairy industry. It is grown year-round, and single fields can be harvested more than four times a year; a practice which can require in excess of 1.5 m of irrigation water. Given the water scarcity in the region, the production of alfalfa is under increasing scrutiny with respect to long-term sustainability. However, the potential water savings associated with alternative crops, and various levels of alfalfa replacement have not been quantified. Here, we address that knowledge gap by simulating the ecohydrology of the Upper San Joaquin's cropping system under various scenarios of alfalfa crop replacement with crops of comparable economic value. Specifically, we use the SWAT model to evaluate the water savings that would be realized at 33%, 66%, and 100% alfalfa replacement with economically comparable, but more water efficient crops such as tomatoes. Our results provide an important quantification of the potential water savings under alternative cropping systems that, importantly, also addresses the economic concerns of farmers. Results like these provide critical guidance to farmers and land/water decision makers as they plan for a more sustainable and productive agricultural future.

  16. Development of water scrubbers to reduce fine dust emission from poultry houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Harn, van J.; Melse, R.W.; Cambra-Lopez, M.

    2010-01-01

    Poultry housings with litter are a major contributor to fine dust emissions (PM10/PM2.5) in the Netherlands. Poultry producers are in need of dust mitigation options that are cost effective. Such an option could be provided by adequately designed water scrubbers. Catchment of dust particles by water

  17. Reducing energy consumption and leakage by active pressure control in a water supply system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    WTP Gruszczyn supplies drinking water to a part of the city of Pozna?, in the Midwest of Poland. For the optimal automatic pressure control of the clear water pumping station, nine pressure measuring points were installed in the distribution network, and an active pressure control model was

  18. Metaldyne: Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Efficiency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Significant Cost Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  19. Reduced cerebral perfusion on sudden immersion in ice water: a possible cause of drowning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantoni, Teit; Belhage, Bo; Pedersen, Lars M

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Near-drowning incidents and drowning deaths after accidental immersion in open waters have been linked to cold shock response. It consists of inspiratory gasps, hyperventilation, tachycardia, and hypertension in the first 2-3 min of cold-water immersion. This study explored the imme......INTRODUCTION: Near-drowning incidents and drowning deaths after accidental immersion in open waters have been linked to cold shock response. It consists of inspiratory gasps, hyperventilation, tachycardia, and hypertension in the first 2-3 min of cold-water immersion. This study explored...... cerebral artery (MCA) was measured together with ventilatory parameters and heart rate before, during, and after immersion. RESULTS: Within seconds after immersion in ice water, heart rate increased from 74 +/- 16 to 107 +/- 18 bpm (mean +/- SD; p elevation...

  20. Partial root zone drying (PRD) sustains yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) at reduced water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahnazari, Ali; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2008-01-01

    Partial root zone drying (PRD) is a new water-saving irrigation strategy being tested in many crop species. Until now it has not been investigated in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). A field experiment on sandy soil in Denmark was conducted under a mobile rainout shelter to study effects of two...... subsurface drip irrigation treatments ((1) Full Irrigation (FI) receiving 100% of evaporative demand; and (2) PRD receiving 70% water of FI) on potato yield, tuber size, leaf water relations and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE). The PRD treatment was started just after the end of tuber initiation...... for two months during tuber bulking and maturing stage and was shifted from one side to the other side of the plants every 5-10 days when FI plants had used 20-25 mm. Compared to FI plants, stomatal conductance was generally lower in the PRD-treated plants, whereas leaf water potential tended to be lower...

  1. Investigation on spent fuel characteristics of reduced-moderation water reactor (RMWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukaya, Y.; Okubo, T.; Uchikawa, S.

    2008-01-01

    The spent fuel characteristics of the reduced-moderation water reactor (RMWR) have been investigated using the SWAT and ORIGEN codes. RMWR is an advanced LWR concept for plutonium recycling by using the MOX fuel. In the code calculation, the ORIGEN libraries such as one-group cross-section data prepared for RMWR were necessary. Since there were no open libraries for RMWR, they were produced in this study by using the SWAT code. New libraries based on the heterogeneous core modeling in the axial direction and with the variable actinide cross-section (VXSEC) option were produced and selected as the representative ORIGEN libraries for RMWR. In order to investigate the characteristics of the RMWR spent fuel, the decay heat, the radioactivity and the content of each nuclide were evaluated with ORIGEN using these libraries. In this study, the spent fuel characteristics of other types of reactors, such as PWR, BWR, high burn-up PWR, full-MOX-PWR, full-MOX-BWR and FBR, were also evaluated with ORIGEN. It has been found that about a half of the decay heat of the RMWR spent fuel comes from the actinides nuclides. It is the same with the radioactivity. The decay heat and the radioactivity of the RMWR spent fuel are lower than those of full-MOX-LWRs and FBR, and are the same level as those of the high burn-up PWR. The decay heat and the radioactivity from the fission products (FPs) in the spent fuel mainly depend on the burn-up and the burn-up time rather than the reactor type. Therefore, the decay heat and the radioactivity from FPs in the RMWR spent fuel are smaller, reflecting its relatively long burn-up time resulted from its core characteristics with the high conversion ratio. The radioactivity from the actinides in the spent fuel mainly depends on the 241 Pu content in the initial fuel, and the decay heat mainly depends on 238 Pu and 244 Cm. The contribution of 244 Cm is much smaller in RMWR than in MOX-LWRs because of the difference in the spectrum. In addition, from

  2. Optimization of seed-blanket type fuel assembly for reduced-moderation water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelley, Afroza; Shimada, Shoichiro; Kugo, Teruhiko; Okubo, Tsutomu E-mail: okubo@hems.jaeri.go.jp; Iwamura, Takamichi

    2003-10-01

    Parametric studies have been performed for a PWR-type reduced-moderation water reactor (RMWR) with the seed-blanket type fuel assembles to achieve a high conversion ratio, negative void reactivity coefficient and a high burnup by using MOX fuel. From the viewpoint of reactor safety analysis, the fuel temperature coefficients were also studied. From the result of the burnup calculation, it has been seen that ratio of 40-50% of outer blanket in a seed-blanket assembly gives higher conversion ratio compared to the other combination of seed-blanket assembly. And the recommended number of (seed+blanket) layers is 20, in which the number of seed (S) layers is 15 (S15) and blanket (B) layers is 5 (B5). It was found that the conversion ratio of seed-blanket assembly decreases, when they are arranged looks like a flower shape (Hanagara). By the optimization of different parameters, S15B5 fuel assembly with the height of seed of 1000 mmx2, internal blanket of 150 mm and axial blanket of 400 mmx2 is recommended for a reactor of high conversion ratio. In this assembly, the gap of seed fuel rod is 1.0 mm and blanket fuel rod is 0.4 mm. In S15B5 assembly, the conversion ratio is 1.0 and the burnup is 38.18 GWd/t in (seed+internal blanket+outer blanket) region. However, the burnup is 57.45 GWd/t in (seed+internal blanket) region. The cycle length of the core is 16.46 effective full power in month (EFPM) by six batches and the enrichment of fissile Pu is 14.64 wt.%. The void coefficient is +21.82 pcm/%void, however, it is expected that the void coefficient will be negative if the radial neutron leakage is taken into account in the calculation. It is also possible to use S15B5 fuel assembly as a high burnup reactor 45 GWd/t in (seed+internal blanket+outer blanket) region, however, it is necessary to decrease the height of seed to 500 mmx2 to improve the void coefficient. In this reactor, the conversion ratio is 0.97 and void coefficient is +20.81 pcm/%void. The fuel temperature

  3. Investigation on spent fuel characteristics of reduced-moderation water reactor (RMWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukaya, Y. [Advanced Nuclear System Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken 311-1393 (Japan)], E-mail: fukaya.yuji@jaea.go.jp; Okubo, T.; Uchikawa, S. [Advanced Nuclear System Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken 311-1393 (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    The spent fuel characteristics of the reduced-moderation water reactor (RMWR) have been investigated using the SWAT and ORIGEN codes. RMWR is an advanced LWR concept for plutonium recycling by using the MOX fuel. In the code calculation, the ORIGEN libraries such as one-group cross-section data prepared for RMWR were necessary. Since there were no open libraries for RMWR, they were produced in this study by using the SWAT code. New libraries based on the heterogeneous core modeling in the axial direction and with the variable actinide cross-section (VXSEC) option were produced and selected as the representative ORIGEN libraries for RMWR. In order to investigate the characteristics of the RMWR spent fuel, the decay heat, the radioactivity and the content of each nuclide were evaluated with ORIGEN using these libraries. In this study, the spent fuel characteristics of other types of reactors, such as PWR, BWR, high burn-up PWR, full-MOX-PWR, full-MOX-BWR and FBR, were also evaluated with ORIGEN. It has been found that about a half of the decay heat of the RMWR spent fuel comes from the actinides nuclides. It is the same with the radioactivity. The decay heat and the radioactivity of the RMWR spent fuel are lower than those of full-MOX-LWRs and FBR, and are the same level as those of the high burn-up PWR. The decay heat and the radioactivity from the fission products (FPs) in the spent fuel mainly depend on the burn-up and the burn-up time rather than the reactor type. Therefore, the decay heat and the radioactivity from FPs in the RMWR spent fuel are smaller, reflecting its relatively long burn-up time resulted from its core characteristics with the high conversion ratio. The radioactivity from the actinides in the spent fuel mainly depends on the {sup 241}Pu content in the initial fuel, and the decay heat mainly depends on {sup 238}Pu and {sup 244}Cm. The contribution of {sup 244}Cm is much smaller in RMWR than in MOX-LWRs because of the difference in the spectrum

  4. Evaluating the effect of river restoration techniques on reducing the impacts of outfall on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mant, Jenny; Janes, Victoria; Terrell, Robert; Allen, Deonie; Arthur, Scott; Yeakley, Alan; Morse, Jennifer; Holman, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Outfalls represent points of discharge to a river and often contain pollutants from urban runoff, such as heavy metals. Additionally, erosion around the outfall site results in increased sediment generation and the release of associated pollutants. Water quality impacts from heavy metals pose risks to the river ecosystem (e.g. toxicity to aquatic habitats). Restoration techniques including establishment of swales, and the re-vegetation and reinforcement of channel banks aim to decrease outfall flow velocities resulting in deposition of pollutants and removal through plant uptake. Within this study the benefits of river restoration techniques for the removal of contaminants associated with outfalls have been quantified within Johnson Creek, Portland, USA as part of the EPSRC funded Blue-Green Cities project. The project aims to develop new strategies for protecting hydrological and ecological values of urban landscapes. A range of outfalls have been selected which span restored and un-restored channel reaches, a variety of upstream land-uses, and both direct and set-back outfalls. River Habitat Surveys were conducted at each of the sites to assess the level of channel modification within the reach. Sediment samples were taken at the outfall location, upstream, and downstream of outfalls for analysis of metals including Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Copper, Iron and Magnesium. These were used to assess the impact of the level of modification at individual sites, and to compare the influence of direct and set-back outfalls. Concentrations of all metals in the sediments found at outfalls generally increased with the level of modification at the site. Sediment in restored sites had lower metal concentrations both at the outfall and downstream compared to unrestored sites, indicating the benefit of these techniques to facilitate the effective removal of pollutants by trapping of sediment and uptake of contaminants by vegetation. However, the impact of restoration measures varied

  5. The co registration of initial PET on the CT-radiotherapy reduces significantly the variabilities of anatomo-clinical target volume in the child hodgkin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, H.; Blouet, A.; David, I.; Rives, M.; Izar, F.; Courbon, F.; Filleron, T.; Laprie, A.; Plat, G.; Vial, J.

    2009-01-01

    It exists a great interobserver variability for the anatomo-clinical target volume (C.T.V.) definition in children suffering of Hodgkin disease. In this study, the co-registration of the PET with F.D.G. on the planning computed tomography has significantly lead to a greater coherence in the clinical target volume definition. (N.C.)

  6. Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) resin increases water demands and reduces energy availability in desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Antonio M; Dearing, M Denise; Karasov, William H

    2004-07-01

    Although many plant secondary compounds are known to have serious consequences for herbivores, the costs of processing them are generally unknown. Two potential costs of ingestion and detoxification of secondary compounds are elevation of the minimum drinking water requirement and excretion of energetically expensive metabolites (i.e., glucuronides) in the urine. To address these impacts, we studied the costs of ingestion of resin from creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) on desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida). The following hypotheses were tested: ingestion of creosote resin by woodrats (1) increases minimum water requirement and (2) reduces energy available by increasing fecal and urinary energy losses. We tested the first hypothesis, by measuring the minimum water requirement of woodrats fed a control diet with and without creosote resin. Drinking water was given in decreasing amounts until woodrats could no longer maintain constant body mass. In two separate experiments, the minimum drinking water requirement of woodrats fed resin was higher than that of controls by 18-30% (about 1-1.7 ml/d). We tested several potential mechanisms of increased water loss associated with the increase in water requirement. The rate of fecal water loss was higher in woodrats consuming resin. Neither urinary water nor evaporative water loss was affected by ingestion of resin. Hypothesis 2 was tested by measuring energy fluxes of woodrats consuming control vs. resin-treated diets. Woodrats on a resin diet had higher urinary energy losses and, thus, metabolized a lower proportion of the dietary energy than did woodrats on control diet. Fecal energy excretion was not affected by resin. The excretion of glucuronic acid represented almost half of the energy lost as a consequence of resin ingestion. The increased water requirement and energy losses of woodrats consuming a diet with resin could have notable ecological consequences.

  7. Reducing water consumption in the paper mill; Paperitehtaan vedenkaeytoen vaehentaeminen (WACI) - EKY 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekuri, T; Pekkanen, A [UPM-Kymmene Oyj, Valkeakoski (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    This WACI-project was divided into several subprojects, which were started with gathering of present knowledge and entering to laboratory and pilot tests. In some projects there were mill scale trials in water connections and internal purification systems. In the `Quality Demands of Water` subproject the process waters used in the printing paper machines of UPM-Kymmene were surveyed. Lab tests were made for the different applications like shower, washing, seal and dilution of internally purified circulation waters. In `Mechanical Pulp Washing` project the target was to study how the different water connections around the TMP washing press will affect the paper machine runnability. It was also started to develop separating technique for TMP fibre extractive. `Micro and Electroflotation` studies have been made mainly on pilot scale but also in new mill-scale unit. `Membrane Technology` research consisted of both lab, pilot and mill scale studies, where different membrane qualities with different process waters have been tested. `Evaporation` trials were made on pilot scale for different process waters and condensates and concentrates were analysed. Condensates were tested for different applications. The possibility to `Reuse Waste Water` concentrated mainly on how to remove the brown colour. `Simulations` were done to find out what will be the new dcs balance in different wet end processes after new water connections including so-called kidneys. In the `Paper Quality` subproject the effects of dcs on bonding ability of TMP fibres were studied on lab scale with artificial pitch component and also with circulation concentrates. This 2.5 year Tekes-project was completed at the end of April 1998. (orig.)

  8. Reducing water consumption in the paper mill; Paperitehtaan vedenkaeytoen vaehentaeminen (WACI) - EKY 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekuri, T.; Pekkanen, A. [UPM-Kymmene Oyj, Valkeakoski (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    This WACI-project was divided into several subprojects, which were started with gathering of present knowledge and entering to laboratory and pilot tests. In some projects there were mill scale trials in water connections and internal purification systems. In the `Quality Demands of Water` subproject the process waters used in the printing paper machines of UPM-Kymmene were surveyed. Lab tests were made for the different applications like shower, washing, seal and dilution of internally purified circulation waters. In `Mechanical Pulp Washing` project the target was to study how the different water connections around the TMP washing press will affect the paper machine runnability. It was also started to develop separating technique for TMP fibre extractive. `Micro and Electroflotation` studies have been made mainly on pilot scale but also in new mill-scale unit. `Membrane Technology` research consisted of both lab, pilot and mill scale studies, where different membrane qualities with different process waters have been tested. `Evaporation` trials were made on pilot scale for different process waters and condensates and concentrates were analysed. Condensates were tested for different applications. The possibility to `Reuse Waste Water` concentrated mainly on how to remove the brown colour. `Simulations` were done to find out what will be the new dcs balance in different wet end processes after new water connections including so-called kidneys. In the `Paper Quality` subproject the effects of dcs on bonding ability of TMP fibres were studied on lab scale with artificial pitch component and also with circulation concentrates. This 2.5 year Tekes-project was completed at the end of April 1998. (orig.)

  9. Soluble CD36 and risk markers of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis are elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome and significantly reduced during pioglitazone treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Højlund, Kurt; Andersen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the relation between soluble CD36 (sCD36), risk markers of atherosclerosis and body composition, and glucose and lipid metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Research Design and Methods: Thirty PCOS patients were randomized to pioglitazone, 30 mg/day or placebo...... units), oxLDL (44.9 (26.9 - 75.1) vs. 36.1 (23.4 - 55.5) U/l), and hsCRP (0.26 (0.03 - 2.41) vs. 0.12 (0.02 - 0.81) mg/dl) were significantly increased in PCOS patients vs. controls (geometric mean (+/- 2SD)). In PCOS, positive correlations were found between central fat mass and sCD36 (r=0.43), hs......CRP (r=0.43), and IL-6 (r=0.42), all pPCOS patients and controls (n=44). sCD36 and oxLDL were significant...

  10. Does Liposomal Bupivacaine (Exparel) Significantly Reduce Postoperative Pain/Numbness in Symptomatic Teeth with a Diagnosis of Necrosis? A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Brandon; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Fowler, Sara; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2016-09-01

    Medical studies have shown some potential for infiltrations of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel; Pacira Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA), a slow-release bupivacaine solution, to extend postoperative benefits of numbness/pain relief for up to several days. Because the Food and Drug Administration has approved Exparel only for infiltrations, we wanted to evaluate if it would be effective as an infiltration to control postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to compare an infiltration of bupivacaine with liposomal bupivacaine for postoperative numbness and pain in symptomatic patients diagnosed with pulpal necrosis experiencing moderate to severe preoperative pain. One hundred patients randomly received a 4.0-mL buccal infiltration of either bupivacaine or liposomal bupivacaine after endodontic debridement. For postoperative pain, patients were given ibuprofen/acetaminophen, and they could receive narcotic pain medication as an escape. Patients recorded their level of numbness, pain, and medication use the night of the appointment and over the next 5 days. Success was defined as no or mild postoperative pain and no narcotic use. The success rate was 29% for the liposomal group and 22% for the bupivacaine group, with no significant difference (P = .4684) between the groups. Liposomal bupivacaine had some effect on soft tissue numbness, pain, and use of non-narcotic medications, but it was not clinically significant. There was no significant difference in the need for escape medication. For symptomatic patients diagnosed with pulpal necrosis experiencing moderate to severe preoperative pain, a 4.0-mL infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine did not result in a statistically significant increase in postoperative success compared with an infiltration of 4.0 mL bupivacaine. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Water stress drastically reduces root growth and inulin yield in Cichorium intybus (var. sativum) independently of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoorne, B.; Mathieu, A.-S.; Van den Ende, W.; Vergauwen, R.; Périlleux, C.; Javaux, M.; Lutts, S.

    2012-01-01

    Root chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum) is a cash crop cultivated for inulin production in Western Europe. This plant can be exposed to severe water stress during the last 3 months of its 6-month growing period. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of a progressive decline in water availability on plant growth, photosynthesis, and sugar metabolism and to determine its impact on inulin production. Water stress drastically decreased fresh and dry root weight, leaf number, total leaf area, and stomatal conductance. Stressed plants, however, increased their water-use efficiency and leaf soluble sugar concentration, decreased the shoot-to-root ratio and lowered their osmotic potential. Despite a decrease in photosynthetic pigments, the photosynthesis light phase remained unaffected under water stress. Water stress increased sucrose phosphate synthase activity in the leaves but not in the roots. Water stress inhibited sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 1 fructosyltransferase after 19 weeks of culture and slightly increased fructan 1-exohydrolase activity. The root inulin concentration, expressed on a dry-weight basis, and the mean degree of polymerization of the inulin chain remained unaffected by water stress. Root chicory displayed resistance to water stress, but that resistance was obtained at the expense of growth, which in turn led to a significant decrease in inulin production. PMID:22577185

  12. Warmer temperatures reduce net carbon uptake, but not water use, in a mature southern Appalachian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing air temperature is expected to extend growing season length in temperate, broadleaf forests, leading to potential increases in evapotranspiration and net carbon uptake. However, other key processes affecting water and carbon cycles are also highly temperature-dependent...

  13. Deposition of LDH on plasma treated polylactic acid to reduce water permeability

    KAUST Repository

    Bugatti, Valeria; Livi, Sebastien; Hayrapetyan, Suren; Wang, Yue; Estevez, Luis; Vittoria, Vittoria; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and scalable deposition process was developed to prepare polylactic acid (PLA) coatings with enhanced water barrier properties for food packaging applications. This method based on electrostatic interactions between the positively charged

  14. Efficacy of Odor Scavengers in Reducing Odor Compounds in Water, Milk, and Soymilk

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Jenny Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Odor detection thresholds of hexanal, 2-heptenal, 2-pentanone, and 2,4-nonadienal were determined in spring water, high temperature short time (HTST) 2% fat milk, and extended shelf life soymilk. The efficacy of odor scavenger's beta-cyclodextrin, D-sorbitol, and nylon 6 in removing these odors was also determined. The odor thresholds of the different odor and media combinations were as follows: hexanal in spring water, milk, and soymilk were 585, 339, and 536 ppb respectively; 2-heptenal ...

  15. Method for reducing heat loss during injection of hot water into an oil stratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evgenev, A E; Kalashnikov, V N; Raiskii, Yu D

    1968-07-01

    A method is described for reduction of heat loss during the injection of hot water into an oil stratum. During the transportation of the hot water to the face of the bore holes, it has high-molecular polymers added to it. The high-molecular polymer may be guanidine or polyoxyethylene in the quantity of 0.01 to 0.03% by wt.

  16. Changes in Federal Water Project Repayment Policies Can Reduce Federal Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-07

    a reimburs - able purpose, the users should share in cost recovery. RECOMMENDATIONS To provide for equitable cost reimbursement on underutilized...Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation that do not ensure fair and timely recovery of water projects’ reimbursable costs. We made this...such costs for reimbursable project purposes and considering them in future water price determinations, agencies often reas- signed them to

  17. Analysis of the nexus between population, water resources and Global Food Security highlights significance of governance and research investments and policy priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusa, Isa A M; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Gibberd, Mark R

    2018-05-10

    Analyses of sensitivity of Global Food Security (GFS) score to a key set of supply or demand factors often suggest population and water supply as being the most critical and on which policies tend to focus. To explore other policy options, we characterised the nexus between GFS and a set of supply or demand factors including defining including population, agricultural and industrial water-use, agricultural publications (as a surrogate for investment in agricultural research and development [R&D]), and corruption perception index (CPI), to reveal opportunities for attaining enduring GFS. We found that despite being the primary driver of demand for food, population showed no significant correlation with GFS scores. Similarly agricultural water-use was poorly correlated with GFS scores, except in countries where evaporation exceeds precipitation and irrigation is significant. However, GFS had a strong positive association with industrial water-use as a surrogate for overall industrialisation. Recent expansions in cultivated land area failed to yield concomitant improvements in GFS score since such expansions have been mostly into marginal lands with low productivity and also barely compensated for lands retired from cropping in several developed economies. However, GFS was positively associated with agricultural R&D investments, as it was with the CPI scores. The apparent and relative strengths of these drivers on GFS outcome amongst countries were in the order: industrial water-use ≈ publication rate ≈ corruption perception > agricultural water-use > population. We concluded by suggesting that to enshrine enduring food security, policies should prioritise (1) increased R&D investments that address farmer needs, and (2) governance mechanisms that promote accountability in both research and production value chains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Water Table Management Reduces Tile Nitrate Loss in Continuous Corn and in a Soybean-Corn Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F. Drury

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Water table management systems can be designed to alleviate soil water excesses and deficits, as well as reduce nitrate leaching losses in tile discharge. With this in mind, a standard tile drainage (DR system was compared over 8 years (1991 to 1999 to a controlled tile drainage/subirrigation (CDS system on a low-slope (0.05 to 0.1% Brookston clay loam soil (Typic Argiaquoll in southwestern Ontario, Canada. In the CDS system, tile discharge was controlled to prevent excessive drainage, and water was pumped back up the tile lines (subirrigation to replenish the crop root zone during water deficit periods. In the first phase of the study (1991 to 1994, continuous corn (Zea mays, L. was grown with annual nitrogen (N fertilizer inputs as per local soil test recommendations. In the second phase (1995 to 1999, a soybean (Glycine max L., Merr.-corn rotation was used with N fertilizer added only during the two corn years. In Phase 1 when continuous corn was grown, CDS reduced total tile discharge by 26% and total nitrate loss in tile discharge by 55%, compared to DR. In addition, the 4-year flow weighted mean (FWM nitrate concentration in tile discharge exceeded the Canadian drinking water guideline (10 mg N l–1 under DR (11.4 mg N l–1, but not under CDS (7.0 mg N l–1. In Phase 2 during the soybean-corn rotation, CDS reduced total tile discharge by 38% and total nitrate loss in tile discharge by 66%, relative to DR. The 4-year FWM nitrate concentration during Phase 2 in tile discharge was below the drinking water guideline for both DR (7.3 mg N l–1 and CDS (4.0 mg N l–1. During both phases of the experiment, the CDS treatment caused only minor increases in nitrate loss in surface runoff relative to DR. Hence CDS decreased FWM nitrate concentrations, total drainage water loss, and total nitrate loss in tile discharge relative to DR. In addition, soybean-corn rotation reduced FWM nitrate concentrations and total nitrate loss in tile discharge

  19. Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 73 m2 ) at first transurethral resection of bladder tumour is a significant predictor of subsequent recurrence and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blute, Michael L; Kucherov, Victor; Rushmer, Timothy J; Damodaran, Shivashankar; Shi, Fangfang; Abel, E Jason; Jarrard, David F; Richards, Kyle A; Messing, Edward M; Downs, Tracy M

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate if moderate chronic kidney disease [CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 73 m 2 ] is associated with high rates of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) recurrence or progression. A multi-institutional database identified patients with serum creatinine values prior to first transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). The CKD-epidemiology collaboration formula calculated patient eGFR. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations with recurrence-free (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS). In all, 727 patients were identified with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) patient age of 69.8 (60.1-77.6) years. Data for eGFR were available for 632 patients. During a median (IQR) follow-up of 3.7 (1.5-6.5) years, 400 (55%) patients had recurrence and 145 (19.9%) patients had progression of tumour stage or grade. Moderate or severe CKD was identified in 183 patients according to eGFR. Multivariable analysis identified an eGFR of 73 m 2 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-1.9; P = 0.002) as a predictor of tumour recurrence. The 5-year RFS rate was 46% for patients with an eGFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 27% for patients with an eGFR of 73 m 2 (P 73 m 2 (HR 3.7, 95% CI: 1.75-7.94; P = 0.001) was associated with progression to muscle-invasive disease. The 5-year PFS rate was 83% for patients with an eGFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 71% for patients with an eGFR of 73 m 2 (P = 0.01). Moderate CKD at first TURBT is associated with reduced RFS and PFS. Patients with reduced renal function should be considered for increased surveillance. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Intra-articular laser treatment plus Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) significantly reduces pain in many patients who had failed prior PRP treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodromos, Chadwick C.; Finkle, Susan; Dawes, Alexander; Dizon, Angelo

    2018-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: In our practice Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injections effectively reduce pain in most but not all arthritic patients. However, for patients who fail PRP treatment, no good alternative currently exists except total joint replacement surgery. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the surface of the skin has not been helpful for arthritis patients in our experience. However, we hypothesized that intra-articular laser treatment would be an effective augmentation to PRP injection and would increase its efficacy in patients who had failed prior PRP injection alone. METHODS: We offered Intra-articular Low Level Laser Therapy (IAL) treatment in conjunction with repeat PRP injection to patients who had received no benefit from PRP injection alone at our center. They were the treatment group. They were not charged for PRP or IAL. They also served as a historical control group since they had all had failed PRP treatment alone. 28 patients (30 joints) accepted treatment after informed consent. 22 knees, 4 hips, 2 shoulder glenohumeral joints and 1 first carpo-metacarpal (1st CMC) joint were treated RESULTS: All patients were followed up at 1 month and no adverse events were seen from the treatment. At 6 months post treatment 46% of patients had good outcomes, and at 1 year 17% still showed improvement after treatment. 11 patients failed treatment and went on to joint replacement. DISCUSSION: A single treatment of IAL with PRP salvaged 46% of patients who had failed PRP treatment alone, allowing avoidance of surgery and good pain control.

  1. How to reduce risk of climate change: Domestic hot water production methanization and programmed timing of heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestrini, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first identifies a significant and deleterious trend, in terms of poor energy efficiency and high carbon dioxide emissions, towards the increased use of electric water heaters for sanitary hot water production in single family units. It then points out how the use of wall mounted methane fired boilers can result in overall energy savings (overall electric power consumption for domestic hot water production is estimated to represent one- quarter of Italy's total domestic power demand), as well as air pollution abatement. The feasibility of other methods of energy conservation and pollution abatement in domestic water heating are also examined. These include the use of solar hot water heaters, computerized timers which allow users to program the operation of their heating plants, and the adoption by residential communities of methane fuelled district heating plants

  2. A system for fertigation management in soilless culture of tomato to reduce water consumption and nitrogen discharge [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacci, L.; Battista, P.; Rapi, B.; Pardossi, A.; Incrocci, L.; Carmassi, G.

    2005-01-01

    In Italy, most greenhouse growers apply fertigation in open-loop system (free drainage), but recent laws on environmental pollution are forcing them to introduce new management approaches, namely the recirculation of drain water (closed-loop). The development of a specific support system (SGx) is in progress in order to aid the growers in selecting low impact growing systems and in reducing water use. Currently, the software integrates three models for the simulation of tomato growth, transpiration and nutrient concentration in the fertigation water. The system can run both in real time, using meteorological and water consumption data automatically collected by sensors located in the greenhouse, and off-line, using data sets archived in the database. Choosing real time option, SGx follows plant growth and the modifications of nutrients in the recycling solution, suggesting the most effective practices for water and nutrient management. The off-line option allows the comparison between different productive strategies from different viewpoints: production, water and nutrient consumption, radiation and water use efficiency, environmental impact [it

  3. Decreasing soil water Ca2+ reduces DOC adsorption in mineral soils: implications for long-term DOC trends in an upland forested catchment in southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jason Grainger; Eimers, M Catherine

    2012-06-15

    Positive trends in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration have been observed in surface waters throughout North America and northern Europe. Although adsorption in mineral soils is an important driver of DOC in upland streams, little is known about the potential for changes in DOC adsorption to contribute to these trends. We hypothesized that long-term declines in soil water Ca(2+) levels, in response to declining acid deposition, might influence DOC adsorption and that this could contribute to long-term DOC trends in an upland forested catchment in south-central Ontario, Canada. Between 1987 and 2009, DOC concentrations increased significantly (pDOC concentration (DOC(np)), which is a measure of the soil water DOC concentration at equilibrium with the soil, ranged from 1.27 to 3.75 mg L(-1) in B horizon soils. This was similar to the mean DOC concentrations of B horizon soil water (2.04-6.30 mg L(-1)) and stream water (2.20 mg L(-1)), indicating that soil and stream water DOC concentrations are controlled by equilibrium processes at the soil-water interface. Adsorption experiments using variable Ca(2+) concentrations demonstrated that as Ca(2+) decreased the DOC(np) increased (1.96 to 4.74 mg L(-1)), which was consistent with the observed negative correlation between DOC and Ca(2+) in B horizon soil water (pDOC adsorption (p>0.05), indicating that changes in DOC adsorption might be related to cation bridging. We conclude that declines in soil water Ca(2+) concentration can contribute to increasing DOC trends in upland streams by reducing DOC adsorption in mineral soils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Holst, Jens Juul; Sorensen, Charlotte M

    2017-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect of acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1. We hypothesized that GLP-1 would increase diuresis and natriuresis and reduce MAP in SHR. Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization for the GLP-1 receptor were used to localize GLP-1 receptors in the kidney. Sevoflurane-anesthetized normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats and SHR received a 20 min intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 and changes in MAP, RBF, heart rate, dieresis, and natriuresis were measured. The vasodilatory effect of GLP-1 was assessed in isolated interlobar arteries from normo- and hypertensive rats. We found no expression of GLP-1 receptors in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e.g., insulin) to induce the renal changes observed or possibly by an alternative renal GLP-1 receptor. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  5. Human Tubal-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Associated with Low Level Laser Therapy Significantly Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very debilitating disease, with a very high prevalence worldwide, which results in a expressive economic and social burden. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches to treat these patients are of unquestionable relevance. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs is an innovative and yet accessible approach for pulmonary acute and chronic diseases, mainly due to its important immunoregulatory, anti-fibrogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic. Besides, the use of adjuvant therapies, whose aim is to boost or synergize with their function should be tested. Low level laser (LLL therapy is a relatively new and promising approach, with very low cost, no invasiveness and no side effects. Here, we aimed to study the effectiveness of human tube derived MSCs (htMSCs cell therapy associated with a 30mW/3J-660 nm LLL irradiation in experimental cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 75 days (twice a day and all experiments were performed on day 76. Experimental groups receive htMSCS either intraperitoneally or intranasally and/or LLL irradiation either alone or in association. We show that co-therapy greatly reduces lung inflammation, lowering the cellular infiltrate and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and KC, which were followed by decreased mucus production, collagen accumulation and tissue damage. These findings seemed to be secondary to the reduction of both NF-κB and NF-AT activation in lung tissues with a concomitant increase in IL-10. In summary, our data suggests that the concomitant use of MSCs + LLLT may be a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD.

  6. Peak medial (but not lateral) hamstring activity is significantly lower during stance phase of running. An EMG investigation using a reduced gravity treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Einarson, Einar; Thomson, Athol; Whiteley, Rodney

    2017-09-01

    The hamstrings are seen to work during late swing phase (presumably to decelerate the extending shank) then during stance phase (presumably stabilizing the knee and contributing to horizontal force production during propulsion) of running. A better understanding of this hamstring activation during running may contribute to injury prevention and performance enhancement (targeting the specific role via specific contraction mode). Twenty active adult males underwent surface EMG recordings of their medial and lateral hamstrings while running on a reduced gravity treadmill. Participants underwent 36 different conditions for combinations of 50%-100% altering bodyweight (10% increments) & 6-16km/h (2km/h increments, i.e.: 36 conditions) for a minimum of 6 strides of each leg (maximum 32). EMG was normalized to the peak value seen for each individual during any stride in any trial to describe relative activation levels during gait. Increasing running speed effected greater increases in EMG for all muscles than did altering bodyweight. Peak EMG for the lateral hamstrings during running trials was similar for both swing and stance phase whereas the medial hamstrings showed an approximate 20% reduction during stance compared to swing phase. It is suggested that the lateral hamstrings work equally hard during swing and stance phase however the medial hamstrings are loaded slightly less every stance phase. Likely this helps explain the higher incidence of lateral hamstring injury. Hamstring injury prevention and rehabilitation programs incorporating running should consider running speed as more potent stimulus for increasing hamstring muscle activation than impact loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing fluxes of faecal indicator compliance parameters to bathing waters from diffuse agricultural sources: The Brighouse Bay study, Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, D.; Aitken, M.; Crowther, J.; Dickson, I.; Edwards, A.C.; Francis, C.; Hopkins, M.; Jeffrey, W.; Kay, C.; McDonald, A.T.; McDonald, D.; Stapleton, C.M.; Watkins, J.; Wilkinson, J.; Wyer, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires the integrated management of point and diffuse pollution to achieve 'good' water quality in 'protected areas'. These include bathing waters, which are regulated using faecal indicator organisms as compliance parameters. Thus, for the first time, European regulators are faced with the control of faecal indicator fluxes from agricultural sources where these impact on bathing water compliance locations. Concurrently, reforms to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy offer scope for supporting on-farm measures producing environmental benefits through the new 'single farm payments' and the concept of 'cross-compliance'. This paper reports the first UK study involving remedial measures, principally stream bank fencing, designed to reduce faecal indicator fluxes at the catchment scale. Considerable reduction in faecal indicator flux was observed, but this was insufficient to ensure bathing water compliance with either Directive 76/160/EEC standards or new health-evidence-based criteria proposed by WHO and the European Commission. - Diffuse microbiological pollution from farming activities can be reduced by protected riparian zones

  8. Water-washable ink system reduces printers&ap