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Sample records for significantly reactive leading

  1. Significance of Lead Residues in Mallard Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.; Andrews, R.

    1974-01-01

    Tissues of adult, lead-dosed mallards that either died or were sacrificed were analyzed for lead. Lead levels in brains, tibiae, and breast muscle of ducks that died and in tibiae of ducks that were sacrificed increased significantly from dosage until death. Lead in the heart, lung, and blood from sacrificed ducks decreased significantly from dosage until death. Lead concentrations in tissues from ducks in the two groups were not significantly different except for the liver, kidney, and lung. Average lead levels in the livers and kidneys of ducks that died were significantly higher than those in ducks that were sacrificed. The mean concentration of lead in the lungs of the ducks sacrificed was significantly higher than the mean level in the lungs of ducks that died. Measurements of the lead concentrations in this study, when compared with lead levels reported in the literature for avian and non-avian species, showed that arbitrary diagnostic levels indicating lead poisoning could be set. In mallard ducks, lead levels exceeding 3 ppm in the brain, 6 to 20 ppm in the kidney or liver, or 10 ppm in clotted blood from the heart indicated acute exposure to lead.

  2. Significance of isolated reactive treponemal chemiluminescence immunoassay results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Michael G; Robertson, Peter W; Post, Jeffrey J

    2013-05-01

    Isolated reactive serum treponemal chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA) specimens cause clinical uncertainty. Sera were screened by CIA, and reactive samples underwent reflex testing with rapid plasma reagin (RPR), Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA), and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA Abs) assays. Samples reactive only on the CIA were deemed "isolated" reactive CIA samples. We undertook detailed review of a subset of subjects with isolated reactive CIA specimens. Of 28 261 specimens, 1171 (4.1%) were reactive on CIA, of which 133 (11.3%) had isolated CIA reactivity. Most subjects (66 of 82 [80.5%]) with isolated reactive CIA specimens were from high-prevalence populations. We found evidence of CIA, TPPA, and FTA Abs seroreversion. The median chemiluminescent signal-to-cutoff ratio was similar for isolated reactive CIA sera and sera that were reactive on either FTA Abs or TPPA assays (2.19 vs 2.32; P = .15) but lower than for sera reactive on both FTA Abs and TPPA assays (12.37; P < .001) or for sera reactive on RPR assays (25.53; P < .001). A total of 11 of 20 patients (55%) with an isolated reactive CIA specimen who underwent medical record review had previous or subsequent evidence of syphilis infection. Isolated reactive CIA specimens may represent true T. pallidum infection and may be found after seroreversion of traditional treponemal assays.

  3. Reactivity indexes for different geometries of palladium leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Carrillo, S C; Bolcatto, P G [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829 S3000AOM Santa Fe Argentina (Argentina); Ortega, J, E-mail: scgomez@fiq.unl.edu.a [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2009-05-01

    Electronic transport through metallic break junctions or molecules is clearly dependent not only on the electronic structure of the central nanodevice connecting the leads, but also the shape and crystalline orientation of the contacts which can define the possible conduction channels. In this work we examine different geometries of contacts of palladium characterizing them through global and local reactivity indexes as electrophilicity, chemical hardness and Fukui functions. In molecules, these indicators are essentially defined by the energies of the frontier molecular orbitals and in solids they are related with the local and partial density of states. We use for this purpose an ab-initio based code (FIREBALL), applied to plane contacts with (001) fcc faces and also pyramidal tips grown following a (001) and (111) packaging. The results allow us to have an insight about the chemical features of this type of nanojunctions.

  4. Environmental lead: a survey of its possible physiological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, H.V.

    1974-01-01

    Sources of environmental lead are discussed in a survey of diseases of the nervous system. Only 5-10 percent of the Pb ingested in food and water is absorbed, while 40-50 percent of the Pb present in inhaled air is absorbed. Air, dust, and leaded gasoline are among the sources of Pb. Normal rural air in the United States may contain 0.05 micrograms of Pb/cu m, while 0.3-2.5 may be representative of general urban areas. An urban dweller can inhale daily 60-120 micrograms of Pb, but it is not known whether 25 or 50 percent of this Pb is absorbed. Values from 0.5 to 6 percent Pb in dust are common in many large cities in Great Britain, Canada, and the United States. Evidence exists in the United States and Great Britain to show the significance of atmosphere and vegetative pollution by tetraethyl Pb discharged in the exhaust fumes of motor vehicles. It not only is a major contribution to the Pb occurring in urban air and dust but also adds indirectly, and significantly, to the Pb content of the food grown in some localities. Many diseases of the nervous system as multiple sclerosis, swayback, kuru, motor neurone disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis frequently have an unexplained association with Pb or mercury. (Author abstract modified)

  5. Chronic lead exposure decreases the vascular reactivity of rat aortas: the role of hydrogen peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolini Zuqui Nunes

    Full Text Available We investigated whether exposure to small concentrations of lead alters blood pressure and vascular reactivity. Male Wistar rats were sorted randomly into the following two groups: control (Ct and treatment with 100 ppm of lead (Pb, which was added to drinking water, for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure (BP was measured weekly. Following treatment, aortic ring vascular reactivity was assessed. Tissue samples were properly stored for further biochemical investigation. The lead concentration in the blood reached approximately 8 μg/dL. Treatment increased blood pressure and decreased the contractile responses of the aortic rings to phenylephrine (1 nM-100 mM. Following N-nitro-L arginine methyl ester (L-NAME administration, contractile responses increased in both groups but did not differ significantly between them. Lead effects on Rmax were decreased compared to control subjects following superoxide dismutase (SOD administration. Catalase, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA, and apocynin increased the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in the aortas of lead-treated rats but did not increase the vasoconstrictor response in the aortas of untreated rats. Tetraethylammonium (TEA potentiated the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in aortic segments in both groups, but these effects were greater in lead-treated rats. The co-incubation of TEA and catalase abolished the vasodilatory effect noted in the lead group. The present study is the first to demonstrate that blood lead concentrations well below the values established by international legislation increased blood pressure and decreased phenylephrine-induced vascular reactivity. The latter effect was associated with oxidative stress, specifically oxidative stress induced via increases in hydrogen peroxide levels and the subsequent effects of hydrogen peroxide on potassium channels.

  6. Refinement of Structural Leads for Centrally Acting Oxime Reactivators of Phosphylated Cholinesterases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Zoran; Sit, Rakesh K.; Kovarik, Zrinka; Berend, Suzana; Garcia, Edzna; Zhang, Limin; Amitai, Gabriel; Green, Carol; Radić, Božica; Fokin, Valery V.; Sharpless, K. Barry; Taylor, Palmer

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematic structural optimization of uncharged but ionizable N-substituted 2-hydroxyiminoacetamido alkylamine reactivators of phosphylated human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) intended to catalyze the hydrolysis of organophosphate (OP)-inhibited hAChE in the CNS. Starting with the initial lead oxime RS41A identified in our earlier study and extending to the azepine analog RS194B, reactivation rates for OP-hAChE conjugates formed by sarin, cyclosarin, VX, paraoxon, and tabun are enhanced severalfold in vitro. To analyze the mechanism of intrinsic reactivation of the OP-AChE conjugate and penetration of the blood-brain barrier, the pH dependence of the oxime and amine ionizing groups of the compounds and their nucleophilic potential were examined by UV-visible spectroscopy, 1H NMR, and oximolysis rates for acetylthiocholine and phosphoester hydrolysis. Oximolysis rates were compared in solution and on AChE conjugates and analyzed in terms of the ionization states for reactivation of the OP-conjugated AChE. In addition, toxicity and pharmacokinetic studies in mice show significantly improved CNS penetration and retention for RS194B when compared with RS41A. The enhanced intrinsic reactivity against the OP-AChE target combined with favorable pharmacokinetic properties resulted in great improvement of antidotal properties of RS194B compared with RS41A and the standard peripherally active oxime, 2-pyridinealdoxime methiodide. Improvement was particularly noticeable when pretreatment of mice with RS194B before OP exposure was combined with RS194B reactivation therapy after the OP insult. PMID:22343626

  7. Clinical Significance of Contralateral Reactive Lesion in Vocal Fold Polyp and Cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Hae; Choi, Yong-Sug; Joo, Young-Hoon; Park, Young-Hak; Sun, Dong-Il

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the clinical significance of contralateral reactive lesions in patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery for benign vocal fold lesions such as vocal polyps and cysts. This was a retrospective, single institution cohort study. Patient medical records were reviewed for demographic characteristics; acoustic, aerodynamic, and perceptual analyses; and Voice Handicap Index score before and after laryngeal microsurgery. Definitive diagnoses were made via intraoperative microlaryngoscopic evaluations. Clinical parameters were assessed to identify risk factors for contralateral reactive lesions. We evaluated surgical outcome using voice analysis. We enrolled 268 patients (109 men and 159 women) with benign vocal fold lesions. A total of 195 (72.8%) had a contralateral reactive vocal fold lesion. A multivariable analysis revealed that being a never smoker and having a hoarseness duration ≥6 months, vocal polyps, and small primary lesions were independent risk factors for contralateral reactive lesions (P vocal fold lesions are frequently detected in patients with vocal polyp and cyst. The reactive lesions had an adverse effect on voice quality. Simultaneous excision of primary and contralateral reactive lesions may be an alternative treatment for better voice outcome. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  9. Evaluation of novel reactive MgO activated slag binder for the immobilisation of lead and zinc

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Fei; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2014-01-01

    Although Portland cement is the most widely used binder in the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) processes, slag-based binders have gained significant attention recently due to their economic and environmental merits. In the present study, a novel binder, reactive MgO activated slag, is compared with hydrated lime activated slag in the immobilisation of lead and zinc. A series of lead or zinc-doped pastes and mortars were prepared with metal to binder ratio from 0.25% to 1%. The hydration pr...

  10. Characterization and re-activation of oxygen sensors for use in liquid lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Yuji; Abe, Yuji; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Control of oxygen concentration in liquid lead-bismuth is one of the most important tasks to develop accelerator driven systems. In order to improve the reliability of oxygen sensors, re-activation treatments were investigated as well as characterization of oxygen sensors for use in liquid lead-bismuth. The oxygen sensor with a solid electrolyte of yttria-stabilized zirconia and a Pt/gas reference electrode showed almost the same electromotive force values in gas and liquid lead-bismuth, respectively, as the theoretical ones at temperatures above 400 deg. C or 450 deg. C. After long-term use of 6500 h, the outputs of the sensor became incorrect in liquid lead-bismuth. The state of the sensor that indicated incorrect outputs could not be recovered by cleaning with a nitric acid. However, it was found that the oxygen sensor became a correct sensor indicating theoretical values in liquid lead-bismuth after re-activation by the Pt-treatment of the outer surface of the sensor.

  11. Ice sheets as a significant source of highly reactive nanoparticulate iron to the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkings, Jon R; Wadham, Jemma L; Tranter, Martyn; Raiswell, Rob; Benning, Liane G; Statham, Peter J; Tedstone, Andrew; Nienow, Peter; Lee, Katherine; Telling, Jon

    2014-05-21

    The Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets cover ~ 10% of global land surface, but are rarely considered as active components of the global iron cycle. The ocean waters around both ice sheets harbour highly productive coastal ecosystems, many of which are iron limited. Measurements of iron concentrations in subglacial runoff from a large Greenland Ice Sheet catchment reveal the potential for globally significant export of labile iron fractions to the near-coastal euphotic zone. We estimate that the flux of bioavailable iron associated with glacial runoff is 0.40-2.54 Tg per year in Greenland and 0.06-0.17 Tg per year in Antarctica. Iron fluxes are dominated by a highly reactive and potentially bioavailable nanoparticulate suspended sediment fraction, similar to that identified in Antarctic icebergs. Estimates of labile iron fluxes in meltwater are comparable with aeolian dust fluxes to the oceans surrounding Greenland and Antarctica, and are similarly expected to increase in a warming climate with enhanced melting.

  12. Albumin and C-reactive protein have prognostic significance in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Jooyeong; Kim, Kyuseok; Jo, You Hwan; Rhee, JoongEui; Kim, Tae Youn; Na, Sang Hoon; Hwang, Seung Sik

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to determine the association of commonly used biochemical markers, such as albumin and C-reactive protein (CRP), with mortality and the prognostic performance of these markers combined with the pneumonia severity index (PSI) for mortality and adverse outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The data were gathered prospectively for patients hospitalized with CAP via the emergency department. Laboratory values, including CRP and albumin, clinical variables, and the PSI were measured. Primary outcomes were 28-day mortality and survival times. Secondary outcome was admission to the intensive care unit, vasopressor use, or the need for mechanical ventilation during the hospital stay. A total of 424 patients were included. The 28-day mortality was 13.7%. C-reactive protein and albumin were significantly different between survivors and nonsurvivors. In logistic regression analysis, CRP and albumin were independently associated with 28-day mortality (P scale. The Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that high serum albumin (≥3.3 mg/dL) had a hazard ratio of 0.5 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.9), and high CRP (≥14.3 mg/dL) had a hazard ratio of 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.4). For predicting secondary outcome, adding albumin to PSI increased areas under the curve significantly, but CRP did not. Albumin and CRP were associated with 28-day mortality in hospitalized patients with CAP, and these markers increased prognostic performance when combined with the PSI scale. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Significance of Lipid-Derived Reactive Aldehyde-Specific Immune Complexes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangduo Wang

    Full Text Available Even though systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates among young and middle-aged women, the molecular mechanisms of disease pathogenesis are not fully understood. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested an association between oxidative stress and SLE disease activity (SLEDAI. To further assess the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in SLE, we examined the contribution of lipid-derived reactive aldehydes (LDRAs-specific immune complexes in SLE. Sera from 60 SLE patients with varying SLEDAI and 32 age- and gender- matched healthy controls were analyzed for oxidative stress and related markers. Patients were divided into two groups based on their SLEDAI scores (<6 and ≥ 6. Both SLEDAI groups showed higher serum 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE-/malondialdehyde (MDA-protein adducts and their specific immune complexes (HNE-/MDA-specific ICs together with IL-17 than the controls, but the levels were significantly greater in the high SLEDAI (≥ 6 group. Moreover, the serum levels of anti-oxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were significantly reduced in both patient groups compared to controls. Remarkably, for the first time, our data show that increased HNE-/MDA-specific ICs are positively associated with SLEDAI and elevated circulating immune complexes (CICs, suggesting a possible causal relationship among oxidative stress, LDRA-specific ICs and the development of SLE. Our findings, apart from providing firm support to an association between oxidative stress and SLE, also suggest that these oxidative stress markers, especially the HNE-/MDA-specific ICs, may be useful in evaluating the prognosis of SLE as well as in elucidating the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis.

  14. Sub-chronic lead exposure produces β1-adrenoceptor downregulation decreasing arterial pressure reactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Cindy Medici; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Fioresi, Mirian

    2017-07-01

    Lead is considered a causative factor for hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the effects of sub-chronic lead exposure on blood pressure reactivity and cardiac β 1 -adrenoceptor activity and to evaluate whether the effects found in vitro are similar to those found in vivo. Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: control rats (Ct) and rats administered drinking water containing 100ppm lead (Pb) for 30days. Blood pressure in the Pb rats increased starting from the first week of treatment until the end of the study [systolic blood pressure, Ct: 122±4 vs. Pb: 143±3mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, Ct: 63±4 vs. Pb: 84±4mmHg]. The heart rate was also increased (Ct: 299±11 vs. Pb: 365±11bpm), but the pressure reactivity to phenylephrine was decreased. Losartan and hexamethonium exhibited a greater reduction in blood pressure of Pb rats than in the Ct rats. Isoproterenol increased the left ventricular systolic and end-diastolic pressure, and heart rate only in Ct rats, suggesting that lead induced β 1 -adrenoceptor downregulation. Indomethacin reduced the blood pressure and heart rate in the Pb rats, suggesting the involvement of cyclooxygenase-derived products (which are associated with reduced nitric oxide bioavailability) in this process. These findings offer further evidence that the effects of sub-chronic lead exposure in vitro can be reproduced in vivo-even at low concentrations-thus triggering mechanisms for the development of hypertension. Therefore, lead should be considered an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  16. Does significant renal ablation truly and invariably lead to hyperfiltration and progressive chronic kidney disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew; Sam, Ramin

    2017-06-01

    It is generally believed that significant renal ablation leads to hyperfiltration and eventually progressively worsening chronic kidney disease. The data behind this belief have not been scrutinized intensively. More importantly, the above belief leads many physicians to manage patients differently than they otherwise would manage. Here, we examine the data behind whether hyperfiltration occurs when patients lose kidney mass (by excision or by disease) and whether the hyperfiltration is uniformly injurious.

  17. The Significance of Isolated Reactive Treponemal Enzyme Immunoassay in the Diagnosis of Early Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Rachel J; Hathorn, Emma; Manavi, Kaveh

    2016-06-01

    The Treponemal test algorithm for syphilis screening is widely used. A diagnostic challenge between identifying early syphilis versus a false positive signal occurs in cases where the treponemal enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is reactive and confirmatory T. pallidum particle agglutination assay is negative. We investigated the diagnostic outcome of isolated reactive EIA in patients attending a sexual health clinic. Results of syphilis serology tests carried out at Birmingham Whittall Street Clinic between August 10, 2010, and November 31, 2014, were reviewed. Cases with isolated EIA were routinely invited for repeat syphilis serology. Outcomes of patients with isolated EIA were reviewed and the proportion with confirmed positive syphilis serology on their repeat test identified. The number of isolated EIA cases needed to retest to identify 1 case of early syphilis was calculated. A total of 121,724 syphilis screening tests were performed. Among the 1561 individual patients with reactive EIA sera, 316 (20% of total reactive tests) had isolated reactive EIA. Repeat syphilis serology results of 163 patients were reviewed; 106 patients remained with isolated reactive EIA, 50 had negative EIA test and 7 (4.3%) had confirmed reactive EIA. Of the 7 patients, 2 had evidence of early syphilis infection. The number of isolated EIA needed to retest to identify 1 case of early syphilis was 81.5 (95% confidence interval, 22.9-671.4). Routine recall of patients with isolated EIA sera is not warranted. Risk of acquisition or presence of early syphilis should be assessed independently and irrespective of a negative syphilis screening test or isolated EIA.

  18. The Reactive Species Interactome: Evolutionary Emergence, Biological Significance, and Opportunities for Redox Metabolomics and Personalized Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Koning, Anne; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Nagy, Peter; Bianco, Christopher L; Pasch, Andreas; Wink, David A; Fukuto, Jon M; Jackson, Alan A; van Goor, Harry; Olson, Kenneth R; Feelisch, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Oxidative stress is thought to account for aberrant redox homeostasis and contribute to aging and disease. However, more often than not, administration of antioxidants is ineffective, suggesting that our current understanding of the underlying regulatory processes is incomplete. Recent Advances: Similar to reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, reactive sulfur species are now emerging as important signaling molecules, targeting regulatory cysteine redox switches in proteins, affecting gene regulation, ion transport, intermediary metabolism, and mitochondrial function. To rationalize the complexity of chemical interactions of reactive species with themselves and their targets and help define their role in systemic metabolic control, we here introduce a novel integrative concept defined as the reactive species interactome (RSI). The RSI is a primeval multilevel redox regulatory system whose architecture, together with the physicochemical characteristics of its constituents, allows efficient sensing and rapid adaptation to environmental changes and various other stressors to enhance fitness and resilience at the local and whole-organism level. To better characterize the RSI-related processes that determine fluxes through specific pathways and enable integration, it is necessary to disentangle the chemical biology and activity of reactive species (including precursors and reaction products), their targets, communication systems, and effects on cellular, organ, and whole-organism bioenergetics using system-level/network analyses. Understanding the mechanisms through which the RSI operates will enable a better appreciation of the possibilities to modulate the entire biological system; moreover, unveiling molecular signatures that characterize specific environmental challenges or other forms of stress will provide new prevention/intervention opportunities for personalized medicine. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  19. Significance of Compression in Binucleation while Differentiating Reactive Cellular Changes Between Human Papillomavirus and Candida Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okodo, Mitsuaki; Okayama, Kaori; Fukui, Tadasi; Shiina, Natsuko; Caniz, Timothy; Yabusaki, Hiromi; Fujii, Masahiko

    2017-09-27

    Purpose: Binucleation is a reactive cellular change (RCC) in Pap smears due to Candida infection. However, the origin of these binucleated cells as RCCs remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine binucleation in patients negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) and infected with Candida and those infected with high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) and to clarify the origin of the binucleated cells. Methods: A total of 115 endocervical swab specimens with a combined diagnosis of NILM, Candida infection, and RCCs were used for this study. Pap smears were used to identify binucleated cells and then separate them into two groups, compression-positive and compression-negative. In addition, hr-HPV was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a specific primer on the DNA extracted from the remaining residual cytology specimens. To make the hr-HPV-infected binucleated cells visible, an in situ PCR assay was performed on the Pap smear. Result: Of the 115 specimens, 69.6% contained binucleated cells, 26 (32.5%) showed only the compressed form, 35 (43.8%) showed only the non-compressed form, and 19 showed both the compressed and non-compressed forms of binucleated cells. Also, 34 specimens (29.6%) were positive for hr-HPV. The sensitivity and specificity of compression-positive binucleated cells were 91.2% and 82.7% (p compression-negative group (p = 0.156). Also, 34 cases with hr-HPV contained 99 compression-positive and 24 compression-negative cells. The hr-HPV-positive cells accounted for 68 (68.7%) of the 99 compression-positive and 2 (8.3%) of the 24 compression-negative binucleated cells as determined by an in situ PCR assay for hr-HPV. The relationship between compression and hr-HPV was statistically significant (p Compression-positive binucleated cells may be present as a result of hr-HPV infection and not RCC, which is caused due to inflammation in NILM cases infected with Candida. Creative Commons Attribution License

  20. Significant deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.; DeYoung, J.H.; Ludington, S.

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 99 percent of past production and remaining identified resources of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States are accounted for by deposits that originally contained at least 2 metric tonnes (t) gold, 85 t silver, 50,000 t copper, 30,000 t lead, or 50,000 t zinc. The U.S. Geological Survey, beginning with the 1996 National Mineral Resource Assessment, is systematically compiling data on these deposits, collectively known as 'significant' deposits. As of December 31, 1996, the significant deposits database contained 1,118 entries corresponding to individual deposits or mining districts. Maintaining, updating and analyzing a database of this size is much easier than managing the more than 100,000 records in the Mineral Resource Data System and Minerals Availability System/Minerals Industry Location System, yet the significant deposits database accounts for almost all past production and remaining identified resources of these metals in the United States. About 33 percent of gold, 22 percent of silver, 42 percent of copper, 39 percent of lead, and 46 percent of zinc are contained in or were produced from deposits discovered after World War II. Even within a database of significant deposits, a disproportionate share of past production and remaining resources is accounted for by a very small number of deposits. The largest 10 producers for each metal account for one third of the gold, 60 percent of the silver, 68 percent of the copper, 85 percent of the lead, and 75 percent of the zinc produced in the United States. The 10 largest deposits in terms of identified remaining resources of each of the five metals contain 43 percent of the gold, 56 percent of the silver, 48 percent of the copper, 94 percent of the lead, and 72 percent of the zinc. Identified resources in significant deposits for each metal are less than the mean estimates of resources in undiscovered deposits from the 1996 U.S. National Mineral Resource Assessment. Identified

  1. Parameter definition using vibration prediction software leads to significant drilling performance improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Dalmo; Hanley, Chris Hanley; Fonseca, Isaac; Santos, Juliana [National Oilwell Varco, Houston TX (United States); Leite, Daltro J.; Borella, Augusto; Gozzi, Danilo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The understanding and mitigation of downhole vibration has been a heavily researched subject in the oil industry as it results in more expensive drilling operations, as vibrations significantly diminish the amount of effective drilling energy available to the bit and generate forces that can push the bit or the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) off its concentric axis of rotation, producing high magnitude impacts with the borehole wall. In order to drill ahead, a sufficient amount of energy must be supplied by the rig to overcome the resistance of the drilling system, including the reactive torque of the system, drag forces, fluid pressure losses and energy dissipated by downhole vibrations, then providing the bit with the energy required to fail the rock. If the drill string enters resonant modes of vibration, not only does it decreases the amount of available energy to drill, but increases the potential for catastrophic downhole equipment and drilling bit failures. In this sense, the mitigation of downhole vibrations will result in faster, smoother, and cheaper drilling operations. A software tool using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been developed to provide better understanding of downhole vibration phenomena in drilling environments. The software tool calculates the response of the drilling system at various input conditions, based on the design of the wellbore along with the geometry of the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) and the drill string. It identifies where undesired levels of resonant vibration will be driven by certain combinations of specific drilling parameters, and also which combinations of drilling parameters will result in lower levels of vibration, so the least shocks, the highest penetration rate and the lowest cost per foot can be achieved. With the growing performance of personal computers, complex software systems modeling the drilling vibrations using FEA has been accessible to a wider audience of field users, further complimenting with real time

  2. Mitochondrion-derived reactive oxygen species lead to enhanced amyloid beta formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuner, K.; Schutt, T.; Kurz, C.; Eckert, S.H.; Schiller, C.; Occhipinti, A.; Mai, S.; Jendrach, M.; Eckert, G.P.; Kruse, S.E.; Palmiter, R.D.; Brandt, U.; Drose, S.; Wittig, I.; Willem, M.; Haass, C.; Reichert, A.S.; Muller, W.E.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: Intracellular amyloid beta (Abeta) oligomers and extracellular Abeta plaques are key players in the progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Still, the molecular signals triggering Abeta production are largely unclear. We asked whether mitochondrion-derived reactive oxygen species

  3. Spatial neutronics modelling to evaluate the temperature reactivity feedbacks in a lead-cooled fast reactor - 15288

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzi, S.; Cammi, A.; Luzzi, L.

    2015-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative assessment of the thermal reactivity feedbacks occurring in a nuclear reactor is a crucial issue for the time-dependent evolution of the system and, in turn, it has a great impact on the development and validation of advanced control techniques. In the present work, in order to overcome the limitations of the classic Point Kinetics adopted in the control simulators, a spatial neutronics model, representing the neutron flux as sum of a spatial basis weighted by time-dependent coefficients, has been considered. The reference reactor is ALFRED, the European demonstrator of the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor technology. Average cross-sections for each fuel assembly, calculated by means of a Monte Carlo code, have been used to solve the partial differential equations of the neutron diffusion, exploiting the capabilities of the COMSOL software. Once obtained the spatial functions, the set of equations for studying the reactivity effects has been implemented in the MATLAB environment. Among the several temperature reactivity feedbacks, specific attention has been paid to the Doppler effect in the fuel and to the lead density effect. Several spatial bases have been calculated and their capability of representing the reactivity variation have been assessed. (authors)

  4. Clinical significance of C-reactive protein for assessment and outcomes of severe acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REN Linan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo study the change in serum CRP level in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP, and to explore its clinical significance in predicting outcomes and assessing the severity of SAP. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on 52 SAP patients with complete case data and admitted to General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command from September 2013 to September 2014. Blood drawing was performed and serum CRP concentration was determined on admission and at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours after admission. The pattern of its dynamic change was observed. ResultsSerum CRP level in SAP patients significantly increased, and had a positive correlation with clinical outcomes. Forty-two cases (80.77% gradually recovered with aggressive treatment and the serum CRP levels were also slowly reduced (P<0.05. The serum CRP levels in four death cases (7.7% had no significant decrease and was maintained at a high level (P<0.05. Six patients (11.53% had aggravated conditions and recovered after aggressive treatment; meanwhile, the serum CRP levels first increased and then decreased (P<0.05. ConclusionFor SAP patients, serum CRP level fluctuates as their conditions change and can be considered as an important reference index for evaluating the severity and judging the outcomes of SAP.

  5. Mobilization of Intracellular Copper by Gossypol and Apogossypolone Leads to Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Cell Death: Putative Anticancer Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haseeb Zubair

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that serum, tissue and intracellular levels of copper are elevated in all types of cancer. Copper has been suggested as an important co-factor for angiogenesis. It is also a major metal ion present inside the nucleus, bound to DNA bases, particularly guanine. We have earlier proposed that the interaction of phenolic-antioxidants with intracellular copper leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS that ultimately serve as DNA cleaving agents. To further validate our hypothesis we show here that the antioxidant gossypol and its semi-synthetic derivative apogossypolone induce copper-mediated apoptosis in breast MDA-MB-231, prostate PC3 and pancreatic BxPC-3 cancer cells, through the generation of ROS. MCF10A breast epithelial cells refractory to the cytotoxic property of these compounds become sensitized to treatment against gossypol, as well as apogossypolone, when pre-incubated with copper. Our present results confirm our earlier findings and strengthen our hypothesis that plant-derived antioxidants mobilize intracellular copper instigating ROS-mediated cellular DNA breakage. As cancer cells exist under significant oxidative stress, this increase in ROS-stress to cytotoxic levels could be a successful anticancer approach.

  6. Clinical significance of high-sensitivity C- reactive protein in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine diagnostic and prognostic significance of high-sensitivity Creactive protein (hsCRP in systemic sclerosis (SS, to define relationship of this factor with activity of the disease and cardiovascular pathology, to assess role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in induction of acute phase proteins synthesis in SS.Material and methods. Serum levels of hsCRP, interleukin (IL 6, IL 1β, IL1ra, IL 10, sIL2r were evaluated by enzyme immunoassay (EIA in 40 pts with SS and 24 subjects of control group. Relationship with clinical features of the disease, endothelial dysfunction, capillaries structure changes, sub-clinical atherosclerosis, total coronary risk and some traditional cardiovascular risk factors was analyzed. Instrumental assessment included nailfold capillaroscopy, sonographic duplex examination of carotids , brachial arte ry sonographic examination. HsCRP prognostic significance was assessed in 51 pts with SS.Results. Elevated levels of hsCRP were found in 32% of SS pts and correlated with activity and severity of the disease, HAQ and SHAQ. Direct correlation of hsCRP with skin fibrosis distribution, interstitial lung disease, arthritis, laboratory indices of SS activity (ESR, sIL2r and Scl-70 was revealed. HsCRP concentration in SS did not depend on character and intensity of cardiovascular pathology, subclinical atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction and proinflammatory cytokines production.Conclusion. HsCRP in SS reflects intensity of immuno-inflammatory process, correlates with T-cell activation markers and can be used as index of the disease activity, severity of skin and lung fibrosis.

  7. Boreal coniferous forest density leads to significant variations in soil physical and geochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bastianelli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available At the northernmost extent of the managed forest in Quebec, Canada, the boreal forest is currently undergoing an ecological transition between two forest ecosystems. Open lichen woodlands (LW are spreading southward at the expense of more productive closed-canopy black spruce–moss forests (MF. The objective of this study was to investigate whether soil properties could distinguish MF from LW in the transition zone where both ecosystem types coexist. This study brings out clear evidence that differences in vegetation cover can lead to significant variations in soil physical and geochemical properties.Here, we showed that soil carbon, exchangeable cations, and iron and aluminium crystallinity vary between boreal closed-canopy forests and open lichen woodlands, likely attributed to variations in soil microclimatic conditions. All the soils studied were typical podzolic soil profiles evolved from glacial till deposits that shared a similar texture of the C layer. However, soil humus and the B layer varied in thickness and chemistry between the two forest ecosystems at the pedon scale. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to evaluate how soil properties could help distinguish the two types at the site scale. MF humus (FH horizons horizons composing the O layer showed significantly higher concentrations of organic carbon and nitrogen and of the main exchangeable base cations (Ca, Mg than LW soils. The B horizon of LW sites held higher concentrations of total Al and Fe oxides and particularly greater concentrations of inorganic amorphous Fe oxides than MF mineral soils, while showing a thinner B layer. Overall, our results show that MF store three times more organic carbon in their soils (B+FH horizons, roots apart than LW. We suggest that variations in soil properties between MF and LW are linked to a cascade of events involving the impacts of natural disturbances such as wildfires on forest regeneration that determines the vegetation

  8. Boreal coniferous forest density leads to significant variations in soil physical and geochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianelli, Carole; Ali, Adam A.; Beguin, Julien; Bergeron, Yves; Grondin, Pierre; Hély, Christelle; Paré, David

    2017-07-01

    At the northernmost extent of the managed forest in Quebec, Canada, the boreal forest is currently undergoing an ecological transition between two forest ecosystems. Open lichen woodlands (LW) are spreading southward at the expense of more productive closed-canopy black spruce-moss forests (MF). The objective of this study was to investigate whether soil properties could distinguish MF from LW in the transition zone where both ecosystem types coexist. This study brings out clear evidence that differences in vegetation cover can lead to significant variations in soil physical and geochemical properties.Here, we showed that soil carbon, exchangeable cations, and iron and aluminium crystallinity vary between boreal closed-canopy forests and open lichen woodlands, likely attributed to variations in soil microclimatic conditions. All the soils studied were typical podzolic soil profiles evolved from glacial till deposits that shared a similar texture of the C layer. However, soil humus and the B layer varied in thickness and chemistry between the two forest ecosystems at the pedon scale. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to evaluate how soil properties could help distinguish the two types at the site scale. MF humus (FH horizons horizons composing the O layer) showed significantly higher concentrations of organic carbon and nitrogen and of the main exchangeable base cations (Ca, Mg) than LW soils. The B horizon of LW sites held higher concentrations of total Al and Fe oxides and particularly greater concentrations of inorganic amorphous Fe oxides than MF mineral soils, while showing a thinner B layer. Overall, our results show that MF store three times more organic carbon in their soils (B+FH horizons, roots apart) than LW. We suggest that variations in soil properties between MF and LW are linked to a cascade of events involving the impacts of natural disturbances such as wildfires on forest regeneration that determines the vegetation structure (stand density

  9. Lead-poisoned wildfowl in Spain: a significant threat for human consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Raimon; Serratosa, Jordi; Thomas, Vernon G

    2002-12-01

    Each year, 1.2 million Spanish hunters and shooters discharge 6,000 t of lead shot, of which 30-50 t are deposited in wetlands of this European country. Waterfowl may accidentally ingest lead pellets in these aquatic habitats and become fatally lead poisoned. It has been estimated that 50,000 birds die from this cause in Spain each year, but many more are chronically affected. Most of them are species that can be hunted legally, and the lead toxicosis enhances their susceptibility to being killed by hunting. Consequently, about 30,000 waterfowl hunters and their families, especially children, are at risk from secondary lead ingestion from these poisoned birds. The consumption of a single liver (often eaten in Spain) from any waterfowl shot in this country may result in the direct uptake of 0.01-2.3 mg of lead in 40.4% of cases. This is based on the percentage of 411 analyzed waterfowl having liver lead contents over 0.5 mg kg(-1) wet weight, the maximum lead level in poultry offal that current EU regulations permit. Therefore, health management authorities should draw urgent attention to this environmental problem that presents such an established risk to human health.

  10. Significance of Microbial Communities and Interactions in Safeguarding Reactive Mine Tailings by Ecological Engineering▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    N̆ancucheo, Ivan; Johnson, D. Barrie

    2011-01-01

    Pyritic mine tailings (mineral waste generated by metal mining) pose significant risk to the environment as point sources of acidic, metal-rich effluents (acid mine drainage [AMD]). While the accelerated oxidative dissolution of pyrite and other sulfide minerals in tailings by acidophilic chemolithotrophic prokaryotes has been widely reported, other acidophiles (heterotrophic bacteria that catalyze the dissimilatory reduction of iron and sulfur) can reverse the reactions involved in AMD genesis, and these have been implicated in the “natural attenuation” of mine waters. We have investigated whether by manipulating microbial communities in tailings (inoculating with iron- and sulfur-reducing acidophilic bacteria and phototrophic acidophilic microalgae) it is possible to mitigate the impact of the acid-generating and metal-mobilizing chemolithotrophic prokaryotes that are indigenous to tailing deposits. Sixty tailings mesocosms were set up, using five different microbial inoculation variants, and analyzed at regular intervals for changes in physicochemical and microbiological parameters for up to 1 year. Differences between treatment protocols were most apparent between tailings that had been inoculated with acidophilic algae in addition to aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria and those that had been inoculated with only pyrite-oxidizing chemolithotrophs; these differences included higher pH values, lower redox potentials, and smaller concentrations of soluble copper and zinc. The results suggest that empirical ecological engineering of tailing lagoons to promote the growth and activities of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria could minimize their risk of AMD production and that the heterotrophic populations could be sustained by facilitating the growth of microalgae to provide continuous inputs of organic carbon. PMID:21965397

  11. Platelet reactivity changes significantly throughout all trimesters of pregnancy compared with the nonpregnant state: a prospective study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, N

    2013-12-01

    Platelets play an important role in the pathophysiology of uteroplacental disease and platelet reactivity may be an important marker of uteroplacental disease activity. However, platelet reactivity has not been evaluated comprehensively in normal pregnancy. We sought to evaluate platelet reactivity using a number of agonists at defined time points in pregnancy using a novel platelet assay and compare these with a nonpregnant cohort.

  12. MAPK pathway activation by chronic lead-exposure increases vascular reactivity through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simões, Maylla Ronacher, E-mail: yllars@hotmail.com [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Aguado, Andrea [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Fiorim, Jonaína; Silveira, Edna Aparecida; Azevedo, Bruna Fernandes; Toscano, Cindy Medice [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Zhenyukh, Olha; Briones, Ana María [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, María Jesús [Dept. of Biochemistry, Physiology and Molecular Genetics, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Health Science Center of Vitória-EMESCAM, Vitória, ES CEP 29045-402 (Brazil); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    Chronic exposure to low lead concentration produces hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed the role of oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways and MAPK in the vascular alterations induced by chronic lead exposure. Aortas from lead-treated Wistar rats (1st dose: 10 μg/100 g; subsequent doses: 0.125 μg/100 g, intramuscular, 30 days) and cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from Sprague Dawley rats stimulated with lead (20 μg/dL) were used. Lead blood levels of treated rats attained 21.7 ± 2.38 μg/dL. Lead exposure increased systolic blood pressure and aortic ring contractile response to phenylephrine, reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and did not affect sodium nitroprusside relaxation. Endothelium removal and L-NAME left-shifted the response to phenylephrine more in untreated than in lead-treated rats. Apocynin and indomethacin decreased more the response to phenylephrine in treated than in untreated rats. Aortic protein expression of gp91(phox), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and COX-2 increased after lead exposure. In cultured VSMCs lead 1) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and gene and/or protein levels of NOX-1, NOX-4, Mn-SOD, EC-SOD and COX-2 and 2) activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and mRNA levels of NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2. Blockade of the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished lead-induced NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2 expression. Results show that lead activation of the MAPK signaling pathways activates inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2, suggesting a reciprocal interplay and contribution to vascular dysfunction as an underlying mechanisms for lead-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Lead-exposure increases oxidative stress, COX-2 expression and vascular reactivity. • Lead exposure activates MAPK signaling pathway. • ROS and COX-2 activation by

  13. Prognostic Significance of Pre-treatment Serum C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients with Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner-Adler, Barbara; Kimberger, Oliver; Schneidinger, Cora; Kölbl, Heinz; Bodner, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate pre-treatment serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a prognostic parameter in patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Pre-treatment CRP levels were analyzed to determine potential associations with clinicopathological parameters and to assess prognostic value in 46 patients with sole adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. The mean (±SD) pre-treatment serum CRP level was 5.82 (7.21) mg/l. Serum CRP concentration significantly correlated positively with age at diagnosis (p=0.001), lymphovascular space invasion (p=0.0026), recurrent disease (p=0.0001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p=0.0002). In multivariate Cox regression models with age, FIGO stage, histological grade and lymph node status, elevated CRP and cancer antigen 125 levels were associated with shortened survival (pcervix. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental study on the effect of ingested lead shot on Estuarine crocodiles: significance for Finniss River field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerton, K.M.

    2002-01-01

    Lead has long been recognised as a cumulative metabolic poison in humans, domestic animals and wildlife. Because of the many industrial activities that have brought about its widespread distribution, lead is ubiquitous in the environment. For example, uranium mining at the Rum Jungle site on the Finniss River, Northern Territory, resulted in contamination of river sediments with lead. Today, lead levels remain at about 250 mg kg-1 of wet river sediment within the immediate vicinity of the mine. Another potential source of lead poisoning in wildlife is the use of lead gunshot for hunting. Mortality in wild waterfowl caused by the ingestion of spent lead shot has been recognised in North America and Europe for over a century. An experimental study was undertaken to assess the above hypothesis on the effects of lead in the environs of crocodiles. The specific effects of lead intoxication arise mainly from the interaction of lead with the enzymatic processes in the haem biosynthetic pathway. One of these enzymes, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), catalyses the condensation of two molecules of aminolevulinic acid to produce the pyrrole, porphobilinogen, the building block of the haem molecule. ALAD is a metalloenzyme requiring zinc for activity and is inhibited by lead displacing the essential zinc. This inhibition of ALAD by lead has been used as a specific biomarker for lead poisoning in fish, birds and mammals. An assay system was developed for the measurement of ALAD activity in crocodilian blood. It was found that ALAD was inhibited by up to 90% during the first week after exposure of the crocodiles to lead shot. There was an inverse correlation between BPb and ALAD activity throughout the 42 week experimental period. BPb concentrations greater than 100 mg dL-1 produced significant inhibition of ALAD. The results indicated that ALAD inhibition could be used as a specific biomarker of lead toxicity in crocodiles

  15. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty leads to significant biomechanical changes in the remaining rotator cuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perka Carsten

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective After reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA external and internal rotation will often remain restricted. A postoperative alteration of the biomechanics in the remaining cuff is discussed as a contributing factor to these functional deficits. Methods In this study, muscle moment arms as well as origin-to-insertion distance (OID were calculated using three-dimensional models of the shoulder derived from CT scans of seven cadaveric specimens. Results Moment arms for humeral rotation are significantly smaller for the cranial segments of SSC and all segments of TMIN in abduction angles of 30 degrees and above (p ≤ 0.05. Abduction moment arms were significantly decreased for all segments (p ≤ 0.002. OID was significantly smaller for all muscles at the 15 degree position (p ≤ 0.005, apart from the cranial SSC segment. Conclusions Reduced rotational moment arms in conjunction with the decrease of OID may be a possible explanation for the clinically observed impaired external and internal rotation.

  16. Overprotective social support leads to increased cardiovascular and subjective stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zniva, Richard; Pauli, Paul; Schulz, Stefan M

    2017-02-01

    Self-determination theory suggests that autonomy-enhancing social support helps individuals to perceive stressors as challenging rather than stressing. Overprotective support may reduce stress in the short-run but undermines autonomy, thus hampering stress-coping in the long run, particularly when social support is terminated. Heartrate, blood-pressure and ratings were examined in N=44 undergraduate students receiving autonomy support (calculation steps) or overprotection (solutions) from a close friend or no support for solving arithmetic tasks as well as during a subsequent stress-challenge (solving arithmetic tasks alone). Overprotection resulted in increased heartrate, diastolic blood-pressure, stress ratings, and decreased subjective control during stress-challenge. Autonomy support did not lead to unfavorable stress responding. The current findings are in line with assumptions derived from self-determination theory and indicate that autonomy support can help to prevent stress. Overprotection does not buffer stress and is associated with increased stress when discontinued. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure of Bacterial Biofilms to Electrical Current Leads to Cell Death Mediated in Part by Reactive Oxygen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Cassandra L; Schmidt-Malan, Suzannah M; Karau, Melissa J; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl; Hassett, Daniel J; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Patel, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms may form on indwelling medical devices such as prosthetic joints, heart valves and catheters, causing challenging-to-treat infections. We have previously described the 'electricidal effect', in which bacterial biofilms are decreased following exposure to direct electrical current. Herein, we sought to determine if the decreased bacterial quantities are due to detachment of biofilms or cell death and to investigate the role that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play in the observed effect. Using confocal and electron microscopy and flow cytometry, we found that direct current (DC) leads to cell death and changes in the architecture of biofilms formed by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear to play a role in DC-associated cell death, as there was an increase in ROS-production by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms following exposure to DC. An increase in the production of ROS response enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was observed for S. aureus, S. epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms following exposure to DC. Additionally, biofilms were protected from cell death when supplemented with antioxidants and oxidant scavengers, including catalase, mannitol and Tempol. Knocking out SOD (sodAB) in P. aeruginosa led to an enhanced DC effect. Microarray analysis of P. aeruginosa PAO1 showed transcriptional changes in genes related to the stress response and cell death. In conclusion, the electricidal effect results in death of bacteria in biofilms, mediated, at least in part, by production of ROS.

  18. Remediation of groundwater contaminated with the lead-phenol binary system by granular dead anaerobic sludge-permeable reactive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Ayad A H; Abd Ali, Ziad T

    2017-10-01

    Computer solutions (COMSOL) Multiphysics 3.5a software was used for simulating the one-dimensional equilibrium transport of the lead-phenol binary system including the sorption process through saturated sandy soil as the aquifer and granular dead anaerobic sludge (GDAS) as the permeable reactive barrier. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis proved that the carboxylic and alcohol groups are responsible for the bio-sorption of lead onto GDAS, while phosphines, aromatic and alkane are the functional groups responsible for the bio-sorption of phenol. Batch tests have been performed to characterize the equilibrium sorption properties of the GDAS and sandy soil in lead and/or phenol containing aqueous solutions. Numerical and experimental results proved that the barrier plays a potential role in the restriction of the contaminant plume migration and there is a linear relationship between longevity and thickness of the barrier. A good agreement between these results was recognized with root mean squared error not exceeding 0.04.

  19. Clinical significance of preoperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein level in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kyung A; Roh, Mee Sook; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kwon, Hyuk-Chan; Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Oh, Sung Yong; Lee, Suee; Han, Jin-Yeong; Kim, Kyeong Hee; Goh, Ri Young; Choi, Hong Jo; Park, Ki Jae

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a multistep process in which many growth factors and cytokines have an essential role. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic agent that acts as a specific mitogen for vascular endothelial cells through specific cell surface receptors. The interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathway is another mechanism linking angiogenesis to malignancy. C-reactive protein (CRP), a representative marker for inflammation, is known for its association with disease progression in many cancer types. The aim of this study was to determine preoperative serum levels of VEGF, IL-6, and CRP in colorectal carcinoma, and to correlate them with disease status and prognosis. A 132 of 143 patients who underwent curative resection for colorectal cancer were enrolled in this study. 11 patients with resection margin positive were excluded. Factors considered in analysis of the relationship between VEGF, IL-6, and CRP and histological findings. Patient prognosis was investigated. Serum levels of VEGF and IL-6 were assessed using Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA), and CRP was measured using immunoturbidimetry. Median follow-up duration was 18.53 months (range 0.73-43.17 months) and median age of the patients was 62 years (range, 26-83 years). Mean and median levels of VEGF and CRP in colorectal cancer were significantly higher than in the normal control group; 608 vs. 334 pg/mL and 528 (range 122-3242) vs. 312 (range 16-1121) (p < 0.001); 1.05 mg/dL vs. 0.43 mg/dL and 0.22 (range 0.00-18.40) vs. 0.07 (range 0.02-6.94) (p = 0.002), respectively. However mean and median level of IL-6 in patients were not significantly higher than in control; 14.33 pg/mL vs. 5.65 pg/mL and 6.00 (range 1.02-139.17) vs. 5.30 (4.50-13.78) (p = 0.327). Although IL-6 and CRP levels were not correlated with other pathological findings, VEGF level was significantly correlated with tumor size (p = 0.012) and CEA (p = 0.038). When we established the cutoff value for VEGF (825 pg/mL), IL-6 (8

  20. Expression of Autoactivated Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Glands of Transgenic Mice Leads to a Reactive Stroma During Early Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomasset, N.; Lochter, A.; Sympson, C.J.; Lund, L.R.; Williams, D.R.; Behrendtsen, O.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1998-04-24

    cells produce fibronectin, collagens, proteoglycans, and some components of the BM, as well as a number of proteinases that can effectively degrade BM constituents. Stromal and epithelial cells of the mammary gland interact to regulate BM synthesis and degradation and, thus, mammary function. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes involved in mammary gland morphogenesis and involution. During late pregnancy and lactation, when the gland becomes fully functional, the expression of MMPs is low however, during involution, when the gland loses function and is remodeled, synthesis of ECM-degrading proteinases increases dramatically.11 Disturbance of the balance between MMPs and MMP inhibitors leads to either unscheduled involution or prolonged lactation. Mammary glands of virgin mice expressing an autoactivating stromelysin-1 (SL-1) transgene display supernumerary branches and precocious alveolar development, accompanied by the synthesis of {beta}-casein at levels found normally only during early pregnancy. During late pregnancy, increased expression of the SL-1 transgene leads to a reduction in expression of pregnancy-specific genes. Later in life, some SL-1 transgenic mice develop hyperplastic, dysplastic, and ductal carcinoma in situ-like lesions, as well as malignant tumors. Little is known about the sequence of changes that occurs before formation of an overt reactive stroma in breast cancer. In the present study, we address the question of whether and how the stromal compartment is altered as a consequence of inappropriate SL-1 transgene expression in the epithelium.

  1. An atmospheric-pressure cold plasma leads to apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by accumulating intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R N; Zhang, Q; Tian, Y; Su, B; Zhang, J; Fang, J; Feng, H Q; Liang, Y D

    2013-01-01

    A non-thermal plasma is known to induce apoptosis of various cells but the mechanism is not yet clear. A eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiaewas used to investigate the cellular and biochemical regulations of cell apoptosis and cell cycle after an atmospheric-pressure cold plasma treatment. More importantly, intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) was first involved in monitoring the process of plasma-induced apoptosis in this study. We analysed the cell apoptosis and cell cycle by flow cytometry and observed the changes in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2+ concentration, cell mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ m ) as well as nuclear DNA morphology via fluorescence staining assay. All experimental results indicated that plasma-generated ROS leads to the accumulation of intracellular ROS and Ca 2+ that ultimately contribute to apoptosis associated with cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through depolarization of Δψ m and fragmenting nuclear DNA. This work provides a novel insight into the physical and biological mechanism of apoptosis induced by a plasma which could benefit for promoting the development of plasmas applied to cancer therapy. (paper)

  2. The geochemical evolution of syncollisional magmatism and the implications for significant magmatic-hydrothermal lead-zinc mineralization (Gangdese, Tibet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinsheng; Yang, Zhusen; Hou, Zengqian; Liu, Yingchao; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhao, Miao; Ma, Wang

    2017-09-01

    In addition to well-known subduction processes, the collision of two continents also generates abundant ore deposits, as in the case of the Tibetan Plateau, which is the youngest and most spectacular collisional belt on Earth. During the building history of the Gangdese magmatic belt, several magmatic flare-up events developed, however, significant magmatic-hydrothermal lead-zinc mineralization dominantly accompanied the magmatism during the syncollisional period ( 65-41 Ma). Based on integrated geochemical and isotopic data, we provide insights into the genesis and evolution of syncollisional magmas, and their implications for significant magmatic-hydrothermal lead-zinc mineralization. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of most syncollisional igneous rocks (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7034-0.7123; εNd(t) = - 9.0 to + 1.8) indicate a mixing origin between mantle-derived basaltic magmas and ancient crustal melts, and fractional crystallization is a fundamental mechanism by which syncollisional magmas evolve towards intermediate to silicic compositions. Most lead-zinc mineralization-related plutons are high silica (76.14% wt.% SiO2 on average), high oxygen fugacity (average ΔFMQ + 2.5) granites with highly evolved chemical signatures [average Eun/Eun* = 0.33, high Rb/Sr (average = 3.9)], and they represent the final products from primary magmas. Due to the contribution of ancient crustal melts to the genesis of mineralization-related parent magmas, the spatial distribution of Pb-Zn deposits within the northern Gangdese magmatic belt is controlled by the lithospheric architecture. In compressional environments, magmas have low evacuation efficiency and long magma chamber lifespan, which is favorable for basaltic parents evolved to high silica granites through sufficient fractional crystallization. This scenario contributes to our understanding of the significant magmatic-hydrothermal lead-zinc mineralization that occurred in the syncollisional period.

  3. Different Reactive Oxygen Species Lead to Distinct Changes of Cellular Metal Ions in the Eukaryotic Model Organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Rogers

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Elemental uptake and export of the cell are tightly regulated thereby maintaining the ionomic homeostasis. This equilibrium can be disrupted upon exposure to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to reduction or elevation of the intracellular metal ions. In this study, the ionomic composition in the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae was profiled using the inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES following the treatment with individual ROS, including hydrogen peroxide, cumen hydroperoxide, linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LAH, the superoxide-generating agent menadione, the thiol-oxidising agent diamide [diazine-dicarboxylic acid-bis(dimethylamide], dimedone and peroxynitrite. The findings demonstrated that different ROS resulted in distinct changes in cellular metal ions. Aluminium (Al3+ level rose up to 50-fold after the diamide treatment. Cellular potassium (K+ in LAH-treated cells was 26-fold less compared to the non-treated controls. The diamide-induced Al3+ accumulation was further validated by the enhanced Al3+ uptake along the time course and diamide doses. Pre-incubation of yeast with individual elements including iron, copper, manganese and magnesium failed to block diamide-induced Al3+ uptake, suggesting Al3+-specific transporters could be involved in Al3+ uptake. Furthermore, LAH-induced potassium depletion was validated by a rescue experiment in which addition of potassium increased yeast growth in LAH-containing media by 26% compared to LAH alone. Taken together, the data, for the first time, demonstrated the linkage between ionomic profiles and individual oxidative conditions.

  4. Respiratory alkalosis may impair the production of vitamin D and lead to significant morbidity, including the fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John M; Fontrier, Toinette H; Coley, J Lynn

    2017-05-01

    Hyperventilation caused by physical and/or psychological stress may lead to significant respiratory alkalosis and an elevated systemic pH. The alkalotic pH may in turn suppress the normal renal release of phosphate into the urine, thereby interrupting the endogenous production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol). This could cause a shortfall in its normal production, leading to a variety of adverse consequences. It might partially explain the pathogenesis of acute mountain sickness, a treatable disease characterized by severe hyperventilation secondary to the hypoxia of high altitude exposure. Milder degrees of hyperventilation due to different forms of stress may produce other conditions which share characteristics with acute mountain sickness. One of these may be the fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic painful disorder for which no satisfactory treatment exists. Should fibromyalgia and acute mountain sickness have a common etiology, may they also share a common form of treatment? Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lead ingots from a shipwreck off Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu, east coast of India: Evidence for overseas trade and their significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Parthiban, G.; Vora, K.H.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

    , the Netherlands and Sumatra. Pb-isotopic analysis has revealed their source as the North Pennine lead mines of England. Further, the lead used was of high purity approx. 93%. Records show that Blackett was a well-known lead-exporting company in England since 1694...

  6. Surface decoration through electrostatic interaction leading to enhanced reactivity: Low temperature synthesis of nanostructured chromium borides (CrB and CrB2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menaka,; Kumar, Bharat; Kumar, Sandeep; Ganguli, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes a novel low temperature route at ambient pressure for the synthesis of nanocrystalline chromium borides (CrB and CrB 2 ) without using any flux or additives. The favorable and intimate mixing of nanoparticles of chromium acetate (Cr source) and boron forms an active chromium–boron precursor which decomposes at much lower temperature (400 °C) to form CrB (which is ∼1000 °C less than the known ambient pressure synthesis). The chromium acetate nanoparticles (∼5 nm) decorate the larger boron particles (150–200 nm) due to electrostatic interactions resulting from opposing surface charges of boron (zeta potential:+48.101 mV) and chromium acetate (zeta potential:−4.021 mV) in ethanolic medium and is evident in the TEM micrographs. The above method leads to the formation of pure CrB film like structure at 400 °C and nanospheres (40–60 nm) at 600 °C. Also, chromium diboride (CrB 2 ) nanoparticles (25 nm) could be obtained at 1000 °C. - Graphical abstract: Variation of surface charge of reactants, precursor and the products, chromium borides (CrB and CrB 2 ). Highlights: ► Novel borothermal reduction process for synthesis of chromium boride. ► Significant lowering of reaction temperature to obtain nanocrystalline chromium boride. ► Enhanced reactivity due to appropriate surface interactions

  7. The Effect of Lead on the Glomalin Content of Hypha and Root Reactive with Monoclonal Antibody and Bradford in both in Vitro and Pot Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Malekzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glomalin is known as a specific fungal glycoprotein belonging to the order Glomerales in phylum Glomeromycota and has been introduced as a heat shock protein. We hypothesised that increasing the level of Pb would lead to increase in glomalin production. Glomalin is usually determined by two methods, the Bradford protein dye-binding assay and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Since many laboratories are not equipped to carry out the ELISA assay, many studies have measured glomalin-related soil protein using the Bradford colorimetric total protein assay. While, the ELISA method specifically measures glomalin by using monoclonal antibody MAb32B11. Materials and Methods: The pot experiment was conducted in the sterile free-glomalin sand with Trifolium repens L. mycorrhized by Rhizophagus irregularis fungus and treated with the Pb levels of 0, 150, 300 and 450 µM. Thus, in vitro experiment was performed in two-compartments plates containing of the transformed carrot roots (Daucus carota L. mycorrhized with the same fungus in root compartment and hyphal compartment treated with the Pb levels of 0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM as Pb(NO32. For glomalin extraction, hyphal or root samples were autoclaved at 121 ⁰C with 50 mM sodium citrate buffer for 60 min in three cycles. Protein concentrations in the extracted samples were determined using a modified Bradford protein assay. Also, glomalin content in the samples were determined by indirect ELISA using monoclonal antibody MAb32B11. The percentages of the total root length were colonised by mycorrhizal fungi in pot culture and both hyphal and spore densities in the metal-containing hyphal compartment were determined. Results and Discussion: In the in vitro culture the percentage of total hyphae and spore frequency decreased, while Bradford reactive total hyphal protein (BRHP and Immunoreactive hyphal protein (IRHP in hyphal compartment increased as the concentrations of Pb increased

  8. Intragenic FMR1 disease-causing variants: a significant mutational mechanism leading to Fragile-X syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartier, Angélique; Poquet, Hélène; Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Rossi, Massimiliano; Casteleyn, Anne-Sophie; Portes, Vincent des; Feger, Claire; Nourisson, Elsa; Kuentz, Paul; Redin, Claire; Thevenon, Julien; Mosca-Boidron, Anne-Laure; Callier, Patrick; Muller, Jean; Lesca, Gaetan; Huet, Frédéric; Geoffroy, Véronique; El Chehadeh, Salima; Jung, Matthieu; Trojak, Benoit; Le Gras, Stéphanie; Lehalle, Daphné; Jost, Bernard; Maury, Stéphanie; Masurel, Alice; Edery, Patrick; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Gérard, Bénédicte; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Faivre, Laurence; Piton, Amélie

    2017-01-01

    Fragile-X syndrome (FXS) is a frequent genetic form of intellectual disability (ID). The main recurrent mutagenic mechanism causing FXS is the expansion of a CGG repeat sequence in the 5′-UTR of the FMR1 gene, therefore, routinely tested in ID patients. We report here three FMR1 intragenic pathogenic variants not affecting this sequence, identified using high-throughput sequencing (HTS): a previously reported hemizygous deletion encompassing the last exon of FMR1, too small to be detected by array-CGH and inducing decreased expression of a truncated form of FMRP protein, in three brothers with ID (family 1) and two splice variants in boys with sporadic ID: a de novo variant c.990+1G>A (family 2) and a maternally inherited c.420-8A>G variant (family 3). After clinical reevaluation, the five patients presented features consistent with FXS (mean Hagerman's scores=15). We conducted a systematic review of all rare non-synonymous variants previously reported in FMR1 in ID patients and showed that six of them are convincing pathogenic variants. This study suggests that intragenic FMR1 variants, although much less frequent than CGG expansions, are a significant mutational mechanism leading to FXS and demonstrates the interest of HTS approaches to detect them in ID patients with a negative standard work-up. PMID:28176767

  9. Evaluation of potentially significant increase of lead in the blood during long-term bed rest and space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Vladislav; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Chettle, David; Zerwekh, Joseph

    2005-02-01

    We address a gap in the knowledge of lead turnover under conditions of prolonged bed rest and microgravity by developing a quantitative model of the amount of lead returned to blood circulation from bone. We offer the hypothesis that skeletal unloading, such as typically occurs during extended bed rest or microgravity, will result in bone lead being released to the blood, as has already been demonstrated in the case of calcium. We use initial bone lead concentrations to develop predictive models of blood lead elevation. Our theoretical calculations with typical bone lead loads measured in today's 40-60-year-old generation, suggest that the estimated blood lead concentrations in long duration (e.g., 100 days) space flight could average between 20 and 40 microg dl(-1), a range with well-established toxic effects. For a similar duration of bed rest, estimated blood lead concentration could be as high as 10-20 microg dl(-1), which is a level of concern, particularly if we consider females of childbearing age. The preliminary experimental results were obtained under multi-institutional collaborations, with the main outcome received from an on-going bed rest study, Prevention of Microgravity-Induced Stone Risk by KMgCitrate, conducted at the General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas. Based on theoretical modeling and some preliminary experimental results, this concept may have important clinical implications by allowing prediction of the magnitude of blood lead elevation, thereby establishing the means to prevent lead toxicity during long duration space flight of astronauts and in conditions of prolonged bed rest such as complicated pregnancy, spinal cord injury induced paralysis and comatose patients.

  10. C-reactive protein testing in patients with acute rhinosinusitis leads to a reduction in antibiotic use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars; Arranz, Javier

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of C-reactive protein (CRP) testing on the antibiotic prescribing in patients with acute rhinosinusitis. METHODS: Audit-based study carried out in primary care centres in Spain. GPs registered episodes of rhinosinusitis during 3-week period before and after...... an intervention. Two types of intervention were considered: full intervention group (FIG) consisting in individual feedback based on results from the first registry, courses in rational antibiotic prescribing, guidelines, patient information leaflets, workshops on rapid tests and use of the CRP test. GPs...... in the partial intervention group (PIG) underwent all the above intervention except for the workshop and they did not have access to CRP. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed considering the prescription of antibiotics as the dependent variable. RESULTS: Two hundred and ten physicians were...

  11. Remediation of lead and cadmium from simulated groundwater in loess region in northwestern China using permeable reactive barrier filled with environmentally friendly mixed adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunhui; Gao, Yalin; Zhang, Yingchao; Dong, Wanqing; Lai, Miao

    2018-01-01

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is potentially effective for groundwater remediation, especially using environmentally friendly mixed fillers in representative areas, such as semi-arid loess region in northwestern China. The mixed materials, including corn straw (agricultural wastes), fly ash (industrial wastes), zeolite synthesized from fly ash (reutilized products), and iron-manganese nodule derived from loess (materials with regional characteristics) in northwestern China, were chosen as PRB media to reduce the contents of lead and cadmium in simulated groundwater. A series of lab-scale column experiments were investigated, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the working process; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were applied to further reveal the reaction mechanism. It shows that the purification efficiencies are more acceptable when the concentrations of lead and cadmium are approximately 7 and 0.7 mg/L, respectively, at 25 °C in weakly acidic solution, and functional groups of -OH and C=C play an important role for contaminants removal. The mixed adsorbents used are effective to remove lead and cadmium in groundwater. This is the first report on the removal of lead and cadmium from groundwater in loess region in northwestern China using PRB filled with environmentally friendly mixed adsorbents.

  12. Induction Based Training leads to Highly Significant Improvements of Objective and Subjective Suturing Ability in Junior Doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Garry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Simulation based training has shown to be of benefit in the education of medical students. However, the impact of induction based clinical simulation on surgical ability of qualified doctors remains unclear.The aim of this study was to establish if a 60 minute teaching session integrated into an Emergency Medicine speciality induction program produces statistically significant improvements in objective and subjective suturing abilities of junior doctors commencing an Emergency Medicine rotation.Methods: The objective suturing abilities of 16 Foundation Year Two doctors were analysed using a validated OSATs scale prior to a novel teaching intervention. The doctors then undertook an intensive hour long workshop receiving one to one feedback before undergoing repeat OSATs assessment.Subjective ability was measured using a 5 point likert scale and self-assessed competency reporting interrupted suturing before and after the intervention. Photographs of wound closure before and after the intervention were recorded for further blinded assessment of impact of intervention. A survey regarding continued ability was repeated at four months following the intervention. The study took place on 7/12/16 during the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust Emergency Medicine induction in the Royal Victoria Hospital Belfast. The hospital is a regional level 1 trauma centre that has annual departmental attendances in excess of 200,000.All new junior doctors commencing the Emergency Medicine rotation were invited to partake in the study. All 16 agreed. The group consisted of a mixture of undergraduate and postgraduate medicaldoctors who all had 16 months experience working in a variety of medical or surgical jobs previously.Results: Following the teaching intervention objective and subjective abilities in interrupted suturing showed statistically significant improvement (P>0.005. Self-reporting of competency of independently suturingwounds improved from 50

  13. Dietary Vitamin C, E and β-Carotene Intake Does Not Significantly Affect Plasma or Salivary Antioxidant Indices and Salivary C-Reactive Protein in Older Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Guligowska, Agnieszka; Prymont-Przymińska, Anna; Godala, Małgorzata; Kolmaga, Agnieszka; Nowak, Dariusz; Szatko, Franciszek; Kostka, Tomasz

    2017-07-09

    It is not clear whether habitual dietary intake influences the antioxidant or inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of antioxidative vitamins C, E, and β-carotene obtained from daily food rations on plasma and salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), uric acid and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP). The study involved 80 older subjects (66.9 ± 4.3 years), divided into two groups: group 1 ( n = 43) with lower and group 2 ( n = 37) with higher combined vitamins C, E and β-carotene intake. A 24-h dietary recall was obtained from each individual. TAC was assessed simultaneously with two methods in plasma (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma-FRAP, 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-DPPH) and in saliva (FRAS and DPPHS test). Lower vitamin C intake corresponded to higher FRAS. There were no other correlations between vitamins C, E or β-carotene intake and antioxidant indices. Salivary CRP was not related to any antioxidant indices. FRAS was decreased in group 2 ( p < 0.01) but no other group differences for salivary or for plasma antioxidant parameters and salivary CRP were found. Habitual, not extra supplemented dietary intake does not significantly affect plasma or salivary TAC and salivary CRP.

  14. Intracellular zinc flux causes reactive oxygen species mediated mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cell death in Leishmania donovani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kumari

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania parasite is a global threat to public health and one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Therefore, the discovery of novel drug targets and effective drug is a major challenge and an important goal. Leishmania is an obligate intracellular parasite that alternates between sand fly and human host. To survive and establish infections, Leishmania parasites scavenge and internalize nutrients from the host. Nevertheless, host cells presents mechanism like nutrient restriction to inhibit microbial growth and control infection. Zinc is crucial for cellular growth and disruption in its homeostasis hinders growth and survival in many cells. However, little is known about the role of zinc in Leishmania growth and survival. In this study, the effect of zinc on the growth and survival of L.donovani was analyzed by both Zinc-depletion and Zinc-supplementation using Zinc-specific chelator N, N, N', N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl ethylenediamine (TPEN and Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO4. Treatment of parasites with TPEN rather than ZnSO4 had significantly affected the growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The pre-treatment of promastigotes with TPEN resulted into reduced host-parasite interaction as indicated by decreased association index. Zn depletion resulted into flux in intracellular labile Zn pool and increased in ROS generation correlated with decreased intracellular total thiol and retention of plasma membrane integrity without phosphatidylserine exposure in TPEN treated promastigotes. We also observed that TPEN-induced Zn depletion resulted into collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential which is associated with increase in cytosolic calcium and cytochrome-c. DNA fragmentation analysis showed increased DNA fragments in Zn-depleted cells. In summary, intracellular Zn depletion in the L. donovani promastigotes led to ROS-mediated caspase-independent mitochondrial dysfunction resulting into apoptosis-like cell death

  15. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern results in significant reductions in C-reactive protein levels in adults: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, E P; Batterham, M J; Tapsell, L C

    2016-05-01

    Consumption of healthy dietary patterns has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Dietary intervention targets disease prevention, so studies increasingly use biomarkers of underlying inflammation and metabolic syndrome progression to examine the diet-health relationship. The extent to which these biomarkers contribute to the body of evidence on healthy dietary patterns is unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of healthy dietary patterns on biomarkers associated with adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adults. A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all years to April 2015) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials; effects of dietary patterns assessed on C-reactive protein (CRP), total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin:leptin, resistin, or retinol binding protein 4. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess the weighted mean differences in change or final mean values for each outcome. Seventeen studies were included in the review. These reflected research on dietary patterns associated with the Mediterranean diet, Nordic diet, Tibetan diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern was associated with significant reductions in CRP (weighted mean difference, -0.75 [-1.16, -0.35]; P = .0003). Non-significant changes were found for all other biomarkers. This analysis found evidence for favorable effects of healthy dietary patterns on CRP, with limited evidence for other biomarkers. Future research should include additional randomized controlled trials incorporating a greater range of dietary patterns and biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined exposure to protons and 56Fe leads to overexpression of Il13 and reactivation of repetitive elements in the mouse lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzabarushimana, Etienne; Prior, Sara; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Pathak, Rupak; Allen, Antiño R.; Latendresse, John; Olsen, Reid H. J.; Raber, Jacob; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A.; Koturbash, Igor

    2015-11-01

    Interest in deep space exploration underlines the needs to investigate the effects of exposure to combined sources of space radiation. The lung is a target organ for radiation, and exposure to protons and heavy ions as radiation sources may lead to the development of degenerative disease and cancer. In this study, we evaluated the pro-fibrotic and epigenetic effects of exposure to protons (150 MeV/nucleon, 0.1 Gy) and heavy iron ions (56Fe, 600 MeV/nucleon, 0.5 Gy) alone or in combination (protons on Day 1 and 56Fe on Day 2) in C57BL/6 male mice 4 weeks after irradiation. Exposure to 56Fe, proton or in combination, did not result in histopathological changes in the murine lung. At the same time, combined exposure to protons and 56Fe resulted in pronounced molecular alterations in comparison with either source of radiation alone. Specifically, we observed a substantial increase in the expression of cytokine Il13, loss of expression of DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1, and reactivation of LINE-1, SINE B1 retrotransposons, and major and minor satellites. Given the deleterious potential of the observed effects that may lead to development of chronic lung injury, pulmonary fibrosis, and cancer, future studies devoted to the investigation of the long-term effects of combined exposures to proton and heavy ions are clearly needed.

  17. E valuation and clinical significance of serum C-reactive protein and homocysteine level in obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome complicated with coronary heart disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yingrui; Zha Jinshun; Xu Chaoxiang; Chen Xiaoyang; Wang Yaoguo; Du Xinqing

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between homocysteine (HCY) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients and OSAHS patients complicated with coronary heart disease by detecting the scrum level of HCY and CRP on the mechanism of OSAHS complicated with coronary heart disease. Methods: Ninety-one patients were divided into three groups, 30 patients as control group, 36 patients as OSAHS group, and 25 patients as OSAHS complicated with CHD group. Serum HCY level was detected through chemiluminescence. Serum CRP level was detected through radioimmunity. The serum level of HCY and CRP was compared among these groups. OSAHS patients were divided into mild OSAHS subgroup, moderate OSAHS subgroup and severe OSAHS subgroup. The morbidity rate of CHD and the serum level of HCY and CRP were compared among these subgroups. Meanwhile the parameters of polysomnogram such as activity apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and blood oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) were compared between OSAHS group and OSAHS complicated with coronary heart disease group. Results: (1) There was significant difference among the serum level of HCY and CRP of control group, OSAHS group and OSAHS complicated with CHD group (F HCY =15.80, F CRP =19.21, P all HCY =4.74, t CRP =5.14, P all HCY =7.31, t CRP =8.17, P all 2 =6.96, χ 2 =4.18, P HCY =16.38, F CRP =12.97, P all 2 of OSAHS group and OSAHS complicated with CHD group (t AHI =5.46, percentage of SaO 2 2 : t=4.68, average lowest SaO 2 : t=3.65, longest duration of disordered breathing events: t=4.73, P all<0.01 ). Conclusion: The serum level of HCY and CRP rose because of hypoxia in OSAHS patients,and might play an important role in the mechanism of OSAHS complicated with CHD. (authors)

  18. Clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of C-reactive protein/albumin ratio in patients with solid tumors: an updated systemic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayuan; Tan, Wenkai; Chen, Lin; Huang, Zhe; Mai, Shao

    2018-03-02

    C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CAR) was originally used as a novel inflammation-based prognostic score in predicting outcomes in septic patients. Recently, more and more studies have reported the prognostic value of pretreatment CAR in solid tumors. However, the results remain controversial rather than conclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis based on 24 studies with 10203 patients to explore the relationship between CAR and survival outcomes in patients with solid tumors. The correlation between CAR and clinicopathological parameters was also assessed. Hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was applied to be the effect size estimate. The overall results showed that elevated CAR was associated with shorter overall survival (OS) (including 23 studies and 10067 patients) and poorer disease-free survival (DFS) (including 6 studies and 2904 patients). Significant associations between high CAR level and poor OS were also found in the subgroup analyses of study region, cancer type, primary treatment, clinical stage, cut-off selection, sample size, and cut-off value. Moreover, subgroup analyses demonstrated that study region, primary treatment, clinical stage, sample size, and cut-off value did not alter the prognostic value of CAR for DFS. Furthermore, elevated CAR was correlated with certain phenotypes of tumor aggressiveness, such as poor histological grade, serious clinical stage, advanced tumor depth, positive lymph node metastasis, and positive distant metastasis. Together, our meta-analysis suggests that elevated level of serum CAR predicts worse survival and unfavorable clinical characteristics in cancer patients, and CAR may serve as an effective prognostic factor for solid tumors.

  19. Heart tissue of harlequin (hq)/Big Blue mice has elevated reactive oxygen species without significant impact on the frequency and nature of point mutations in nuclear DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabbe, Rory A. [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Hill, Kathleen A., E-mail: khill22@uwo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2010-09-10

    Age is a major risk factor for heart disease, and cardiac aging is characterized by elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) with compromised mitochondrial and nuclear DNA integrity. To assess links between increased ROS levels and mutations, we examined in situ levels of ROS and cII mutation frequency, pattern and spectrum in the heart of harlequin (hq)/Big Blue mice. The hq mouse is a model of premature aging with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased risk of oxidative stress-induced heart disease with the means for in vivo mutation detection. The hq mutation produces a significant downregulation in the X-linked apoptosis-inducing factor gene (Aif) impairing both the antioxidant and oxidative phosphorylation functions of AIF. Brain and skin of hq disease mice have elevated frequencies of point mutations in nuclear DNA and histopathology characterized by cell loss. Reports of associated elevations in ROS in brain and skin have mixed results. Herein, heart in situ ROS levels were elevated in hq disease compared to AIF-proficient mice (p < 0.0001) yet, mutation frequency and pattern were similar in hq disease, hq carrier and AIF-proficient mice. Heart cII mutations were also assessed 15 days following an acute exposure to an exogenous ROS inducer (10 mg paraquat/kg). Acute paraquat exposure with a short mutant manifestation period was insufficient to elevate mutation frequency or alter mutation pattern in the post-mitotic heart tissue of AIF-proficient mice. Paraquat induction of ROS requires mitochondrial complex I and thus is likely compromised in hq mice. Results of this preliminary survey and the context of recent literature suggest that determining causal links between AIF deficiency and the premature aging phenotypes of specific tissues is better addressed with assay of mitochondrial ROS and large-scale changes in mitochondrial DNA in specific cell types.

  20. Heart tissue of harlequin (hq)/Big Blue mice has elevated reactive oxygen species without significant impact on the frequency and nature of point mutations in nuclear DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabbe, Rory A.; Hill, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Age is a major risk factor for heart disease, and cardiac aging is characterized by elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) with compromised mitochondrial and nuclear DNA integrity. To assess links between increased ROS levels and mutations, we examined in situ levels of ROS and cII mutation frequency, pattern and spectrum in the heart of harlequin (hq)/Big Blue mice. The hq mouse is a model of premature aging with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased risk of oxidative stress-induced heart disease with the means for in vivo mutation detection. The hq mutation produces a significant downregulation in the X-linked apoptosis-inducing factor gene (Aif) impairing both the antioxidant and oxidative phosphorylation functions of AIF. Brain and skin of hq disease mice have elevated frequencies of point mutations in nuclear DNA and histopathology characterized by cell loss. Reports of associated elevations in ROS in brain and skin have mixed results. Herein, heart in situ ROS levels were elevated in hq disease compared to AIF-proficient mice (p < 0.0001) yet, mutation frequency and pattern were similar in hq disease, hq carrier and AIF-proficient mice. Heart cII mutations were also assessed 15 days following an acute exposure to an exogenous ROS inducer (10 mg paraquat/kg). Acute paraquat exposure with a short mutant manifestation period was insufficient to elevate mutation frequency or alter mutation pattern in the post-mitotic heart tissue of AIF-proficient mice. Paraquat induction of ROS requires mitochondrial complex I and thus is likely compromised in hq mice. Results of this preliminary survey and the context of recent literature suggest that determining causal links between AIF deficiency and the premature aging phenotypes of specific tissues is better addressed with assay of mitochondrial ROS and large-scale changes in mitochondrial DNA in specific cell types.

  1. Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Loss of Synaptic Akt1 Signaling Leads to Deficient Activity-Dependent Protein Translation Early in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faraz; Singh, Kunal; Das, Debajyoti; Gowaikar, Ruturaj; Shaw, Eisha; Ramachandran, Arathy; Rupanagudi, Khader Valli; Kommaddi, Reddy Peera; Bennett, David A; Ravindranath, Vijayalakshmi

    2017-12-01

    Synaptic deficits are known to underlie the cognitive dysfunction seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by β-amyloid has also been implicated in AD pathogenesis. However, it is unclear whether ROS contributes to synaptic dysfunction seen in AD pathogenesis and, therefore, we examined whether altered redox signaling could contribute to synaptic deficits in AD. Activity dependent but not basal translation was impaired in synaptoneurosomes from 1-month old presymptomatic APP Swe /PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) mice, and this deficit was sustained till middle age (MA, 9-10 months). ROS generation leads to oxidative modification of Akt1 in the synapse and consequent reduction in Akt1-mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, leading to deficiency in activity-dependent protein translation. Moreover, we found a similar loss of activity-dependent protein translation in synaptoneurosomes from postmortem AD brains. Loss of activity-dependent protein translation occurs presymptomatically early in the pathogenesis of AD. This is caused by ROS-mediated loss of pAkt1, leading to reduced synaptic Akt1-mTOR signaling and is rescued by overexpression of Akt1. ROS-mediated damage is restricted to the synaptosomes, indicating selectivity. We demonstrate that ROS-mediated oxidative modification of Akt1 contributes to synaptic dysfunction in AD, seen as loss of activity-dependent protein translation that is essential for synaptic plasticity and maintenance. Therapeutic strategies promoting Akt1-mTOR signaling at synapses may provide novel target(s) for disease-modifying therapy in AD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1269-1280.

  2. Urban lead—A study of environmental lead and its significance to school children in the vicinity of a major trunk road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, I. B.; Cooney, P. A.

    Measurements of children's blood lead levels were ascertained in relation to lead in air and lead in dust attributed to an Inner London arterial highway carrying about 35,000 vehicles per day. The contribution of lead from deteriorating paintwork was also examined.

  3. The prognostic significance of early and late right precordial lead (V4 R) ST-segment elevation in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Muhammed; Uzun, Ahmet Okan; Börklü, Edibe Betül; Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Türkkan, Ceyhan; Tekkeşin, Ahmet İlker; Kozan, Ömer

    2018-03-01

    The predictive significance of ST-segment elevation (STE) in lead V 4 R in patients with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has not been well-understood. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of early and late STE in lead V 4 R in patients with anterior STEMI. A total 451 patients with anterior STEMI who treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients were classified according to presence of STE (>1 mm) in lead V 4 R at admission and/or 60 min after PPCI. Based on this classification, all patients were divided into three subgroups as no V 4 R STE (Group 1), early but not late V 4 R STE (Group 2) and late V 4 R STE (Group 3). In-hospital mortality had higher rates at group 2 and 3 and that had 2.1 and 4.1-times higher mortality than group 1. Late V 4 R STE remained as an independent risk factor for cardiogenic shock (odds ratio [OR] 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-4.3; p < .001) and in-hospital mortality (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.8-4.1; p < .001). The 12-month overall survival for group 1, 2, and 3 were 91.1%, 82.4%, and 71.4% respectively. However, the long-term mortality also had the higher rate at group 3; late V 4 R STE did not remain as an independent risk factor for long-term mortality (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.8-4.1; p: .159). Late V 4 R STE in patients with anterior STEMI is strongly associated with poor prognosis. The record of late V 4 R in patients with anterior STEMI has an important prognostic value. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Small changes in meal patterns lead to significant changes in total caloric intake. Effects of diet and social status on food intake in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carla J; Lowe, Jonathan; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Ulam, Patrick; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E; Johnson, Zachary

    2013-03-01

    Social subordination in macaques is a well-established model to study the adverse effects of psychosocial stress on a number of health outcomes, including stress-induced eating. The present analysis was conducted to empirically define a meal among free-feeding female rhesus monkeys and to examine the roles of meal patterning (e.g., meal size, meal frequency, and snacking patterns) in findings from a previous study demonstrating that psychosocial stress increases overall caloric intake among subordinate animals with access to a highly palatable diet. Results indicate that all animals, regardless of social status, consumed more frequent meals, larger meals, and more calories in the form of snacks when a highly palatable diet was available. Additional findings suggest that subordinate animals consumed significantly larger meals compared to their dominant counterparts regardless of the dietary environment. Additionally, subordinate females with a history of exposure to the palatable diet consumed significantly more snack calories than both dominant and subordinate animals without previous exposure to the palatable diet when these females were returned to a standard laboratory diet. These findings illustrate how small changes in meal patterns can lead to significant increases in total caloric intake, which if prolonged, could promote the emergence of an obese phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reactivity of dolomite in water-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide: Significance for carbon capture and storage and for enhanced oil and gas recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuyu; Alvarado, Vladimir; Swoboda-Colberg, Norbert; Kaszuba, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dolomite reactivity with wet and dry supercritical CO 2 were evaluated. ► Dolomite does not react with dry CO 2 . ► H 2 O-saturated supercritical CO 2 dissolves dolomite and precipitates carbonate mineral. ► Temperature/reaction time control morphology and extent of carbonate mineralization. ► Reaction with wet CO 2 may impact trapping, caprock integrity, and CCS/EOR injectivity. - Abstract: Carbon dioxide injection in porous reservoirs is the basis for carbon capture and storage, enhanced oil and gas recovery. Injected carbon dioxide is stored at multiple scales in porous media, from the pore-level as a residual phase to large scales as macroscopic accumulations by the injection site, under the caprock and at reservoir internal capillary pressure barriers. These carbon dioxide saturation zones create regions across which the full spectrum of mutual CO 2 –H 2 O solubility may occur. Most studies assume that geochemical reaction is restricted to rocks and carbon dioxide-saturated formation waters, but this paradigm ignores injection of anhydrous carbon dioxide against brine and water-alternating-gas flooding for enhanced oil recovery. A series of laboratory experiments was performed to evaluate the reactivity of the common reservoir mineral dolomite with water-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide. Experiments were conducted at reservoir conditions (55 and 110 °C, 25 MPa) and elevated temperature (220 °C, 25 MPa) for approximately 96 and 164 h (4 and 7 days). Dolomite dissolves and new carbonate mineral precipitates by reaction with water-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide. Dolomite does not react with anhydrous supercritical carbon dioxide. Temperature and reaction time control the composition, morphology, and extent of formation of new carbonate minerals. Mineral dissolution and re-precipitation due to reaction with water-saturated carbon dioxide may affect the contact line between phases, the carbon dioxide contact angle, and the

  6. Deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector.

  7. SIGNIFICANCE OF TARGETED EXOME SEQUENCING AND METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF GENETIC DISORDERS LEADING TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Victorovna Kozhanova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological disorder, and there is a genetic basis in almost 50% of people with epilepsy. The diagnosis of genetic epilepsies makes to estimate reasons of seizures in the patient. Last decade has shown tremendous growth in gene sequencing technologies, which have made genetic tests available. The aim is to show significance of targeted exome sequencing and methods of data analysis in the diagnosis of hereditary syndromes leading to the development of epileptic encephalopathy. We examined 27 patients with с early EE (resistant to antiepileptic drugs, psychomotor and speech development delay in the psycho-neurological department. Targeted exome sequencing was performed for patients without a previously identified molecular diagnosis using 454 Sequencing GS Junior sequencer (Roche and IlluminaNextSeq 500 platform. As a result of the analysis, specific epilepsy genetic variants were diagnosed in 27 patients. The greatest number of cases was due to mutations in the SCN1A gene (7/27. The structure of mutations for other genes (mutations with a minor allele frequency of less than 0,5% are presented: ALDH7A1 (n=1, CACNA1C (n=1, CDKL5 (n=1, CNTNAP2 (n=2, DLGAP2 (n=2, DOCK7 (n=2, GRIN2B (n=2, HCN1 (n=1, NRXN1 (n=3, PCDH19 (n=1, RNASEH2B (n=2, SLC2A1 (n=1, UBE3A (n=1. The use of the exome sequencing in the genetic practice allows to significantly improve the effectiveness of medical genetic counseling, as it made possible to diagnose certain variants of genetically heterogeneous groups of diseases with similar of clinical manifestations.

  8. Clinical significance of determination of serum hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and E-selectin levels in patients with coronary heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunxiu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of determination of serum contents of hs-CRP and E-Selectin in patients with coronary heart diseases (CHD). Methods: Serum hs-CRP Contents were determined with immuno-turbidity and E-Selectin contents were determined with ELISA in 58 patients with CHD (35SAP, 20UAP, 13AMI) and 35 controls. Results: Serum levels of hs-CRP and E-Selectin in CHD patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The serum levels of hs-CRP and E-Selectin were correlated to the development of CHD, but not to the coronary artery calibers. (authors)

  9. Clinical significance of determination of serum hypersensitive C reactive protein (HS-CRP) levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Chunxi; Zhang Fengju; Wang Kejun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between changes in serum HS-CRP levels and the status of atherosclerotic plaques in patients with ACS. Methods: Serum HS-CRP levels were measured in 35 patients with ACS at admission, 1 week and 1 month later as well as in 30 controls without recent infection. Results: HS-CRP levels in patients with ACS were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). The levels were highest at admission and fell gradually. Conclusion: HS-CRP could be a marker reflecting the status of atherosclerotic plaques in patients with ACS. (authors)

  10. Prevalence and chemotherapy-induced reactivation of occult hepatitis B virus among hepatitis B surface antigen negative patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Significance of hepatitis B core antibodies screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbedewy, T.A.; Elashtokhy, H.A.; Rabee, E.S.; Kheder, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is characterized by negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA in the liver and/or serum, with or without hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). Anti-HBc is the most sensitive marker of previous HBV. HBV reactivation in patients under immunosuppressive treatment is life-threatening, occurring in both overt and occult HBV especially in hematological malignancies. Aim of the work: To evaluate the prevalence and chemotherapy-induced reactivation of OBI among hepatitis B surface antigen negative patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients and to determine the significance of anti-HBc screening among this group of patients before receiving chemotherapy. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study included 72 DLBCL patients negative for HBsAg, HBsAb and hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV). Patients were subjected to investigations including anti-HBc. All patients underwent alanine transaminase (ALT) monitoring before each cycle of chemotherapy and monthly for 12 months after the end of chemotherapy. Patients with suspected OBI were tested for HBV-DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Anti-HBc was detected in 10 of 72 HBsAg negative sera (13.89%) (95% confidence interval 6.9-22.2%). Five of the 10 anti-HBc positive patients in this study had OBI reactivation. Conclusion: The study concluded that anti-HBc screening is mandatory before chemotherapy. HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients should be closely observed for signs of HBV reactivation through the regular monitoring of ALT. Prophylaxis lamivudine is recommended for anti-HBc positive patients before chemotherapy.

  11. Syndecan-1 knock-down in decidualized human endometrial stromal cells leads to significant changes in cytokine and angiogenic factor expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krüssel Jan-Steffen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful embryonic implantation depends on a synchronized embryo-maternal dialogue. Chemokines, such as chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1, play essential roles in the maternal reproductive tract leading to morphological changes during decidualization, mediating maternal acceptance towards the semi-allograft embryo and induction of angiogenesis. Chemokine binding to their classical G-protein coupled receptors is essentially supported by the syndecan (Sdc family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The aim of this study was to identify the involvement of Sdc-1 at the embryo-maternal interface regarding changes of the chemokine and angiogenic profile of the decidua during the process of decidualization and implantation in human endometrium. Methods A stable Sdc-1 knock-down was generated in the immortalized human endometrial stromal cell line St-T1 and was named KdS1. The ability of KdS1 to decidualize was proven by Insulin-like growth factor binding 1 (IGFBP1 and prolactin (PRL confirmation on mRNA level before further experiments were carried out. Dot blot protein analyses of decidualized knock-down cells vs non-transfected controls were performed. In order to imitate embryonic implantation, decidualized KdS1 were then incubated with IL-1beta, an embryo secretion product, vs controls. Statistical analyses were performed applying the Student's t-test with p Results The induction of the Sdc-1 knock-down revealed significant changes in cytokine and angiogenic factor expression profiles of dKdS1 vs decidualized controls. Incubation with embryonic IL-1beta altered the expression patterns of KdS1 chemokines and angiogenic factors towards inflammatory-associated molecules and factors involved in matrix regulation. Conclusions Sdc-1 knock-down in human endometrial stroma cells led to fulminant changes regarding cytokine and angiogenic factor expression profiles upon decidualization and imitation of embryonic contact. Sdc-1 appears to play an

  12. Significant reduction of radiation exposure to operator and staff during cardiac interventions by analysis of radiation leakage and improved lead shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuon, Eberhard; Schmitt, Moritz; Dahm, Johannes B

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to disclose and to reduce occupational radiation leakage in invasive cardiology. Prospectively, we analyzed various dose parameters for 330 coronary procedures. We used a Rando phantom to measure scatter entrance skin air kerma to the operator (S-ESAK-O) during fluoroscopy for all standard tube angulations, and to plot isodose lines for 0 degrees /0 degrees -posterior anterior angulation. The patient's measured dose area product due to diagnostic catheterization and elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was 6.2 and 10.4 Gycm(2), which represents 11% and 13% of currently typical values, respectively. With use of 0.5- and 1.0-mm overcouch and undercouch shielding, it was possible to reduce the mean of 4,686 nSv/Gycm(2) to 677 and 277 nSv/Gycm(2), respectively. Closure of radiation leakage up to 897 microSv/hour at the operator's gonadal height (80 to 105 cm), not heretofore described, was achieved by an additional 1.0-mm, lead-equivalent undercouch-top and overcouch-flap adjacent to the table, down to a S-ESAK-O/dose area product level of 47.5 nSv/Gycm(2). With use of a 0.5-mm lead apron, collar, glasses, foot-switch shield and 1.0-mm lead cover around the patient's thighs, the operator received a mean S-ESAK-O of 8.5, while his forehead, eyes, thyroid, chest, gonads, and hands were exposed to 68.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 0.8, and 58.2 nSv/Gycm(2), respectively. In conclusion, radiation-attenuating intervention techniques and improved lead protection can effectively contribute to a new state of the art in invasive cardiology, with reduction of operator radiation exposure to 0.8% of typical S-ESAK-O levels in advanced catheterization laboratories.

  13. Environmental significance of copper, lead, manganese, uranium and zinc speciation in the event of contaminated waters release from the Ranger Uranium Mining Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noller, B.N.; Currey, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    The likely impact of the accidental release of tailings dam water during the dry season at the Ranger Uranium Mining Complex was examined. A speciation scheme utilising sizing by filtration and ion-exchange with Chelex 100 has given an insight into the likely partitioning of zinc, copper, lead, manganese and uranium following the addition of tailings dam water to samples from waterbodies in the vicinity of the uranium mining/milling complex. The speciation findings are discussed in terms of likely toxic effects on fish

  14. C-reactive protein and N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide as biomarkers in acute exacerbations of COPD leading to hospitalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Roy Chen

    Full Text Available There are currently no accepted and validated blood tests available for diagnosing acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD. In this study, we sought to determine the discriminatory power of blood C-reactive protein (CRP and N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP in the diagnosis of AECOPD requiring hospitalizations. The study cohort consisted of 468 patients recruited in the COPD Rapid Transition Program who were hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of AECOPD, and 110 stable COPD patients who served as controls. Logistic regression was used to build a classification model to separate AECOPD from convalescent or stable COPD patients. Performance was assessed using an independent validation set of patients who were not included in the discovery set. Serum CRP and whole blood NT-proBNP concentrations were highest at the time of hospitalization and progressively decreased over time. Of the 3 classification models, the one with both CRP and NT-proBNP had the highest AUC in discriminating AECOPD (cross-validated AUC of 0.80. These data were replicated in a validation cohort with an AUC of 0.88. A combination of CRP and NT-proBNP can reasonably discriminate AECOPD requiring hospitalization versus clinical stability and can be used to rapidly diagnose patients requiring hospitalization for AECOPD.

  15. [The significance of enviromental and biological monitoring in workers employed in service stations after the elimitation of tetraethyl lead from gasoline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghittori, S; Ferrari, M; Maestri, L; Negri, S; Zadra, P; Gremita, C; Imbriani, M

    2005-01-01

    The chemical risk in service stations may be due to toxic compounds present in fuel (particularly benzene and additives) and to the emission of exhausts and fine particulate from vehicles. Owing to the elimination of lead (Pb) from fuel and to the necessity of lowering CO emission, several oxygenated additives have been added to fuel, in particular methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE), whose toxic properties are at present under investigation. The introduction of reformulated gasoline (RFG) and the use of catalytic converters (with possible release of platinum (Pt) in the environment) may have modified the risks for workers employed in service stations. The paper shows data collected from 26 subjects (divided into three specific tasks, namely: fuel dispenser, "self-service" attendant and controller, and cashier) to estimate the actual chemical risk and to compare it with the previous data taken from literature. For this purpose, besides performing the usual medical surveillance, we measured the environmental concentrations of benzene, MTBE and formaldehyde, the urinary levels of benzene metabolites S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) and t,t-muconic acid (MA) and of unmodified MTBE, and the blood concentrations of Pb and Pt for each subject. Mean values of these compounds were, respectively: 38.81 microg/m3; 174.04 microg/m3; 10.38 microg/m3; 2.36 microg/g creatinine; 96.57 microg/g creatinine; 1.41 microg/L; 7.00 microg/100 mL; 0.0738 ng/ml. The above values were much lower than the corresponding limit values reported by ACGIH and DFG. In particular, after the introduction of vapour recycle systems and the widespread use of "self-service" systems, airborne benzene concentration dropped from 300/400 microg/m3 to lower than 100 microg/m3, without noticeable increasing of exposure to formaldehyde. The disappearing of Pb from gasoline leads to a progressive lowering of its blood levels, while the possible risks due to the very low amounts of Pt released from catalytic

  16. The significance of lead-210, polonium-210 and protactinium-231 in emissions from coal-fired power stations: a comparison with natural environmental sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.O.

    1981-04-01

    Recently published calculations have suggested that a hypothetical individual may receive an effective radiation dose equivalent of 23 mrem/y from coal-fired power station emissions through the ingestion of lead-210, polonium-210 and protactinium-231. It is shown that the model used in those calculations is over-pessimistic by one or two orders of magnitude when applied to the deposition of Pb-210 and Po-210 derived from the decay of radon naturally present in the atmosphere. A more recent assessment of metabolic data for Pa-231 suggests that estimated doses from this nuclide also can be reduced by about a factor of twenty. It is concluded that the maximum effective dose equivalent from power station emissions probably does not exceed 1-2 mrem/y. (author)

  17. The Effect of Lead on the Glomalin Content of Hypha and Root Reactive with Monoclonal Antibody and Bradford in both in Vitro and Pot Culture Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Malekzadeh; Jafar Majidi; Nasser Aliasgharzad; Jalal Abdolalizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Glomalin is known as a specific fungal glycoprotein belonging to the order Glomerales in phylum Glomeromycota and has been introduced as a heat shock protein. We hypothesised that increasing the level of Pb would lead to increase in glomalin production. Glomalin is usually determined by two methods, the Bradford protein dye-binding assay and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Since many laboratories are not equipped to carry out the ELISA assay, many studies have mea...

  18. Metabolism of isoniazid by neutrophil myeloperoxidase leads to isoniazid-NAD(+) adduct formation: A comparison of the reactivity of isoniazid with its known human metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saifur R; Morgan, Andrew G M; Michail, Karim; Srivastava, Nutan; Whittal, Randy M; Aljuhani, Naif; Siraki, Arno G

    2016-04-15

    The formation of isonicotinyl-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (INH-NAD(+)) via the mycobacterial catalase-peroxidase enzyme, KatG, has been described as the major component of the mode of action of isoniazid (INH). However, there are numerous human peroxidases that may catalyze this reaction. The role of neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) in INH-NAD(+) adduct formation has never been explored; this is important, as neutrophils are recruited at the site of tuberculosis infection (granuloma) through infected macrophages' cell death signals. In our studies, we showed that neutrophil MPO is capable of INH metabolism using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping and UV-Vis spectroscopy. MPO or activated human neutrophils (by phorbol myristate acetate) catalyzed the oxidation of INH and formed several free radical intermediates; the inclusion of superoxide dismutase revealed a carbon-centered radical which is considered to be the reactive metabolite that binds with NAD(+). Other human metabolites, including N-acetyl-INH, N-acetylhydrazine, and hydrazine did not show formation of carbon-centered radicals, and either produced no detectable free radicals, N-centered free radicals, or superoxide, respectively. A comparison of these free radical products indicated that only the carbon-centered radical from INH is reducing in nature, based on UV-Vis measurement of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. Furthermore, only INH oxidation by MPO led to a new product (λmax=326nm) in the presence of NAD(+). This adduct was confirmed to be isonicotinyl-NAD(+) using LC-MS analysis where the intact adduct was detected (m/z=769). The findings of this study suggest that neutrophil MPO may also play a role in INH pharmacological activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  20. Early HIV Diagnosis Leads to Significantly Decreased Costs in the First 2 Years of HIV Care in an Urban Charity Hospital in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Jason; Katz, Morgan; Pathmanathan, Ishani; Myers, Leann; Van Sickels, Nicholas; Seal, Paula Sereebutra; Richey, Lauren E

    We undertook a retrospective cohort study of patients with a positive HIV test in the emergency department who were then linked to care. Inpatient, outpatient, and emergency costs were collected for the first 2 years after HIV diagnosis. Fifty-six patients met the inclusion criteria; they were predominantly uninsured (73%) and African American (89%). The median total cost for a newly diagnosed patient over the first 2 years was US$36 808, driven predominantly by outpatient costs of US$17 512. Median inpatient and total costs were significantly different between the lowest (499 cells/mm 3 ) CD4 count categories (US$21 878 vs US$6607, P <.05; US$61 378 vs US$18 837, P <.05, respectively). Total costs were significantly different between viral load categories <100 000 HIV-RNA copies/mL and ≥100 000 HIV-RNA copies/mL (US$28 219 vs US$49 482, P <.05). Costs were significantly lower among patients diagnosed earlier in their disease. Decreased cost is another factor supporting early diagnosis and linkage to care for patients with HIV.

  1. Great Historical Events that were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 9, the Year Leading to the Revolution of 1789 in France (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, J.; Dettwiller, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an extension of an earlier paper (Neumann 1977) on historical events affected by the weather. More data are published herein on rainfall, pressure and temperature for spring-early summer 1788, when a severe drought struck France during anticyclonic conditions, leading to a crop failure. It is estimated that the grain harvest was 35%-40% below the mean for 1774-88. (The wine-grape harvest was even more catastrophic.) The shortfall led to increasingly high bread prices. The prices reached the highest level on 14 July 1789 (Bastille Day). Since workers spent about 55% of their income on bread and flour prior to 1788, bread riots had already broken out in August 1788. The number and violence of the riots tended to increase with time, causing a destabilization of public order.A meteorological factor of secondary importance was the harsh winter of 1788-89, which brought additional suffering to the lower classes. The price of heating materials rose, and water mills could not be operated because of the ice.Until April 1789 the numerous riots did not have, in most cases, anti-regime overtones. After May, however, the disturbances assumed political overtones, especially in Paris. This was due to agitation by the bourgeoisie who desired the abolition of the many privileges of the nobility and Church, and the lifting of restrictions on some economic activities. The bread riots, caused by the high bread prices (and, ultimately, by the drought), were used by the middle class for overthrowing the existing regime.In France of the 1700s, the number of poor depended on the price of bread which, first and foremost, was determined by the harvest.

  2. In vivo topical application of acetyl aspartic acid increases fibrillin-1 and collagen IV deposition leading to a significant improvement of skin firmness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillbro, J M; Merinville, E; Cattley, K; Al-Bader, T; Hagforsen, E; Nilsson, M; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    Acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A) was discovered through gene array analysis with corresponding Cmap analysis. We found that A-A-A increased keratinocyte regeneration, inhibited dermal matrix metalloprotease (MMP) expression and relieved fibroblast stiffness through reduction of the fibroblast stiffness marker F-actin. Dermal absorption studies showed successful delivery to both the epidermal and dermal regions, and in-use trial demonstrated that 1% A-A-A was well tolerated. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether A-A-A could stimulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix supporting proteins in vivo and thereby improving the viscoelastic properties of human skin by conducting a dual histological and biophysical clinical study. Two separate double-blind vehicle-controlled in vivo studies were conducted using a 1% A-A-A containing oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. In the histological study, 16 female volunteers (>55 years of age) exhibiting photodamaged skin on their forearm were included, investigating the effect of a 12-day treatment of A-A-A on collagen IV (COLIV) and fibrillin-1. In a subsequent pilot study, 0.1% retinol was used for comparison to A-A-A (1%). The biomechanical properties of the skin were assessed in a panel of 16 women (>45 years of age) using the standard Cutometer MPA580 after topical application of the test products for 28 days. The use of multiple suction enabled the assessment of F4, an area parameter specifically representing skin firmness. Twelve-day topical application of 1% A-A-A significantly increased COLIV and fibrillin with 13% and 6%, respectively, compared to vehicle. 1% A-A-A and 0.1% retinol were found to significantly reduce F4 after 28 days of treatment by 15.8% and 14.7%, respectively, in the pilot Cutometer study. No significant difference was found between retinol and A-A-A. However, only A-A-A exhibited a significant effect vs. vehicle on skin firmness which indicated the incremental benefit of A-A-A as a skin

  3. Arthroscopic Debridement for Primary Degenerative Osteoarthritis of the Elbow Leads to Significant Improvement in Range of Motion and Clinical Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochacki, Kyle R; Jack, Robert A; Hirase, Takashi; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Liberman, Shari R; Harris, Joshua D

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether arthroscopic debridement of primary elbow osteoarthritis results in statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement in (1) elbow range of motion and (2) clinical outcomes with (3) low complication and reoperation rates. A systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and performed using PRISMA guidelines. Databases were searched for studies that investigated the outcomes of arthroscopic debridement for the treatment of primary osteoarthritis of the elbow in adult human patients. Study methodological quality was analyzed. Studies that included post-traumatic arthritis were excluded. Elbow motion and all elbow-specific patient-reported outcome scores were eligible for analysis. Comparisons between preoperative and postoperative values from each study were made using 2-sample Z-tests (http://in-silico.net/tools/statistics/ztest) using a P value osteoarthritis results in statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement in elbow range of motion and clinical outcomes with low complication and reoperation rates. Systematic review of level IV studies. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using the stress and adversity inventory as a teaching tool leads to significant learning gains in two courses on stress and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavich, George M; Toussaint, Loren

    2014-10-01

    The ability to measure cumulative stress exposure is important for research and teaching in stress and health, but until recently, no structured system has existed for assessing exposure to stress over the lifespan. Here, we report the results of two experimental studies that examined the pedagogical efficacy of using an automated system for assessing life stress, called the Stress and Adversity Inventory (STRAIN), for teaching courses on stress and health. In Study 1, a randomized, wait-list controlled experiment was conducted with 20 college students to test whether the STRAIN, coupled with a related lecture and discussion, promoted learning about stress and health. Results showed that this experiential lesson led to significant learning gains. To disentangle the effects of completing the STRAIN from participating in the lecture and discussion, we subsequently conducted Study 2 on 144 students using a 2 (STRAIN versus control activity) by 2 (STRAIN-specific lecture versus general stress lecture) repeated-measures design. Although the STRAIN-specific lecture was sufficient for promoting learning, completing the STRAIN also generated significant learning gains when paired with only the general stress lecture. Together, these studies suggest that the STRAIN is an effective tool for promoting experiential learning and teaching students about stress and health. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Research-based Reflections on How the Educational, Economic and Social Circumstances Faced by Some Children and Young People Can Lead to Significant Disadvantage and Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Stanley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides detailed reflections on the educational, economic and social circumstances that impact on the lives of many disadvantaged and vulnerable children and young people. Drawing largely on primary research data collected in Romania, Germany and the United Kingdom, three illustrative case studies are presented for consideration focusing on: life in residential care and youth offending institutions; experiences of educational vulnerability; and human trafficking. The methodological approach adopted across the research projects explored, was shaped by the demands and expectations of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC. All of the reported data reflects the views of children and young people who were interviewed as part of three research projects. It is argued that the difficult and challenging circumstances that many children and young people find themselves in, place them at significant disadvantage and increased vulnerability in terms of their social and educational development and life chances.

  6. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  7. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; Diel, Diego G; Courtney, Sean; Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Sundick, Roy S; Miller, Patti J; Brown, Corrie C; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-08-08

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus) by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such it might have the potential to affect replication and pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To assess the effect of IL-2 during NDV infection in chickens, we produced a recombinant virulent NDV strain expressing chicken IL-2 (rZJ1-IL2). The effects of IL-2 expression were investigated in vivo using the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks and pathogenesis experiments in 4-week-old chickens. In these studies, rZJ1-IL2 was compared to a control virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (rZJ1-GFP). Assessed parameters included survival curves, detailed histological and immunohistochemical grading of lesions in multiple organs, and virus isolation in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. At the site of infection (eyelid), expression of IL-2 was demonstrated in areas of rZJ-IL2 replication, confirming IL-2 production in vivo. Compared to rZJ1-GFP strain, rZJ1-IL2 caused milder lesions and displayed decreased viral load in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. In the rZJ1-IL2-infected group, virus level in the blood peaked at day 4 post-infection (pi) (10(3.46) EID50 /0.1 ml) and drastically decreased at day 5 pi (10(0.9) EID50/0.1 ml), while in the rZJ1-GFP-infected group virus levels in the blood reached 10(5.35) EID50/0.1 ml at day 5. However, rZJ1-IL2-infected groups presented survival curves similar to control birds infected with rZJ1-GFP, with comparable clinical signs and 100 % mortality. Further, expression of IL-2 did not significantly affect the ICPI scores, compared to rZJ1-GFP strain. Increased

  8. Short-term combined treatment with liraglutide and metformin leads to significant weight loss in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome and previous poor response to metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Kocjan, Tomaz; Pfeifer, Marija; Kravos, Nika Aleksandra; Janez, Andrej

    2014-03-01

    The effect of metformin on weight reduction in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is often unsatisfactory. In this study, we investigated the potential add-on effect of treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide on weight loss in obese nondiabetic women with PCOS who had lost weight during pretreatment with metformin. A total of 40 obese women with PCOS, who had been pretreated with metformin for at least 6 months, participated in a 12-week open-label, prospective study. They were randomized to one of three treatment arms: metformin (MET) arm 1000 mg BID, liraglutide (LIRA) arm 1.2 mg QD s.c., or combined MET 1000 mg BID and LIRA (COMBI) 1.2 mg QD s.c. Lifestyle intervention was not actively promoted. The primary outcome was change in body weight. Thirty six patients (aged 31.3 ± 7.1 years, BMI 37.1 ± 4.6 kg/m²) completed the study: 14 on MET, 11 on LIRA, and 11 on combined treatment. COMBI therapy was superior to LIRA and MET monotherapy in reducing weight, BMI, and waist circumference. Subjects treated with COMBI lost on average 6.5 ± 2.8 kg compared with a 3.8 ± 3.7 kg loss in the LIRA group and a 1.2 ± 1.4 kg loss in the MET group (Pweight loss was stratified: a total of 38% of subjects were high responders who lost ≥5% body weight, 22% of them in the COMBI arm compared with 16 and 0% in the LIRA and MET arm respectively. BMI decreased by 2.4 ± 1.0 in the COMBI arm compared with 1.3 ± 1.3 in LIRA and 0.5 ± 0.5 in the MET arm (Pweight loss. Short-term combined treatment with liraglutide and metformin was associated with significant weight loss and decrease in waist circumference in obese women with PCOS who had previously been poor responders regarding weight reduction on metformin monotherapy.

  9. Deficiencies in both starch synthase IIIa and branching enzyme IIb lead to a significant increase in amylose in SSIIa-inactive japonica rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Hiroki; Abe, Natsuko; Matsushima, Ryo; Crofts, Naoko; Oitome, Naoko F; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2014-10-01

    Starch synthase (SS) IIIa has the second highest activity of the total soluble SS activity in developing rice endosperm. Branching enzyme (BE) IIb is the major BE isozyme, and is strongly expressed in developing rice endosperm. A mutant (ss3a/be2b) was generated from wild-type japonica rice which lacks SSIIa activity. The seed weight of ss3a/be2b was 74-94% of that of the wild type, whereas the be2b seed weight was 59-73% of that of the wild type. There were significantly fewer amylopectin short chains [degree of polymerization (DP) ≤13] in ss3a/be2b compared with the wild type. In contrast, the amount of long chains (DP ≥25) connecting clusters of amylopectin in ss3a/be2b was higher than in the wild type and lower than in be2b. The apparent amylose content of ss3a/be2b was 45%, which was >1.5 times greater than that of either ss3a or be2b. Both SSIIIa and BEIIb deficiencies led to higher activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), which partly explains the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b endosperm. The percentage apparent amylose content of ss3a and ss3a/be2b at 10 days after flowering (DAF) was higher than that of the wild type and be2b. At 20 DAF, amylopectin biosynthesis in be2b and ss3a/be2b was not observed, whereas amylose biosynthesis in these lines was accelerated at 30 DAF. These data suggest that the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b mutant results from higher amylose biosynthesis at two stages, up to 20 DAF and from 30 DAF to maturity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Reactive Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Erken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive arthritis is an acute, sterile, non-suppurative and inflammatory arthropaty which has occured as a result of an infectious processes, mostly after gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract infections. Reiter syndrome is a frequent type of reactive arthritis. Both reactive arthritis and Reiter syndrome belong to the group of seronegative spondyloarthropathies, associated with HLA-B27 positivity and characterized by ongoing inflammation after an infectious episode. The classical triad of Reiter syndrome is defined as arthritis, conjuctivitis and urethritis and is seen only in one third of patients with Reiter syndrome. Recently, seronegative asymmetric arthritis and typical extraarticular involvement are thought to be adequate for the diagnosis. However, there is no established criteria for the diagnosis of reactive arthritis and the number of randomized and controlled studies about the therapy is not enough. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 283-299

  11. Multiagent voltage and reactive power control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arkhipov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the research of multiagent voltage and reactive power control system development. The prototype of the system has been developed by R&D Center at FGC UES (Russia. The control system architecture is based on the innovative multiagent system theory application that leads to the achievement of several significant advantages (in comparison to traditional control systems implementation such as control system efficiency enhancement, control system survivability and cyber security.

  12. NMR measurement of identical polymer samples by round robin method. 4. Analysis of composition and monomer sequence distribution in poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylonitrile) leading to determinations of monomer reactivity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatada, Koichi; Kitayama, Tatsuki; Terawaki, Yoshio

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess the reliability of NMR measurement of polymers, 1 H and 13 C NMR data for three copolymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylonitrile (AN) prepared with AIBN were collected from 46 spectrometers whose resonance frequencies for 1 H NMR measurements ranging from 90 to 500 MHz. 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra were measured in nitrobenzene-d 5 at 110degC and acetonitrile-d 3 at 70degC, respectively. Standard deviations (σ's) for chemical shift measurements of the 1 H and 13 C NMR signals were 0.003-0.008 ppm and 0.03-0.05 ppm, respectively. Compositions of the copolymers were determined from the relative intensities of the signals due to the OCH 3 (MMA) and CH (AN) protons, and the σ values for the determinations were 3.7-9.5%. The compositions determined from 13 C NMR (C = O for MMA unit, CN for AN unit) agreed well with those obtained from 1 H NMR. Monomer reactivity ratios r ij (i,j = 1 or 2) for a penultimate model were determined from monomer feed ratios and triad fractions obtained from the C = O (MMA) and CH (AN) carbon signals. Most of the σ values for r ij determinations were 5-14%. While r 22 and r 12 are nearly equivalent, r 11 and r 21 are significantly different from each other, indicating a possible existence of the penultimate-unit effect in the copolymerization of MMA and AN. Terminal model reactivity ratios, r 1 and r 2 , determined formally from the compositions of three samples by Fineman-Ross method showed large σ values (22-24%). (author)

  13. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  14. Studies on clinical significance of exercise-induced ST-segment depression at non-infarct-related leads in the patients with prior myocardial infarction using the stress scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Toshitaka

    1988-01-01

    Stress Tl-201 myocardial imaging and stress radionuclide ventriculography were performed in a total of 67 patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) to assess the clinical significance of exercise induced ST-segment depression at non-infarct-related leads on ECG during the chronic stage. The patients consisted of 12 with inferior MI with single vessel disease (SVD) that showed no precordial ST-segment depression; 7 with inferior MI with SVD accompanied by precordial ST-segment depression; 13 with inferior MI with multivessel disease (MVD); 20 with anterior MI with SVD that showed no inferior ST-segment depression; 4 with anterior MI with SVD accompanied by inferior ST-segment depression; and 11 with anterior MI with MVD. In cases of SVD, the incidence of ST-segment depression at non-infarct-related leads was higher for inferior MI (36.8%) than anterior MI (16.7%). Myocardial imaging revealed large infarct and infarct extending into the inferoseptal wall of the left ventricle (LV) in cases of exercise induced precordial ST-segment depression; and infarct extending into the lateral wall of LV in cases of exercise induced inferior ST-segment depression. In detecting MVD, stress Tl-201 myocardial imaging was superior to exercise electrocardiography and stress radionuclide ventriculography, but this was not statistically significant. Prognostic value of error rate for detecting MVD was significantly improved with a discriminant analysis. Exercise induced ST-segment depression on ECG should be of clinical significance in reflecting myocardial ischemia around an infarcted area. (Namekawa, K)

  15. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator

    2008-07-01

    Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would

  16. Sensitivity analysis of reactive ecological dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdy, Ariane; Caswell, Hal

    2008-08-01

    Ecological systems with asymptotically stable equilibria may exhibit significant transient dynamics following perturbations. In some cases, these transient dynamics include the possibility of excursions away from the equilibrium before the eventual return; systems that exhibit such amplification of perturbations are called reactive. Reactivity is a common property of ecological systems, and the amplification can be large and long-lasting. The transient response of a reactive ecosystem depends on the parameters of the underlying model. To investigate this dependence, we develop sensitivity analyses for indices of transient dynamics (reactivity, the amplification envelope, and the optimal perturbation) in both continuous- and discrete-time models written in matrix form. The sensitivity calculations require expressions, some of them new, for the derivatives of equilibria, eigenvalues, singular values, and singular vectors, obtained using matrix calculus. Sensitivity analysis provides a quantitative framework for investigating the mechanisms leading to transient growth. We apply the methodology to a predator-prey model and a size-structured food web model. The results suggest predator-driven and prey-driven mechanisms for transient amplification resulting from multispecies interactions.

  17. Selective silencing of full-length CD80 but not IgV-CD80 leads to impaired clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells and altered regulation of immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeon, L; Hargreaves, R E; Crompton, T; Outram, S; Rahemtulla, A; Porter, A C; Dallman, M J

    2001-01-01

    Co-stimulation provided by the B7 family of proteins underpins the development of protective immunity. There are three identified members of this family: CD80, its splice variant IgV-CD80 and CD86. It has hitherto been difficult to analyze the expression and function of IgV-CD80 since there are no appropriate reagents capable of distinguishing it from CD80. We have generated mice, by gene targeting, the lack CD80 whilst maintaining expression of IgV-CD80. Mutant animals did not delete T cells bearing mammary tumor virus-reactive TCR as efficiently as wild-type animals. We also demonstrate the importance of IgV-CD80 in the responses of recently activated cells and reveal a role for CD80 in sustaining T cell responses. CD86, whilst critical to primary T cell activation, made only a minor contribution to re-activation of normal cells.

  18. The reactivity meter and core reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siltanen, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discussed in depth the point kinetic equations and the characteristics of the point kinetic reactivity meter, particularly for large negative reactivities. From a given input signal representing the neutron flux seen by a detector, the meter computes a value of reactivity in dollars (ρ/β), based on inverse point kinetics. The prompt jump point of view is emphasised. (Author)

  19. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking water in homes containing pipes that were connected with lead solder . Although new building codes require ... lead in their bodies when they put lead objects in their mouths, especially if they swallow those ...

  20. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  1. Immune reactivities against gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Different kinds of gums from various sources enjoy an extremely broad range of commercial and industrial use, from food and pharmaceuticals to printing and adhesives. Although generally recognized as safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), gums have a history of association with sensitive or allergic reactions. In addition, studies have shown that gums have a structural, molecular similarity to a number of common foods. A possibility exists for cross-reactivity. Due to the widespread use of gums in almost every aspect of modern life, the overall goal of the current investigation was to determine the degree of immune reactivity to various gum antigens in the sera of individuals representing the general population. The study was a randomized, controlled trial. 288 sera purchased from a commercial source. The sera was screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against extracts of mastic gum, carrageenan, xantham gum, guar gum, gum tragacanth, locust bean gum, and β-glucan, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For each gum antigen, inhibition testing was performed on the 4 sera that showed the highest IgG and IgE immune reactivity against the different gums used in the study. Inhibition testing on these same sera for sesame albumin, lentil, corn, rice, pineapple, peanut, pea protein, shrimp, or kidney bean was used to determine the cross-reactivity of these foods with the gum. Of the 288 samples, 4.2%-27% of the specimens showed a significant elevation in IgG antibodies against various gums. Only 4 of 288, or 1.4%, showed a simultaneous elevation of the IgG antibody against all 7 gum extracts. For the IgE antibody, 15.6%-29.1% of the specimens showed an elevation against the various gums. A significant percentage of the specimens, 12.8%, simultaneously produced IgE antibodies against all 7 tested extracts. Overall, the percentage of elevation in IgE antibodies against different gum extracts, with

  2. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca 2+ ], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers showed higher PS

  3. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  4. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijers, J A

    1952-01-01

    Three cases of acute lead poisoning of cattle herds via ingestion are reported, and reference is made to several other incidents of lead in both humans and animals. The quantity of lead which was found in the livers of the dead cows varied from 6.5 to 19 mg/kg, while 1160 mg/kg of lead in the liver was found for a young cow which was poisoned experimentally with 5 gms of lead acetate per day; hence, there appears to be great variability in the amounts deposited that can lead to intoxication and death. No evidence was found for a lead seam around the teeth, prophyrinuria, or basophil granules in the erythrocytes during acute or chronic lead poisoning of cattle or horses examined. Reference is made to attempts of finding the boundary line between increased lead absorption and lead intoxication in humans, and an examination of 60 laborers in an offset-printing office containing a great deal of inhalable lead (0.16 to 1.9 mg/cu m air) is reviewed. Physical deviation, basophylic granulation of erythrocytes, increased lead content of the urine, and porphyrinuria only indicate an increased absorption of lead; the use of the term intoxication is justified if, in addition, there are complaints of lack of appetite, constipation, fatigue, abdominal pain, and emaciation.

  6. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... o Do not use glazed ceramics, home remedies, cosmetics, or leaded-crystal glassware unless you know that they are lead safe. o If you live near an industry, mine, or waste site that may have contaminated ...

  7. Facile fabrication of HDPE-g-MA/nanodiamond nanocomposites via one-step reactive blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ping'an; Yu, Youming; Wu, Qiang; Fu, Shenyuan

    2012-06-29

    In this letter, nanocomposites based on maleic anhydride grafted high density polyethylene (HDPE-g-MA) and amine-functionalized nanodiamond (ND) were fabricated via one-step reactive melt-blending, generating a homogeneous dispersion of ND, as evidenced by transmission electron microscope observations. Thermal analysis results suggest that addition of ND does not affect significantly thermal stability of polymer matrix in nitrogen. However, it was interestingly found that incorporating pure ND decreases the thermal oxidation degradation stability temperature, but blending amino-functionalized ND via reactive processing significantly enhances it of HDPE in air condition. Most importantly, cone tests revealed that both ND additives and reactive blending greatly reduce the heat release rate of HDPE. The results suggest that ND has a potential application as flame retardant alternative for polymers. Tensile results show that adding ND considerably enhances Young's modulus, and reactive blending leads to further improvement in Young's modulus while hardly reducing the elongation at break of HDPE.

  8. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  9. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do renovation and repair projects using lead-safe work practices to avoid creating more lead dust or ... in a dangerous area? Yes. If you are working in a potentially harmful environment with exposure to lead dust or fumes: Wash ...

  10. Development of small, fast reactor core designs using lead-based coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J. E.; Hill, R. N.; Khalil, H. S.; Wade, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of small (100 MWe) fast reactor core designs are developed, these include compact configurations, long-lived (15-year fuel lifetime) cores, and derated, natural circulation designs. Trade studies are described which identify key core design issues for lead-based coolant systems. Performance parameters and reactivity feedback coefficients are compared for lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) and sodium-cooled cores of consistent design. The results of these studies indicate that the superior neutron reflection capability of lead alloys reduces the enrichment and burnup swing compared to conventional sodium-cooled systems; however, the discharge fluence is significantly increased. The size requirement for long-lived systems is constrained by reactivity loss considerations, not fuel burnup or fluence limits. The derated lead-alloy cooled natural circulation cores require a core volume roughly eight times greater than conventional compact systems. In general, reactivity coefficients important for passive safety performance are less favorable for the larger, derated configurations

  11. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  12. Synthesis and processing of composites by reactive metal penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehman, R.E.; Ewsuk, K.G. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tomsia, A.P. [Pask Research and Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Ceramic-metal composites are being developed because their high stiffness-to weight ratios, good fracture toughness, and variable electrical and thermal properties give them advantages over more conventional materials. However, because ceramic-metal composite components presently are more expensive than monolithic materials, improvements in processing are required to reduce manufacturing costs. Reactive metal penetration is a promising new method for making ceramic- and metal-matrix composites that has the advantage of being inherently a net-shape process. This technique, once fully developed, will provide another capability for manufacturing the advanced ceramic composites that are needed for many light-weight structural and wear applications. The lower densities of these composites lead directly to energy savings in use. Near-net-shape fabrication of composite parts should lead to additional savings because costly and energy intensive grinding and machining operations are significantly reduced, and the waste generated from such finishing operations is minimized. The goals of this research program are: (1) to identify feasible compositional systems for making composites by reactive metal penetration; (2) to understand the mechanism(s) of composite formation by reactive metal penetration; and (3) to learn how to control and optimize reactive metal penetration for economical production of composites and composite coatings.

  13. Use of thermal time constant concept in the analysis of reactivity induced accidents with feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narain, R.

    1981-01-01

    A simple heat transfer model based on the thermal time constant concept which leads to significant reduction in fuel temperature computing time and gives a physical insight of the phenomena is presented. The fuel temperatures can be used to estimate the reactivity feedback using the measured or calculated Doppler coefficients. (E.G.) [pt

  14. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  15. Reactive-brittle dynamics in peridotite alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, O.; Spiegelman, M. W.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between reactive fluids and brittle solids are critical in Earth dynamics. Implications of such processes are wide-ranging: from earthquake physics to geologic carbon sequestration and the cycling of fluids and volatiles through subduction zones. Peridotite alteration is a common feature in many of these processes, which - despite its obvious importance - is relatively poorly understood from a geodynamical perspective. In particular, alteration reactions are thought to be self-limiting in nature, contradicting observations of rocks that have undergone 100% hydration/carbonation. One potential explanation of this observation is the mechanism of "reaction-driven cracking": that volume changes associated with these reactions are large enough to fracture the surrounding rock, leading to a positive feedback where new reactive surfaces are exposed and fluid pathways are created. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relative roles of reaction, elastic stresses and surface tension in alteration reactions. In this regard we derive a system of equations describing reactive fluid flow in an elastically deformable porous media, and explore them via a combination of analytic and numerical solutions. Using this model we show that the final stress state of a dry peridotite that has undergone reaction depends strongly on the rates of reaction versus fluid transport: significant fluid flow driven by pressure and/or surface tension gradients implies higher fractions of serpentinization, leaving behind a highly stressed residuum of partially reacted material. Using a model set-up that mimics a cylindrical triaxial apparatus we predict that the resulting stresses would lead to tensile failure and the generation of radially oriented cracks.

  16. Interactions between Exosomes from Breast Cancer Cells and Primary Mammary Epithelial Cells Leads to Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species Which Induce DNA Damage Response, Stabilization of p53 and Autophagy in Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sujoy; Warshall, Case; Bandyopadhyay, Chirosree; Dutta, Dipanjan; Chandran, Bala

    2014-01-01

    Exosomes are nanovesicles originating from multivesicular bodies and are released by all cell types. They contain proteins, lipids, microRNAs, mRNAs and DNA fragments, which act as mediators of intercellular communications by inducing phenotypic changes in recipient cells. Tumor-derived exosomes have been shown to play critical roles in different stages of tumor development and metastasis of almost all types of cancer. One of the ways by which exosomes affect tumorigenesis is to manipulate the tumor microenvironments to create tumor permissive “niches”. Whether breast cancer cell secreted exosomes manipulate epithelial cells of the mammary duct to facilitate tumor development is not known. To address whether and how breast cancer cell secreted exosomes manipulate ductal epithelial cells we studied the interactions between exosomes isolated from conditioned media of 3 different breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, T47DA18 and MCF7), representing three different types of breast carcinomas, and normal human primary mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Our studies show that exosomes released by breast cancer cell lines are taken up by HMECs, resulting in the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) led to abrogation of autophagy. HMEC-exosome interactions also induced the phosphorylation of ATM, H2AX and Chk1 indicating the induction of DNA damage repair (DDR) responses. Under these conditions, phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 was also observed. Both DDR responses and phosphorylation of p53 induced by HMEC-exosome interactions were also inhibited by NAC. Furthermore, exosome induced autophagic HMECs were found to release breast cancer cell growth promoting factors. Taken together, our results suggest novel mechanisms by which breast cancer cell secreted exosomes manipulate HMECs to create a tumor permissive microenvironment. PMID:24831807

  17. Reactive perforating collagenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Mukesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive perforating collagenosis is a rare cutaneous disorder of unknown etiology. We hereby describe a case of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis in a patient of diabetes and chronic renal failure.

  18. Management of hepatitis B reactivation in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yi-Wen; Chung, Raymond T.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is well documented in previously resolved or inactive HBV carriers who receive cancer chemotherapy. The consequences of HBV reactivation range from self-limited conditions to fulminant hepatic failure and death. HBV reactivation also leads to premature termination of chemotherapy or delay in treatment schedules. This review summarizes current knowledge of management of HBV reactivation in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) ...

  19. Reactivity on the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, James; Bry, François; Eckert, Michael; Patrânjan, Paula Lavinia

    2005-01-01

    Reactivity, the ability to detect simple and composite events and respond in a timely manner, is an essential requirement in many present-day information systems. With the emergence of new, dynamic Web applications, reactivity on the Web is receiving increasing attention. Reactive Web-based systems need to detect and react not only to simple events but also to complex, real-life situations. This paper introduces XChange, a language for programming reactive behaviour on the Web,...

  20. Reactive power compensation a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Wolfgang; Just, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive resource on reactive power compensation, presenting the design, application and operation of reactive power equipment and installations The area of reactive power compensation is gaining increasing importance worldwide. If suitably designed, it is capable of improving voltage quality significantly, meaning that losses in equipment and power systems are reduced, the permissible loading of equipment can be increased, and the over-all stability of system operation improved. Ultimately, energy use and CO2 emisson are reduced. This unique guide discusses the

  1. Leading Democratically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  2. Radiation enhanced reactivation of herpes simplex virus: effect of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, K B; Lytle, C D; Bockstahler, L E

    1976-09-01

    Ultaviolet enhanced (Weigle) reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cell monolayers was decreased by caffeine. X-ray enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus in X-irradiated monolayers (X-ray reactivation) and UV- or X-ray-inactivated capacity of the cells to support unirradiated virus plaque formation were unaffected by caffeine. The results suggest that a caffeine-sensitive process is necessary for the expression of Weigle reactivation for herpes virus. Since cafeine did not significantly affect X-ray reactivation, different mechanisms may be responsible for the expression of Weigle reactivation and X-ray reactivation.

  3. Radiation enhaced reactivation of herpes simplex virus: effect of caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, K.B.; Lytle, C.D.; Bockstahler, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet enhanced (Weigle) reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cell monolayers was decreased by caffeine. X-ray enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus in X-irradiated monolayers (X-ray reactivation) and UV- or X-ray-inactivated capacity of the cells to support unirradiated virus plaque formation were unaffected by caffeine. The results suggest that a caffeine-sensitive process is necessary for the expression of Weigle reactivation for herpes virus. Since caffeine did not significantly affect X-ray reactivation, different mechanisms may be responsible for the expression of Weigle reactivation and X-ray reactivation

  4. Monadic Functional Reactive Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van der Ploeg (Atze); C Shan

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractFunctional Reactive Programming (FRP) is a way to program reactive systems in functional style, eliminating many of the problems that arise from imperative techniques. In this paper, we present an alternative FRP formulation that is based on the notion of a reactive computation: a

  5. A 12-week treatment with the long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist liraglutide leads to significant weight loss in a subset of obese women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensterle, Mojca; Kravos, Nika Aleksandra; Pfeifer, Marija; Kocjan, Tomaz; Janez, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    The long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist liraglutide is linked to progressive and sustained weight loss in obese people with diabetes. However, its efficacy and safety in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has not yet been addressed. Thirty-two obese women (aged 27.6±7.2 years, BMI 39.5±6.2 kg/m(2)) with newly diagnosed PCOS were randomized to receive either liraglutide 1.2 mg QD sc (n=17) or metformin 1000 mg BID po (n=15) for 12 weeks; 28 patients completed the study (14 on liraglutide and 14 on metformin). The main outcome was change in body weight. Intention-to-treat analysis showed significant BMI (-0.98 kg/m(2); pweight (-2.52 kg; p2), severe obesity and higher odds ratio for the metabolic syndrome (OR=3.9), the patients fared much better with liraglutide than with metformin (mean BMI decreased 2.13 kg/m(2) vs. 0.62 kg/m(2), respectively). Short-term liraglutide treatment was associated with significant weight loss in a subset of obese patients with newly diagnosed PCOS and a higher metabolic risk profile.

  6. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkus, B.; Anac, H.; Alsan, S.; Erk, S.

    1991-01-01

    Nowadays, various digital methods making use of microcomputers for neutron detector signals and determining the reactivity by numerical calculations are used in reactor control systems in place of classical reactivity meters. In this work, a calculation based on the ''The Time Dependent Transport Equation'' has been developed for determining the reactivity numerically. The reactivity values have been obtained utilizing a computer-based data acquisition and control system and compared with the analog reactivity meter values as well as the values calculated from the ''Inhour Equation''

  7. Leading change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    In response to feedback from nursing, midwifery and other care staff who wanted to understand better how the Leading Change, Adding Value framework applies to them, NHS England has updated its webpage to include practice examples.

  8. Method of controlling reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochihara, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reactivity controlling characteristics by artificially controlling the leakage of neutron from a reactor and providing a controller for controlling the reactivity. Method: A reactor core is divided into several water gaps to increase the leakage of neutron, its reactivity is reduced, a gas-filled control rod or a fuel assembly is inserted into the gap as required, the entire core is coupled in a system to reduce the leakage of the neutron, and the reactivity is increased. The reactor shutdown is conducted by the conventional control rod, and to maintain critical state, boron density varying system is used together. Futher, a control rod drive is used with that similar to the conventional one, thereby enabling fast reactivity variation, and the positive reactivity can be obtained by the insertion, thereby improving the reactivity controlling characteristics. (Yoshihara, H.)

  9. Treating water-reactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity, and, as anticipated, they in with in temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated

  10. Contributions of primary and secondary biogenic VOC tototal OH reactivity during the CABINEX (Community Atmosphere-Biosphere INteractions Experiments-09 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present OH reactivity measurements using the comparative reactivity method with a branch enclosure technique for four different tree species (red oak, white pine, beech and red maple in the UMBS PROPHET tower footprint during the Community Atmosphere Biosphere INteraction EXperiment (CABINEX field campaign in July of 2009. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was sequentially used as a detector for OH reactivity and BVOC concentrations including isoprene and monoterpenes (MT for enclosure air. Therefore, the measurement dataset contains both measured and calculated OH reactivity from well-known BVOC. The results indicate that isoprene and MT, and in one case a sesquiterpene, can account for the measured OH reactivity. Significant discrepancy between measured OH reactivity and calculated OH reactivity from isoprene and MT is found for the red maple enclosure dataset but it can be reconciled by adding reactivity from emission of a sesquiterpene, α-farnesene, detected by GC-MS. This leads us to conclude that no significant unknown BVOC emission contributed to ambient OH reactivity from these trees at least during the study period. However, this conclusion should be followed up by more comprehensive side-by-side intercomparison between measured and calculated OH reactivity and laboratory experiments with controlled temperature and light environments to verify effects of those essential parameters towards unknown/unmeasured reactive BVOC emissions. This conclusion leads us to explore the contribution towards ambient OH reactivity (the dominant OH sink in this ecosystem oxidation products such as hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and C4 and C5-hydroxycarbonyl using recently published isoprene oxidation mechanisms (Mainz Isoprene Mechanism II and Leuven Isoprene Mechanism. Evaluation of conventionally unmeasured first generation oxidation products of isoprene and their possible contribution to ambient missing OH reactivity

  11. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  12. Investigation on the diagnosis significance of C reactive protein and adenosine deaminase in cerebrospinal fluid among children with meningitis%脑脊液C反应蛋白和腺苷脱氨酶检测在小儿脑膜炎中的诊断价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐仁荣; 张慧华; 朱华丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine C reactive protein and adenosine deaminase in cerebrospinal fluid,and to investigate the clinical diagnosis significance for tuberculosis meningitis,purulent meningitis and viral meningitis. Methods A total of 31 5 children with meningitis (1 02 cases of tuberculosis meningitis,1 08 cases of purulent meningitis and 1 05 cases of viral meningitis)were enrolled,96 children undergoing operation without meningitis were enrolled as control group,and their cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected.The levels of C reactive protein and adenosine deaminase were determined,and the results were compared.Results C reactive protein and adenosine deaminase in control and viral meningitis groups were significantly lower than those in tuberculosis and purulent meningitis groups (P 0.05 ).C reactive protein in purulent meningitis group was higher than that in tuberculosis meningitis group(P <0.05 ),and adenosine deaminase was lower than that in tuberculosis meningitis group (P <0.05).C reactive protein in purulent meningitis group was positive,and the positive rate was 1 00%.There were 63 positive cases in tuberculosis meningitis group,and the positive rate was 61 .76%.That in viral meningtis was negative.Conclusions In cerebrospinal fluid,C reactive protein and adenosine deaminase determinations have important reference significance for the differential diagnosis of bacterial meningitis (purulent meningitis and tuberculosis meningitis)and viral meningitis.Adenosine deaminase may be a good indicator for the diagnosis of tuberculosis meningitis,in order to provide the reference for the early diagnosis of various types of meningitis.%目的:探讨小儿脑脊液C反应蛋白和腺苷脱氨酶在结核性脑膜炎、化脓性脑膜炎和病毒性脑膜炎早期诊断中的临床意义。方法分别检测315例小儿脑膜炎患儿(包括结核性脑膜炎102例、化脓性脑膜炎108例、病毒性脑膜炎105例)及96例非脑膜炎外科手术

  13. Leading men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic comparison of c. 50 careers leading to the koinarchate or high priesthood of Asia, Bithynia, Galatia, Lycia, Macedonia and coastal Pontus, as described in funeral or honorary inscriptions of individual koinarchs, it is possible to identify common denominators but also disting...

  14. Reactive Programming in Java

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Reactive Programming in gaining a lot of excitement. Many libraries, tools, and frameworks are beginning to make use of reactive libraries. Besides, applications dealing with big data or high frequency data can benefit from this programming paradigm. Come to this presentation to learn about what reactive programming is, what kind of problems it solves, how it solves them. We will take an example oriented approach to learning the programming model and the abstraction.

  15. Effect of Lead on Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hye Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a ubiquitous metal in the environment, but no studies have examined lead toxicity on the middle ear. Here, we investigated lead toxicity and its mechanism in human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs. Moreover, we investigated the protective effects of amniotic membrane extract (AME and chorionic membrane extract (CME against lead toxicity in HMEECs. Cell viability was analyzed using the cell counting kit, and reactive oxygen species (ROS activity was measured using a cellular ROS detection kit. After lead(II acetate trihydrate treatment, mRNA levels of various genes were assessed by semiquantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Following treatment with AME or CME after lead exposure, the changes in cell viability, ROS activity, and gene expression were analyzed. Exposure to >100 μg/mL of lead(II acetate trihydrate caused a significant decrease in cell viability and increased ROS production in HMEECs. Lead exposure significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and mucins. Administration of AME or CME restored cell viability, reduced ROS activity, and ameliorated mRNA levels. Our findings suggest that environmental lead exposure is related to the development of otitis media, and AME and CME may have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects against lead toxicity.

  16. Consecutive Acupuncture Stimulations Lead to Significantly Decreased Neural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, S.; Choe, I.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in combination with block design paradigms with consecutive acupuncture stimulations, has often been used to investigate the neural responses to acupuncture. In this study, we investigated whether previous acupuncture stimulations can affect

  17. BN600 reactivity definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltyshev, V.; Ivanov, A.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1980, the fast BN600 reactor with sodium coolant has been operated at Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant. The periodic monitoring of the reactivity modifications should be implemented in compliance with the standards and regulations applied in nuclear power engineering. The reactivity measurements are carried out in order to confirm the basic neutronic features of a BN600 reactor. The reactivity measurements are aimed to justify that nuclear safety is provided in course of the in-reactor installation of the experimental core components. Two reactivity meters are to be used on BN600 operation: 1. Digital on-line reactivity calculated under stationary reactor operation on power (approximation of the point-wise kinetics is applied). 2. Second reactivity meter used to define the reactor control rod operating components efficiency under reactor startup and take account of the changing efficiency of the sensor, however, this is more time-consumptive than the on-line reactivity meter. The application of two reactivity meters allows for the monitoring of the reactor reactivity under every operating mode. (authors)

  18. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  19. Electrospinning of reactive mesogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, J.; Picot, O.T.; Hughes-Brittain, N.F.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Peijs, T.

    2016-01-01

    The reinforcement potential of reactive liquid crystals or reactive mesogens (RMs) in electrospun fibers was investigated through the blending of two types of RMs (RM257 and RM82) with two types of thermoplastics; polyamide 6 (PA6) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Polymer/RM blends were

  20. Technical Basis for Peak Reactivity Burnup Credit for BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel in Storage and Transportation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL; Ade, Brian J [ORNL; Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Mertyurek, Ugur [ORNL; Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission have initiated a multiyear project to investigate application of burnup credit for boiling-water reactor (BWR) fuel in storage and transportation casks. This project includes two phases. The first phase (1) investigates applicability of peak reactivity methods currently used in spent fuel pools (SFPs) to storage and transportation systems and (2) evaluates validation of both reactivity (keff) calculations and burnup credit nuclide concentrations within these methods. The second phase will focus on extending burnup credit beyond peak reactivity. This paper documents the first phase, including an analysis of lattice design parameters and depletion effects, as well as both validation components. Initial efforts related to extended burnup credit are discussed in a companion paper. Peak reactivity analyses have been used in criticality analyses for licensing of BWR fuel in SFPs over the last 20 years. These analyses typically combine credit for the gadolinium burnable absorber present in the fuel with a modest amount of burnup credit. Gadolinium burnable absorbers are used in BWR assemblies to control core reactivity. The burnable absorber significantly reduces assembly reactivity at beginning of life, potentially leading to significant increases in assembly reactivity for burnups less than 15–20 GWd/MTU. The reactivity of each fuel lattice is dependent on gadolinium loading. The number of gadolinium-bearing fuel pins lowers initial lattice reactivity, but it has a small impact on the burnup and reactivity of the peak. The gadolinium concentration in each pin has a small impact on initial lattice reactivity but a significant effect on the reactivity of the peak and the burnup at which the peak occurs. The importance of the lattice parameters and depletion conditions are primarily determined by their impact on the gadolinium depletion. Criticality code validation for BWR burnup

  1. Lead in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, Oliver H.; Pain, Deborah J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Anthropogenic uses of lead have probably altered its availability and environmental distribution more than any other toxic element. Consequently, lead concentrations in many living organisms may be approaching thresholds of toxicity for the adverse effects of lead. Such thresholds are difficult to define, as they vary with the chemical and physical form of lead, exposure regime, other elements present and also vary both within and between species. The technological capability to accurately quantify low lead concentrations has increased over the last decade, and physiological and behavioral effects have been measured in wildlife with tissue lead concentrations below those previously considered safe for humans.s.236 Consequently. lead criteria for the protection of wildlife and human health are frequently under review, and 'thresholds' of lead toxicity are being reconsidered. Proposed lead criteria for the protection of natural resources have been reviewed by Eisler. Uptake of lead by plants is limited by its generally low availability in soils and sediments, and toxicity may be limited by storage mechanisms and its apparently limited translocation within most plants. Lead does not generally accumulate within the foliar parts of plants, which limits its transfer to higher trophic levels. Although lead may concentrate in plant and animal tissues, no evidence of biomagnification exists. Acid deposition onto surface waters and soils with low buffering capacity may influence the availability of lead for uptake by plants and animals, and this may merit investigation at susceptible sites. The biological significance of chronic low-level lead exposure to wildlife is sometimes difficult to quantify. Animals living in urban environments or near point sources of lead emission are inevitably subject to greater exposure to lead and enhanced risk of lead poisoning. Increasingly strict controls on lead emissions in many countries have reduced exposure to lead from some sources

  2. Making real-time reactive systems reliable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Keith; Wood, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A reactive system is characterized by a control program that interacts with an environment (or controlled program). The control program monitors the environment and reacts to significant events by sending commands to the environment. This structure is quite general. Not only are most embedded real time systems reactive systems, but so are monitoring and debugging systems and distributed application management systems. Since reactive systems are usually long running and may control physical equipment, fault tolerance is vital. The research tries to understand the principal issues of fault tolerance in real time reactive systems and to build tools that allow a programmer to design reliable, real time reactive systems. In order to make real time reactive systems reliable, several issues must be addressed: (1) How can a control program be built to tolerate failures of sensors and actuators. To achieve this, a methodology was developed for transforming a control program that references physical value into one that tolerates sensors that can fail and can return inaccurate values; (2) How can the real time reactive system be built to tolerate failures of the control program. Towards this goal, whether the techniques presented can be extended to real time reactive systems is investigated; and (3) How can the environment be specified in a way that is useful for writing a control program. Towards this goal, whether a system with real time constraints can be expressed as an equivalent system without such constraints is also investigated.

  3. An autonomous organic reaction search engine for chemical reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragone, Vincenza; Sans, Victor; Henson, Alon B.; Granda, Jaroslaw M.; Cronin, Leroy

    2017-06-01

    The exploration of chemical space for new reactivity, reactions and molecules is limited by the need for separate work-up-separation steps searching for molecules rather than reactivity. Herein we present a system that can autonomously evaluate chemical reactivity within a network of 64 possible reaction combinations and aims for new reactivity, rather than a predefined set of targets. The robotic system combines chemical handling, in-line spectroscopy and real-time feedback and analysis with an algorithm that is able to distinguish and select the most reactive pathways, generating a reaction selection index (RSI) without need for separate work-up or purification steps. This allows the automatic navigation of a chemical network, leading to previously unreported molecules while needing only to do a fraction of the total possible reactions without any prior knowledge of the chemistry. We show the RSI correlates with reactivity and is able to search chemical space using the most reactive pathways.

  4. Lead- or Lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Courouau, J.L.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Latge, C.; Martinelli, L.; Renault, C.; Rimpault, G.

    2014-01-01

    Lead-cooled fast reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. So far no lead-cooled reactors have existed in the world except lead-bismuth-cooled reactors in soviet submarines. Some problems linked to the use of the lead-bismuth eutectic appeared but were satisfactorily solved by a more rigorous monitoring of the chemistry of the lead-bismuth coolant. Lead presents various advantages as a coolant: no reactivity with water and the air,a high boiling temperature and low contamination when irradiated. The main asset of the lead-bismuth alloy is the drop of the fusion temperature from 327 C degrees to 125 C degrees. The main drawback of using lead (or lead-bismuth) is its high corrosiveness with metals like iron, chromium and nickel. The high corrosiveness of the coolant implies low flow velocities which means a bigger core and consequently a bigger reactor containment. Different research programs in the world (in Europe, Russia and the USA) are reviewed in the article but it appears that the development of this type of reactor requires technological breakthroughs concerning materials and the resistance to corrosion. Furthermore the concept of lead-cooled reactors seems to be associated to a range of low output power because of the compromise between the size of the reactor and its resistance to earthquakes. (A.C.)

  5. Prior Exposure to Zika Virus Significantly Enhances Peak Dengue-2 Viremia in Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    George, Jeffy; Valiant, William G.; Mattapallil, Mary J.; Walker, Michelle; Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Misamore, John; Greenhouse, Jack; Weiss, Deborah E.; Verthelyi, Daniela; Higgs, Stephen; Andersen, Hanne; Lewis, Mark G.; Mattapallil, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    Structural and functional homologies between the Zika and Dengue viruses? envelope proteins raise the possibility that cross-reactive antibodies induced following Zika virus infection might enhance subsequent Dengue infection. Using the rhesus macaque model we show that prior infection with Zika virus leads to a significant enhancement of Dengue-2 viremia that is accompanied by neutropenia, lympocytosis, hyperglycemia, and higher reticulocyte counts, along with the activation of pro-inflammat...

  6. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zongbing

    1996-02-01

    The importance and the usual methods of reactivity measurement in a nuclear reactor are presented. Emphasis is put upon the calculation principle, software and hardware components, main specifications, application, as well as the features of the digital reactivity meter. The test results of operation in various reactors shown that the meter possess the following features: high accuracy, short response time, low output noise, high resolution, wide measuring range, simple and flexible to operate, high stability and reliability. In addition, the reactivity meter can save the measuring data automatically and have a perfect capability of self-verifying. It not only meet the requirement of the reactivity measurement in nuclear power plant, but also can be applied to various types of reactors. (1 tab.)

  7. Stress Reactivity in Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrman, Philip R; Hall, Martica; Barilla, Holly; Buysse, Daniel; Perlis, Michael; Gooneratne, Nalaka; Ross, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with primary insomnia (PI) are more reactive to stress than good sleepers (GS). PI and GS (n = 20 per group), matched on gender and age, completed three nights of polysomnography. On the stress night, participants received a mild electric shock and were told they could receive additional shocks during the night. Saliva samples were obtained for analysis of cortisol and alpha amylase along with self-report and visual analog scales (VAS). There was very little evidence of increased stress on the stress night, compared to the baseline night. There was also no evidence of greater stress reactivity in the PI group for any sleep or for salivary measures. In the GS group, stress reactivity measured by VAS scales was positively associated with an increase in sleep latency in the experimental night on exploratory analyses. Individuals with PI did not show greater stress reactivity compared to GS.

  8. Structure, Reactivity and Dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding structure, reactivity and dynamics is the core issue in chemical ... functional theory (DFT) calculations, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, light- ... between water and protein oxygen atoms, the superionic conductors which ...

  9. Taskable Reactive Agent Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...

  10. Association of C-reactive protein positivity among groups of patients with knee osteoarthritis in Erbil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Ahmed Pirdawood

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease and a leading cause of disability. Increased circulating levels of C-reactive protein have been associated with prevalent knee osteoarthritis. This study aimed to assess the association between C- reactive protein positivity in patients with knee osteoarthritis in Erbil Methods: Data from100 participants in this case-control study were enrolled from May 1st to December 1st, 2015 in Rizgary Teaching Hospital in Erbil city. Data were divided into two groups. The cases included 50 patients (17 male and 33 female with a mean age of 58.9 ±3.8 years and diagnosed with primary knee osteoarthritis of one or both knee joints. Controls included 50 persons (17 male and 33 female with a mean age of 58.1 ±3.9 years without knee osteoarthritis and matched for age, sex, and body mass index. C-reactive protein qualitatively measured. Patients were radiologically assessed by Kellgren and Lawrence grading scale (grade 0-4. Results: C-reactive protein was positive in 41 out of 50 (82% of knee osteoarthritis patients compared to 3 out of 50 (6% of healthy controls (P = 0.001. C- reactive protein positivity among knee osteoarthritis patients were significantly associated with body mass index, positive family history of knee osteoarthritis, duration of diseases, and Kellgren and Lawrence grade (P 0.05. Conclusion: C-reactive protein positivity was significantly associated with knee osteoarthritis compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, body mass index, positive family history of knee osteoarthritis, early osteoarthritis, and Kellgren and Lawrence grade II, were significantly associated with positive C-reactive protein in knee osteoarthritis.

  11. Reactive sputter deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Mahieu, Stijn

    2008-01-01

    In this valuable work, all aspects of the reactive magnetron sputtering process, from the discharge up to the resulting thin film growth, are described in detail, allowing the reader to understand the complete process. Hence, this book gives necessary information for those who want to start with reactive magnetron sputtering, understand and investigate the technique, control their sputtering process and tune their existing process, obtaining the desired thin films.

  12. RNCR3 knockdown inhibits diabetes mellitus-induced retinal reactive gliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Chao-peng; Wang, Jia-Jian; Shan, Kun; Liu, Xin; Yan, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Retinal reactive gliosis is an important pathological feature of diabetic retinopathy. Identifying the underlying mechanisms causing reactive gliosis will be important for developing new therapeutic strategies for treating diabetic retinopathy. Herein, we show that long noncoding RNA-RNCR3 knockdown significantly inhibits retinal reactive gliosis. RNCR3 knockdown leads to a marked reduction in the release of several cytokines. RNCR3 knockdown alleviates diabetes mellitus-induced retinal neurodegeneration, as shown by less apoptotic retinal cells and ameliorative visual function. RNCR3 knockdown could also decrease Müller glial cell viability and proliferation, and reduce the expression of glial reactivity-related genes including GFAP and vimentin in vitro. Collectively, this study shows that RNCR3 knockdown may be a promising strategy for the prevention of diabetes mellitus-induced retinal neurodegeneration. - Highlights: • RNCR3 knockdown inhibits retinal reactive gliosis. • RNCR3 knockdown causes a significant change in cytokine profile. • RNCR3 knockdown alleviates diabetes mellitus-induced retinal neurodegeneration. • RNCR3 knockdown affects Müller glial cell function in vitro.

  13. Reactive power compensator

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  14. Reactive power compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Woodinville, WA); Chen, Mingliang (Kirkland, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Huang, Tony (Seattle, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  15. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M R; Lewis, G

    1963-08-03

    Within a short period, 14 cases of lead poisoning in the dogs have been encountered. A detailed record appears justified as no published reference can be found to this condition occurring in Britain and because reports from other countries stress the similarity of the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning to those of the common infections of the dog. Five of the 14 clinical cases of lead poisoning are described. The available literature is reviewed and the diagnosis and significance of the condition discussed. 19 references, 2 tables.

  16. Degassing, gas retention and release in Fe(0) permeable reactive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Aki S; Jekel, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Corrosion of Fe(0) has been successfully utilized for the reductive treatment of multiple contaminants. Under anaerobic conditions, concurrent corrosion leads to the generation of hydrogen and its liberation as a gas. Gas bubbles are mobile or trapped within the irregular pore structure leading to a reduction of the water filled pore volume and thus decreased residence time and permeability (gas clogging). With regard to the contaminant transport to the reactive site, the estimation of surface properties of the reactive material indicated that individual gas bubbles only occupied minor contact areas of the reactive surface. Quantification of gas entrapment by both gravimetrical and tracer investigations revealed that development of preferential flow paths was not significant. A novel continuous gravimetrical method was implemented to record variations in gas entrapment and gas bubble releases from the reactive filling. Variation of grain size fractions revealed that the pore geometry had a significant impact on gas release. Large pores led to the release of comparably large gas amounts while smaller volumes were released from finer pores with a higher frequency. Relevant processes are explained with a simplified pictorial sequence that incorporates relevant mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamics of Reactive Microbial Hotspots in Concentration Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, A.; Farasin, J.; Tabuteau, H.; Dufresne, A.; Meheust, Y.; Le Borgne, T.

    2017-12-01

    In subsurface environments, bacteria play a major role in controlling the kinetics of a broad range of biogeochemical reactions. In such environments, nutrients fluxes and solute concentrations needed for bacteria metabolism may be highly variable in space and intermittent in time. This can lead to the formation of reactive hotspots where and when conditions are favorable to particular microorganisms, hence inducing biogeochemical reaction kinetics that differ significantly from those measured in homogeneous model environments. To investigate the impact of chemical gradients on the spatial structure and temporal dynamics of subsurface microorganism populations, we develop microfluidic cells allowing for a precise control of flow and chemical gradient conditions, as well as quantitative monitoring of the bacteria's spatial distribution and biofilm development. Using the non-motile Escherichia coli JW1908-1 strain and Gallionella capsiferriformans ES-2 as model organisms, we investigate the behavior and development of bacteria over a range of single and double concentration gradients in the concentrations of nutrients, electron donors and electron acceptors. We measure bacterial activity and population growth locally in precisely known hydrodynamic and chemical environments. This approach allows time-resolved monitoring of the location and intensity of reactive hotspots in micromodels as a function of the flow and chemical gradient conditions. We compare reactive microbial hotspot dynamics in our micromodels to classic growth laws and well-known growth parameters for the laboratory model bacteria Escherichia coli.We also discuss consequences for the formation and temporal dynamics of biofilms in the subsurface.

  18. Keratosis of unknown significance and leukoplakia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sook-Bin; Grammer, Rebecca L; Lerman, Mark A

    2014-12-01

    The objectives were to (1) determine the frequency of specific diagnoses in a series of white lesions, and (2) describe the nature of keratotic lesions that are neither reactive nor dysplastic. White lesions were analyzed and diagnosed as reactive keratoses, dysplastic/malignant, or keratoses of unknown significance (KUS). Of the 1251 specimens that were evaluated, 703 met criteria for inclusion, and approximately 75% were reactive, 10% dysplastic/malignant, and 14% KUS. Excluding reactive keratoses, 43% were dysplastic/malignant and 57% were KUS. Reactive keratoses were the most common white lesions followed by lichen planus. Dysplastic/malignant lesions constituted almost 50% of all true leukoplakias. KUS constituted the remaining cases and do not show typical reactive histopathology as well as clear dysplasia. They may represent evolving or devolving reactive keratoses but may also represent the very earliest dysplasia phenotype. Clinical findings may be helpful in differentiating the two. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copie, M.; Valantic, B.

    1978-01-01

    Digital reactivity meters (DRM) are mostly used as measuring instruments, e.g. for calibration of control rods, and there are only a few cases of their incorporation into the control systems of the reactors. To move in this direction there is more development work needed. First of all, fast algorithms are needed for inverse kinetics equations to relieve the computer for more important tasks of reactor model solving in real time. The next problem, currently under investigation, is the incorporation of the reactor thermal-hydraulic model into the DRM so that it can be used in the power range. Such an extension of DHM allows presentation not only of the instantaneous reactivity of the system, but also the inserted reactivity can be estimated from the temperature reactivity feed-backs. One of the applications of this concept is the anomalous digital reactivity monitor (ADRN) as part of the reactor protection system. As a solution of the first problem, a fast algorithm for solving the inverse kinetics equations has been implemented in the off-line program RODCAL on CDC 1700 computer and tested for its accuracy by performing different control rod calibrations on the reactor TRIGA

  20. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Ora, M.

    2011-07-01

    pyrolysis temperature increased. During fast pyrolysis wood particles underwent melting, yet to different extents for the two investigated fuels: pine wood produced chars of porous spherical particles, whereas beech sawdust chars showed a somewhat less drastic change of morphology with respect to the parent fuel. Char produced by low heating rate pyrolysis fully retained the original fibrous structure of wood. Fast pyrolysis chars were significantly more reactive than slow pyrolysis chars (for the same activation energy, the pre-exponential factor was up to 2 orders of magnitude greater for chars increased). The amount and composition of the ash forming matter of the wood fuels is believed to play an important role in determining the differences in char yield, morphology and reactivity. The modelling of wood char combustion is the subject of Chapter 5. The lowest and the highest reactivities obtained for the chars produced in the EFR are used in a simple single particle combustion model in combination with a description of Avedoerevaerket's boiler. In the model the char particle is assumed to burn in a gas with constant temperature and constant oxygen fraction. The particle temperature is on the other hand determined taking reaction heat, convection through boundary gas layer and radiation into account. The model accounts for external diffusion of oxygen to the particle outer surface, internal diffusion in the pores and heterogeneous chemical reaction (CO is considered the only product). The model calculates an overall efficiency factor for combustion, yet assumes that all the reacting carbon is consumed at the outer surface of the char. The model predicts that at an average furnace temperature of 1200 K the conversion of char particles with radius 20-350 {micro}m is very much affected by the reactivity of the char. The influence of the particle's reactivity is lower at higher temperatures: at furnace temperatures of 1500 K and 1700 K the combustion of the char is

  1. Trifluoperazine inhibits acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and hepatic reactive nitrogen formation in mice and in freshly isolated hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Banerjee

    Full Text Available The hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen (APAP occurs by initial metabolism to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine which depletes GSH and forms APAP-protein adducts. Subsequently, the reactive nitrogen species peroxynitrite is formed from nitric oxide (NO and superoxide leading to 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins. Toxicity occurs with inhibited mitochondrial function. We previously reported that in hepatocytes the nNOS (NOS1 inhibitor NANT inhibited APAP toxicity, reactive nitrogen and oxygen species formation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this work we examined the effect of trifluoperazine (TFP, a calmodulin antagonist that inhibits calcium induced nNOS activation, on APAP hepatotoxicity and reactive nitrogen formation in murine hepatocytes and in vivo. In freshly isolated hepatocytes TFP inhibited APAP induced toxicity, reactive nitrogen formation (NO, GSNO, and 3-nitrotyrosine in protein, reactive oxygen formation (superoxide, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased ATP production, decreased oxygen consumption rate, and increased NADH accumulation. TFP did not alter APAP induced GSH depletion in the hepatocytes or the formation of APAP protein adducts which indicated that reactive metabolite formation was not inhibited. Since we previously reported that TFP inhibits the hepatotoxicity of APAP in mice without altering hepatic APAP-protein adduct formation, we examined the APAP treated mouse livers for evidence of reactive nitrogen formation. 3-Nitrotyrosine in hepatic proteins and GSNO were significantly increased in APAP treated mouse livers and decreased in the livers of mice treated with APAP plus TFP. These data are consistent with a hypothesis that APAP hepatotoxicity occurs with altered calcium metabolism, activation of nNOS leading to increased reactive nitrogen formation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Keywords: Acetaminophen, Neuronal nitric oxide, Oxidative stress, Mitochondria

  2. Physical and technical aspects of lead cooled fast reactors safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.; Smirnov, V.S.; Filin, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    The safety analysis of lead-cooled fast reactors has been performed for the well-developed concept of BREST-OD-300 reactor. The most severe accidents have been considered. An ultimate design-basis accident has been defined as an event resulting from an external impact and involving a loss of leak-tightness of the lead circuit, loss of forced circulation of lead and loss of heat sink to the secondary circuit, failure of controls and of reactor scram with resultant insertion of total reactivity margin, etc. It was assumed in accident analysis that the protective feature available for accident mitigation was only reactivity feedback on the changes in the temperatures of the reactor core elements and coolant flow rate, and in some cases also actuation of passive protections of threshold action in response to low flow rate and high coolant temperature at the core outlet. It should be noted that the majority of the analyzed accidents could be overcame even without initiation of the above protections. It has been demonstrated that a combination of inherent properties of lead coolant, nitride fuel, physical and design features of fast reactors will ensure natural safety of BREST and are instrumental for avoiding by a deterministic approach the accidents associated with a significant release of radioactivity and requiring evacuation of people in any credible initiating event and a combination of events. (author)

  3. Menstrual cycle and skin reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Damm, P; Skouby, S O

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that a cyclic variation exists in skin reactivity to irritant stimuli. Twenty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles were challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate as an irritant patch test at day 1 and at days 9 through 11 of the menstrual cycle. The skin response...... to the applied irritant stimulus was evaluated by visual scoring and also quantified by measurements of transepidermal water loss, edema formation, and blood flow in the skin. The skin response to challenge with sodium lauryl sulfate was found to be significantly stronger at day 1 than at days 9 through 11...

  4. High throughput assay for evaluation of reactive carbonyl scavenging capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, N; Cavaille, J P; Graziani, F; Robin, M; Ouari, O; Pietri, S; Stocker, P

    2014-01-01

    Many carbonyl species from either lipid peroxidation or glycoxidation are extremely reactive and can disrupt the function of proteins and enzymes. 4-hydroxynonenal and methylglyoxal are the most abundant and toxic lipid-derived reactive carbonyl species. The presence of these toxics leads to carbonyl stress and cause a significant amount of macromolecular damages in several diseases. Much evidence indicates trapping of reactive carbonyl intermediates may be a useful strategy for inhibiting or decreasing carbonyl stress-associated pathologies. There is no rapid and convenient analytical method available for the assessment of direct carbonyl scavenging capacity, and a very limited number of carbonyl scavengers have been identified to date, their therapeutic potential being highlighted only recently. In this context, we have developed a new and rapid sensitive fluorimetric method for the assessment of reactive carbonyl scavengers without involvement glycoxidation systems. Efficacy of various thiol- and non-thiol-carbonyl scavenger pharmacophores was tested both using this screening assay adapted to 96-well microplates and in cultured cells. The scavenging effects on the formation of Advanced Glycation End-product of Bovine Serum Albumin formed with methylglyoxal, 4-hydroxynonenal and glucose-glycated as molecular models were also examined. Low molecular mass thiols with an α-amino-β-mercaptoethane structure showed the highest degree of inhibitory activity toward both α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and dicarbonyls. Cysteine and cysteamine have the best scavenging ability toward methylglyoxal. WR-1065 which is currently approved for clinical use as a protective agent against radiation and renal toxicity was identified as the best inhibitor of 4-hydroxynonenal.

  5. High throughput assay for evaluation of reactive carbonyl scavenging capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vidal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many carbonyl species from either lipid peroxidation or glycoxidation are extremely reactive and can disrupt the function of proteins and enzymes. 4-hydroxynonenal and methylglyoxal are the most abundant and toxic lipid-derived reactive carbonyl species. The presence of these toxics leads to carbonyl stress and cause a significant amount of macromolecular damages in several diseases. Much evidence indicates trapping of reactive carbonyl intermediates may be a useful strategy for inhibiting or decreasing carbonyl stress-associated pathologies. There is no rapid and convenient analytical method available for the assessment of direct carbonyl scavenging capacity, and a very limited number of carbonyl scavengers have been identified to date, their therapeutic potential being highlighted only recently. In this context, we have developed a new and rapid sensitive fluorimetric method for the assessment of reactive carbonyl scavengers without involvement glycoxidation systems. Efficacy of various thiol- and non-thiol-carbonyl scavenger pharmacophores was tested both using this screening assay adapted to 96-well microplates and in cultured cells. The scavenging effects on the formation of Advanced Glycation End-product of Bovine Serum Albumin formed with methylglyoxal, 4-hydroxynonenal and glucose-glycated as molecular models were also examined. Low molecular mass thiols with an α-amino-β-mercaptoethane structure showed the highest degree of inhibitory activity toward both α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and dicarbonyls. Cysteine and cysteamine have the best scavenging ability toward methylglyoxal. WR-1065 which is currently approved for clinical use as a protective agent against radiation and renal toxicity was identified as the best inhibitor of 4-hydroxynonenal.

  6. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  7. Reactivity of nitriles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, Yu.N.

    1987-01-01

    Reactivity of coordination nitriles in transition metal (Ru, Mo, W, Zr, Hf) complexes, namely: transformation of nitriles of the first coordination sphere into N-acyl-substituted amides, amidines, nitrile interaction; with water, alkalines, alcoholes, hydrogen, azide and cyanide ions is considered. Introduction of acetonitrile molecule to uranium (4)-carbon double bond is discussed

  8. Clojure reactive programming

    CERN Document Server

    Borges, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Clojure developer who is interested in using Reactive Programming to build asynchronous and concurrent applications, this book is for you. Knowledge of Clojure and Leiningen is required. Basic understanding of ClojureScript will be helpful for the web chapters, although it is not strictly necessary.

  9. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  10. Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT) is used to determine the thermal stability of High Explosives (HEs) and chemical compatibility between (HEs) and alien materials. The CRT is one of the small-scale safety tests performed on HE at the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).

  11. Reactive power compensating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J. (Redondo Beach, CA); El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Seattle, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  12. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  13. The iodine reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The iodine is an important element because it has long life isotopes (such as iodine 129) and a great mobility in natural media. Iodine presents a complex chemistry because of its volatility and its strong redox reactivity. The S.E.C.R. works to better understand the reactivity of this element in different natural, industrial or biological environments. It plays a part in thermochemical sites as a possible way of hydrogen formation. This seminar gives some aspects relative to the chemical reactivity of iodine, since its thermochemistry in the I/S cycles to produce hydrogen to its reactivity in the natural medium and its potential radiological impact. This document includes 4 presentations transparencies) dealing with: the 129 I cycle rejected in the low radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents of the La Hague reprocessing plant (C. Frechou); a bibliographic review of iodine retention in soils (F. Bazer-Bachi); the hydrogen production and the iodine/sulfur thermochemical cycle (role of iodine in the process); and the direct characterization by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy of iodine fixation by fulvic acids (P. Reiller, B. Amekraz, C. Moulin, V. Moulin)

  14. Upscaling of reactive flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, K.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with the upscaling of reactive flows in complex geometry. The reactions which may include deposition or dissolution take place at a part of the boundary and depending on the size of the reaction domain, the changes in the pore structure that are due to the deposition process may or

  15. Targeted Memory Reactivation during Sleep Adaptively Promotes the Strengthening or Weakening of Overlapping Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Javiera P; Morís, Joaquín; Luque, David; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Fuentemilla, Lluís

    2017-08-09

    System memory consolidation is conceptualized as an active process whereby newly encoded memory representations are strengthened through selective memory reactivation during sleep. However, our learning experience is highly overlapping in content (i.e., shares common elements), and memories of these events are organized in an intricate network of overlapping associated events. It remains to be explored whether and how selective memory reactivation during sleep has an impact on these overlapping memories acquired during awake time. Here, we test in a group of adult women and men the prediction that selective memory reactivation during sleep entails the reactivation of associated events and that this may lead the brain to adaptively regulate whether these associated memories are strengthened or pruned from memory networks on the basis of their relative associative strength with the shared element. Our findings demonstrate the existence of efficient regulatory neural mechanisms governing how complex memory networks are shaped during sleep as a function of their associative memory strength. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Numerous studies have demonstrated that system memory consolidation is an active, selective, and sleep-dependent process in which only subsets of new memories become stabilized through their reactivation. However, the learning experience is highly overlapping in content and thus events are encoded in an intricate network of related memories. It remains to be explored whether and how memory reactivation has an impact on overlapping memories acquired during awake time. Here, we show that sleep memory reactivation promotes strengthening and weakening of overlapping memories based on their associative memory strength. These results suggest the existence of an efficient regulatory neural mechanism that avoids the formation of cluttered memory representation of multiple events and promotes stabilization of complex memory networks. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377748-11$15.00/0.

  16. Reactivation of BK polyomavirus in patients with multiple sclerosis receiving natalizumab therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lonergan, Roisin M

    2012-02-01

    Natalizumab therapy in multiple sclerosis has been associated with JC polyomavirus-induced progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. We hypothesized that natalizumab may also lead to reactivation of BK, a related human polyomavirus capable of causing morbidity in immunosuppressed groups. Patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis treated with natalizumab were prospectively monitored for reactivation of BK virus in blood and urine samples, and for evidence of associated renal dysfunction. In this cohort, JC and BK DNA in blood and urine; cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in blood and urine; CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte counts and ratios in peripheral blood; and renal function were monitored at regular intervals. BK subtyping and noncoding control region sequencing was performed on samples demonstrating reactivation. Prior to commencement of natalizumab therapy, 3 of 36 patients with multiple sclerosis (8.3%) had BK viruria and BK reactivation occurred in 12 of 54 patients (22.2%). BK viruria was transient in 7, continuous in 2 patients, and persistent viruria was associated with transient viremia. Concomitant JC and CMV viral loads were undetectable. CD4:CD8 ratios fluctuated, but absolute CD4 counts did not fall below normal limits. In four of seven patients with BK virus reactivation, transient reductions in CD4 counts were observed at onset of BK viruria: these resolved in three of four patients on resuppression of BK replication. No renal dysfunction was observed in the cohort. BK virus reactivation can occur during natalizumab therapy; however, the significance in the absence of renal dysfunction is unclear. We propose regular monitoring for BK reactivation or at least for evidence of renal dysfunction in patients receiving natalizumab.

  17. Leading through Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzon, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about leading significant learning opportunities through conflict of ideas in a school system. Catalyzing school change can turn emotional differences of opinion into learning opportunities. Leaders who want to deal effectively with these challenging, often tense situations need to be more than good managers. They need to be…

  18. Lead Time Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    1979, the number of titanium fabrications dropped from 16 to 4, primarily because of the sponge shortage and EPA and OSHA requirements. Non-military...East - Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Malaysia and Hong Kong. In addition, a significant amount of ceramic parts, lead frames and high technology

  19. Reactive dispersive contaminant transport in coastal aquifers: Numerical simulation of a reactive Henry problem

    KAUST Repository

    Nick, H.M.

    2013-02-01

    The reactive mixing between seawater and terrestrial water in coastal aquifers influences the water quality of submarine groundwater discharge. While these waters come into contact at the seawater groundwater interface by density driven flow, their chemical components dilute and react through dispersion. A larger interface and wider mixing zone may provide favorable conditions for the natural attenuation of contaminant plumes. It has been claimed that the extent of this mixing is controlled by both, porous media properties and flow conditions. In this study, the interplay between dispersion and reactive processes in coastal aquifers is investigated by means of numerical experiments. Particularly, the impact of dispersion coefficients, the velocity field induced by density driven flow and chemical component reactivities on reactive transport in such aquifers is studied. To do this, a hybrid finite-element finite-volume method and a reactive simulator are coupled, and model accuracy and applicability are assessed. A simple redox reaction is considered to describe the degradation of a contaminant which requires mixing of the contaminated groundwater and the seawater containing the terminal electron acceptor. The resulting degradation is observed for different scenarios considering different magnitudes of dispersion and chemical reactivity. Three reactive transport regimes are found: reaction controlled, reaction-dispersion controlled and dispersion controlled. Computational results suggest that the chemical components\\' reactivity as well as dispersion coefficients play a significant role on controlling reactive mixing zones and extent of contaminant removal in coastal aquifers. Further, our results confirm that the dilution index is a better alternative to the second central spatial moment of a plume to describe the mixing of reactive solutes in coastal aquifers. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effect of nonlinear void reactivity on bifurcation characteristics of a lumped-parameter model of a BWR: A study relevant to RBMK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Dinkar, E-mail: dinkar@iitk.ac.in [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Program, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Kalra, Manjeet Singh, E-mail: drmanjeet.singh@dituniversity.edu.in [DIT University, Dehradun 248 009 (India); Wahi, Pankaj, E-mail: wahi@iitk.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A simplified model with nonlinear void reactivity feedback is studied. • Method of multiple scales for nonlinear analysis and oscillation characteristics. • Second order void reactivity dominates in determining system dynamics. • Opposing signs of linear and quadratic void reactivity enhances global safety. - Abstract: In the present work, the effect of nonlinear void reactivity on the dynamics of a simplified lumped-parameter model for a boiling water reactor (BWR) is investigated. A mathematical model of five differential equations comprising of neutronics and thermal-hydraulics encompassing the nonlinearities associated with both the reactivity feedbacks and the heat transfer process has been used. To this end, we have considered parameters relevant to RBMK for which the void reactivity is known to be nonlinear. A nonlinear analysis of the model exploiting the method of multiple time scales (MMTS) predicts the occurrence of the two types of Hopf bifurcation, namely subcritical and supercritical, leading to the evolution of limit cycles for a range of parameters. Numerical simulations have been performed to verify the analytical results obtained by MMTS. The study shows that the nonlinear reactivity has a significant influence on the system dynamics. A parametric study with varying nominal reactor power and operating conditions in coolant channel has also been performed which shows the effect of change in concerned parameter on the boundary between regions of sub- and super-critical Hopf bifurcations in the space constituted by the two coefficients of reactivities viz. the void and the Doppler coefficient of reactivities. In particular, we find that introduction of a negative quadratic term in the void reactivity feedback significantly increases the supercritical region and dominates in determining the system dynamics.

  1. Intercomparison of two comparative reactivity method instruments inf the Mediterranean basin during summer 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannoni, N.; Dusanter, S.; Gros, V.; Sarda Esteve, R.; Michoud, V.; Sinha, V.; Locoge, N.; Bonsang, B.

    2015-09-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) plays a key role in the atmosphere, as it initiates most of the oxidation processes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and can ultimately lead to the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). There are still uncertainties associated with the OH budget assessed using current models of atmospheric chemistry and direct measurements of OH sources and sinks have proved to be valuable tools to improve our understanding of the OH chemistry. The total first order loss rate of OH, or total OH reactivity, can be directly measured using three different methods, such as the following: total OH loss rate measurement, laser-induced pump and probe technique and comparative reactivity method. Observations of total OH reactivity are usually coupled to individual measurements of reactive compounds in the gas phase, which are used to calculate the OH reactivity. Studies using the three methods have highlighted that a significant fraction of OH reactivity is often not explained by individually measured reactive compounds and could be associated to unmeasured or unknown chemical species. Therefore accurate and reproducible measurements of OH reactivity are required. The comparative reactivity method (CRM) has demonstrated to be an advantageous technique with an extensive range of applications, and for this reason it has been adopted by several research groups since its development. However, this method also requires careful corrections to derive ambient OH reactivity. Herein we present an intercomparison exercise of two CRM instruments, CRM-LSCE (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement) and CRM-MD (Mines Douai), conducted during July 2013 at the Mediterranean site of Ersa, Cape Corsica, France. The intercomparison exercise included tests to assess the corrections needed by the two instruments to process the raw data sets as well as OH reactivity observations. The observation was divided in three parts: 2 days of plant

  2. Reactive Astrocytes in Brain Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wasilewski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastasis, the secondary growth of malignant cells within the central nervous system (CNS, exceeds the incidence of primary brain tumors (i.e., gliomas by tenfold and are seemingly on the rise owing to the emergence of novel targeted therapies that are more effective in controlling extracranial disease relatively to intracranial lesions. Despite the fact that metastasis to the brain poses a unmet clinical problem, with afflicted patients carrying significant morbidity and a fatal prognosis, our knowledge as to how metastatic cells manage to adapt to the tissue environment of the CNS remains limited. Answering this question could pave the way for novel and more specific therapeutic modalities in brain metastasis by targeting the specific makeup of the brain metastatic niche. In regard to this, astrocytes have emerged as the major host cell type that cancer cells encounter and interact with during brain metastasis formation. Similarly to other CNS disorders, astrocytes become reactive and respond to the presence of cancer cells by changing their phenotype and significantly influencing the outcome of disseminated cancer cells within the CNS. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the contribution of reactive astrocytes in brain metastasis by focusing on the signaling pathways and types of interactions that play a crucial part in the communication with cancer cells and how these could be translated into innovative therapies.

  3. Differential Immuno-Reactivity to Genomic DNA, RNA and Mitochondrial DNA is Associated with Auto-Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilena V. Ivanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Circulating auto-reactive antibodies are hallmark features of auto-immune diseases, however little is known with respect to the specificity of such bio-markers. In the present study, we investigated the specificity of anti-nucleic acid antibodies in the blood of subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and healthy controls. Methods: Sera from 12 SLE cases and 8 controls were evaluated for immuno-reactivity to purified RNA, DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA. Results: As expected, immuno-reactivity to total nucleic acids was significantly higher in subjects with SLE when compared to healthy controls, however a clear distinction was observed among the various nucleic acid sub-types, with sera from SLE subjects displaying the greatest immuno-reactivity to RNA followed by mtDNA and then total DNA. Conclusion: The identification of auto-reactive antibodies can serve as highly sensitive biomarkers, although their specificity may not always allow diagnostic certainty. The knowledge that auto-antibodies in subjects with SLE display differential immuno-reactivity may help to improve existing diagnostics and may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of auto-immune disorders.

  4. What makes ecological systems reactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin E

    2010-06-01

    Although perturbations from a stable equilibrium must ultimately vanish, they can grow initially, and the maximum initial growth rate is called reactivity. Reactivity thus identifies systems that may undergo transient population surges or drops in response to perturbations; however, we lack biological and mathematical intuition about what makes a system reactive. This paper presents upper and lower bounds on reactivity for an arbitrary linearized model, explores their strictness, and discusses their biological implications. I find that less stable systems (i.e. systems with long transients) have a smaller possible range of reactivities for which no perturbations grow. Systems with more species have a higher capacity to be reactive, assuming species interactions do not weaken too rapidly as the number of species increases. Finally, I find that in discrete time, reactivity is determined largely by mean interaction strength and neither discrete nor continuous time reactivity are sensitive to food web topology. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of direct injection timing and blending ratio on RCCI combustion with different low reactivity fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, Jesús; Molina, Santiago; García, Antonio; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • E85 requires notable lower premixed energy ratios to achieve a stable combustion. • E10-95 leads to shorter and advanced combustion with higher maximum RoHR peaks. • E20-95, E10-98 and E10-95 reach EURO VI NOx and soot levels for all the engine loads. • E10-95 allows a significant reduction in HC and CO emissions. - Abstract: This work investigates the effects of the direct injection timing and blending ratio on RCCI performance and engine-out emissions at different engine loads using four low reactivity fuels: E10-95, E10-98, E20-95 and E85 (port fuel injected) and keeping constant the same high reactivity fuel: diesel B7 (direct injected). The experiments were conducted using a heavy-duty single-cylinder research diesel engine adapted for dual-fuel operation. All the tests were carried out at 1200 rpm. To assess the blending ratio effect, the total energy delivered to the cylinder coming from the low reactivity fuel was kept constant for the different fuel blends investigated by adjusting the low reactivity fuel mass as required in each case. In addition, a detailed analysis of the air/fuel mixing process has been developed by means of a 1-D in-house developed spray model. Results suggest that notable higher diesel amount is required to achieve a stable combustion using E85. This fact leads to higher NOx levels and unacceptable ringing intensity. By contrast, EURO VI NOx and soot levels are fulfilled with E20-95, E10-98 and E10-95. Finally, the higher reactivity of E10-95 results in a significant reduction in CO and HC emissions, mainly at low load

  6. Bearing for the reactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Ecopetrol undertook an aggressive plan to reactivate the activities of seismic that allows fulfilling the goals proposed for this year (2003). Although the production registered a descent of 9%, the financial results throw utilities for $1.1 trillion pesos to the closing of September and contributions in bonuses for $1.2 trillions. The author also refers to the general balance, to the finances, raw production, taxes and transfers

  7. Reactivity to sorbitan sesquioleate affects reactivity to fragrance mix I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Johannes; Schnuch, Axel; Lessmann, Holger; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Fragrance mix I (FM I) and its single constituents contain 5% and 1% sorbitan sesquioleate (SSO), respectively. SSO is a rare sensitizer and a potential irritant. To determine whether the outcome of the FM I breakdown test is affected by positive patch test reactivity to SSO. A retrospective analysis of data from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology, 1998-2013, was performed. The full FM I breakdown test including SSO was tested in 2952 patients. Of these, 154 (5.2%) had a positive patch test reaction to SSO 20% pet. and 2709 (91.8%) had a negative patch test reaction. Positive reactions to one or more of the single fragrances contained in the mix were significantly more common (82.5% versus 57.3%) in SSO-positive patients, who also had more multiple reactions than FM I-positive patients with negative SSO reactions (61.5% versus 21.3% patients with reactions to two or more fragrances). Our results indicate that reactivity to SSO markedly affects the outcome of patch testing with FM I and its single constituents. SSO must be an obligatory part of the full FM I breakdown test, and should ideally be included in the baseline series. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Reactivity initiated accidents and loss of shutdown - 20 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxat, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    A review of the safety of Ontario's nuclear power reactors was conducted in 1987 after the Chernobyl accident. As part of this review an analysis was performed of a Loss of Coolant Accident in a Pickering A unit with coincident failure to shutdown. This analysis showed that the power excursion was halted by channel and calandria vessel failures leading to moderator fluid displacement. The containment structure did not fail and, at worst might suffer minor cracking at the top of the dome of the reactor building. Overall the dose consequences of such an accident were no worse than the limiting design basis dual failure event. In the intervening twenty years following this analysis, Significant experimental information has been obtained that relates to power pulse behaviour. This information, together with conservatisms in he original analysis, are reviewed and assessed in this paper. In addition, the issue of reactivity initiated events in other reactor types is reviewed to identify the reactor design characteristics that are of importance in these events. Contrary to popular belief the existence of positive coolant void reactivity is not as significant a factor as it is sometimes stated to be. On balance, with appropriate design measures, no one reactor type can be claimed to be 'more safe' than another. The underlying basis for this statement is articulated in this paper. (author)

  9. Reactive sputter deposition of boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, A.F.; Hayes, J.P.; McKernan, M.A.; Makowiecki, D.M.

    1995-10-01

    The preparation of fully dense, boron targets for use in planar magnetron sources has lead to the synthesis of Boron Nitride (BN) films by reactive rf sputtering. The deposition parameters of gas pressure, flow and composition are varied along with substrate temperature and applied bias. The films are characterized for composition using Auger electron spectroscopy, for chemical bonding using Raman spectroscopy and for crystalline structure using transmission electron microscopy. The deposition conditions are established which lead to the growth of crystalline BN phases. In particular, the growth of an adherent cubic BN coating requires 400--500 C substrate heating and an applied -300 V dc bias

  10. The clinical significance of detecting serum homocysteine, glycosylated hemoglobin and C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetic retinopathy%2型糖尿病视网膜病变检测血清同型半胱氨酸,糖化血红蛋白及超敏C-反应蛋白的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国新; 赵立忠; 冼小珍; 陈月梅

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究同型半胱氨酸,糖化血红蛋白及C-反应蛋白对检测2型糖尿病视网膜病变的临床意义。方法:选取2014年6月至2016年2月在我院进行治疗的2型糖尿病视网膜病变患者57例和2型糖尿病无视网膜病变患者52例分别为糖尿病视网膜病变组(DR组)和糖尿病无视网膜病变组(NDR组),另从我院50名健康受试者作为对照组。采用免疫比浊法检测三组研究样本的血清同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)、糖化血红蛋白(HbAlc)和超敏C-反应蛋白(hs- CRP)水平。采用SPSS19.0软件对三组研究样本的Hcy,HbAlc,hs- CRP进行对比性分析。结果:DR组Hcy,HbAlc,hs- CRP的水平分别为15.75±4.88umol/L,9.47±2.14%,1.87±1.12mg/L,较NDR组和对照组明显偏高(<0.05),NDR组Hcy,HbAlc,hs- CRP的水平分别为10.98±3.74 umol/L,8.02±2.11%,0.74±0.47 mg/L,显著高于对照组(<0.05),此外研究结果还表明hsCRP水平与Hcy水平显著正相关(r=0.974,P=0.0027)。结论:Hcy,HbAlc,hs- CRP的水平和2型糖尿病视网膜病变病情具有密切的关系,检测这三项指标可以为诊断和治疗2型糖尿病视网膜病变的提供合理且有意义的的临床依据。%Objective:To explore the clinical values of homocysteine (Hcy) , glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and C- re-active protein ( CRP) detections for type 2 diabetic retinopathy. Methods: In this study, we selected 57 cases of type 2 diabetic retinopathy patients (DR group) and 52 cases of diabetic retinopathy patients without retinopathy (NDR group) hospitalized in our hospital from June 2014 to February 2016. Additionally, 50 healthy subjects were selected as controls. Latex nephelometry was used to detect serum Hcy, hypersensitive CRP (hs- CRP) and HbAlc levels, and comparative analysis in the three groups were ana-lyzed under SPSS19.0 software. Results: The Hcy, HbAlc, hs- CRP levels in DR group were (15.75 ± 4.88) μmol/L, (9.47 ±2

  11. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chen

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring

  12. Reactive chemicals and process hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surianarayanan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Exothermic chemical reactions are often accompanied by significant heat release, and therefore, need a thorough investigation before they are taken to a plant scale. Sudden thermal energy releases from exothermic decompositions and runaway reactions have contributed to serious fire and explosions in several chemical process plants. Similarly, thermal runaway had also occurred in storage and transportation of reactive chemicals. The secondary events of thermal runaway reactions can be rupture of process vessel, toxic spills and release of explosive vapor clouds or combination of these also. The explosion hazards are governed by the system thermodynamics and kinetics of the thermal process. Theoretical prediction of limiting temperature is difficult due to process complexities. Further, the kinetic data obtained through classical techniques, at conditions far away from runaway situation, is often not valid for assessing the runaway behavior of exothermic processes. The main focus of this lecture is to discuss the causes and several contributing factors for thermal runaway and instability and present analyses of the methodologies of the new instrumental techniques for assessing the thermal hazards of reactive chemicals during processing, storage and transportation. (author)

  13. Lead pollution sources and Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Haggar, S.M.; Saad, S.G.; Saleh, S.K.; El-Kady, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the medical awareness of lead toxicity, and despite legislation designed to reduce environmental contamination, lead is one of the most widely used heavy metals. Significant human exposure occurs from automobile exhaust fumes, cigarette smoking, lead-based paints and plumbing systems lead spread in the environment can take place in several ways, the most important of which is through the lead compounds released in automobile exhaust as a direct result of the addition of tetraethyl or tetraethyl lead to gasoline as octane boosting agents. Of special is the effect of lead pollution on children, which affects their behavioral and educational attributes considerably. The major channel through through which lead is absorbed is through inhalation of lead compounds in the atmosphere. Lead is a heavy metal characterized its malleability, ductility and poor conduction of electricity. So, it has a wide range of applications ranging from battery manufacturing to glazing ceramics. It is rarely found free in nature but is present in several minerals and compounds. The aim of this paper is to discuss natural and anthropogenic sources of lead together with its distribution and trends with emphasis on egypt. The effects of lead pollution on human health, vegetation and welfare are also presented. It could be concluded that, the excessive release of lead into the environment, especially through the atmosphere, can produce many detrimental and sometimes fatal effects on human, agriculture and zoological life. Besides, it is very plain that there is a serious problem of pollution lead in egypt and specially in cairo. 7 figs

  14. Using the general-purpose reactivity indicator: challenging examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James S M; Melin, Junia; Ayers, Paul W

    2016-03-01

    We elucidate the regioselectivity of nucleophilic attack on substituted benzenesulfonates, quinolines, and pyridines using a general-purpose reactivity indicator (GPRI) for electrophiles. We observe that the GPRI is most accurate when the incoming nucleophile resembles a point charge. We further observe that the GPRI often chooses reactive "dead ends" as the most reactive sites as well as sterically hindered reactive sites. This means that care must be taken to remove sites that are inherently unreactive. Generally, among sites where reactions actually occur, the GPRI identifies the sites in the molecule that lead to the kinetically favored product(s). Furthermore, the GPRI can discern which sites react with hard reagents and which sites react with soft reagents. Because it is currently impossible to use the mathematical framework of conceptual DFT to identify sterically inaccessible sites and reactive dead ends, the GPRI is primarily useful as an interpretative, not a predictive, tool.

  15. Permeable reactive barriers for pollutant removal from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, F.G.; Meggyes, T.

    2001-01-01

    The removal of pollutants from the groundwater using permeable reactive barriers is a novel in-situ groundwater remediation technology. The most relevant decontamination processes used are chemical reduction, oxidation, precipitation and sorption, for which examples are given. Some common organic pollutants are halogenated hydrocarbons, aromatic and nitroaromatic compounds which can be treated in reactive barriers successfully. Lead, chromium and, in particular, uranium are dealt with in great detail among inorganic pollutants because of their occurrence in many European countries. Construction methods for cut-off walls and reactive barriers exhibit similar features. Apart from conventional methods, drilling, deep soil mixing, jet technology, arrays of wells, injected systems and biobarriers are applied to construct permeable reactive barriers. Permeable reactive barriers bear great potential for the future in remediation engineering. (orig.)

  16. Programming Reactive Extensions and LINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Pro Reactive Extensions and LINQ is a deep dive into the next important technology for .NET developers: Reactive Extensions. This in-depth tutorial goes beyond what is available anywhere else to teach how to write WPF, Silverlight, and Windows Phone applications using the Reactive Extensions (Rx) to handle events and asynchronous method calls. Reactive programming allows you to turn those aspects of your code that are currently imperative into something much more event-driven and flexible. For this reason, it's sometimes referred to as LINQ for Events. Reactive programming hinges on the concep

  17. KSHV Rta promoter specification and viral reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eGuito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens whose biological success depends upon replication and packaging of viral genomes, and transmission of progeny viruses to new hosts. The biological success of herpesviruses is enhanced by their ability to reproduce their genomes without producing progeny viruses or killing the host cells, a process called latency. Latency permits a herpesvirus to remain undetected in its animal host for decades while maintaining the potential to reactivate, or switch, to a productive life cycle when host conditions are conducive to generating viral progeny. Direct interactions between many host and viral molecules are implicated in controlling herpesviral reactivation, suggesting complex biological networks that control the decision. One viral protein that is necessary and sufficient to switch latent KSHV into the lytic infection cycle is called K-Rta. Rta is a transcriptional activator that specifies promoters by binding direct DNA directly and interacting with cellular proteins. Among these cellular proteins, binding of K-Rta to RBP-Jk is essential for viral reactivation.. In contrast to the canonical model for Notch signaling, RBP-Jk is not uniformly and constitutively bound to the latent KSHV genome, but rather is recruited to DNA by interactions with K-Rta. Stimulation of RBP-Jk DNA binding requires high affinity binding of Rta to repetitive and palindromic CANT DNA repeats in promoters, and formation of ternary complexes with RBP-Jk. However, while K-Rta expression is necessary for initiating KSHV reactivation, K-Rta’s role as the switch is inefficient. Many factors modulate K-Rta’s function, suggesting that KSHV reactivation can be significantly regulated post-Rta expression and challenging the notion that herpesviral reactivation is bistable. This review analyzes rapidly evolving research on KSHV K-Rta to consider the role of K-Rta promoter specification in regulating the progression of KSHV reactivation.

  18. Reactivity costs in MARIA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkowska, Zuzanna E.; Pytel, Krzysztof M.; Frydrysiak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The methodology for calculating consumed fuel cost of excess reactivity is proposed. • Correlation between time integral of the core excess reactivity and released energy. • Reactivity price gives number of fuel elements required for given excess reactivity. - Abstract: For the reactor operation at high power level and carrying out experiments and irradiations the major cost of reactor operation is the expense of nuclear fuel. In this paper the methodology for calculating consumed fuel cost-relatedness of excess reactivity is proposed. Reactivity costs have been determined on the basis of operating data. A number of examples of calculating the reactivity costs for processes such as: strong absorbing material irradiation, molybdenium-99 production, beryllium matrix poisoning and increased moderator temperature illustrates proposed method.

  19. Reactivity insertion accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.M.L.; Nakata, H.; Yorihaz, H.

    1990-04-01

    The correct prediction of postulated accidents is the fundamental requirement for the reactor licensing procedures. Accident sequences and severity of their consequences depend upon the analysis which rely on analytical tools which must be validated against known experimental results. Present work presents a systematic approach to analyse and estimate the reactivity insertion accident sequences. The methodology is based on the CINETHICA code which solves the point-kinetics/thermohydraulic coupled equations with weighted temperature feedback. Comparison against SPERT experimental results shows good agreement for the step insertion accidents. (author) [pt

  20. Enhancing Reactivity in Structural Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glumac, Nick

    2017-06-01

    In many structural energetic materials, only a small fraction of the metal oxidizes, and yet this provides a significant boost in the overall energy release of the system. Different methodologies to enhance this reactivity include alloying and geometric modifications of microstructure of the reactive material (RM). In this presentation, we present the results of several years of systematic study of both chemical (alloy) and mechanical (geometry) effects on reactivity for systems with typical charge to case mass ratios. Alloys of aluminum with magnesium and lithium are considered, as these are common alloys in aerospace applications. In terms of geometric modifications, we consider surface texturing, inclusion of dense additives, and inclusion of voids. In all modifications, a measurable influence on output is observed, and this influence is related to the fragment size distribution measured from the observed residue. Support from DTRA is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Neurophysiological effects of lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, I.; Wildt, K.; Gullberg, B.; Berlin, M.

    1983-10-01

    A series of neurophysiological variables was measured for men occupationally exposed to lead. The results were related to the degree of lead exposure and to the concentrations of lead and zinc protoporphyrin in blood. A small but significant correlation was observed between lead exposure and motor and sensory conduction velocities in the lower limbs, the conduction velocities of slow motor fibers in the upper limbs, and also sensory nerve action potentials. It is suggested that a neurophysiological examination should be considered in the surveillance of the health of lead workers.

  2. Dependence of calculated void reactivity on film-boiling representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, J.; Garland, W.

    1992-01-01

    Partial voiding of a fuel channel can lead to complicated neutronic analysis, because of highly nonuniform spatial distributions. An investigation of the distribution dependence of void reactivity in a Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) lattice, specifically in the regime of film boiling, was done. Although the core is not expected to be critical at the time of sheath dryout, this study augments current knowledge of void reactivity in this type of lattice

  3. Auto-reactive T cells revised. Overestimation based on methodology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius-Ussing, Gorm; Sørensen, Jesper F; Wandall, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    . Thus, T cell antigen reactivities identified with unmodified antigens in vitro may in part represent in vitro T cell activation against neo-epitopes and not true in vivo autoreactivity as postulated. This methodological problem may have implications for the interpretation of the frequent reporting...... methodology applied to document T cell reactivity against unmodified protein or peptide may lead to overinterpretation of the reported frequencies of autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells....

  4. Selection of symptomatic patients with Crohn's disease for abdominopelvic computed tomography: role of serum C-reactive protein.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Desmond, Alan N

    2012-11-01

    Results of previous studies have shown that repeated abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations can lead to substantial cumulative diagnostic radiation exposure in patients with Crohn\\'s disease (CD). Improved selection of patients referred for CT will reduce unnecessary radiation exposure. This study examines if serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration predicts which symptomatic patients with CD are likely to have significant disease activity or disease complications (such as abscess) detected on abdominopelvic CT.

  5. Sildenafil increases cerebrovascular reactivity: a transcranial Doppler study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomedi, M; Sallustio, F; Rizzato, B; Ferrante, F; Leone, G; Spera, E; Scarfini, M; Bernardi, G

    2005-09-27

    The authors performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 28 patients to evaluate the effects of sildenafil on cerebral hemodynamics. A significant improvement of cerebrovascular reactivity, without any modification of other variables, was recorded 1 hour after the administration of 50 mg sildenafil. Further investigations are needed to evaluate whether cerebrovascular reactivity improvement could contribute to triggering sildenafil-induced migraine.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and reactivity of some lanthanide organometallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, N.

    1991-12-01

    Organo lanthanides with reactive metal-carbon bonds are obtained by direct synthesis of the metal (powder) and a hydrocarbon in ether medium, like with alkali metals. Two types of synthesis are envisaged: formation of covalent bonds by opening cycles, only biphenylene is reactive enough in regard to ytterbium and samarium, these organometallic compounds can also be prepared by the classical way, i.e. reaction of 2.2'-dilithio biphenyl on rare earth halogenides and coupling of 6.6-dimethylfulvene leading to dicyclopentadienyl compounds with Sm and Yb. The reactivity of these complexes is studied by catalysis of ethylene polymerization

  7. Combinational chelation therapy abrogates lead-induced neurodegeneration in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Vidhu; Saxena, Geetu; Mehta, Ashish; Mishra, Deepshikha; Flora, Swaran J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous and potent neurotoxicant causes oxidative stress which leads to numerous neurobehavioral and physiological alterations. The ability of lead to bind sulfhydryl groups or compete with calcium could be one of the reasons for its debilitating effects. In the present study, we addressed: i) if chelation therapy could circumvent the altered oxidative stress and prevent neuronal apoptosis in chronic lead-intoxicated rats, ii) whether chelation therapy could reverse biochemical and behavioral changes, and iii) if mono or combinational therapy with captopril (an antioxidant) and thiol chelating agents (DMSA/MiADMSA) is more effective than individual thiol chelator in lead-exposed rats. Results indicated that lead caused a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and intracellular free calcium levels along with altered behavioral abnormalities in locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, learning, and memory that were supported by changes in neurotransmitter levels. A fall in membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and DNA damage indicated mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Most of these alterations showed significant recovery following combined therapy with captopril with MiADMSA and to a smaller extend with captopril + DMSA over monotherapy with these chelators. It could be concluded from our present results that co-administration of a potent antioxidant (like captopril) might be a better treatment protocol than monotherapy to counter lead-induced oxidative stress. The major highlight of the work is an interesting experimental evidence of the efficacy of combinational therapy using an antioxidant with a thiol chelator in reversing neurological dystrophy caused due to chronic lead exposure in rats.

  8. The global impact of biomass burning on tropospheric reactive nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, H. II; Moxim, W.J.; Kasibhatla, P.S.; Logan, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter the authors first review their current understanding of both the anthropogenic and natural sources of reactive nitrogen compounds in the troposphere. Then the available observations of both surface concentration and wet deposition are summarized for regions with significant sources, for locations downwind of strong sources, and for remote sites. The obvious sparsity of the data leads to the next step: an attempt to develop a more complete global picture of surface concentrations and deposition of NO y with the help of global chemistry transport model (GCTM). The available source data are inserted into the GCTM and the resulting simulations compared with surface observations. The impact of anthropogenic sources, both downwind and at remote locations, is discussed and the particular role of biomass burning is identified

  9. Reactivity of Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin with Nitric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, William D.; Fondeur, Fernando F.; Wilmarth, William R.; Pettis, Myra E.

    2005-01-01

    Solid-state infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis have been used to evaluate the reactivity of resorcinol formaldehyde resin with nitric acid and characterize the solid product. Two distinct reactions were identified within the temperature range 25-55 C. The first reaction is primarily associated with resin nitration, while the second involves bulk oxidation and degradation of the polymer network leading to dissolution and off-gassing. The threshold conditions promoting reaction have been identified. Reaction was confirmed with nitric acid concentrations as low as 3 M at 25 C applied temperature and 0.625 M at 66 C. Although a nitrated resin product can be isolated under appropriate experimental conditions, calorimetry testing indicates no significant hazard associated with handling the dry material

  10. Reactive documentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnlein, Thomas R.; Kramb, Victoria

    2018-04-01

    Proper formal documentation of computer acquired NDE experimental data generated during research is critical to the longevity and usefulness of the data. Without documentation describing how and why the data was acquired, NDE research teams lose capability such as their ability to generate new information from previously collected data or provide adequate information so that their work can be replicated by others seeking to validate their research. Despite the critical nature of this issue, NDE data is still being generated in research labs without appropriate documentation. By generating documentation in series with data, equal priority is given to both activities during the research process. One way to achieve this is to use a reactive documentation system (RDS). RDS prompts an operator to document the data as it is generated rather than relying on the operator to decide when and what to document. This paper discusses how such a system can be implemented in a dynamic environment made up of in-house and third party NDE data acquisition systems without creating additional burden on the operator. The reactive documentation approach presented here is agnostic enough that the principles can be applied to any operator controlled, computer based, data acquisition system.

  11. Correlation between some parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Waldron, H. A. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 195-199. Correlation between some parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication. Use has been made of data collected over a number of years from workers exposed to a lead hazard in a motor-car factory. The correlations between various parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication were computed, including blood and urine lead concentrations, urinary coproporphyrin, ALA and PBG concentrations, and haemoglobin concentration. In all, 15 correlation coefficients were calculated, of which only six showed a statistically significant result (i.e., Plead and urine lead (r = 0·38, Plead and coproporphyrin (r = 0·42, Plead and ALA (r = 0·43, Plead and PBG (r = 0·19, P<0·05). PMID:5572689

  12. Horizontal and vertical structure of reactive bromine events probed by bromine monoxide MAX-DOAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Simpson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous photochemistry converts bromide (Br− to reactive bromine species (Br atoms and bromine monoxide, BrO that dominate Arctic springtime chemistry. This phenomenon has many impacts such as boundary-layer ozone depletion, mercury oxidation and deposition, and modification of the fate of hydrocarbon species. To study environmental controls on reactive bromine events, the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX was carried out from early March to mid-April 2012 near Barrow (Utqiaġvik, Alaska. We measured horizontal and vertical gradients in BrO with multiple-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS instrumentation at three sites, two mobile and one fixed. During the campaign, a large crack in the sea ice (an open lead formed pushing one instrument package ∼ 250 km downwind from Barrow (Utqiaġvik. Convection associated with the open lead converted the BrO vertical structure from a surface-based event to a lofted event downwind of the lead influence. The column abundance of BrO downwind of the re-freezing lead was comparable to upwind amounts, indicating direct reactions on frost flowers or open seawater was not a major reactive bromine source. When these three sites were separated by ∼ 30 km length scales of unbroken sea ice, the BrO amount and vertical distributions were highly correlated for most of the time, indicating the horizontal length scales of BrO events were typically larger than ∼ 30 km in the absence of sea ice features. Although BrO amount and vertical distribution were similar between sites most of the time, rapid changes in BrO with edges significantly smaller than this ∼ 30 km length scale episodically transported between the sites, indicating BrO events were large but with sharp edge contrasts. BrO was often found in shallow layers that recycled reactive bromine via heterogeneous reactions on snowpack. Episodically, these surface-based events propagated aloft when

  13. Measurements of total OH reactivity during PROPHET-AMOS 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickly, P.; Sakowski, J.; Bottorff, B.; Lew, M.; Stevens, P. S.; Sklaveniti, S.; Locoge, N.; Dusanter, S.

    2017-12-01

    As one of the main oxidant in the atmosphere, the hydroxyl radical (OH) initiates the oxidation of volatile organic compounds that can lead to the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Understanding both the sources and sinks of OH is therefore important to address issues related to air quality and climate change. Measurements of total OH reactivity can provide an important test of our understanding of the OH radical budget. Recent measurements of total reactivity in many environments have been greater than calculated based on the measured concentration of VOCs, suggesting that important OH sinks in these environments are not well characterized. Measurements of total OH reactivity were performed in a forested environment during the PROPHET - AMOS field campaign (Program for Research on Oxidants: PHotochemisty, Emissions, and Transport - Atmospheric Measurements of Oxidants in Summer) using the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) and the Total OH Loss Rate Method (TOHLM). The site is characterized by large emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes and low anthropogenic influence. Measurements of total OH reactivity using these two techniques agree to within their respective uncertainties, giving confidence in the measured OH reactivity. In addition, measurements of trace gases (VOCs, NOx, O3) were used to perform a comprehensive apportionment of OH sinks. These measurements are used in a chemical model using the Master Chemical Mechanism to calculate the expected OH reactivity. The results will be compared to previous measurements of total OH reactivity at this site.

  14. Reactive solute transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous porous media with multimodal reactive mineral facies: the Lagrangian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanian, Mohamad Reza; Ritzi, Robert W; Dai, Zhenxue; Huang, Chao Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Physical and chemical heterogeneities have a large impact on reactive transport in porous media. Examples of heterogeneous attributes affecting reactive mass transport are the hydraulic conductivity (K), and the equilibrium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd). This paper uses the Deng et al. (2013) conceptual model for multimodal reactive mineral facies and a Lagrangian-based stochastic theory in order to analyze the reactive solute dispersion in three-dimensional anisotropic heterogeneous porous media with hierarchical organization of reactive minerals. An example based on real field data is used to illustrate the time evolution trends of reactive solute dispersion. The results show that the correlation between the hydraulic conductivity and the equilibrium sorption distribution coefficient does have a significant effect on reactive solute dispersion. The anisotropy ratio does not have a significant effect on reactive solute dispersion. Furthermore, through a sensitivity analysis we investigate the impact of changing the mean, variance, and integral scale of K and Kd on reactive solute dispersion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Clinical Detection Significance of Serum Cytokines,C-reactive Protein and White Cell of Chil-dren with Severe Pneumonia%重症肺炎患儿血清细胞因子、C反应蛋白及白细胞的临床检测意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余小平; 蒋鹏; 夏翠英

    2016-01-01

    重症肺炎患儿治疗的有效率,也有助于预后评估。%Objective To analyze the clinical detection significance of serum cytokines,C reactive pro-tein (CRP) and white cell(WBC) of children with severe pneumonia.Methods Total of 86 children with pneumonia in the First People′s Hospital of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture Chang′an Branch from Mar.2014 to Mar.2015 were included in the study,according to the severity of pneumonia they were divided into a severe pneumonia group and an ordinary pneumonia group,43 patients each.Clinical symptoms were observed and serum cytokines[tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1),interleukin(IL)-6,IL-8],CRP and WBC level changes were compared.Results The propor-tions of children with symptoms of fever or chills,difficult breathing,irritability,etc.of the severe pneumonia group were higher than the ordinary pneumonia group, the differences were statistically significant ( P <0.01).In acute stage,the level of TNF-α,sICAM-1,IL-6,IL-8,CRP and WBC of the severe pneumonia group were higher the ordinary pneumonia group [ ( 52.7 ±5.4 ) ng/L vs ( 36.0 ±5.5 ) ng/L, ( 41.6 ± 4.20) pg/L vs (25.7 ±3.6) pg/L,(45.4 ±4.3) ng/L vs (23.6 ±2.5) ng/L,(40.4 ±5.5) ng/L vs (28.6 ±3.5) ng/L,(32.6 ±4.2) mg/L vs (12.2 ±1.6) mg/L,(12.0 ±1.3) ×109/L vs (9.1 ± 1.4) ×109/L],the differences were statistically significant(P <0.01).In the recovery stage,the TNF-α, sICAM-1,IL-6,IL-8,CRP and WBC levels of both groups were lower than the acute stage;and the severe pneumonia group were significantly higher than the ordinary pneumonia group[(27.4 ±3.2) ng/L vs (12.4 ± 1.4) ng/L,(22.6 ±3.3) pg/L vs ( 9.0 ±1.1) pg/L,(25.6 ±1.2) ng/L vs (10.7 ±1.6) ng/L, (20.8 ±3.4) ng/L vs (11.2 ±1.5) ng/L,(10.4 ±1.0) mg/L vs (5.3 ±0.6) mg/L,(8.4 ±1.2) × 109/L vs (7.3 ±1.0) ×109/L],the differences were statistically significant(P<0.01).Conclusion The detection of TNF-α,sICAM-1,IL -6,IL-8,CRP and

  16. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  17. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  18. Poor sleep and reactive aggression: Results from a national sample of African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; White, Norman A; Kremer, Kristen P

    2015-01-01

    We know that poor sleep can have important implications for a variety of health outcomes and some evidence suggests a link between sleep and aggressive behavior. However, few studies have looked at this relationship among African-Americans in the United States. Data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and the NSAL Adult Re-Interview were used to examine associations between sleep duration and self-reported quality of sleep on reactive aggression among African American and Caribbean Black respondents between the ages of 18 and 65 (n = 2499). Controlling for an array of sociodemographic and psychiatric factors, sleep was found to be significantly associated with reactive aggression. Specifically, individuals who reported sleeping on average less than 5 h per night were nearly three times more likely to report losing their temper and engaging in a physical fight (AOR = 3.13, 95% CI = 1.22-8.02). Moreover, individuals who reported being "very dissatisfied" with their sleep were more than two times more likely to report losing their temper and engaging in physical fights (AOR = 3.32, 95% CI = 1.50-7.33). Persons reporting everyday discrimination and problems managing stress were more likely to sleep poorly. The present study is among the first to document an association between poor sleep and reactive violence among African-Americans. Findings suggest that reducing discrimination may lead to improved sleep and subsequently reduce forms of reactive violence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Reactive collisions of high-temperature systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graff, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The object of this research is to study reactivity at superthermal collision energies using a fast neutral beam that is generated by photodetachment. Systems scheduled for initial study include basic oxygen-hydrogen reactions. Unfortunately, we can not yet report realization of this goal, but during this funding period we have made advances that are anticipated to lead to successful measurements during the next year. The parameters described below refer to the model system O + H 2 → OH + H. The basic design involves the collision of fast neutrals, created by photodetachment of the corresponding negative molecular ion, with a stable reactant gas in a collision cell. Products are detected by ionization and mass analysis. We are equipped to study rotational effects on reactivity by comparing results for rotational levels J = 0 and 1 of H 2 . Highlights during the funding period are given in this report

  20. Covalent functionalization of graphene with reactive intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyeung; Yan, Mingdi

    2013-01-15

    Graphene, a material made exclusively of sp(2) carbon atoms with its π electrons delocalized over the entire 2D network, is somewhat chemically inert. Covalent functionalization can enhance graphene's properties including opening its band gap, tuning conductivity, and improving solubility and stability. Covalent functionalization of pristine graphene typically requires reactive species that can form covalent adducts with the sp(2) carbon structures in graphene. In this Account, we describe graphene functionalization reactions using reactive intermediates of radicals, nitrenes, carbenes, and arynes. These reactive species covalently modify graphene through free radical addition, CH insertion, or cycloaddition reactions. Free radical additions are among the most common reaction, and these radicals can be generated from diazonium salts and benzoyl peroxide. Electron transfer from graphene to aryl diazonium ion or photoactivation of benzoyl peroxide yields aryl radicals that subsequently add to graphene to form covalent adducts. Nitrenes, electron-deficient species generated by thermal or photochemical activation of organic azides, can functionalize graphene very efficiently. Because perfluorophenyl nitrenes show enhanced bimolecular reactions compared with alkyl or phenyl nitrenes, perfluorophenyl azides are especially effective. Carbenes are used less frequently than nitrenes, but they undergo CH insertion and C═C cycloaddition reactions with graphene. In addition, arynes can serve as a dienophile in a Diels-Alder type reaction with graphene. Further study is needed to understand and exploit the chemistry of graphene. The generation of highly reactive intermediates in these reactions leads to side products that complicate the product composition and analysis. Fundamental questions remain about the reactivity and regioselectivity of graphene. The differences in the basal plane and the undercoordinated edges of graphene and the zigzag versus arm-chair configurations

  1. Reactive Power from Distributed Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Rizy, Tom; Li, Fangxing; Fall, Ndeye

    2006-12-15

    Distributed energy is an attractive option for solving reactive power and distribution system voltage problems because of its proximity to load. But the cost of retrofitting DE devices to absorb or produce reactive power needs to be reduced. There also needs to be a market mechanism in place for ISOs, RTOs, and transmission operators to procure reactive power from the customer side of the meter where DE usually resides. (author)

  2. Reactive Power from Distributed Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Rizy, Tom; Li, Fangxing; Fall, Ndeye

    2006-01-01

    Distributed energy is an attractive option for solving reactive power and distribution system voltage problems because of its proximity to load. But the cost of retrofitting DE devices to absorb or produce reactive power needs to be reduced. There also needs to be a market mechanism in place for ISOs, RTOs, and transmission operators to procure reactive power from the customer side of the meter where DE usually resides. (author)

  3. Reactive programming in eventsourcing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kučinskas, Žilvinas

    2017-01-01

    Eventsourcing describes current state as series of events that occurred in a system. Events hold all information that is needed to recreate current state. This method allows to achieve high volume of transactions, and enables efficient replication. Whereas reactive programming lets implement reactive systems in declarative style, decomposing logic into smaller, easier to understand components. Thesis aims to create reactive programming program interface, incorporating both principles. Applyin...

  4. Reactive Programming in Standard ML

    OpenAIRE

    Pucella, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Reactive systems are systems that maintain an ongoing interaction with their environment, activated by receiving input events from the environment and producing output events in response. Modern programming languages designed to program such systems use a paradigm based on the notions of instants and activations. We describe a library for Standard ML that provides basic primitives for programming reactive systems. The library is a low-level system upon which more sophisticated reactive behavi...

  5. Positive void reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report is a review of some of the important aspects of the analysis of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). One important aspect is the calculation of positive void reactivity. To study this subject the lattice physics codes used for void worth calculations and the coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic codes used for the transient analysis are reviewed. Also reviewed are the measurements used to help validate the codes. The application of these codes to large LOCAs is studied with attention focused on the uncertainty factor for the void worth used to bias the results. Another aspect of the subject dealt with in the report is the acceptance criteria that are applied. This includes the criterion for peak fuel enthalpy and the question of whether prompt criticality should also be a criterion. To study the former, fuel behavior measurements and calculations are reviewed. (Author) (49 refs., 2 figs., tab.)

  6. Massive florid reactive periostitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nance, K.V.; Renner, J.B.; Brashear, H.R.; Siegal, G.P.; North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC

    1990-01-01

    Florid reactive periostitis is a rare, benign process usually occurring in the small, tubular bones of the hands and feet. Typically the lesion occurs in an adolescent or young adult and presents as a small area of pain and erythema over the affected bone. Although the histologic features may suggest malignancy, there is usually little radiographic evidence to support such a diagnosis. In the following report an unusual example of this entity is described whose large size and relentless local progression led to initial diagnostic uncertainty and eventual aggressive management. This case suggests that a wide spectrum of radiologic and morphologic changes may be seen in this entity and that a seemingly unrelated genetic disease may alter the typical clinical course. (orig.)

  7. Pembrolizumab reactivates pulmonary granulomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdi Al-dliw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoid like reaction is a well-known entity that occurs as a consequence to several malignancies or their therapies. Immunotherapy has gained a lot of interest in the past few years and has recently gained approval as first line therapy in multiple advanced stage malignancies. Pneumonitis has been described as complication of such therapy. Granulomatous inflammation has been only rarely reported subsequent to immunotherapy. We describe a case of granulomatous inflammation reactivation affecting the lungs in a patient previously exposed to Pembrolizumab and have evidence of a distant granulomatous infection. We discuss potential mechanisms of the inflammation and assert the importance of immunosuppression in controlling the dis-inhibited immune system.

  8. Reactive Oxygen Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchina, Davide G.; Dostert, Catherine; Brenner, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    T cells are a central component of defenses against pathogens and tumors. Their effector functions are sustained by specific metabolic changes that occur upon activation, and these have been the focus of renewed interest. Energy production inevitably generates unwanted products, namely reactive...... and transcription factors, influencing the outcome of the T cell response. We discuss here how ROS can directly fine-tune metabolism and effector functions of T cells....... oxygen species (ROS), which have long been known to trigger cell death. However, there is now evidence that ROS also act as intracellular signaling molecules both in steady-state and upon antigen recognition. The levels and localization of ROS contribute to the redox modeling of effector proteins...

  9. Weigle Reactivation in Acinetobacter Calcoaceticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berenstein, Dvora

    1982-01-01

    phage and host survivals of about 5 times 10-6 and 1 times 10-1, respectively. Intracellular development of W-reactivated P78 was followed by one-step growth experiments. Conditions which allowed maximal W-reactivation also extended the period of phage production and yielded a somewhat reduced burst......Weigle (W)-reactivation was demonstrated in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus for the UV-irra-diated lysogenic phage P78. The reactivation factor (survival of irradiated phage on irradiated bacteria/ survival on unirradiated bacteria) reached a maximum value of 20. This was obtained at UV-doses giving...

  10. REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES AT THE CROSSROADS OF INFLAMMASOME AND INFLAMMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha eHarijith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammasomes form a crucial part of the innate immune system. These are multi-protein oligomer platforms that are composed of intracellular sensors which are coupled with caspase and interleukin activating systems. Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP 3, and 6 and NLRC4 and AIM2 are the prominent members of the inflammasome family. Inflammasome activation leads to pyroptosis, a process of programmed cell death distinct from apoptosis through activation of Caspase and further downstream targets such as IL-1β and IL-18 leading to activation of inflammatory cascade. Reactive oxygen species (ROS serve as important inflammasome activating signals. ROS activate inflammasome through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2. Dysregulation of inflammasome is plays a significant role in various pathological process. Viral infections such as Dengue and Respiratory syncytial virus activate inflammasomes. Crystal compounds in silicosis and gout also activate ROS. In diabetes, inhibition of autophagy with resultant accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria leads to enhanced ROS production activating inflammasomes. Activation of inflammasomes can be dampened by antioxidants such as SIRT-1. Inflammasome and related cascade could serve as future therapeutic targets for various pathological conditions.

  11. Reactive transport of aqueous protons in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    McNeece, Colin J.

    2016-10-09

    The sorption of protons determines the surface charge of natural media and is therefore a first-order control on contaminant transport. Significant effort has been extended to develop chemical models that quantify the sorption of protons at the mineral surface. To compare these models’ effect on predicted proton transport, we present analytic solutions for column experiments through silica sand. Reaction front morphology is controlled by the functional relationship between the total sorbed and total aqueous proton concentrations. An inflection point in this function near neutral pH leads to a reversal in the classic front formation mechanism under basic conditions, such that proton desorption leads to a self-sharpening front, while adsorption leads to a spreading front. A composite reaction front comprising both a spreading and self-sharpening segment can occur when the injected and initial concentrations straddle the inflection point. This behavior is unique in single component reactive transport and arises due to the auto-ionization of water rather than electrostatic interactions at the mineral surface. We derive a regime diagram illustrating conditions under which different fronts occur, highlighting areas where model predictions diverge. Chemical models are then compared and validated against a systematic set of column experiments.

  12. Peer victimization (and harsh parenting) as developmental correlates of cognitive reactivity, a diathesis for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A; Martin, Nina C; Sterba, Sonya K; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha; Roeder, Kathryn M; Zelkowitz, Rachel; Bilsky, Sarah A

    2014-05-01

    Prior research has shown cognitive reactivity to be a diathesis for depression. Seeking evidence for the developmental origins of such diatheses, the current study examined peer victimization and harsh parenting as developmental correlates of cognitive reactivity in 571 children and adolescents (ages 8-13 years). Four major findings emerged. First, a new method for assessing cognitive reactivity in children and adolescents showed significant reliability and demonstrated construct validity vis-à-vis its relation to depression. Second, history of more severe peer victimization was significantly related to cognitive reactivity, with verbal victimization being more strongly tied to cognitive reactivity than other subtypes of peer victimization. Third, harsh parenting was also significantly related to cognitive reactivity. Fourth, both peer victimization and harsh parenting made unique statistical contributions to cognitive reactivity, after controlling for the effects of the other. Taken together, these findings provide preliminary support for a developmental model pertaining to origins of cognitive reactivity in children and adolescents.

  13. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  14. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  15. In vitro and in vivo studies of lead immobilization by synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnich, Nathalie; Lanhers, Marie-Claire; Laurensot, Franck; Podor, Renaud; Montiel, Antoine; Burnel, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Lead immobilization by solid hydroxyapatite significantly reduces lead concentration and bioavailability in water. - Apatite appears a useful compound for removing lead from water, due to its ability to immobilize the metal by precipitation. In dilute solution, dissolved hydroxyapatite [HA, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ] provided phosphates that were reactive with aqueous lead (molar ratio HA/Pb=1/10) forming precipitates at around pH 6. These dissolved at a more acidic pH (3). Solid HA in contact with Pb 2+ ions, led to the formation of pyromorphite [Pb 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ], identified by X-ray diffraction and insoluble at pH tested (3-8). The amount of pyromorphite increased with the weight ratio of HA/Pb. When this one increased from 1 to 1000, lead precipitated as pyromorphite rose from 19 to 99%. In vivo experiments on rats confirmed the in vitro results. In fact, lead bioavailability assessed by intestinal perfusion was unchanged in the presence of dissolved HA, whereas it was significantly lower in the presence of solid HA, evaluated by gastric intubation, at a weight ratio equal to 10 (amount of lead absorbed decreased by 60%). Apatite could be an effective means of immobilizing lead in drinking or sewage, since accidental pyromorphite ingestion does not yield bioavailable lead

  16. Knudsen and inverse Knudsen layer effect on tail ion distribution and fusion reactivity in inertial confinement fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z.; Berk, H. L.

    2014-10-01

    A series of reduced models are used to study the fast ion tail in the vicinity of a transition layer between plasmas at disparate temperatures and densities, which is typical of the gas-pusher interface in inertial confinement fusion targets. Emphasis is placed on utilizing progressively more comprehensive models in order to identify the essential physics for computing the fast ion tail at energies comparable to the Gamow peak. The resulting fast ion tail distribution is subsequently used to compute the fusion reactivity as a function of collisionality and temperature. It is found that while the fast ion distribution can be significantly depleted in the hot spot, leading to a reduction of the fusion reactivity in this region, a surplus of fast ions is present in the neighboring cold region. The presence of this fast ion surplus in the neighboring cold region is shown to lead to a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

  17. Lead user projects in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Gutstein, Adele

    2018-01-01

    Earlier research on the lead user method is focused on individual case studies and how the method was applied in a specific context. In this paper, we take a broader approach, analyzing a sample of 24 lead user projects, which included working with 188 lead users. These projects were analyzed....... Moreover, crowdsourcing contests and netnography proved to be of significant value for the need, trend, and lead user identification phases. This paper concludes by discussing theoretical and practical implications, the limitations of this study, and recommendations for future studies....

  18. Genetic fuzzy system predicting contractile reactivity patterns of small arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, J; Sheykhzade, Majid; Clausen, B F

    2014-01-01

    strategies. Results show that optimized fuzzy systems (OFSs) predict contractile reactivity of arteries accurately. In addition, OFSs identified significant differences that were undetectable using conventional analysis in the responses of arteries between groups. We concluded that OFSs may be used...

  19. Regarding KUR Reactivity Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Akira; Hasegawa, Kei; Tsuchiyama, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Okumura, Ryo; Sano, Tadafumi

    2012-01-01

    This article reported: (1) the outline of the reactivity measurement system of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), (2) the calibration data of control rod, (3) the problems and the countermeasures for range switching of linear output meter. For the laptop PC for the reactivity measurement system, there are four input signals: (1) linear output meter, (2) logarithmic output meter, (3) core temperature gauge, and (4) control rod position. The hardware of reactivity measurement system is controlled with Labview installed on the laptop. Output, reactivity, reactor period, and the change in reactivity due to temperature effect or Xenon effect are internally calculated and displayed in real-time with Labview based on the four signals above. Calculation results are recorded in the form of a spreadsheet. At KUR, the reactor core arrangement was changed, so the control rod was re-calibrated. At this time, calculated and experimental values of reactivity based on the reactivity measurement system were compared, and it was confirmed that the reactivity calculation by Labview was accurate. The range switching of linear output meter in the nuclear instrumentation should automatically change within the laptop, however sometimes this did not function properly in the early stage. It was speculated that undefined percent values during the transition of percent value were included in the calculation and caused calculation errors. The range switching started working properly after fixing this issue. (S.K.)

  20. Reactive agents and perceptual ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dartel, M. van; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.; Herik, H.J. van den

    2005-01-01

    Reactive agents are generally believed to be incapable of coping with perceptual ambiguity (i.e., identical sensory states that require different responses). However, a recent finding suggests that reactive agents can cope with perceptual ambiguity in a simple model (Nolfi, 2002). This paper

  1. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  2. Impact of reactive oxygen species on antioxidant capacity of male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Mahmood, Zahed; Shahid, Muhammad; Saeed, M Usman Qamar; Tahir, Imtiaz Mahmood; Shah, Sm Ali; Munir, Naveed; El-Ghorab, Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    The present research work was aimed to study the mutual interaction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and basal cells antioxidant capacity in the male reproductive system and to further establish the association between selected heavy metals and stress markers. Total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) of serum and seminal plasma were determined by automated photometric methods. The concentrations of Selenium (Se), Lead (Pb), and Cadmium (Cd) were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The TOS was increased significantly (P male infertility. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. PROCEEDINGS: MULTIPOLLUTANT SORBENT REACTIVITY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is a compilation of technical papers and visual aids presented by representatives of industry, academia, and government agencies at a workshop on multipollutant sorbent reactivity that was held at EPA's Environmental Research Center in Research Triangle Park, NC, on July 19-20, 1994. There were 16 technical presentations in three sessions, and a panel discussion between six research experts. The workshop was a forum for the exchange of ideas and information on the use of sorbents to control air emissions of acid gases (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen chloride); mercury and dioxins; and toxic metals, primarily from fossil fuel combustion. A secondary purpose for conducting the workshop was to help guide EPA's research planning activities. A general theme of the workshop was that a strategy of controlling many pollutants with a single system rather than systems to control individual pollutants should be a research goal. Some research needs cited were: hazardous air pollutant removal by flue gas desulfurization systems, dioxin formation and control, mercury control, waste minimization, impact of ash recycling on metals partitioning, impact of urea and sorbents on other pollutants, high temperature filtration, impact of coal cleaning on metals partitioning, and modeling dispersion of sorbents in flue gas. information

  4. Reactivation with productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Carlos Hernando

    2002-01-01

    A market to five years that it will move near $63.000 millions, starting from the production of 254.000 reserves that Ecopetrol requires for its maintenance and operation, it was projected with base in the offer study and it demands that they carried out the universities Javeriana and Industrial of Santander for the Colombian Company of Petroleum around the metal mechanic sector. In accordance with the figures of the report, Ecopetrol, like one of the state entities selected by the national government to design pilot programs, guided to reactivate the Colombian industry; it is projecting a good perspective for the Colombian economy and the invigoration of the national productive sector. In practical terms, the report points out that Ecopetrol, in its different operative centers, will require in next five years the quantity of had restored before mentioned in the lines of mechanical stamps, centrifugal bombs, inter chambers of heat, compressors and valves of security; pieces that are elaborated by international makers in 99%. To produce them nationally would represent to the company an economy of 52% of the total value of the purchases in next five years and a reduction of time of delivery of 17 weeks to one week

  5. A technique for computing bowing reactivity feedback in LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    During normal or accidental transients occurring in a LMFBR core, the assemblies and their support structure are subjected to important thermal gradients which induce differential thermal expansions of the walls of the hexcans and differential displacement of the assembly support structure. These displacements, combined with the creep and swelling of structural materials, remain quite small, but the resulting reactivity changes constitute a significant component of the reactivity feedback coefficients used in safety analyses. It would be prohibitive to compute the reactivity changes due to all transients. Thus, the usual practice is to generate reactivity gradient tables. The purpose of the work presented here is twofold: develop and validate an efficient and accurate scheme for computing these reactivity tables; and to qualify this scheme

  6. Reactivation of Rate Remapping in CA3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindel, C Daniela; Navratilova, Zaneta; Ali, Karim; Tatsuno, Masami; McNaughton, Bruce L

    2016-09-07

    The hippocampus is thought to contribute to episodic memory by creating, storing, and reactivating patterns that are unique to each experience, including different experiences that happen at the same location. Hippocampus can combine spatial and contextual/episodic information using a dual coding scheme known as "global" and "rate" remapping. Global remapping selects which set of neurons can activate at a given location. Rate remapping readjusts the firing rates of this set depending on current experience, thus expressing experience-unique patterns at each location. But can the experience-unique component be retrieved spontaneously? Whereas reactivation of recent, spatially selective patterns in hippocampus is well established, it is never perfect, raising the issue of whether the experiential component might be absent. This question is key to the hypothesis that hippocampus can assist memory consolidation by reactivating and broadcasting experience-specific "index codes" to neocortex. In CA3, global remapping exhibits attractor-like dynamics, whereas rate remapping apparently does not, leading to the hypothesis that only the former can be retrieved associatively and casting doubt on the general consolidation hypothesis. Therefore, we studied whether the rate component is reactivated spontaneously during sleep. We conducted neural ensemble recordings from CA3 while rats ran on a circular track in different directions (in different sessions) and while they slept. It was shown previously that the two directions of running result in strong rate remapping. During sleep, the most recent rate distribution was reactivated preferentially. Therefore, CA3 can retrieve patterns spontaneously that are unique to both the location and the content of recent experience. The hippocampus is required for memory of events and their spatial contexts. The primary correlate of hippocampal activity is location in space, but multiple memories can occur in the same location. To be useful

  7. Low-cost ZnO:Al transparent contact by reactive rotatable magnetron sputtering for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menner, R.; Hariskos, D.; Linss, V.; Powalla, M.

    2011-01-01

    Sputtering ZnO as transparent front contact (TCO) is standard in today's industrial scale Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) module manufacturing. Although innovative concepts like rotatable magnetron sputtering from ceramic targets have been realised, costs are still high due to expensive ceramic targets. Significant cost reductions are expected by using reactive sputtering of metallic targets. Therefore, ZSW and industrial partners investigated the reactive sputtering of Al-doped zinc oxide (ZAO) as TCO on CIGS absorbers of high quality and industrial relevance. The reactive DC sputtering from rotatable magnetron targets is controlled in the transition mode by adjusting oxygen flow and discharge voltage. Optimisation leads to ZAO films with a TCO quality nearly comparable to standard films deposited by DC ceramic sputtering. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Hall analyses of the ZAO films are performed. Medium-size CIGS modules are coated with reactively sputtered ZAO, resulting in 12.8% module efficiency and surpassing the efficiency of the ceramic witness device. Cd-free buffered devices are also successfully coated with reactive TCO. Damp heat stability according to IEC61646 is met by all reactively sputtered devices.

  8. Recent changes in anthropogenic reactive nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronache, Constantin

    2014-05-01

    Significant anthropogenic perturbations of the nitrogen cycle are the result of rapid population growth, with mounting need for food and energy production. The increase of reactive nitrogen compounds (such as NOx, HNO3, NH3, and N2O) has a significant impact on human health, environment, and climate. NOx emissions contribute to O3 chemistry, aerosol formation and acidic precipitation. Ammonia is a notable atmospheric pollutant that may deteriorate ecosystems and contribute to respiratory problems. It reacts with acidic gases to form aerosols or is deposited back to ecosystems. The application of fertilizers accounts for most of the N2O production, adding to greenhouse gas emissions. We analyze the change of some reactive nitrogen compounds based on observations, in eastern United States. Results show that the control of NOx and SO2 emissions over the last decades caused a significant decrease of acidic deposition. The nitrate deposition is highest in eastern US, while the ammonium ion concentration is highest in central US regions. Overall, the inorganic nitrogen wet deposition from nitrate and ammonium is enhanced in central, and eastern US. Research shows that sensitive ecosystems in northeastern regions exhibit a slow recovery from the accumulated effects of acidic deposition. Given the growing demand for nitrogen in agriculture and industry, we discuss possible pathways to reduce the impact of excess reactive nitrogen on the environment.

  9. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: The use of lead isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Leonard J.S.; Wainman, Bruce C.; Martin, Ian D.; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-01-01

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (p 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, and a significant negative correlation for 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, as predicted if leaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden

  10. Chemical Imaging and Dynamical Studies of Reactivity and Emergent Behavior in Complex Interfacial Systems. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibener, Steven J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). James Franck Inst. and Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-03-11

    This research program explored the efficacy of using molecular-level manipulation, imaging and scanning tunneling spectroscopy in conjunction with supersonic molecular beam gas-surface scattering to significantly enhance our understanding of chemical processes occurring on well-characterized interfaces. One program focus was on the spatially-resolved emergent behavior of complex reaction systems as a function of the local geometry and density of adsorbate-substrate systems under reaction conditions. Another focus was on elucidating the emergent electronic and related reactivity characteristics of intentionally constructed single and multicomponent atom- and nanoparticle-based materials. We also examined emergent chirality and self-organization in adsorbed molecular systems where collective interactions between adsorbates and the supporting interface lead to spatial symmetry breaking. In many of these studies we combined the advantages of scanning tunneling (STM) and atomic force (AFM) imaging, scanning tunneling local electronic spectroscopy (STS), and reactive supersonic molecular beams to elucidate precise details of interfacial reactivity that had not been observed by more traditional surface science methods. Using these methods, it was possible to examine, for example, the differential reactivity of molecules adsorbed at different bonding sites in conjunction with how reactivity is modified by the local configuration of nearby adsorbates. At the core of this effort was the goal of significantly extending our understanding of interfacial atomic-scale interactions to create, with intent, molecular assemblies and materials with advanced chemical and physical properties. This ambitious program addressed several key topics in DOE Grand Challenge Science, including emergent chemical and physical properties in condensed phase systems, novel uses of chemical imaging, and the development of advanced reactivity concepts in combustion and catalysis including carbon

  11. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  12. Lead - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... billion people had toxic (poisonous) blood lead levels. Food Sources Lead can be found in canned goods if there is lead solder in the ... to bottled water for drinking and cooking. Avoid canned goods from foreign ... cans goes into effect. If imported wine containers have a lead foil ...

  13. Sexual Orientation Modulates Endocrine Stress Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G.; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J.; Pruessner, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. METHODS The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. RESULTS Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their “coming out”). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. PMID:25444167

  14. Sexual orientation modulates endocrine stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J; Pruessner, Jens C

    2015-04-01

    Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their "coming out"). Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published

  15. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  16. The effect of oral administration of Allium sativum extracts on lead nitrate induced toxicity in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Veena; Sharma, Arti; Kansal, Leena

    2010-03-01

    Lead is a common environmental occupational toxic metal, known to have indirect oxidative effects. Considering the antioxidant properties of garlic, this study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of garlic extracts in terms of normalization of altered hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters, and depletion of inorganic lead burden in blood, kidney and brain tissues. Chronic lead nitrate ingestion showed a significant decline in total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, lymphocyte and monocyte content, while neutrophil content increased in lead nitrate treated group. Pb(NO(3))(2) exposure elicited a significant escalation in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level and depletion in reduced glutathione content and antioxidant enzymes namely, superoxide dismutase and catalase in kidney and brain. Activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase augmented significantly in kidney and brain of lead exposed mice. Lead nitrate treatment decreased protein content while cholesterol and lead burden increased significantly. A decrease in viability of macrophage, phagocytic index, immunoglobulin level and plaque count were the salient features observed in lead exposed animals. However, oral administration of garlic extracts to Pb(NO(3))(2) treated groups attenuated the deranged parameters to some extent. This indicates that garlic can be a protective regimen for lead toxicity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up: analysis of reactivity coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, E.F.; Shmelev, A.N.; Ternovykh, M.J.; Tikhomirov, G.V.; Jinhong, L.; Saito, M.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cycles of light-water reactors (LWR) with high fuel burn-up (above 100 MWd/kg), as a rule, involve large amounts of fissionable materials. It leads to forming the neutron spectrum harder than that in traditional LWR. Change of neutron spectrum and significant amount of non-traditional isotopes (for example, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 231 Pa, 232 U) in such fuel compositions can alter substantially reactivity coefficients as compared with traditional uranium-based fuel. The present work addresses the fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up which are based on Th-Pa-U and U-Np-Pu fuel compositions. Numerical analyses are carried out to determine effective neutron multiplication factor and void reactivity coefficient (VRC) for different values of fuel burn-up and different lattice parameters. The algorithm is proposed for analysis of isotopes contribution to these coefficients. Various ways are considered to upgrade safety of nuclear fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up. So, the results obtained in this study have demonstrated that: -1) Non-traditional fuel compositions developed for achievement of high fuel burn-up in LWR can possess positive values of reactivity coefficients that is unacceptable from the reactor operation safety point of view; -2) The lattice pitch of traditional LWR is not optimal for non-traditional fuel compositions, the increased value of the lattice pitch leads to larger value of initial reactivity margin and provides negative VRC within sufficiently broad range of coolant density; -3) Fuel burn-up has an insignificant effect on VRC dependence on coolant density, so, the measures undertaken to suppress positive VRC of fresh fuel will be effective for partially burnt-up fuel compositions also and; -4) Increase of LWR core height and introduction of additional moderators into the fuel lattice can be used as the ways to reach negative VRC values for full range of possible coolant density variations

  18. Fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up: analysis of reactivity coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryuchkov, E.F.; Shmelev, A.N.; Ternovykh, M.J.; Tikhomirov, G.V.; Jinhong, L. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation); Saito, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Fuel cycles of light-water reactors (LWR) with high fuel burn-up (above 100 MWd/kg), as a rule, involve large amounts of fissionable materials. It leads to forming the neutron spectrum harder than that in traditional LWR. Change of neutron spectrum and significant amount of non-traditional isotopes (for example, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 231}Pa, {sup 232}U) in such fuel compositions can alter substantially reactivity coefficients as compared with traditional uranium-based fuel. The present work addresses the fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up which are based on Th-Pa-U and U-Np-Pu fuel compositions. Numerical analyses are carried out to determine effective neutron multiplication factor and void reactivity coefficient (VRC) for different values of fuel burn-up and different lattice parameters. The algorithm is proposed for analysis of isotopes contribution to these coefficients. Various ways are considered to upgrade safety of nuclear fuel cycles with high fuel burn-up. So, the results obtained in this study have demonstrated that: -1) Non-traditional fuel compositions developed for achievement of high fuel burn-up in LWR can possess positive values of reactivity coefficients that is unacceptable from the reactor operation safety point of view; -2) The lattice pitch of traditional LWR is not optimal for non-traditional fuel compositions, the increased value of the lattice pitch leads to larger value of initial reactivity margin and provides negative VRC within sufficiently broad range of coolant density; -3) Fuel burn-up has an insignificant effect on VRC dependence on coolant density, so, the measures undertaken to suppress positive VRC of fresh fuel will be effective for partially burnt-up fuel compositions also and; -4) Increase of LWR core height and introduction of additional moderators into the fuel lattice can be used as the ways to reach negative VRC values for full range of possible coolant density variations.

  19. Present art of reactivity determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko; Nakano, Masafumi; Matsuura, Shojiro

    1977-01-01

    Experimental techniques for reactivity determination of a reactor have been one of the long standing subjects in reactor physics. Recently, such a requirement was proposed by the reactor designers and operators that the values of reactivity should be measured more accurately. This is because importance is emphasized for the role of reactivity to the performance of reactor safety, economics and operability. Motivated by the requirement, some remarkable progresses are being made for the improvement of the experimental techniques. Then, the present review summarizes the research activities on this subject, identifies several reactor physics problems to be overcome, and makes mention of the future targets. (auth.)

  20. Effects of lead-foam grids on performance of VRLA battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Changsong; Yi, Tingfeng; Wang, Dianlong; Hu, Xinguo [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 411, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2006-08-25

    Lead-foam grids have been prepared by electrodepositing lead on a copper-foam substrate that has good conductibility and a symmetrically three-dimensional reticulated structure. VRLA batteries with lead foam as the negative electrode current collector material have been fabricated; the effects of the lead foam on the specific capacity, the active material utilization efficiency and the negative active material transformation process of the VRLA batteries have been studied. The results show that a lead-foam grid has a bigger specific surface area than a cast grid. The charge voltage of a VRLA battery with a lead-foam negative electrode is significantly lower than that of a VRLA battery with a cast grid electrode during a charge process. The discharge capacity, the mass specific capacity, and the active material utilization efficiency of a VRLA battery with a lead-foam electrode can be greatly improved at different states of discharge. The EIS research revealed that a lead-foam negative electrode has higher electrochemical reactivity. Observed by means of a scanning electron microscope, it was found that the spongy Pb crystals at a lead-foam grid negative electrode are smaller than that of a cast grid negative electrode at a state of charge; while the PbSO{sub 4} crystals are smaller than that of a cast grid negative electrode at a state of discharge. (author)

  1. Processing of polymers using reactive solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, P.J.; Kurja, J.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    1997-01-01

    A review with many refs. on processing of polymers using reactive solvents including classification of synthetic polymers, guidelines for the selection of reactive solvents, basic aspects of processing, examples of intractable and tractable polymer/reactive solvent system

  2. Mineralogy controls on reactive transport of Marcellus Shale waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhang; Wen, Hang; Komarneni, Sridhar; Li, Li

    2018-07-15

    Produced or flowback waters from Marcellus Shale gas extraction (MSWs) typically are highly saline and contain chemicals including trace metals, which pose significant concerns on water quality. The natural attenuation of MSW chemicals in groundwater is poorly understood due to the complex interactions between aquifer minerals and MSWs, limiting our capabilities to monitor and predict. Here we combine flow-through experiments and process-based reactive transport modeling to understand mechanisms and quantify the retention of MSW chemicals in a quartz (Qtz) column, a calcite-rich (Cal) column, and a clay-rich (Vrm, vermiculite) column. These columns were used to represent sand, carbonate, and clay-rich aquifers. Results show that the types and extent of water-rock interactions differ significantly across columns. Although it is generally known that clay-rich media retard chemicals and that quartz media minimize water-rock interactions, results here have revealed insights that differ from previous thoughts. We found that the reaction mechanisms are much more complex than merely sorption and mineral precipitation. In clay rich media, trace metals participate in both ion exchange and mineral precipitation. In fact, the majority of metals (~50-90%) is retained in the solid via mineral precipitation, which is surprising because we typically expect the dominance of sorption in clay-rich aquifers. In the Cal column, trace metals are retained not only through precipitation but also solid solution partitioning, leading to a total of 75-99% retention. Even in the Qtz column, trace metals are retained at unexpectedly high percentages (~20-70%) due to precipitation. The reactive transport model developed here quantitatively differentiates the relative importance of individual processes, and bridges a limited number of experiments to a wide range of natural conditions. This is particularly useful where relatively limited knowledge and data prevent the prediction of complex rock

  3. Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on

  4. Mannuronic Acids : Reactivity and Selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codee, Jeroen D. C.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; de Jong, Ana-Rae; Lodder, Gerrit; Overkleeft, Herman S.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.

    2011-01-01

    This review describes our recent studies toward the reactivity and selectivity of mannopyranosyl uronic acid donors, which have been found to be very powerful donors for the construction of beta-mannosidic linkages.

  5. A digital real-time reactivity meter for PFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, D.

    1975-08-01

    A digital reactivity meter has been prpduced which is believed to constitute a significant advance over others reported in the literature. The main advantage of this system is its versatility which is brought about by the high degree of interactive operator control which is provided. The reactivity and power are continuously displayed in both graphical and alpha-numeric form on a TV-type of display unit. Data output is by means of an incremental graph plotter, a typewriter, or a high speed paper tape punch. The system has been extensively tested on the Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay and is now the standard reactivity measuring method for reactor experiments there. (author)

  6. Enzymatic oxidative biodegradation of nanoparticles: Mechanisms, significance and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasova, Irina I. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Center for Free Radical and Antioxidant Health, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States); Research Institute for Physico-Chemical Medicine, Federal Medico-Biological Agency, Moscow 119453 (Russian Federation); Kapralov, Alexandr A. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Center for Free Radical and Antioxidant Health, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States); Michael, Zachary P.; Burkert, Seth C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Shurin, Michael R. [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Star, Alexander [Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Shvedova, Anna A., E-mail: ats@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division (HELD), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Kagan, Valerian E., E-mail: kagan@pitt.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Center for Free Radical and Antioxidant Health, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Departments of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Biopersistence of carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide (GO) and several other types of carbonaceous nanomaterials is an essential determinant of their health effects. Successful biodegradation is one of the major factors defining the life span and biological responses to nanoparticles. Here, we review the role and contribution of different oxidative enzymes of inflammatory cells – myeloperoxidase, eosinophil peroxidase, lactoperoxidase, hemoglobin, and xanthine oxidase – to the reactions of nanoparticle biodegradation. We further focus on interactions of nanomaterials with hemoproteins dependent on the specific features of their physico-chemical and structural characteristics. Mechanistically, we highlight the significance of immobilized peroxidase reactive intermediates vs diffusible small molecule oxidants (hypochlorous and hypobromous acids) for the overall oxidative biodegradation process in neutrophils and eosinophils. We also accentuate the importance of peroxynitrite-driven pathways realized in macrophages via the engagement of NADPH oxidase- and NO synthase-triggered oxidative mechanisms. We consider possible involvement of oxidative machinery of other professional phagocytes such as microglial cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, in the context of biodegradation relevant to targeted drug delivery. We evaluate the importance of genetic factors and their manipulations for the enzymatic biodegradation in vivo. Finally, we emphasize a novel type of biodegradation realized via the activation of the “dormant” peroxidase activity of hemoproteins by the nano-surface. This is exemplified by the binding of GO to cyt c causing the unfolding and ‘unmasking’ of the peroxidase activity of the latter. We conclude with the strategies leading to safe by design carbonaceous nanoparticles with optimized characteristics for mechanism-based targeted delivery and regulatable life-span of drugs in circulation. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles can be degraded by

  7. Profiling the Proteome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during Dormancy and Reactivation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Vipin; Raghunandanan, Sajith; Gomez, Roshna Lawrence; Jose, Leny; Surendran, Arun; Ramachandran, Ranjit; Pushparajan, Akhil Raj; Mundayoor, Sathish; Jaleel, Abdul; Kumar, Ramakrishnan Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, still remains a major global health problem. The main obstacle in eradicating this disease is the ability of this pathogen to remain dormant in macrophages, and then reactivate later under immuno-compromised conditions. The physiology of hypoxic nonreplicating M. tuberculosis is well-studied using many in vitro dormancy models. However, the physiological changes that take place during the shift from dormancy to aerobic growth (reactivation) have rarely been subjected to a detailed investigation. In this study, we developed an in vitro reactivation system by re-aerating the virulent laboratory strain of M. tuberculosis that was made dormant employing Wayne's dormancy model, and compared the proteome profiles of dormant and reactivated bacteria using label-free one-dimensional LC/MS/MS analysis. The proteome of dormant bacteria was analyzed at nonreplicating persistent stage 1 (NRP1) and stage 2 (NRP2), whereas that of reactivated bacteria was analyzed at 6 and 24 h post re-aeration. Proteome of normoxially grown bacteria served as the reference. In total, 1871 proteins comprising 47% of the M. tuberculosis proteome were identified, and many of them were observed to be expressed differentially or uniquely during dormancy and reactivation. The number of proteins detected at different stages of dormancy (764 at NRP1, 691 at NRP2) and reactivation (768 at R6 and 983 at R24) was very low compared with that of the control (1663). The number of unique proteins identified during normoxia, NRP1, NRP2, R6, and R24 were 597, 66, 56, 73, and 94, respectively. We analyzed various biological functions during these conditions. Fluctuation in the relative quantities of proteins involved in energy metabolism during dormancy and reactivation was the most significant observation we made in this study. Proteins that are up-regulated or uniquely expressed during reactivation from dormancy offer to be attractive targets for therapeutic

  8. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  9. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  10. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  11. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  12. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  13. Lead inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Andersen, H.H.; Grabaek, L.; Bohr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Ion implantation at room temperature of lead into aluminum leads to spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead precipitates growing topotactically with the matrix. Unlike the highly pressurized (∼ 1-5 GPa) solid inclusions formed after noble gas implantations, the pressure in the lead precipitates is found to be less than 0.12 GPa. Recently the authors have observed the result that the lead inclusions in aluminum exhibit both superheating and supercooling. In this paper they review and elaborate on these results. Small implantation-induced lead precipitates embedded in an aluminum matrix were studied by x-ray diffraction

  14. High-resolution CT of airway reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, C.J.; Brown, R.H.; Hirshman, C.A.; Mitzner, W.; Zerhouni, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Assessment of airway reactivity has generally been limited to experimental nonimaging models. This authors of this paper used high-resolution CT (HRCT) to evaluate airway reactivity and to calculate airway resistance (Raw) compared with lung resistance (RL). Ten anesthetized and ventilated dogs were investigated with HRCT (10 contiguous 2-mm sections through the lower lung lobes) during control state, following aerosol histamine challenge, and following posthistamine hyperinflation. The HRCT scans were digitized, and areas of 10 airways per dog (diameter, 1-10 mm) were measured with a computer edging process. Changes in airway area and Raw (calculated by 1/[area] 2 ) were measured. RL was assessed separately, following the same protocol. Data were analyzed by use of a paired t-test with significance at p < .05

  15. Transformation of Reactive Iron Minerals in a Permeable Reactive Barrier (Biowall) Used to Treat TCE in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Iron and sulfur reducing conditions are generally created in permeable reactive barrier (PRB) systems constructed for groundwater treatment, which usually leads to formation of iron sulfide phases. Iron sulfides have been shown to play an important role in degrading ch...

  16. [Hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maazoun, F; Deschamps, O; Barros-Kogel, E; Ngwem, E; Fauchet, N; Buffet, P; Froissart, A

    2015-11-01

    Hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly is a rare and severe form of chronic malaria. This condition is a common cause of splenomegaly in endemic areas. The pathophysiology of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly involves an intense immune reaction (predominantly B cell-driven) to repeated/chronic infections with Plasmodium sp. The diagnosis may be difficult, due to a poorly specific clinical presentation (splenomegaly, fatigue, cytopenias), a long delay between residence in a malaria-endemic area and onset of symptoms, and a frequent absence of parasites on conventional thin and thick blood smears. A strongly contributive laboratory parameter is the presence of high levels of total immunoglobulin M. When the diagnostic of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly is considered, search for anti-Plasmodium antibodies and Plasmodium nucleic acids (genus and species) by PCR is useful. Diagnosis of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly relies on the simultaneous presence of epidemiological, clinical, biological and follow-up findings. Regression of both splenomegaly and hypersplenism following antimalarial therapy allows the differential diagnosis with splenic lymphoma, a common complication of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly. Although rare in Western countries, hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly deserves increased medical awareness to reduce the incidence of incorrect diagnosis, to prevent progression to splenic lymphoma and to avoid splenectomy. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Reactivity control system of a passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wols, F.J.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Lathouwers, D.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A worth of over 15,000 pcm ensures achieving long-term cold shutdown in thorium PBR. • Control rod worth in side reflector is insufficient due to low-power breeder zone. • 20 control rods, just outside the driver zone, can achieve long-term cold shutdown. • BF 3 gas can be inserted for reactor shutdown, but only in case of emergency. • Perturbation theory accurately predicts absorber gas worth for many concentrations. - Abstract: This work investigates the neutronic design of the reactivity control system for a 100 MW th passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor (PBR), a conceptual design introduced previously by the authors. The thorium PBR consists of a central driver zone of 100 cm radius, surrounded by a breeder zone with 300 cm outer radius. The fissile content of the breeder zone is low, leading to low fluxes in the radial reflector region. Therefore, a significant decrease of the control rod worth at this position is anticipated. The reactivity worth of control rods in the side reflector and at alternative in-core positions is calculated using different techniques, being 2D neutron diffusion, perturbation theory and more accurate 3D Monte Carlo models. Sensitivity coefficients from perturbation theory provide a first indication of effective control rod positions, while the 2D diffusion models provide an upper limit on the reactivity worth achievable at a certain radial position due to the homogeneous spreading of the absorber material over the azimuthal domain. Three dimensional forward calculations, e.g. in KENO, are needed for an accurate calculation of the total control rod worth. The two dimensional homogeneous calculations indicate that the reactivity worth in the radial reflector is by far insufficient to achieve cold reactor shutdown, which requires a control rod worth of over 15 000 pcm. Three dimensional heterogeneous KENO calculations show that placing 20 control rods just outside the driver channel, between 100 cm

  18. Reactivity control system of a passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wols, F.J., E-mail: f.j.wols@tudelft.nl; Kloosterman, J.L.; Lathouwers, D.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A worth of over 15,000 pcm ensures achieving long-term cold shutdown in thorium PBR. • Control rod worth in side reflector is insufficient due to low-power breeder zone. • 20 control rods, just outside the driver zone, can achieve long-term cold shutdown. • BF{sub 3} gas can be inserted for reactor shutdown, but only in case of emergency. • Perturbation theory accurately predicts absorber gas worth for many concentrations. - Abstract: This work investigates the neutronic design of the reactivity control system for a 100 MW{sub th} passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor (PBR), a conceptual design introduced previously by the authors. The thorium PBR consists of a central driver zone of 100 cm radius, surrounded by a breeder zone with 300 cm outer radius. The fissile content of the breeder zone is low, leading to low fluxes in the radial reflector region. Therefore, a significant decrease of the control rod worth at this position is anticipated. The reactivity worth of control rods in the side reflector and at alternative in-core positions is calculated using different techniques, being 2D neutron diffusion, perturbation theory and more accurate 3D Monte Carlo models. Sensitivity coefficients from perturbation theory provide a first indication of effective control rod positions, while the 2D diffusion models provide an upper limit on the reactivity worth achievable at a certain radial position due to the homogeneous spreading of the absorber material over the azimuthal domain. Three dimensional forward calculations, e.g. in KENO, are needed for an accurate calculation of the total control rod worth. The two dimensional homogeneous calculations indicate that the reactivity worth in the radial reflector is by far insufficient to achieve cold reactor shutdown, which requires a control rod worth of over 15 000 pcm. Three dimensional heterogeneous KENO calculations show that placing 20 control rods just outside the driver channel

  19. On mobilization of lead and arsenic in groundwater in response to CO2 leakage from deep geological storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L.; Apps, J.A.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, T.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2009-07-01

    If carbon dioxide stored in deep saline aquifers were to leak into an overlying aquifer containing potable groundwater, the intruding CO{sub 2} would change the geochemical conditions and cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH In particular, hazardous trace elements such as lead and arsenic, which are present in the aquifer host rock, could be mobilized. In an effort to evaluate the potential risks to potable water quality, reactive transport simulations were conducted to evaluate to what extent and mechanisms through which lead and arsenic might be mobilized by intrusion of CO{sub 2}. An earlier geochemical evaluation of more than 38,000 groundwater quality analyses from aquifers throughout the United States and an associated literature review provided the basis for setting up a reactive transport model and examining its sensitivity to model variation. The evaluation included identification of potential mineral hosts containing hazardous trace elements, characterization of the modal bulk mineralogy for an arenaceous aquifer, and augmentation of the required thermodynamic data. The reactive transport simulations suggest that CO{sub 2} ingress into a shallow aquifer can mobilize significant lead and arsenic, contaminating the groundwater near the location of intrusion and further downstream. Although substantial increases in aqueous concentrations are predicted compared to the background values, the maximum permitted concentration for arsenic in drinking water was exceeded in only a few cases, whereas that for lead was never exceeded.

  20. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  1. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  2. VOLUMETRIC LEAD ASSAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Dua, S.K.; Roelant, David; Kumar, Sachin

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a system for handling and radioassay of lead, consisting of a robot, a conveyor, and a gamma spectrometer. The report also presents a cost-benefit analysis of options: radioassay and recycling lead vs. disposal as waste

  3. NA49: lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from tracking detectors on the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as quark-gluon plasma.

  4. Uranium-lead systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickman, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    The method of Levchenkov and Shukolyukov for calculating age and time disturbance of minerals without correction for original lead is generalized to include the cases when (1) original lead and radiogenic lead leach differently, and (2) the crystals studied consist of a core and a mantle. It is also shown that a straight line obtained from the solution of the equations is the locus of the isotopic composition of original lead. (Auth.)

  5. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  6. Leading particle in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The leading particle effect in deep inelastic scattering is considered. The change of the characteris cs shape of the leading particle inclusive spectrum with Q 2 is estimated to be rather significant at very high Q 2

  7. Reactive sites influence in PMMA oligomers reactivity: a DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, C. V.; Vásquez, S. R.; Flores, N.; García, L.; Rico, J. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we present a theoretical study of methyl methacrylate (MMA) living anionic polymerization. The study was addressed to understanding two important experimental observations made for Michael Szwarc in 1956. The unexpected effect of reactive sites concentration in the propagation rate, and the self-killer behavior of MMA (deactivating of living anionic polymerization). The theoretical calculations were performed by density functional theory (DFT) to obtain the frontier molecular orbitals values. These values were used to calculate and analyze the chemical interaction descriptors in DFT-Koopmans’ theorem. As a result, it was observed that the longest chain-length species (related with low concentration of reactive sites) exhibit the highest reactivity (behavior associated with the increase of the propagation rate). The improvement in this reactivity was attributed to the crosslinking produced in the polymethyl methacrylate chains. Meanwhile, the self-killer behavior was associated with the intermolecular forces present in the reactive sites. This behavior was associated to an obstruction in solvation, since the active sites remained active through all propagation species. The theoretical results were in good agreement with the Szwarc experiments.

  8. Atrioventricular Pacemaker Lead Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K Aktas, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During cardiac surgery temporary epicardial atrial and ventricular leads are placed in case cardiac pacing is required postoperatively. We present the first reported series of patients with reversal of atrioventricular electrodes in the temporary pacemaker without any consequent deleterious hemodynamic effect. We review the electrocardiographic findings and discuss the findings that lead to the discovery of atrioventricular lead reversal.

  9. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Lead Poisoning KidsHealth / For Parents / Lead Poisoning What's in ... Print en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  10. Bioactive dietary supplements reactivate ER expression in ER-negative breast cancer cells by active chromatin modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed M Meeran

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in women. Although tamoxifen therapy is successful for some patients, it does not provide adequate benefit for those who have estrogen receptor (ER-negative cancers. Therefore, we approached novel treatment strategies by combining two potential bioactive dietary supplements for the reactivation of ERα expression for effective treatment of ERα-negative breast cancer with tamoxifen. Bioactive dietary supplements such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs and sulforaphane (SFN inhibit DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs and histone deacetylases (HDACs, respectively, which are of central importance to cancer prevention. In the present study, we have observed that treatment of ERα-negative breast cancer cells with GTPs and SFN alone or in combination leads to the reactivation of ERα expression. The combination of 20 µg/mL GTPs and 5 µM SFN was found to be the optimal dose of ERα-reactivation at 3 days in MDA-MB-231 cells. The reactivation of ERα expression was consistently correlated with ERα promoter hypomethylation and hyperacetylation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis of the ERα promoter revealed that GTPs and SFN altered the binding of ERα-transcriptional co-repressor complex thereby contributing to ERα-reactivation. In addition, treatment with tamoxifen in combination with GTPs and SFN significantly increased both cell death and inhibition of cellular proliferation in MDA-MB-231 cells in comparison to treatment with tamoxifen alone. Collectively, our findings suggest that a novel combination of bioactive-HDAC inhibitors with bioactive-demethylating agents is a promising strategy for the effective treatment of hormonal refractory breast cancer with available anti-estrogens.

  11. Bioinformatic analysis of xenobiotic reactive metabolite target proteins and their interacting partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzlik Robert P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein covalent binding by reactive metabolites of drugs, chemicals and natural products can lead to acute cytotoxicity. Recent rapid progress in reactive metabolite target protein identification has shown that adduction is surprisingly selective and inspired the hope that analysis of target proteins might reveal protein factors that differentiate target- vs. non-target proteins and illuminate mechanisms connecting covalent binding to cytotoxicity. Results Sorting 171 known reactive metabolite target proteins revealed a number of GO categories and KEGG pathways to be significantly enriched in targets, but in most cases the classes were too large, and the "percent coverage" too small, to allow meaningful conclusions about mechanisms of toxicity. However, a similar analysis of the directlyinteracting partners of 28 common targets of multiple reactive metabolites revealed highly significant enrichments in terms likely to be highly relevant to cytotoxicity (e.g., MAP kinase pathways, apoptosis, response to unfolded protein. Machine learning was used to rank the contribution of 211 computed protein features to determining protein susceptibility to adduction. Protein lysine (but not cysteine content and protein instability index (i.e., rate of turnover in vivo were among the features most important to determining susceptibility. Conclusion As yet there is no good explanation for why some low-abundance proteins become heavily adducted while some abundant proteins become only lightly adducted in vivo. Analyzing the directly interacting partners of target proteins appears to yield greater insight into mechanisms of toxicity than analyzing target proteins per se. The insights provided can readily be formulated as hypotheses to test in future experimental studies.

  12. Affective and cognitive reactivity to mood induction in chronic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhn, Anne; Sterzer, Philipp; Haack, Friderike H; Köhler, Stephan

    2018-03-15

    Chronic depression (CD) is strongly associated with childhood maltreatment, which has been proposed to lead to inefficient coping styles that are characterized by abnormal affective responsiveness and dysfunctional cognitive attitudes. However, while this notion forms an important basis for psychotherapeutic strategies in the treatment of CD, there is still little direct empirical evidence for a role of altered affective and cognitive reactivity in CD. The present study therefore experimentally investigated affective and cognitive reactivity to two forms of negative mood induction in CD patients versus a healthy control sample (HC). For the general mood induction procedure, a combination of sad pictures and sad music was used, while for individualized mood induction, negative mood was induced by individualized scripts with autobiographical content. Both experiments included n = 15 CD patients versus n = 15 HC, respectively. Interactions between affective or cognitive reactivity and group were analyzed by repeated measurements ANOVAs. General mood induction neither revealed affective nor cognitive reactivity in the patient group while the control group reported the expected decrease of positive affect [interaction (IA) affective reactivity x group: p = .011, cognitive reactivity x group: n.s.]. In contrast, individualized mood induction specifically increased affective reactivity (IA: p = .037) as well as the amount of dysfunctional cognitions in patients versus controls (IA: p = .014). The experiments were not balanced in a crossover design, causal conclusions are thus limited. Additionally, the differences to non-chronic forms of depression are still outstanding. The results suggest that in patients with CD, specific emotional activation through autobiographical memories is a key factor in dysfunctional coping styles. Psychotherapeutic interventions aimed at modifying affective and cognitive reactivity are thus of high relevance in the treatment of CD. Copyright

  13. Neutronics design for lead-bismuth cooled accelerator-driven system for transmutation of minor actinide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Sasa, Toshinobu; Nishihara, Kenji; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Takano, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    Neutronics design study was performed for lead-bismuth cooled accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute minor actinides. Early study for ADS indicated two problems: a large burnup reactivity swing and a significant peaking factor. To solve these problems, effect of design parameters on neutronics characteristics were searched. The design parameters were initial plutonium loading, buffer region between spallation target and core, and zone fuel loading. Parametric survey calculations were performed considering fuel cycle consisting of burnup and recycle. The results showed that burnup reactivity swing depends on the plutonium fraction in the initial fuel loading, and the lead-bismuth buffer region and the two-zone loading were effective for solving the problems. Moreover, an optimum value for the effective multiplication factor was also evaluated using reactivity coefficients. From the result, the maximum allowable value of the effective multiplication factor for a practical ADS can be set at 0.97. Consequently, a new core concept combining the buffer region and the two-zone loading was proposed base on the results of the parametric survey. (author)

  14. Termination of nanoscale zero-valent iron reactivity by addition of bromate as a reducing reactivity competitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mines, Paul D.; Kaarsholm, Kamilla M. S.; Droumpali, Ariadni; Andersen, Henrik R.; Lee, Wontae; Hwang, Yuhoon

    2017-09-01

    Remediation of contaminated groundwater by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) is widely becoming a leading environmentally friendly solution throughout the globe. Since a wide range of various nZVI-containing materials have been developed for effective remediation, it is necessary to determine an appropriate way to terminate the reactivity of any nZVI-containing material for a practical experimental procedure. In this study, bimetallic Ni/Fe-NPs were prepared to enhance overall reduction kinetics owing to the catalytic reactivity of nickel on the surface of nZVI. We have tested several chemical strategies in order to terminate nZVI reactivity without altering the concentration of volatile compounds in the solution. The strategies include surface passivation in alkaline conditions by addition of carbonate, and consumption of nZVI by a reaction competitor. Four halogenated chemicals, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, atrazine, and 4-chlorophenol, were selected and tested as model groundwater contaminants. Addition of carbonate to passivate the nZVI surface was not effective for trichloroethylene. Nitrate and then bromate were applied to competitively consume nZVI by their faster reduction kinetics. Bromate proved to be more effective than nitrate, subsequently terminating nZVI reactivity for all four of the tested halogenated compounds. Furthermore, the suggested termination method using bromate was successfully applied to obtain trichloroethylene reduction kinetics. Herein, we report the simple and effective method to terminate the reactivity of nZVI by addition of a reducing reactivity competitor.

  15. Spatially Resolved Quantification of the Surface Reactivity of Solid Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing; Xiao, Li; Lu, Juntao; Zhuang, Lin

    2016-05-17

    A new property is reported that accurately quantifies and spatially describes the chemical reactivity of solid surfaces. The core idea is to create a reactivity weight function peaking at the Fermi level, thereby determining a weighted summation of the density of states of a solid surface. When such a weight function is defined as the derivative of the Fermi-Dirac distribution function at a certain non-zero temperature, the resulting property is the finite-temperature chemical softness, termed Fermi softness (SF ), which turns out to be an accurate descriptor of the surface reactivity. The spatial image of SF maps the reactive domain of a heterogeneous surface and even portrays morphological details of the reactive sites. SF analyses reveal that the reactive zones on a Pt3 Y(111) surface are the platinum sites rather than the seemingly active yttrium sites, and the reactivity of the S-dimer edge of MoS2 is spatially anisotropic. Our finding is of fundamental and technological significance to heterogeneous catalysis and industrial processes demanding rational design of solid catalysts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Superconductivity in nanostructured lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Anca; Bleiweiss, Michael; Amirzadeh, Jafar; Saygi, Salih; Dimofte, Andreea; Yin, Ming; Iqbal, Zafar; Datta, Timir

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional nanoscale structures of lead were fabricated by electrodeposition of pure lead into artificial porous opal. The size of the metallic regions was comparable to the superconducting coherence length of bulk lead. Tc as high as 7.36 K was observed, also d Tc/d H was 2.7 times smaller than in bulk lead. Many of the characteristics of these differ from bulk lead, a type I superconductor. Irreversibility line and magnetic relaxation rates ( S) were also studied. S( T) displayed two maxima, with a peak value about 10 times smaller than that of typical high- Tc superconductors.

  17. Ritual Significance in Mycenaean Hairstyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu, Florence Sheng-chieh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the frescoes excavated from Bronze Age sites on the Greek mainland provide evidence for female figures in the Mycenaean society, the hairstyles of these figures have not been studied in detail. As in many other ancient cultures, hairstyles were not only an exhibition of beauty and fashion, but they also represented certain age groups or a person’s social status. The Mycenaeans inherited many of their hairstyles from their Minoan predecessors, although differences existed as well. It is also possible there may have been a shift in meaning for seemingly similar looking hairstyles from the Minoan to the Mycenaean periods. Female figures, which compose most of the Mycenaean figures in frescoes known to date, are fine examples for discussing the artistic representation and potential significance of Mycenaean hairstyles. By comparing with Minoan hairstyles, discussions of Mycenaean examples lead to conclusions in the relationship between hairstyles and ritual activities in the Mycenaean society.

  18. Partial replicas of uv-irradiated bacteriophage T4 genomes and their role in multiplicity reactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayssiguier, C.; Kozinski, A.W.; Doermann, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    A physicochemical study was made of the replication and transmission of uv-irradiated T4 genomes. The data presented in this paper justify the following conclusions. (i) For both low and high multiplicity of infection there was abundant replication from uv-irradiated parental templates. It exceeded by far the efficiency predicted by the hypothesis that a single lethal hit completely prevents replication of the killed phage DNA: i.e., some dead phage particles must replicate parts of their DNA. (ii) Replication of the uv-irradiated DNA was repetitive as shown by density reversal experiments. (iii) Newly synthesized progeny DNA originating from uv-irradiated templates appeared as significantly shorter segments of the genomes than progeny DNA produced from non-uv-irradiated templates. A good correlation existed between the number of uv hits and the number of random cuts that would be needed to reduce replication fragments to the length observed. (iv) The contribution of uv-irradiated parental DNA among progeny phage in multiplicity reactivation was disposed in shorter subunits than was the DNA from unirradiated parental phage. It is important to emphasize that it was mainly in the form of replicative hybrid. These conclusions appear to justify excluding interparental recombination as a prerequisite for multiplicity reactivation. They lead directly to some form of partial replica hypothesis for multiplicity reactivation

  19. A XANES Study of Sulfur Speciation and Reactivity in Cokes for Anodes Used in Aluminum Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrsengene, Gøril; Wells, Hannah C.; Rørvik, Stein; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Haverkamp, Richard G.; Svensson, Ann Mari

    2018-06-01

    Availability of anode raw materials in the growing aluminum industry results in a wider range of petroleum cokes being used to produce carbon anodes. The boundary between anode grade cokes and what previously was considered non-anode grades are no longer as distinct as before, leading to introduction of cokes with higher sulfur and higher trace metal impurity content in anode manufacturing. In this work, the chemical nature of sulfur in five industrial cokes, ranging from 1.42 to 5.54 wt pct S, was investigated with K-edge XANES, while the reactivity of the cokes towards CO2 was measured by a standard mass loss test. XANES identified most of the sulfur as organic sulfur compounds. In addition, a significant amount is identified (16 to 53 pct) as S-S bound sulfur. A strong inverse correlation is observed between CO2-reactivity and S-S bound sulfur in the cokes, indicating that the reduction in reactivity is more dependent on the amount of this type of sulfur compound rather than the total amount of sulfur or the amount of organic sulfur.

  20. Geoelectrical signatures of reactive mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, U.; Bandopadhyay, A.; Jougnot, D.; Le Borgne, T.; Meheust, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing the effects of fluid mixing on geochemical reactions in the subsurface is of paramount importance owing to their pivotal role in processes such as contaminant migration or aquifer remediation, to name a few [1]. Large velocity gradients in the porous media are expected to lead to enhanced diffusive mixing accompanied by augmented reaction rates [2]. Despite its importance, accurate monitoring of such processes still remains an open challenge, mainly due to the opacity of the medium and to the lack of access to it. However, in recent years, geophysical methods based on electrical conductivity and polarization have come up as a promising tool for mapping and monitoring such reactions in the subsurface. In this regard, one of the main challenges is to properly characterize the multiple sources of electrical signals and in particular isolate the influence of reactive mixing on the electrical conductivity from those of other sources [3]. In this work, we explore the coupling between fluid mixing, reaction and charge migration in porous media to evaluate the potential of obtaining a spatially-resolved measurement of local reaction rates in the subsurface from electrical measurements. To this end, we employ a lamellar description of the mixing interface [4] with novel semi-analytical upscaling techniques to quantify changes in electrical conductivity induced by chemical reactions across mixing fronts. The changes in electrical conductivity are strongly dependent on the concentration of ionic species as well as on the polarization of the pore (water) solution around the grains, which in turn are controlled by local reaction rates and, consequently, by the local velocity gradients. Hence, our results essentially suggest that local variations in the electrical conductivity may be quantitatively related to the mixing and reaction dynamics, and thus be used as a measurement tool to characterize these dynamics. References 1. M. Dentz, T. Le Borgne, A. Englert

  1. Reactive Strength Index: A Poor Indicator of Reactive Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Robin; Kenny, Ian; Harrison, Drew

    2017-11-28

    The primary aim was to assess the relationships between reactive strength measures and associated kinematic and kinetic performance variables achieved during drop jumps. A secondary aim was to highlight issues with the use of reactive strength measures as performance indicators. Twenty eight national and international level sprinters, consisting of fourteen men and women, participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes performed drop jumps from a 0.3 m box onto a force platform with dependent variables contact time (CT), landing time (TLand), push-off time (TPush), flight time (FT), jump height (JH), reactive strength index (RSI, calculated as JH / CT), reactive strength ratio (RSR, calculated as FT / CT) and vertical leg spring stiffness (Kvert) recorded. Pearson's correlation test found very high to near perfect relationships between RSI and RSR (r = 0.91 to 0.97), with mixed relationships found between RSI, RSR and the key performance variables, (Men: r = -0.86 to -0.71 between RSI/RSR and CT, r = 0.80 to 0.92 between RSI/RSR and JH; Women: r = -0.85 to -0.56 between RSR and CT, r = 0.71 between RSI and JH). This study demonstrates that the method of assessing reactive strength (RSI versus RSR) may be influenced by the performance strategies adopted i.e. whether an athlete achieves their best reactive strength scores via low CTs, high JHs or a combination. Coaches are advised to limit the variability in performance strategies by implementing upper and / or lower CT thresholds to accurately compare performances between individuals.

  2. Ignition of a reactive solid by an inert hot spot

    OpenAIRE

    Liñán Martínez, Amable; Kindelan Gómez, Manuel

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for the description of the ignition of a reactive media by inert hot bodies of finite size, when the activation energy of the reaction is large. The analysis leads to closed-form relations for the minimum "critical" size of the hot spot resulting in ignition and for the ignition time by hot spots of supercritical size. The analysis is carried out, first, for inert spots with heat conductivities and diff usivities of the order of those of the reactive media,...

  3. ALICE: Simulated lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ALICE detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. ALICE will focus on the study of collisions between nuclei of lead, a heavy element that produces many different particles when collided. It is hoped that these collisions will produce a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma, which existed billionths of a second after the Big Bang.

  4. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important ... Few chemically different dyes such as Reactive Black (75%), Reactive Yellow (70%),. Reactive Red (33%) and ..... Degradation of azo dyes by the lignin degrading ...

  5. Substation Reactive Power Regulation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Chunwang; Ma, Daqing

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing requirements on the power supply quality and reliability of distribution network, voltage and reactive power regulation of substations has become one of the indispensable ways to ensure voltage quality and reactive power balance and to improve the economy and reliability of distribution network. Therefore, it is a general concern of the current power workers and operators that what kind of flexible and effective control method should be used to adjust the on-load tap-changer (OLTC) transformer and shunt compensation capacitor in a substation to achieve reactive power balance in situ, improve voltage pass rate, increase power factor and reduce active power loss. In this paper, based on the traditional nine-zone diagram and combining with the characteristics of substation, a fuzzy variable-center nine-zone diagram control method is proposed and used to make a comprehensive regulation of substation voltage and reactive power. Through the calculation and simulation of the example, this method is proved to have satisfactorily reconciled the contradiction between reactive power and voltage in real-time control and achieved the basic goal of real-time control of the substation, providing a reference value to the practical application of the substation real-time control method.

  6. Adaptive Reactive Rich Internet Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kay-Uwe; Stühmer, Roland; Dörflinger, Jörg; Rahmani, Tirdad; Thomas, Susan; Stojanovic, Ljiljana

    Rich Internet Applications significantly raise the user experience compared with legacy page-based Web applications because of their highly responsive user interfaces. Although this is a tremendous advance, it does not solve the problem of the one-size-fits-all approach1 of current Web applications. So although Rich Internet Applications put the user in a position to interact seamlessly with the Web application, they do not adapt to the context in which the user is currently working. In this paper we address the on-the-fly personalization of Rich Internet Applications. We introduce the concept of ARRIAs: Adaptive Reactive Rich Internet Applications and elaborate on how they are able to adapt to the current working context the user is engaged in. An architecture for the ad hoc adaptation of Rich Internet Applications is presented as well as a holistic framework and tools for the realization of our on-the-fly personalization approach. We divided both the architecture and the framework into two levels: offline/design-time and online/run-time. For design-time we explain how to use ontologies in order to annotate Rich Internet Applications and how to use these annotations for conceptual Web usage mining. Furthermore, we describe how to create client-side executable rules from the semantic data mining results. We present our declarative lightweight rule language tailored to the needs of being executed directly on the client. Because of the event-driven nature of the user interfaces of Rich Internet Applications, we designed a lightweight rule language based on the event-condition-action paradigm.2 At run-time the interactions of a user are tracked directly on the client and in real-time a user model is built up. The user model then acts as input to and is evaluated by our client-side complex event processing and rule engine.

  7. Secondary lead production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, R.G.

    1990-10-16

    This invention is concerned with the efficient recovery of soft lead from the paste component of used automobile lead-acid storage batteries. According to the invention, a scrap which contains lead oxide, lead sulfate, and antimony in an oxidized state is processed in the following steps to recover lead. A refractory lined reaction vessel is continuously charged with the scrap, along with a reductant effective for reducing lead oxide. The charged material is melted and agitated by means of a submerged lance at 900-1150{degree}C whereby some of the lead oxide of the scrap is reduced to form molten lead. A slag layer is then formed above the molten lead, and an amount of lead oxide is maintained in the slag layer. The molten lead, now containing under 0.5 wt % of antimony, is removed, and the antimony oxide in the scrap is concentrated as oxide in the slag layer. Preferred embodiments of the invention result in the production, in a single step, of a soft lead substantially free of antimony. The slag may be subsequently treated to reduce the antimony oxide and produce a valuable antimony-lead product. Further advantages of the process are that a wet battery paste may be used as the feed without prior drying, and the process can be conducted at a temperature 100-150{degree}C lower than in previously known methods. In addition, a smaller reactor can be employed which reduces both capital cost and fuel costs. The process of the invention is illustrated by descriptions of pilot plant tests. 1 fig.

  8. Assessment of solid reactive mixtures for the development of biological permeable reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca; Viggi, Carolina Cruz; Mainelli, Sara; Toro, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Solid reactive mixtures were tested as filling material for the development of biological permeable reactive barriers for the treatment of heavy metals contaminated waters. Mixture selection was performed by taking into account the different mechanisms operating in sulphate and cadmium removal with particular attention to bioprecipitation and sorption onto the organic matrices in the mixtures. Suspensions of eight reactive mixtures were tested for sulphate removal (initial concentration 3 g L -1 ). Each mixture was made up of four main functional components: a mix of organic sources for bacterial growth, a neutralizing agent, a porous medium and zero-valent iron. The best mixture among the tested ones (M8: 6% leaves, 9% compost, 3% zero-valent iron, 30% silica sand, 30% perlite, 22% limestone) presented optimal conditions for SRB growth (pH 7.8 ± 0.1; E h = -410 ± 5 mV) and 83% sulphate removal in 22 days (25% due to bioreduction, 32% due to sorption onto compost and 20% onto leaves). M8 mixture allowed the complete abatement of cadmium with a significant contribution of sorption over bioprecipitation (6% Cd removal due to SRB activity). Sorption properties, characterised by potentiometric titrations and related modelling, were mainly due to carboxylic sites of organic components used in reactive mixtures.

  9. The reactivity of natural phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Evgenii T; Denisova, Taisa G [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    This review surveys physicochemical data of natural phenols published in recent years. The structures of some compounds of this class are given. A complete set of the dissociation energies of the O-H bonds for 71 natural phenols is presented. Kinetic characteristics of the reactions of peroxyl, alkyl and thiyl radicals with natural phenols, exchange reactions of phenoxyl radicals with phenols and reactions of phenoxyl radicals with lipids, hydroperoxides, cysteine and ascorbic acid are compiled and described systematically. The reactivity of phenols in radical reactions and the factors that determine the reactivity (the enthalpy of reaction, triplet repulsion, the electronegativities of atoms at the reaction centre, the presence of pi-electrons adjacent to the reaction centre, the radii of atoms at the reaction centre, steric hindrance, the force constants of the reacting bonds) are discussed. An important role of hydrogen bonding between surrounding molecules and the OH groups of natural phenols in decreasing their reactivities is noted.

  10. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  11. The Role of Emotion Reactivity in Health Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Emily M; McLeish, Alison C; Johnson, Adrienne L

    2017-11-01

    Emotion reactivity, defined as heightened sensitivity, intensity, and persistence of emotional states, has been shown to contribute to the exacerbation of anxiety. However, the association between emotion reactivity and health anxiety has yet to be examined. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the unique predictive ability of emotion reactivity in terms of health anxiety in a sample of medically healthy undergraduates ( n = 194; 59.3% female, M age = 19.42, SD = 1.51, range = 18-26 years; 84.0% Caucasian). Findings indicated that, after controlling for the effects of gender, age, and anxiety sensitivity, greater emotion reactivity significantly predicted greater overall health anxiety (3.1% variance), as well as higher levels of affective (4.1% unique variance) and behavioral (4.8% unique variance) components. Findings suggest that experiencing emotions more frequently, intensely, and for longer durations of time prior to returning to baseline are associated with greater health preoccupations.

  12. LFR safety features through intrinsic negative reactivity feedbacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    The safety of Lead-cooled Fast Reactors can rely on intrinsic features such as: • the impossibility of Lead boiling, hence the unreliability of core (only) voiding; • the buoyancy of Control Rods in Lead, allowing their safe positioning also below the active region. For heightening the safety features of LFRs in safety analyses it could be required to approach the evaluation of the reactivity coefficients from a more physical point of view, including more elementary mechanisms, each one related to the proper driving temperature

  13. Lead-Free Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Nahm, Sahn

    2012-01-01

    Ecological restrictions in many parts of the world are demanding the elimination of Pb from all consumer items. At this moment in the piezoelectric ceramics industry, there is no issue of more importance than the transition to lead-free materials. The goal of Lead-Free Piezoelectrics is to provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals and developments in the field of lead-free materials and products to leading researchers in the world. The text presents chapters on demonstrated applications of the lead-free materials, which will allow readers to conceptualize the present possibilities and will be useful for both students and professionals conducting research on ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, smart materials, lead-free materials, and a variety of applications including sensors, actuators, ultrasonic transducers and energy harvesters.

  14. Production of reactive oxygen species from abraded silicates. Implications for the reactivity of the Martian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Ebbe N.; Zafirov, Kaloyan; Merrison, Jonathan P.; Jensen, Svend J. Knak; Nørnberg, Per; Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur P.; Finster, Kai

    2017-09-01

    The results of the Labeled Release and the Gas Exchange experiments conducted on Mars by the Viking Landers show that compounds in the Martian soil can cause oxidation of organics and a release of oxygen in the presence of water. Several sources have been proposed for the oxidizing compounds, but none has been validated in situ and the cause of the observed oxidation has not been resolved. In this study, laboratory simulations of saltation were conducted to examine if and under which conditions wind abrasion of silicates, a process that is common on the Martian surface, can give rise to oxidants in the form of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radicals (ṡOH). We found that silicate samples abraded in simulated Martian atmospheres gave rise to a significant production of H2O2 and ṡOH upon contact with water. Our experiments demonstrated that abraded silicates could lead to a production of H2O2 facilitated by atmospheric O2 and inhibited by carbon dioxide. Furthermore, during simulated saltation the silicate particles became triboelectrically charged and at pressures similar to the Martian surface pressure we observed glow discharges. Electrical discharges can cause dissociation of CO2 and through subsequent reactions lead to a production of H2O2. These results indicate that the reactions linked to electrical discharges are the dominant source of H2O2 during saltation of silicates in a simulated Martian atmosphere, given the low pressure and the relatively high concentration of CO2. Our experiments provide evidence that wind driven abrasion could enhance the reactivity of the Martian soil and thereby could have contributed to the oxidation of organic compounds and the O2 release observed in the Labeled Release and the Gas Exchange experiments. Furthermore, the release of H2O2 and ṡOH from abraded silicates could have a negative effect on the persistence of organic compounds in the Martian soil and the habitability of the Martian surface.

  15. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  16. New learning following reactivation in the human brain: targeting emotional memories through rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkner, Janine; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2015-03-01

    Once reactivated, previously consolidated memories destabilize and have to be reconsolidated to persist, a process that might be altered non-invasively by interfering learning immediately after reactivation. Here, we investigated the influence of interference on brain correlates of reactivated episodic memories for emotional and neutral scenes using event-related potentials (ERPs). To selectively target emotional memories we applied a new reactivation method: rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). RSVP leads to enhanced implicit processing (pop out) of the most salient memories making them vulnerable to disruption. In line, interference after reactivation of previously encoded pictures disrupted recollection particularly for emotional events. Furthermore, memory impairments were reflected in a reduced centro-parietal ERP old/new difference during retrieval of emotional pictures. These results provide neural evidence that emotional episodic memories in humans can be selectively altered through behavioral interference after reactivation, a finding with further clinical implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of dyeing wastewater including reactive dyes (Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal growth was not observed at pH 2. Maximum fungal decolourisation ocurred at pH 3 for anionic reactive dyes (RR, RBB, RB) and pH 6 for cationic MB dye. The fungal dye bioremoval was associated with the surface charge of the fungus due to electrostatic interactions. Growing R. arrhizus strain decolourised 100% of ...

  18. Memory reactivation improves visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar-Halpert, Rotem; Laor-Maayany, Rony; Nemni, Shlomi; Rosenblatt, Jonathan D; Censor, Nitzan

    2017-10-01

    Human perception thresholds can improve through learning. Here we report findings challenging the fundamental 'practice makes perfect' basis of procedural learning theory, showing that brief reactivations of encoded visual memories are sufficient to improve perceptual discrimination thresholds. Learning was comparable to standard practice-induced learning and was not due to short training per se, nor to an epiphenomenon of primed retrieval enhancement. The results demonstrate that basic perceptual functions can be substantially improved by memory reactivation, supporting a new account of perceptual learning dynamics.

  19. Reactive thermal waves in energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Reactive thermal waves (RTWs) arise in several energetic material applications, including self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), high explosive cookoff, and the detonation of heterogeneous explosives. In this paper I exmaine ideal RTWs, by which I mean that (1) material motion is neglected, (2) the state dependence of reaction is Arrhenius in the temperature, and (3) the reaction rate is modulated by an arbitrary mass-fraction-based reaction progress function. Numerical simulations demonstrate that one's natural intuition, which is based mainly upon experience with inert materials and which leads one to expect diffusion processes to become relatively slow after a short time period, is invalid for high energy, state-sensitive reactive systems. Instead, theory predicts that RTWs can propagate at very high speeds. This result agrees with estimates for detonating heterogeneous explosives, which indicate that RTWs must spread from hot-spot nucleation sites at rates comparable to the detonation speed in order to produce experimentally-observed reaction zone thicknesses. Using dimensionless scaling and further invoking the high activation energy approximation, I obtain an analytic formula for the steady plane RTW speed from numerical calculations. I then compute the RTW speed for real explosives, and discuss aspects of their behavior.

  20. Performance of the Lead-Alloy-Cooled Reactor Concept Balanced for Actinide Burning and Electricity Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejzlar, Pavel; Davis, Cliff B.

    2004-01-01

    A lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor concept targeted for a balanced mission of actinide burning and low-cost electricity production is proposed and its performance analyzed. The design explores the potential benefits of thorium-based fuel in actinide-burning cores, in particular in terms of the reduction of the large reactivity swing and enhancement of the small Doppler coefficient typical of fertile-free actinide burners. Reduced electricity production cost is pursued through a longer cycle length than that used for fertile-free burners and thus a higher capacity factor. It is shown that the concept can achieve a high transuranics destruction rate, which is only 20% lower than that of an accelerator-driven system with fertile-free fuel. The small negative fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, small positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and negative core radial expansion coefficient provide self-regulating characteristics so that the reactor is capable of inherent shutdown during major transients without scram, as in the Integral Fast Reactor. This is confirmed by thermal-hydraulic analysis of several transients without scram, including primary coolant pump trip, station blackout, and reactivity step insertion, which showed that the reactor was able to meet all identified thermal limits. However, the benefits of high actinide consumption and small reactivity swing can be attained only if the uranium from the discharged fuel is separated and not recycled. This additional uranium separation step and thorium reprocessing significantly increase the fuel cycle costs. Because the higher fuel cycle cost has a larger impact on the overall cost of electricity than the savings from the higher capacity factor afforded through use of thorium, this concept appears less promising than the fertile-free actinide burners

  1. Performance of the Lead-Alloy Cooled Concept Balanced for Actinide Burning and Electricity Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel Hejzlar; Cliff Davis

    2004-01-01

    A lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor concept targeted for a balanced mission of actinide burning and low-cost electricity production is proposed and its performance analyzed. The design explores the potential benefits of thorium-based fuel in actinide-burning cores, in particular in terms of the reduction of the large reactivity swing and enhancement of the small Doppler coefficient typical of fertile-free actinide burners. Reduced electricity production cost is pursued through a longer cycle length than that used for fertile-free burners and thus a higher capacity factor. It is shown that the concept can achieve a high transuranics destruction rate, which is only 20% lower than that of an accelerator-driven system with fertile-free fuel. The small negative fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, small positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and negative core radial expansion coefficient provide self-regulating characteristics so that the reactor is capable of inherent shutdown during major transients without scram, as in the Integral Fast Reactor. This is confirmed by thermal-hydraulic analysis of several transients without scram, including primary coolant pump trip, station blackout, and reactivity step insertion, which showed that the reactor was able to meet all identified thermal limits. However, the benefits of high actinide consumption and small reactivity swing can be attained only if the uranium from the discharged fuel is separated and not recycled. This additional uranium separation step and thorium reprocessing significantly increase the fuel cycle costs. Because the higher fuel cycle cost has a larger impact on the overall cost of electricity than the savings from the higher capacity factor afforded through use of thorium, this concept appears less promising than the fertile-free actinide burners

  2. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E; Kubin, R

    1949-01-01

    Diagnosis was made from clinical observation and laboratory examination of nine cases. A successful treatment is described based on the similarity of the metabolism of lead and calcium, the lead being deposited in the bones where it is harmless, if it remains there. Details are given of the treatment.

  3. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Hussain, Irshad; Piepenbrink, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  4. Leading Educational Change Wisely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews Christopher Branson's book entitled "Leading Educational Change Wisely". The book provides an alternative and engaging perspective on leading educational change. Branson utilises "wisdom" as its central conceptual device to present a thought-provoking and philosophical account on how leaders are able to build a…

  5. Simple and cheap steric and electronic characterization of the reactivity of Ru(II) complexes containing oxazoline ligands as epoxidation catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2013-07-01

    The reactivity of a new family of complexes with general formula [Ru IV(T)(R-D)(O)]2+ (T = trispyrazolylmethane (tpm); D = N-(1-hydroxy-3-methylbutan-(2S)-(-)-2-yl)-(4S)-(-)-4-isopropyl-4, 5-dihydrooxazole-2-carbimidate, R = Bz (1); iPr (2)) has been analyzed. There is a significant difference in regioselectivity between the two catalysts in the epoxidation of 4-vinylcyclohexene; 1 leads to the regioselective oxidation at the ring alkene position, whereas 2 leads to the oxidation at the terminal position. Although computational calculations indicate small energy differences, both the geometry through steric maps and the electronic parameters of the reactants via conceptual DFT, or charges via NPA, explain the reactivity differences found for the catalysts depending on the substituents of the oxazoline ligands. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydroxyl radical reactivity with diethylhydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorse, R.A. Jr.; Lii, R.R.; Saunders, B.B.

    1977-01-01

    Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) reacts with gas-phase hydroxyl radicals on every third collision, whereas the corresponding reaction in aqueous solution is considerably slower. The high gas-phase reactivity explains the predicted inhibitory effect of DEHA in atmospheric smog processes. Results from the studies in the aqueous phase are helpful in predicting the mechanism of the reaction of DEHA with hydroxyl radicals

  7. Backup passive reactivity shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurko, Yu.M.; Kuznetsov, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews self-actuated shutdown systems (SASSs) for liquid metal-cooled fast reactors (LMFRs). Principles of operation are described, advantages and drawbacks analyzed, and prospects for application in advanced fast reactors examined. Ways to improve reactor self-protection via reactivity feedback amplification and related problems are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 12 figs

  8. Insertion material for controlling reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Iwao.

    1994-01-01

    Moderators and a group of suspended materials having substantially the same density as the moderator are sealed in a hollow rod vertically inserted to a fuel assembly. Specifically, the group of suspended materials is adapted to have a density changing stepwise from density of the moderator at the exit temperature of the reactor core to that at the inlet temperature of the reactor core. Reactivity is selectively controlled for a portion of high power and a portion of high reactivity by utilizing the density of the moderator and the distribution of the density. That is, if the power distribution is flat, the density of the moderators changes at a constant rate over the vertical direction of the reactor core and the suspended materials stay at a portion of the same density, to form a uniform distribution. Further, upon reactor shutdown, since the liquid temperature of the moderators is lowered and the density is increased, all of beads are collected at the upper portion to remove water at the upper portion of the reactor core of low burnup degree thereby selectively controlling the reactivity at a portion of high power and a portion of high reactivity. (N.H.)

  9. Reactive surfactants in heterophase polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guyot, A.; Tauer, K.; Asua, J.M.; Es, van J.J.G.S.; Gauthier, C.; Hellgren, A.C.; Sherrington, D.C.; Montoya-Goni, A.; Sjöberg, M.; Sindt, O.; Vidal, F.F.M.; Unzue, M.; Schoonbrood, H.A.S.; Schipper, E.T.W.M.; Lacroix-Desmazes, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work carried out during 3 years in a Network of the program "Human Capital and Mobility" of the European Union CHRX 93-0159 entitled "Reactive surfactants in heterophase polymerization for high performance polymers". A series of about 25 original papers will be published in

  10. Backup passive reactivity shutdown systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashurko, Yu M; Kuznetsov, L A [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    The paper reviews self-actuated shutdown systems (SASSs) for liquid metal-cooled fast reactors (LMFRs). Principles of operation are described, advantages and drawbacks analyzed, and prospects for application in advanced fast reactors examined. Ways to improve reactor self-protection via reactivity feedback amplification and related problems are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 12 figs.

  11. Quantitative reactive modeling and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzinger, Thomas A

    Formal verification aims to improve the quality of software by detecting errors before they do harm. At the basis of formal verification is the logical notion of correctness , which purports to capture whether or not a program behaves as desired. We suggest that the boolean partition of software into correct and incorrect programs falls short of the practical need to assess the behavior of software in a more nuanced fashion against multiple criteria. We therefore propose to introduce quantitative fitness measures for programs, specifically for measuring the function, performance, and robustness of reactive programs such as concurrent processes. This article describes the goals of the ERC Advanced Investigator Project QUAREM. The project aims to build and evaluate a theory of quantitative fitness measures for reactive models. Such a theory must strive to obtain quantitative generalizations of the paradigms that have been success stories in qualitative reactive modeling, such as compositionality, property-preserving abstraction and abstraction refinement, model checking, and synthesis. The theory will be evaluated not only in the context of software and hardware engineering, but also in the context of systems biology. In particular, we will use the quantitative reactive models and fitness measures developed in this project for testing hypotheses about the mechanisms behind data from biological experiments.

  12. Separability of local reactivity descriptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The size-dependence of different local reactivity descriptors of dimer A2 and AB type of sys- tems is discussed. We derive analytic results of these descriptors calculated using finite difference approximation. In particular, we studied Fukui functions, relative electrophilicity and relative nucleo- philicity, local softness ...

  13. Cytotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloid in human hepatic parenchymal and sinusoidal endothelial cells: Firm evidence for the reactive metabolites mediated pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengbi; Ruan, Jianqing; Fu, Peter P; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-05

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) widely distribute in plants and can cause hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS), which typically presents as a primary sinusoidal endothelial cell damage. It is well-recognized that after ingestion, PAs undergo hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYPs)-mediated metabolic activation to generate dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (DHPAs), which are hydrolyzed to dehydroretronecine (DHR). DHPAs and DHR are reactive metabolites having same core pyrrole moiety, and can bind proteins to form pyrrole-protein adducts, which are believed as the primary cause for PA-induced HSOS. However, to date, the direct evidences supporting the toxicity of DHPAs and DHR in the liver, in particular in the sinusoidal endothelial cells, are lacking. Using human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC) and HepG2 (representing hepatic parenchymal cells), cells that lack CYPs activity, this study determined the direct cytotoxicity of dehydromonocrotaline, a representative DHPA, and DHR, but no cytotoxicity of the intact PA (monocrotaline) in both cell lines, confirming that reactive metabolites mediate PA intoxication. Comparing with HepG2, HSEC had significantly lower basal glutathione (GSH) level, and was significantly more susceptible to the reactive metabolites with severer GSH depletion and pyrrole-protein adducts formation. The toxic potency of two reactive metabolites was also compared. DHPA was more reactive than DHR, leading to severer toxicity. In conclusion, our results unambiguously provided the first direct evidence for the critical role of DHPA and DHR in the reactive metabolites-mediated PA-induced hepatotoxicity, which occurs predominantly in HSEC due to severe GSH depletion and the significant formation of pyrrole-protein adducts in HSEC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The synergistic effect of chemical carcinogens enhances Epstein-Barr virus reactivation and tumor progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chih-Yeu; Huang, Sheng-Yen; Wu, Chung-Chun; Hsu, Hui-Yu; Chou, Sheng-Ping; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Chang, Yao; Takada, Kenzo; Chen, Jen-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Seroepidemiological studies imply a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). N-nitroso compounds, phorbols, and butyrates are chemicals found in food and herb samples collected from NPC high-risk areas. These chemicals have been reported to be risk factors contributing to the development of NPC, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We have demonstrated previously that low dose N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG, 0.1 µg/ml) had a synergistic effect with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and sodium butyrate (SB) in enhancing EBV reactivation and genome instability in NPC cells harboring EBV. Considering that residents in NPC high-risk areas may contact regularly with these chemical carcinogens, it is vital to elucidate the relation between chemicals and EBV and their contributions to the carcinogenesis of NPC. In this study, we constructed a cell culture model to show that genome instability, alterations of cancer hallmark gene expression, and tumorigenicity were increased after recurrent EBV reactivation in NPC cells following combined treatment of TPA/SB and MNNG. NPC cells latently infected with EBV, NA, and the corresponding EBV-negative cell, NPC-TW01, were periodically treated with MNNG, TPA/SB, or TPA/SB combined with MNNG. With chemically-induced recurrent reactivation of EBV, the degree of genome instability was significantly enhanced in NA cells treated with a combination of TPA/SB and MNNG than those treated individually. The Matrigel invasiveness, as well as the tumorigenicity in mouse, was also enhanced in NA cells after recurrent EBV reactivation. Expression profile analysis by microarray indicates that many carcinogenesis-related genes were altered after recurrent EBV reactivation, and several aberrations observed in cell lines correspond to alterations in NPC lesions. These results indicate that cooperation between chemical carcinogens can

  15. Effect of static porosity fluctuations on reactive transport in a porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux, Ivan

    2018-02-01

    Reaction-diffusive transport phenomena in porous media are ubiquitous in engineering applications, biological and geochemical systems. The porosity field is usually random in space, but most models consider the porosity field as a well-defined deterministic function of space and time and ignore the porosity fluctuations. They use a reaction-diffusion equation written in terms of an average porosity and average concentration fields. In this contribution, we treat explicitly the effect of spatial porosity fluctuations on the dynamics of a concentration field for the case of a one-dimensional reaction-transport system with nonlinear kinetics. Three basic assumptions are considered. (i) The porosity fluctuations are assumed to have Gaussian properties and an arbitrary variance; (ii) we assume that the noise correlation length is small compared to the relevant macroscopic length scale; (iii) and we assume that the kinetics of the reactive term in the equations for the fluctuations is a self-consistently determined constant. Elimination of the fluctuating part of the concentration field from the dynamics leads to a renormalized equation involving the average concentration field. It is shown that the noise leads to a renormalized (generally smaller) diffusion coefficient and renormalized kinetics. Within the framework of the approximations used, numerical simulations are in agreement with our theory. We show that the porosity fluctuations may have a significant effect on the transport of a reactive species, even in the case of a homogeneous average porosity.

  16. Significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance on ThinPrep papanicolaou smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltabbakh, G H; Lipman, J N; Mount, S L; Morgan, A

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors predictive of dysplasia among women seen in a gynecologic oncology service with the cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) on Papanicolaou smears obtained by the ThinPrep method. Patients with ASCUS ThinPrep Papanicolaou smears seen at the Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Vermont, between 1997 and 1999 were identified. The cytologic smears were reviewed and subtyped into reactive or suggestive of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). The charts of these patients were reviewed and the following information was abstracted: age, gravidity, parity, menopausal status, use of hormonal replacement therapy, smoking, history of pelvic cancer, history of radiation therapy, history of abnormal Papanicolaou smear and its treatment, history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and follow-up information including results of repeat Papanicolaou smears, colposcopy, and biopsies. The prevalence of dysplasia was calculated. The demographic features of women with ASCUS, reactive, were compared with those with ASCUS, SIL, using a two-sample t test, chi(2), and Fisher's exact test. Risk factors predictive of dysplasia were calculated using the odds ratio and the 95% confidence interval. P ASCUS on ThinPrep Papanicolaou smear were identified; 63 patients had ASCUS, reactive, and 63 patients had ASCUS, SIL. The demographic features of both groups were similar. The overall prevalence of dysplasia was 15.9% and was significantly higher among women with ASCUS, SIL, than among women with ASCUS, reactive (25.4% versus 6.4%, P = 0.003). The type of ASCUS cytology (reactive versus SIL), smoking, and history of HPV were significant risk factors for dysplasia (P = 0.003, 0.037, and 0. 042, respectively). The prevalence of dysplasia among women seen in a gynecologic oncology service with ASCUS cytology on ThinPrep Papanicolaou smears is 15.9%. Women with ASCUS favor

  17. Blunted stress reactivity in chronic cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Carrie; Spradlin, Alexander; Nusbaum, Amy T; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; McLaughlin, Ryan J

    2017-08-01

    One of the most commonly cited reasons for chronic cannabis use is to cope with stress. Consistent with this, cannabis users have shown reduced emotional arousal and dampened stress reactivity in response to negative imagery. To our knowledge, the present study represents the first to examine the effects of an acute stress manipulation on subjective stress and salivary cortisol in chronic cannabis users compared to non-users. Forty cannabis users and 42 non-users were randomly assigned to complete either the stress or no stress conditions of the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). The stress condition of the MAST manipulates both physiological (placing hand in ice bath) and psychosocial stress (performing math under conditions of social evaluation). Participants gave baseline subjective stress ratings before, during, and after the stress manipulation. Cortisol was measured from saliva samples obtained before and after the stress manipulation. Further, cannabis cravings and symptoms of withdrawal were measured. Subjective stress ratings and cortisol levels were significantly higher in non-users in the stress condition relative to non-users in the no stress condition. In contrast, cannabis users demonstrated blunted stress reactivity; specifically, they showed no increase in cortisol and a significantly smaller increase in subjective stress ratings. The stress manipulation had no impact on cannabis users' self-reported cravings or withdrawal symptoms. Chronic cannabis use is associated with blunted stress reactivity. Future research is needed to determine whether this helps to confer resiliency or vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology as well as the mechanisms underlying this effect.

  18. A significant causal association between C-reactive protein levels and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Inoshita, Masatoshi; Numata, Shusuke; Tajima, Atsushi; Kinoshita, Makoto; Umehara, Hidehiro; Nakataki, Masahito; Ikeda, Masashi; Maruyama, Souichiro; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Shimodera, Shinji; Hashimoto, Ryota; Imoto, Issei; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2016-01-01

    Many observational studies have shown elevated blood CRP levels in schizophrenia compared with controls, and one population-based prospective study has reported that elevated plasma CRP levels were associated with late- and very-late-onset schizophrenia. Furthermore, several clinical studies have reported the efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs on the symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. However, whether elevated CRP levels are causally related to schizophrenia is not still established be...

  19. Lead-free piezoceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yasuyoshi; Takao, Hisaaki; Tani, Toshihiko; Nonoyama, Tatsuhiko; Takatori, Kazumasa; Homma, Takahiko; Nagaya, Toshiatsu; Nakamura, Masaya

    2004-11-04

    Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300 picocoulombs per newton (pC N(-1)), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416 pC N(-1). The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.

  20. Physiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation in early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Melissa D; Cook, Nina; Simmons, Julian G; Byrne, Michelle L; Kettle, Jonathan W L; Schwartz, Orli; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have examined physiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation in adolescents, despite the occurrence in this group of significant developmental changes in emotional functioning. The current study employed multiple physiological measures (i.e., startle-elicited eyeblink and ERP, skin conductance, facial EMG) to assess the emotional reactivity and regulation of 113 early adolescents in response to valenced images. Reactivity was measured while participants viewed images, and regulation was measured when they were asked to discontinue or maintain their emotional reactions to the images. Adolescent participants did not exhibit fear-potentiated startle blink. However, they did display affect-consistent zygomatic and corrugator activity during reactivity, as well as inhibition of some of these facial patterns during regulation. Skin conductance demonstrated arousal dependent activity during reactivity, and overall decreases during regulation. These findings suggest that early adolescents display reactivity to valenced pictures, but not to startle probes. Psychophysiological patterns during emotion regulation indicate additional effort and/or attention during the regulation process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. On Variable Reverse Power Flow-Part I: Active-Reactive Optimal Power Flow with Reactive Power of Wind Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aouss Gabash

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that using battery storage systems (BSSs to provide reactive power provision in a medium-voltage (MV active distribution network (ADN with embedded wind stations (WSs can lead to a huge amount of reverse power to an upstream transmission network (TN. However, unity power factors (PFs of WSs were assumed in those studies to analyze the potential of BSSs. Therefore, in this paper (Part-I, we aim to further explore the pure reactive power potential of WSs (i.e., without BSSs by investigating the issue of variable reverse power flow under different limits on PFs in an electricity market model. The main contributions of this work are summarized as follows: (1 Introducing the reactive power capability of WSs in the optimization model of the active-reactive optimal power flow (A-R-OPF and highlighting the benefits/impacts under different limits on PFs. (2 Investigating the impacts of different agreements for variable reverse power flow on the operation of an ADN under different demand scenarios. (3 Derivation of the function of reactive energy losses in the grid with an equivalent-π circuit and comparing its value with active energy losses. (4 Balancing the energy curtailment of wind generation, active-reactive energy losses in the grid and active-reactive energy import-export by a meter-based method. In Part-II, the potential of the developed model is studied through analyzing an electricity market model and a 41-bus network with different locations of WSs.

  2. Lead in Construction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Although Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for occupational lead exposure have been in effect since 1971 for the construction and general industries, the agency regulations for general industry in 1978...

  3. Radiation shielding lead shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dei, Shoichi.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns lead shields for radiation shielding. Shield boxes are disposed so as to surround a pipeline through which radioactive liquids, mists or like other objects are passed. Flanges are formed to each of the end edges of the shield boxes and the shield boxes are connected to each other by the flanges. Upon installation, empty shield boxes not charged with lead particles and iron plate shields are secured at first at the periphery of the pipeline. Then, lead particles are charged into the shield boxes. This attains a state as if lead plate corresponding to the depth of the box is disposed. Accordingly, operations for installation, dismantling and restoration can be conducted in an empty state with reduced weight to facilitate the operations. (I.S.)

  4. Chaetocin reactivates the lytic replication of Epstein-Barr virus from latency via reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shilun; Yin, Juan; Zhong, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress, regarded as a negative effect of free radicals in vivo, takes place when organisms suffer from harmful stimuli. Some viruses can induce the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in infected cells, which may be closely related with their pathogenicity. In this report, chaetocin, a fungal metabolite reported to have antimicrobial and cytostatic activity, was studied for its effect on the activation of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in B95-8 cells. We found that chaetocin remarkably up-regulated EBV lytic transcription and DNA replication at a low concentration (50 nmol L -1 ). The activation of latent EBV was accompanied by an increased cellular ROS level. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an ROS inhibitor, suppressed chaetocin-induced EBV activation. Chaetocin had little effect on histone H3K9 methylation, while NAC also significantly reduced H3K9 methylation. These results suggested that chaetocin reactivates latent EBV primarily via ROS pathways.

  5. Lead poisoning in mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, J G

    1962-03-01

    This paper describes a case of lead poisoning in minks. The mink were housed in pens which had been painted with a bridge paint containing lead. They had chewed on the pen and ingested the paint. The animals that did not die were moved to new pens, and vitamin D and calcium gluconate were added to their diets. In three days, a marked improvement was seen in the food and water consumption, and convolutions became less frequent.

  6. Reactive Transport Models with Geomechanics to Mitigate Risks of CO2 Utilization and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, Milind [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Huang, Hai [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kweon, Hyukmin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Guo, Luanjing [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-03-28

    Reactivity of carbon dioxide (CO2), rocks and brine is important in a number of practical situations in carbon dioxide sequestration. Injectivity of CO2 will be affected by near wellbore dissolution or precipitation. Natural fractures or faults containing specific minerals may reactivate leading to induced seismicity. In this project, we first examined if the reactions between CO2, brine and rocks affect the nature of the porous medium and properties including petrophysical properties in the timeframe of the injection operations. This was done by carrying out experiments at sequestration conditions (2000 psi for corefloods and 2400 psi for batch experiments, and 600°C) with three different types of rocks – sandstone, limestone and dolomite. Experiments were performed in batch mode and corefloods were conducted over a two-week period. Batch experiments were performed with samples of differing surface area to understand the impact of surface area on overall reaction rates. Toughreact, a reactive transport model was used to interpret and understand the experimental results. The role of iron in dissolution and precipitation reactions was observed to be significant. Iron containing minerals – siderite and ankerite dissolved resulting in changes in porosity and permeability. Corefloods and batch experiments revealed similar patterns. With the right cationic balance, there is a possibility of precipitation of iron bearing carbonates. The results indicate that during injection operations mineralogical changes may lead to injectivity enhancements near the wellbore and petrophysical changes elsewhere in the system. Limestone and dolomite cores showed consistent dissolution at the entrance of the core. The dissolution led to formation of wormholes and interconnected dissolution zones. Results indicate that near wellbore dissolution in these rock-types may lead to rock failure. Micro-CT images of the cores before and after the experiments

  7. When perspective taking increases taking: reactive egoism in social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epley, Nicholas; Caruso, Eugene; Bazerman, Max H

    2006-11-01

    Group members often reason egocentrically, believing that they deserve more than their fair share of group resources. Leading people to consider other members' thoughts and perspectives can reduce these egocentric (self-centered) judgments such that people claim that it is fair for them to take less; however, the consideration of others' thoughts and perspectives actually increases egoistic (selfish) behavior such that people actually take more of available resources. A series of experiments demonstrates this pattern in competitive contexts in which considering others' perspectives activates egoistic theories of their likely behavior, leading people to counter by behaving more egoistically themselves. This reactive egoism is attenuated in cooperative contexts. Discussion focuses on the implications of reactive egoism in social interaction and on strategies for alleviating its potentially deleterious effects.

  8. Reactivity balance for a soluble boron-free small modular reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezani van der Merwe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Elimination of soluble boron from reactor design eliminates boron-induced reactivity accidents and leads to a more negative moderator temperature coefficient. However, a large negative moderator temperature coefficient can lead to large reactivity feedback that could allow the reactor to return to power when it cools down from hot full power to cold zero power. In soluble boron-free small modular reactor (SMR design, only control rods are available to control such rapid core transient.The purpose of this study is to investigate whether an SMR would have enough control rod worth to compensate for large reactivity feedback. The investigation begins with classification of reactivity and completes an analysis of the reactivity balance in each reactor state for the SMR model.The control rod worth requirement obtained from the reactivity balance is a minimum control rod worth to maintain the reactor critical during the whole cycle. The minimum available rod worth must be larger than the control rod worth requirement to manipulate the reactor safely in each reactor state. It is found that the SMR does have enough control rod worth available during rapid transient to maintain the SMR at subcritical below k-effectives of 0.99 for both hot zero power and cold zero power. Keywords: Control Rod Worth, Reactivity Balance, Reactivity Feedback, Small Modular Reactor, Soluble Boron Free

  9. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  10. Project Update: ZVI Used for Arsenic from Lead Smelting Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is conducting long-term monitoring of a granular iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for remediation of ground water contaminated with arsenic from a former lead smelting faci...

  11. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  12. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  13. Reactive behavior, learning, and anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Steven D.; Ballard, Dana H.

    1989-01-01

    Reactive systems always act, thinking only long enough to 'look up' the action to execute. Traditional planning systems think a lot, and act only after generating fairly precise plans. Each represents an endpoint on a spectrum. It is argued that primitive forms of reasoning, like anticipation, play an important role in reducing the cost of learning and that the decision to act or think should be based on the uncertainty associated with the utility of executing an action in a particular situation. An architecture for an adaptable reactive system is presented and it is shown how it can be augmented with a simple anticipation mechanism that can substantially reduce the cost and time of learning.

  14. Melioidosis: reactivation during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegasothy, B.V.; Goslen, J.B.; Salvatore, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Melioidosis is caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei, a gram-negative, motile bacillus which is a naturally occurring soil saprophyte. The organism is endemic in Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Australia, and parts of Central and South America. Most human disease occurs from infection acquired in these countries. Infection with P pseudomallei may produce no apparent clinical disease. Acute pneumonitis or septicemia may result from inhalation of the organism, and inoculation into sites of trauma may cause localized skin abscesses, or the disease may remain latent and be reactivated months or years later by trauma, burns, or pneumococcal pneumonia, diabetic ketoacidosis, influenza, or bronchogenic carcinoma. The last is probably the commonest form of melioidosis seen in the United States. We present the first case of reactivation of melioidosis after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the lung, again emphasizing the need to consider melioidosis in a septic patient with a history of travel, especially to Southeast Asia

  15. Lead-Binding Proteins: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey C. Gonick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead-binding proteins are a series of low molecular weight proteins, analogous to metallothionein, which segregate lead in a nontoxic form in several organs (kidney, brain, lung, liver, erythrocyte. Whether the lead-binding proteins in every organ are identical or different remains to be determined. In the erythrocyte, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD isoforms have commanded the greatest attention as proteins and enzymes that are both inhibitable and inducible by lead. ALAD-2, although it binds lead to a greater degree than ALAD-1, appears to bind lead in a less toxic form. What may be of greater significance is that a low molecular weight lead-binding protein, approximately 10 kDa, appears in the erythrocyte once blood lead exceeds 39 μg/dL and eventually surpasses the lead-binding capacity of ALAD. In brain and kidney of environmentally exposed humans and animals, a cytoplasmic lead-binding protein has been identified as thymosin β4, a 5 kDa protein. In kidney, but not brain, another lead-binding protein has been identified as acyl-CoA binding protein, a 9 kDa protein. Each of these proteins, when coincubated with liver ALAD and titrated with lead, diminishes the inhibition of ALAD by lead, verifying their ability to segregate lead in a nontoxic form.

  16. Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, A M; Teo, R K

    1986-06-01

    A set of neurobehavioural tests selected on the basis of information processing theory was used to study the effect of low level occupational lead exposure on 59 lead workers compared with a matched control group of the same number. Only one of the lead exposed group had a blood lead concentration above the current threshold limit value of 3.81 mumol/l at the time of testing (mean 2.36 mumol/l, range 1.19-3.92 mumol/l) and none had been detected above that level in the previous three years. Nevertheless, most neurobehavioural functions tested showed some impairment in the lead workers. Visual sensory function was affected and, perhaps as a consequence, sustained attention and psychomotor tasks were performed more slowly by the lead exposed group. Cognitive functions were also impaired, with sensory store memory, short term memory, and learning abilities all showing deficits in lead workers. Such cognitive deficits may also be partly due to initial degradation of the visual input. Long term memory performance compared equally with control levels possibly because of development of a compensatory strategy such as rehearsal by the lead exposed subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis relating to lead workers test performance and their lead exposure showed that performance on the sensory store memory test alone was significantly related to exposure. This was probably due to the homogeneity of the lead exposed group with regard to blood lead concentrations and the use of blood lead as a measure of chronic lead exposure.

  17. Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, A.M.; Teo, R.K.

    1986-06-01

    A set of neurobehavioural tests selected on the basis of information processing theory was used to study the effect of low level occupational lead exposure on 59 lead workers compared with a matched control group of the same number. Only one of the lead exposed group had a blood lead concentration above the current threshold limit value of 3.81 mumol/l at the time of testing (mean 2.36 mumol/l, range 1.19-3.92 mumol/l) and none had been detected above that level in the previous three years. Nevertheless, most neurobehavioural functions tested showed some impairment in the lead workers. Visual sensory function was affected and, perhaps as a consequence, sustained attention and psychomotor tasks were performed more slowly by the lead exposed group. Cognitive functions were also impaired, with sensory store memory, short term memory, and learning abilities all showing deficits in lead workers. Such cognitive deficits may also be partly due to initial degradation of the visual input. Long term memory performance compared equally with control levels possibly because of development of a compensatory strategy such as rehearsal by the lead exposed subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis relating to lead workers test performance and their lead exposure showed that performance on the sensory store memory test alone was significantly related to exposure. This was probably due to the homogeneity of the lead exposed group with regard to blood lead concentrations and the use of blood lead as a measure of chronic lead exposure.

  18. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  19. Sea sand for reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.; Ordonez R, E.; Ordonez R, En.

    2002-01-01

    Some phosphates have the property to suck in radioactive metals in solution, what it is taken in advance to make reactive barriers which are placed in the nuclear waste repositories. In an effort for contributing to the study of this type of materials, it has been obtained the zirconium silicate (ZrSiO 4 ) and the alpha zirconium hydrogen phosphate (Zr(HPO 4 ) 2H 2 O) starting from sea sand in an easy and economic way. (Author)

  20. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Jegede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL and lead acetate (i.p. 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS significantly (p<0.05 as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility.

  1. Reactive power supply by distributed generators

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, M.

    2008-01-01

    Distributed reactive power supply is necessary in distribution networks for an optimized network operation. This paper presents first the reactive power supply capabilities of generators connected to the distribution network (distributed generators). In a second step an approach is proposed of determining the energy losses resulting from reactive power supply by distributed generators. The costs for compensating these losses represent the operational costs of reactive power supply. These cost...

  2. Controlling material reactivity using architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kyle

    2017-06-01

    The reactivity of thermites can be tailored through selection of several parameters, and can range from very slow burns to rapid deflagrations. 3D printing is a rapidly emerging field, and offers the potential to build architected parts. Here we sought to explore whether controlling such features could be a suitable path forward for gaining additional control of the reactivity. This talk discusses several new methods for preparing thermite samples with controlled architectures using 3D printing. Additionally, we demonstrate that the architecture can play a role in the reactivity of an object. Our results suggest that architecture can be used to tailor the convective and/or advective energy transport during a deflagration, thus enhancing or retarding the reaction. The results are promising in that they give researchers an additional way of controlling the energy release rate without defaulting to the conventional approach of changing the formulation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-708525. In collaboration with: Cheng Zhu, Eric Duoss, Matt Durban, Alex Gash, Alexandra Golobic, Michael Grapes, David Kolesky, Joshua Kuntz, Jennifer Lewis, Christopher Spadaccini; LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LAB.

  3. Quadratic reactivity fuel cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    For educational purposes it is highly desirable to provide simple yet realistic models for fuel cycle and fuel economy. In particular, a lumped model without recourse to detailed spatial calculations would be very helpful in providing the student with a proper understanding of the purposes of fuel cycle calculations. A teaching model for fuel cycle studies based on a lumped model assuming the summability of partial reactivities with a linear dependence of reactivity usefully illustrates fuel utilization concepts. The linear burnup model does not satisfactorily represent natural enrichment reactors. A better model, showing the trend of initial plutonium production before subsequent fuel burnup and fission product generation, is a quadratic fit. The study of M-batch cycles, reloading 1/Mth of the core at end of cycle, is now complicated by nonlinear equations. A complete account of the asymptotic cycle for any order of M-batch refueling can be given and compared with the linear model. A complete account of the transient cycle can be obtained readily in the two-batch model and this exact solution would be useful in verifying numerical marching models. It is convenient to treat the parabolic fit rho = 1 - tau 2 as a special case of the general quadratic fit rho = 1 - C/sub tau/ - (1 - C)tau 2 in suitably normalized reactivity and cycle time units. The parabolic results are given in this paper

  4. Evaluation of bituminized waste reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaro, S.; Moulinier, D.

    2000-01-01

    The bituminization process has been used for conditioning low and medium level (LML) radioactive waste, particularly to immobilize coprecipitation slurries and evaporation concentrates generated by effluent treatment. The process consists in mixing bitumen matrix with inactive soluble and slightly soluble salts added to insolubilize the radionuclides or resulting from the neutralization of acid effluents. This operation is performed at a sufficient temperature - depending on waste composition and bitumen grade to ensure the flow of the resulting mixture into metal containers. Exothermicity due to salts/salts or salts/bitumen reactions depending on the type of waste can be induced during or after the mixing step. This could produce an additional heat emission that the drum must be able to release to avoid a potentially incidental pattern with ignition risk, explaining why the CEA has been involved in evaluating the thermal reactivity of bituminized waste and its repercussions on the bituminization process. Given the difficulty of discriminating each exothermal reaction, the characterization of a global reactivity appears as a further precautionary measure, in addition to the definition of a working safety margin. The CEA has accordingly developed studies on this aspect. The article discusses the experimental methodology developed for the determination of the global reactivity. (authors)

  5. Gas cooled leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutt, R.P.; Rehak, M.L.; Hornik, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to cover as completely as possible and in sufficient detail the topics relevant to lead design. The first part identifies the problems associated with lead design, states the mathematical formulation, and shows the results of numerical and analytical solutions. The second part presents the results of a parametric study whose object is to determine the best choice for cooling method, material, and geometry. These findings axe applied in a third part to the design of high-current leads whose end temperatures are determined from the surrounding equipment. It is found that cooling method or improved heat transfer are not critical once good heat exchange is established. The range 5 5 but extends over a large of values. Mass flow needed to prevent thermal runaway varies linearly with current above a given threshold. Below that value, the mass flow is constant with current. Transient analysis shows no evidence of hysteresis. If cooling is interrupted, the mass flow needed to restore the lead to its initially cooled state grows exponentially with the time that the lead was left without cooling

  6. Detection of significant protein coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of proteins cannot be fully understood without taking into account the coevolutionary linkages entangling them. From a practical point of view, coevolution between protein families has been used as a way of detecting protein interactions and functional relationships from genomic information. The most common approach to inferring protein coevolution involves the quantification of phylogenetic tree similarity using a family of methodologies termed mirrortree. In spite of their success, a fundamental problem of these approaches is the lack of an adequate statistical framework to assess the significance of a given coevolutionary score (tree similarity). As a consequence, a number of ad hoc filters and arbitrary thresholds are required in an attempt to obtain a final set of confident coevolutionary signals. In this work, we developed a method for associating confidence estimators (P values) to the tree-similarity scores, using a null model specifically designed for the tree comparison problem. We show how this approach largely improves the quality and coverage (number of pairs that can be evaluated) of the detected coevolution in all the stages of the mirrortree workflow, independently of the starting genomic information. This not only leads to a better understanding of protein coevolution and its biological implications, but also to obtain a highly reliable and comprehensive network of predicted interactions, as well as information on the substructure of macromolecular complexes using only genomic information. The software and datasets used in this work are freely available at: http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/pMT/. pazos@cnb.csic.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Event-Based Modularization of Reactive Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakuti Khah Olun Abadi, Somayeh; Aksit, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    There is a large number of complex software systems that have reactive behavior. As for any other software system, reactive systems are subject to evolution demands. This paper defines a set requirements that must be fulfilled so that reuse of reactive software systems can be increased. Detailed

  8. Effect of 137Cs on immunological reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    An important role of 137 Cs as a new ecological factor was shown by analyzing 31 different studies. The radioisotope may at present be detected in the organisms of all inhabitants of this planet. The migration of 137 Cs along the chain lichen-deer-man leads to its accumulation in the organism of humans living in the Extreme North and taking venison in their food. Although the high sensitivity of immunological reactions to various unfavourable environmental factors is well known, data on the effect of incorporated 137 Cs on immunity are scanty. Experiments on animals showed changes in factors of nonspecific immunity (phagocytic reaction of blood neutrophils, bactericidal activity, lysozyme and complement titres of blood serum) and specific immunity (formation of antiviral antibodies). The blood of animals injured by the isotope displays complete and incomplete autoantibodies. The dependence of immunobiological changes on the dose absorbed by the organism is shown. The 137 Cs intake of inhabitants of the Extreme North who eat venison did not, with the absorbed dose equalling up to 50 Mrem per year, lead to changes in their immunological reactivity. (author)

  9. The lead and lead-acid battery industries during 2002 and 2007 in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.Y.; Li, A.J.; Finlow, D.E. [Key Lab of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2009-06-01

    In the past 15 years, the center of the international lead market has shifted to China. China has become the largest producer of raw and refined lead, plus the largest consumer. This paper reviews the status of the lead and lead-acid battery industries in China, including lead mining, lead refining, secondary lead production, the lead-acid battery industry, new opportunities for lead-acid batteries, and the environmental problems associated with lead and lead-acid batteries. The output of raw and refined lead has increased annually in China, and now accounts for more than 30% of the world total. As a result of a change in the Chinese government's policy regarding the export of lead, plus an increase in the price of lead, the profits of Chinese lead manufacturers were significantly reduced, the trade deficit of the Chinese lead industry increased, the operating rates of lead smelter enterprises greatly reduced, and some small enterprises were forced to shut down. At the present time, an increasing number of enterprises have begun to produce secondary lead, and the scale of production has expanded from tens of tons to tens of thousands of tons. In 2006, the output of secondary lead in China reached 700,000 tons, but outdated technology and equipment limited development of the secondary lead industry. Because of serious pollution problems, raw material shortages, and fierce price competition in the battery market, changes in the development of the lead-acid battery industry have been dramatic; approximately one thousand medium-sized and small lead-acid battery producers have been closed in the past 3 years. The output of large lead-acid battery enterprises has not been reduced, however, as a result of their manufacturing technology and equipment being comparable to those in other advanced industrial countries. In China, the flourishing development of electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and photovoltaic energy systems should provide ongoing opportunities for

  10. The lead and lead-acid battery industries during 2002 and 2007 in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.Y.; Li, A.J.; Finlow, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    In the past 15 years, the center of the international lead market has shifted to China. China has become the largest producer of raw and refined lead, plus the largest consumer. This paper reviews the status of the lead and lead-acid battery industries in China, including lead mining, lead refining, secondary lead production, the lead-acid battery industry, new opportunities for lead-acid batteries, and the environmental problems associated with lead and lead-acid batteries. The output of raw and refined lead has increased annually in China, and now accounts for more than 30% of the world total. As a result of a change in the Chinese government's policy regarding the export of lead, plus an increase in the price of lead, the profits of Chinese lead manufacturers were significantly reduced, the trade deficit of the Chinese lead industry increased, the operating rates of lead smelter enterprises greatly reduced, and some small enterprises were forced to shut down. At the present time, an increasing number of enterprises have begun to produce secondary lead, and the scale of production has expanded from tens of tons to tens of thousands of tons. In 2006, the output of secondary lead in China reached 700,000 tons, but outdated technology and equipment limited development of the secondary lead industry. Because of serious pollution problems, raw material shortages, and fierce price competition in the battery market, changes in the development of the lead-acid battery industry have been dramatic; approximately one thousand medium-sized and small lead-acid battery producers have been closed in the past 3 years. The output of large lead-acid battery enterprises has not been reduced, however, as a result of their manufacturing technology and equipment being comparable to those in other advanced industrial countries. In China, the flourishing development of electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and photovoltaic energy systems should provide ongoing opportunities for the

  11. C-reactive protein as a predictor of chorioamnionitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik J; Muller, Corinna L; Sartorius, Jennifer A; White, David R; Maslow, Arthur S

    2012-10-01

    Chorioamnionitis (CAM) affects many pregnancies complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Finding a serum factor that could accurately predict the presence of CAM could potentially lead to more efficient management of PPROM and improved neonatal outcomes. To determine if C-reactive protein (CRP) is an effective early marker of CAM in patients with PPROM. A retrospective evaluation of pregnant women with PPROM at Geisinger Medical Center in Danville, Pennsylvania, between January 2005 and January 2009. Nonparametric statistical tests (ie, Wilcoxon rank sum and Spearman rank correlation) were used to compare distributions that were skewed. Characteristics of the study population were compared using 2-sample t tests for continuous variables and Fisher exact tests for discrete variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to generate receiver operating characteristic curves and obtain area under the curve estimates in stepwise fashion for predicting histologic CAM. A secondary analysis compared the characteristics among patients with clinical CAM, histologic CAM, or non-CAM. The total population of 73 women was subdivided into patients with histologic CAM (n=26) and patients without histologic CAM (ie, no evidence of CAM on placental pathology; n=47). There was no difference between groups in CRP levels, days of pregnancy latency, white blood cell count, smoking status, antibiotic administration, or steroid benefit. The group with histologic CAM delivered at earlier gestational ages: mean (standard deviation) age was 29.5 (4.4) weeks vs 31.9 (3.5) weeks (P=.02). For our primary analysis, we found no difference in CRP levels (P=.32). Receiver operating characteristic curve plots of CRP levels, temperature at delivery, and white blood cell count resulted in an area under the curve estimate of 0.696, which was 70% predictive of histologic CAM. In the secondary analysis, after adjusting for gestational age, the estimated hazard ratio for CRP change

  12. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  13. Minor actinide burning in dedicated lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejzlar, P.; Driscoll, M.J.; Kazimi, M.S.; Todreas, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    The destruction of minor actinides (MA) in dedicated burners is of contemporary interest in Europe and Japan because it requires the deployment of smaller number of special transmutation facilities. A major fraction of Pu from spent LWR fuel can be then burned in PWRs (or fast reactors) using dedicated fertile-free fuel assemblies. However, the design of MA burning fast spectrum cores poses significant challenges because of deterioration of key safety parameters, in particular of the coolant void coefficient. This study proposes the concept of an lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE)-cooled dedicated MA burner having metallic fuel (MA-Pu-Zr) and streaming assemblies to attain acceptable coolant void worth performance. It is shown that a large 1800 MWth fertile-free core containing 37 wt% TRU with very high fraction of MA(59 wt%) from LWR spent fuel can be burned in a first cycle for 700 EFPDs with a very small reactivity swing: less than β eff . Moreover, the reactivity void worth is negative for a fully voided core when all surrounding coolant is kept at reference density. However, the core reactivity increases as coolant density falls from the reference value of 10.25 to 6 g/cm 3 . Because its coolant density coefficient value is less than that of a sodium cooled IFR, the concept provides good potential for the achievement of self-regulation characteristics in unprotected events, provided that small negative fuel temperature feedback can be maintained. (authors)

  14. Reactive power management and voltage control in deregulated power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Robert G.

    The research that is the subject of this dissertation is about the management of reactive power and voltage support in the wholesale open access power markets in the United States (US). The purpose of this research is to place decisions about open access market structures, as they relate to reactive power and voltage control, on a logical and consistent economic basis, given the engineering needs of a commercial electric power system. An examination of the electricity markets operating in the US today reveals that current approaches to reactive power management and voltage support are extensions of those based on historical, regulated monopoly electric service. A case for change is built by first looking at the subject of reactive power from an engineering viewpoint and then from an economic perspective. Ultimately, a set of market rules for managing reactive power and voltage support is proposed. The proposal suggests that cost recovery for static and dynamic VARs is appropriately accomplished through the regulated transmission cost of service. Static VAR cost recovery should follow traditional rate recovery methodologies. In the case of dynamic VARs, this work provides a methodology based on the microeconomic theory of the firm for determining such cost. It further suggests that an operational strategy that reduces and limits the use of dynamic VARs, during normal operations, is appropriate. This latter point leads to an increase in the fixed cost of the transmission network but prevents price spikes and short supply situations from affecting, or being affected by, the reactive capability limitations associated with dynamic VARs supplied from synchronous generators. The rules are consistent with a market structure that includes competitive generation and their application will result in the communication of a clear understanding of the responsibilities, related to voltage control, of each type of market entity. In this sense, their application will contribute to

  15. Stress and sleep reactivity: a prospective investigation of the stress-diathesis model of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christopher L; Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    To prospectively assess sleep reactivity as a diathesis of insomnia, and to delineate the interaction between this diathesis and naturalistic stress in the development of insomnia among normal sleepers. Longitudinal. Community-based. 2,316 adults from the Evolution of Pathways to Insomnia Cohort (EPIC) with no history of insomnia or depression (46.8 ± 13.2 y; 60% female). None. Participants reported the number of stressful events they encountered at baseline (Time 1), as well as the level of cognitive intrusion they experienced in response to each stressor. Stressful events (OR = 1.13; P stress-induced cognitive intrusion (OR = 1.61; P stressful events on risk for insomnia (P sleep reactivity significantly increased risk for insomnia (OR = 1.78; P sleep reactivity moderated the effects of stress-induced intrusion (P sleep reactivity. Trait sleep reactivity also constituted a significant risk for depression (OR = 1.67; P sleep reactivity is a significant risk factor for incident insomnia, and that it triggers insomnia by exacerbating the effects of stress-induced intrusion. Sleep reactivity is also a precipitant of depression, as mediated by insomnia. These findings support the stress-diathesis model of insomnia, while highlighting sleep reactivity as an important diathesis. Drake CL, Pillai V, Roth T. Stress and sleep reactivity: a prospective investigation of the stress-diathesis model of insomnia.

  16. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  17. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A.; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W.; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  18. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  19. Crosstalk between nitrite, myoglobin and reactive oxygen species to regulate vasodilation under hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Totzeck

    Full Text Available The systemic response to decreasing oxygen levels is hypoxic vasodilation. While this mechanism has been known for more than a century, the underlying cellular events have remained incompletely understood. Nitrite signaling is critically involved in vessel relaxation under hypoxia. This can be attributed to the presence of myoglobin in the vessel wall together with other potential nitrite reductases, which generate nitric oxide, one of the most potent vasodilatory signaling molecules. Questions remain relating to the precise concentration of nitrite and the exact dose-response relations between nitrite and myoglobin under hypoxia. It is furthermore unclear whether regulatory mechanisms exist which balance this interaction. Nitrite tissue levels were similar across all species investigated. We then investigated the exact fractional myoglobin desaturation in an ex vivo approach when gassing with 1% oxygen. Within a short time frame myoglobin desaturated to 58±12%. Given that myoglobin significantly contributes to nitrite reduction under hypoxia, dose-response experiments using physiological to pharmacological nitrite concentrations were conducted. Along all concentrations, abrogation of myoglobin in mice impaired vasodilation. As reactive oxygen species may counteract the vasodilatory response, we used superoxide dismutase and its mimic tempol as well as catalase and ebselen to reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species during hypoxic vasodilation. Incubation of tempol in conjunction with catalase alone and catalase/ebselen increased the vasodilatory response to nitrite. Our study shows that modest hypoxia leads to a significant nitrite-dependent vessel relaxation. This requires the presence of vascular myoglobin for both physiological and pharmacological nitrite levels. Reactive oxygen species, in turn, modulate this vasodilation response.

  20. PLÉIADES: RESPONSIVENESS, FLEXIBILITY, REACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gabriel-Robez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2011, Astrium GEO-Information Services launched Pléiades 1, the first of two identical optical imaging satellites that will be operated on a phased orbit. This satellite system, designed by the French Space Agency, CNES, based upon French Defense specifications, will provide 50-cm products in record time. The overall aim of this paper is to describe the benefits of the innovative features of Pléiades 1 and its operations, so as to assess their combined potential in emergency situations, crisis recovery, regular monitoring or large area mapping. Specific care will be brought to describe the reactivity enabled by the system. Based on real-life examples, the paper will lead the analysis on the two main components of the system. On the one hand, the space segment will be presented through the following characteristics: revisit capacity, agility, acquisition capacity and acquisition scenarios (target, single-pass mosaics, stereo, tristereo, linear monitoring, persistent surveillance. On the other hand, the flexibility of the ground segment will be assessed. The benefits of multiple tasking plans per day, direct tasking capacity, automated processing and on-line ordering and delivering will be illustrated, tested and qualified for applications requiring a high level of responsiveness and reactivity. The presentation will end with a summary of the benefits of the space segment features and the flexibility of the ground segment, fine-tuned to answer both military and civilian / commercial needs. The analysis will be extended in the perspective of the second Pléiades' launch, highlighting the advantages of having two satellites operating on a phased orbit, affording a daily revisit anywhere on Earth, with very high resolution.

  1. Relational Perspectives on Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relational Perspectives on Leading discusses leadership from a relational and social constructionism perspective as practiced on an everyday basis between people. The book pursues a fast growing, practice-based approach - particularly within the Anglo-Saxon parts of the world - to organization...

  2. Learn about Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... it has some beneficial uses, it can be toxic to humans and animals causing of health ... some types of industrial facilities, and past use of lead-based paint ...

  3. Leading Causes of Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, more than half of all people in the United States either will have a cataract or have had cataract surgery. Common symptoms are: Blurry vision Colors that seem faded Glare Not being able to ...

  4. Lead User Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Larsen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    covers the opposite view, where a company actively searches and involves lead users, however, with limited success also. Based on both cases, we analyze how, in these emerging processes of relating, meaning is co-created in a way that narrows the shared conceptual space for imagination and collaboration...

  5. Girls Leading Outward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  6. Lead pollution in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, D.; Khatoon, N.; Ishaque, M.; Ahmed, I.

    1997-01-01

    Lead pollution of urban area emanating from the vehicular exhaust alone is being labeled as one of the worst form of environmental degradation attracting our attention for remediation. For factual assessment samples were collected from different areas of Islamabad. These samples consisted of tree scrapings / peelings, which were dried and ground before undertaking analysis for the lead content. The samples were digested with an acid mixture to remove the organic matter and analyzed using GFAAS technique. A total of 81 samples have been analyzed. The results sowed a lead content varying in the range of 8-474 Mu g g/sup -1/) and 23 samples with Pb content <50 Mu g g-1 (8.0-50.0 Mu g g/sup -1/). Most of the samples also contained some growth which consisted of bacterial, algae and fugal cells and the results have been explained on the basis of Pb absorption by these cells. The procedure followed in this study is recommended for evaluation of lead pollution in urban areas. (author)

  7. EFFECT OF LEAD ACETATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICROSOFT

    increase in the production of poultry meat at a reasonable cost (Alam et al., ...... 36(4): 537-541. Taggart MA, Figuerola J, Green AJ, Mateo R, Deacon C, Osborn D, ... selenium, lead and copper levels in the livers and bones of five waterfowl ...

  8. Intoxication for lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez, Ruben Dario; Tamayo, Margarita Maria

    1999-01-01

    We present a case of a hospitalized girl with bronchopneumonia, who needed mechanic ventilation. Also she had a developmental delay and Burtons border in gums. Radiological studies showed dense transverse metaphiseal bands in long bones and hyperdensity in basal ganglia. We found high serum lead levels

  9. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  10. Anatomy of lead poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Results: The primary form of lead toxicity is by oxidative stress mechanisms, apoptosis and necrosis involving ... néfastes sur la reproduction à l'avenir. Résultats:La forme ... prostate cancers, abnormal sexual ..... ensure this work is a success.

  11. Scientometry Leading us Astray

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 82 (2010), s. 8-8 ISSN 0926-4981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : scientometry Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/en82/european-scene/ scientometry -leading-us-astray

  12. Total contribution of airborne lead to blood lead.

    OpenAIRE

    Manton, W I

    1985-01-01

    A nine year study of blood lead concentrations and isotope ratios carried out on a married couple shows that pulmonary deposition cannot account for all the airborne lead in blood; that lead from bone may comprise 70% of blood lead; and that during pregnancy blood lead may double due to mobilisation of lead from bone.

  13. Total contribution of airborne lead to blood lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, W I

    1985-01-01

    A nine year study of blood lead concentrations and isotope ratios carried out on a married couple shows that pulmonary deposition cannot account for all the airborne lead in blood; that lead from bone may comprise 70% of blood lead; and that during pregnancy blood lead may double due to mobilisation of lead from bone. PMID:3970881

  14. On the Construction of Sorted Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We develop a theory of sorted bigraphical reactive systems. Every application of bigraphs in the literature has required an extension, a sorting, of pure bigraphs. In turn, every such application has required a redevelopment of the theory of pure bigraphical reactive systems for the sorting at hand...... bigraphs. Technically, we give our construction for ordinary reactive systems, then lift it to bigraphical reactive systems. As such, we give also a construction of sortings for ordinary reactive systems. This construction is an improvement over previous attempts in that it produces smaller and much more...

  15. The importance of including local correlation times in the calculation of inter-proton distances from NMR measurements: ignoring local correlation times leads to significant errors in the conformational analysis of the Glc alpha1-2Glc alpha linkage by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackeen, Mukram; Almond, Andrew; Cumpstey, Ian; Enis, Seth C; Kupce, Eriks; Butters, Terry D; Fairbanks, Antony J; Dwek, Raymond A; Wormald, Mark R

    2006-06-07

    The experimental determination of oligosaccharide conformations has traditionally used cross-linkage 1H-1H NOE/ROEs. As relatively few NOEs are observed, to provide sufficient conformational constraints this method relies on: accurate quantification of NOE intensities (positive constraints); analysis of absent NOEs (negative constraints); and hence calculation of inter-proton distances using the two-spin approximation. We have compared the results obtained by using 1H 2D NOESY, ROESY and T-ROESY experiments at 500 and 700 MHz to determine the conformation of the terminal Glc alpha1-2Glc alpha linkage in a dodecasaccharide and a related tetrasaccharide. For the tetrasaccharide, the NOESY and ROESY spectra produced the same qualitative pattern of linkage cross-peaks but the quantitative pattern, the relative peak intensities, was different. For the dodecasaccharide, the NOESY and ROESY spectra at 500 MHz produced a different qualitative pattern of linkage cross-peaks, with fewer peaks in the NOESY spectrum. At 700 MHz, the NOESY and ROESY spectra of the dodecasaccharide produced the same qualitative pattern of peaks, but again the relative peak intensities were different. These differences are due to very significant differences in the local correlation times for different proton pairs across this glycosidic linkage. The local correlation time for each proton pair was measured using the ratio of the NOESY and T-ROESY cross-relaxation rates, leaving the NOESY and ROESY as independent data sets for calculating the inter-proton distances. The inter-proton distances calculated including the effects of differences in local correlation times give much more consistent results.

  16. Sleep Reactivity and Insomnia: Genetic and Environmental Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christopher L.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Roth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Determine the genetic and environmental contributions to sleep reactivity and insomnia. Design: Population-based twin cohort. Participants: 1782 individual twins (988 monozygotic or MZ; 1,086 dizygotic or DZ), including 744 complete twin pairs (377 MZ and 367 DZ). Mean age was 22.5 ± 2.8 years; gender distribution was 59% women. Measurements: Sleep reactivity was measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST). The criterion for insomnia was having difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or nonrefreshing sleep “usually or always” for ≥ 1 month, with at least “somewhat” interference with daily functioning. Results: The prevalence of insomnia was 21%. Heritability estimates for sleep reactivity were 29% for females and 43% for males. The environmental variance for sleep reactivity was greater for females and entirely due to nonshared effects. Insomnia was 43% to 55% heritable for males and females, respectively; the sex difference was not significant. The genetic variances in insomnia and FIRST scores were correlated (r = 0.54 in females, r = 0.64 in males), as were the environmental variances (r = 0.32 in females, r = 0.37 in males). In terms of individual insomnia symptoms, difficulty staying asleep (25% to 35%) and nonrefreshing sleep (34% to 35%) showed relatively more genetic influences than difficulty falling asleep (0%). Conclusions: Sleep reactivity to stress has a substantial genetic component, as well as an environmental component. The finding that FIRST scores and insomnia symptoms share genetic influences is consistent with the hypothesis that sleep reactivity may be a genetic vulnerability for developing insomnia. Citation: Drake CL; Friedman NP; Wright KP; Roth T. Sleep reactivity and insomnia: genetic and environmental influences. SLEEP 2011;34(9):1179-1188. PMID:21886355

  17. predictors of c-reactive protein response in children infected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... Results: The predictors of the C-reactive protein response in malaria (CRP ≥ 10mg/l) were fever (t = 6.867; ..... The lack of a significant difference between the ... infections - A major cause of death among children in Africa.

  18. Mortality study of lead workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W C; Gaffey, W R

    1975-01-01

    The mortality of 7,032 men employed for one or more years in lead production facilities or battery plants was followed over a 23-year period, 1947-70. Lead absorption in many of these men was greatly in excess of currently accepted standards based upon urinary and blood lead concentrations available for a portion of the group. There were 1,356 deaths reported. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes was 107 for smelter workers and 99 for battery plant workers. Death from neoplasms were in slight excess in smelters, but not significantly increased in battery plants. There were no excess deaths from kidney tumors. The SMR for cardiovascular-renal disease was 96 for smelter workers and 101 for battery plant workers. There was definitely no excess in deaths from either stroke or hypertensive heart disease; however, deaths classified as other hypertensive disease and unspecified nephritis or renal sclerosis were higher than expected. The life expectancy of lead workers was calculated to be approximately the same as that of all U.S. males.

  19. Void effects on BWR Doppler and void reactivity feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang-Shou Cheng; Diamond, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The significance of steam voids and control rods on the Doppler feedback in a gadolinia shimmed BWR is demonstrated. The importance of bypass voids when determining void feedback is also shown. Calculations were done using a point model, i.e., feedback was expressed in terms of reactivity coefficients which were determined for individual four-bundle configurations and then appropriately combined to yield reactor results. For overpower transients the inclusion of the void effect of control rods is to reduce Doppler feedback. For overpressurization transients the inclusion of the effect of bypass void wil increase the reactivity due to void collapse. (author)

  20. Space dependence of reactivity parameters on reactor dynamic perturbation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maletti, R.; Ziegenbein, D.

    1985-01-01

    Practical application of reactor-dynamic perturbation measurements for on-power determination of differential reactivity weight of control rods and power coefficients of reactivity has shown a significant dependence of parameters on the position of outcore detectors. The space dependence of neutron flux signal in the core of a VVER-440-type reactor was measured by means of 60 self-powered neutron detectors. The greatest neutron flux alterations are located close to moved control rods and in height of the perturbation position. By means of computations, detector positions can be found in the core in which the one-point model is almost valid. (author)

  1. Diffusive–Dispersive and Reactive Fronts in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberer, Christina M.; Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Grathwohl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , across the unsaturated–saturated interface, under both conservative and reactive transport conditions. As reactive system we considered the abiotic oxidation of Fe2+ in the presence of O2. We studied the reaction kinetics in batch experiments and its coupling with diffusive and dispersive transport...... processes by means of one-dimensional columns and two-dimensional flow-through experiments, respectively. A noninvasive optode technique was used to track O2 transport into the initially anoxic porous medium at highly resolved spatial and temporal scales. The results show significant differences...

  2. Safety and Health Topics: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ammunition, pipes, cable covering, building material, solder, radiation shielding, collapsible tubes, and fishing weights. Lead is also ... lead linings in tanks and radiation protection, leaded glass, work involving soldering, and other work involving lead ...

  3. Os odontoideum: a significant radiographic finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choit, Rachel L.; Reilly, Christopher W.; Jamieson, Douglas H.

    2005-01-01

    Os odontoideum can lead to instability of the atlantoaxial joint and places the spinal cord at significant risk for acute catastrophic events after minor trauma or chronic neurological change. We present two cases of os odontoideum in pediatric patients that were not appreciated at earlier remote imaging but were, in retrospect, detectable. One patient presented with an acute spinal cord injury. Incorporating assessment of dens integrity into the evaluation algorithm for all pediatric cervical spine studies should lead to early detection of os odontoideum lesions and allow referral to appropriate clinical spinal services for evaluation, surveillance and possible surgery to prevent future complications. (orig.)

  4. Os odontoideum: a significant radiographic finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choit, Rachel L.; Reilly, Christopher W. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jamieson, Douglas H. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada)

    2005-08-01

    Os odontoideum can lead to instability of the atlantoaxial joint and places the spinal cord at significant risk for acute catastrophic events after minor trauma or chronic neurological change. We present two cases of os odontoideum in pediatric patients that were not appreciated at earlier remote imaging but were, in retrospect, detectable. One patient presented with an acute spinal cord injury. Incorporating assessment of dens integrity into the evaluation algorithm for all pediatric cervical spine studies should lead to early detection of os odontoideum lesions and allow referral to appropriate clinical spinal services for evaluation, surveillance and possible surgery to prevent future complications. (orig.)

  5. Probabilistic models for reactive behaviour in heterogeneous condensed phase media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, M. R.; Gartling, D. K.; DesJardin, P. E.

    2012-02-01

    This work presents statistically-based models to describe reactive behaviour in heterogeneous energetic materials. Mesoscale effects are incorporated in continuum-level reactive flow descriptions using probability density functions (pdfs) that are associated with thermodynamic and mechanical states. A generalised approach is presented that includes multimaterial behaviour by treating the volume fraction as a random kinematic variable. Model simplifications are then sought to reduce the complexity of the description without compromising the statistical approach. Reactive behaviour is first considered for non-deformable media having a random temperature field as an initial state. A pdf transport relationship is derived and an approximate moment approach is incorporated in finite element analysis to model an example application whereby a heated fragment impacts a reactive heterogeneous material which leads to a delayed cook-off event. Modelling is then extended to include deformation effects associated with shock loading of a heterogeneous medium whereby random variables of strain, strain-rate and temperature are considered. A demonstrative mesoscale simulation of a non-ideal explosive is discussed that illustrates the joint statistical nature of the strain and temperature fields during shock loading to motivate the probabilistic approach. This modelling is derived in a Lagrangian framework that can be incorporated in continuum-level shock physics analysis. Future work will consider particle-based methods for a numerical implementation of this modelling approach.

  6. Framework for reactive mass transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Mønster; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2014-01-01

    Reactive transport modeling is applicable for a range of porous materials. Here the modeling framework is focused on cement-based materials, where ion diffusion and migration are described by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation system. A two phase vapor/liquid flow model, with a sorption hysteresis...... description is coupled to the system. The mass transport is solved by using the finite element method where the chemical equilibrium is solved explicitly by an operator splitting method. The IPHREEQC library is used as chemical equilibrium solver. The equation system, solved by IPHREEQC, is explained...

  7. A new computational method for reactive power market clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T.; Elkasrawy, A.; Venkatesh, B.

    2009-01-01

    After deregulation of electricity markets, ancillary services such as reactive power supply are priced separately. However, unlike real power supply, procedures for costing and pricing reactive power supply are still evolving and spot markets for reactive power do not exist as of now. Further, traditional formulations proposed for clearing reactive power markets use a non-linear mixed integer programming formulation that are difficult to solve. This paper proposes a new reactive power supply market clearing scheme. Novelty of this formulation lies in the pricing scheme that rewards transformers for tap shifting while participating in this market. The proposed model is a non-linear mixed integer challenge. A significant portion of the manuscript is devoted towards the development of a new successive mixed integer linear programming (MILP) technique to solve this formulation. The successive MILP method is computationally robust and fast. The IEEE 6-bus and 300-bus systems are used to test the proposed method. These tests serve to demonstrate computational speed and rigor of the proposed method. (author)

  8. Mitochondria and Reactive Oxygen Species: Physiology and Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashini Bolisetty

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The air that we breathe contains nearly 21% oxygen, most of which is utilized by mitochondria during respiration. While we cannot live without it, it was perceived as a bane to aerobic organisms due to the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolites by mitochondria and other cellular compartments. However, this dogma was challenged when these species were demonstrated to modulate cellular responses through altering signaling pathways. In fact, since this discovery of a dichotomous role of reactive species in immune function and signal transduction, research in this field grew at an exponential pace and the pursuit for mechanisms involved began. Due to a significant number of review articles present on the reactive species mediated cell death, we have focused on emerging novel pathways such as autophagy, signaling and maintenance of the mitochondrial network. Despite its role in several processes, increased reactive species generation has been associated with the origin and pathogenesis of a plethora of diseases. While it is tempting to speculate that anti-oxidant therapy would protect against these disorders, growing evidence suggests that this may not be true. This further supports our belief that these reactive species play a fundamental role in maintenance of cellular and tissue homeostasis.

  9. Effects of age on reactive capacity and nigrostriatal dopamine function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of aging on reactive capacity (reaction time), and striatal dopamine function in the same animals. Twenty, 3 month old, and twenty, 24 month old, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a reactive capacity test to quickly release a lever, in response to an auditory and visual stimulus, in order to avoid footshocks. The young animals were tested at 3, 6, and 9 months of age, while the Old animals were tested at 18, 21, and 24 months of age. Twenty-four hours after the last testing session the animals were sacrificed and their striata dissected for biochemical assays. A [ 3 H]-spiperone receptor binding assay was performed to determine the density and affinity of striatial D-2 receptors. It was hypothesized that the improvement in reactive capacity performance of the Old animals over days was due to their ability to compensate for their decrease in receptor density by an increase in the production and utilization of dopamine. Significant positive correlations were also found between reactive capacity performance and receptor density as well as between reactive capacity and the ratio of DOPAC + HVA/DA

  10. Reactive, Safe Navigation for Lunar and Planetary Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Hans; Ruland, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    When humans return to the moon, Astronauts will be accompanied by robotic helpers. Enabling robots to safely operate near astronauts on the lunar surface has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of crew surface operations. Safely operating robots in close proximity to astronauts on the lunar surface requires reactive obstacle avoidance capabilities not available on existing planetary robots. In this paper we present work on safe, reactive navigation using a stereo based high-speed terrain analysis and obstacle avoidance system. Advances in the design of the algorithms allow it to run terrain analysis and obstacle avoidance algorithms at full frame rate (30Hz) on off the shelf hardware. The results of this analysis are fed into a fast, reactive path selection module, enforcing the safety of the chosen actions. The key components of the system are discussed and test results are presented.

  11. Lead poisoning: The invisible disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed.

  12. Serology indicates cytomegalovirus infection is associated with varicella-zoster virus reactivation

    OpenAIRE

    OGUNJIMI, Benson; Theeten, Heidi; HENS, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox after which the virus remains latent in neural ganglia. Subsequent reactivation episodes occur, leading mainly to subclinical detection of VZV, but also to the clinical entity herpes zoster. These reactivations are known to occur most frequently amongst immunocompromised individuals, but the incidence of herpes zoster is also known to increase with age, supposedly as a consequence of immunosenescence. Our analysis aims to explore associations bet...

  13. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    OpenAIRE

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has be...

  14. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  15. Leading change: 3--implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Joanna

    The potential for all staff to contribute to service improvement, irrespective of discipline, role or function, is outlined in the 2011 NHS leadership framework. This advocates developing the skills of the entire workforce to create a climate of continuous service improvement. As nurses are often required to take the lead in managing change in clinical practice, this final article in a three-part series focuses on implementing ande potentia reviewing change.

  16. Estimating sources, sinks and fluxes of reactive atmospheric compounds within a forest canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    While few dispute the significance of within-canopy sources or sinks of reactive gaseous and particulate compounds, their estimation continues to be the subject of active research and debate. Reactive species undergo turbulent dispersion within an inhomogeneous flow field, and ma...

  17. Implementing Motivational Features in Reactive Blended Learning: Application to an Introductory Control Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, J. A.; Gonzalez, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a significant advance in a reactive blended learning methodology applied to an introductory control engineering course. This proposal was based on the inclusion of a reactive element (a fuzzy-logic-based controller) designed to regulate the workload for each student according to his/her activity and performance. The…

  18. Letter: Modeling reactive shock waves in heterogeneous solids at the continuum level with stochastic differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittell, D. E.; Yarrington, C. D.; Lechman, J. B.; Baer, M. R.

    2018-05-01

    A new paradigm is introduced for modeling reactive shock waves in heterogeneous solids at the continuum level. Inspired by the probability density function methods from turbulent reactive flows, it is hypothesized that the unreacted material microstructures lead to a distribution of heat release rates from chemical reaction. Fluctuations in heat release, rather than velocity, are coupled to the reactive Euler equations which are then solved via the Riemann problem. A numerically efficient, one-dimensional hydrocode is used to demonstrate this new approach, and simulation results of a representative impact calculation (inert flyer into explosive target) are discussed.

  19. Effects of occupational lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y L; Lu, P K; Chen, Z Q; Liang, Y X; Lu, Q M; Pan, Z Q; Shao, M

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-three workers in a battery factory, 52 solderers in a television factory, and 50 embroidery workers (a reference group) were studied. The average air lead levels of the three workplaces were 0.578 mg/m3, 0.002 mg/m3, and 0.001 mg/m3, respectively. Adverse effects in terms of clinical manifestations and biochemical criteria were evident among the battery factory workers. A significant dose-response relationship existed between the toxic effects and the air lead levels. The solderers showed no apparent abnormalities in comparison with the embroidery workers. The early clinical manifestations were dysfunction of the central nervous system, indigestion, arthralgia, and myalgia in the extremities. A positive association was observed between the prevalence of fatigue, mild abdominal pain, and arthralgia and the blood lead (PbB), urinary lead (PbU), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels. The symptomatic threshold values of PbB, PbU, and ZPP were 30 micrograms/dl (1.5 mumol/l), 0.045 mg/l (0.2 mumol/l), and 40 micrograms/dl (0.7 mumol/l), respectively. The PbB, PbU, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and ZPP levels and the blood aminolevulinic dehydratase ratio could be used as indicators of lead exposure, although ZPP is preferred for a preventive monitoring program. The motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were slower in the exposed groups than in the reference group. No effects on behavioral function were observed among the solderers.

  20. Update on Recovering Lead From Scrap Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, E. R.; Lee, A. Y.; Paulson, D. L.

    1985-02-01

    Previous work at the Bureau of Mines Rolla Research Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, resulted in successful development of a bench-scale, combination electrorefining-electrowinning method for recycling lead from scrap batteries by using waste fluosilicic acid (H2SiF6) as electrolyte.1,2 This paper describes larger scale experiments. Prior attempts to electrowin lead failed because large quantities of insoluble lead dioxide were deposited on the anodes at the expense of lead deposition on the cathodes. A major breakthrough was achieved with the discovery that lead dioxide formation at the anodes is prevented by adding a small amount of phosphorus to the electrolyte. The amount of PbO2 formed on the anodes during lead electrowinning was less than 1% of the total lead deposited on the cathodes. This work recently won the prestigious IR·100 award as one of the 100 most significant technological advances of 1984.

  1. Atrial fibrillation in the elderly: the potential contribution of reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, Kurt J.; Patel, Vickas V.

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly encountered cardiac arrhythmia, and is a significant source of healthcare expenditures throughout the world. It is an arrhythmia with a very clearly defined predisposition for individuals of advanced age, and this fact has led to intense study of the mechanistic links between aging and AF. By promoting oxidative damage to multiple subcellular and cellular structures, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to induce the intra- and extra-cellular changes necessary to promote the pathogenesis of AF. In addition, the generation and accumulation of ROS have been intimately linked to the cellular processes which underlie aging. This review begins with an overview of AF pathophysiology, and introduces the critical structures which, when damaged, predispose an otherwise healthy atrium to AF. The available evidence that ROS can lead to damage of these critical structures is then reviewed. Finally, the evidence linking the process of aging to the pathogenesis of AF is discussed. PMID:23341843

  2. The Injury and Therapy of Reactive Oxygen Species in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Looking at Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage is an emerging major health problem often resulting in death or disability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been identified as one of the major damaging factors in ischemic stroke. However, there is less discussion about ROS in hemorrhage stroke. Metabolic products of hemoglobin, excitatory amino acids, and inflammatory cells are all sources of ROS, and ROS harm the central nervous system through cell death and structural damage, especially disruption of the blood-brain barrier. We have considered the antioxidant system of the CNS itself and the drugs aiming to decrease ROS after ICH, and we find that mitochondria are key players in all of these aspects. Moreover, when the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opens, ROS-induced ROS release, which leads to extensive liberation of ROS and mitochondrial failure, occurs. Therefore, the mitochondrion may be a significant target for elucidating the problem of ROS in ICH; however, additional experimental support is required.

  3. Lead contamination and transfer in urban environmental compartments analyzed by lead levels and isotopic compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xin; Sun, Yuanyuan; Ding, Zhuhong; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Lian, Hongzhen; Wang, Tijian

    2014-01-01

    Lead levels and isotopic compositions in atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ), street dust and surface soil collected from Nanjing, a mega city in China, were analyzed to investigate the contamination and the transfer of lead in urban environmental compartments. The lead contents in TSP and PM 2.5 are significantly higher than them in the surface soil and street dust (p  206 Pb/ 207 Pb vs. 208 Pb/ 206 Pb and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb vs. 1/Pb imply that the street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ) have very similar lead sources. Coal emissions and smelting activities may be the important lead sources for street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ), while the deposition of airborne lead is an important lead source for urban surface soil. - Highlights: • Lead levels and isotope ratios in atmospheric particles, street dust and surface soil. • Significant enrichment of lead in atmospheric particles was observed. • Street dust and atmospheric particles have similar lead sources. • Endmembers of soil lead differ from street dust and atmospheric particles. • Airborne lead poses the main risks to unban environmental quality. - Transfer of airborne particle bound lead into street dust and surface soil in unban environmental based on lead levels and isotopic compositions

  4. Ionic liquids: radiation chemistry, solvation dynamics and reactivity patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wishart, J.F.; Funston, A.M.; Szreder, T.

    2006-01-01

    that the diffusion rate for the solvated electron in ionic liquids can be significantly lower than those of small neutral molecules or radicals such as the H-atom, in contrast to the situation in molecular solvents. They support the contention that the diffusion constants of charged and neutral reactants differ considerably in ionic liquids, which could lead to a means of controlling reactivity and transport phenomena through rational selection of ionic liquid properties. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under contract DE-AC02-98-CH10886. (authors)

  5. Biological fractionation of lead isotopes in Sprague-Dawley rats lead poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    Full Text Available It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems.24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance and the low-lead animal feed (diet administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS.There are significant differences (p<0.05 in lead isotope ratios between blood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of (204Pb/(206Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when (204Pb/(206Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group.The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for (204Pb/(206Pb ratio under high-dose exposure.

  6. Influence of reactive fillers on concrete corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimbayev, Sh M.; Tolypina, N. M.; Khakhaleva, E. N.

    2018-03-01

    Contact surfaces represent the weakest link in a conglomerate structure of materials. They ensure the diffusion of aggressive agents inside the material. To reduce the conductivity of contact surfaces it is advisable to use reactive fillers, which interact with cement matrix via certain mechanisms, which in turn, reduces the permeability of the contact layer and fosters durability of products. The interaction of reactive fillers with calcium hydroxide of a concrete liquid phase in a contact area leads to the formation of hydrated calcium silicates of a tobermorite group. Such compounds, being settled in pores and capillaries of a product, colmatage and clog them to some extent thus leading to diffusion delay (inhibition) with regard to aggressive components of external media inside porous material, which in turn inhibits the corrosion rate. The authors studied and compared the corrosion of cement concrete with a standard filler (quartz sand) and a reactive filler (perlite and urtit). The experiments confirmed the positive influence of active fillers on concrete corrosion resistance.

  7. Lead diffusion in monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, E.

    2006-06-01

    Proper knowledge of the diffusion rates of lead in monazite is necessary to understand the U-Th-Pb age anomalies of this mineral, which is one of the most used in geochronology after zircon. Diffusion experiments were performed in NdPO 4 monocrystals and in Nd 0.66 Ca 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 polycrystals from Nd 0.66 Pb 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 thin films to investigate Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ and Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchanges. Diffusion annealings were run between 1200 and 1500 Celsius degrees, at room pressure, for durations ranging from one hour to one month. The diffusion profiles were analysed using TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy). The diffusivities extracted for Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ exchange follow an Arrhenius law with parameters E equals 509 ± 24 kJ mol -1 and log(D 0 (m 2 s -1 )) equals -3.41 ± 0.77. Preliminary data for Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchange are in agreement with this result. The extrapolation of our data to crustal temperatures yields very slow diffusivities. For instance, the time necessary for a 50 μm grain to lose all of its lead at 800 Celsius degrees is greater than the age of the Earth. From these results and other evidence from the literature, we conclude that most of the perturbations in U-Th-Pb ages of monazite cannot be attributed to lead diffusion, but rather to interactions with fluids. (author)

  8. E3 Success Story - Path Toward Sustainability Leads to Significant Water Savings: Southwire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwire—a manufacturer of wire and cable products— searched for opportunities to reduce its water use and launched a sustainability campaign that established goals to reduce water use by 15 percent and overall carbon footprint by 10 percent.

  9. Vaccination with OK-432 followed by TC-1 tumor lysate leads to significant antitumor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Ju; Yen, Chih-Feng; Lin, Kun-Ju; Lee, Chyi-Long; Soong, Yung-Kuei; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Lin, Cheng-Tao

    2011-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infects large numbers of women worldwide and is present in more than 99% of all cervical cancer. TC-1 cell is a cell line with high expression of E7 antigen of HPV type 16 and its cell lysate has been demonstrated as an ideal inducer of E7-specific, antitumor immunity. OK-432 (Picibanil), a penicillin-killed Streptococcus pyogenes, has been reported with potent immunomodulation properties in cancer treatment by stimulating the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and secretion of Th-1 type cytokines. The current study demonstrated that a protocol to immunize the C57BL/6 mice with OK-432 followed by treatment with TC-1 lysate can generate markedly increased immune responses of E7-specific CD4(+) T cells and a moderate increase of natural killer (NK) cell, as well as a satisfactorily protective and therapeutic antitumor effect by triggering the DCs to prime T cells. Depletion of lymphocyte subset in vivo suggested that the antitumor effects could be dominantly executed by CD8+ T cells and followed by NK cells, and both of these reactions were induced by the generation of robust E7-specific CD4(+) T helper cell response. These findings warrant OK-432 combination with tumor-lysate as an effective and safe vaccine in future clinical application of cervical cancer.

  10. Binge consumption of ethanol during pregnancy leads to significant developmental delay of mouse embryonic brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2014-03-01

    Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can be severely detrimental to the development of the brain in fetuses. This study explores the usage of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to the study the effects of maternal consumption of ethanol on brain development in mouse fetuses. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. A swept-source OCT (SSOCT) system was used to acquire 3D images of the brain of ethanol-exposed and control fetuses. The volume of right and left brain ventricles were measured and used to compare between ethanol-exposed and control fetuses. A total of 5 fetuses were used for each of the two groups. The average volumes of the right and left ventricles were measured to be 0.35 and 0.15 mm3 for ethanol-exposed and control fetuses, respectively. The results demonstrated that there is an alcohol-induced developmental delay in mouse fetal brains.

  11. UNESCO active learning approach in optics and photonics leads to significant change in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrada, K.; Channa, R.; Outzourhit, A.; Azizan, M.; Oueriagli, A.

    2014-07-01

    There are many difficulties in teaching science and technology in developing countries. Several different teaching strategies have to be applied in these cases. More specifically, for developing countries competencies in teaching science in the introductory classroom has attracted much attention. As a specific example we will consider the Moroccan system. In most developing countries everything is moving so slowly that the progress stays static for development. Also, any change needs time, effort and engagement. In our case we discovered that many teachers feel uncomfortable when introducing new teaching methods and evaluation in classes at introductory physics. However, the introduction of an Active Learning in our curricula showed difficulties that students have in understanding physics and especially concepts. Students were interested in having Active Learning courses much more than passive and traditional ones. Changing believes on physical phenomena and reality of the world students become more attractive and their way of thinking Science changed. The main philosophy of fostering modern hands-on learning techniques -adapted to local needs and availability of teaching resources- is elaborated. The Active Learning program provides the teachers with a conceptual evaluation instrument, drawn from relevant physics education research, giving teachers an important tool to measure student learning. We will try to describe the UNESCO Chair project in physics created in 2010 at Cadi Ayyad University since our first experience with UNESCO ALOP program. Many efforts have been done so far and the project helps now to develop more national and international collaborations between universities and Regional Academies of Education and Training. As a new result of these actions and according to our local needs, the translation of the ALOP program into Arabic is now available under the auspice of UNESCO and encouragement of international partners SPIE, ICTP, ICO and OSA.

  12. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in marine organisms: allometric relationships and their significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M.

    1991-01-01

    Allometric relationships which indicate that Po-210 concentrations in marine organisms decrease with increasing organism mass have been reported previously in a few taxa. We report here the results of a study of nearly 400 data covering nine taxa of marine organisms. The data for each taxon are fitted to the allometric equation log Q = log a + b log M, where Q is the Po-210 concentration (mBq/g dry mass) and M is the dry mass per individual (g). The weighted mean of the nine Po-210 slopes is -0.24 ± 0.05, and of the eight Pb-210 slopes is -0.22 ± 0.05. These values are close to the slope of -0.25 frequently found in mass-specific allometric relationships in biology; an association between radionuclide concentration and food ingestion rate is indicated. The intertaxon variations in the intercept log a are large, nearly two orders of magnitude for Po-210, a fact which almost certainly reflects intertaxon differences in diet and/or assimilation. Within taxa, sub-groupings of the Po-210 data are found; these are discussed and an attempt is made to classify them statistically for the data as a whole. (Author)

  13. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    When you look through the glass at a picture behind, the picture appears raised up because light is slowed down in the dense glass. It is this density (4.06 gcm-3) that makes lead glass attractive to physicists. The refractive index of the glass is 1.708 at 400nm (violet light), meaning that light travels in the glass at about 58% its normal speed. At CERN, the OPAL detector uses some 12000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  14. Leading change: 2--planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Joanna

    National initiatives have outlined the importance of involving frontline staff in service improvement, and the ability to influence and manage change has been identified as an essential skill for delivering new models of care. Nurses often have to take the lead in managing change in clinical practice. The second in a three-part series is designed to help nurses at all levels develop the knowledge and skills to function as change agents within their organisations. This article focuses on planning the change and dealing with resistance.

  15. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View.

  16. Turning lead into gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    For years the field of entrepreneurship has been blinded by the alchemical promise of turning lead into gold, of finding the ones most likely to become the next Branson, Zuckerberg or Gates. The promise has been created in the midst of political and scientific agendas where certain individuals...... is not to accumulate state or market wealth, but for entrepreneurial skills to become tools towards the liberation of the individual from oppressive systems of control – essentially to add public value rather than economic value. In this presentation I will sketch an anarchist perspective on entrepreneurship, looking...

  17. Electrolytic Manipulation of Persulfate Reactivity by Iron Electrodes for TCE Degradation in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Songhu; Liao, Peng; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2014-01-01

    Activated persulfate oxidation is an effective in situ chemical oxidation process for groundwater remediation. However, reactivity of persulfate is difficult to manipulate or control in the subsurface causing activation before reaching the contaminated zone and leading to a loss of chemicals. Furthermore, mobilization of heavy metals by the process is a potential risk. An effective approach using iron electrodes is thus developed to manipulate the reactivity of persulfate in situ for trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation in groundwater, and to limit heavy metals mobilization. TCE degradation is quantitatively accelerated or inhibited by adjusting the current applied to the iron electrode, following k1 = 0.00053•Iv + 0.059 (−122 A/m3 ≤ Iv ≤ 244 A/m3) where k1 and Iv are the pseudo first-order rate constant (min−1) and volume normalized current (A/m3), respectively. Persulfate is mainly decomposed by Fe2+ produced from the electrochemical and chemical corrosion of iron followed by the regeneration via Fe3+ reduction on the cathode. SO4•− and •OH co-contribute to TCE degradation, but •OH contribution is more significant. Groundwater pH and oxidation-reduction potential can be restored to natural levels by the continuation of electrolysis after the disappearance of contaminants and persulfate, thus decreasing adverse impacts such as the mobility of heavy metals in the subsurface. PMID:24328192

  18. Shock response of Ni/Al reactive inter-metallic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukara, Mathew; Germann, Timothy; Kober, Edward; Strachan, Alejandro

    2014-03-01

    Intermolecular reactive composites find diverse applications in defense, microelectronics and medicine, where strong, localized sources of heat are required. Motivated by experimental work which has shown that high-energy ball milling can significantly improve the reactivity as well as the ease of ignition of Ni/Al inter-metallic composites, we present large scale (~41 million atom) molecular dynamics simulations of shock-induced chemistry in porous, polycrystalline, lamellar Ni/Al nano-composites, which are designed to capture the microstructure that is obtained post milling. Shock propagation in these porous, lamellar materials is observed to be extremely diffuse, leading to substantial inhomogeneity in the local stress states of the material. We describe the importance of pores as sites of initiation, where local temperatures can rise to several thousands of degrees, and chemical mixing is accelerated by vortex formation and jetting in the pore. We also follow the evolution of the chemistry after the shock passage by allowing the sample to ``cook'' under the shock induced pressures and temperatures for up to 0.5 ns. Multiple ``tendril-like'' reaction fronts, born in the cauldron of the pores, propagate rapidly through the sample, consuming it within a nanosecond. US Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Contract No. HDTRA1-10-1-0119.

  19. Dual-reactive B cells are autoreactive and highly enriched in the plasmablast and memory B cell subsets of autoimmune mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Emilie M.; Velez, Maria-Gabriela; Leahy, Katelyn; Swanson, Cristina L.; Rubtsov, Anatoly V.; Torres, Raul M.

    2012-01-01

    Rare dual-reactive B cells expressing two types of Ig light or heavy chains have been shown to participate in immune responses and differentiate into IgG+ cells in healthy mice. These cells are generated more often in autoreactive mice, leading us to hypothesize they might be relevant in autoimmunity. Using mice bearing Igk allotypic markers and a wild-type Ig repertoire, we demonstrate that the generation of dual-κ B cells increases with age and disease progression in autoimmune-prone MRL and MRL/lpr mice. These dual-reactive cells express markers of activation and are more frequently autoreactive than single-reactive B cells. Moreover, dual-κ B cells represent up to half of plasmablasts and memory B cells in autoimmune mice, whereas they remain infrequent in healthy mice. Differentiation of dual-κ B cells into plasmablasts is driven by MRL genes, whereas the maintenance of IgG+ cells is partly dependent on Fas inactivation. Furthermore, dual-κ B cells that differentiate into plasmablasts retain the capacity to secrete autoantibodies. Overall, our study indicates that dual-reactive B cells significantly contribute to the plasmablast and memory B cell populations of autoimmune-prone mice suggesting a role in autoimmunity. PMID:22927551

  20. Improved Reactive Dye-fixation in Pad-Steam Process of Dyeing Cotton Fabric Using Tetrasodium N, NBiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Khatri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pad steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes is known to give lower levels of dye-fixation on the fiber because of excessive dye-hydrolysis. This research presents improved reactive dye-fixation in padsteam process of dyeing cotton found in an effort of using biodegradable organic salts to improve the effluent quality. The CI Reactive Blue 250, a bissulphatoethylsulphone dye and the Tetrasodium N, Nbiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate, a biodegradable organic salt, were used. The new dye-bath formulation using the organic salt gave more than 90% dye-fixation. Traditional pad-steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes requires the use of inorganic electrolyte, sodium-chloride, and alkali, sodium-carbonate, to ensure effective dye consumption and fixation. These inorganic chemicals when drained generate heavy contents of dissolved solids and oxygen demand in the effluent leading to environmental pollution. Thus, Tetrasodium N, N-biscarboxylatomethyl-L-Glutamate was used in place of inorganic electrolyte and alkali to improve effluent quality. A significant increase in dye-fixation and ultimate color-yield was obtained with same colorfastness properties of the dyed fabric comparing to the traditional pad-steam dye-bath formulation.

  1. Bulk diffusion and solubility of silver and nickel in lead, lead-silver and lead-nickel solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amenzou-Badrour, H.; Moya, G.; Bernardini, J.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study of solubility and bulk diffusion of /sup 110/Ag and /sup 63/Ni in lead, lead-silver and lead-nickel solid solutions in the temperature range 220 to 88 0 C are reported. Owing to the low solubility of silver and nickel in lead, Fick's solution corresponding to the boundary condition of a constant concentration of solute at the surface has been used. Depth profile concentration analysis suggests a fundamental difference between the diffusion mechanisms of silver and nickel. Since silver penetration profiles in pure lead give diffusion coefficients independent of the penetration depth and silver concentration, it is suggested that slight decreases of silver diffusivity in lead-silver solid solutions have no significance. This implies that the interstitial silver atoms do not associate significantly with each other to form Ag-Ag dimers. In contrast, different behaviors of /sup 63/Ni depth profile concentration in pure lead and saturated PbNi solid solutions agree with a Ni-Ni interaction leading to the formation of less mobile dimers near the surface in pure lead

  2. High-temperature superconducting current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. R.

    1992-07-01

    The use of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) for current leads to deliver power to devices at liquid helium temperature is near commercial realization. The use of HTSs in this application has the potential to reduce refrigeration requirements and helium boiloff to values significantly lower than the theoretical best achievable with conventional leads. Considerable advantage is achieved by operating these leads with an intermediate temperature heat sink. The HTS part of the lead can be made from pressed and sintered powder. Powder-in-tube fabrication is also possible, however, the normal metal part of the lead acts as a thermal short and cannot provide much stabilization without increasing the refrigeration required. Lead stability favors designs with low current density. Such leads can be manufactured with today's technology, and lower refrigeration results from the same allowable burnout time. Higher current densities result in lower boiloff for the same lead length, but bumout times can be very short. In comparing experiment to theory, the density of helium vapor needs to be accounted for in calculating the expected boiloff. For very low-loss leads, two-dimensional heat transfer and the state of the dewar near the leads may play a dominant role in lead performance.

  3. Relations among several nuclear and electronic density functional reactivity indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Luis, Josep M.; Duran, Miquel; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro; Solà, Miquel

    2003-11-01

    An expansion of the energy functional in terms of the total number of electrons and the normal coordinates within the canonical ensemble is presented. A comparison of this expansion with the expansion of the energy in terms of the total number of electrons and the external potential leads to new relations among common density functional reactivity descriptors. The formulas obtained provide explicit links between important quantities related to the chemical reactivity of a system. In particular, the relation between the nuclear and the electronic Fukui functions is recovered. The connection between the derivatives of the electronic energy and the nuclear repulsion energy with respect to the external potential offers a proof for the "Quantum Chemical le Chatelier Principle." Finally, the nuclear linear response function is defined and the relation of this function with the electronic linear response function is given.

  4. Remediation of lead contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    1992-01-01

    Lead contaminated soil in urban area is of major concern because of the potential health risk to children. Many studies have established a direct correlation between lead in soil and elevated blood lead levels in children. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mielke et al. (1983) reported that 50% of the Hmong children with lead poisioning were in areas where soil lead levels were between 500 and 1000 micrograms per gram (ug/g), and 40% of the children suffering from lead poisioning lived in areas where soil lead levels exceeded 1000 ug/g. In urban areas, lead pollution in soil has come from many different sources. The sources include lead paint, lead batteries and automobile exhaust. Olson and Skogerbee (1975) found the following lead compounds in soils where the primary source of pollution was from automobiles: lead sulfate, lead oxide, lead dioxide, lead sulfide, and metallic lead. The primary form of lead found was lead sulfate. Lead sulfate, lead tetraoxide, white lead, and other forms of lead have been used in the manufacture of paints for houses. At present, two remediation techniques, solidification and Bureau of Mines fluosilicic acid leaching, are available for lead-contaminated sites. The objective of the present investigation at the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL), Edison, was to try to solubilize the lead species by appropriate reagents and then recover the contaminants by precipitation as lead sulfate, using environmentally acceptable methods. The apparatus used for mixing was a LabMaster mixer, with variable speed and high-shear impeller. Previous work had used nitric acid for dissolving metallic lead. Owing to the environmental concerns, it was decided to use acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. The theoretical justification for this approach is the favorable redox potential for the reaction between metallic lead, acetic acid, and gaseous oxygen

  5. Biological fractionation of lead isotopes in Sprague-Dawley rats lead poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Duojian; Xie, Qing; Wang, Jingyu

    2012-01-01

    It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems. 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces) were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance) and the low-lead animal feed (diet) administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). There are significant differences (pblood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of (204)Pb/(206)Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when (204)Pb/(206)Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group. The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for (204)Pb/(206)Pb ratio under high-dose exposure.

  6. A simple reactivity-meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a new version of a reactivity meter developed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN) (Brazil). The reactivity meter computes the reactor reactivity utilizing a programmable electrometer that performs the data aquisition. The software commands the main functions of the electrometer, the data acquisition, data transfer, and reactivity calculation. The necessary hardware for this reactivity meter are a programmable electrometer, a microcomputer, and interfaces for the microcomputer to communicate with the electrometer. If it is necessary, it is possible to connect a graphic register to the microcomputer. With this conventional hardware, available in any nuclear reactor facility, one can build a powerful reactivity meter. Adding to these advantages, one can use the microcomputer on-line to analyze the data, store the data on diskettes, or create graphics

  7. Analysis on void reactivity of DCA lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. J.; Noh, K. H.; Choi, H. B.; Yang, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    In case of loss of coolant accident, the void reactivity of CANDU fuel provides the positive reactivity and increases the reactor power rapidly. Therefore, it is required to secure credibility of the void reactivity for the design and analysis of reactor, which motivated a study to assess the measurement data of void reactivity. The assessment of lattice code was performed with the experimental data of void reactivity at 30, 70, 87 and 100% of void fractions. The infinite multiplication factors increased in four types of fuels as the void fractions of them grow. The infinite multiplication factors of uranium fuels are almost within 1%, but those of Pu fuels are over 10% by the results of WIMS-AECL and MCNP-4B codes. Moreover, coolant void reactivity of the core loaded with plutonium fuel is more negative compared with that with uranium fuel because of spectrum hardening resulting from large void fraction

  8. [Risk Management of HBV Reactivation: Construction of Check System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, reactivation of HBV in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy has been a problem. Generally, HBV-DNA levels are elevated prior to HBsAg concentration, and then hepatic dysfunction is observed in the process of hepatitis by HBV reactivation. Therefore, the monitoring of HBV-DNA is useful for the prediction of hepatic dysfunction, and nucleoside/nucleoside analogue (NA) administration is able to prevent this HBV reactivation. According to these facts, "Guidelines for the Prevention of HBV Reactivation in Patients Receiving Immunosuppressive Therapy or Chemotherapy", 2009 (revised as "JSH Guidelines for the Management of Hepatitis B Virus Infection", 2013) is established, and the diagnostic algorithm of HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, and HBV-DNA has relevant descriptions. Combination therapy with rituximab and steroid for malignant lymphoma has a high risk of leading to fulminant hepatitis and, consequently, the guidelines are widely followed in such cases. We introduced the improvement of electronic medical recording and ordering systems in collaboration with hepatologists, and such a system has been widely used. Although the monitoring of HBV-DNA levels is required every 1-3 months, the guidelines are not followed strictly in cases such as rheumatoid disease and solid tumors only with chemotherapy or steroid treatment. Since a DNA assay is complicated and expensive, cost-effective, time-saving, and highly sensitive/specific measurements are required as well. Therefore, Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ (CLIA method) with high sensitivity is expected to be used for the monitoring of HBV reactivation.

  9. The optimum lead thickness for lead-activation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Fenni; Hu Qingyuan

    2009-01-01

    The optimum lead thickness for lead-activation detectors has been studied in this paper. First existence of the optimum lead thickness is explained theoretically. Then the optimum lead thickness is obtained by two methods, MCNP5 calculation and mathematical estimation. At last factors which affect the optimum lead thickness are discussed. It turns out that the optimum lead thickness is irrelevant to incident neutron energies. It is recommended 2.5 cm generally.

  10. Ultrastable BSA-capped gold nanoclusters with a polymer-like shielding layer against reactive oxygen species in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjuan; Cao, Yuqing; Sui, Dandan; Guan, Weijiang; Lu, Chao; Xie, Jianping

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the enzyme-containing intracellular environment could lead to the fluorescence quenching of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-capped gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). Here we report an efficient strategy to address this issue, where a polymer-like shielding layer is designed to wrap around the Au core to significantly improve the stability of AuNCs against ROS and protease degradation. The key of our design is to covalently incorporate a thiolated AuNC into the BSA-AuNC via carbodiimide-activated coupling, leading to the formation of a AuNC pair inside the cross-linked BSA molecule. The as-designed paired AuNCs in BSA (or BSA-p-AuNCs for short) show improved performances in living cells.The prevalence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the enzyme-containing intracellular environment could lead to the fluorescence quenching of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-capped gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). Here we report an efficient strategy to address this issue, where a polymer-like shielding layer is designed to wrap around the Au core to significantly improve the stability of AuNCs against ROS and protease degradation. The key of our design is to covalently incorporate a thiolated AuNC into the BSA-AuNC via carbodiimide-activated coupling, leading to the formation of a AuNC pair inside the cross-linked BSA molecule. The as-designed paired AuNCs in BSA (or BSA-p-AuNCs for short) show improved performances in living cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental materials, apparatus, experimental procedures and characterization data. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02178f

  11. Lead toxicosis of captive vultures: case description and responses to chelation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead, a serious threat for raptors, can hamper the success of their conservation. This study reports on experience with accidental lead intoxication and responses to chelation therapy in captive Cinereous (Aegypius monachus) and Egyptian (Neophron percnopterus) Vultures. Results Soil contamination by lead-based paint sanded off the steel aviary resulted in poisoning of eight Cinereous and two Egyptian Vultures. A male Egyptian Vulture developed signs of apathy, polydipsia, polyuria, regurgitation, and stupor, and died on the next day. Liver, kidney and blood lead concentrations were 12.2, 8.16 and 2.66 μg/g, respectively. Laboratory analyses confirmed severe liver and kidney damage and anaemia. Blood Pb levels of Pb-exposed Cinereous Vultures were 1.571 ± 0.510 μg/g shortly after intoxication, decreased to 0.530 ± 0.165 μg/g without any therapy in a month and to 0.254 ± 0.097 μg/g one month after CaNa2EDTA administration. Eight months later, blood lead levels decreased to close to the background of the control group. Blood parameters of healthy Pb-non-exposed Cinereous Vultures were compared with those of the exposed group prior to and after chelation therapy. Iron levels in the lead-exposed pre-treatment birds significantly decreased after chelation. Haematocrit levels in Pb-exposed birds were significantly lower than those of the controls and improved one month after chelation. Creatine kinase was higher in pre-treatment birds than in the controls but normalised after therapy. Alkaline phosphatase increased after chelation. A marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive species was demonstrated in birds both prior to and after chelation. The ferric reducing antioxidant power was significantly lower in pre-treatment vultures and returned to normal following chelation therapy. Blood metallothionein levels in lead-exposed birds were higher than in controls. Reduced glutathione dropped after

  12. Lead toxicosis of captive vultures: case description and responses to chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikula, Jiri; Hajkova, Pavlina; Bandouchova, Hana; Bednarova, Ivana; Adam, Vojtech; Beklova, Miroslava; Kral, Jiri; Ondracek, Karel; Osickova, Jitka; Pohanka, Miroslav; Sedlackova, Jana; Skochova, Hana; Sobotka, Jakub; Treml, Frantisek; Kizek, Rene

    2013-01-16

    Lead, a serious threat for raptors, can hamper the success of their conservation. This study reports on experience with accidental lead intoxication and responses to chelation therapy in captive Cinereous (Aegypius monachus) and Egyptian (Neophron percnopterus) Vultures. Soil contamination by lead-based paint sanded off the steel aviary resulted in poisoning of eight Cinereous and two Egyptian Vultures. A male Egyptian Vulture developed signs of apathy, polydipsia, polyuria, regurgitation, and stupor, and died on the next day. Liver, kidney and blood lead concentrations were 12.2, 8.16 and 2.66 μg/g, respectively. Laboratory analyses confirmed severe liver and kidney damage and anaemia. Blood Pb levels of Pb-exposed Cinereous Vultures were 1.571 ± 0.510 μg/g shortly after intoxication, decreased to 0.530 ± 0.165 μg/g without any therapy in a month and to 0.254 ± 0.097 μg/g one month after CaNa(2)EDTA administration. Eight months later, blood lead levels decreased to close to the background of the control group. Blood parameters of healthy Pb-non-exposed Cinereous Vultures were compared with those of the exposed group prior to and after chelation therapy. Iron levels in the lead-exposed pre-treatment birds significantly decreased after chelation. Haematocrit levels in Pb-exposed birds were significantly lower than those of the controls and improved one month after chelation. Creatine kinase was higher in pre-treatment birds than in the controls but normalised after therapy. Alkaline phosphatase increased after chelation. A marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive species was demonstrated in birds both prior to and after chelation. The ferric reducing antioxidant power was significantly lower in pre-treatment vultures and returned to normal following chelation therapy. Blood metallothionein levels in lead-exposed birds were higher than in controls. Reduced glutathione dropped after CaNa(2)EDTA therapy, while

  13. Analysis of reactivity accidents in PWR'S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camous, F.; Chesnel, A.

    1989-12-01

    This note describes the French strategy which has consisted, firstly, in examining all the accidents presented in the PWR unit safety reports in order to determine for each parameter the impact on accident consequences of varying the parameter considered, secondly in analyzing the provisions taken into account to restrict variation of this parameter to within an acceptable range and thirdly, in checking that the reliability of these provisions is compatible with the potential consequences of transgression of the authorized limits. Taking into consideration violations of technical operating specifications and/or non-observance of operating procedures, equipment failures, and partial or total unavailability of safety systems, these studies have shown that fuel mechanical strength limits can be reached but that the probability of occurrence of the corresponding events places them in the residual risk field and that it must, in fact, be remembered that there is a wide margin between the design basis accidents and accidents resulting in fuel destruction. However, during the coming year, we still have to analyze scenarios dealing with cumulated events or incidents leading to a reactivity accident. This program will be mainly concerned with the impact of the cases examined relating to dilution incidents under normal operating conditions or accident operating conditions

  14. Load Dependent Lead Times and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahl, Julia; Voss, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    to prevent decreased quality or waste of production parts and products. This gains importance because waiting times imply longer lead times charging the production system with work in process inventories. Longer lead times can lead to quality losses due to depreciation, so that parts need to be reworked...... if possible or discarded. But return flows of products for rework or remanufacturing actions significantly complicate the production planning process. We analyze sustainability options with respect to lead time management by formulating a comprehensive mathematical model. We consider a deterministic, mixed...

  15. Production Planning with Load Dependent Lead Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahl, Julia

    2005-01-01

    Lead times impact the performance of the supply chain significantly. Although there is a large literature concerning queuing models for the analysis of the relationship between capacity utilization and lead times, and there is a substantial literature concerning control and order release policies...... that take lead times into consideration, there have been only few papers describing models at the aggregate planning level that recognize the relationship between the planned utilization of capacity and lead times. In this paper we provide an in-depth discussion of the state-of-the art in this literature......, with particular attention to those models that are appropriate at the aggregate planning level....

  16. Reactive Periostitis from Inhalant Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Lauren E; Honkanen, Iiro; Fiordellisi, Wendy; Bettendorf, Brittany

    2018-04-16

    The patient, a 36-year-old woman, presented with a 6-week history of swollen hands and fingers and associated arthralgia. She had a history of polysubstance abuse. The arthralgia and swelling started one month after she began inhaling two cans of "Dust-Off" (1,1-difluoroethane) daily. Physical examination revealed tender proximal and middle phalanges of all fingers bilaterally with bulbous appearance (A). There was no clubbing. Radiography of the hands revealed diffuse reactive periostitis with discrete layering of periosteal bone formation without bony destruction (B). TSH was normal. Serum alkaline phosphatase was 854 U/L. Computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no evidence of malignancy or pulmonary disease This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends in reactivity of oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftelund, Anja

    The results in this thesis are based on Density Functional Theory calculations. The catalytic activity of oxides and other compound materials are investigated. It is found that the adsorption energy of the molecules NH2, NH, OH and SH on transition metal nitride, oxide and sulfide surfaces scales......, and I) and OH on a wide range of rutile oxide surfaces. Furthermore, Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations are found for the adsorption of a large number of molecules (including Cl, Br and I) on transition metal oxides. In these relations the activation energies scale linearly with the dissociative...... chemisorption energies. It turns out that the BEP relation for rutile oxides is almost coinciding with the dissociation line, i.e. no barrier exists for the reactive surfaces. The heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of hydrogen halides (HCl, HBr, and HI) is investigated. A micro-kinetic model is solved...

  18. Self-reactive T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Jürgen C; thor Straten, Per; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2014-01-01

    -proteins expressed in regulatory immune cells have been reported, especially in patients with cancer. The seemingly lack of tolerance toward such proteins is interesting, as it suggests a regulatory function of self-reactive T (srT) cells, which may be important for the fine tuning of the immune system......The immune system is a tightly regulated and complex system. An important part of this immune regulation is the assurance of tolerance toward self-antigens to maintain immune homeostasis. However, in recent years, antigen-specific cellular immune responses toward several normal self....... In particular, surprising has been the description of cytotoxic srT cells that are able to eliminate normal regulatory immune cells. Such srT cells may be important as effector cells that suppress regulatory suppressor cells. The current knowledge of the nature and function of srT cells is still limited. Still...

  19. CpG methylation controls reactivation of HIV from latency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blazkova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation of retroviral promoters and enhancers localized in the provirus 5' long terminal repeat (LTR is considered to be a mechanism of transcriptional suppression that allows retroviruses to evade host immune responses and antiretroviral drugs. However, the role of DNA methylation in the control of HIV-1 latency has never been unambiguously demonstrated, in contrast to the apparent importance of transcriptional interference and chromatin structure, and has never been studied in HIV-1-infected patients. Here, we show in an in vitro model of reactivable latency and in a latent reservoir of HIV-1-infected patients that CpG methylation of the HIV-1 5' LTR is an additional epigenetic restriction mechanism, which controls resistance of latent HIV-1 to reactivation signals and thus determines the stability of the HIV-1 latency. CpG methylation acts as a late event during establishment of HIV-1 latency and is not required for the initial provirus silencing. Indeed, the latent reservoir of some aviremic patients contained high proportions of the non-methylated 5' LTR. The latency controlled solely by transcriptional interference and by chromatin-dependent mechanisms in the absence of significant promoter DNA methylation tends to be leaky and easily reactivable. In the latent reservoir of HIV-1-infected individuals without detectable plasma viremia, we found HIV-1 promoters and enhancers to be hypermethylated and resistant to reactivation, as opposed to the hypomethylated 5' LTR in viremic patients. However, even dense methylation of the HIV-1 5'LTR did not confer complete resistance to reactivation of latent HIV-1 with some histone deacetylase inhibitors, protein kinase C agonists, TNF-alpha, and their combinations with 5-aza-2deoxycytidine: the densely methylated HIV-1 promoter was most efficiently reactivated in virtual absence of T cell activation by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. Tight but incomplete control of HIV-1 latency by Cp

  20. Multimodal assessment of emotional reactivity in borderline personality pathology: the moderating role of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T

    2013-08-01

    Emotional reactivity has been theorized to play a central role in borderline personality (BP) pathology. Although growing research provides evidence for subjective emotional reactivity in BP pathology, research on physiological or biological reactivity among people with BP pathology is less conclusive. With regard to biological reactivity in particular, research on cortisol reactivity (a neurobiological marker of emotional reactivity) in response to stressors among individuals with BP pathology has produced contradictory results and highlighted the potential moderating role of PTSD-related pathology. Thus, this study sought to examine the moderating role of PTSD symptoms in the relation between BP pathology and both subjective (self-report) and biological (cortisol) emotional reactivity to a laboratory stressor. Participants were 171 patients in a residential substance use disorder treatment center. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed a significant main effect of BP pathology on subjective emotional reactivity to the laboratory stressor. Furthermore, results revealed a significant interaction between BP pathology and PTSD symptoms in the prediction of cortisol reactivity, such that BP pathology was associated with heightened cortisol reactivity only among participants with low levels of PTSD symptoms. Similar findings were obtained when examining the interaction between BP pathology and the reexperiencing and avoidance/numbing symptoms of PTSD specifically. Results highlight the moderating role of PTSD symptoms in the BP-reactivity relation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Who will lead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, R P; Schlosser, J R

    1997-01-01

    A recent survey conducted by the UCLA Center for Health Services Management and the Physician Executive Practice of Heidrick & Struggles, an executive search firm, sheds light on the emerging physician executive's role. The goal of the research was to identify success factors as a means of evaluating and developing effective industry leaders. Respondents were asked to look at specific skills in relation to nine categories: Communication, leadership, interpersonal skills, self-motivation/management, organizational knowledge, organizational strategy, administrative skills, and thinking. Communication, leadership, and self-motivation/management emerged, in that order, as the three most important success factors for physician executives. An individual's general competencies, work styles, and ability to lead others through organizational restructuring defines his or her appropriateness for managerial positions in the health care industry.

  2. Association of Lead Levels and Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Bansal MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is a common motor disability in childhood. Raised lead levels affect cognition. Children with cerebral palsy may have raised lead levels, further impairing their residual cognitive motor and behavioral abilities. Environmental exposure and abnormal eating habits may lead to increased lead levels. Aims and Objectives: To measure blood lead levels in children with cerebral palsy and compare them with healthy neurologically normal children. To correlate blood lead levels with environmental factors. Material and Methods: Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Participants: Cases comprised 34 children with cerebral palsy, and controls comprised 34 neurologically normal, age- and sex-matched children. Methods: Clinical and demographic details were recorded as per proforma. Detailed environmental history was recorded to know the source of exposure to lead. These children were investigated and treated as per protocol. Venous blood was collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid vials for analysis of blood lead levels. Lead levels were estimated by Schimadzu Flame AA-6800 (atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. P < .05 was taken as significant. Results: Mean blood lead levels were 9.20 ± 8.31 µg/dL in cerebral palsy cases and 2.89 ± 3.04 µg/dL in their controls (P < .001. Among children with cerebral palsy, 19 (55.88% children had blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL. Lead levels in children with pica were 12.33 ± 10.02 µg/dL in comparison to children with no history of pica, 6.70 ± 4.60 µg/dL (P = .029. No correlation was found between hemoglobin and blood lead levels in cases and controls. Conclusion: In our study, blood lead levels are raised in children with cerebral palsy. However, further studies are required to show effects of raised levels in these children.

  3. Environmental Lead Pollution in an Urban Soft-water Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, A. D.; Moore, M. R.; Devenay, W. T.; Miller, A. R.; Goldberg, A.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation has been reported on the clinical and metabolic effects of lead acquired by soft domestic water from lead plumbing systems in 23 Glasgow households. The lead content of water from cold taps was up to 18 times the upper acceptable limit and was proportional to the amount of lead in the plumbing system. The blood lead of 71 inhabitants of these houses showed a significant positive correlation with water lead content. Delta-aminolaevulic acid dehydrase activity, an extremely sensitive indicator of lead exposure, showed a significant negative correlation with water-lead content. Atmospheric lead was within acceptable limits in all but one house and no significant correlation could be found with biochemical measurements. A small number of clinical abnormalities were found but could not be directly attributed to lead toxicity. The results of the study underline the possible danger to health of lead plumbing systems in soft-water regions. PMID:5031207

  4. Latent Virus Reactivation in Space Shuttle Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Latent virus reactivation was measured in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected 2-4 months before launch, 10 days before launch (L-10), 2-3 hours after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+14), and 120 days after landing (R+120). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was measured in these samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA was measured in the 381 saliva samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in the 66 urine samples collected from these subjects. Fourteen astronauts shed EBV DNA in 21% of their saliva samples before, during, and after flight, and 7 astronauts shed VZV in 7.4% of their samples during and after flight. It was interesting that shedding of both EBV and VZV increased during the flight phase relative to before or after flight. In the case of CMV, 32% of urine samples from 8 subjects contained DNA of this virus. In normal healthy control subjects, EBV shedding was found in 3% and VZV and CMV were found in less than 1% of the samples. The circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol measured before, during, and after space flight did not show any significant difference between flight phases. These data show that increased reactivation of latent herpes viruses may be associated with decreased immune system function, which has been reported in earlier studies as well as in these same subjects (data not reported here).

  5. Lead in Glasgow street dirt and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J G [Univ. of Glasgow; Lyon, T D.B.

    1977-07-01

    The levels of lead in city street dirt and in soil from various locations in Glasgow were investigated during spring 1976. Lead concentrations in street dirt ranged from 150 to 2300 ppM, mean 960 ppM, and were significantly elevated with respect to the observed ''natural'' level of 78 ppM. Lead derived from anti-knock compounds in petrol and introduced to the environment via automobile exhausts was clearly implicated as the main source of lead pollution in a series of soil lead measurements at the centre and periphery of eight Glasgow parks. Various chemical leaching techniques were employed and compared. Less than 5 percent of street dirt and soil lead was found to be associated with the organic phase.

  6. Reactivity and Catalytic Activity of Hydrogen Atom Chemisorbed Silver Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Dar; Pal, Sourav

    2015-06-18

    Metal clusters of silver have attracted recent interest of researchers as a result of their potential in different catalytic applications and low cost. However, due to the completely filled d orbital and very high first ionization potential of the silver atom, the silver-based catalysts interact very weakly with the reacting molecules. In the current work, density functional theory calculations were carried out to investigate the effect of hydrogen atom chemisorption on the reactivity and catalytic properties of inert silver clusters. Our results affirm that the hydrogen atom chemisorption leads to enhancement in the binding energy of the adsorbed O2 molecule on the inert silver clusters. The increase in the binding energy is also characterized by the decrease in the Ag-O and increase in the O-O bond lengths in the case of the AgnH silver clusters. Pertinent to the increase in the O-O bond length, a significant red shift in the O-O stretching frequency is also noted in the case of the AgnH silver clusters. Moreover, the hydrogen atom chemisorbed silver clusters show low reaction barriers and high heat of formation of the final products for the environmentally important CO oxidation reaction as compared to the parent catalytically inactive clusters. The obtained results were compared with those of the corresponding gold and hydrogen atom chemisorbed gold clusters obtained at the same level of theory. It is expected the current computational study will provide key insights for future advances in the design of efficient nanosilver-based catalysts through the adsorption of a small atom or a ligand.

  7. Passive Reactive Berm (PRBerm) to Provide Low Maintenance Lead Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    body, dissolved Pb forms precipitates of Pb hydroxide [Pb(OH)2], Pb carbonate [PbCO3, cerrusite], or basic Pb carbonate [Pb3(OH)2 ( CO3 )2...along with a potential seed crystal for heterogeneous nucleation of Pb-pyromorphites (Wright et al., 2004). Depending on the presence of certain... single steel bullet trap. The sand or dirt berm is the oldest and most basic type of bullet trap. It uses the mass of the berm itself to stop and

  8. A Novel Approach to Population Balance Modeling of Reactive Polymer Modification Leading to Branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kryven, I.; Iedema, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    The mathematical treatment of polymer modification systems, described by population balances containing convolution is discussed. The two-dimensional case (molecular weight vs. number of branch points) was considered by utilizing approximations of distributions, expanding them in terms of Gaussian

  9. Hippocampal neuroligin-2 overexpression leads to reduced aggression and inhibited novelty reactivity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Kohl

    Full Text Available Disturbances of the excitation/inhibition (E/I balance in the brain were recently suggested as potential factors underlying disorders like autism and schizophrenia resulting in associated behavioral alterations including changes in social and emotional behavior as well as abnormal aggression. Neuronal cell adhesion molecules (nCAMs and mutations in these genes were found to be strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of these disorders. Neuroligin2 (nlgn2 is a postsynaptic cell adhesion molecule, which is predominantly expressed at inhibitory synapses and required for synapse specification and stabilization. Changes in the expression of nlgn2 were shown to result in alterations of social behavior as well as altered inhibitory synaptic transmission, hence modifying the E/I balance. In our study, we focused on the role of nlgn2 in the dorsal hippocampus in the regulation of emotional and social behaviors. To this purpose, we injected an AAV construct overexpressing nlgn2 in the hippocampus of rats and investigated the effects on behavior and on markers for the E/I ratio. We could show an increase in GAD65, a GABA-synthesizing protein in neuronal terminals, and furthermore, reduced exploration of novel stimuli and less offensive behavior. Our data suggest nlgn2 in the hippocampus to be strongly implicated in maintaining the E/I balance in the brain and thereby modulating social and emotional behavior.

  10. Air pollution from lead added to gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dingeon, B; Collombel, C

    1973-01-01

    General hygienic and toxicological problems of lead added to gasoline are discussed. Lead emitted by motor vehicles pollutes the air especially in cities and along highways, and is accumulated by soil and plants. The lead levels found in the blood of subjects living in cities and near highways was significantly higher than in rural dwellers. Close correlation between the atmospheric lead concentration and the carbon monoxide concentration as well as the traffic density was established, indicating traffic as the source of atmospheric lead. The effect of traffic on the atmospheric lead concentration extended over a distance of up to 4 km. The lead, emitted by motor vehicles in the form of submicron particles, is retained in the organism at rates of 5-10 percent following ingestion, and at rates of 30-50 percent when inhaled. Lead is partially excreted by the liver, kidney, hair, and nails. Some 95 percent of the retained lead is found in the blood, and accumulation in the bones with potential mobilization due to increases in the corticosteroid level was observed. Exposure to lead can be diagnosed by basophil granulation test, urine delta-aminolevulinic acid test, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase test.

  11. Lead exposures from varnished floor refinishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Joseph; Havlena, Jeff; Jacobs, David E; Dixon, Sherry; Ikens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the presence of lead in varnish and factors predicting lead exposure from floor refinishing and inexpensive dust suppression control methods. Lead in varnish, settled dust, and air were measured using XRF, laboratory analysis of scrape and wipe samples, and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7300, respectively, during refinishing (n = 35 homes). Data were analyzed using step-wise logistic regression. Compared with federal standards, no lead in varnish samples exceeded 1.0 mg/cm(2), but 52% exceeded 5000 ppm and 70% of settled dust samples after refinishing exceeded 40 μg/ft(2). Refinishing pre-1930 dwellings or stairs predicted high lead dust on floors. Laboratory analysis of lead in varnish was significantly correlated with airborne lead (r = 0.23, p = 0.014). Adding dust collection bags into drum sanders and HEPA vacuums to edgers and buffers reduced mean floor lead dust by 8293 μg Pb/ft(2) (pairborne lead exposures to less than 50 μg/m(3). Refinishing varnished surfaces in older housing produces high but controllable lead exposures.

  12. Lead toxicity on hematological parameters in workers with occupational exposure to lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dursun, N.; Koese, K.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lead on hematological parameters were studied in lead exposed male workers occupied for 17.84+-4.22 years in a metal powder producing factory in Kayseri, Turkey and control male workers in same city. Blood lead and plasma zinc levels were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and hematological parameters by Culture Counter S. The lead exposure workers had higher lead levels (13.81+- 9.21 mug/dl) as compared to control subjects (2.37+-0.10 mug/dl). No difference was observed in the plasma zinc levels of both groups. As indices of lead exposure, red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) values significantly decreased. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) significantly increased except MCV. There was also an increase in MCV, but it was not significant. (author)

  13. A Critical Review of Practice of Equating the Reactivity of Spent Fuel to Fresh Fuel in Burnup Credit Criticality Safety Analyses for PWR Spent Fuel Pool Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.C.; Parks, C.V.

    2000-01-01

    This research examines the practice of equating the reactivity of spent fuel to that of fresh fuel for the purpose of performing burnup credit criticality safety analyses for PWR spent fuel pool (SFP) storage conditions. The investigation consists of comparing k inf estimates based on reactivity equivalent fresh fuel enrichment (REFFE) to k inf estimates using the actual spent fuel isotopics. Analyses of selected storage configurations common in PWR SFPs show that this practice yields nonconservative results (on the order of a few tenths of a percent) in configurations in which the spent fuel is adjacent to higher-reactivity assemblies (e.g., fresh or lower-burned assemblies) and yields conservative results in configurations in which spent fuel is adjacent to lower-reactivity assemblies (e.g., higher-burned fuel or empty cells). When the REFFE is determined based on unborated water moderation, analyses for storage conditions with soluble boron present reveal significant nonconservative results associated with the use of the REFFE. This observation is considered to be important, especially considering the recent allowance of credit for soluble boron up to 5% in reactivity. Finally, it is shown that the practice of equating the reactivity of spent fuel to fresh fuel is acceptable, provided the conditions for which the REFFE was determined remain unchanged. Determination of the REFFE for a reference configuration and subsequent use of the REFFE for different configurations violates the basis used for the determination of the REFFE and, thus, may lead to inaccurate, and possibly, nonconservative estimates of reactivity. A significant concentration (approx. 2000 ppm) of soluble boron is typically (but not necessarily required to be) present in PWR SFPs, of which only a portion (le 500 ppm) may be credited in safety analyses. Thus, a large subcritical margin currently exists that more than accounts for errors or uncertainties associated with the use of the REFFE

  14. Lead and lead-based alloys as waste matrix materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arustamov, A.E.; Ojovan, M.I.; Kachalov, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Metals and alloys with relatively low melting temperatures such as lead and lead-based alloys are considered in Russia as prospective matrices for encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel in containers in preparation for final disposal in underground repositories. Now lead and lead-based alloys are being used for conditioning spent sealed radioactive sources at radioactive waste disposal facilities

  15. Cognitive reactivity to success and failure relate uniquely to manic and depression tendencies and combine in bipolar tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Filip; Ghesquière, Ine; Van Gucht, Dinska

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined simultaneously the relations between cognitive reactivity to success and failure, on the one hand, and depression, manic, and bipolar tendencies, on the other hand. Participants (161 students) completed measures of success and failure reactivity, current manic and depressive symptoms, and tendencies towards depression, mania, and bipolarity. Results showed that respondents with a greater tendency towards depression evidenced greater (negative) reactivity to failure, whereas those with a greater tendency toward mania evidenced greater (positive) reactivity to success. Depression vulnerability was unrelated to success reactivity, and manic vulnerability was unrelated to failure reactivity. Tendencies toward bipolarity correlated significantly with both failure and success reactivity in a negative and positive manner, respectively. These findings add to the growing body of literature, suggesting that different features or cognitive tendencies are related to depression vulnerability versus manic vulnerability and imply that these "mirrored" cognitive features both form part of vulnerability to bipolar disorder.

  16. Cognitive Reactivity to Success and Failure Relate Uniquely to Manic and Depression Tendencies and Combine in Bipolar Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Raes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined simultaneously the relations between cognitive reactivity to success and failure, on the one hand, and depression, manic, and bipolar tendencies, on the other hand. Participants (161 students completed measures of success and failure reactivity, current manic and depressive symptoms, and tendencies towards depression, mania, and bipolarity. Results showed that respondents with a greater tendency towards depression evidenced greater (negative reactivity to failure, whereas those with a greater tendency toward mania evidenced greater (positive reactivity to success. Depression vulnerability was unrelated to success reactivity, and manic vulnerability was unrelated to failure reactivity. Tendencies toward bipolarity correlated significantly with both failure and success reactivity in a negative and positive manner, respectively. These findings add to the growing body of literature, suggesting that different features or cognitive tendencies are related to depression vulnerability versus manic vulnerability and imply that these “mirrored” cognitive features both form part of vulnerability to bipolar disorder.

  17. Remediation potential of mulch for removing lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, A; Bishop, P L

    2012-01-01

    Hardwood bark mulch has good physicochemical properties for the adsorption of lead (Pb(II)). Batch tests were conducted to obtain the sorption coefficient of Pb(II) in mulch. The results of the Freundlich model were not in as good agreement as for the case of the Langmuir model. In addition, a laboratory-scale mulch permeable reactive barrier (PRB) system was designed for the treatment of Pb(II)-contaminated groundwater. The mulch PRB system, using a mulch layer, can potentially be used in the subsurface for cost-effective and in situ transformation of the Pb(II) into environmentally acceptable forms. From the Pb(II) breakthrough curve, the mulch becomes saturated more quickly at higher flow rates.

  18. Lead tolerance in plants: strategies for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Huang, H G; Corpas, F J

    2013-04-01

    Lead (Pb) is naturally occurring element whose distribution in the environment occurs because of its extensive use in paints, petrol, explosives, sludge, and industrial wastes. In plants, Pb uptake and translocation occurs, causing toxic effects resulting in decrease of biomass production. Commonly plants may prevent the toxic effect of heavy metals by induction of various celular mechanisms such as adsorption to the cell wall, compartmentation in vacuoles, enhancement of the active efflux, or induction of higher levels of metal chelates like a protein complex (metallothioneins and phytochelatins), organic (citrates), and inorganic (sulphides) complexes. Phyotochelains (PC) are synthesized from glutathione (GSH) and such synthesis is due to transpeptidation of γ-glutamyl cysteinyl dipeptides from GSH by the action of a constitutively present enzyme, PC synthase. Phytochelatin binds to Pb ions leading to sequestration of Pb ions in plants and thus serves as an important component of the detoxification mechanism in plants. At cellular level, Pb induces accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as a result of imbalanced ROS production and ROS scavenging processes by imposing oxidative stress. ROS include superoxide radical (O2(.-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical ((·)OH), which are necessary for the correct functioning of plants; however, in excess they caused damage to biomolecules, such as membrane lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids among others. To limit the detrimental impact of Pb, efficient strategies like phytoremediation are required. In this review, it will discuss recent advancement and potential application of plants for lead removal from the environment.

  19. Relationship between soil lead and airborne lead concentrations at Springfield, Missouri, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheets, R W; Kyger, J R; Biagioni, R N; Probst, S [Department of Chemistry, Southwest Missouri State University, 65804 Springfield, MO (United States); Boyer, R; Barke, K [Greene County Health Department, 65802 Springfield, MO (United States)

    2001-04-23

    This study tests whether lead deposited to soil from automobiles during past years in a medium-sized US city (population 150000) may present a current health risk. It examines the relationship between current soil lead concentrations at nine locations within the city of Springfield, Missouri, and airborne lead levels measured at the same locations during years (1975-1981) when lead emissions from automobiles were much greater than at present. A strong, significant correlation is found between soil and airborne lead levels at eight of the sites (r=0.91, P<0.005 for soil lead vs. 1979 airborne lead), in low-traffic areas as well as in areas adjacent to heavy traffic flow. Residual lead concentrations in these soils are relatively low, even for the high-traffic sites, as expected for a medium sized city.

  20. Relationship between soil lead and airborne lead concentrations at Springfield, Missouri, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, R W; Kyger, J R; Biagioni, R N; Probst, S; Boyer, R; Barke, K

    2001-04-23

    This study tests whether lead deposited to soil from automobiles during past years in a medium-sized US city (population 150,000) may present a current health risk. It examines the relationship between current soil lead concentrations at nine locations within the city of Springfield, Missouri, and airborne lead levels measured at the same locations during years (1975-1981) when lead emissions from automobiles were much greater than at present. A strong, significant correlation is found between soil and airborne lead levels at eight of the sites (r = 0.91, P lead vs. 1979 airborne lead), in low-traffic areas as well as in areas adjacent to heavy traffic flow. Residual lead concentrations in these soils are relatively low, even for the high-traffic sites, as expected for a medium sized city.

  1. Formation, reactivity and aging of amorphous ferric oxides in the presence of model and membrane bioreactor derived organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bligh, Mark W; Maheshwari, Pradeep; David Waite, T

    2017-11-01

    Iron salts are routinely dosed in wastewater treatment as a means of achieving effluent phosphorous concentration goals. The iron oxides that result from addition of iron salts partake in various reactions, including reductive dissolution and phosphate adsorption. The reactivity of these oxides is controlled by the conditions of formation and the processes, such as aggregation, that lead to a reduction in accessible surface sites following formation. The presence of organic compounds is expected to significantly impact these processes in a number of ways. In this study, amorphous ferric oxide (AFO) reactivity and aging was investigated following the addition of ferric iron (Fe(III)) to three solution systems: two synthetic buffered systems, either containing no organic or containing alginate, and a supernatant system containing soluble microbial products (SMPs) sourced from a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Reactivity of the Fe(III) phases in these systems at various times (1-60 min) following Fe(III) addition was quantified by determining the rate constants for ascorbate-mediated reductive dissolution over short (5 min) and long (60 min) dissolution periods and for a range (0.5-10 mM) of ascorbate concentrations. AFO particle size was monitored using dynamic light scattering during the aging and dissolution periods. In the presence of alginate, AFO particles appeared to be stabilized against aggregation. However, aging in the alginate system was remarkably similar to the inorganic system where aging is associated with aggregation. An aging mechanism involving restructuring within the alginate-AFO assemblage was proposed. In the presence of SMPs, a greater diversity of Fe(III) phases was evident with both a small labile pool of organically complexed Fe(III) and a polydisperse population of stabilized AFO particles present. The prevalence of low molecular weight organic molecules facilitated stabilization of the Fe(III) oxyhydroxides formed but subsequent aging

  2. Pozzolanic Reactivity of Silica Fume and Ground Rice Husk Ash as Reactive Silica in a Cementitious System: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiting Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study comparably assessed the pozzolanic effect of silica fume (SF and ground rice husk ash (RHA as supplementary cementing materials on the properties of blended cement pastes and concretes. A commonly commercial silica fume (SF and locally-produced rice husk ash (RHA samples with two finenesses (one with larger size than cement and the other with smaller size than cement were used in this study. Material properties of SF and RHA were experimentally characterized. Hydration and mechanical properties of cement pastes incorporating SF and RHA were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and compressive strength tests, respectively. Properties of concretes regarding workability, mechanical property, durability, and microstructure were evaluated. Results showed that, although the finely ground RHA used in this study possessed lower SiO2 content and higher particle size compared to SF, it exhibited comparable pozzolanic reactivity with SF due to the nano-scale pores on its each single particle, leading to a higher specific surface area. The optimal replacement levels of SF and RHA were 10% by weight of cement in pastes and concretes. Although addition of SF and RHA led to a significant reduction in slump for the fresh mixtures, inclusion of up to 30% of SF or 15% of ground RHA did not adversely affect the strength of concretes. At the same mix, incorporation of finely-ground RHA in cement composites provided comparable mechanical properties, hydration degree, and durability with SF blended cement composites, owing to the porous structure and high specific surface area of RHA particles. Microstructure morphology analysis of concretes explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM further validated the strength and the durability test results.

  3. Reactivity of Monolayer Protected Silver Clusters Towards Excess Ligand: A Calorimetric Study

    KAUST Repository

    Baksi, Ananya; Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa; Chhotaray, Pratap K.; Chakraborty, Papri; Mondal, Biswajit; Bhat, Shridevi; Gardas, Ramesh L.; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2017-01-01

    Reactivity of monolayer protected atomically precise clusters of noble metals is of significant research interest. Till date very few experimental data are available on the reaction thermodynamics of such clusters. Here we report a calorimetric

  4. A Psychophysiologic Study of Weakening Traumatic Combat Memories With Post-Reactivation Propranolol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pitman, Roger K

    2008-01-01

    ...) propranolol, will show significantly smaller psychophysiologic responses during script-driven imagery testing a week later, indicative of weakening of the emotional memory, compared to those who receive (non-reactivation...

  5. A Psychophysiologic Study of Weakening Traumatic Combat Memories With Post-Reactivation Propranolol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pitman, Roger K

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to test whether the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol, given following combat memory reactivation, results in a significantly greater weakening of traumatic memories...

  6. Lead poisoning in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, J E

    1964-01-01

    Over a three-year period a farmer lost seven calves in their second month of age. One year ago a tentative diagnosis of rabies was given and a brain was submitted to the Health of Animals Division for examination. No Negri bodies were found. The owner stated that the calves first appeared listless and later exhibited severe nervous signs. Deaths occurred in from one to 24 hours after onset of signs. Appetite and bowel movements were normal. There was no increase in temperature. The calf would lie quietly for an interval, then rise, run down the alley, press against a wall, and go into a convulsion. It acted as if it were in severe pain and during one of the intermittent convulsions, it jumped over a three-foot partition. This calf was sent to the Regional Veterinary Laboratory at Brighton for necropsy. The calf had been dead for 72 hours when submitted to the laboratory. The only gross findings were of mild pleurisy and hemorrhage on the kidney. A tentative diagnosis of lead poisoning was offered and specimens sent to the Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ontario Veterinary College.

  7. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature. This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps = [Nbc(Ps]−1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t = ∫t0 D(P(t′dt′ is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  8. Lead exposure from lead pellets: age-related accumulation in mute swans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskildsen, J.; Grandjean, P.

    1984-05-01

    In a cross-sectional study of adult swans and their successfully fledged young in Ringkobing Fjord, West Jutland, Denmark, 128 venous blood samples were taken during the moulting period and analyzed for lead. While the juveniles generally showed blood lead levels below 15 micrograms/100 ml (median, 11 micrograms/100 ml), the values were significantly higher in adults (median, 25 micrograms/100 ml). Adult females showed slightly higher levels than did adult males. None of the birds examined showed signs of acute lead toxicity, and increased blood levels in adults may reflect increased lead body burdens from previous ingestion of lead shot as gizzard stones.

  9. Reactive oxygen species mediates homocysteine-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in human endothelial cells: Modulation by antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-de-Arce, Karen; Foncea, Rocio; Leighton, Federico

    2005-01-01

    It has been proposed that homocysteine (Hcy)-induces endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A previous report has shown that Hcy promotes mitochondrial damage. Considering that oxidative stress can affect mitochondrial biogenesis, we hypothesized that Hcy-induced ROS in endothelial cells may lead to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. We found that Hcy-induced ROS (1.85-fold), leading to a NF-κB activation and increase the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine. Furthermore, expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis factors, nuclear respiratory factor-1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, was significantly elevated in Hcy-treated cells. These changes were accompanied by increase in mitochondrial mass and higher mRNA and protein expression of the subunit III of cytochrome c oxidase. These effects were significantly prevented by pretreatment with the antioxidants, catechin and trolox. Taken together, our results suggest that ROS is an important mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis induced by Hcy, and that modulation of oxidative stress by antioxidants may protect against the adverse vascular effects of Hcy

  10. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-10-01

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

  11. The reactive extrusion of thermoplastic polyurethane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Vincent Wilhelmus Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to increase the understanding of the reactive extrusion of thermoplastic polyurethane. Overall, several issues were identified: • Using a relative simple extrusion model, the reactive extrusion process can be described. This model can be used to further investigate

  12. Imidazolide monolayers for versatile reactive microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, S.H.; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan; Velders, Aldrik

    2008-01-01

    Imidazolide monolayers prepared from the reaction of amino SAMs with N,N-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) are used as a versatile platform for surface patterning with amino-, carboxyl- and alcohol-containing compounds through reactive microcontact printing (µCP). To demonstrate the surface reactivity of

  13. Second Reactivation of Neurocysticercosis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Young Sup; Hwang, Hee Young; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Jee Eun; Kim, Hyung Sik [Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    This report describes the first case involving a second reactivation of neurocysticercosis. There was peripheral enhancement and surrounding edema at multiple calcified lesions in both cerebral hemispheres on the brain MRI. One must be aware of the possibility of reactivation of neurocysticercosis to make the correct diagnosis

  14. Psychophysiology of proactive and reactive relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Holterman, Leigh Ann; Breslend, Nicole L; Sullivan, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the joint effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity to social and non-social stressors on proactive (i.e., goal-directed, unemotional) and reactive (i.e., emotional, impulsive) functions of relational aggression. Two hundred and forty-seven (M age =18.77years) participants completed a series of stressor tasks while their sympathetic arousal (i.e., skin conductance) and parasympathetic arousal (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) were assessed. Participants also provided self-reports of their aggressive behavior. In the standardized social stressor only, physiological reactivity was related to aggression, such that respiratory sinus arrhythmia augmentation predicted proactive relational aggression whereas heightened skin conductance reactivity predicted reactive relational aggression. Finally, in the context of low skin conductance reactivity, respiratory sinus arrhythmia augmentation was related to heightened proactive and reactive aggression, whereas respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal was protective. Results suggest that the benefits hypothesized to accompany respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal may only occur among individuals with low "fight or flight" stress responses. Findings extend research on the physiological indicators of aggression to relational aggression, and highlight the importance of assessing functions of aggression, as well as physiological reactivity to multiple stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reactive arthritis associated with Mycoplasma genitalium urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisment, D; Machelart, I; Wirth, G; Lazaro, E; Greib, C; Pellegrin, J-L; Bébéar, C; Peuchant, O

    2013-11-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an important cause of sexually transmitted infections that is gaining recognition and is an independent cause of acute and chronic nongonococcal urethritis in men. M. genitalium has been implicated as a possible causative factor in reactive arthritis. We report a case of reactive arthritis complicating M. genitalium urethritis in an HLA-B27-positive patient. © 2013.

  16. Reactivity monitoring during reactor-reloading operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, N.P.; Ahlfeld, C.F.; Ridgely, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    At the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reloading operations during shutdown present special considerations in reactivity monitoring and control. Large reactivity changes may occur during reloading operations because of the heterogeneous nature of some core designs. This paper describes an improved monitoring system

  17. Immune reactivity of candidate reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Aalbers, Marja; Fötisch, Kay; de Heer, Pleuni; Notten, Silla; Vieths, Stefan; van Ree, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Immune reactivity is a key issue in the evaluation of the quality of recombinant allergens as potential reference materials. Within the frame of the CREATE project, the immune reactivity of the natural and recombinant versions of the major allergens of birch pollen (Bet v 1), grass pollen (Phl p 1

  18. Evolution and Reactivity in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferes, José Júlio; Eckert, Michael; May, Wolfgang

    Evolution and reactivity in the Semantic Web address the vision and concrete need for an active Web, where data sources evolve autonomously and perceive and react to events. In 2004, when the Rewerse project started, regarding work on Evolution and Reactivity in the Semantic Web there wasn’t much more than a vision of such an active Web.

  19. Reactivity transient calculatios in research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.S. dos

    1986-01-01

    A digital program for reactivity transient analysis in research reactor and cylindrical geometry was showed quite efficient when compared with methods and programs of the literature, as much in the solution of the neutron kinetics equation as in the thermohydraulic. An improvement in the representation of the feedback reactivity adopted on the program reduced markedly the computation time, with some accuracy. (Author) [pt

  20. Decadal changes in summertime reactive oxidized nitrogen and surface ozone over the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyi; Mao, Jingqiu; Fiore, Arlene M.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Crounse, John D.; Teng, Alex P.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Lee, Ben H.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Thornton, Joel A.; Peischl, Jeff; Pollack, Ilana B.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Veres, Patrick; Roberts, James M.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Nowak, John B.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Fried, Alan; Singh, Hanwant B.; Dibb, Jack; Paulot, Fabien; Horowitz, Larry W.

    2018-02-01

    Widespread efforts to abate ozone (O3) smog have significantly reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) over the past 2 decades in the Southeast US, a place heavily influenced by both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. How reactive nitrogen speciation responds to the reduction in NOx emissions in this region remains to be elucidated. Here we exploit aircraft measurements from ICARTT (July-August 2004), SENEX (June-July 2013), and SEAC4RS (August-September 2013) and long-term ground measurement networks alongside a global chemistry-climate model to examine decadal changes in summertime reactive oxidized nitrogen (RON) and ozone over the Southeast US. We show that our model can reproduce the mean vertical profiles of major RON species and the total (NOy) in both 2004 and 2013. Among the major RON species, nitric acid (HNO3) is dominant (˜ 42-45 %), followed by NOx (31 %), total peroxy nitrates (ΣPNs; 14 %), and total alkyl nitrates (ΣANs; 9-12 %) on a regional scale. We find that most RON species, including NOx, ΣPNs, and HNO3, decline proportionally with decreasing NOx emissions in this region, leading to a similar decline in NOy. This linear response might be in part due to the nearly constant summertime supply of biogenic VOC emissions in this region. Our model captures the observed relative change in RON and surface ozone from 2004 to 2013. Model sensitivity tests indicate that further reductions of NOx emissions will lead to a continued decline in surface ozone and less frequent high-ozone events.