WorldWideScience

Sample records for significantly poorer social

  1. Expression of HIWI in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is significantly associated with poorer prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Wei; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Qi; Fan, Qingxia; Shou, Chengcao; Wang, Junsheng; Giercksky, Karl-Erik; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2009-01-01

    HIWI, the human homologue of Piwi family, is present in CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells and germ cells, but not in well-differentiated cell populations, indicating that HIWI may play an impotent role in determining or maintaining stemness of these cells. That HIWI expression has been detected in several type tumours may suggest its association with clinical outcome in cancer patients. With the methods of real-time PCR, western blot, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the expression of HIWI in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450 has been characterized. Then, we investigated HIWI expression in a series of 153 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and explored its association with clinicopathological features. The expression of HIWI was observed in tumour cell nuclei or/and cytoplasm in 137 (89.5%) cases, 16 (10.5%) cases were negative in both nuclei and cytoplasm. 86 (56.2%) were strongly positive in cytoplasm, while 49 (32.0%) were strongly positive in nuclei. The expression level of HIWI in cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells was significantly associated with histological grade (P = 0.011), T stage (P = 0.035), and clinic outcome (P < 0.001), while there was no correlation between the nuclear HIWI expression and clinicopathological features. The expression of HIWI in the cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells is significantly associated with higher histological grade, clinical stage and poorer clinical outcome, indicating its possible involvement in cancer development

  2. Expression of HIWI in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is significantly associated with poorer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou Chengcao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIWI, the human homologue of Piwi family, is present in CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and germ cells, but not in well-differentiated cell populations, indicating that HIWI may play an impotent role in determining or maintaining stemness of these cells. That HIWI expression has been detected in several type tumours may suggest its association with clinical outcome in cancer patients. Methods With the methods of real-time PCR, western blot, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the expression of HIWI in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450 has been characterized. Then, we investigated HIWI expression in a series of 153 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and explored its association with clinicopathological features. Results The expression of HIWI was observed in tumour cell nuclei or/and cytoplasm in 137 (89.5% cases, 16 (10.5% cases were negative in both nuclei and cytoplasm. 86 (56.2% were strongly positive in cytoplasm, while 49 (32.0% were strongly positive in nuclei. The expression level of HIWI in cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells was significantly associated with histological grade (P = 0.011, T stage (P = 0.035, and clinic outcome (P Conclusion The expression of HIWI in the cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells is significantly associated with higher histological grade, clinical stage and poorer clinical outcome, indicating its possible involvement in cancer development.

  3. Impact of Social Cognition on Alcohol Dependence Treatment Outcome: Poorer Facial Emotion Recognition Predicts Relapse/Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Claudia I; Derntl, Birgit; Osthaus, Friederike; Kemmler, Georg; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    Despite growing evidence for neurobehavioral deficits in social cognition in alcohol use disorder (AUD), the clinical relevance remains unclear, and little is known about its impact on treatment outcome. This study prospectively investigated the impact of neurocognitive social abilities at treatment onset on treatment completion. Fifty-nine alcohol-dependent patients were assessed with measures of social cognition including 3 core components of empathy via paradigms measuring: (i) emotion recognition (the ability to recognize emotions via facial expression), (ii) emotional perspective taking, and (iii) affective responsiveness at the beginning of inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence. Subjective measures were also obtained, including estimates of task performance and a self-report measure of empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index). According to treatment outcomes, patients were divided into a patient group with a regular treatment course (e.g., with planned discharge and without relapse during treatment) or an irregular treatment course (e.g., relapse and/or premature and unplanned termination of treatment, "dropout"). Compared with patients completing treatment in a regular fashion, patients with relapse and/or dropout of treatment had significantly poorer facial emotion recognition ability at treatment onset. Additional logistic regression analyses confirmed these results and identified poor emotion recognition performance as a significant predictor for relapse/dropout. Self-report (subjective) measures did not correspond with neurobehavioral social cognition measures, respectively objective task performance. Analyses of individual subtypes of facial emotions revealed poorer recognition particularly of disgust, anger, and no (neutral faces) emotion in patients with relapse/dropout. Social cognition in AUD is clinically relevant. Less successful treatment outcome was associated with poorer facial emotion recognition ability at the beginning of

  4. Perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet use are associated with poorer social relations in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Meilstrup, Charlotte Riebeling; Bendtsen, Pernille; Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Nielsen, Line; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2015-02-01

    Young people's engagement in electronic gaming and Internet communication have caused concerns about potential harmful effects on their social relations, but the literature is inconclusive. The aim of this paper was to examine whether perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet communication are associated with young people's social relations. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey in 13 schools in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, in 2009. Response rate 89%, n = 2,100 students in grades 5, 7, and 9. Independent variables were perceived problems related to computer gaming and Internet use, respectively. Outcomes were measures of structural (number of days/week with friends, number of friends) and functional (confidence in others, being bullied, bullying others) dimensions of student's social relations. Perception of problems related to computer gaming were associated with almost all aspects of poor social relations among boys. Among girls, an association was only seen for bullying. For both boys and girls, perceived problems related to Internet use were associated with bullying only. Although the study is cross-sectional, the findings suggest that computer gaming and Internet use may be harmful to young people's social relations.

  5. Perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet use are associated with poorer social relations in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Meilstrup, Charlotte Riebeling; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    and Internet use, respectively. Outcomes were measures of structural (number of days/week with friends, number of friends) and functional (confidence in others, being bullied, bullying others) dimensions of student's social relations. RESULTS: Perception of problems related to computer gaming were associated......OBJECTIVES: Young people's engagement in electronic gaming and Internet communication have caused concerns about potential harmful effects on their social relations, but the literature is inconclusive. The aim of this paper was to examine whether perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet...... communication are associated with young people's social relations. METHODS: Cross-sectional questionnaire survey in 13 schools in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, in 2009. Response rate 89 %, n = 2,100 students in grades 5, 7, and 9. Independent variables were perceived problems related to computer gaming...

  6. Single Motherhood, Employment, or Social Assistance: Why are U.S. Women Poorer than Women in Other Affluent Nations?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Karen

    2001-01-01

    U.S. women have higher poverty rates than women in other affluent nations. In this paper I attempt to explain this disparity by examining the effect of single motherhood, employment, and social assistance on women's poverty. With cross-national comparisons of quantitative data, I find that the relatively high rate of single motherhood among U.S. women is not a main cause of their high poverty rates. Compared to their counterparts in other Western nations, U.S. women, mothers and single mother...

  7. Volunteering as Students significant social activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zaitseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the involvement of students in volunteer activities, examines the organization of students volunteer activities and volunteer projects realization at the university. The potential of volunteerism as an effective mechanism for addressing the urgent social problems is revealed.Theauthorstudiesexperience of volunteer services organization the I.A. Bunin State University in Yelets.

  8. Global industry with regional significance. Social perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    As the world's third largest exporter of oil, Norway is an energy superpower in an international context. 2004 was a record-breaking year on the Norwegian Shelf. Never before did production reach such heights. The oil and gas industry is Norway's largest and most important industry. It is responsible for one-third of the State's revenues, and nearly half of Norway's total export revenues. The report provides an overview of the Norwegian Shelf today, and facts about Norway concerning the economy and standard of living. The industry's role in regional business development is also analysed, as well as expertise and technological development. Aspects on the environment and co-existence at sea are reviewed, with information on emissions to air and discharges to sea. Environmental considerations and technological challenges are briefly reported. The petroleum industry has set the standard within Health, Safety and the Environment (HSE). The work has been based on close cooperation between the authorities and the operating companies, their organizations and the employee organizations on the Shelf. Details on these activities are reported. Finally, responsibility for the community and issues concerning corporate social responsibility are mentioned (ml)

  9. [The social medicine significance of rheumatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, D P

    1989-01-01

    There is no doubt that the various rheumatoid diseases constitute a socio-medical and socio-economic problem of first order. Surely the importance of this problem will even grow till around the turn of the millenium because the share of older people in the total population of the German Federal Republic is continuing to increase. Concerning frequency and duration the rheumatoid diseases figure at the top of all the insurance benefits. The following measures are essentials to a successful combat of this popular disease: Purposive information, prevention, early diagnosis, adequate treatment and a fitting the patient back into the productive process. Among the rheumatoid diseases the degenerative changes are ranking foremost in the range of frequency, unchallenged and at a considerable distance from the primarily inflammatory diseases. Arthroses and spondyloses are by no means a simple "articular detrition" but a disease in which the time factor is not always of decisive importance. There are ascertainable degenerative articular changes to be found in every person virtually by the age of fifty-five although not everybody has physical complaints. As to the increase in frequency observed in the past few years regarding fillings of applications for therapies because of so-called rheumatic complaints, changes of the conditions at someone's workplace alone cannot be blamed for it at all, rather bad posture and unsound stresses in one's leisure time as well as a new kind of consciousness of being sick supervene. A prophylactic healthful conduct depends strongly upon a person's social status and upon socio-cultural conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Double Jeopardy: Poorer Social-Emotional Outcomes for Children in the NICHD SECCYD Experiencing Home and Child-Care Environments that Confer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watamura, Sarah Enos; Phillips, Deborah A.; Morrissey, Taryn W.; McCartney, Kathleen; Bub, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network (NICHD SECCYD), the authors examined whether interactions between home and child-care quality affect children's social-emotional adjustment at 24, 36, and 54 months (N = 771). Triadic splits on quality of home and child care were used to…

  11. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  12. Regularities of socially significant functions formation in pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrebniak N.P.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article focused on the results of carried out research of the functional state of the pupils’ organism in a process of edu­cational activity. It has been shown that formative influence of activity is manifested on the different levels of develop­ment of socially important functions: the actual developmental zone (priority development of indicators, which have the main significance in the activity and the proximal developmental zone (tendency of activation of the key functions.

  13. Significant Issues in Rebuilding the Social Work Profession in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Cai

    2013-01-01

    The author traces the origin of social work to the Confucian concept of Great Unity and social organization of traditional Chinese society. While professional social work started in 1921, its development was interrupted in 1952, but the practice of social work never stopped. Social work was revived as a discipline and profession in 1979 and has…

  14. ECONOMICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF LOCAL FOOD SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola BAREJA-WAWRYSZUK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is observed that quality of mass produced and highly processed food forces consumers to change their consumption habits and become more interested in locally available food products. Consumers are becoming aware of negative consequences of global food systems. As an alternative, Local Food Systems are gaining on popularity because short food supply chains offer fresh, healthy and not modified products. The popularity of Local Food Systems is reflected in the need for analysing impact and significance of those systems. Thus, this paper presents main benefits of acting locally. Local Food Systems has been reviewed in case of positive economic, environmental and social influence on the region. What is more, the paper presents consumers’ attitude to Local Food Systems. As a conclusion authors justify significance of development and investment in Local Food Systems as an alternative to agriculture networks.

  15. Significance of social networks in sustainable land management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social networks (SNs) are social frameworks that form good entry points for business and socio-economic developments. Social networks are important for small-scale, resource-poor farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, who overly rely on informal sources of information. SNs provide opportunities for establishing effective ...

  16. THE CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY - LEGAL SIGNIFICANCE AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The equality in human rights and obligations, the equality of citizens before the law are fundamental categories of the theories on social democracy but also conditions of the lawful state, without which constitutional democracy cannot be conceived. In Romanian Constitution, this principle is consecrated in the form of equality of the citizens before the law and public authorities. There are also particular aspects of this principle consecrated in the Constitution. The constitutional principle of equality requires that equal treatment be applied to equal situations. This social and legal reality implies numerous interferences between the principle of equality and other constitutional principles. In this study, by using theoretical and jurisprudential arguments, we intend to demonstrate that, in relation to contemporary social reality, equality, as a constitutional principle, is a particular aspect of the principle of proportionality. The latter one expresses in essence the ideas of: fairness, justice, reasonableness and fair appropriateness of state decisions to the facts and legitimate aims proposed.

  17. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  18. Corporate social responsibility and the significance of its promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Dobrinka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility is today frequently used concept, as companies to a larger extent are held accountable for what is happening in the society. In their effort to make a contribution on the solution of various societal problems, the companies engage in different corporative social initiatives. To enjoy multiple benefits arising from implementation of CSR practices companies should reaffirm their commitment to issues of wide public interests as well as promote all the activities pursued in diminishing and solving different social and environmental problems. It is very important to make company's social involvement as transparent as possible, which can be, aparat from other ways, enhanced by proper and up-to-date use of the web site. Through the web site company can inform wide public (all relevant stakeholders about its CSR activities - programs, undertaken initiatives, partners involved, results achieved and future plans and goals in CSR domain. Placing these informating represents an efficient way of promoting company's CSR profile. Aparat from that, company can regulary place announcements on its web site about all other ways of promoting its CSR engagement.

  19. The Significance of Community to Business Social Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Terry L.

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with 1008 business owners and managers in 30 small Iowa communities found that the majority were committed to their community and provided support to youth programs, local schools, or community development activities. Business social responsibility was related to operator age, education, success, and perceptions of community collective…

  20. Social Attributions from Faces : Determinants, Consequences, Accuracy, and Functional Significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, Alexander; Olivola, Christopher Y; Dotsch, Ron|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328554197; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter

    Since the early twentieth century, psychologists have known that there is consensus in attributing social and personality characteristics from facial appearance. Recent studies have shown that surprisingly little time and effort are needed to arrive at this consensus. Here we review recent research

  1. Significance of social networks in sustainable land management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    multi-stakeholder Innovation Platforms (IPs) necessary for catalysing wide adoption of SLM innovations. This paper analyses the significance of SNs in sustainable land management (SLM), focusing on stakeholders' characteristics and their association among agricultural rural communities in central Ethiopia and eastern ...

  2. The social in scene in significant materiality = O social em cena na materialidade significante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Lagazzi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the movies: Tropa de Elite, Tereza and Boca de Lixo, with the aim of providing visibility, in the imbrication of different significant materialities, for the discursive work of textualizing social differences. In the theoretical and methodologicalperspective of the materialistic Discourse Analysis, this text allows us to observe the functioning of the contradiction during the oppositional naturalization that structures most of the relations which organize our society, presenting the resistance as a process of possible displacement.Este artigo reúne análises de Tropa de Elite, Tereza e Boca de Lixo com o objetivo de dar visibilidade, na imbricação de distintas materialidades significantes, ao trabalho discursivo de textualização da diferença no social. Na perspectiva teórico-metodológica da Análise do Discurso materialista, este texto permite-nos observar o funcionamento da contradição em meio à naturalização opositiva que estrutura grande parte das relações que organizam nossa sociedade atual, apresentando a resistência como um processo de deslocamento possível.

  3. Social Intervention for Adolescents with Autism and Significant Intellectual Disability: Initial Efficacyof Reciprocal Imitation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Walton, Katherine; Carlsen, Danielle; Hamlin, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism have difficulty with social skills across the lifespan. Few social interventions have been examined for older individuals with autism who also have significant intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous research suggests that reciprocal imitation training (RIT) improves imitation and social engagement in young children with…

  4. Does human body odor represent a significant and rewarding social signal to individuals high in social openness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin T Lübke

    Full Text Available Across a wide variety of domains, experts differ from novices in their response to stimuli linked to their respective field of expertise. It is currently unknown whether similar patterns can be observed with regard to social expertise. The current study therefore focuses on social openness, a central social skill necessary to initiate social contact. Human body odors were used as social cues, as they inherently signal the presence of another human being. Using functional MRI, hemodynamic brain responses to body odors of women reporting a high (n = 14 or a low (n = 12 level of social openness were compared. Greater activation within the inferior frontal gyrus and the caudate nucleus was observed in high socially open individuals compared to individuals low in social openness. With the inferior frontal gyrus being a crucial part of the human mirror neuron system, and the caudate nucleus being implicated in social reward, it is discussed whether human body odor might constitute more of a significant and rewarding social signal to individuals high in social openness compared to individuals low in social openness process.

  5. Does human body odor represent a significant and rewarding social signal to individuals high in social openness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Katrin T; Croy, Ilona; Hoenen, Matthias; Gerber, Johannes; Pause, Bettina M; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Across a wide variety of domains, experts differ from novices in their response to stimuli linked to their respective field of expertise. It is currently unknown whether similar patterns can be observed with regard to social expertise. The current study therefore focuses on social openness, a central social skill necessary to initiate social contact. Human body odors were used as social cues, as they inherently signal the presence of another human being. Using functional MRI, hemodynamic brain responses to body odors of women reporting a high (n = 14) or a low (n = 12) level of social openness were compared. Greater activation within the inferior frontal gyrus and the caudate nucleus was observed in high socially open individuals compared to individuals low in social openness. With the inferior frontal gyrus being a crucial part of the human mirror neuron system, and the caudate nucleus being implicated in social reward, it is discussed whether human body odor might constitute more of a significant and rewarding social signal to individuals high in social openness compared to individuals low in social openness process.

  6. Professional Training of Social Workers: Development of Professionally Significant Qualities in the Future Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minzhanov, Nurlan A.; Ertysbaeva, Gaukhar N.; Abdakimova, Madina K.; Ishanov, Pirmagambet Z.

    2016-01-01

    Today, the traditional approach to professional training is obsolete. This problem has determined the need to create new didactic forms related to the organization of training in the modern education system. The purpose of this study was to analyze possible development of professionally important qualities and abilities in the future social care…

  7. The Significant Social Networks of Women Who Have Resided in Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheila Krenkel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The social and institutional support networks structured around women who suffer violence are strategic tools when coping with the phenomenon, which is considered a public health problem. This qualitative study was aimed at understanding the relational dynamics of significant social networks of women who have experienced family violence and have resided in a shelter. A group of 12 women participated in the study and data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews and the social networks map. Data analysis was based on Grounded Theory and performed using the software Atlas.ti 5.0. The results revealed that the significant social networks were important sources of help and support in the process of coping with violence experienced by women. Results also showed that the persons in the social networks develop multiple functions and present an increasing level of relational commitment to women, especially after they leave the shelter.

  8. Prognostic significance of social network, social support and loneliness for course of major depressive disorder in adulthood and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, R H S; Schutter, N; Hanssen, D J C; Elzinga, B M; Rabeling-Keus, I M; Stek, M L; Comijs, H C; Penninx, B W J H; Oude Voshaar, R C

    2018-06-01

    Poor recovery from depressive disorder has been shown to be related to low perceived social support and loneliness, but not to social network size or frequency of social interactions. Some studies suggest that the significance of social relationships for depression course may be greater in younger than in older patients, and may differ between men and women. None of the studies examined to what extent the different aspects of social relationships have unique or overlapping predictive values for depression course. It is the aim of the present study to examine the differential predictive values of social network characteristics, social support and loneliness for the course of depressive disorder, and to test whether these predictive associations are modified by gender or age. Two naturalistic cohort studies with the same design and overlapping instruments were combined to obtain a study sample of 1474 patients with a major depressive disorder, of whom 1181 (80.1%) could be studied over a 2-year period. Social relational variables were assessed at baseline. Two aspects of depression course were studied: remission at 2-year follow-up and change in depression severity over the follow-up period. By means of logistic regression and random coefficient analysis, the individual and combined predictive values of the different social relational variables for depression course were studied, controlling for potential confounders and checking for effect modification by age (below 60 v. 60 years or older) and gender. Multiple aspects of the social network, social support and loneliness were related to depression course, independent of potential confounders - including depression severity - but when combined, their predictive values were found to overlap to a large extent. Only the social network characteristic of living in a larger household, the social support characteristic of few negative experiences with the support from a partner or close friend, and limited feelings of

  9. Psychological and social correlates of HIV status disclosure: the significance of stigma visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R; Pryor, John B; Brands, Ronald; Liebregts, Maartje; Schaalma, Herman P

    2011-08-01

    HIV-related stigma, psychological distress, self-esteem, and social support were investigated in a sample comprising people who have concealed their HIV status to all but a selected few (limited disclosers), people who could conceal but chose to be open (full disclosers), and people who had visible symptoms that made concealing difficult (visibly stigmatized). The visibly stigmatized and full disclosers reported significantly more stigma experiences than limited disclosers, but only the visibly stigmatized reported more psychological distress, lower self-esteem, and less social support than limited disclosers. This suggests that having a visible stigma is more detrimental than having a concealable stigma. Differences in psychological distress and self-esteem between the visibly stigmatized and full disclosers were mediated by social support while differences between the visibly stigmatized and limited disclosers were mediated by both social support and stigma. These findings suggest that social support buffers psychological distress in people with HIV.

  10. To study the significance of social interaction for former right wing extremists wanting to disengage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Wilchen

    2013-01-01

    in investigating the significance of social interaction for former participants in right wing extremist groups, who were in a disengagement process with the help from the organisation Exit in Stockholm, Sweden. As this field involved dealing with people in transition, it also meant dealing with people with very...

  11. Increased Internet use and poorer ability to manage emotions in youth at high-risk for psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Internet use and social behavior remains unknown. However, research indicates that Internet use (IU may have some causal role in certain types of psychopathology and overall functioning. In contrast, other work suggests that IU may be protective and buffer against social isolation. Poorer emotional processing (EP is characteristic of schizophrenia, and these deficits are present prior to illness onset (the ultra high-risk period (UHR. UHR adolescents/young adults also fall within an age demographic characterized by extensive IU, which suggests that evaluating a link between IU and social behavior in this population may be especially informative. The present study examined the relationship between IU and emotional processing in 98 adolescents/young adults (52 UHR youth and 46 controls. UHR youth exhibited greater problematic IU (β = −6.49, F(1,95 = 8.79, p = 0.002 and social withdrawal/problems resulting from this use (β = −3.23, F(1,95 = 11.43, p < 0.001, as well deficits in emotional processing in comparison to healthy peers (β = 4.59, F(1,94 = 5.52, p = 0.011. Furthermore, the social problems resulting from IU were significantly related to the ability to process emotional information in the UHR group (β = −0.51, t(1,48 = −2.10, p = 0.021. UHR youth showed evidence of problematic IU relative to controls, and the social problems resulting from IU related to poorer EP. Findings replicate extant research involving other psychosis risk populations, while adding information regarding how social processes may relate to IU.

  12. Exploring the significance of human mobility patterns in social link prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Basma Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Link prediction is a fundamental task in social networks. Recently, emphasis has been placed on forecasting new social ties using user mobility patterns, e.g., investigating physical and semantic co-locations for new proximity measure. This paper explores the effect of in-depth mobility patterns. Specifically, we study individuals\\' movement behavior, and quantify mobility on the basis of trip frequency, travel purpose and transportation mode. Our hybrid link prediction model is composed of two modules. The first module extracts mobility patterns, including travel purpose and mode, from raw trajectory data. The second module employs the extracted patterns for link prediction. We evaluate our method on two real data sets, GeoLife [15] and Reality Mining [5]. Experimental results show that our hybrid model significantly improves the accuracy of social link prediction, when comparing to primary topology-based solutions. Copyright 2014 ACM.

  13. Women with epilepsy have poorer knowledge and skills in child rearing than women without epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramma, P P; Sarma, P S; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2011-09-01

    Epilepsy can negatively impact the child rearing ability of women because of the risk related to seizures, adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs and psychosocial factors. To compare the child rearing knowledge (CRK) and practices (CRP) of women with epilepsy (WWE) with a matched group of women without epilepsy (WWoE). This study was carried out in the Kerala registry of epilepsy and pregnancy (KREP) at Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology in India. We prospectively recruited 100 WWE in first trimester of pregnancy from the KREP and 93 age, education and parity matched pregnant WWoE from the antenatal clinics of the Government medical college Thiruvananthapuram. Their child rearing knowledge (CRK) and practices (CRP) were evaluated with previously validated protocols. The CRK was assessed at the time of enrolment (first trimester of pregnancy) and the CRP was assessed when the baby was three to four months old. Eighty-eight women each from WWE and WWoE had completed the study, over a period of three years. WWE and WWoE were comparable for age (25.56±4.66 and 25.69±4.49 years), pregnancy outcome and type of delivery. WWE had excess fetal loss and postnatal seizures. The CRK was significantly lower for WWE (23.53±6.3) than for WWoE (26.08±5.3). The CRP was significantly lower for WWE (25.01±9.6) than for WWoE (28.14±7.1). WWE performed poorer in all domains of child rearing practices namely feeding, growth and development, cleaning and protection and infant stimulation. Poorer CRK was strongly associated with lower CRP while several demographic and economic characteristics were not relevant. WWE fared poorer in feeding and nursing their babies in spite of having the right knowledge in that domain. This may be due to several undisclosed concerns and social dynamics that need to be addressed while preparing any interventions. Copyright © 2011 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Significant life events and social connectedness in Australian women’s gambling experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuske Elaine Mary

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM - The aim is to examine significant life events and social connections that encourage some women to gamble. Specifically, how do these events and connections described as important for women who develop gambling-related problems differ for women who remain recreational gamblers? DESIGN - 20 women who were electronic gaming machine (EGMs, poker machines, slots players were interviewed using a brief interview guide. They also completed the nine question Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI from the Canadian Problem Gambling Index CPGI. 11 women self-identified as recreational gamblers (RG while 9 had sought and received help for their gambling problems (PG. Using a feminist, qualitative design and an adaptive grounded theory method to analyze their histories, a number of themes emerged indicating a progression to problem gambling for some and the ability to recognise when control over gambling was needed by others. RESULTS - Although both groups (RG and PG reported common gambling motivations differences appeared in the strength of their social support networks and ways of coping with stress, especially stress associated with a significant life event. CONCLUSIONS - The human need for social connectedness and personal bonds with others emphasised the usefulness of using social capital theories in gambling research with women.

  15. The socialization process and the functional significance of education from vocational education learners’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisko B.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Education is the most significant factor of socialization. Education is the largest sector of modern industry. The socialization functions in education can be defined as availability for work and an ability to make decisions independently so that the individual in his later life period could perform his social roles and integrate in social structures with specific role types. The aim of the publication is to find out what functional significance vocational education learners give to education. The quantitative research method was applied, surveying the respondent groups that comprised 503 vocational education learners from Riga, Liepaja, Daugavpils and Jelgava. According to the research results, most vocational education learners consider that it is necessary to study to get the desired job and be well prepared for the future job, to get a diploma and prestige in society, to ensure better financial situation and personal development, to have a better understanding of global events, to gain respect from friends and acquaintances, to be useful for society and to work abroad. The discussion section of the publication emphasizes that special attention should be paid to the factor that learners in their future vision prefer to work abroad. This can be explained by the current situation of the labour market and considerably high unemployment rate in Latvia.

  16. Social participation and healthy ageing: a neglected, significant protective factor for chronic non communicable conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low and middle income countries are ageing at a much faster rate than richer countries, especially in Asia. This is happening at a time of globalisation, migration, urbanisation, and smaller families. Older people make significant contributions to their families and communities, but this is often undermined by chronic disease and preventable disability. Social participation can help to protect against morbidity and mortality. We argue that social participation deserves much greater attention as a protective factor, and that older people can play a useful role in the prevention and management of chronic conditions. We present, as an example, a low-cost, sustainable strategy that has increased social participation among elders in Sri Lanka. Discussion Current international policy initiatives to address the increasing prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases are focused on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory disease and cancers, responsible for much premature mortality. Interventions to modify their shared risk factors of high salt and fat diets, inactivity, smoking and alcohol use are advocated. But older people also suffer chronic conditions that primarily affect quality of life, and have a wider range of risk factors. There is strong epidemiological and physiological evidence that social isolation, in particular, is as important a risk factor for chronic diseases as the 'lifestyle' risk factors, yet it is currently neglected. There are useful experiences of inexpensive and sustainable strategies to improve social participation among older people in low and lower middle income countries. Our experience with forming Elders' Clubs with retired tea estate workers in Sri Lanka suggests many benefits, including social support and participation, inter-generational contact, a collective voice, and facilitated access to health promotion activities, and to health care and social welfare services. Summary Policies to

  17. Social networking strategies that aim to reduce obesity have achieved significant although modest results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Harling, Leanne; Kerr, Karen; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues to escalate. Obesity accounts for an increasing proportion of the international socioeconomic burden of noncommunicable disease. Online social networking services provide an effective medium through which information may be exchanged between obese and overweight patients and their health care providers, potentially contributing to superior weight-loss outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of these services in modifying body mass index (BMI). Our analysis of twelve studies found that interventions using social networking services produced a modest but significant 0.64 percent reduction in BMI from baseline for the 941 people who participated in the studies' interventions. We recommend that social networking services that target obesity should be the subject of further clinical trials. Additionally, we recommend that policy makers adopt reforms that promote the use of anti-obesity social networking services, facilitate multistakeholder partnerships in such services, and create a supportive environment to confront obesity and its associated noncommunicable diseases. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. Neonatal Imitation: Theory, Experimental Design, and Significance for the Field of Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincini, Stefano; Jhang, Yuna; Buder, Eugene H; Gallagher, Shaun

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal imitation has rich implications for neuroscience, developmental psychology, and social cognition, but there is little consensus about this phenomenon. The primary empirical question, whether or not neonatal imitation exists, is not settled. Is it possible to give a balanced evaluation of the theories and methodologies at stake so as to facilitate real progress with respect to the primary empirical question? In this paper, we address this question. We present the operational definition of differential imitation and discuss why it is important to keep it in mind. The operational definition indicates that neonatal imitation may not look like prototypical imitation and sets non-obvious requirements on what can count as evidence for imitation. We also examine the principal explanations for the extant findings and argue that two theories, the arousal hypothesis and the Association by Similarity Theory, which interprets neonatal imitation as differential induction of spontaneous behavior through similarity, offer better explanations than the others. With respect to methodology, we investigate what experimental design can best provide evidence for imitation, focusing on how differential induction may be maximized and detected. Finally, we discuss the significance of neonatal imitation for the field of social cognition. Specifically, we propose links with theories of social interaction and direct social perception. Overall, our goals are to help clarify the complex theoretical issues at stake and suggest fruitful guidelines for empirical research.

  19. Significance of Perceived Social Expectation and Implications to Conservation Education: Turtle Conservation as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Alex Y.; Chow, Alex T.; Cheung, Sze Man

    2012-11-01

    The likelihood of participating in wildlife conservation programs is dependent on social influences and circumstances. This view is validated by a case study of behavioral intention to support conservation of Asian turtles. A total of 776 college students in China completed a questionnaire survey designed to identify factors associated with their intention to support conservation. A regression model explained 48 % of variance in the level of intention. Perceived social expectation was the strongest predictor, followed by attitudes toward turtle protection and perceived behavioral control, altogether explaining 44 %. Strong ethics and socio-economic variables had some statistical significant impacts and accounted for 3 % of the variance. The effects of general environmental awareness, trust and responsibility ascription were modest. Knowledge about turtles was a weak predictor. We conclude that perceived social expectation is a limiting factor of conservation behavior. Sustained interest and commitment to conservation can be created by enhancing positive social influences. Conservation educators should explore the potential of professionally supported, group-based actions that can nurture a sense of collective achievement as part of an educational campaign.

  20. Neonatal Imitation: Theory, Experimental Design, and Significance for the Field of Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vincini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal imitation has rich implications for neuroscience, developmental psychology, and social cognition, but there is little consensus about this phenomenon. The primary empirical question, whether or not neonatal imitation exists, is not settled. Is it possible to give a balanced evaluation of the theories and methodologies at stake so as to facilitate real progress with respect to the primary empirical question? In this paper, we address this question. We present the operational definition of differential imitation and discuss why it is important to keep it in mind. The operational definition indicates that neonatal imitation may not look like prototypical imitation and sets non-obvious requirements on what can count as evidence for imitation. We also examine the principal explanations for the extant findings and argue that two theories, the arousal hypothesis and the Association by Similarity Theory, which interprets neonatal imitation as differential induction of spontaneous behavior through similarity, offer better explanations than the others. With respect to methodology, we investigate what experimental design can best provide evidence for imitation, focusing on how differential induction may be maximized and detected. Finally, we discuss the significance of neonatal imitation for the field of social cognition. Specifically, we propose links with theories of social interaction and direct social perception. Overall, our goals are to help clarify the complex theoretical issues at stake and suggest fruitful guidelines for empirical research.

  1. Avoidant personality disorder versus social phobia: the significance of childhood neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenaes, Ingeborg; Egeland, Jens; Hummelen, Benjamin; Wilberg, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social phobia (SP) are common disorders both in the community and in clinical settings. Whether the two disorders represent different severity levels of social anxiety disorder is currently in dispute. The relationship between AvPD and SP is probably more complex than previously assumed. Several environmental, temperamental, and constitutional factors may play a role in the etiology of AvPD and SP. Better knowledge about childhood experiences may shed light on similarities and differences between the two disorders. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported childhood experiences in AvPD and SP patients. This is a cross-sectional multi-site study of 91 adult patients with AvPD and/ or SP. We compared patients with AvPD with and without SP (AvPD group) to patients with SP without AvPD (SP group). The patients were examined using structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including Child Trauma Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Both AvPD and SP were associated with negative childhood experiences. AvPD patients reported more severe childhood neglect than patients with SP, most pronounced for physical neglect. The difference between the disorders in neglect remained significant after controlling for temperamental factors and concurrent abuse. The study indicates that childhood neglect is a risk factor for AvPD and may be one contributing factor to phenomenological differences between AvPD and SP.

  2. Exploring the significance of human mobility patterns in social link prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Basma Mohammed; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2014-01-01

    Link prediction is a fundamental task in social networks. Recently, emphasis has been placed on forecasting new social ties using user mobility patterns, e.g., investigating physical and semantic co-locations for new proximity measure. This paper

  3. Improving the time efficiency of identifying dairy herds with poorer welfare in a population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2016-10-01

    Animal-based welfare assessment is time consuming and expensive. A promising strategy for improving the efficiency of identifying dairy herds with poorer welfare is to first estimate levels of welfare in herds based on data that are more easily obtained. Our aims were to evaluate the potential of herd housing and management data for estimating the level of welfare in dairy herds, and to estimate the associated reduction in the number of farm visits required for identification of herds with poorer welfare in a population. Seven trained observers collected data on 6 animal-based welfare indicators in a selected sample of 181 loose-housed Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 22 to 211 cows). Severely lame cows, cows with lesions or swellings, cows with a dirty hindquarter, and very lean cows were counted, and avoidance distance was assessed for a sample of cows. Occurrence of displacements (social behavior) was recorded in the whole barn during 120 min of observation. For the same herds, data regarding cattle housing and management were collected on farms, and data relating to demography, management, milk production and composition, and fertility were extracted from national databases. A herd was classified as having poorer welfare when it belonged to the 25% worst-scoring herds. We used variables of herd housing and management data as potential predictors for individual animal-based welfare indicators in logistic regressions at the herd level. Prediction was less accurate for the avoidance distance index [area under the curve (AUC)=0.69], and moderately accurate for prevalence of severely lame cows (AUC=0.83), prevalence of cows with lesions or swellings (AUC=0.81), prevalence of cows with a dirty hindquarter (AUC=0.74), prevalence of very lean cows (AUC=0.83), and frequency of displacements (AUC=0.72). We compared the number of farm visits required for identifying herds with poorer welfare in a population for a risk-based screening with predictions based on herd housing

  4. Avoidant personality disorder versus social phobia: the significance of childhood neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Eikenaes

    Full Text Available Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD and social phobia (SP are common disorders both in the community and in clinical settings. Whether the two disorders represent different severity levels of social anxiety disorder is currently in dispute. The relationship between AvPD and SP is probably more complex than previously assumed. Several environmental, temperamental, and constitutional factors may play a role in the etiology of AvPD and SP. Better knowledge about childhood experiences may shed light on similarities and differences between the two disorders. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported childhood experiences in AvPD and SP patients.This is a cross-sectional multi-site study of 91 adult patients with AvPD and/ or SP. We compared patients with AvPD with and without SP (AvPD group to patients with SP without AvPD (SP group.The patients were examined using structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including Child Trauma Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Adult Temperament Questionnaire.Both AvPD and SP were associated with negative childhood experiences. AvPD patients reported more severe childhood neglect than patients with SP, most pronounced for physical neglect. The difference between the disorders in neglect remained significant after controlling for temperamental factors and concurrent abuse.The study indicates that childhood neglect is a risk factor for AvPD and may be one contributing factor to phenomenological differences between AvPD and SP.

  5. Some significant but buried studies of embodiment and materiality in social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    When preparing a recent review on rising interest in ‘embodiment’ in EM CA research on social interaction (Nevile 2015) (e.g. gesture, body, mobility; cf. ‘multimodality’), considering over 500 studies, I was delighted to be reminded of, or often ‘discover’, some less-well-known-and-cited studies...... some to highlight from the prominent journal Research on Language and Social Interaction. The paper argues that active recognition of the contribution of the body-in-interaction might be relatively recent, but scholarly awareness of it is not (in EM CA and beyond). My aim is to resurrect some early...... discussion of doing CA and EM as a research community. Goodwin, C. (2000) Action and embodiment within situated human interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, 32, 1489–1522. Nevile, M. (2015) The embodied turn in research on language and social interaction. Research on Language and Social Interaction. 48,2: 121...

  6. [The nurse's thought for a significant social contribution by the production and use of scientific knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, Jacinthe

    2015-06-01

    The social contribution of nurses to the health of the population is mainly defined by the knowledge supporting their actions. Conceptualization in nursing guides the production and utilisation of scientific knowledge within the discipline. The purpose of this paper is to present the recent thoughts on nursing theory and to provide some strategies to integrate them within the activities of knowledge mobilization, in practice, research, and education. When nurses are engaged in mobilizing theoretical and empirical knowledge in answering nursing practice questions and in discussing social health issues, they participate in persons, families, and communities health improvement, while affirming their disciplinary and social identity. Called to be change agents in health care systems, with other professional team members, it is important that nurses be prepared to mobilize knowledge and to engage in critical reasoning, and ethical conduct. Their social contribution will be as strong as the value they assign to nursing knowledge and their participation in producing it.

  7. Incorporating social and cultural significance of large old trees in conservation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blicharska, Malgorzata; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    In addition to providing key ecological functions, large old trees are a part of a social realm and as such provide numerous social-cultural benefits to people. However, their social and cultural values are often neglected when designing conservation policies and management guidelines. We believe that awareness of large old trees as a part of human identity and cultural heritage is essential when addressing the issue of their decline worldwide. Large old trees provide humans with aesthetic, symbolic, religious, and historic values, as well as concrete tangible benefits, such as leaves, branches, or nuts. In many cultures particularly large trees are treated with reverence. Also, contemporary popular culture utilizes the image of trees as sentient beings and builds on the ancient myths that attribute great powers to large trees. Although the social and cultural role of large old trees is usually not taken into account in conservation, accounting for human-related values of these trees is an important part of conservation policy because it may strengthen conservation by highlighting the potential synergies in protecting ecological and social values. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Significance of light and social cues in the maintenance of temporal organization in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winget, C. M.; Deroshia, C. W.; Ogawa, K. H.; Holley, D. C.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of light:darkness (LD) cycles and social interaction on the response to long-term confinement (105 days) were investigated experimentally in three groups of three male subjects aged 20-24 years. Data from measurements of physiological parameters indicating changes in circadian rhythms are presented in graphs and analyzed; it is found that the LD-induced rhythm changes observed in previous studies of subjects isolated singly do not appear when subjects are confined in groups of three, suggesting a positive adaptive effect of social contact. In one subject who was transferred to a different group at day 84, hostile social interactions and poor circadian-rhythm entrainment were observed; the possible reasons for this response are considered.

  9. The Significance of Social Welfare Attitudes in Young People’s Entrepreneurial Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Rantanen

    2015-05-01

    According to main recommendation, influencing young people’s confidence in their abilities and skills is more important than trying to influence general attitudes about entrepreneurship. Thus, entrepreneurship education has a key role in supporting young people’s entrepreneurship. National differences in intentions and in appreciation of entrepreneurship can be explained by societal and historical factors. Entrepreneurial intention is typically explained by psychological, economic, and cultural factors, and by social capital. Study results show that social political factors are also important in explaining entrepreneurial intentions.

  10. Examining How Overweight Adolescents Process Social Information: The Significance of Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the social information processing and coping styles (SIP) of overweight and average weight adolescents, and whether the associations between friendship quality and SIP differ for these two groups (N = 156, M age = 12.79). On the basis of height and weight assessments, overweight (n = 70) and average weight (n = 86)…

  11. Beyond Social Constructionism: A Structural Analysis of the Cultural Significance of the Child Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This article challenges the dominance of social constructionist theories of childhood by presenting a structural analysis of the child star as a recurrent, universal feature in the myths and legends of the world. The article argues that by conceptualising our understanding of children and childhood as being due solely to the socio-historical…

  12. The path of Brazilian social assistance policy post-1988: the significance of institutions and ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Guimarães Duarte Sátyro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the construction of the social assistance policy at the federal level in Brazil over the last two decades. It focuses on the Federal Constitution of 1988 and subsequent infra-constitutional legislation, especially that enacted during the Fernando Henrique Cardoso (FHC and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula administrations, which showed very different conceptions of social policy. For both administrations, we analyze the consequences of the institutional changes and legal framework introduced as well as the social policy ideas that informed them. It is argued that the construction of social assistance in Brazil demanded much more than the constitutional provisions enacted in 1988. It included the entire set of subsequent constitutional legislation, a process in which the ruling party played a critical role. Categories of neo-institutionalism and the method of process tracing, plus in-depth interviews with relevant actors, were employed. Our findings point to the impact of the interaction between institutional structures, like constitutions and policy legacies, and the political projects of governing parties. Constitutional provisions, even if not bound to a policy, can prevent setbacks and anchor the action of pressure groups. They can also allow progressive administration to change the status quo.

  13. The Under-Recognition of the Significance of Social Class Conceptions of Education in Piketty's "Capital"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Piketty's "Capital" has created enormous interest around the world, not least in educational circles. One reason for this may be his readiness to refer, in a book largely focused on economic history, to the ways that education has, and might, contribute to better and more equal social outcomes. This article welcomes this approach, but…

  14. A new concept of relatedness and its significance to the theory of social evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Drummond

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Data on primitively social groups of Hymenoptera have been somewhat contradictory with respect to kin recognition, degree of relatedness and social evolution. This study presents a new concept of "relatedness coefficient". Called "aggregated relatedness", the hypothesis here introduced proposes that genes shared by any two individuals affect formation of family units to an extent dependent on their frequency and manner of dispersion in neighboring populations.Dados de campo de espécies de Hymenoptera primitivamente sociais têm se mostrado contraditórios quanto ao papel do reconhecimento de parentes e do grau de parentesco na evolução social. Nesse trabalho um novo conceito de "coeficiente de parentesco" foi desenvolvido. Esta nova hipótese foi chamada de "parentesco agregado". Nesse conceito, genes compartilhados por dois indivíduos quaisquer têm importância significativa na formação das unidades familiares, dependendo de suas freqüências e da forma como estão distribuídos na população circunvizinha a esta unidade familiar.

  15. The economic and social significance of RCA regional co-operative projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    The regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) is an established and valuable instrument between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Member States in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific or Far East for assisting in the transfer of modern technology to areas having economic and social importance to the region. The purpose of this review is to identify on-going or planned work which is designed to help achieve this goal. Currently approved RCA Regional Co-operative Research Projects are listed

  16. Desistance from Delinquency through Social Encounters with Significant Others: Case Studies of Japanese Juvenile Criminals

    OpenAIRE

    SHIRAI, Toshiaki; SATOMI, Akira; KONDO, Junya

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify how young people stop delinquency, we conducted life history analysis, survey study and case studies. The findings indicate that, first, the encounter with significant persons can make them stop delinquency through the capacity to tolerate their depression and, second, the psychologists can play a role of the significant other using the framework of rehabilitation institutions. The encounter with significant others offers intrinsic motivation and the readiness for their pe...

  17. Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Tien-Shang; Ko, Wen-Je; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2014-03-04

    Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Taiwan's extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan's crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan's crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan's and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan's trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Significant social events, such as a well-known person's successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of

  18. Poorer mental health in UK bisexual women than lesbians: evidence from the UK 2007 Stonewall Women's Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colledge, Lisa; Hickson, Ford; Reid, David; Weatherburn, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Bisexual- and lesbian-identified women have significantly worse mental health than heterosexual women. Less evidence exists about mental health differences between lesbian and bisexual women. Self-completion survey with community-based, opportunistic sampling recruited 937 bisexual-identified and 4769 lesbian-identified women. Associations between sexual identity and mental health indicators were assessed by logistic regression, controlling for age, income, student status and employment. As a group, bisexual women were younger, poorer, and more likely to be trans-identified, minority ethnic identified and to use marijuana, compared with lesbians. Bisexuals were more likely than lesbians to report eating problems (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.64, P women attended lesbian or bisexual social events, were 'out', or had experienced any sexuality-related discrimination, compared with lesbians. More bisexual women reported poor mental health or psychological distress than did lesbians. Bisexual women may be more likely to experience social stress due to the 'double discrimination' of homophobia and biphobia. This stress, experienced mainly as internalized and felt stigma, could result in greater risk for poor mental health compared with lesbians. Addressing both biphobia and homophobia within UK society has important preventative mental health implications. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Future role and significance of space activities in reflection of global social, technological and economic trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter

    The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.

  20. Considering Family and Significant Others in the Faculty Recruitment Process: A Study of Social Work Recruiting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Sherr

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important facets of quality social work education is the recruitment and retention of faculty. This mixed methods study uses findings from an on-line survey of 106 recent (within three years faculty hires and their (n=24 spouse/partner/significant others (S/P/SO to determine the degree to which family- integrative recruitment strategies were being used in recruiting social work faculty and the impact with which the presence or absence of these strategies have on retention. A majority of respondents reported that S/P/SO were excluded from the recruitment process.Though the few respondents who felt included were pleased with their current position and planned to pursue tenure to stay with the school, a significant number of faculty whose S/P/SO were not involved were already contemplating their next position.The authors suggest family integrative strategies that help S/P/SO connect with the community may give social work programs the competitive edge they need to attract and retain the best and brightest social work faculty.

  1. From outer space to Earth-The social significance of isolated and confined environment research in human space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Koji; Tachibana, Shoichi; Inoue, Natsuhiko

    2017-11-01

    Human space exploration requires massive budgets every fiscal year. Especially under severe financial constraint conditions, governments are forced to justify to society why spending so much tax revenue for human space exploration is worth the cost. The value of human space exploration might be estimated in many ways, but its social significance and cost-effectiveness are two key ways to gauge that worth. Since these measures should be applied country by country because sociopolitical conditions differ in each country and must be taken into consideration, the study on the social significance of human space exploration must take the coloration of a case-study. This paper, focusing on the case of Japan with surveying Japanese literary and national documents as well as taking its sociopolitical conditions into account, examines the social significance of human space exploration. First, we give an overview of the circumstances surrounding Japan's human space exploration program. Derived from the statements of such relevant parties as scholars, journalists, policy makers, and astronauts, this overview indicates that the main concerns about human space exploration in Japan are its social significance and cost-effectiveness (Section 1). Next, an overview of behavioral science-an essential field for human space exploration (referred to in this paper as space behavioral science) that provides support for astronauts-is presented from the perspective of stress research in isolated and confined environments (Section 2). We then give two examples of where such knowledge from space behavioral science research has been applied to terrestrial isolated and confined environments. One is JAXA's support in 2009 for people who were vulnerable to infection by a new strain of flu and accordingly placed in an isolated and confined facility under the Infectious Disease Law and the Quarantine Law. The other is NASA's support in 2010 for Chilean mine workers who were trapped 700 m

  2. Early Childhood Electronic Media Use as a Predictor of Poorer Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinkley, Trina; Verbestel, Vera; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    , and Social networks subscales from the KINDLR (Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents–Revised Version). Each scale was dichotomized to identify those children at risk for poorer outcomes. Indicators of electronic media use (weekday and weekend television......Importance Identifying associations between preschool-aged children’s electronic media use and their later well-being is essential to supporting positive long-term outcomes. Objective To investigate possible dose-response associations of young children’s electronic media use with their later well......-being. Design, Setting, and Participants The IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) study is a prospective cohort study with an intervention component. Data were collected at baseline from September 1, 2007, through June 30, 2008...

  3. Night-shift work is associated with poorer glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manodpitipong, Areesa; Saetung, Sunee; Nimitphong, Hataikarn; Siwasaranond, Nantaporn; Wongphan, Thanawat; Sornsiriwong, Chotima; Luckanajantachote, Pranee; Mangjit, Prasitchai; Keesukphan, Prasit; Crowley, Stephanie J; Hood, Megan M; Reutrakul, Sirimon

    2017-12-01

    The circadian system plays a role in regulating metabolism. Night-shift work, a form of circadian misalignment, is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. This study aimed to determine if night-shift workers with type 2 diabetes experience poorer glycaemic control than non-shift workers. Patients with type 2 diabetes (104 unemployed, 85 day workers and 60 night-shift workers) participated. Sleep duration, sleep quality, morningness-eveningness preference, depressive symptoms and dietary intake were assessed using standardized questionnaires. Haemoglobin A1c levels were measured. Night-shift workers had significantly higher haemoglobin A1c levels compared with others, while there were no differences between day workers and unemployed participants (median 7.86% versus 7.24% versus 7.09%, respectively). Additionally, night-shift workers were younger, had a higher body mass index, and consumed more daily calories than others. Among night-shift workers, there were no significant differences in haemoglobin A1c levels between those performing rotating versus non-rotating shifts (P = 0.856), or those with clockwise versus counterclockwise shift rotation (P = 0.833). After adjusting for age, body mass index, insulin use, sleep duration, morningness-eveningness preference and percentage of daily intake from carbohydrates, night-shift work, compared with day work, was associated with significantly higher haemoglobin A1c (B = 0.059, P = 0.044), while there were no differences between unemployed participants and day workers (B = 0.016, P = 0.572). In summary, night-shift work is associated with poorer glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. © The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Subjective memory complaints are associated with poorer cognitive performance in adults with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkwalala, Asante; Hulgan, Todd; Newhouse, Paul

    2017-05-01

    With successful antiretroviral therapy in the US, HIV-positive adults now routinely survive into old age. However, increased life expectancy with HIV introduces the added complication of age-related cognitive decline. Aging with HIV has been associated with poorer cognitive outcomes compared to HIV-negative adults. While up to 50% of older HIV-positive adults will develop some degree of cognitive impairment over their lifetime, cognitive symptoms are often not consistently monitored, until those symptoms are significant enough to impair daily life. In this study we found that subjective memory complaint (SMC) ratings correlated with measurable memory performance impairments in HIV-positive adults, but not HIV-negative adults. As the HIV-positive population ages, structured subjective cognitive assessment may be beneficial to identify the early signs of cognitive impairment, and subsequently allow for earlier interventions to maintain cognitive performance as these adults continue to survive into old age.

  5. Social marketing campaign significantly associated with increases in syphilis testing among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jorge A; Kent, Charlotte K; Rotblatt, Harlan; McCright, Jacque; Kerndt, Peter R; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2005-07-01

    Between 1999 and 2002, San Francisco experienced a sharp increase in early syphilis among gay and bisexual men. In response, the San Francisco Department of Public Health launched a social marketing campaign to increase testing for syphilis, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men. A convenience sample of 244 gay and bisexual men (18-60 years of age) were surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign. Respondents were interviewed to elicit unaided and aided awareness about the campaign, knowledge about syphilis, recent sexual behaviors, and syphilis testing behavior. After controlling for other potential confounders, unaided campaign awareness was a significant correlate of having a syphilis test in the last 6 months (odds ratio, 3.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-7.97) compared with no awareness of the campaign. A comparison of respondents aware of the campaign with those not aware also revealed significant increases in awareness and knowledge about syphilis. The Healthy Penis 2002 campaign achieved its primary objective of increasing syphilis testing, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

  6. People with chronic low back pain have poorer balance than controls in challenging tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rubens A; Vieira, Edgar R; Fernandes, Karen B P; Andraus, Rodrigo A; Oliveira, Marcio R; Sturion, Leandro A; Calderon, Mariane G

    2018-06-01

    To compare the balance of individuals with and without chronic low back pain during five tasks. The participants were 20 volunteers, 10 with and 10 without nonspecific chronic low back pain, mean age 34 years, 50% females. The participants completed the following balance tasks on a force platform in random order: (1) two-legged stance with eyes open, (2) two-legged stance with eyes closed, (3) semi-tandem with eyes open, (4) semi-tandem with eyes closed and (5) one-legged stance with eyes open. The participants completed three 60-s trials of tasks 1-4, and three 30-s trials of task 5 with 30-s rests between trials. The center of pressure area, velocity and frequency in the antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions were computed during each task, and compared between groups and tasks. Participants with chronic low back pain presented significantly larger center of pressure area and higher velocity than the healthy controls (p chronic low back pain group than two-legged stance tasks 1 and 2 (effect size >1.37 vs. effect size chronic low back pain presented poorer postural control using center of pressure measurements than the healthy controls, mainly during more challenging balance tasks such as semi-tandem and one-legged stance conditions. Implications for Rehabilitation People with chronic low back had poorer balance than those without it. Balance tasks need to be sensitive to capture impairments. Balance assessments during semi-tandem and one-legged stance were the most sensitive tasks to determine postural control deficit in people with chronic low back. Balance assessment should be included during rehabilitation programs for individuals with chronic low back pain for better clinical decision making related to balance re-training as necessary.

  7. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Mann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is often poorer for a second language (L2. In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1 may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001. Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = −0.023. Standard multiple regression was

  8. Sustainable Corporate Social Media Marketing Based on Message Structural Features: Firm Size Plays a Significant Role as a Moderator

    OpenAIRE

    Moon Young Kang; Byungho Park

    2018-01-01

    Social media has been receiving attention as a cost-effective tool to build corporate brand image and to enrich customer relationships. This phenomenon calls for more attention to developing a model that measures the impact of structural features, used in corporate social media messages. Based on communication science, this study proposes a model to measure the impact of three essential message structural features (interactivity, formality, and immediacy) in corporate social media on customer...

  9. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50, showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress - all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students' Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = -0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the

  10. The Educational and Political Significance of the New Social Media: A Dialogue with Linda Herrera and Michael A. Peters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Linda; Peters, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The year 2010 was named the Year of Social Media, a technology of communication and for creating and exchanging "User Generated Content". The year 2010 also marked the start of the Arab revolts where, in Tunisia and Egypt, social media served as a critical platform for expressing dissent, organizing, and providing citizen media accounts…

  11. Are Psychotic Experiences Related to Poorer Reflective Reasoning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Mækelæ

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive biases play an important role in the formation and maintenance of delusions. These biases are indicators of a weak reflective mind, or reduced engaging in reflective and deliberate reasoning. In three experiments, we tested whether a bias to accept non-sense statements as profound, treat metaphorical statements as literal, and suppress intuitive responses is related to psychotic-like experiences.Methods: We tested deliberate reasoning and psychotic-like experiences in the general population and in patients with a former psychotic episode. Deliberate reasoning was assessed with the bullshit receptivity scale, the ontological confabulation scale and the cognitive reflection test (CRT. We also measured algorithmic performance with the Berlin numeracy test and the wordsum test. Psychotic-like experiences were measured with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experience (CAPE-42 scale.Results: Psychotic-like experiences were positively correlated with a larger receptivity toward bullshit, more ontological confabulations, and also a lower score on the CRT but not with algorithmic task performance. In the patient group higher psychotic-like experiences significantly correlated with higher bullshit receptivity.Conclusion: Reduced deliberate reasoning may contribute to the formation of delusions, and be a general thinking bias largely independent of a person's general intelligence. Acceptance of bullshit may be facilitated the more positive symptoms a patient has, contributing to the maintenance of the delusions.

  12. Early childhood electronic media use as a predictor of poorer well-being: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Trina; Verbestel, Vera; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Lissner, Lauren; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Pigeot, Iris; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Reisch, Lucia A; Russo, Paola; Veidebaum, Toomas; Tornaritis, Michael; Williams, Garrath; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2014-05-01

    Identifying associations between preschool-aged children's electronic media use and their later well-being is essential to supporting positive long-term outcomes. To investigate possible dose-response associations of young children's electronic media use with their later well-being. The IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) study is a prospective cohort study with an intervention component. Data were collected at baseline from September 1, 2007, through June 30, 2008, and at follow-up from September 1, 2009, through May 31, 2010, in 8 European countries participating in the IDEFICS study. This investigation is based on 3604 children aged 2 to 6 years who participated in the longitudinal component of the IDEFICS study only and not in the intervention. Early childhood electronic media use. The following 6 indicators of well-being from 2 validated instruments were used as outcomes at follow-up: Peer problems and Emotional problems subscales from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Emotional well-being, Self-esteem, Family functioning, and Social networks subscales from the KINDLR (Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents-Revised Version). Each scale was dichotomized to identify those children at risk for poorer outcomes. Indicators of electronic media use (weekday and weekend television and electronic game [e-game]/computer use) from baseline were used as predictors. Associations varied between boys and girls; however, associations suggested that increased levels of electronic media use predicted poorer well-being outcomes. Television viewing on weekdays or weekends was more consistently associated with poorer outcomes than e-game/computer use. Across associations, the likelihood of adverse outcomes in children ranged from a 1.2- to 2.0-fold increase for emotional problems and poorer family functioning for each additional hour of

  13. Social acceptability: Towards a definition and shared understanding of its significance and contribution to decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, Gilles; Perusse, Martin

    2010-09-15

    Social acceptability is increasingly described in the discourse of social players as a sine qua non condition for projects to be carried out. It is referred to as an approach (participation in the decision-making process) and as an outcome (citizens' concurrence with the decision). The application of this new concept generated considerable expectations. In our opinion, social acceptability must pass through three complementary stages: i) discussing material (downstream) and structural (upstream) issues; ii) establishing a transparent and equitable consultation process; and iii) ensuring that a legitimate decision-making process occurs.

  14. US public support for vaccine donation to poorer countries in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the global health community sought to make vaccine available "in developing nations in the same timeframe as developed nations." However, richer nations placed advance orders with manufacturers, leaving poorer nations dependent on the quantity and timing of vaccine donations by manufacturers and rich nations. Knowledge of public support for timely donations could be important to policy makers during the next pandemic. We explored what the United States (US public believes about vaccine donation by its country to poorer countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We surveyed 2079 US adults between January 22(nd and February 1(st 2010 about their beliefs regarding vaccine donation to poorer countries. Income (p = 0.014, objective priority status (p = 0.005, nativity, party affiliation, and political ideology (p<0.001 were significantly related to views on the amount of vaccine to be donated. Though party affiliation and political ideology were related to willingness to donate vaccine (p<0.001, there was bipartisan support for timely donations of 10% of the US vaccine supply so that those "at risk in poorer countries can get the vaccine at the same time" as those at risk in the US. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the US and other developed nations would do well to bolster support with education and public discussion on this issue prior to an emerging pandemic when emotional reactions could potentially influence support for donation. We conclude that given our evidence for bipartisan support for timely donations, it may be necessary to design multiple arguments, from utilitarian to moral, to strengthen public and policy makers' support for donations.

  15. What constitutes a health-enabling neighborhood? A grounded theory situational analysis addressing the significance of social capital and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Malin; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Variations in health between neighborhoods are well known and the conceptualization of social capital has contributed to an understanding of how contextual factors influence these differences. Studies show positive health-effects from living in high social capital areas, at least for some population sub-groups. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand what constitutes a 'health-enabling' neighborhood. It follows up results from a social capital survey in northern Sweden indicating that the health effects of living in a high social capital neighborhood is gendered in favor of women. A grounded theory situational analysis of eight focus group discussions--four with men and four with women--illustrated similar and different positions on how neighborhood characteristics influence health. A neighborhood, where people say hi to each other ("hi-factor") and where support between neighbors exist, were factors perceived as positive for health by all, as was a good location, neighborhood greenness and proximity to essential arenas. Women perceived freedom from demands, feeling safe and city life as additional health enabling factors. For men freedom to do what you want, a sense of belonging, and countryside life were important. To have burdensome neighbors, physical disturbances and a densely living environment were perceived as negative for health in both groups while demands for a well styled home and feeling unsafe were perceived as negative for health among women. Neighborhood social capital, together with other elements in the living environment, has fundamental influence on people's perceived health. Our findings do not confirm that social capital is more important for women than for men but that distinctive form of social capital differ in impact. Investing in physical interventions, such as planning for meeting places, constructing attractive green areas, and making neighborhoods walking-friendly, may increase human interactions that is instrumental for

  16. The Evaluation of Significant Figures in the History of Social Psychology: A Class Exercise in the Teaching of Introductory Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, John Michael; Chambers, Timothy Peter

    2017-01-01

    In teaching social psychology, the process of identifying a particular theorist can lead to an enhanced understanding of the theories associated with that individual. Employing this process into a summative assessment, this article outlines an exercise that facilitated the teaching of introductory social psychology to 147 undergraduate students.…

  17. Obesity is associated with a poorer prognosis in women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Penelope J; Bell, Robin J; Davis, Susan R

    2014-11-01

    Whether moderate to severe obesity (body mass index (BMI)≥30 to women, recruited within 12 months of their diagnosis of hormone receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (HER2-) invasive breast cancer completed an enrolment questionnaire and an annual follow-up questionnaire every 12 months for another 5 years. The impact of obesity on time to either local or distant recurrence or new breast cancer, or death due to breast cancer was determined by Cox regression. Women in the most extreme categories of BMI (women, mean age, 58.4±11.6 years, 53.8% had Stage 1 disease and 88.9% received oral adjuvant endocrine therapy (OAET) within 2 years of diagnosis. The likelihood of an event was significantly associated with moderate to severe obesity (HR=1.71, 95%CI, 1.12-2.62, p=0.014), disease beyond Stage 1 (HR=2.87, 95% CI 1.73-4.75, pobesity (HR 3.23, 95%CI 1.48-7.03, p=0.003) and OAET use (HR 0.41, 95%CI 0.17-0.98, p=0.046) were significantly associated with an event. Moderate to severe obesity is associated with a poorer invasive breast cancer prognosis; this is also true for women with Stage 1 disease, and is independent of age and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Empowering Yoruba Women in Nigeria to Prevent HIV/AIDS: The Relative Significance of Behavioural and Social Determinant Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatosin Ige Alo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article uncovers the relevance to practice of behavioural and social determinant models of HIV prevention among Yoruba women in Nigeria. Exploring what factors influence health behaviour in heterosexual relationships, the key question raised was whether the women’s experiences support the assumptions and prescriptions for action of these two dominant public health models. Eight focus group discussions and 39 in-depth interviews were conducted, which involved 121 women and men who were chosen purposefully and through self-nomination technique. This study revealed that the women were very much constrained by social environments in negotiating safe sex, despite having at least a basic knowledge of HIV prevention. Limiting factors included the fear of relationship breakup, economic dependence, violence, and the difficulties in justifying why they feel the need to insist on condom use, especially since initiating condom use is antithetical to trust. Furthermore, evidence suggested that improved access to income and education might be vital but it does not automatically constitute a direct means of empowering women to prevent HIV infection. The limitations of both behavioural and social determinants perspectives thus suggests the need for a combination prevention model, which focuses on how social, behavioural and biomedical factors overlap in shaping health outcomes.

  19. Teens, Video Games, and Civics: Teens' Gaming Experiences Are Diverse and Include Significant Social Interaction and Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Amanda; Kahne, Joseph; Middaugh, Ellen; Macgill, Alexandra Rankin; Evans, Chris; Vitak, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Video games provide a diverse set of experiences and related activities and are part of the lives of almost all teens in America. To date, most video game research has focused on how games impact academic and social outcomes (particularly aggression). There has also been some exploration of the relationship between games and civic outcomes, but as…

  20. Sustainable Corporate Social Media Marketing Based on Message Structural Features: Firm Size Plays a Significant Role as a Moderator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Young Kang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Social media has been receiving attention as a cost-effective tool to build corporate brand image and to enrich customer relationships. This phenomenon calls for more attention to developing a model that measures the impact of structural features, used in corporate social media messages. Based on communication science, this study proposes a model to measure the impact of three essential message structural features (interactivity, formality, and immediacy in corporate social media on customers’ purchase intentions, mediated by brand attitude and corporate trust. Especially, social media platforms are believed to provide a good marketing platform for small and medium enterprises (SMEs by providing access to huge audiences at a very low cost. The findings from this study based on a structural equation model suggest that brand attitude and corporate trust have larger impacts on purchase intention for SMEs than large firms. This implies that SMEs with little to no presence in the market should pay more attention to building corporate trust and brand attitude for their sustainable growth.

  1. Hyper-responsiveness to acute stress, emotional problems and poorer memory in former preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Andrea A; Tristão, Rosana M; Pratesi, Riccardo; Wolf, Oliver T

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of preterm birth (PTB) is high worldwide, especially in developing countries like Brazil. PTB is marked by a stressful environment in intra- as well as extrauterine life, which can affect neurodevelopment and hormonal and physiological systems and lead to long-term negative outcomes. Nevertheless, little is known about PTB and related outcomes later on in childhood. Thus, the goals of the current study were threefold: (1) comparing cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) profiles, including cortisol awakening response (CAR), between preterm and full-term children; (2) evaluating whether preterm children are more responsive to acute stress and (3) assessing their memory skills and emotional and behavioral profiles. Basal cortisol and sAA profiles, including CAR of 30 preterm children, aged 6 to 10 years, were evaluated. Further, we assessed memory functions using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and we screened behavior/emotion using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results of preterm children were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group. One week later, participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor [Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)], in which cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline, 1, 10 and 25 min after stressor exposure. Preterm children had higher cortisol concentrations at awakening, a flattened CAR and an exaggerated response to TSST-C compared to full-term children. These alterations were more pronounced in girls. In addition, preterm children were characterized by more emotional problems and poorer memory performance. Our findings illustrate the long-lasting and in part sex-dependent effects of PTB on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, internalizing behavior and memory. The findings are in line with the idea that early adversity alters the set-point of the HPA axis, thereby creating a more vulnerable phenotype.

  2. Social security for seafarers globally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf; Canals, Luisa; Haarløv, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Social security for seafarers globally Background: Social security protection is one of the essential elements of decent work. The issue is complex and no previous epidemiological studies of the coverage among seafarers have yet been performed. Objectives: The aim was to overcome the gap...... of knowledge to promote the discussion and planning of the implementation of social security for all seafarers. Methods: The seafarers completed a short questionnaire concerning their knowledge about their social security status. Results: Significant disparities of coverage of social security were pointed out...... comes from poorer countries without substantial social security systems. The solutions suggested are to implement the minimum requirements as recommended by the ILO 2006 Convention, to survey the implementation and in the long term to struggle for global social equality. Key words: Social security...

  3. [Formula: see text]Determination of the smoking gun of intent: significance testing of forced choice results in social security claimants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Laurence M; Chafetz, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Significantly below-chance findings on forced choice tests have been described as revealing "the smoking gun of intent" that proved malingering. The issues of probability levels, one-tailed vs. two-tailed tests, and the combining of PVT scores on significantly below-chance findings were addressed in a previous study, with a recommendation of a probability level of .20 to test the significance of below-chance results. The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of below-chance findings in a Social Security Disability claimant sample using the previous recommendations. We compared the frequency of below-chance results on forced choice performance validity tests (PVTs) at two levels of significance, .05 and .20, and when using significance testing on individual subtests of the PVTs compared with total scores in claimants for Social Security Disability in order to determine the rate of the expected increase. The frequency of significant results increased with the higher level of significance for each subtest of the PVT and when combining individual test sections to increase the number of test items, with up to 20% of claimants showing significantly below-chance results at the higher p-value. These findings are discussed in light of Social Security Administration policy, showing an impact on policy issues concerning child abuse and neglect, and the importance of using these techniques in evaluations for Social Security Disability.

  4. Networks of Food Sharing Reveal the Functional Significance of Multilevel Sociality in Two Hunter-Gatherer Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Smith, Daniel; Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Page, Abigail E; Vinicuis, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-08-08

    Like many other mammalian and primate societies [1-4], humans are said to live in multilevel social groups, with individuals situated in a series of hierarchically structured sub-groups [5, 6]. Although this multilevel social organization has been described among contemporary hunter-gatherers [5], questions remain as to the benefits that individuals derive from living in such groups. Here, we show that food sharing among two populations of contemporary hunter-gatherers-the Palanan Agta (Philippines) and Mbendjele BaYaka (Republic of Congo)-reveals similar multilevel social structures, with individuals situated in households, within sharing clusters of 3-4 households, within the wider residential camps, which vary in size. We suggest that these groupings serve to facilitate inter-sexual provisioning, kin provisioning, and risk reduction reciprocity, three levels of cooperation argued to be fundamental in human societies [7, 8]. Humans have a suite of derived life history characteristics including a long childhood and short inter-birth intervals that make offspring energetically demanding [9] and have moved to a dietary niche that often involves the exploitation of difficult to acquire foods with highly variable return rates [10-12]. This means that human foragers face both day-to-day and more long-term energetic deficits that conspire to make humans energetically interdependent. We suggest that a multilevel social organization allows individuals access to both the food sharing partners required to buffer themselves against energetic shortfalls and the cooperative partners required for skill-based tasks such as cooperative foraging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Social significance of communal dining in Etruscan Italy from the seventh to the fourth century BC: an iconographical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Geissler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Imagery relating to communal dining or banqueting in ancient Etruria is relatively abundant and provides a useful source of potential information about the workings of Etruscan society, not least because of the semantic value of banquet scenes. The conduct of eating and drinking in company generally reflects patterns of social behavior, governed by local traditions, rules, ritual, beliefs and ideology embedded in society. In addition, banqueting or feasting may be closely inter...

  6. ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL STRUCTURE AND SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF A SAMPLE OF HAMMĀMS IN MEDITERRANEAN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roula Aboukhater

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The hammām is a public building which is traditionally closely linked to socio cultural norms of the society that is supposed to serve. This paper seeks to answer questions about the logic by which such buildings respond to those complex socio cultural relations and the potentials offered by their spatial structures. The hypothesis in analyzing the internal layout is based on the ability of forms to adapt to socio cultural norms of certain societies and that they could be shaped to respond to social needs and to produce appropriate behavior. This study is based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics of the internal layouts of several hammāms, the socio-historical information, the direct observation of the spaces and face to face interviews with staff especially those working in hammām Ammuna in Damascus. The main objective is to explore the following questions: 1 How are hammāms “designed” to fulfi ll users’ social needs and their well-being in the internal spaces? 2 How architectural settings in the internal spaces of the hammām are “coded” or “structured” to produce appropriate social practice or behavior? This paper demonstrates that hammāms are the witnesses of a genius locus of adaptation of a building to sociocultural norms.

  7. [Pharmaceutical care for patients of the third age in pharmacy organizations as a significant aspect of social gerontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivosheev, S A; Kartashova, O V; Tikhonova, U A; Zakharova, O V

    2017-01-01

    There are questions in the article that study mutual relations of patients of elderly and senile age with pharmaceutical experts. It was revealed that pharmacy organizations are an important element in the life of patients of the third age and noted the high role of the pharmaceutical specialist in their social environment. The article shows the need to focus on the psychosomatic features of elderly patients with proper pharmaceutical counseling and professional communication. It was noted that interaction of patients of the third age with pharmaceutical specialists and their confidence in them has high importance.

  8. Peer perceptions of social skills in socially anxious and nonanxious adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miers, Anne C; Blöte, Anke W; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies using adult observers are inconsistent with regard to social skills deficits in nonclinical socially anxious youth. The present study investigated whether same age peers perceive a lack of social skills in the socially anxious. Twenty high and 20 low socially anxious adolescents (13-17 years old) were recorded giving a 5-min speech. Unfamiliar peer observers (12-17 years old) viewed the speech samples and rated four social skills: speech content, facial expressions, posture and body movement, and way of speaking. Peer observers perceived high socially anxious adolescents as significantly poorer than low socially anxious adolescents on all four social skills. Moreover, for all skills except facial expressions, group differences could not be attributed to adolescents' self-reported level of depression. We suggest that therapists take the perceptions of same age peers into account when assessing the social skills of socially anxious youth.

  9. Suppression and expression of emotion in social and interpersonal outcomes: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervonsky, Elizabeth; Hunt, Caroline

    2017-06-01

    Emotion expression is critical for the communication of important social information, such as emotional states and behavioral intentions. However, people tend to vary in their level of emotional expression. This meta-analysis investigated the relationships between levels of emotion expression and suppression, and social and interpersonal outcomes. PsycINFO databases, as well as reference lists were searched. Forty-three papers from a total of 3,200 papers met inclusion criteria, allowing for 105 effect sizes to be calculated. Meta-analyses revealed that greater suppression of emotion was significantly associated with poorer social wellbeing, including more negative first impressions, lower social support, lower social satisfaction and quality, and poorer romantic relationship quality. Furthermore, the expression of positive and general/nonspecific emotion was related to better social outcomes, while the expression of anger was associated with poorer social wellbeing. Expression of negative emotion generally was also associated with poorer social outcomes, although this effect size was very small and consisted of mixed results. These findings highlight the importance of considering the role that regulation of emotional expression can play in the development of social dysfunction and interpersonal problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The Importance of Social Support on Glycemic Control in Low-Income Latinos with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotberg, Britt; Junqueira, Yasmine; Gosdin, Lucas; Mejia, Roberto; Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Latino population exhibits poorer glycemic control than the white population, leading to more frequent health complications and greater disease severity. Social support has been shown a significant factor in health and well-being. Purpose: To determine the association between glycemic control and social support in patients…

  11. High Intrapatient Variability of Tacrolimus Exposure in the Early Period After Liver Transplantation Is Associated With Poorer Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayar, Michel; Tron, Camille; Jézéquel, Caroline; Beaurepaire, Jean Marie; Petitcollin, Antoine; Houssel-Debry, Pauline; Camus, Christophe; Verdier, Marie Clémence; Dehlawi, Ammar; Lakéhal, Mohamed; Desfourneaux, Véronique; Meunier, Bernard; Sulpice, Laurent; Bellissant, Eric; Boudjema, Karim; Lemaitre, Florian

    2018-03-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is the cornerstone of immunosuppressive regimen in liver transplantation (LT). Its pharmacokinetics is characterized by a high interpatient and intrapatient variability (IPV) leading to an unpredictable dose-response relationship. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of TAC IPV (IPV) on graft and patient outcomes after LT. We retrospectively analyzed 812 LT recipients treated with TAC. The IPV of TAC concentrations was estimated by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV) of whole blood trough concentrations. Patients were categorized in 2 groups: low IPV (CV < 40%) and high IPV (CV ≥ 40%). There were significantly more neurologic complications (31.2% vs 16.6%, P < 0.001), cardiovascular complications (19.7% vs 9.7%, P < 0.001), and acute renal failure requiring dialysis (8.5% vs 2.2%, P < 0.001) in the high CV group than in the low CV group. Moreover, graft survival was significantly poorer in the high CV group (hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.95; P = 0.03). A pretransplantation elevated Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score (P < 0.001) and Child-Pugh grade (P < 0.001) were identified as risk factors for presenting a high CV. A high CV of TAC concentrations was found to be predictive of TAC-related toxicity and poorer survival.

  12. Children's Executive Functions: Are They Poorer after Very Early Brain Insult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vicki; Spencer-Smith, Megan; Coleman, Lee; Anderson, Peter; Williams, Jackie; Greenham, Mardee; Leventer, Richard J.; Jacobs, Rani

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally early brain insult (EBI) has been considered to have better outcome than later injury, consistent with the notion that the young brain is flexible and able to reorganize. Recent research findings question this view, suggesting that EBI might lead to poorer outcome than brain insult at any other age. Exploring this early vulnerability…

  13. Effects of group size and expectancy of reward on social loafing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... years (mean age = 14.53). Results indicated that performance was significantly poorer in the group condition than in the alone condition (p. <05); and reward significantly attenuated social loafing effect in the group condition (p. <05). These observations were discussed in relation to the prevailing challenge in team work.

  14. Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: poorer prognosis than non-head and neck sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, G B; Madana, J; Da Silva, S D; Hier, M P; Mlynarek, A M; Black, M J

    2016-04-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive neurocutaneous malignancy. This study investigated whether patients with Merkel cell carcinoma in the head and neck had poorer outcomes than patients with Merkel cell carcinoma located elsewhere. A retrospective study was performed of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma treated at the Jewish General Hospital in Montréal, Canada, from 1993 to 2013. Associations between clinicopathological characteristics and disease-free and disease-specific survival rates were examined according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Twenty-seven patients were identified. Although basic clinicopathological characteristics and treatments were similar between head and neck and non-head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma groups, disease-free and disease-specific survival rates were significantly lower in the head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma group (log-rank test; p = 0.043 and p = 0.001, respectively). Mortality was mainly due to distant metastasis. Patients with head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma had poorer survival rates than patients with non-head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma in our study. The tendency to obtain close margins, a less predictable metastatic pattern, and/or intrinsic tumour factors related to the head and neck may explain this discrepancy.

  15. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. The Significance of Harm Reduction as a Social and Health Care Intervention for Injecting Drug Users: An Exploratory Study of a Needle Exchange Program in Fresno, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kris; Harris, Debra; Zweifler, John A; Lasher, Marc; Mortimer, Roger B; Hughes, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease remains a significant social and health concern in the United States. Preventing more people from contracting HIV/AIDS or Hepatitis C (HCV), requires a complex understanding of the interconnection between the biomedical and social dimensions of infectious disease. Opiate addiction in the US has skyrocketed in recent years. Preventing more cases of HIV/AIDS and HCV will require dealing with the social determinants of health. Needle exchange programs (NEPs) are based on a harm reduction approach that seeks to minimize the risk of infection and damage to the user and community. This article presents an exploratory small-scale quantitative study of the injection drug using habits of a group of injection drug users (IDUs) at a needle exchange program in Fresno, California. Respondents reported significant decreases in high risk IDU behaviors, including sharing of needles and to a lesser extent re-using of needles. They also reported frequent use of clean paraphernalia. Greater collaboration between social and health outreach professionals at NEPs could provide important frontline assistance to people excluded from mainstream office-based services and enhance efforts to reduce HIV/AIDS or HCV infection.

  17. The significance of biological, environmental, and social risk factors for prostate cancer in a cohort study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico R. Romero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the significance of several risk factors for prostate cancer in a cohort of Brazilian men. Subjects and methods: Men ≥ 40 years-old participating in a prostate cancer screening program between December 2006 and April 2011 in the city of Curitiba, Brazil, were evaluated to determine the prevalence, relative risk (RR and 95% CI of prostate cancer according to age, race, ethnicity, family history of prostate cancer, educational level, and history of vasectomy, increased blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and urethritis. Results In 2121 men included in this study, prostate cancer prevalence was 0.6% for men between 40-49 years versus 2.0% (adjusted RR = 2.58, 7.7% (adjusted RR = 5.76, and 8.4% (adjusted RR = 4.88 for men 50-59 years, 60-69 years, and ≥ 70 years, respectively (p 0.05; 6.1% in African descendants, in comparison to 3.0% in non-African descendants (adjusted RR = 3.17, p 0.05; and 4.8% in participants with incomplete elementary school level or lower, compared to 2.2% in men with complete elementary school level or higher education (adjusted RR = 1.85, p > 0.05. Men with/without history of vasectomy, increased blood pressure, diabetes, and urethritis had a prostate cancer prevalence of 0.8%/3.0% (adjusted RR = 0.23, p > 0.05, 3.8%/2.2% (adjusted RR = 1.16, p > 0.05, 3.7%/2.6% (adjusted RR = 1.39, p > 0.05, and 2.6%/2.6% (adjusted RR = 0.99, p > 0.05, respectively. Conclusions Risk factors associated with an increased prevalence of prostate cancer in this cohort included increasing age and African ethnicity.

  18. A Social Work Approach to Policy: Implications for Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel P; Bazzi, Angela R; Allen, Heidi L; Martinson, Melissa L; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Jantz, Kathryn; Crevi, Katherine; Rosenbloom, David L

    2017-12-01

    The substantial disparities in health and poorer outcomes in the United States relative to peer nations suggest the need to refocus health policy. Through direct contact with the most vulnerable segments of the population, social workers have developed an approach to policy that recognizes the importance of the social environment, the value of social relationships, and the significance of value-driven policymaking. This approach could be used to reorient health, health care, and social policies. Accordingly, social workers can be allies to public health professionals in efforts to eliminate disparities and improve population health.

  19. A Social Work Approach to Policy: Implications for Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Angela R.; Allen, Heidi L.; Martinson, Melissa L.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Jantz, Kathryn; Crevi, Katherine; Rosenbloom, David L.

    2017-01-01

    The substantial disparities in health and poorer outcomes in the United States relative to peer nations suggest the need to refocus health policy. Through direct contact with the most vulnerable segments of the population, social workers have developed an approach to policy that recognizes the importance of the social environment, the value of social relationships, and the significance of value-driven policymaking. This approach could be used to reorient health, health care, and social policies. Accordingly, social workers can be allies to public health professionals in efforts to eliminate disparities and improve population health. PMID:29236535

  20. Addiction is one of the social problems which has a significant role in the spiritual and physical health of the person, family

    OpenAIRE

    Fereshte Jaliliyan

    2009-01-01

    Addiction is one of the social problems which has a significant role in the spiritual and physical health of the person, family, and specially the health of the society. One of the main factors for continuance and intensity of involvement in addiction, is that the individuals, the network positive (healthy) relations is low. There fore, in this study, the role of the network positive (healthy) and the network negative (unhealthy) relations in degree (intensity) of the person’s involvement in ...

  1. Poorer Financial and Health Literacy Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; James, Bryan D; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A

    2015-09-01

    Literacy is an important determinant of financial and health outcomes in old age, and cognitive decline has been linked with lower literacy. We tested the hypothesis that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with poorer financial and health literacy. Participants (n = 730) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project were given a clinical evaluation and an assessment of total, financial, and health literacy. Regression was used to examine whether MCI was associated with lower literacy. In secondary analyses, we investigated the association of particular cognitive systems with literacy. MCI was associated with lower total, financial, and health literacy. An interaction was observed such that higher education reduced the effect of MCI on total and financial literacy. Multiple cognitive systems were associated with literacy in participants with MCI, and semantic memory accounted for the most variance. Persons with MCI exhibit poorer financial and health literacy, and education mitigates this effect. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Depressive symptoms and poorer performance on the Stroop Task are associated with weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Emma J; Krakoff, Jonathan; Gluck, Marci E

    2018-03-15

    Executive function impairments and depression are associated with obesity but whether they predict weight gain is unclear. Forty-six individuals (35m, 37±10y) completed the Stroop Task, Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-SR), Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Body composition (DXA) and fasting glucose were also measured. Data from return visits were used to assess changes in weight. Poorer Stroop and WCST performance associated with higher BMI whereas poorer IGT and WCST performance associated with higher body fat (%; all p's≤0.05). Stroop interference (p=0.04; p=0.05) and IDS-SR (p=0.06; p=0.02) associated with increased BMI and weight gain (%/yr). In a multivariate linear model Stroop interference (β=0.40, p<0.01; β=0.35, p<0.01) and IDS-SR (β=0.38, p<0.01; β=0.37, p<0.01) independently predicted increased BMI and weight gain (%/yr) even after controlling for baseline weight and glucose levels. Poorer response inhibition and depressive symptoms, but not glucose levels, predicted weight gain. Evaluating neurocognitive and mood deficits could improve current treatment strategies for weight loss. Clinical Trial Registration Numbers NCT00523627, NCT00342732, NCT01224704. clinicaltrials.gov. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Mild cognitive impairment is associated with poorer decision-making in community-based older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; James, Bryan D; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A

    2015-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with poorer financial and healthcare decision-making. Community-based epidemiological cohort study. Communities throughout northeastern Illinois. Older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project (N = 730). All participants underwent a detailed clinical evaluation and decision-making assessment using a measure that closely approximates materials used in real-world financial and healthcare settings. This allowed for measurement of total decision-making and financial and healthcare decision-making. Regression models were used to examine whether MCI was associated with a lower level of decision-making. In subsequent analyses, the relationship between specific cognitive systems (episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perceptual speed, visuospatial ability) and decision-making was explored in participants with MCI. MCI was associated with lower total, financial, and healthcare decision-making scores after accounting for the effects of age, education, and sex. The effect of MCI on total decision-making was equivalent to the effect of more than 10 additional years of age. Additional models showed that, when considering multiple cognitive systems, perceptual speed accounted for the most variance in decision-making in participants with MCI. Persons with MCI may have poorer financial and healthcare decision-making in real-world situations, and perceptual speed may be an important contributor to poorer decision-making in persons with MCI. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. The significance of socially-assigned ethnicity for self-identified Māori accessing and engaging with primary healthcare in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jennifer; Cormack, Donna; Crowe, Marie

    2016-03-01

    Despite increased focus in New Zealand on reducing health inequities between Māori and New Zealand European ethnic groups, research on barriers and facilitators to primary healthcare access for Māori remains limited. In particular, there has been little interrogation of the significance of social-assignment of ethnicity for Māori in relation to engagement with predominantly non-Māori primary healthcare services and providers. A qualitative study was undertaken with a subsample (n = 40) of the broader Hauora Manawa Study to examine experiences of accessing and engaging with primary healthcare among adult urban Māori. Thematic analysis of in-depth interviews identified that participants perceived social-assignment as New Zealand European as an efficacious form of capital when interacting with predominantly non-Māori health professionals. Skin colour that was 'white' or was perceived to identify Māori as belonging to the 'dominant' New Zealand European ethnic group was reported as broadly advantageous and protective. In contrast, social-assignment as Māori was seen to be associated with risk of exposure to differential and discriminatory healthcare. Reducing the negative impacts of racialisation in a (neo)colonial society where 'White' cultural capital dominates requires increased recognition of the health-protective advantages of 'White' privilege and concomitant risks associated with socially-assigned categorisation of ethnicity as non-'White'. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Research-based Reflections on How the Educational, Economic and Social Circumstances Faced by Some Children and Young People Can Lead to Significant Disadvantage and Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Stanley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides detailed reflections on the educational, economic and social circumstances that impact on the lives of many disadvantaged and vulnerable children and young people. Drawing largely on primary research data collected in Romania, Germany and the United Kingdom, three illustrative case studies are presented for consideration focusing on: life in residential care and youth offending institutions; experiences of educational vulnerability; and human trafficking. The methodological approach adopted across the research projects explored, was shaped by the demands and expectations of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC. All of the reported data reflects the views of children and young people who were interviewed as part of three research projects. It is argued that the difficult and challenging circumstances that many children and young people find themselves in, place them at significant disadvantage and increased vulnerability in terms of their social and educational development and life chances.

  6. Women with knee osteoarthritis have more pain and poorer function than men, but similar physical activity prior to total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonelli Shalome M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis of the knee is a major clinical problem affecting a greater proportion of women than men. Women generally report higher pain intensity at rest and greater perceived functional deficits than men. Women also perform worse than men on function measures such as the 6-minute walk and timed up and go tests. Differences in pain sensitivity, pain during function, psychosocial variables, and physical activity levels are unclear. Further the ability of various biopsychosocial variables to explain physical activity, function and pain is unknown. Methods This study examined differences in pain, pain sensitivity, function, psychosocial variables, and physical activity between women and men with knee osteoarthritis (N = 208 immediately prior to total knee arthroplasty. We assessed: (1 pain using self-report measures and a numerical rating scale at rest and during functional tasks, (2 pain sensitivity using quantitative sensory measures, (3 function with self-report measures and specific function tasks (timed walk, maximal active flexion and extension, (4 psychosocial measures (depression, anxiety, catastrophizing, and social support, and (5 physical activity using accelerometry. The ability of these mixed variables to explain physical activity, function and pain was assessed using regression analysis. Results Our findings showed significant differences on pain intensity, pain sensitivity, and function tasks, but not on psychosocial measures or physical activity. Women had significantly worse pain and more impaired function than men. Their levels of depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, social support, and physical activity, however, did not differ significantly. Factors explaining differences in (1 pain during movement (during gait speed test were pain at rest, knee extension, state anxiety, and pressure pain threshold; (2 function (gait speed test were sex, age, knee extension, knee flexion opioid medications, pain

  7. Small changes in meal patterns lead to significant changes in total caloric intake. Effects of diet and social status on food intake in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carla J; Lowe, Jonathan; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Ulam, Patrick; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E; Johnson, Zachary

    2013-03-01

    Social subordination in macaques is a well-established model to study the adverse effects of psychosocial stress on a number of health outcomes, including stress-induced eating. The present analysis was conducted to empirically define a meal among free-feeding female rhesus monkeys and to examine the roles of meal patterning (e.g., meal size, meal frequency, and snacking patterns) in findings from a previous study demonstrating that psychosocial stress increases overall caloric intake among subordinate animals with access to a highly palatable diet. Results indicate that all animals, regardless of social status, consumed more frequent meals, larger meals, and more calories in the form of snacks when a highly palatable diet was available. Additional findings suggest that subordinate animals consumed significantly larger meals compared to their dominant counterparts regardless of the dietary environment. Additionally, subordinate females with a history of exposure to the palatable diet consumed significantly more snack calories than both dominant and subordinate animals without previous exposure to the palatable diet when these females were returned to a standard laboratory diet. These findings illustrate how small changes in meal patterns can lead to significant increases in total caloric intake, which if prolonged, could promote the emergence of an obese phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  9. Mild Cognitive Impairment is Associated with PoorerDecision Making in Community-Based Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke Han, S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; James, Bryan D.; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Financial and healthcare decision making are important for maintaining wellbeing and independence in old age. We tested the hypothesis that Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is associated with poorer decision making in financial and healthcare matters. Design Community-based epidemiologic cohort study. Setting Communities throughout Northeastern Illinois. Participants Participants were 730 older nondemented persons from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Measurements All participants underwent a detailed clinical evaluation and decision making assessment using a measure that closely approximates materials utilized in real world financial and healthcare settings. This allowed for measurement of total decision making, as well as financial and healthcare decision making. Regression models were used to examine whether the presence of MCI was associated with a lower level of decision making. In subsequent analyses, we explored the relation of specific cognitive systems (i.e., episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial ability) with decision making in those with MCI. Results Results showed that MCI was associated with lower decision making total scores as well as financial and healthcare scores, respectively, after accounting for the effects of age, education, and sex. The effect of MCI on total decision making was equivalent to the effect of more than 10 additional years of age. Additional models showed that when considering multiple cognitive systems, perceptual speed accounted for the most variance in decision making among participants with MCI. Conclusion Results suggest that persons with MCI may exhibit poorer financial and healthcare decision making in real world situations, and that perceptual speed may be an important contributor to poorer decision making among persons with MCI. PMID:25850350

  10. Predicting weight status stability and change from fifth grade to eighth grade: the significant role of adolescents' social-emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yiting; Gable, Sara

    2013-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to predict weight status stability and change across the transition to adolescence using parent reports of child and household routines and teacher and child self-reports of social-emotional development. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. At fifth grade, parents reported on child and household routines and the study child and his/her primary classroom teacher reported on the child's social-emotional functioning. At fifth and eighth grade, children were directly weighed and measured at school. Nine mutually-exclusive weight trajectory groups were created to capture stability or change in weight status from fifth to eighth grade: (1) stable obese (ObeSta); (2) obese to overweight (ObePos1); (3) obese to healthy (ObePos2); (4) stable overweight (OverSta); (5) overweight to healthy (OverPos); (6) overweight to obese (OverNeg); (7) stable healthy (HelSta); (8) healthy to overweight (HelNeg1); and (9) healthy to obese (HelNeg2). Except for breakfast consumption at home, school-provided lunches, nighttime sleep duration, household and child routines did not predict stability or change in weight status. Instead, weight status trajectory across the transition to adolescence was significantly predicted by measures of social-emotional functioning at fifth grade. Assessing children's social-emotional well-being in addition to their lifestyle routines during the transition to adolescence is a noteworthy direction for adolescent obesity prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-01-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005–2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research

  12. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-09-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005-2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on

  13. Landless female peasants living in resettlement residential areas in China have poorer quality of life than males: results from a household study in the Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Li, Shuqin

    2014-05-15

    Urbanization has accelerated in China, and a large amount of arable land has been transformed into urban land. Moreover, the number of landless peasants has continually increased. Peasants lose not only their land, but also a series of rights and interests related with land. The problems of landless peasants have been long-standing; however, only a few studies have examined their health or quality of life (QOL). This paper assesses the QOL of landless peasants in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, analyzes gender differences, and explores health inequity. Data are derived from household samples in six resettlement residential areas of three cities (Nanjing, Hangzhou, and Yangzhou) in the YRD region (N = 1,500; the effective rate = 82.4%). This study uses the short version of World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) scale to measure the QOL of landless peasants, and performs confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and analyze gender differences in QOL on the basis of CFA. First, we use Analysis of Variance and Non-parametric Tests to test if the differences of mean value of testing generals have statistical significances. Results shows significant differences occur between the impacts of different genders on the four domains of QOL (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment). The internal reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF scale is good (Cronbach's alpha > 0.8), and the four domains of QOL are connected with each other. Second, scores in each QOL domain are commonly low, whereas the scores of females are much lower, indicating a poorer QOL than that of males. Third, results of the CFA of the QOL domains and their related observed variables indicate a good model fit. Fourth, results imply that the order of importance of the four domains (psychological health (males = 26.74%, females = 27.17%); social relationships (males = 26.23%, females = 25.35%); environment (males = 25

  14. The (InSignificance of Socio-Demographic Factors as Possible Determinants of Vietnamese Social Scientists’ Contribution-Adjusted Productivity: Preliminary Results from 2008–2017 Scopus Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu-Trang Vuong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As collaboration has become widespread in academia, and the number of authors per article has increased, the publication count is no longer an accurate indicator of scientific output in many cases. To overcome this limitation, this study defined and computed a relative count of publications called ‘CP’ (credit-based contribution points, based on the sequence-determines-credit (SDC method, which takes into account the level of contribution of each author. Analyses were done on a sample of 410 Vietnamese social scientists whose publications were indexed in the Scopus database during 2008–2017. The results showed that the average CP of Vietnamese researchers in the field of social sciences and humanities is very low: more than 88% of authors have a CP less than five over a span 10 years. Researchers with a higher CP were mostly 40–50 years old; however, even for this sub-group, the mean CP was only 3.07. Multiple attributes of first-authorship—including knowledge, research skills, and critical thinking—could boost the CP by a ratio of 1:1.06. There is no evidence of gender differences in productivity, however, there is a regional difference. These findings offer significant insights into the education system in regard to science and technology, namely policy implications for science funding and management strategies for research funds.

  15. Cannabis Use Is Associated With Increased Psychotic Symptoms and Poorer Psychosocial Functioning in First-Episode Psychosis: A Report From the UK National EDEN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Jennifer L; Birchwood, Max; Copello, Alex; Everard, Linda; Jones, Peter B; Fowler, David; Amos, Tim; Freemantle, Nick; Sharma, Vimal; Marshall, Max; Singh, Swaran P

    2016-05-01

    The use of cannabis during the early stage of psychosis has been linked with increased psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to examine the use of cannabis in the 12 months following a first-episode of psychosis (FEP) and the link with symptomatic course and outcome over 1 year post psychosis onset. One thousand twenty-seven FEP patients were recruited upon inception to specialized early intervention services (EIS) for psychosis in the United Kingdom. Participants completed assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 months. The results indicate that the use of cannabis was significantly associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms, mania, depression and poorer psychosocial functioning. Continued use of cannabis following the FEP was associated with poorer outcome at 1 year for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score, negative psychotic symptoms, depression and psychosocial functioning, an effect not explained by age, gender, duration of untreated psychosis, age of psychosis onset, ethnicity or other substance use. This is the largest cohort study of FEP patients receiving care within EIS. Cannabis use, particularly "continued use," was associated with poorer symptomatic and functional outcome during the FEP. The results highlight the need for effective and early intervention for cannabis use in FEP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. An evolutionarily significant unicellular strategy in response to starvation stress in Dictyostelium social amoebae [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3hg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Dubravcic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is widely studied for its multicellular development program as a response to starvation and constitutes a model of choice in microbial cooperation studies. Aggregates of up to 106 cells form fruiting bodies containing two cell types: (i dormant spores (~80% that can persist for months in the absence of nutrients, and (ii dead stalk cells (~20% that promote the dispersion of the spores towards nutrient-rich areas. It is often overlooked that not all cells aggregate upon starvation. Using a new quantitative approach based on time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and a low ratio of reporting cells, we have quantified this fraction of non-aggregating cells. In realistic starvation conditions, up to 15% of cells do not aggregate, which makes this third cell fate a significant component of the population-level response of social amoebae to starvation. Non-aggregating cells have an advantage over cells in aggregates since they resume growth earlier upon arrival of new nutrients, but have a shorter lifespan under prolonged starvation. We find that phenotypic heterogeneities linked to cell nutritional state bias the representation of cells in the aggregating vs. non-aggregating fractions, and thus regulate population partitioning. Next, we report that the fraction of non-aggregating cells depends on genetic factors that regulate the timing of starvation, signal sensing efficiency and aggregation efficiency. In addition, interactions between clones in mixtures of non-isogenic cells affect the partitioning of each clone into both fractions. We further test the evolutionary significance of the non-aggregating cell fraction. The partitioning of cells into aggregating and non-aggregating fractions is optimal in fluctuating environments with an unpredictable duration of starvation periods. D. discoideum thus constitutes a model system lying at the intersection of microbial cooperation and bet hedging, defining a new

  17. Economic diversification: Explaining the pattern of diversification in the global economy and its implications for fostering diversification in poorer countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freire Junior, Clovis

    2017-01-01

    Economic diversification is very relevant for poorer developing countries to create jobs and foster economic development. That need has been recognised in key internationally agreed development goals. The empirical economic literature has identified several stylised facts about the pattern of

  18. HIV infection does not disproportionately affect the poorer in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vinod; Assche, Simona Bignami-Van; Greener, Robert; Vaessen, Martin; Hong, Rathavuth; Ghys, Peter D; Boerma, J Ties; Van Assche, Ari; Khan, Shane; Rutstein, Shea

    2007-11-01

    Wealthier populations do better than poorer ones on most measures of health status, including nutrition, morbidity and mortality, and healthcare utilization. This study examines the association between household wealth status and HIV serostatus to identify what characteristics and behaviours are associated with HIV infection, and the role of confounding factors such as place of residence and other risk factors. Data are from eight national surveys in sub-Saharan Africa (Kenya, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Tanzania, Lesotho, Malawi, and Uganda) conducted during 2003-2005. Dried blood spot samples were collected and tested for HIV, following internationally accepted ethical standards and laboratory procedures. The association between household wealth (measured by an index based on household ownership of durable assets and other amenities) and HIV serostatus is examined using both descriptive and multivariate statistical methods. In all eight countries, adults in the wealthiest quintiles have a higher prevalence of HIV than those in the poorer quintiles. Prevalence increases monotonically with wealth in most cases. Similarly for cohabiting couples, the likelihood that one or both partners is HIV infected increases with wealth. The positive association between wealth and HIV prevalence is only partly explained by an association of wealth with other underlying factors, such as place of residence and education, and by differences in sexual behaviour, such as multiple sex partners, condom use, and male circumcision. In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV prevalence does not exhibit the same pattern of association with poverty as most other diseases. HIV programmes should also focus on the wealthier segments of the population.

  19. Dutch food bank recipients have poorer dietary intakes than the general and low-socioeconomic status Dutch adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neter, J E; Dijkstra, S C; Dekkers, A L M; Ocké, M C; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A

    2017-10-03

    Food-assistance program users are a specific group of nutritional concern, as they are often food insufficient and have poorer diet quality compared to non-food-assistance program users. The aim of our study was to assess dietary intake of Dutch food bank recipients (n = 167) and to compare this with dietary intake of a representative sample of the general population (Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS-all): n = 1933), including a low-socioeconomic status (SES) sample (DNFCS-low SES: n = 312), using data from the DNFCS 2007-2010. In this cross-sectional study, 12 food banks throughout The Netherlands participated. Food bank recipients' characteristics were assessed with a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intake data were collected through three 24-h recalls. Habitual dietary intake (mean, percentiles, and 95% CI) was estimated for all samples. Differences between samples were determined by comparing the 95% CIs. Mean age of the study population (62.9% female) was 48.6 years (SD:10.1). Mean energy intake was 1986 (95% CI 1830-2089) kcal. The majority of the Dutch food bank recipients had lower intakes than dietary reference intakes for dietary fiber, fruit, vegetables, and fish (range 86.6-99.3%), and a higher intake for saturated fat [88.1% (95% CI 84.1-98.9)]. Furthermore, mean intakes of energy, fiber, fruit, and vegetables were significantly lower in Dutch food bank recipients than in the DNFCS-all and the DNFCS-low-SES [e.g., daily mean fruit intake (g) food bank recipients 62.8 (95% CI 45.5-76.5), DNFCS-all 105.8 (95% CI 105.4-117.9), and DNFCS-low-SES 85.1 (95% CI 78.7-100.2)]. Fish intake was significantly lower compared with the DNFCS-all, but not compared with the DNFCS-low-SES. Dutch food bank recipients, who largely rely on the content of food parcels, are not able to meet the nutritional guidelines for a healthy diet, and their dietary intake is poorer than the general as well as the low-SES sample of the Dutch adult population

  20. How does social functioning in the early stages of psychosis relate to depression and social anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudleigh, Catherine; Naismith, Sharon L; Blaszczynski, Alex; Hermens, Daniel F; Hodge, M Antoinette Redoblado; Hickie, Ian B

    2011-08-01

    The study aims to compare social functioning in young people considered to be at risk of psychosis with those meeting criteria for first episode psychosis (FEP) and controls, and to determine the association between social functioning and positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety. This study examined social functioning in 20 individuals at risk of psychosis, 20 FEP patients and 20 healthy controls. Social functioning was measured using the Social Functioning Scale and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale. Psychiatric variables were also measured using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Brief Social Phobia Scale, and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. At-risk individuals had comparable social deficits to the FEP group, and both patient groups had significantly poorer social functioning than controls. Importantly, social functioning was most strongly associated with depressive and social anxiety symptoms and to a lesser extent with positive symptoms. However, negative symptoms did not appear to relate to social functioning. Social functioning impairments precede the onset of full-threshold psychosis and may therefore be a significant marker for the illness. Additionally, associated psychiatric symptoms such as depression and social anxiety may provide an avenue for early interventions of social functioning deficits in psychosis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Social isolation and cognitive function in Appalachian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Wu, Bei; Scogin, Forrest

    2014-03-01

    Investigating the relation between social isolation and cognitive function will allow us to identify components to incorporate into cognitive interventions. Data were collected from 267 Appalachian older adults (M = 78.5, range 70-94 years). Overall cognitive functioning and specific cognitive domains were assessed from data of a self-assembled neuropsychological battery of frequently used tasks. Social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation were measured from the Lubben Social Network scale-6. Results indicated a significant positive association between all predictor variables (e.g., social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation) and outcome variables (e.g., overall cognitive function, memory, executive functioning, attention, and language abilities). Perceived isolation accounted for nearly double the amount of variance in overall cognitive functioning than social disconnectedness (10.2% vs. 5.7%). Findings suggest that social isolation is associated with poorer overall cognitive functioning and this remains true across varied cognitive domains. © The Author(s) 2012.

  2. Increased numbers of P63-positive/CD117-positive cells in advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma give a poorer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Quan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study consisted of two parts. One part was to analyze the survival rates of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC in Chinese and explain the difference between our data and the literature. The other was to analyze the relationship between the expression of CD117 and the histological grade and the prognosis. Methods A retrospective study of 80 ACC patients was performed. Clinical data were collected, and p63, CD117 were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results Eighty patients received follow-ups 3 to 216 months after initial diagnosis. ACC occurred in the lacrimal gland (26.3%, n = 21, nasal cavity and parasinus (33.8%, n = 27 and other sites (40.0%, n = 33. The 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 66.41% and 10.16%, respectively. Over expression of CD117 was detected in p63-negative cells in 94.3% of cases and in p63-positive cells in 45.8%. The expression of CD117 in p63-positive cells was significantly associated with the histological grade (P Conclusions ACC had a good 5-year survival but poor 10-year survival in Chinese, which differed from the occidental data. More p63+/CD117+ cells were associated with a higher histological grade and poorer outcome. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1701457278762097

  3. Significance of Cultural-Historical Theory of Psychological Development of L.S. Vygotsky for the Development of Modern Models of Social Cognition and Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholmogorova A.B.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article acknowledges the situation of methodical crisis in modern research of social cognition related to the domination of reductive approaches that ignore the uniqueness of human psyche. Heuristicity of concepts of cultural-historical theory of psychological development of L.S. Vygotsky, which serves to overcome the apparent inconsistencies is substantiated. Models of social cognition based on the principles of cultural-historical psychology are described, those being the model of social cognition within phylogenesis of M. Tomasello, and the model of social cognition within ontogenesis of C. Fernyhough. Current situation in the area of mental health is reviewed from the standpoint of cultural-historical psychology, its specifics reflected in the increased burden on reflexive functions, that is, skills lying within the sphere of social cognition is substantiated. Modern psychotherapeutic apparatus directed to compensate social cognition deficits due to various psychiatric disorders is reviewed. The assumption that adolescense is sensitive period for the development of higher forms of social cognition is made, and a summary of researches supporting this assertion is presented. Main contradictions of modern-day maturing are enunciated. To conclude the presented theoretical analysis, a comprehensive multiple-factor model of social cognition is presented based on concepts of cultural-historical theory of L.S. Vygotsky.

  4. Pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics: a multilevel study of the significance of ethnicity and neighbourhood social characteristics on source of referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydelius Per-Anders

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Swedish society, as in many other societies, many children and adolescents with mental health problems do not receive the help they need. As the Swedish society becomes increasingly multicultural, and as ethnic and economic residential segregation become more pronounced, this study utilises ethnicity and neighbourhood context to examine referral pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric (CAP clinics. Methods The analysis examines four different sources of referrals: family referrals, social/legal agency referrals, school referrals and health/mental health referrals. The referrals of 2054 children aged 11-19 from the Stockholm Child-Psychiatric Database were studied using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Results indicate that ethnicity played an important role in how children and adolescents were referred to CAP-clinics. Family referrals were more common among children and adolescents with a Swedish background than among those with an immigrant background. Referrals by social/legal agencies were more common among children and adolescents with African and Asian backgrounds. Children with Asian or South American backgrounds were more likely to have been referred by schools or by the health/mental health care sector. A significant neighbourhood effect was found in relation to family referrals. Children and adolescents from neighbourhoods with low levels of socioeconomic deprivation were more likely to be referred to CAP-clinics by their families in comparison to children from other neighbourhoods. Such differences were not found in relation in relation to the other sources of referral. Conclusions This article reports findings that can be an important first step toward increasing knowledge on reasons behind differential referral rates and uptake of psychiatric care in an ethnically diverse Swedish sample. These findings have implications for the design and evaluation of community mental health outreach

  5. The Significance of Kinship for Medical Education: Reflections on the Use of a Bespoke Social Network to Support Learners' Professional Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzipanagos, Stylianos; John, Bernadette; Chiu, Yuan-Li Tiffany

    2016-03-03

    Social media can support and sustain communities much better than previous generations of learning technologies, where institutional barriers undermined any initiatives for embedding formal and informal learning. Some of the many types of social media have already had an impact on student learning, based on empirical evidence. One of these, social networking, has the potential to support communication in formal and informal spaces. In this paper we report on the evaluation of an institutional social network-King's Social Harmonisation Project (KINSHIP)-established to foster an improved sense of community, enhance communication, and serve as a space to model digital professionalism for students at King's College London, United Kingdom. Our evaluation focused on a study that examined students' needs and perceptions with regard to the provision of a cross-university platform. Data were collected from students, including those in the field of health and social care, in order to recommend a practical way forward to address current needs in this area. The findings indicate that the majority of the respondents were positive about using a social networking platform to develop their professional voice and profiles. Results suggest that timely promotion of the platform, emphasis on interface and learning design, and a clear identity are required in order to gain acceptance as the institutional social networking site. Empirical findings in this study project an advantage of an institutional social network such a KINSHIP over other social networks (eg, Facebook) because access is limited to staff and students and the site is mainly being used for academic purposes.

  6. The functional consequences of social distraction: Attention and memory for complex scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Brianna Ruth; Patai, Eva Zita; Duta, Mihaela; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive scientists have long proposed that social stimuli attract visual attention even when task irrelevant, but the consequences of this privileged status for memory are unknown. To address this, we combined computational approaches, eye-tracking methodology, and individual-differences measures. Participants searched for targets in scenes containing social or non-social distractors equated for low-level visual salience. Subsequent memory precision for target locations was tested. Individual differences in autistic traits and social anxiety were also measured. Eye-tracking revealed significantly more attentional capture to social compared to non-social distractors. Critically, memory precision for target locations was poorer for social scenes. This effect was moderated by social anxiety, with anxious individuals remembering target locations better under conditions of social distraction. These findings shed further light onto the privileged attentional status of social stimuli and its functional consequences on memory across individuals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Just reading: increasing pace and volume of reading whole narratives on the comprehension of poorer adolescent readers in English classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Westbrook, Jo; Sutherland, Julia; Oakhill, Jane; Sullivan, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Poorer adolescent readers are often regarded by teachers as unable to read whole narratives and given short, simplified texts, yet are expected to analyse every part in a slow laborious read through. This article reports on a mixed methods study in which 20 English teachers in the South of England changed their current practice to read two whole challenging novels at a faster pace than usual in 12 weeks with their average and poorer readers ages 12-13. Ten teachers received additional trainin...

  8. Dry Eye Disease Patients with Xerostomia Report Higher Symptom Load and Have Poorer Meibum Expressibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostad, Ida G; Eidet, Jon R; Utheim, Tor P; Ræder, Sten; Lagali, Neil S; Messelt, Edvard B; Dartt, Darlene A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if xerostomia (dry mouth) is associated with symptoms and signs of dry eye disease (DED). At the Norwegian Dry Eye Clinic, patients with symptomatic DED with different etiologies were consecutively included in the study. The patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological work-up and completed self-questionnaires on symptoms of ocular dryness (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI] and McMonnies Dry Eye Questionnaire) and the Sjögren's syndrome (SS) questionnaire (SSQ). Three hundred and eighteen patients (52% women and 48% men) with DED were included. Patient demographics were: 0 to 19 years (1%), 20 to 39 (25%), 40 to 59 (34%), 60 to 79 (35%) and 80 to 99 (5%). Xerostomia, defined as "daily symptoms of dry mouth the last three months" (as presented in SSQ) was reported by 23% of the patients. Female sex was more common among patients with xerostomia (81%) than among non-xerostomia patients (44%; Pxerostomia (60 ± 15 years) were older than those without xerostomia (51 ± 17; Pxerostomia patients (65%) than among non-xerostomia patients (35%; Pxerostomia had a higher OSDI score (19.0 ± 10.0) than those without xerostomia (12.9 ± 8.0; Pxerostomia patients had more pathological meibum expressibility (0.9 ± 0.7) than those without xerostomia (0.7 ± 0.8; P = 0.046). Comparisons of OSDI and ocular signs were performed after controlling for the effects of sex, age and the number of systemic prescription drugs used. In conclusion, xerostomia patients demonstrated a higher DED symptom load and had poorer meibum expressibility than non-xerostomia patients.

  9. Higher fasting glucose is associated with poorer cognition among healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Misty A W; Gunstad, John; Calvo, Dayana; Spitznagel, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with cognitive deficits; however, the mechanisms are unclear, especially among otherwise healthy adults. Our objectives were to examine (a) whether obesity is linked to elevations in fasting glucose and (b) whether these elevations are associated with cognitive impairment among otherwise healthy young adults. Participants were 35 normal weight adults and 35 young adults with obesity who completed a task from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4 (ANAM-4). Measured body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood glucose levels (mg/dL) were examined. Persons with obesity had higher fasting glucose levels than normal weight persons (p = .03). After applying Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, higher fasting glucose predicted less accurate performance on tests of inhibitory control: Go/No-Go Commission Errors (β = .33, p = .004). No effects were observed for sustained attention or working memory (ps ≥. 049). Persons with glucose levels in the prediabetes range had nearly twice as many errors as those with normal glucose, a large effect that was independent of BMI. Young adults who were obese but otherwise healthy had higher fasting glucose levels compared with normal weight peers. Higher glucose levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance on tests of inhibitory control, especially among individuals with prediabetes levels. Thus, subclinical elevations in blood glucose may contribute to cognitive impairment and, ultimately, greater impulsivity-well in advance of the development of chronic disease states (e.g., insulin resistance or Type 2 diabetes) and independently of excess adiposity--though prospective studies are needed to determine directionality of this relationship. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Severe retinopathy of prematurity predicts delayed white matter maturation and poorer neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Torin J A; Chau, Vann; Gardiner, Jane; Foong, Justin; Vinall, Jillian; Zwicker, Jill G; Grunau, Ruth E; Synnes, Anne; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Miller, Steven P

    2017-11-01

    To determine whether severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is associated with (1) abnormal white matter maturation and (2) neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months' corrected age (CA) compared with neonates without severe ROP. We conducted a prospective longitudinal cohort of extremely preterm neonates born 24-28 weeks' gestational age recruited between 2006 and 2013 with brain MRIs obtained both early in life and at term-equivalent age. Severe ROP was defined as ROP treated with retinal laser photocoagulation. Using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), white matter maturation was assessed by mean fractional anisotropy (FA) in seven predefined regions of interest. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (Bayley-III) composite scores at 18 months' CA. Subjects were compared using Fisher's exact, Kruskal-Wallis and generalised estimating equations. Families were recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit at BC Women's Hospital. Of 98 extremely preterm neonates (median: 26.0 weeks) assessed locally for ROP, 19 (19%) had severe ROP and 83 (85%) were assessed at 18 months' CA. Severe ROP was associated with lower FA in the posterior white matter, and with decreased measures of brain maturation in the optic radiations, posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and external capsule on TBSS. Bayley-III cognitive and motor scores were lower in infants with severe ROP. Severe ROP is associated with maturational delay in the optic radiations, PLIC, external capsule and posterior white matter, housing the primary visual and motor pathways, and is associated with poorer cognitive and motor outcomes at 18 months' CA. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Significance of grooming behavior in two polygynous groups of western black crested gibbons: Implications for understanding social relationships among immigrant and resident group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhen-Hua; Huang, Bei; Ning, Wen-He; Ni, Qing-Yong; Sun, Guo-Zheng; Jiang, Xue-Long

    2013-12-01

    In primates, grooming is considered among the most common behaviors for maintaining social bonds; however, to date, few studies have examined grooming behavior in gibbon species in detail. We used both a 5-min interval scan method and social network analysis to study grooming in two groups of polygynous western black-crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) in Wuliang Mountain, Central Yunnan, China. Individuals in both groups spent little time in social grooming (1.45% and 1.97% of active time). We compared the two groups' grooming networks and found that the group that maintained a more stable social unit had a more complex grooming network while the group with new immigrants had a grooming network characterized by fewer grooming pairs. Females in both groups played important roles in the grooming network. A newly immigrant female spent the most time grooming others and chose the resident adult female as her main adult grooming partner. Other females from both groups chose the adult male as their primary grooming partner (except their offspring). A sub-adult male who had resided in his natal group for 2 years after maturing into an adult also groomed more and was at the center of the network. This male finally replaced the breeding male in his group 3 years after our data collection period ended. We hypothesize that the immigrant female and the resident young adult male engaged in more extensive grooming interactions as a behavioral strategy to gain tolerance from long-term residents. Our results suggest that female gibbons in polygynous groups actively cooperate in maintaining social relationships rather than co-exist through tolerance or avoidance. Our observations indicate that grooming networks in crested gibbons reflect individual dynamics and partly support the social cohesion hypothesis for primate grooming. In this regard, we suggest that changes in gibbon grooming networks can be used to predict social change. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. What we have changed our minds about: Part 2. Borderline personality disorder, epistemic trust and the developmental significance of social communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter; Luyten, Patrick; Allison, Elizabeth; Campbell, Chloe

    2017-01-01

    In Part 1 of this paper, we discussed emerging evidence suggesting that a general psychopathology or 'p' factor underlying the various forms of psychopathology should be conceptualized in terms of the absence of resilience, that is, the absence of positive reappraisal mechanisms when faced with adversity. These impairments in the capacity for positive reappraisal seem to provide a comprehensive explanation for the association between the p factor and comorbidity, future caseness, and the 'hard-to-reach' character of many patients with severe personality pathology, most notably borderline personality disorder (BPD). In this, the second part of the paper, we trace the development of the absence of resilience to disruptions in the emergence of human social communication, based on recent evolutionary and developmental psychopathology accounts. We argue that BPD and related disorders may be reconceptualized as a form of social understanding in which epistemic hypervigilance, distrust or outright epistemic freezing is an adaptive consequence of the social learning environment. Negative appraisal mechanisms become overriding, particularly in situations of attachment stress. This constitutes a shift towards a more socially oriented perspective on personality psychopathology in which the absence of psychological resilience is seen as a learned response to the transmission of social knowledge. This shift in our views has also forced us to reconsider the role of attachment in BPD. The implications for prevention and intervention of this novel approach are discussed.

  13. Dutch food bank recipients have poorer dietary intakes than the general and low-socioeconomic status Dutch adult population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neter, J E; Dijkstra, S C; Dekkers, A L M; Ocké, M C; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A

    2017-01-01

    Food-assistance program users are a specific group of nutritional concern, as they are often food insufficient and have poorer diet quality compared to non-food-assistance program users. The aim of our study was to assess dietary intake of Dutch food bank recipients (n = 167) and to compare this

  14. Dutch food bank recipients have poorer dietary intakes than the general and low-socioeconomic status Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neter, J E; Dijkstra, S C; Dekkers, A L M; Ocké, M C; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Food-assistance program users are a specific group of nutritional concern, as they are often food insufficient and have poorer diet quality compared to non-food-assistance program users. The aim of our study was to assess dietary intake of Dutch food bank recipients (n = 167) and to compare

  15. The Significance of Social Relationships in Learning to Become a Vocational and Technical Education Teacher: A Case Study of Three Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Adeline Yuen Sze

    2013-01-01

    This article about workplace learning examines the learning of individuals in becoming a Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) teacher in Brunei. Drawing on research findings from a group of student teachers, it presents case study accounts of three individuals to illustrate the importance of social relationships in learning to become a VTE…

  16. Exploring the Significance of Social Class Identity Performance in the English Classroom: A Case Study Analysis of a Literature Circle Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Amanda Haertling; Guise, Megan; Sloan, DeAnn Long

    2012-01-01

    English educators at all levels have endeavored to understand difference in their classrooms both in terms of the content that they teach and in terms of the social and cultural identities of students in their classrooms. However, although educators have come a long way in understanding identity as it is constituted by race and gender, much work…

  17. Social disadvantage and borderline personality disorder: A study of social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeney, Joseph E; Hallquist, Michael N; Clifton, Allan D; Lazarus, Sophie A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2018-01-01

    Examining differences in social integration, social support, and relationship characteristics in social networks may be critical for understanding the character and costs of the social difficulties experienced of borderline personality disorder (BPD). We conducted an ego-based (self-reported, individual) social network analysis of 142 participants recruited from clinical and community sources. Each participant listed the 30 most significant people (called alters) in their social network, then rated each alter in terms of amount of contact, social support, attachment strength and negative interactions. In addition, measures of social integration were determined using participant's report of the connection between people in their networks. BPD was associated with poorer social support, more frequent negative interactions, and less social integration. Examination of alter-by-BPD interactions indicated that whereas participants with low BPD symptoms had close relationships with people with high centrality within their networks, participants with high BPD symptoms had their closest relationships with people less central to their networks. The results suggest that individuals with BPD are at a social disadvantage: Those with whom they are most closely linked (including romantic partners) are less socially connected (i.e., less central) within their social network. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Social Cognition Dysfunction in Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome): Relationship with Executive Functioning and Social Competence/Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, L. E.; McCabe, K. L.; Melville, J. L.; Strutt, P. A.; Schall, U.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social difficulties are often noted among people with intellectual disabilities. Children and adults with 22q.11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) often have poorer social competence as well as poorer performance on measures of executive and social-cognitive skills compared with typically developing young people. However, the relationship…

  19. Social Skills and Perceived Maternal Acceptance-Rejection in Relation to Depression in Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yazdkhasti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examines the relationship between infertile women’s social skills andtheir perception of their own mothers’ acceptance or rejection, and the role this relationship playsin predicting self-reported depression.Materials and Methods: This was a correlational study. 60 infertile women aged 25 to 35 yearsparticipated in a self-evaluation. A Social Skills Inventory, Parental Acceptance and RejectionQuestionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory were used to measure social skills, acceptancerejection and depression. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, using independent two-sample ttest, logistic regression, and ANOVA.Results: Findings showed that there are significant differences between depressed and not depressedinfertile women in their perceptions of acceptance and rejection by their mothers. Further, women'sperceptions of rejection are a more significant predictor of depression among less socially skilledinfertile women than among those who are more socially skilled. Less socially skilled women didnot show symptoms of depression when they experienced their mothers as accepting. In generalthe results of this study revealed that poorer social skills were more predictive of depression whilegood social skills moderate the effect of infertile women’s perceptions of their mothers' rejection.At the same time, the findings showed that infertile women's perceptions of acceptance moderatedthe effects of poorer social skills in predicting depression.Conclusion: Results suggest that the perception of mothers’ rejection and poor social skills are thekey factors that make infertile women prone to depression.

  20. Social relationships in young adults at ultra high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robustelli, Briana L; Newberry, Raeana E; Whisman, Mark A; Mittal, Vijay A

    2017-01-01

    Studies suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have smaller social networks and less satisfying relationships. However, much is still unknown about the typical quantity and quality of social relationships in young adults during the ultra high-risk (UHR) period. Investigating these relationships holds significant importance for improving understanding of etiological processes, mapping the social environment, and highlighting treatment targets in a critical period. A total of 85 participants (44 UHR and 41 healthy controls) completed measures examining the participants' social relationships, social support, and loneliness. Mean differences between the UHR and healthy control participants and associations between social relationships and symptoms and functioning were examined. Results indicated significant differences between groups on several indices. Specifically, the UHR youth reported fewer close friends, less diverse social networks, less perceived social support, poorer relationship quality with family and friends, and more loneliness. Notably, within the UHR group, being lonely and having fewer and worse quality relationships was associated with greater symptom severity and lower overall functioning. This study suggests that youth at high-risk of developing psychosis have fewer and poorer quality social relationships. Interventions that focus on increasing the quantity and quality of young adults' social networks may be beneficial for this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Poorer divided attention in children born very preterm can be explained by difficulty with each component task, not the executive requirement to dual-task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delane, Louise; Campbell, Catherine; Bayliss, Donna M; Reid, Corinne; Stephens, Amelia; French, Noel; Anderson, Mike

    2017-07-01

    Children born very preterm (VP, ≤ 32 weeks) exhibit poor performance on tasks of executive functioning. However, it is largely unknown whether this reflects the cumulative impact of non-executive deficits or a separable impairment in executive-level abilities. A dual-task paradigm was used in the current study to differentiate the executive processes involved in performing two simple attention tasks simultaneously. The executive-level contribution to performance was indexed by the within-subject cost incurred to single-task performance under dual-task conditions, termed dual-task cost. The participants included 77 VP children (mean age: 7.17 years) and 74 peer controls (mean age: 7.16 years) who completed Sky Search (selective attention), Score (sustained attention) and Sky Search DT (divided attention) from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children. The divided-attention task requires the simultaneous performance of the selective- and sustained-attention tasks. The VP group exhibited poorer performance on the selective- and divided-attention tasks, and showed a strong trend toward poorer performance on the sustained-attention task. However, there were no significant group differences in dual-task cost. These results suggest a cumulative impact of vulnerable lower-level cognitive processes on dual-tasking or divided attention in VP children, and fail to support the hypothesis that VP children show a separable impairment in executive-level abilities.

  2. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks are associated with poorer cognitive function in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Torres, Rachael V

    2016-04-01

    The importance of adequate nutrition on cognitive performance is well recognised. Greater intakes of soft drinks are associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes, as well as other cardiometabolic diseases. A few studies have specifically examined whether the intake of soft drinks may be related to cognitive function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soft drink intakes, including both sugar-sweetened and diet beverages, are associated with cognitive function, with adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors, and stratified according to type 2 diabetes status. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken using 803 community-dwelling participants, aged 23-98 years, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Cognitive function was measured using an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Usual dietary intake of soft drinks was assessed using a FFQ. Stratification by type 2 diabetes indicated that a greater intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks was significantly associated with poorer performance in visual spatial memory, working memory, scanning and tracking, executive function, the global composite and the Mini-Mental State Examination in diabetic individuals. These relations were not attenuated with statistical control for BMI and other cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Diet soft drink intake was unrelated to cognitive performance. Frequent sugar-sweetened soft drink intake was associated with poorer cognitive performance, particularly in individuals with type 2 diabetes, but the underlying causal mechanisms are yet to be determined. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify these findings and the underlying causal mechanisms.

  3. Does comorbidity predict poorer treatment outcome in pediatric anxiety disorders? An updated 10-year review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walczak, Monika Anna; Ollendick, Thomas H; Ryan, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present review was to provide an updated investigation of literature from the past ten years that examined the effects of comorbid problems on treatment outcomes, and/or explored if cognitive behavioral treatments (CBT) targeting anxiety disorders also affected comorbid disorders...... diagnoses, rather than grouping them together. Overall, our findings suggest that comorbid disorders may have a more negative impact on treatment outcomes than proposed in previous reviews, particularly in the cases of comorbid social anxiety and mood disorders. Furthermore, CBT for anxiety disorders...

  4. Patients with musculoskeletal conditions do less vigorous physical activity and have poorer physical fitness than population controls: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseng, T; Tveter, A T; Holm, I; Dagfinrud, H

    2014-12-01

    To compare physical activity and physical fitness in patients with various musculoskeletal conditions receiving physiotherapy in primary care with population controls. Cross-sectional. One hundred and sixty-seven patients with musculoskeletal conditions receiving physiotherapy in primary care and 313 population controls from various settings and geographical areas. Physical activity was measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short-form (IPAQ-sf) and reported in metabolic equivalents (METs). The 6-minute walk test and 30-second sit-to-stand test reflected cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular strength, respectively. Differences in physical activity between the groups were explored using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The patient group reported significantly less vigorous activity compared with the control group {median 0 [interquartile range (IQR) 0 to 960] vs median 240 [IQR 0 to 1440] MET minutes/week, respectively)} (P=0.001). A similar proportion of patients (68%) and controls (75%) reached the recommended level of health-enhancing physical activity (P=0.11). Linear regression analyses adjusted for age, body mass index and gender showed significantly poorer fitness in the patient group compared with the control group, reflected by the 6-minute walk test and the 30-second sit-to-stand test {mean difference 69m [95% confidence interval (CI) 52 to 85; P≤0.001] and six repetitions [95% CI 5 to 7; P≤0.001], respectively}. Patients with various long-term musculoskeletal conditions receiving physiotherapy in primary care had significantly poorer physical fitness and reported less vigorous physical activity compared with population controls. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determining significance in social impact assessments (SIA) by applying both technical and participatory approaches: Methodology development and application in a case study of the concentrated solar power plant NOORO I in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrapon-Pfaff, Julia; Fink, Thomas; Viebahn, Peter; Jamea, El Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    One of the main objectives of impact assessments is to identify potentially significant impacts. However, determining this significance has received very limited attention as a procedural step in social impact assessments. Consequently, only limited research and documentation exists on approaches, survey tools and evaluation methods, especially with regard to participatory approaches and combined participatory-technical approaches. This study aims to address this research gap by developing and applying a joined participatory and technical impact significance evaluation. The approach is applied in a case study which analysed the livelihood impacts of the large-scale concentrated solar power plant NOOR O I in Ouarzazate, Morocco. The analysis shows that although different approaches and significance criteria must be applied when involving both local stakeholders and experts, the linked analysis offers more robust results and an improved basis for decision-making. Furthermore, it was observed in the case study that impacts affecting the social, cultural and political spheres were more often considered significant than impacts affecting the physical and material livelihood dimensions. Regarding sustainability assessments of large-scale renewable energy plants, these findings underline the importance (as for other large-scale infrastructure developments) of placing greater emphasis on the inclusion of social aspects in impact assessments. - Highlights: •Significance evaluation in social impact assessments lacks participatory aspects. •Combined participatory and technical impact significance evaluation developed •Application in a case study to analyse the livelihood impacts of a CSP plant •Involvement of local stakeholders and technical experts results in robust findings. •Social, cultural and political issues are often more relevant than material aspects.

  6. Bipolar disorder affects behavior and social skills on the Internet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Martini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN. RESULTS: SNN (p<0.001 and FBN (p = 0.036 of patients with BD were significantly lower than those of controls. Also, variables related with Internet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021, Internet experience (p = 0.020, and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042. Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation, including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018 and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010. DISCUSSION: This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media.

  7. E-Portfolios Rescue Biology Students from a Poorer Final Exam Result: Promoting Student Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haave, Neil

    2016-01-01

    E-portfolios have the potential to transform students' learning experiences. They promote reflection on the significance of what and how students have learned. Such reflective practices enhance students' ability to articulate their knowledge and skills to their peers, teachers, and future employers. In addition, e-portfolios can help assess the…

  8. Inequalities in long term health-related quality of life between partnered and not partnered breast cancer survivors through the mediation effect of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janni; Smith, Michelle D; McLaughlin, Deirdre

    2016-10-01

    To compare long-term quality of life outcomes by marital status among women living with breast cancer, and to test the mediation effects of social support as an underlying factor. Data are drawn from 1996 to 2010 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. The sample included 505 women with breast cancer with six years of follow-up data. Social support was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS). Physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was measured using the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Breast cancer survivors who did not have a partner, compared to those who had a partner, had significantly lower levels of social support, which was associated with poorer HRQOL. Social support mediated the relationship between not having a partner and poorer HRQOL. Results were consistent after taken into consideration socio-demographic characteristics, which included age, highest level of education, country of birth, and area of residence. Women recovering from breast cancer who do not have partners have poorer physical and mental HRQOL, than those with partners, with a lack of social support as an underlying inequality. Partners of breast cancer survivors are importance sources in the provision of social support to help them maintain well-being and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Acute, low-dose methamphetamine administration improves attention/information processing speed and working memory in methamphetamine-dependent individuals displaying poorer cognitive performance at baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, James J; Jackson, Brian J; Kalechstein, Ari D; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F

    2011-03-30

    Abstinent methamphetamine (Meth) dependent individuals demonstrate poorer performance on tests sensitive to attention/information processing speed, learning and memory, and working memory when compared to non-Meth dependent individuals. The poorer performance on these tests may contribute to the morbidity associated with Meth-dependence. In light of this, we sought to determine the effects of acute, low-dose Meth administration on attention, working memory, and verbal learning and memory in 19 non-treatment seeking, Meth-dependent individuals. Participants were predominantly male (89%), Caucasian (63%), and cigarette smokers (63%). Following a four day, drug-free washout period, participants were given a single-blind intravenous infusion of saline, followed the next day by 30 mg of Meth. A battery of neurocognitive tasks was administered before and after each infusion, and performance on measures of accuracy and reaction time were compared between conditions. While acute Meth exposure did not affect test performance for the entire sample, participants who demonstrated relatively poor performance on these tests at baseline, identified using a median split on each test, showed significant improvement on measures of attention/information processing speed and working memory when administered Meth. Improved performance was seen on the following measures of working memory: choice reaction time task (p≤0.04), a 1-back task (p≤0.01), and a 2-back task (p≤0.04). In addition, those participants demonstrating high neurocognitive performance at baseline experienced similar or decreased performance following Meth exposure. These findings suggest that acute administration of Meth may temporarily improve Meth-associated neurocognitive performance in those individuals experiencing lower cognitive performance at baseline. As a result, stimulants may serve as a successful treatment for improving cognitive functioning in those Meth-dependent individuals experiencing

  10. Can I Count on Getting Better? Association between Math Anxiety and Poorer Understanding of Medical Risk Reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Jonathan J; Morsanyi, Kinga; O'Connor, Patrick A

    2016-10-01

    Lower numerical ability is associated with poorer understanding of health statistics, such as risk reductions of medical treatment. For many people, despite good numeracy skills, math provokes anxiety that impedes an ability to evaluate numerical information. Math-anxious individuals also report less confidence in their ability to perform math tasks. We hypothesized that, independent of objective numeracy, math anxiety would be associated with poorer responding and lower confidence when calculating risk reductions of medical treatments. Objective numeracy was assessed using an 11-item objective numeracy scale. A 13-item self-report scale was used to assess math anxiety. In experiment 1, participants were asked to interpret the baseline risk of disease and risk reductions associated with treatment options. Participants in experiment 2 were additionally provided a graphical display designed to facilitate the processing of math information and alleviate effects of math anxiety. Confidence ratings were provided on a 7-point scale. Individuals of higher objective numeracy were more likely to respond correctly to baseline risks and risk reductions associated with treatment options and were more confident in their interpretations. Individuals who scored high in math anxiety were instead less likely to correctly interpret the baseline risks and risk reductions and were less confident in their risk calculations as well as in their assessments of the effectiveness of treatment options. Math anxiety predicted confidence levels but not correct responding when controlling for objective numeracy. The graphical display was most effective in increasing confidence among math-anxious individuals. The findings suggest that math anxiety is associated with poorer medical risk interpretation but is more strongly related to confidence in interpretations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Dutch food bank recipients have poorer dietary intakes than the general and low-socioeconomic status Dutch adult population.

    OpenAIRE

    Neter, J E; Dijkstra, S C; Dekkers, A L M; Ocké, M C; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A

    2017-01-01

    Food-assistance program users are a specific group of nutritional concern, as they are often food insufficient and have poorer diet quality compared to non-food-assistance program users. The aim of our study was to assess dietary intake of Dutch food bank recipients (n = 167) and to compare this with dietary intake of a representative sample of the general population (Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS-all): n = 1933), including a low-socioeconomic status (SES) sample (DNFCS-low SE...

  12. Bipolar disorder affects behavior and social skills on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Thaís; Czepielewski, Letícia Sanguinetti; Fijtman, Adam; Sodré, Leonardo; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Pereira, Caroline Silveira; Vianna-Sulzbach, Mireia; Goi, Pedro D; Rosa, Adriane Ribeiro; Kapczinski, Flavio; Kunz, Maurício; Kauer-Sant'anna, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN) and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN). SNN (pInternet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021), Internet experience (p = 0.020), and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042). Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation), including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018) and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010). This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media.

  13. Symptom presentation and classroom functioning in a nonclinical sample of children with social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A; Bernat, Debra H; Davis, Andrew A; Layne, Ann E

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates symptom presentation and school functioning in a nonclinical sample of children with social phobia (SP). Forty-five children with SP were identified via school-wide screenings and follow-up diagnostic interviews. Analyses examined types and intensity of fears, number of social situations avoided, interpersonal relationships, and classroom functioning. To identify characteristics unique to social phobic children, children with SP (n = 45) were compared to anxious children without SP (n = 56) on the above variables. Comorbidity in children with SP and factors associated with SP severity were also evaluated. Compared to anxious children without SP, children with SP feared and avoided a significantly greater number of social situations. In addition, they were significantly more likely to have trouble with making friends and to prefer being alone rather than with peers. All children with SP met criteria for at least one comorbid disorder. Significant factors explaining child-reported severity of SP were number of social situations avoided and intensity of fears. Greater severity of SP was significantly associated with poorer social skills, poorer leadership skills, greater attention difficulties, and greater learning problems in the classroom. It is important to understand the symptom presentation of SP so that children with SP are identified early and effective interventions are instituted. This is especially critical given the impact of SP on school functioning. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Ethical Competencies and the Organizational Competency ‘Responsible University Social Innovation’: looking at new ways of understanding universities and the competency-based education model in the context of significant social changes in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Villar Olaeta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethical competencies are included in all competency-based education models and are considered essential for the professional preparation of students, especially in terms of their professional conduct and workplace preparedness. As such, the Tuning Academy, along with incorporating ethical competencies in its group of generic competencies, also considers the organizational competency Responsible University Social Innovation (RUSI as part of its Tuning ALFA II Latin América project. This competency, in the area of organizational character, addresses innovation in the context of social responsibility, which it assumes each university should have, in terms of ethical responsibility toward the members of a community. This concept incorporates the equal relationship between the university’s internal community and civil society. By means of interviews with experts in the areas of service-learning, social responsibility, and ethical civil and professional education from the University of Deusto and the Zerbikas Foundation, this article discusses the connection and implementation of both generic ethical competencies and the RUSI organizational competency in higher education in order to respond to the new challenges to professional training in today’s world, all of which ultimately assumes a change in universities’ understandings of themselves as institutions and the role of higher education in general.

  15. EXPERIENCIAS SIGNIFICATIVAS DE INTEGRACIÓN SOCIAL DE UNIVERSITARIOS MEDIANTE LA PRODUCCIÓN TEXTUAL DE RAP I SIGNIFICANT EXPERIENCES OF SOCIAL INTEGRATION OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS BY TEXTUAL PRODUCTION OF RAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Pérez Cedeño

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Universities are beginning to promote policies aimed at eliminating discrimination, promoting spaces for community, social and educational participation. Therefore, the incorporation of college students to their academic discourse community is encouraged, since they are young people with a particular history and complex social life, which are included in different ways into the educational system. The overall purpose is to assess the intercultural resource "rap" in the academic practice of textual compositions by new students in the Extensión Región Centro- Sur of the Universidad de Oriente. In this qualitative research, the content analysis is used to account for the experiences of eight key informants interviewed, students of Industrial Engineering or Systems Engineering. It is intended to understand the reasons for the behavior of these students, analyzing both the thematic as the overall quality of writing, the reality in which they arise, and how they express their living experiences. The findings indicate that, despite the difficulties in the writing of texts: a students, in addition to reporting, are identified with this musical style, because its main purpose lies in provoking reactions, b the strategy allows to cater a heterogeneous population academically and culturally, c university students may recognize, as any artistic expression, musical text resulting from this interpretation, which has a social impact in a given group of persons. This strategy provides an opportunity to reflect on the process of integral development and deepens in the construction of a new model of society

  16. Nonverbal expressive behaviour in schizophrenia and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Raffard, Stéphane; Salesse, Robin N; Marin, Ludovic; Schmidt, Richard C; Varlet, Manuel; Bardy, Benoît G; Philippe Boulenger, Jean; Christine Gély-Nargeot, Marie; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2013-11-30

    Expressive behaviour plays a crucial role in the success of social interactions. Abnormality of expressive behaviour has been reported in interpersonal interactions of patients suffering from schizophrenia and social phobia, two debilitating mental disorders with important social deficits. However, no study has compared the expressive behaviour in these two disorders. Thirty schizophrenia patients, 21 social phobia patients and 30 healthy controls were evaluated and compared on expressive, cognitive and clinical dimensions. Expressive behaviour was assessed using the Motor Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale (MASS). Covariables include the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the anxiety level Liebowitz-Social-Anxiety-Scale (LSAS) and cognitive tasks. After controlling for depression, schizophrenia and social phobia patients both exhibited significantly fewer expressive behaviours compared to healthy controls. Moreover, our results showed specific signatures: schizophrenia patients performed fewer spontaneous gestures (hand gestures and smiles) whereas social phobia patients had an impaired ability to produce voluntary smiles in comparison to healthy controls. Interestingly, poor social functioning was significantly correlated with a decrease of expressive behaviour for schizophrenia patients. Expressive behaviour is impaired in different ways in social phobia and schizophrenia and is associated in schizophrenia with poorer social functioning. The Motor Affective subscale of the MASS is an interesting tool for assessing the dysfunction of interpersonal expressive behaviour in mental disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A higher prevalence of endometriosis among Asian women does not contribute to poorer IVF outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ayae; Johnstone, Erica B; Bloom, Michael S; Huddleston, Heather G; Fujimoto, Victor Y

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether diagnosis of endometriosis or endometriosis with endometrioma influences in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in an ethnically diverse population. Women undergoing a first IVF cycle (n = 717) between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009, at a university-affiliated infertility clinic, were retrospectively assessed for an endometriosis diagnosis. Differences in prevalence of endometriosis by ethnicity were determined, as well as differences in IVF success by ethnicity, with a focus on country of origin for Asian women. A multivariate model was generated to assess the relative contributions of country of origin and endometriosis to chance of clinical pregnancy with IVF. Endometriosis was diagnosed in 9.5% of participants; 3.5% also received a diagnosis of endometrioma. Endometriosis prevalence in Asian women was significantly greater than in Caucasians (15.7 vs. 5.8%, p Women of Filipino (p women, although there was no difference in endometrioma presence by race/ethnicity. Oocyte quantity, embryo quality, and fertilization rates did not relate to endometriosis. Clinical pregnancy rates were significantly lower for Asian women, specifically in Indian (p women, compared to Caucasian women, even after controlling for endometriosis status. The prevalence of endometriosis appears to be higher in Filipino, Indian, Japanese, and Korean women presenting for IVF treatment than for Caucasian women; however, the discrepancy in IVF outcomes was conditionally independent of the presence of endometriosis. Future research should focus on improving pregnancy outcomes for Asian populations whether or not they are affected by endometriosis, specifically in the form of longitudinal studies where exposures can be captured prior to endometriosis diagnoses and infertility treatment.

  18. Gender inequality at home is associated with poorer health for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eek, Frida; Axmon, Anna

    2015-03-01

    As more women have joined the work force, the difference in employment rate between men and women has decreased, in Sweden as well as many other countries. Despite this, traditional gender patterns regarding, for example, responsibility for household duties still remain. Women are on sick leave more often than men, and previous studies have indicated that an unequal split of household responsibilities and perceived gender inequality could be associated with negative health outcomes. The aim of the present study was to explore whether an unequal distribution of responsibilities in the home was related to various health related outcomes among women. A sample consisting of 837 women living in a relationship, and working at least 50% of full time, responded to a questionnaire including information about division of responsibilities at home as well as various psychological and physiological health related outcomes. The results showed that women living in relationships with perceived more unequal distribution of responsibility for house hold duties showed significantly higher levels of perceived stress, fatigue, physical/psychosomatic symptoms, and work family conflict compared with women living in more equal relationships. They also had significantly increased odds for insufficient time for various forms of recovery, which may further contribute to an increased risk of poor health. Although an increasing employment rate among women is valuable for both society and individuals, it is important to work towards greater gender equality at home to maintain this development without it having a negative effect on women's health and well-being. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  19. Characteristics of Fibromyalgia Independently Predict Poorer Long‐Term Analgesic Outcomes Following Total Knee and Hip Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Andrew G.; Hassett, Afton L.; Tsodikov, Alex; Hallstrom, Brian R.; Wood, Nathan I.; Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective While psychosocial factors have been associated with poorer outcomes after knee and hip arthroplasty, we hypothesized that augmented pain perception, as occurs in conditions such as fibromyalgia, may account for decreased responsiveness to primary knee and hip arthroplasty. Methods A prospective, observational cohort study was conducted. Preoperative phenotyping was conducted using validated questionnaires to assess pain, function, depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing. Participants also completed the 2011 fibromyalgia survey questionnaire, which addresses the widespread body pain and comorbid symptoms associated with characteristics of fibromyalgia. Results Of the 665 participants, 464 were retained 6 months after surgery. Since individuals who met criteria for being classified as having fibromyalgia were expected to respond less favorably, all primary analyses excluded these individuals (6% of the cohort). In the multivariate linear regression model predicting change in knee/hip pain (primary outcome), a higher fibromyalgia survey score was independently predictive of less improvement in pain (estimate −0.25, SE 0.044; P fibromyalgia survey score (P = 0.00032). The fibromyalgia survey score was also independently predictive of change in overall pain and patient global impression of change. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the fibromyalgia survey score is a robust predictor of poorer arthroplasty outcomes, even among individuals whose score falls well below the threshold for the categorical diagnosis of fibromyalgia. PMID:25772388

  20. Atrophy of spared grey matter tissue predicts poorer motor recovery and rehabilitation response in chronic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Lynne V.; Taub, Edward; Mark, Victor W.; Barghi, Ameen; Uswatte, Gitendra

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although the motor deficit following stroke is clearly due to the structural brain damage that has been sustained, this relationship is attenuated from the acute to chronic phases. We investigated the possibility that motor impairment and response to Constraint-Induced Movement therapy (CI therapy) in chronic stroke patients may relate more strongly to the structural integrity of brain structures remote from the lesion than to measures of overt tissue damage. Methods Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was performed on MRI scans from 80 chronic stroke patients to investigate whether variations in grey matter density were correlated with extent of residual motor impairment or with CI therapy-induced motor recovery. Results Decreased grey matter density in non-infarcted motor regions was significantly correlated with magnitude of residual motor deficit. In addition, reduced grey matter density in multiple remote brain regions predicted a lesser extent of motor improvement from CI therapy. Conclusions Atrophy in seemingly healthy parts of the brain that are distant from the infarct accounts for at least a portion of the sustained motor deficit in chronic stroke. PMID:22096036

  1. Male breast carcinoma: an evaluation of prognostic factors contributing to a poorer outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M G; Lee, A K; Loda, M; Camus, M G; Pedersen, C; Heatley, G J; Hughes, K S

    1996-02-01

    Although breast cancer in men is far less common than breast cancer in women, it is associated with a less favorable prognosis. Conventional histopathologic features and new prognostic markers were evaluated to explain the less favorable survival outcome. Forty-six consecutive male breast carcinomas were studied for size, histologic and nuclear grade, histologic subtype, presence of carcinoma in situ, nipple involvement, lymphovascular invasion, hormone receptor status, c-erbB-2 protein overexpression, and p53 protein accumulation. These findings were correlated with survival. Of the 46 carcinomas, 4 were noninvasive and 42 were invasive. In the invasive carcinomas, the median patient age was 64 years, and the median tumor size was 2 cm. The predominant histologic patterns were invasive ductal (45%) and mixed invasive ductal and cribriform (28%). Most tumors were of low histologic and nuclear grades (histologic grades: I, 17%; II, 50%; III, 33%; nuclear grade: I, 12%; II, 44%; III, 44%). Of those surgically staged, 22 patients (60%) were lymph node positive and 15 patients (40%) were node negative. Stage at presentation was higher than in women (0, 10%; 1, 17%; 2, 50%; 3, 13%; 4, 10%). The estrogen and progesterone receptor status was positive in 76% and 83% of tumors, respectively. Lymphatic vessel invasion (63%) and nipple involvement (48%) were also more common than in women. True Paget's disease of the nipple was not seen; all cases with nipple ulceration were the result of direct tumor extension to the epidermis. Of the 17 tumors tested, 41% were c-erbB-2 positive and 29% were p53 positive. Survival analysis was limited by the relatively small cohort size. Five- and 10-year adjusted overall survival rates for invasive tumors were 76 +/- 7% and 42 +/- 9%, respectively. Skin and nipple involvement (P = 0.03) and c-erbB-2-positivity (P = 0.03) were significant predictors of adverse survival. Male breast carcinoma presents in an advanced stage with less favorable

  2. Greater access to fast-food outlets is associated with poorer bone health in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, C; Parsons, C; Godfrey, K; Robinson, S; Harvey, N C; Inskip, H; Cooper, C; Baird, J

    2016-03-01

    A healthy diet positively influences childhood bone health, but how the food environment relates to bone development is unknown. Greater neighbourhood access to fast-food outlets was associated with lower bone mass among infants, while greater access to healthy speciality stores was associated with higher bone mass at 4 years. Identifying factors that contribute to optimal childhood bone development could help pinpoint strategies to improve long-term bone health. A healthy diet positively influences bone health from before birth and during childhood. This study addressed a gap in the literature by examining the relationship between residential neighbourhood food environment and bone mass in infants and children. One thousand one hundred and seven children participating in the Southampton Women's Survey, UK, underwent measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at birth and 4 and/or 6 years by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Cross-sectional observational data describing food outlets within the boundary of each participant's neighbourhood were used to derive three measures of the food environment: the counts of fast-food outlets, healthy speciality stores and supermarkets. Neighbourhood exposure to fast-food outlets was associated with lower BMD in infancy (β = -0.23 (z-score): 95% CI -0.38, -0.08) and lower BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables (β = -0.17 (z-score): 95% CI -0.32, -0.02). Increasing neighbourhood exposure to healthy speciality stores was associated with higher BMD at 4 and 6 years (β = 0.16(z-score): 95% CI 0.00, 0.32 and β = 0.13(z-score): 95% CI -0.01, 0.26 respectively). The relationship with BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables was statistically significant at 4 years, but not at 6 years. The neighbourhood food environment that pregnant mothers and young children are exposed may affect bone development during early childhood. If confirmed in

  3. Continuing evidence for poorer treatment outcomes for single male patients: Retreatment data from RTOG 97-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konski, Andre; DeSilvio, Michelle; Hartsell, William; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Coyne, James; Scarantino, Charles; JanJan, Nora

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The specific aim of this study was to evaluate outcome differences by gender and partner status for patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 97-14. Methods and Materials: RTOG 97-14 randomized patients with metastatic breast or prostate cancer to bone to receive 8 Gy in 1 fraction or 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Retreatment rates and overall survival were made based upon gender, marital status, and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS). The cumulative incidence method was used to estimate retreatment time at 36 months from enrollment, and Gray's test was used to test for treatment differences within the same groupings. Marital status, gender, KPS, and treatment were variables tested in a univariate Cox model evaluating the time to retreatment. Results: Married men and women and single women receiving 30 Gy had significantly longer time to retreatment, p = 0.0067, p = 0.0052, and p = 0.0009 respectively. We failed to show a difference in retreatment rates over time in single men receiving either 30 Gy or 8 Gy. Univariate analysis of the entire group determined patients receiving 30 Gy in 10 fractions significantly less likely to receive retreatment, p < 0.0001, with a trend toward single patients less likely to be re-treated, p = 0.07. Conclusion: Non-disease-related variables, such as social support, might influence the results of clinical trials with subjective endpoints such as retreatment rates. The statistically nonsignificant difference in the 36-month retreatment rates observed in single male patients receiving 8 Gy may be a result of inadequate social support systems in place to facilitate additional care. Patients receiving 8 Gy in a single fraction had significantly higher retreatment rates compared with patients receiving 30 Gy in 10 fractions

  4. An in-depth mixed-methods approach to Ryan White HIV/AIDS care program comprehensive needs assessment from the Northeast Georgia Public Health District: the significance of patient privacy, psychological health, and social stigma to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Amber; Chumbler, Neale; Cherry, Colleen O'Brien; Hill, Miranda; Veguilla, Vic

    2015-04-01

    We apply a social-ecological interpretive framework to understanding relationships among patient privacy, psychological health, social stigma, and continuity in care in the HIV treatment cascade in the rural southeastern US. This research was conducted as part of the 2013 comprehensive needs assessment for the Northeast Georgia Ryan White Consortium using an anthropologically informed mixed-methods design, and a deductive-inductive approach to thematic analysis of qualitative data obtained in interviews and focus groups with service providers and service utilizers. Our comprehensive needs assessment yielded two key components. First, we identified salient phenomena influencing introduction to, retention among, and satisfaction of patients in the Ryan White-coordinated treatment cascade in NE-GA. Second, we formulated actionable recommendations around leverage points identified in the current district-wide system of care. Results highlight spatial, institutional, and interpersonal aspects of the system of care that intersect around issues of patient privacy, psychological health, and social stigma. These intersections constitute pathways by which persons living with HIV are exposed to stigma and other negative social signals regarding their health status without sufficient access to behavioral health services. These negative issues, in turn, can erect significant barriers to long-term continuity in care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Social emotion recognition, social functioning, and attempted suicide in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Katalin; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y; Sahakian, Barbara J; Mulsant, Benoit H; Houck, Patricia R; Reynolds, Charles F; Clark, Luke

    2012-03-01

    : Lack of feeling connected and poor social problem solving have been described in suicide attempters. However, cognitive substrates of this apparent social impairment in suicide attempters remain unknown. One possible deficit, the inability to recognize others' complex emotional states has been observed not only in disorders characterized by prominent social deficits (autism-spectrum disorders and frontotemporal dementia) but also in depression and normal aging. This study assessed the relationship between social emotion recognition, problem solving, social functioning, and attempted suicide in late-life depression. : There were 90 participants: 24 older depressed suicide attempters, 38 nonsuicidal depressed elders, and 28 comparison subjects with no psychiatric history. We compared performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test and measures of social networks, social support, social problem solving, and chronic interpersonal difficulties in these three groups. : Suicide attempters committed significantly more errors in social emotion recognition and showed poorer global cognitive performance than elders with no psychiatric history. Attempters had restricted social networks: they were less likely to talk to their children, had fewer close friends, and did not engage in volunteer activities, compared to nonsuicidal depressed elders and those with no psychiatric history. They also reported a pattern of struggle against others and hostility in relationships, felt a lack of social support, perceived social problems as impossible to resolve, and displayed a careless/impulsive approach to problems. : Suicide attempts in depressed elders were associated with poor social problem solving, constricted social networks, and disruptive interpersonal relationships. Impaired social emotion recognition in the suicide attempter group was related.

  6. How Does Difficulty Communicating Affect the Social Relationships of Older Adults? An Exploration Using Data from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Andrew D.; Newsom, Jason T.; Rook, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy social relationships are important for maintaining mental and physical health in later life. Less social support, smaller social networks, and more negative social interactions have been linked to depression, poorer immune functioning, lower self-rated health, increased incidence of disease, and higher mortality. Overwhelming evidence suggests that communication disorders adversely affect social relationships. Much less is known about whether some or all aspects of social relationships are negatively affected by a communication disorder. The relative impact of a communication disorder on social relationships, as compared to other kinds of disability, is also poorly understood. Data were analyzed from a representative national sample of community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older living in the continental United States (n = 742). Results from multiple regressions indicated that difficulty communicating was significantly associated with several parameters of social relationships even after controlling for age, gender, partnership status, health, functional limitations, and visual impairment. Communication difficulty was a significant predictor of smaller social network size, fewer positive social exchanges, less frequent participation in social activities, and higher levels of loneliness, but was not a significant predictor of negative social exchanges. These findings suggest that communication disorders may place older adults at increased risk for mental and physical health problems because of social isolation, reduced social participation, and higher rates of loneliness. In addition, it appears that communication disorders may have a greater impact on positive, rather than negative, aspects of social relationships. PMID:27420152

  7. Smaller Cerebellar Growth and Poorer Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Very Preterm Infants Exposed to Neonatal Morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Jill G; Miller, Steven P; Grunau, Ruth E; Chau, Vann; Brant, Rollin; Studholme, Colin; Liu, Mengyuan; Synnes, Anne; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Stiver, Mikaela L; Tam, Emily W Y

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between morphine exposure and growth of the cerebellum and cerebrum in very preterm neonates from early in life to term-equivalent age, as well as to examine morphine exposure and brain volumes in relation to neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months corrected age (CA). A prospective cohort of 136 very preterm neonates (24-32 weeks gestational age) was serially scanned with magnetic resonance imaging near birth and at term-equivalent age for volumetric measurements of the cerebellum and cerebrum. Motor outcomes were assessed with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Second Edition and cognitive outcomes with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition at 18 months CA. Generalized least squares models and linear regression models were used to assess relationships between morphine exposure, brain volumes, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. A 10-fold increase in morphine exposure was associated with a 5.5% decrease in cerebellar volume, after adjustment for multiple clinical confounders and total brain volume (P = .04). When infants exposed to glucocorticoids were excluded, the association of morphine was more pronounced, with an 8.1% decrease in cerebellar volume. Morphine exposure was not associated with cerebral volume (P = .30). Greater morphine exposure also predicted poorer motor (P growth. Morphine exposure in very preterm neonates is independently associated with impaired cerebellar growth in the neonatal period and poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood. Alternatives to better manage pain in preterm neonates that optimize brain development and functional outcomes are urgently needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Women, the Poorer Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Maureen

    The purpose of this document is to present statistics which show clearly that poverty is a women's issue. The position of poor women relative to the total population living below the Federal poverty line is demonstrated. Income levels are analyzed to reveal the percentages of women whose annual income is below $5,000. The relationship of income…

  9. Attachment as a Moderating Factor Between Social Support, Physical Health, and Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Rapoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.

  10. Social functioning in youth with anxiety disorders: association with anxiety severity and outcomes from cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settipani, Cara A; Kendall, Philip C

    2013-02-01

    Social functioning was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form for children with anxiety disorders who participated in a randomized clinical trial (N = 161, aged 7-14). Significant relationships were found between severity of children's principal anxiety disorder and most measures of social functioning, such that poorer social functioning was associated with more severe anxiety. Among youth who received cognitive-behavioral therapy (n = 111), significant associations were found between parent-reported social competence and both absence of principal anxiety disorder and lower anxiety severity at posttreatment and 1-year follow-up, controlling for the severity of the child's principal anxiety disorder at pretreatment. Findings support a relationship between anxiety severity and social difficulties, and suggest the importance of social competence for a favorable treatment response.

  11. Continuing inequality: gender and social class influences on self perceived health after a heart attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, E A; Walters, S J

    2003-08-01

    To investigate the effect of social class and gender on self perceived health status for those recovering from an acute myocardial infarction. A longitudinal survey design was used, collecting both qualitative and quantitative data. Quantitative data are reported in this article, obtained by questionnaire over the first year after the event. SF-36 and EQ-5D (EuroQol) were used to measure self perceived health status. Community based study in a city in the north of England. A consecutive sample of 229 people discharged from hospital after acute myocardial infarction. Overall gain in health status was found to be statistically significant over the year. Improvements were greatest in domains relating to role fulfillment and pursuit of normal and social activities. When analysed by gender, women showed poorer improvement than men, particularly in the domains relating to physical and social functioning. Analysed by social class, those without educational qualifications showed poorer improvement in pain experience and vitality. Access to a car was significant in avoiding physical limitations and promoting general health. Existing gradients between the health of women and men, and between the social classes, are maintained and probably exacerbated by the experience of acute illness, and health professionals need to be made aware of social groups who are at risk of poor rehabilitation.

  12. Motivation and Social Cognition in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Social cognition, referring to one's ability to perceive and process social cues, is an important domain in schizophrenia. Numerous studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia have poorer performance on tests assessing social cognition relative to healthy comparison participants. However, whether variables such as motivation are related to performance on these tests in patients with schizophrenia is unclear. One thousand three-hundred and seventy-eight patients with schizophrenia completed the Facial Emotion Discrimination Task as a measure of emotional processing, a key facet of social cognition. Level of motivation was also evaluated in these patients using a derived measure from the Quality of Life Scale. The relationship between motivation and task performance was examined using bivariate correlations and logistic regression modeling, controlling for the impact of age and overall severity of psychopathology, the latter evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Motivation was positively related to performance on the social cognition test, and this relationship remained significant after controlling for potential confounding variables such as age and illness severity. Social cognition was also related to functioning, and the relationship was mediated by level of motivation. The present study found a significant relationship between motivation and performance on a test of social cognition in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that amotivation undermines task performance, or alternatively that poor social cognitive ability impedes motivation. Future studies evaluating social cognition in patients with schizophrenia should concurrently assess for variables such as effort and motivation.

  13. Emotion regulation, mental health, and social wellbeing in a young adolescent sample: A concurrent and longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervonsky, Elizabeth; Hunt, Caroline

    2018-04-26

    Previous research has established that the ability to manage emotions effectively is critical to healthy psychological and social development in adolescents. However, less research has considered the relationships between specific emotion regulation (ER) strategies, such as reappraisal and suppression, and social wellbeing in this age group. The current study investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between 2 ER strategies (reappraisal and suppression) and social outcomes (peer victimization, friendship satisfaction, and family satisfaction) in young adolescents. Analyses also controlled for mental health (anxiety and depression). Given likely gender differences in these variables, key analyses were conducted in parallel for males and females. There were 232 Australian adolescents who completed measures in Grade 7 (Age Mean = 11.97, SD = .35; 64% female) and a year later in Grade 8. Zero-order correlations indicated an inverse relationship between suppression use and social wellbeing variables, although a number of these associations were no longer significant when controlling for mental health. There was limited evidence that reappraisal was uniquely related to social outcomes. However, interaction effects suggested that greater use of reappraisal might have provided some protection against the negative social effects of poorer mental health. Poorer mental and social wellbeing also appeared to be related to ER strategy use, particularly greater suppression use. The findings suggest that ER strategy use, mental health, and social outcomes all play important and interrelated roles in adolescent wellbeing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. High dietary advanced glycation end products are associated with poorer spatial learning and accelerated Aβ deposition in an Alzheimer mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, Irit; Ricny, Jan; Atrakchi-Baranes, Dana; Shemesh, Chen; Kravitz, Efrat; Liraz-Zaltsman, Sigal; Maksin-Matveev, Anna; Cooper, Itzik; Leibowitz, Avshalom; Uribarri, Jaime; Schmeidler, James; Cai, Weijing; Kristofikova, Zdena; Ripova, Daniela; LeRoith, Derek; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal

    2016-04-01

    There is growing evidence of the involvement of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative processes including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their function as a seed for the aggregation of Aβ, a hallmark feature of AD. AGEs are formed endogenously and exogenously during heating and irradiation of foods. We here examined the effect of a diet high in AGEs in the context of an irradiated diet on memory, insoluble Aβ42 , AGEs levels in hippocampus, on expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), and on oxidative stress in the vasculature. We found that AD-like model mice on high-AGE diet due to irradiation had significantly poorer memory, higher hippocampal levels of insoluble Aβ42 and AGEs as well as higher levels of oxidative stress on vascular walls, compared to littermates fed an isocaloric diet. These differences were not due to weight gain. The data were further supported by the overexpression of RAGE, which binds to Aβ42 and regulates its transport across the blood-brain barrier, suggesting a mediating pathway. Because exposure to AGEs can be diminished, these insights provide an important simple noninvasive potential therapeutic strategy for alleviating a major lifestyle-linked disease epidemic. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. PBSCT is associated with poorer survival and increased chronic GvHD than BMT in Japanese paediatric patients with acute leukaemia and an HLA-matched sibling donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Aki; Tabuchi, Ken; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Inoue, Masami; Inagaki, Jiro; Yabe, Hiromasa; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Kato, Koji; Ohta, Hideaki; Kigasawa, Hisato; Kitoh, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Sasahara, Yoji; Kato, Shun-Ichi; Adachi, Souichi

    2013-09-01

    Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) may be used as an alternative to bone marrow (BM) for allogeneic transplantation. Since peripheral blood stem cell bank from unrelated volunteer donor has been started in Japan, use of PBSC allografts may be increased. Therefore we surveyed the outcomes of Japanese leukemia children after PBSC and BM transplantation. This retrospective study compared the outcomes of 661 children (0-18 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who received their first allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT; n = 90) or bone marrow transplantation (BMT; n = 571) from HLA-matched siblings between January 1996 and December 2007. Neutrophil recovery was faster after PBSCT than after BMT (ALL: P vs. 9.9%, P = 0.0066; AML: 41.6% vs. 11.1%, P vs. 57.1%, P = 0.0257). The 5-year overall survival (OS) was lower after PBSCT than after BMT for ALL (42.4% vs. 63.7%, P = 0.0032) and AML (49.8% vs. 71.8%, P = 0.0163). Multivariate analysis revealed the use of PBSC was a significant risk factor for DFS and OS. PBSCT and BMT did not differ in relapse rate, acute GvHD for ALL and AML, or in DFS for AML. PBSC allografts in Japanese children engraft faster but are associated with poorer survival and increased chronic GvHD. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The prognosis was poorer in colorectal cancers that expressed both VEGF and PROK1 (No correlation coefficient between VEGF and PROK1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goi, Takanori; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Hirono, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Akio

    2015-10-06

    The angiogenic proteins vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prokineticin1 (PROK1) proteins are considered important in colorectal cancer, the relationship between their simultaneous expression and prognosis was investigated in the present study. VEGF and PROK1 expression in 620 primary human colorectal cancer lesions was confirmed via immunohistochemical staining with anti-VEGF and anti-PROK1 antibodies, and the correlation between the expression of these 2 proteins and recurrence/prognosis were investigated. VEGF protein was expressed in 329 (53.1%) and PROK1 protein was expressed in 223 (36.0%). PROK1 and VEGF were simultaneously expressed in 116 (18.7%) of the 620 cases. The correlation coefficient between VEGF expression and PROK1 expression was r = 0.11, and therefore correlation was not observed. Clinical pathology revealed that substantially lymphnode matastasis, hematogenous metastasis, or TMN advanced-stage IV was significantly more prevalent in cases that expressed both VEGF and PROK1 than in the cases negative for both proteins or those positive for only 1 of the proteins. Also the cases positive for both proteins exhibited the worst recurrence and prognosis. In the Cox proportional hazards model, VEGF and PROK1 expression was an independent prognostic factor. The prognosis was poorer in colorectal cancers that expressed both PROK1 and VEGF relative to the cases that expressed only 1 protein, and the expression of both proteins was found to be an independent prognostic factor.

  17. Both high expression of pyruvate kinase M2 and vascular endothelial growth factor-C predicts poorer prognosis in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang; Liu, Fangfang; Fan, Yu; Qian, Xiaolong; Lang, Ronggang; Gu, Feng; Gu, Jun; Fu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) have been known to play an important role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in breast cancer. However, the association between PKM2 and VEGF-C in breast cancer remains unclear. In the present study, a total of 218 specimens from breast cancer patients and 26 paired breast tumors with adjacent normal tissues as well as two breast cancer cell lines were enrolled to investigate the correlation between PKM2 and VEGF-C. We found that PKM2 and VEGF-C mRNA levels were both significantly increasing in breast tumors compared with adjacent normal tissues. Knockdown of PKM2 mRNA expression resulted in VEGF-C mRNA and protein down-regulated as well as cell proliferation inhibited. A positive correlation between PKM2 and VEGF-C expression was identified by immunohistochemical analyses of 218 specimens of patients with breast cancer (P=0.023). PKM2 high expression was significantly correlated with histological grade (P=0.030), lymph node stage (P=0.001), besides VEGF-C high expression was significantly associated with lymphovascular invasion (P=0.012). While combined high expression of PKM2 and VEGF-C was found to be associated with worse histological grade, more lymph node metastasis, more lymphovascular invasion, shorter progression free survival (PFS), and poorer overall survival (OS) in human breast cancer. The results of the present study suggested that PKM2 expression was correlated with VEGF-C expression, and combination of PKM2 and VEGF-C levels had the better prognostic significance in predicting the poor outcome of patients with breast cancer.

  18. Greater dietary acculturation (dietary change) is associated with poorer current self-rated health among African immigrant adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Maria-Theresa C; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Zhan, Min

    2014-01-01

    Investigate the relationship between dietary acculturation and current self-rated health (SRH) among African immigrants, by country or region of origin. Cross-sectional, mixed-methods design using baseline data from longitudinal study of immigrants granted legal permanent residence May to November, 2003, and interviewed June, 2003 to June, 2004. 2003 New Immigrant Survey. African immigrants from a nationally representative sample (n = 763) averaged 34.7 years of age and 5.5 years' US residency; 56.6% were male, 54.1% were married, 26.1% were Ethiopian, and 22.5% were Nigerian. Current SRH (dependent variable) was measured using 5-point Likert scale questions; dietary acculturation (independent variable) was assessed using a quantitative dietary change scale. Multivariate logistic regression tested the relationship of dietary acculturation with current SRH (α = .05; P food/beverages consumed pre-/post-migration. African immigrants reporting moderate dietary change since arrival in the US had higher odds of poorer SRH status than immigrants reporting low dietary change (odds ratio, 1.903; 95% confidence interval, 1.143-3.170; P = .01). Among most dietary change groups, there was an increase in fast food consumption and decrease in fruit and vegetable consumption. Nutrition educators and public health practitioners should develop targeted nutrition education for African immigrants who are older, less educated, and at increased health risk. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High bone sialoprotein (BSP expression correlates with increased tumor grade and predicts a poorer prognosis of high-grade glioma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the expression and prognostic value of bone sialoprotein (BSP in glioma patients. METHODS: We determined the expression of BSP using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays containing 15 normal brain and 270 glioma samples. Cumulative survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed by the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by the stepwise forward Cox regression model. RESULTS: Both BSP mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in high-grade glioma tissues compared with those of normal brain and low-grade glioma tissues, and BSP expression positively correlated with tumor grade (P<0.001. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed high BSP expression was an independent prognostic factor for a shorter progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS in both grade III and grade IV glioma patients [hazard ratio (HR = 2.549 and 3.154 for grade III glioma, and HR = 1.637 and 1.574 for grade IV glioma, respectively]. Patients with low BSP expression had a significantly longer median OS and PFS than those with high BSP expression. Small extent of resection and lineage of astrocyte served as independent risk factors of both shorter PFS and OS in grade III glioma patients; GBM patients without O(6-methylguanine (O(6-meG DNA methyltransferase (MGMT methylation and Karnofsky performance score (KPS less than 70 points were related to poor prognosis. Lack of radiotherapy related to shorter OS but not affect PFS in both grade III and grade IV glioma patients. CONCLUSION: High BSP expression occurs in a significant subset of high-grade glioma patients and predicts a poorer outcome. The study identifies a potentially useful molecular marker for the categorization and targeted therapy of gliomas.

  20. Red Flags for Maltese Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: Poorer Dental Care and Less Sports Participation Compared to Other European Patients-An APPROACH-IS Substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Maryanne; Apers, Silke; Kovacs, Adrienne H; Luyckx, Koen; Thomet, Corina; Budts, Werner; Sluman, Maayke; Eriksen, Katrine; Dellborg, Mikael; Berghammer, Malin; Johansson, Bengt; Soufi, Alexandra; Callus, Edward; Moons, Philip; Grech, Victor

    2017-06-01

    Studies in recent years have explored lifestyle habits and health-risk behaviours in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients when compared to controls. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in lifestyle habits between Maltese and other European ACHD patients. Data on alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, substance misuse, dental care and physical activity collected in 2013-2015 during "Assessment of Patterns of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Adults with Congenital Heart disease-International Study" (APPROACH-IS) were analysed. Responses from 119 Maltese participants were compared to those of 1616 participants from Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the Netherlands. Significantly fewer Maltese patients with simple (Maltese 84.1% vs. European 97.5%, p < 0.001) and moderately complex CHD (Maltese 83.6% vs. European 97.4%, p < 0.001) brushed their teeth daily. Only 67.2% of Maltese with moderately complex disease had dental reviews in the previous year compared to 80.3% of Europeans (p = 0.02). Maltese patients with simple (Maltese 31.8% vs. European 56.1%, p = 0.002) and moderately complex lesions (Maltese 30.0% vs. European 59.2%, p < 0.001) performed less regular sport activities. Comparison by country showed Maltese patients to have significantly poorer tooth brushing and sports participation than patients from any other participating country. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and substance misuse were not significantly different. This study highlights lifestyle aspects that Maltese ACHD patients need to improve on, which might not be evident upon comparing patients to non-CHD controls. These findings should also caution researchers against considering behaviours among patients in one country as necessarily representative of patients on the larger scale.

  1. Are Facebook "Friends" Helpful? Development of a Facebook-Based Measure of Social Support and Examination of Relationships Among Depression, Quality of Life, and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Wilfred; Iwanicki, Sierra; Lauterbach, Dean; Giammittorio, David M; Maxwell, Kendal

    2015-09-01

    Greater social support is predictive of lower depression and higher quality of life (QOL). However, the way in which social support is provided has changed greatly with the expanding role of social networking sites (e.g., Facebook). While there are numerous anecdotal accounts of the benefits of Facebook-based social support, little empirical evidence exists to support these assertions, and there are no empirically validated measures designed to assess social support provided via this unique social networking medium. This study sought to develop an empirically sound measure of Facebook-based social support (Facebook Measure of Social Support [FMSS]) and to assess how this new measure relates to previously established measures of support and two outcome variables: depression and QOL. Following exploratory factor analysis, the FMSS was determined to assess four factors of social support on Facebook (Perceived, Emotional, Negative, Received/Instrumental). The Negative Support factor on the FMSS was most strongly related to both depression and QOL with magnitudes (and direction of relationships) comparable to a traditional measure of perceived social support. However, two FMSS factors (Received/Instrumental and Perceived) were unrelated to both mental health outcomes. Contrary to expectations, elevations in one FMSS factor (Emotional) was associated with worse symptoms of depression and poorer psychological QOL. When taken together, only the absence of negative social support on Facebook is significantly predictive of mental health functioning. Consequently, those hoping to use Facebook as a medium for reducing depression or improving QOL are unlikely to realize significant therapeutic benefits.

  2. Socialization in the Context of Risk and Psychopathology: Maternal Emotion Socialization in Children of Incarcerated Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Janice; Dallaire, Danielle; Borowski, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for psychological, social, and emotional maladaptation. This research investigates whether perceived maternal socialization of sadness and anger may moderate these outcomes in a sample of 154 children (53.9% boys, 61.7% Black, M age = 9.38, range: 6 - 12), their 118 mothers (64.1% Black), and 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 63.2% Black). Using mother, caregiver, and child report, seven maternal socialization strategies were assessed in their interaction with incarceration-specific risk experiences predicting children's adjustment. For sadness socialization, the results indicated that among children reporting maternal emotion-focused responses, incarceration-specific risk predicted increases in psychological problems, depressive symptoms, increased emotional lability, and poorer emotion regulation. For children who perceived a problem-focused response, incarceration-specific risk did not predict outcomes. There were no significant interactions with incarceration-specific risk and perceived maternal anger socialization strategies. These results indicate a critical need to examine how socialization processes may operate differently for children raised in atypical socializing contexts.

  3. Sociology, Hypocrisy, and Social Order

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANBR

    influence of the US fought the former Soviet Union because it regarded communism as an affront .... that they will bring up policies that will make Africans poorer. Ghana ... social and economic rights for people of colour. So much .... are levelled against the former President and his friends over use/misuse of public funds in ...

  4. Multilineage dysplasia is associated with a poorer prognosis in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia with intermediate-risk cytogenetics and wild-type NPM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, María; Navarro, José-Tomás; Arenillas, Leonor; Aventín, Anna; Giménez, Teresa; Alonso, Esther; Perea, Granada; Camós, Mireia; Navarrete, Mayda; Tuset, Esperanza; Florensa, Lourdes; Millá, Fuensanta; Nomdedéu, Josep; de la Banda, Esmeralda; Díaz-Beyá, Marina; Pratcorona, Marta; Garrido, Ana; Navarro, Blanca; Brunet, Salut; Sierra, Jorge; Esteve, Jordi

    2014-10-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with myelodysplasia-related changes is characterized by the presence of multilineage dysplasia (MLD), frequently related to high-risk cytogenetics and poor outcome. However, the presence of MLD does not modify the favorable prognostic impact of NPM1 mutation. The prognosis of patients with AML presenting marked dysplasia lacking high-risk cytogenetics and NPM1 mutation is uncertain. We evaluated the prognostic impact of MLD in 177 patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics AML (IR-AML) and wild-type NPM1. Patients were categorized as MLD-WHO (WHO myelodysplasia criteria; n = 43, 24 %), MLD-NRW (significant MLD non-reaching WHO criteria; n = 16, 9 %), absent MLD (n = 80, 45 %), or non-evaluable MLD (n = 38, 22 %). No differences concerning the main characteristics were observed between patients with or without MLD. Outcome of patients with MLD-WHO and MLD-NRW was similar, and significantly worse than patients lacking MLD. The presence of MLD (66 vs. 80 %, p = 0.03; HR, 95 % CI = 2.3, 1.08-4.08) and higher leukocyte count at diagnosis was the only variable associated with lower probability of complete remission after frontline therapy. Concerning survival, age and leukocytes showed an independent prognostic value, whereas MLD showed a trend to a negative impact (p = 0.087, HR, 95 % CI = 1.426, 0.95-2.142). Moreover, after excluding patients receiving an allogeneic stem cell transplantation in first CR, MLD was associated with a shorter survival (HR, 95 % CI = 1.599, 1.026-2.492; p = 0.038). In conclusion, MLD identifies a subgroup of patients with poorer outcome among patients with IR-AML and wild-type NPM1.

  5. Health benefits of primary care social work for adults with complex health and social needs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Jules; Mercer, Stewart W; Harris, Fiona M

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of complex health and social needs in primary care patients is growing. Furthermore, recent research suggests that the impact of psychosocial distress on the significantly poorer health outcomes in this population may have been underestimated. The potential of social work in primary care settings has been extensively discussed in both health and social work literature and there is evidence that social work interventions in other settings are particularly effective in addressing psychosocial needs. However, the evidence base for specific improved health outcomes related to primary care social work is minimal. This review aimed to identify and synthesise the available evidence on the health benefits of social work interventions in primary care settings. Nine electronic databases were searched from 1990 to 2015 and seven primary research studies were retrieved. Due to the heterogeneity of studies, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Although there is no definitive evidence for effectiveness, results suggest a promising role for primary care social work interventions in improving health outcomes. These include subjective health measures and self-management of long-term conditions, reducing psychosocial morbidity and barriers to treatment and health maintenance. Although few rigorous study designs were found, the contextual detail and clinical settings of studies provide evidence of the practice applicability of social work intervention. Emerging policy on the integration of health and social care may provide an opportunity to develop this model of care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Early term and late preterm birth are associated with poorer school performance at age 5 years: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Maria A; Poulsen, Gry; Boyle, Elaine; Wolke, Dieter; Field, David; Alfirevic, Zarko; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J

    2012-05-01

    To compare school performance at age 5 years in children born at full term (39-41 weeks gestation) with those born at early term (37-38 weeks gestation), late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation), moderately preterm (32-33 weeks gestation) and very preterm (2000-2001 and attending school in England in 2006. School performance was measured using the foundation stage profile (FSP), a statutory assessment by teachers at the end of the child's first school year. The FSP comprises 13 assessment scales (scored from 1 to 9). Children who achieve an average of 6 points per scale and at least 6 in certain scales are classified as 'reaching a good level of overall achievement'. Fifty-one per cent of full term children had not reached a good level of overall achievement; this proportion increased with prematurity (55% in early term, 59% in late preterm, 63% in moderately preterm and 66% in very preterm children). Compared with full term children, an elevated risk remained after adjustment, even in early term (adjusted RR 1.05, 95% 1.00 to 1.11) and late preterm children (adjusted RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22). Similar effects were noted for 'not working securely' in mathematical development, physical development and creative development. The effects of late preterm and early term birth were small in comparison with other risk factors. Late preterm and early term birth are associated with an increased risk of poorer educational achievement at age 5 years.

  7. Do South Asian women with PCOS have poorer health-related quality of life than Caucasian women with PCOS? A comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Georgina L; Palep-Singh, Manisha; Ledger, William L; Balen, Adam H; Jenkinson, Crispin; Campbell, Michael J; Lashen, Hany

    2010-12-20

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the HRQoL of South Asian and white Caucasian women with PCOS, given that it is particularly common among women of South Asian origin and they have been shown to have more severe symptoms. The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) were administered in a cross-sectional survey to 42 South Asian and 129 Caucasian women diagnosed with PCOS recruited from the gynaecology outpatient clinics of two university teaching hospitals in Sheffield and Leeds. Additional clinical data was abstracted from medical notes. Normative data, collected as part of the Oxford Health and Lifestyles II survey, was obtained to compare SF-36 results with ethnically matched women from the general UK population. Using the SF-36, normative HRQoL scores for women of South Asian origin were lower than for Caucasian women. Given this lower baseline we tested whether the same relationship holds true among those with PCOS. Although HRQoL scores for women with PCOS were lower than normative data for both groups, South Asian women with PCOS did not have poorer HRQoL than their Caucasian counterparts. For both the SF-36 and PCOSQ, mean scores were broadly the same for both Asian and Caucasian women. For both groups, the worst two HRQoL domains as measured on the PCOSQ were 'infertility' and 'weight', with respective scores of 35.3 and 42.3 for Asian women with PCOS compared to 38.6 and 35.4 for Caucasian women with PCOS. The highest scoring domain for South Asian women with PCOS was 'menstrual problems' (55.3), indicating best health, and was the only statistically significant difference from Caucasian women (p = 0.01). On the SF-36, the lowest scoring domain was 'Energy & Vitality' for Caucasian women with PCOS, but this was significantly higher for Asian women with PCOS (p = 0.01). The best health status for both groups

  8. Co-colonisation with Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with poorer health in cystic fibrosis patients: an Irish registry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Emma; Segurado, Ricardo; Jackson, Abaigeal; McClean, Siobhán; Renwick, Julie; Greally, Peter

    2017-04-21

    Pulmonary infection is the main cause of death in cystic fibrosis (CF). Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) are the most prevalent fungal and bacterial pathogens isolated from the CF airway, respectively. Our aim was to determine the effect of different colonisation profiles of AF and PA on the clinical status of patients with CF. A retrospective analysis of data from the Cystic Fibrosis Registry of Ireland from 2013 was performed to determine the effect of intermittent and persistent colonisation with AF or PA or co-colonisation with both microorganisms on clinical outcome measures in patients with CF. Key outcomes measured included forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ), number of hospitalisations, respiratory exacerbations and antimicrobials prescribed, and complications of CF, including CF related diabetes (CFRD) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The prevalence of AF and PA colonisation were 11% (5% persistent, 6% intermittent) and 31% (19% persistent, 12% intermittent) in the Irish CF population, respectively. Co-colonisation with both pathogens was associated with a 13.8% reduction in FEV 1 (p = 0.016), higher levels of exacerbations (p = 0.042), hospitalisations (p = 0.023) and antimicrobial usage (p = 0.014) compared to non-colonised patients and these clinical outcomes were comparable to those persistently colonised with PA. Intermittent and persistent AF colonisation were not associated with poorer clinical outcomes or ABPA. Patients with persistent PA had a higher prevalence of CFRD diagnosis (p = 0.012). CF patients co-colonised with AF and PA had poor clinical outcomes comparable to patients persistently colonised with PA, emphasising the clinical significance of co-colonisation with these microorganisms.

  9. Impulsiveness, overactivity, and poorer sustained attention improve by chronic treatment with low doses of l-amphetamine in an animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagvolden, Terje

    2011-03-30

    ADHD is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. Overactivity, impulsiveness, and inattentiveness are presently regarded as the main clinical symptoms. There is no biological marker, but there is considerable evidence to suggest that ADHD behavior is associated with poor dopaminergic and noradrenergic modulation of neuronal circuits that involve the frontal lobes. The best validated animal model of ADHD, the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR), shows pronounced overactivity, impulsiveness, and deficient sustained attention. The primary objective of the present research was to investigate behavioral effects of a range of doses of chronic l-amphetamine on ADHD-like symptoms in the SHR. The present study tested the behavioral effects of 0.75 and 2.2 mg l-amphetamine base/kg i.p. in male SHRs and their controls, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). ADHD-like behavior was tested with a visual discrimination task measuring overactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness. The striking impulsiveness, overactivity, and poorer sustained attention seen during baseline conditions in the SHR were improved by chronic treatment with l-amphetamine. The dose-response curves were, however, different for the different behaviors. Most significantly, the 0.75 mg/kg dose of l-amphetamine improved sustained attention without reducing overactivity and impulsiveness. The 2.2 mg/kg dose improved sustained attention as well as reduced SHR overactivity and impulsiveness. The effects of l-amphetamine to reduce the behavioral symptoms of ADHD in the SHR were maintained over the 14 days of daily dosing with no evidence of tolerance developing.

  10. Stronger default mode network connectivity is associated with poorer clinical insight in youth at ultra high-risk for psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah V; Mittal, Vijay A; Bernard, Jessica A; Ahmadi, Aral; King, Tricia Z; Turner, Jessica A

    2018-03-01

    Impaired clinical insight (CI) is a common symptom of psychotic disorders and a promising treatment target. However, to date, our understanding of how variability in CI is tied to underlying brain dysfunction in the clinical high-risk period is limited. Developing a stronger conception of this link will be a vital first step for efforts to determine if CI can serve as a useful prognostic indicator. The current study investigated whether variability in CI is related to major brain networks in adolescents and young adults at ultra high-risk (UHR) of developing psychosis. Thirty-five UHR youth were administered structured clinical interviews as well as an assessment for CI and underwent resting-state magnetic resonance imaging scans. Functional connectivity was calculated in the default mode network (DMN) and fronto-parietal network (FPN), two major networks that are dysfunctional in psychosis and are hypothesized to affect insight. Greater DMN connectivity between the posterior cingulate/precuneus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (DMN) was related to poorer CI (R 2 =0.399). There were no significant relationships between insight and the FPN. This is the first study to relate a major brain network to clinical insight before the onset of psychosis. Findings are consistent with evidence if a hyperconnected DMN in schizophrenia and UHR, and similar to a previous study of insight and connectivity in schizophrenia. Results suggest that a strongly connected DMN may be related to poor self-awareness of subthreshold psychotic symptoms in UHR adolescents and young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Poorer Intermittent Sprints Performance in Ramadan-Fasted Muslim Footballers despite Controlling for Pre-Exercise Dietary Intake, Sleep and Training Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of Ramadan fasting on sprint performance during prolonged intermittent exercise in trained Muslim footballers, under controlled pre-exercise conditions. A within-group, cross-over study design with two non-fasted or Control trials performed before (i.e., CON1 and after (CON2 the Ramadan month, and with the Ramadan-fasted (RAM trials performed within the Ramadan month. After familiarization, 14 players completed a modified 60-min (4 × 15-min exercise blocks interspersed with 3-min intervals of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (mLIST of fixed speeds of walking, jogging, running, but with all-out effort sprints. During the interval periods, capillary blood glucose and blood lactate measures were taken, rectal and skin temperatures were recorded and maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC of the dominant leg and hand-grip were performed to provide some indication to the cause(s of ‘fatigue’ during exercise. Players were provided with standardized 24-h pre-packed meals prior to all trials. Sleep hours were objectively assessed and perceived training loads were monitored and these were equivalent between RAM and CON trials. Sprint times throughout mLIST were significantly faster in both CON1 and CON2 as compared to RAM trials (all P < 0.017; d = small to moderate, and this poorer performance in RAM was observed as early as during the first 15-min of the mLIST. Blood markers, MVIC and thermoregulatory results were not substantially different between both CON and RAM trials. In conclusion, despite similarities in dietary intake, sleeping hours and training loads between conditions, results still indicate that Ramadan fasting had an adverse effect on prolonged intermittent performance. Nocebo effects plays a dominant role during exercise in the Ramadan-fasted state.

  12. Factors related to self-reported social anxiety symptoms among incoming university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu Hui; Sun, Zih-Jie; Lee, I Hui; Lee, Chih-Ting; Chen, Kao Chin; Tsai, Chung Hung; Yang, Yen Kuang; Yang, Yi Ching

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the lifestyle/social, personality trait and mental factors among incoming university students with higher self-reported social anxiety symptoms (SAS). A total of 5126 incoming university students were recruited. The test battery included a self-administered questionnaire that examined personal lifestyle, the Measurement of Support Functions, the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision, the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Scale, the Social Phobia Inventory, the suicide ideation from the Brief Symptoms Rating Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire. SAS (23.7%) were prevalent. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that the significant predictors of higher levels of SAS were being an undergraduate student and a non-smoker, having lower Measurement of Support Functions score (poorer social support), having higher Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision score (Internet addiction), having lower Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Scale score (less altruistic behaviour), having suicide ideation and having higher Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire score (poorer sleeper). Given the high prevalence of SAS among university students, it is necessary to build a better strategy to detect students with potential social anxiety-related problems/disorders or other mental problems early on. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Clear cell carcinomas of the ovary have poorer outcomes compared with serous carcinomas: Results from a single-center Taiwanese study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Chun Ku

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: The clinical outcomes of CCC are generally poorer than SC. Complete cytoreduction to no gross residual disease should be ideally achieved in CCC patients. A greater understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of CCC may lead to tailored therapies, ultimately optimizing outcomes.

  14. Social Support and Successful Aging in Assisted Living Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Laura Odell; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Newman, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Successful aging has been associated with adequate social support. However, impaired functionality, increased dependence, multiple comorbidities, and reduced social interactions place older assisted living community (ALC) residents at risk for poorer social support and less successful aging. This cross-sectional descriptive study used the revised…

  15. Stereotype threat and social function in opioid substitution therapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Henry, Julie D; Terrett, Gill; Mercuri, Kimberly; McAlear, Karen; Rendell, Peter G

    2017-06-01

    People with a history of substance abuse are subject to widespread stigmatization. It seems likely that this societal disapproval will result in feelings of stereotype threat, or the belief that one is the target of demeaning stereotypes. If so, stereotype threat has the potential to contribute to functional difficulties including poor social outcomes. Eighty drug users on opioid substitution therapy and 84 demographically matched controls completed measures of mental health and social function. The opioid substitution therapy group were additionally asked to complete a measure that focused on their feelings of stereotype threat in relation to their drug use history. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to establish the magnitude and specificity of the relationship between stereotype threat and social functioning. Relative to controls, the opioid substitution therapy group reported higher levels of negative affect and schizotypy, and poorer social functioning, with all three of these indices significantly correlated with their feelings of stereotype threat. The results also showed that stereotype threat contributed significant unique variance to social functioning in the opioid substitution therapy group, even after taking into account other background, clinical, and mental health variables. Social functioning is an important aspect of recovery, yet these data indicate that people with a history of drug abuse who believe they are the target of stereotypical attitudes have poorer social functioning. This relationship holds after controlling for the impact of other variables on social functioning, including mental health. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Concerns about being stereotyped can shape the social experiences of opioid substitution therapy patients. Opioid substitution therapy patients who feel negatively stereotyped experience greater social function deficits, and this

  16. The role of the hospice social worker in the nursing home setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, D F

    1994-01-01

    Data and case examples from two major metropolitan hospice programs are examined in order to arrive at a definition of the hospice social worker's role in the nursing home, and how it differs from that of the hospice social worker in home care. The nursing home population tends to be older, frailer, and with poorer mental status, making them less available to "talk therapies". The nursing home environment itself needs to be assessed as a significant part of the patient/family system. Social work interventions may focus on the patient, the family, the nursing home staff, or any combination of these elements. The hospice social worker on a nursing home team may do less counseling with patients, but the role draws on diverse other skills such as groupwork, negotiation, education, and advocacy.

  17. Symptoms of social anxiety, depression, and stress in parents of children with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsson, Brynjar; Draisey, Jenny; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy

    2018-06-01

    It has been suggested that elevated maternal social anxiety may play a disorder-specific role in maintaining childhood social anxiety disorder (SAD), but few studies have examined whether mothers of children with SAD are more socially anxious than mothers of children with other anxiety disorders (ANX). This study set out to examine whether symptoms of social anxiety were more severe amongst mothers of 7-12 year old children presenting for treatment with SAD (n = 260) compared to those presenting with ANX (n = 138). In addition, we examined whether there were differences between these two groups in terms of maternal and paternal general anxiety, depression, and stress. Parents of 7-12 year old children referred for treatment of SAD or ANX completed self-report questionnaire measures of emotional symptoms. Compared to mothers of children with ANX, mothers of children with SAD reported significantly higher levels of social anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. In addition, fathers of children with SAD reported significantly higher levels of anxiety, stress, and depression than fathers of children with ANX. This study is one of the few existing studies that have examined mothers' and fathers' psychopathology across different childhood anxiety disorders. Compared to parents of children with ANX, parents of children with SAD may have poorer mental health which may inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes for children with SAD. Thus, targeting parental psychopathology may be particularly important in the treatment of childhood SAD. Consideration of parental psychopathology may be particularly important in the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder. Mothers of children with social anxiety disorder are more socially anxious than mothers of children with other anxiety disorders Fathers of children with social anxiety disorder are more anxious and depressed than fathers of children with other anxiety disorders Participants were predominantly of high

  18. The Association Between Social Skills and Mental Health in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, With and Without Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Belinda; Wong, Michelle; Dossetor, David; Hayes, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with social skills deficits and co-occurring mental health difficulties. ASD frequently co-occurs with Intellectual Disability (ID). There is scant literature exploring the association between social skills and mental health in children with ASD, with or without ID. Participants were 292 children aged six to 13 with ASD (217 without ID; 76 with Mild ID). Parents and teachers rated social skills and mental health using standardised questionnaires. Greater mental health difficulties were associated with greater social responsiveness difficulties and poorer social skills across the sample. Effect sizes were large. Social skills explained a significant proportion of the variance in mental health scores across the sample. The study has important implications for treatment and future research.

  19. How does difficulty communicating affect the social relationships of older adults? An exploration using data from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Andrew D; Newsom, Jason T; Rook, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    Healthy social relationships are important for maintaining mental and physical health in later life. Less social support, smaller social networks, and more negative social interactions have been linked to depression, poorer immune functioning, lower self-rated health, increased incidence of disease, and higher mortality. Overwhelming evidence suggests that communication disorders adversely affect social relationships. Much less is known about whether some or all aspects of social relationships are negatively affected by a communication disorder. The relative impact of a communication disorder on social relationships, as compared to other kinds of disability, is also poorly understood. Data were analyzed from a representative national sample of community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older living in the continental United States (n=742). Results from multiple regressions indicated that difficulty communicating was significantly associated with several parameters of social relationships even after controlling for age, gender, partnership status, health, functional limitations, and visual impairment. Communication difficulty was a significant predictor of smaller social network size, fewer positive social exchanges, less frequent participation in social activities, and higher levels of loneliness, but was not a significant predictor of negative social exchanges. These findings suggest that communication disorders may place older adults at increased risk for mental and physical health problems because of social isolation, reduced social participation, and higher rates of loneliness. In addition, it appears that communication disorders may have a greater impact on positive, rather than negative, aspects of social relationships. As a result of this activity, the following learning outcomes will be realized: Readers will be able to (1) describe changes in the social relationships of older adults that occur as part of normal aging, (2) identify the aspects of social

  20. Behavioral and social development of children born extremely premature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Munck, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    A cohort of extremely prematurely born children and matched term controls was assessed at 5 years of age. The parents completed a questionnaire on their behavioral and social development. The purpose was to illuminate whether the children's general intellectual ability and parental sensitivity were...... associated with behavioral and social development. The index children exhibited more hyperactive behavior and had poorer social skills than the controls. Lower Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was associated with outward reacting and hyperactive behavior and poorer social skills. Sensitive parenting was associated...... with less outward reacting and less hyperactive behavior. When controlling for differences in FSIQ and parental sensitivity, the index children persisted to have an increased risk of exhibiting hyperactive behavior but not poorer social skills. The index children with normal intellectual development...

  1. Differential Aging Trajectories of Modulation of Activation to Cognitive Challenge in APOE ε4 Groups: Reduced Modulation Predicts Poorer Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Chris M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Rodrigue, Karen M

    2017-07-19

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), ApolipoproteinE ε4 (APOEε4), on the ability of the brain to modulate activation in response to cognitive challenge in a lifespan sample of healthy human adults. A community-based sample of 181 cognitively intact, healthy adults were recruited from the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. Thirty-one APOEε4+ individuals (48% women), derived from the parent sample, were matched based on sex, age, and years of education to 31 individuals who were APOEε4-negative (APOEε4-). Ages ranged from 20 to 86 years of age. Blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging was collected during the performance of a visuospatial distance judgment task with three parametric levels of difficulty. Multiple regression was used in a whole-brain analysis with age, APOE group, and their interaction predicting functional brain modulation in response to difficulty. Results revealed an interaction between age and APOE in a large cluster localized primarily to the bilateral precuneus. APOEε4- individuals exhibited age-invariant modulation in response to task difficulty, whereas APOEε4+ individuals showed age-related reduction of modulation in response to increasing task difficulty compared with ε4- individuals. Decreased modulation in response to cognitive challenge was associated with reduced task accuracy as well as poorer name-face associative memory performance. Findings suggest that APOEε4 is associated with a reduction in the ability of the brain to dynamically modulate in response to cognitive challenge. Coupled with a significant genetic risk factor for AD, changes in modulation may provide additional information toward identifying individuals potentially at risk for cognitive decline associated with preclinical AD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding how risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) affect brain function and cognition in healthy adult samples

  2. Circulating CD8+CD28- suppressor T cells tied to poorer prognosis among metastatic breast cancer patients receiving adoptive T-cell therapy: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingkun; Ren, Jun; Zhou, Xinna; Wang, Xiaoli; Song, Guohong; Hobeika, Amy; Yuan, Yanhua; Lyerly, Herbert Kim

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of circulating CD8 + CD28 - T lymphocytes among breast cancer patients treated with adoptive T-lymphocyte immunotherapy after chemotherapy. Two hundred and thirty-two breast cancer patients underwent adoptive T-cell immunotherapy. Circulating CD8 + CD28 - proportion was measured by flow cytometry. Median proportion of CD8 + CD28 - was 24.2% and set as the categorical cutoff value for further analysis. The median survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier curve, with difference detection and hazard ratio estimation by log-rank test and Cox hazard proportion regression model. With adoptive T-cell therapy, patients with higher CD8 + CD28 - levels experienced median progression-free and overall survival of 7.1 months and 26.9 months, respectively-significantly shorter than patients with lower levels (11.8 and 36.2 months). CD8 + CD28 - proportion >24.2% demonstrated a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-3.12) for progression and an HR of 1.97 (95% CI 1.06-3.67) for death. Among patients who had received previous first-line chemotherapy, CD8 + CD28 - proportion >24.2% demonstrated an HR of 2.66 (95% CI 1.45-4.88) for progression. Among patients exposed to previous second-line or higher chemotherapy, CD8 + CD28 - proportion >24.2% demonstrated a 486% higher risk for death (HR = 5.86, 95% CI 1.77-19.39). A 1% increase in suppressive T cells was associated with a 5% increased risk of death. Elevated peripheral blood CD8 + CD28 - was associated with poorer prognosis for metastatic breast cancer, especially for higher risk of progression among patients with first-line chemotherapy and higher risk of death among patients with more than second-line chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Is change bad? Personality change is associated with poorer psychological health and greater metabolic syndrome in midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J.; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Method Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Results Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. Conclusions In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one’s health: socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. PMID:22924900

  4. Is change bad? Personality change is associated with poorer psychological health and greater metabolic syndrome in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J; Biesanz, Jeremy C; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-06-01

    Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one's health: Socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Significance of Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    and Weber. It does so by situating Durkheim and Weber in the context of Neo-Kantian philosophy, which prevailed among their contemporaries, and the chapter thereby reveals a series of under-thematised similarities not only with regard to their methodological positions, but also in their conception of social...... of social theory. In pursuing this overall research agenda, the dissertation contributes to a number of specific research literatures. Following two introductory and methodological chapters, Chapter 3 thus critically examines the analysis of normativity suggested in the recent attempts at transforming...... the methods of neo-classical economics into a broader form of social theory. The chapter thereby contributes to the critical discourses, particularly in philosophy of science, that challenge the validity of neo-classical economics and its underlying conception of practical rationality. In examining...

  6. Perceived stress as a mediator between social constraints and sleep quality among Chinese American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Nelson C Y; Ramirez, Jeffrey; Lu, Qian

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies primarily fo c used on how disease- and treatment-related variables affect cancer survivors' sleep quality. Little is known about the impact of the psychosocial factors on their sleep quality. Social constraints are perceived negative social interactions inhibiting one's disclosure. This study examined the association between social constraints and Chinese American breast cancer survivors' (BCS) sleep quality and tested perceived stress as a mediator explaining the association. Chinese American BCS (n = 94) were recruited from Southern California. Participants' social constraints, perceived stress, and sleep quality were measured in a questionnaire package. Social constraints were associated with higher perceived stress (r = 0.32, p = .002) and poorer sleep quality (r = 0.33, p stress was associated with poorer sleep quality (r = 0.47, p social constraints to poor sleep quality (indicated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSQI) via perceived stress was significant (β = 0.20; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.06, 0.40). The path coefficient for direct effect from social constraints to PSQI significantly dropped from β = 0.32 (95% CI = 0.11, 0.51) to β = 0.13 (95% CI = -0.12, 0.35) after considering perceived stress as a mediator, suggesting a mediation effect. This study implied that social constraints may worsen sleep quality among Chinese American BCS through increasing perceived stress. Interventions to reduce social constraints and perceived stress may improve sleep quality.

  7. Do South Asian women with PCOS have poorer health-related quality of life than Caucasian women with PCOS? A comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common chronic endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the HRQoL of South Asian and white Caucasian women with PCOS, given that it is particularly common among women of South Asian origin and they have been shown to have more severe symptoms. Methods The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ and the Short Form-36 (SF-36 were administered in a cross-sectional survey to 42 South Asian and 129 Caucasian women diagnosed with PCOS recruited from the gynaecology outpatient clinics of two university teaching hospitals in Sheffield and Leeds. Additional clinical data was abstracted from medical notes. Normative data, collected as part of the Oxford Health and Lifestyles II survey, was obtained to compare SF-36 results with ethnically matched women from the general UK population. Using the SF-36, normative HRQoL scores for women of South Asian origin were lower than for Caucasian women. Given this lower baseline we tested whether the same relationship holds true among those with PCOS. Results Although HRQoL scores for women with PCOS were lower than normative data for both groups, South Asian women with PCOS did not have poorer HRQoL than their Caucasian counterparts. For both the SF-36 and PCOSQ, mean scores were broadly the same for both Asian and Caucasian women. For both groups, the worst two HRQoL domains as measured on the PCOSQ were 'infertility' and 'weight', with respective scores of 35.3 and 42.3 for Asian women with PCOS compared to 38.6 and 35.4 for Caucasian women with PCOS. The highest scoring domain for South Asian women with PCOS was 'menstrual problems' (55.3, indicating best health, and was the only statistically significant difference from Caucasian women (p = 0.01. On the SF-36, the lowest scoring domain was 'Energy & Vitality' for Caucasian women with PCOS, but this was significantly higher for Asian women with PCOS (p

  8. Poorer self-perceived health among migrants and ethnic minorities versus the majority population in Europe: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Krasnik, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Knowledge about self-perceived health can help us understand the health status and needs among migrants and ethnic minorities in the European Union (EU) which is essential to improve equity and integration. The objective was to examine and compare self-perceived health among migrant.......   Results Publications were identified in 5 out of the 27 EU-countries. In all aspects of self-perceived health, most migrants and ethnic minority groups appeared to be disadvantaged as compared to the majority population even after controlling for age, gender, and socioeconomic factors. Only limited cross......-country comparisons could be carried out, still, they revealed a parallel pattern of self-perceived health among similar migrants/ethnic minority groups.   Conclusions Policies to improve social and health status, contextual factors, and access to healthcare among migrants and ethnic minorities are essential...

  9. The significance of relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burningham, Kate

    2017-12-01

    Understanding individual energy use can inform interventions for energy conservation. A longitudinal qualitative interview study shows that energy use behaviour is not simply a matter of individual choice, but rather is influenced by unique personal circumstances and familial and social relationships, which change over time.

  10. Effectiveness of self-esteem and social skills group therapy in adolescent eating disorder patients attending a day hospital treatment programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, L; Font, E; Moreno, E; Calvo, R; Vila, M; Andrés-Perpiñá, S; Canalda, G; Martínez, E; Castro-Fornieles, J

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate self-esteem and social skills in adolescent eating disorder patients before and after specific group therapy as part of a Day Hospital Programme. One hundred and sixty adolescent eating disorder patients, classified as anorexia nervosa and related disorders (AN-rd) (N = 116) or bulimia nervosa and related disorders (BN-rd) (N = 44) received structured group therapy for developing self-esteem and social skills. BN-rd patients had poorer perceptions of some self-esteem and social skills variables. After group therapy, both groups presented significant improvements in their perceptions of physical appearance, their self-concept related to weight and shape and to others, happiness and satisfaction, social withdrawal and leadership. BN-rd patients presented more changes on many of the variables. Specific self-esteem and social skills group therapy in patients with eating disorders can be useful in improving certain core features. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Systematic Review of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Maria; Birchwood, Max; Tait, Lynda

    2017-04-25

    Social anxiety is highly prevalent among people with psychosis and linked with significant social disability and poorer prognosis. Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) has shown to be effective for the treatment of social anxiety in non-psychotic populations, there is a lack of evidence on the clinical effectiveness of CBT for the treatment of social anxiety when this is co-morbid in psychosis. A systematic review to summarise and critically appraise the literature on the effectiveness of CBT interventions for the treatment of social anxiety in psychosis. Two studies were included in the review assessing the effectiveness of group CBT for social anxiety in schizophrenia, both of poor methodological quality. Preliminary findings suggest that group-based CBT is effective in treating symptoms of social anxiety, depression and associated distress in people with schizophrenia. The evidence-base is not robust enough to provide clear implications for practice about the effectiveness of CBT for the treatment of social anxiety in psychosis. Future research should focus on methodologically rigorous randomised controlled trials with embedded process evaluation to assess the effectiveness of CBT interventions in targeting symptoms of social anxiety in psychosis and identify mechanisms of change.

  12. Household food production is positively associated with dietary diversity and intake of nutrient-dense foods for older preschool children in poorer families: Results from a nationally-representative survey in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulmi, Prajula; Masters, William A; Ghosh, Shibani; Namirembe, Grace; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Manohar, Swetha; Shrestha, Binod; West, Keith P; Webb, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition-sensitive interventions supporting enhanced household food production have potential to improve child dietary quality. However, heterogeneity in market access may cause systematic differences in program effectiveness depending on household wealth and child age. Identifying these effect modifiers can help development agencies specify and target their interventions. This study investigates mediating effects of household wealth and child age on links between farm production and child diets, as measured by production and intake of nutrient-dense food groups. Two rounds (2013 and 2014) of nationally representative survey data (n = 5,978 observations) were used to measure production and children's dietary intake, as well as a household wealth index and control variables, including breastfeeding. Novel steps used include measuring production diversity in terms of both species grown and food groups grown, as well as testing for mediating effects of family wealth and age of child. We find significant associations between child dietary diversity and agricultural diversity in terms of diversity of food groups and of species grown, especially for older children in poorer households, and particularly for fruits and vegetables, dairy and eggs. With each additional food group produced, log-odds of meeting minimum dietary diversity score (≥4) increase by 0.25 (p = 0.01) for children aged 24-59 months. For younger children aged 18-23 months there is a similar effect size but only in the poorest two quintiles of household wealth, and for infants 6-18 months we find no correlation between production and intake in most models. Child dietary intake is associated with the composition of farm production, most evident among older preschool children and in poorer households. To improve the nutrition of infants, other interventions are needed; and for relatively wealthier households, own farm production may displace market purchases, which could attenuate the impact of household

  13. Household food production is positively associated with dietary diversity and intake of nutrient-dense foods for older preschool children in poorer families: Results from a nationally-representative survey in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajula Mulmi

    Full Text Available Nutrition-sensitive interventions supporting enhanced household food production have potential to improve child dietary quality. However, heterogeneity in market access may cause systematic differences in program effectiveness depending on household wealth and child age. Identifying these effect modifiers can help development agencies specify and target their interventions.This study investigates mediating effects of household wealth and child age on links between farm production and child diets, as measured by production and intake of nutrient-dense food groups.Two rounds (2013 and 2014 of nationally representative survey data (n = 5,978 observations were used to measure production and children's dietary intake, as well as a household wealth index and control variables, including breastfeeding. Novel steps used include measuring production diversity in terms of both species grown and food groups grown, as well as testing for mediating effects of family wealth and age of child.We find significant associations between child dietary diversity and agricultural diversity in terms of diversity of food groups and of species grown, especially for older children in poorer households, and particularly for fruits and vegetables, dairy and eggs. With each additional food group produced, log-odds of meeting minimum dietary diversity score (≥4 increase by 0.25 (p = 0.01 for children aged 24-59 months. For younger children aged 18-23 months there is a similar effect size but only in the poorest two quintiles of household wealth, and for infants 6-18 months we find no correlation between production and intake in most models.Child dietary intake is associated with the composition of farm production, most evident among older preschool children and in poorer households. To improve the nutrition of infants, other interventions are needed; and for relatively wealthier households, own farm production may displace market purchases, which could attenuate the impact

  14. Motor skills, haptic perception and social abilities in children with mild speech disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müürsepp, Iti; Aibast, Herje; Gapeyeva, Helena; Pääsuke, Mati

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate motor skills, haptic object recognition and social interaction in 5-year-old children with mild specific expressive language impairment (expressive-SLI) and articulation disorder (AD) in comparison of age- and gender matched healthy children. Twenty nine children (23 boys and 6 girls) with expressive-SLI, 27 children (20 boys and 7 girls) with AD and 30 children (23 boys and 7 girls) with typically developing language as controls participated in our study. The children were examined for manual dexterity, ball skills, static and dynamic balance by M-ABC test, haptic object recognition and for social interaction by questionnaire completed by teachers. Children with mild expressive-SLI demonstrated significantly poorer results in all subtests of motor skills (psocial interaction (p0.05) in measured parameters between children with AD and controls. Children with expressive-SLI performed considerably poorer compared to AD group in balance subtest (psocial interaction are considerably more affected than in children with AD. Although motor difficulties in speech production are prevalent in AD, it is localised and does not involve children's general motor skills, haptic perception or social interaction. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Upper esophageal sphincter abnormalities: frequent finding on high-resolution esophageal manometry and associated with poorer treatment response in achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Yamile H; Ciarleglio, Maria M; Clarke, John O; Nandwani, Monica; Stein, Ellen; Roland, Bani C

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) on high-resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) have been observed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals and are often interpreted as incidental findings of unclear clinical significance. Our primary aims were: (1) to assess the frequency of UES abnormalities in consecutive patients referred for HREM studies; and (2) to characterize the demographics, clinical symptoms, and manometric profiles associated with UES abnormalities as compared with those with normal UES function. We performed a retrospective study of 200 consecutive patients referred for HREM. Patients were divided into those with normal and abnormal UES function, including impaired relaxation (residual pressure >12 mm Hg), hypertensive (>104 mm Hg), and hypotensive (achalasia were significantly more likely to have UES abnormalities as compared with normal UES function (57.2% vs. 42.9%, P=0.04), with the most frequent abnormality being a hypertensive UES (50%). In addition, patients with impaired lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction or achalasia) were more likely to have an UES abnormality present as compared with those with normal LES relaxation (53.1% vs. 28.6%, P=0.01). When we assessed for treatment response among patients with achalasia, we found that subjects with evidence of UES dysfunction had significantly worse treatment outcomes as compared with those without UES abnormalities present (20% improved vs. 100%, P=0.015). This remained true even after adjusting for type of treatment received (surgical myotomy, per-oral endoscopic mytotomy, botulinum toxin injection, pneumatic dilatation, medical therapy, P=0.67) and achalasia subtype (P=1.00). UES abnormalities are a frequent finding on HREM studies, especially in patients with impaired LES relaxation, including both achalasia and esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction. Interestingly, the most common UES abnormality associated

  16. Cell Proliferation (KI-67) Expression Is Associated with Poorer Prognosis in Nigerian Compared to British Breast Cancer Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboola, Ayodeji O. J.; Banjo, Adekumbiola A. F.; Anunobi, Charles C.; Salami, Babatunde; Agboola, Mopelola Deji; Musa, Adewale A.; Nolan, Christopher C.; Rakha, Emad A.; Ellis, Ian O.; Green, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Black women with breast cancer (BC) in Nigeria have higher mortality rate compared with British women. This study investigated prognostic features of cell proliferation biomarker (Ki-67) in Nigerian breast cancer women. Materials and Methods. The protein expression of Ki-67 was investigated in series of 308 Nigerian women, prepared as a tissue microarray (TMA), using immunohistochemistry. Clinic-pathological parameters, biomarkers, and patient outcome of tumours expressing Ki-67 in Nigerian women were correlated with UK grade-matched series. Results. A significantly larger proportion of breast tumours from Nigerian women showed high Ki-67 expression. Those tumours were significantly correlated with negative expression of the steroid hormone receptors (ER and PgR), p21, p27, E-cadherin, BRCA-1, and Bcl-2 (all P < 0.001), but positively associated with EGFR (P = 0.003), p53, basal cytokeratins: CK56, CK14, triple negative, and basal phenotype using Nielsen's classification (all P < 0.001) compared to UK women. Multivariate analyses showed that race was also associated with BCSS independent of tumour size, lymph node status, and ER status. Conclusion. Ki-67 expression was observed to have contributed to the difference in the BCSS in Nigerian compared with British BC women. Therefore, targeting Ki-67 in the indigenous black women with BC might improve the patient outcome in the black women with BC. PMID:23691362

  17. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  18. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  19. Younger Age Is Associated with Poorer Survival in Patients with Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Colon without Distant Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In general, younger age is associated with better survival in patients with colon cancer. In this study, we aim to analyze the impact of age on cancer-specific survival (CSS in patients with signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC of the colon, a particularly aggressive type of colon cancer. Methods. Information on patients with SRCC of the colon with no distant metastasis was extracted from the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database. An X-tile plot was used to determine the optimal cutoff age at diagnosis. Results. A total of 776 patients were included in data analysis. The X-tile program revealed an optimal cutoff at 35 years of age. A higher percentage of stage III disease and a higher percentage of N2 disease were observed in patients ≤ 35 years of age. The multivariate Cox proportional model demonstrated that patients ≤ 35 years of age were more likely to have a poorer survival outcome compared with patients aged >35 years (HR 1.411, 95% CI 1.032–1.929, and P=0.031. Conclusion. In contrast to the association of younger age with better survival in colon cancer patients, younger age (≤35 years is associated with poorer survival outcome in patients with SRCC of the colon without distant metastasis.

  20. Attachment and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillath, Omri; C Karantzas, Gery; Lee, Juwon

    2018-02-21

    The current review covers two lines of research linking attachment and social networks. One focuses on attachment networks (the people who fulfill one's attachment needs), examining composition and age-related differences pertaining to these networks. The other line integrates attachment with social network analysis to investigate how individual differences in adult attachment are associated with the management and characteristics (e.g., density, multiplexity, and centrality) of people's social networks. We show that most people's attachment networks are small and hierarchical, with one figure being the primary attachment figure (often a mother or romantic partner, depending on age). Furthermore, attachment style predicts network characteristics and management, such that insecurity is associated with less closeness, multiplexity, centrality, and poorer management (less maintenance, more dissolution). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increasing Severity of Malnutrition Is Associated With Poorer 30-Day Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Hip Fracture Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Andrew S; Hustedt, Joshua W; Walker, Robert; Jones, Clifford; Lowe, Jason; Russell, George V

    2018-04-01

    Low serum albumin levels (hypoalbuminemia) have classically been used to identify malnutrition. The effect of increasing severity of malnutrition on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery has not been well delineated on a large scale. Retrospective. Multicenter. A total of 12,373 patients undergoing hip fracture surgery from 2006 to 2013 National Surgery Quality Improvement Project data were identified. Patient demographic, comorbidity, and preoperative laboratory data and complication, reoperation, and readmission data were collected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the effect of increasing severity of malnutrition on rates of 30-day postoperative complications, readmissions, and reoperations. A total of 12,373 hip fractures met inclusion criteria. A total of 6506 (52.6%) patients had normal albumin levels (albumin ≥3.5 g/dL), 3205 (25.9%) patients were mildly malnourished (albumin 3.1-3.49 g/dL), 2265 (18.3%) were moderately malnourished (albumin 2.4-3.1 g/dL), and 397 (3.2%) patients were severely malnourished (albumin malnutrition was associated with a 2-fold increase in the odds of postoperative complications and mortality when compared with mild malnutrition (P malnutrition was associated with significantly longer lengths of stay and higher odds of experiencing a related readmission (P hip fracture surgery. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  2. Higher mental workload is associated with poorer laparoscopic performance as measured by the NASA-TLX tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurko, Yuliya Y; Scerbo, Mark W; Prabhu, Ajita S; Acker, Christina E; Stefanidis, Dimitrios

    2010-10-01

    Increased workload during task performance may increase fatigue and facilitate errors. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is a previously validated tool for workload self-assessment. We assessed the relationship of workload and performance during simulator training on a complex laparoscopic task. NASA-TLX workload data from three separate trials were analyzed. All participants were novices (n = 28), followed the same curriculum on the fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery suturing model, and were tested in the animal operating room (OR) on a Nissen fundoplication model after training. Performance and workload scores were recorded at baseline, after proficiency achievement, and during the test. Performance, NASA-TLX scores, and inadvertent injuries during the test were analyzed and compared. Workload scores declined during training and mirrored performance changes. NASA-TLX scores correlated significantly with performance scores (r = -0.5, P NASA-TLX questionnaire accurately reflects workload changes during simulator training and may identify individuals more likely to experience high workload and more prone to errors during skill transfer to the clinical environment.

  3. Does Emotion Dysregulation Mediate the Association Between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and College Students' Social Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Andrew J; Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M

    2016-09-01

    Studies demonstrate an association between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and social impairment, although no studies have tested possible mechanisms of this association. This study aimed to (a) examine SCT in relation to college students' social functioning; (b) test if SCT is significantly associated with emotion dysregulation beyond depressive, anxious, and ADHD symptoms; and (c) test if emotion dysregulation mediates the association between SCT symptoms and social impairment. College students (N = 158) completed measures of psychopathology symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and social functioning. Participants with elevated SCT (12%) had higher ADHD, depressive, and anxious symptoms in addition to poorer emotion regulation and social adjustment than participants without elevated SCT. Above and beyond other psychopathologies, SCT was significantly associated with social impairment but not general interpersonal functioning. SCT was also associated with emotion dysregulation, even after accounting for the expectedly strong association between depression and emotion dysregulation. Further analyses supported emotion dysregulation as a mediator of the association between SCT and social impairment. These findings are important for theoretical models of SCT and underscore the need for additional, longitudinal research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Individual differences in the ability to recognise facial identity are associated with social anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Davis

    Full Text Available Previous research has been concerned with the relationship between social anxiety and the recognition of face expression but the question of whether there is a relationship between social anxiety and the recognition of face identity has been neglected. Here, we report the first evidence that social anxiety is associated with recognition of face identity, across the population range of individual differences in recognition abilities. Results showed poorer face identity recognition (on the Cambridge Face Memory Test was correlated with a small but significant increase in social anxiety (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale but not general anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The correlation was also independent of general visual memory (Cambridge Car Memory Test and IQ. Theoretically, the correlation could arise because correct identification of people, typically achieved via faces, is important for successful social interactions, extending evidence that individuals with clinical-level deficits in face identity recognition (prosopagnosia often report social stress due to their inability to recognise others. Equally, the relationship could arise if social anxiety causes reduced exposure or attention to people's faces, and thus to poor development of face recognition mechanisms.

  5. Individual differences in the ability to recognise facial identity are associated with social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joshua M; McKone, Elinor; Dennett, Hugh; O'Connor, Kirsty B; O'Kearney, Richard; Palermo, Romina

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has been concerned with the relationship between social anxiety and the recognition of face expression but the question of whether there is a relationship between social anxiety and the recognition of face identity has been neglected. Here, we report the first evidence that social anxiety is associated with recognition of face identity, across the population range of individual differences in recognition abilities. Results showed poorer face identity recognition (on the Cambridge Face Memory Test) was correlated with a small but significant increase in social anxiety (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale) but not general anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). The correlation was also independent of general visual memory (Cambridge Car Memory Test) and IQ. Theoretically, the correlation could arise because correct identification of people, typically achieved via faces, is important for successful social interactions, extending evidence that individuals with clinical-level deficits in face identity recognition (prosopagnosia) often report social stress due to their inability to recognise others. Equally, the relationship could arise if social anxiety causes reduced exposure or attention to people's faces, and thus to poor development of face recognition mechanisms.

  6. Working memory capacity in social anxiety disorder: Revisiting prior conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waechter, Stephanie; Moscovitch, David A; Vidovic, Vanja; Bielak, Tatiana; Rowa, Karen; McCabe, Randi E

    2018-04-01

    In one of the few studies examining working memory processes in social anxiety disorder (SAD), Amir and Bomyea (2011) recruited participants with and without SAD to complete a working memory span task with neutral and social threat words. Those with SAD showed better working memory performance for social threat words compared to neutral words, suggesting an enhancement in processing efficiency for socially threatening information in SAD. The current study sought to replicate and extend these findings. In this study, 25 participants with a principal diagnosis of SAD, 24 anxious control (AC) participants with anxiety disorders other than SAD, and 27 healthy control (HC) participants with no anxiety disorder completed a working memory task with social threat, general threat, and neutral stimuli. The groups in the current study demonstrated similar working memory performance within each of the word type conditions, thus failing to replicate the principal findings of Amir and Bomyea (2011). Post hoc analyses revealed a significant association between higher levels of anxiety symptomatology and poorer overall WM performance. These results inform our understanding of working memory in the anxiety disorders and support the importance of replication in psychological research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. [A lower adherence to Mediterranean diet is associated with a poorer self-rated health in university population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios-Vicedo, Ricardo; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; García de la Hera, Manuela; González-Palacios, Sandra; Valera-Gran, Desirée; Checa-Sevilla, José Francisco; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Vioque, Jesús

    2014-09-15

    A higher adherence to Mediterranean diet is considered as a protective factor against the large number of deaths attributable to the main chronic degenerative diseases in developed countries. Self-rated health is established as a good indicator of population health status and as a predictor of mortality. Studies exploring the relationship between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and self-rated health are scarce, especially, in young adults. Our aim was to explore the factors related, specially the adherence to a priori-defined Mediterranean diet with self-rated health in a cohort of Spanish university students. We analyzed data from 1110 participants of Spanish DiSA-UMH (Dieta, Salud y Antropometría en universitarios de la Universidad Miguel Hernández) study. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the adherence to Mediterranean diet was calculated using the relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED; score range: 0-18) according to the consumption of 9 dietary components. Self-rated health was gathered from the question: "In general, how do you consider your health to be? (Excellent, good, fair, poor, very poor). Information on sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics was also collected. Multinomial logistic regression (using relative risk ratio, RRR) was used to analyze the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet (low rMED: 0-6 points; medium: 7-10 points; high: 11-18 points) and self-rated health (Excellent (reference), good and fair/ poor/very poor). A low, medium or high adherence to Mediterranean diet conformed to 26.8%, 58.7% and 14.4% of participants, which of them reported an excellent (23.1%), good (65.1%) and fair/poor or very poor health, respectively. In multivariate analysis, a lower adherence to Mediterranean diet was significantly (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Medicare Under Age 65 and Medicaid Patients Have Poorer Bowel Preparations: Implications for Recommendations for an Early Repeat Colonoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan B Brimhall

    Full Text Available Colonoscopy is performed on patients across a broad spectrum of demographic characteristics. These characteristics may aggregate by patient insurance provider and influence bowel preparation quality and the prevalence of adenomas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of insurance status and suboptimal bowel preparation, recommendation for an early repeat colonoscopy due to suboptimal bowel preparation, adenoma detection rate (ADR, and advanced ADR (AADR.This is a cohort study of outpatient colonoscopies (n = 3113 at a single academic medical center. Patient insurance status was categorized into five groups: 1 Medicare < 65y; 2 Medicare ≥ 65y; 3 Tricare/VA; 4 Medicaid/Colorado Indigent Care Program (CICP; and 5 commercial insurance. We used multivariable logistic or linear regression modeling to estimate the risks for the association between patient insurance and suboptimal bowel preparation, recommendation for an early repeat colonoscopy due to suboptimal bowel preparation, ADR, and AADR. Models were adjusted for appropriate covariates.Medicare patients < 65y (OR 4.91; 95% CI: 3.25-7.43 and Medicaid/CICP patients (OR 4.23; 95% CI: 2.65-7.65 were more likely to have a suboptimal preparation compared to commercial insurance patients. Medicare patients < 65y (OR 5.58; 95% CI: 2.85-10.92 and Medicaid/CICP patients (OR 3.64; CI: 1.60-8.28 were more likely to receive a recommendation for an early repeat colonoscopy compared to commercial insurance patients. Medicare patients < 65y had a significantly higher adjusted ADR (OR 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03-2.18 and adjusted AADR (OR 1.99; 95% CI: 1.15-3.44 compared to commercial insurance patients.Understanding the reasons for the higher rate of a suboptimal bowel preparation in Medicare < 65y and Medicaid/CICP patients and reducing this rate is critical to improving colonoscopy outcomes and reducing healthcare costs in these populations.

  9. High levels of physical activity are associated with poorer asthma control in young females but not in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövström, Ludvig; Emtner, Margareta; Alving, Kjell; Nordvall, Lennart; Borres, Magnus P; Janson, Christer; Malinovschi, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies on the levels of physical activity in asthma patients compared with controls have yielded varying results. We have previously reported that high versus moderate levels of physical activity were associated with higher prevalence of wheezing, especially in females. Here we studied the levels of physical activity in young patients with asthma and healthy subjects and their effect on asthma control. Four hundred eight physician-diagnosed patients with asthma and 118 controls (10-34 years) answered questions concerning frequency and/or duration of physical activity and undertook the Asthma Control Test (ACT), spirometry, methacholine challenges and exhaled nitric oxide measurements. Asthma patients were more frequently physically active (P = 0.01) and for longer durations (P = 0.002) than controls. Highly versus moderately physically active patients with asthma had a higher prevalence of not well-controlled asthma (ACT < 20) when physical activity was assessed by frequency (40.6% vs 24.1%, P = 0.001) or duration (39.0% vs 21.7%, P < 0.001). This was only seen in females who had reduced ACT items (P < 0.05). Frequently versus moderately active females had an odds ratio of 4.81 (2.43, 9.51) to have ACT < 20, while no such effect was found in males (OR 1.18 (0.61, 2.30)) and this interaction was statistically significantly associated with gender (P = 0.003). No differences in fraction of exhaled nitric oxide or methacholine reactivity were found between moderately and highly physically active females with asthma. Young asthma patients were more active than controls. High levels of physical activity were associated with poor asthma control as judged by the ACT in females, but not in males, and this appears unrelated to airway inflammation or responsiveness. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  10. Social Entrepreneurship and Social Entreprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migrant women stepping into ethnic catering; homeless men employed to take care of bees producing honey for sale; young people on the edge getting microcredit funding to start social businesses; or former criminals joining forces to create social and economic structures for an honest lifestyle....... These initiatives capture the transformative power of social enterprise and might indicate how social enterprises have the potential to make a difference for people and societies. The Nordic countries represent an interesting case. Social enterprises and co-operatives played a significant part in paving the way...

  11. Discrimination, perceived social inequity, and mental health among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Hong, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Qin, Xiong; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-04-01

    Status-based discrimination and inequity have been associated with the process of migration, especially with economics-driven internal migration. However, their association with mental health among economy-driven internal migrants in developing countries is rarely assessed. This study examines discriminatory experiences and perceived social inequity in relation to mental health status among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,006 rural-to-urban migrants in 2004-2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of being discriminated in daily life in urban destination and perceived social inequity. Mental health was measured using the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Multivariate analyses using general linear model were performed to test the effect of discriminatory experience and perceived social inequity on mental health. Experience of discrimination was positively associated with male gender, being married at least once, poorer health status, shorter duration of migration, and middle range of personal income. Likewise, perceived social inequity was associated with poorer health status, higher education attainment, and lower personal income. Multivariate analyses indicate that both experience of discrimination and perceived social inequity were strongly associated with mental health problems of rural-to-urban migrants. Experience of discrimination in daily life and perceived social inequity have a significant influence on mental health among rural-to-urban migrants. The findings underscore the needs to reduce public or societal discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants, to eliminate structural barriers (i.e., dual household registrations) for migrants to fully benefit from the urban economic development, and to create a positive atmosphere to improve migrant's psychological well-being.

  12. Three lifestyle-related issues of major significance for public health among the Inuit in contemporary Greenland: a review of adverse childhood conditions, obesity, and smoking in a period of social transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina V L

    2018-01-01

    Greenland is a country in transition from a colonial past with subsistence hunting and fishing to an urban Nordic welfare state. Epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases has been evident since the 1950s. Ninety percent of the population is Inuit. We studied three public health issues based on published literature, namely adverse childhood experiences, addictive behavior, and suicide; diet and obesity; and smoking. Alcohol consumption was high in the 1970s and 1980s with accompanying family and social disruption. This is still a cause of poor mental health and suicides in the generations most affected. The diet is changing from a traditional diet of fish and marine mammals to imported food including food items rich in sugar and fat from domestic animals, and the level of physical activity is decreasing with an ensuing epidemic rise in obesity. The prevalence of smoking is high at around 60% among both men and women and is only slowly decreasing. Smoking shows large social variation, and tobacco-related diseases are widespread. The diseases and conditions outlined above all contribute towards a low life expectancy at birth-69 years for men and 74 years for women in 2011-2015-compared with 78 and 84 years for men and women, respectively, on average in the European countries. The translation of government public health programs into local activities needs strengthening, and it must be realized that the improvement of public health is a long-term process.

  13. Social network types among older Korean adults: Associations with subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung Yun; Joo, Won-Tak; Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Se Joo; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Park, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Eun

    2017-01-01

    With population aging now a global phenomenon, the health of older adults is becoming an increasingly important issue. Because the Korean population is aging at an unprecedented rate, preparing for public health problems associated with old age is particularly salient in this country. As the physical and mental health of older adults is related to their social relationships, investigating the social networks of older adults and their relationship to health status is important for establishing public health policies. The aims of this study were to identify social network types among older adults in South Korea and to examine the relationship of these social network types with self-rated health and depression. Data from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project were analyzed. Model-based clustering using finite normal mixture modeling was conducted to identify the social network types based on ten criterion variables of social relationships and activities: marital status, number of children, number of close relatives, number of friends, frequency of attendance at religious services, attendance at organized group meetings, in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between the identified social network types and self-rated health and depression. The model-based clustering analysis revealed that social networks clustered into five types: diverse, family, congregant, congregant-restricted, and restricted. Diverse or family social network types were significantly associated with more favorable subjective mental health, whereas the restricted network type was significantly associated with poorer ratings of mental and physical health. In addition, our analysis identified unique social network types related to religious activities. In summary, we developed a comprehensive social network typology for older Korean adults. Copyright © 2016

  14. Subjective well-being amongst migrant children in China: unravelling the roles of social support and identity integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, S; Chui, C H-K; Ji, X; Jordan, L; Chan, C L-W

    2016-09-01

    Migrant children refer to rural children who accompany one or both parents to urban area. Empirical evidence showed that compared with their urban counterparts, migrant children had poorer developmental, emotional and psychological health. A sample of 1306 migrant children were recruited to examine the characteristics of migrant children and investigate the effects of identity integration, support and socioeconomic factors (e.g. age, gender, type of school, family socioeconomic status, city type) on their subjective wellbeing. Children with higher levels of identity integration, social support, family socioeconomic status, who attended public school and who lived in the third-tiered city of Weihai demonstrated better subjective wellbeing. Social support remained a strong predictor for subjective wellbeing, despite a significant mediating effect of identity integration. These results highlight the need for policymakers and practitioners alike to address individual factors pertaining to psychological adjustments, as well as social determinants of subjective wellbeing in the context of migration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. HIV Stigma and Its Relation to Mental, Physical and Social Health Among Black Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglini, Letitia E; Himelhoch, Seth S; Fang, Li Juan

    2018-02-07

    Black women living with HIV/AIDS (LWHA) are a subgroup with the highest growing rates of HIV infection in the United States. Stigma and co-occurring mental and physical health problems have been reported among Black women LWHA, and research on the benefits of social and religious support, often major protective factors among Black women, has been met with mixed findings. The current study examined the relation between anticipated HIV stigma and mental and physical health symptoms and risk and protective factors (discrimination, coping, social support) among Black women LWHA (N = 220). Results showed that greater anticipated stigma was significantly related to poorer mental health status, greater discrimination, and greater use of negative coping strategies. Stigma was not related to physical health, perceived social support or use of positive coping strategies. This study lends support to the need for psychosocial interventions that reduce anticipated stigma among individuals LWHA, particularly Black women LWHA.

  16. Characteristics of Social Network Gamers: in between Social Networking and Online Role-Playing Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eGeisel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current research on internet addiction (IA reported moderate to high prevalence rates of IA and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in users of social networking sites (SNS and online role-playing games. The aim of this study was to characterise adult users of an internet multiplayer strategy game within a SNS. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study using an online survey to assess sociodemographic variables, psychopathology and the rate of IA in a sample of adult social network gamers by Young´s Internet Addiction Test (IAT, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS, the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II, the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R and the WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF. All participants were listed gamers of combat zone in the SNS Facebook. In the IAT analysis, 16.2 % of the participants (n = 60 were categorized as subjects with IA and 19.5 % (n = 72 fulfilled the criteria for alexithymia. Comparing study participants with and without IA, the IA group had significantly more subjects with alexithymia, reported more depressive symptoms, and showed poorer quality of life. These findings suggest that social network gaming might also be associated with maladaptive patterns of internet use. Furthermore, a relationship between IA, alexithymia and depressive symptoms was found that needs to be elucidated by future studies.

  17. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  18. [Formula: see text]Higher cortisol is associated with poorer executive functioning in preschool children: The role of parenting stress, parent coping and quality of daycare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shannon L; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2016-01-01

    Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3-5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child's daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness.

  19. Higher cortisol is associated with poorer executive functioning in preschool children: The role of parenting stress, parent coping and quality of daycare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3–5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child’s daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale – Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness. PMID:26335047

  20. Weak expression of cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with poorer outcome in endemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: analysis of data from randomized trial between radiation alone versus concurrent chemo-radiation (SQNP-01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loong, Susan Li Er; Hwang, Jacqueline Siok Gek; Li, Hui Hua; Wee, Joseph Tien Seng; Yap, Swee Peng; Chua, Melvin Lee Kiang; Fong, Kam Weng; Tan, Terence Wee Kiat

    2009-01-01

    Over-expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme has been reported in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the prognostic significance of this has yet to be conclusively determined. Thus, from our randomized trial of radiation versus concurrent chemoradiation in endemic NPC, we analyzed a cohort of tumour samples collected from participants from one referral hospital. 58 out of 88 patients from this institution had samples available for analysis. COX-2 expression levels were stratified by immunohistochemistry, into negligible, weak, moderate and strong, and correlated with overall and disease specific survivals. 58% had negligible or weak COX-2 expression, while 14% and 28% had moderate and strong expression respectively. Weak COX-2 expression conferred a poorer median overall survival, 1.3 years for weak versus 6.3 years for negligible, 7.8 years, strong and not reached for moderate. There was a similar trend for disease specific survival. Contrary to literature published on other malignancies, our findings seemed to indicate that over-expression of COX-2 confer a better prognosis in patients with endemic NPC. Larger studies are required to conclusively determine the significance of COX-2 expression in these patients

  1. Impact of increasing social media use on sitting time and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Stephanie; Wellens, Pauline; Schoeppe, Stephanie; de Vries, Hein; Rebar, Amanda L; Short, Camille E; Duncan, Mitch J; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2017-08-01

    Issue addressed Sedentary behaviours, in particular sitting, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and poorer mental health status. In Australia, 70% of adults sit for more than 8h per day. The use of social media applications (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram) is on the rise; however, no studies have explored the association of social media use with sitting time and body mass index (BMI). Methods Cross-sectional self-report data on demographics, BMI and sitting time were collected from 1140 participants in the 2013 Queensland Social Survey. Generalised linear models were used to estimate associations of a social media score calculated from social media use, perceived importance of social media, and number of social media contacts with sitting time and BMI. Results Participants with a high social media score had significantly greater sitting times while using a computer in leisure time and significantly greater total sitting time on non-workdays. However, no associations were found between social media score and sitting to view TV, use motorised transport, work or participate in other leisure activities; or total workday, total sitting time or BMI. Conclusions These results indicate that social media use is associated with increased sitting time while using a computer, and total sitting time on non-workdays. So what? The rise in social media use may have a negative impact on health by contributing to computer sitting and total sitting time on non-workdays. Future longitudinal research with a representative sample and objective sitting measures is needed to confirm findings.

  2. Genetic predispositions and parental bonding interact to shape adults’ physiological responses to social distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Truzzi, Anna; Setoh, Peipei; Putnick, Diane L.; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2018-01-01

    Parental bonding and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene genotype each influences social abilities in adulthood. Here, we hypothesized an interaction between the two – environmental experience (parental bonding history) and genetic factors (OXTR gene genotype) – in shaping adults’ social sensitivity (physiological response to distress). We assessed heart rate and peripheral temperature (tip of the nose) in 42 male adults during presentation of distress vocalizations (distress cries belonging to female human infants and adults as well as bonobo). The two physiological responses index, respectively, state of arousal and readiness to action. Participants’ parental bonding in childhood was assessed through the self-report Parental Bonding Instrument. To assess participants’ genetic predispositions, buccal mucosa cell samples were collected, and region rs2254298 of the oxytocin receptor gene was analyzed: previous OXTR gene findings point to associations between the G allele and better sociality (protective factor) and the A allele and poorer sociality (risk factor). We found a gene * environment interaction for susceptibility to social distress: Participants with a genetic risk factor (A carriers) with a history of high paternal overprotection showed higher heart rate increase than those without this risk factor (G/G genotype) to social distress. Also, a significant effect of the interaction between paternal care and genotype on nose temperature changes was found. This susceptibility appears to represent an indirect pathway through which genes and experiences interact to shape mature social sensitivity in males. PMID:27343933

  3. Nurses and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Rory

    Nurses' use of social media and other electronic communications has increased significantly with growing numbers of social media opportunities, platforms and applications including blogs, social networking sites, video sites and online chat rooms and forums.

  4. Ritual Significance in Mycenaean Hairstyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu, Florence Sheng-chieh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the frescoes excavated from Bronze Age sites on the Greek mainland provide evidence for female figures in the Mycenaean society, the hairstyles of these figures have not been studied in detail. As in many other ancient cultures, hairstyles were not only an exhibition of beauty and fashion, but they also represented certain age groups or a person’s social status. The Mycenaeans inherited many of their hairstyles from their Minoan predecessors, although differences existed as well. It is also possible there may have been a shift in meaning for seemingly similar looking hairstyles from the Minoan to the Mycenaean periods. Female figures, which compose most of the Mycenaean figures in frescoes known to date, are fine examples for discussing the artistic representation and potential significance of Mycenaean hairstyles. By comparing with Minoan hairstyles, discussions of Mycenaean examples lead to conclusions in the relationship between hairstyles and ritual activities in the Mycenaean society.

  5. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  6. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  7. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  8. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  9. Evaluation of a Music Therapy Social Skills Development Program for Youth with Limited Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiali, Varvara; Clark, Cherie

    2018-05-21

    Children living in low-resource communities are at risk for poorer socio-emotional development and academic performance. Emerging evidence supports use of group music therapy experiences to support social development through community afterschool programming. To examine the potential benefit of a music therapy social skills development program to improve social skills and academic performance of school-aged children with limited resources in an afterschool program. We used a single-group pre/post-test design, and recruited 20 students (11 females, 9 males), ages 5 to 11 years, from an afterschool program. The music therapy social skills program consisted of eight 50-minute sessions, and we measured social competence and antisocial behavior using the Home & Community Social Behavioral Scale (HCSBS; Merrell & Caldarella, 2008), and social skills, problem behaviors, and academic competence using the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS; Gresham & Elliot, 2008a, 2008b). Only students who attended a minimum of six sessions (N = 14) were included in data analysis. Results showed no significant change in individual HBSC subscale scores; however, the total number of low-performance/high-risk skills significantly decreased. SSIS teacher results indicated significant improvement in communication, significant decrease of hyperactivity, autistic behavioral tendencies and overall problem behaviors, and marginal decreases in internalization. Parent ratings mirrored, in part, those of the teacher. Results indicated that music therapy has the potential of being an effective intervention for promoting social competence of school-aged children with limited resources, particularly in the areas of communication and low-performance/high-risk behaviors. Teaching skills through song lyrics and improvisation emerged as salient interventions.

  10. The Social Commerce System

    OpenAIRE

    Dubovyk Tetiana V.; Ortynska Valentyna V.

    2017-01-01

    The social commerce is a relatively new phenomenon, found in the little researched direction of trade. Research results by the authors have provided to systematize the views on the concept of «social commerce», characterize the social commerce system, propose measures to develop a social commerce strategy. The authors have defined the social commerce as expansion of e-commerce in the social networks on the Internet, in which social factors are significant, and consumers use the right to creat...

  11. Social influence and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ross A

    2010-10-01

    To review a selection of research published in the last 12 months on the role of social influence in the obesity epidemic. Recent papers add evidence to previous work linking social network structures and obesity. Social norms, both eating norms and body image norms, are identified as one major source of social influence through networks. Social capital and social stress are additional types of social influence. There is increasing evidence that social influence and social network structures are significant factors in obesity. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms of action and dynamics of social influence, and its link with other factors involved in the obesity epidemic, is an important goal for further research.

  12. #Sleepyteens: social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Heather Cleland; Scott, Holly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social media use related to sleep quality, self-esteem, anxiety and depression in 467 Scottish adolescents. We measured overall social media use, nighttime-specific social media use, emotional investment in social media, sleep quality, self-esteem and levels of anxiety and depression. Adolescents who used social media more – both overall and at night – and those who were more emotionally invested in social media experienced poorer sleep quality, lower self-esteem and h...

  13. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  14. Social Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Linda Lundgaard; Hulgård, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The most striking slogans that characterize the ‘new’ discourse of social entrepreneurship have come to Denmark from the international scene, but we can nevertheless trace a significant historical equivalent in Denmark connecting the tradition for social economy to the co-operative movement...... and to decades of welfare modernisation incorporating people’s participation through cultural, political and economic objectives. In this chapter, we first give a brief introduction to social entrepreneurship and position it in relation to social enterprise. We then demonstrate its present relevance in Denmark...... through five current platforms for social entrepreneurship, showing how these are influenced both by international trends and the roots of the Danish experimental tradition. We conclude with a discussion of how social entrepreneurship appeals to fundamentally different strategies for the future of modern...

  15. Response style, interpersonal difficulties and social functioning in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Dominic; Schuck, Nikki; Smith, Neil; Farmer, Anne; Checkley, Stuart

    2003-08-01

    It is postulated that depressed patients who engaged in self-focused rumination on their depressive symptoms may experience more hopelessness, more interpersonal distress and poorer social functioning while patients who distract themselves may experience less severe hopelessness and better social functioning. One-hundred and nine outpatients suffering from DSM-IV (APA, 1994) major depressive disorders filled in questionnaires that mapped into their response style to depression, hopelessness and interpersonal style. They were also interviewed for their levels of social functioning. Rumination was associated with higher levels of depression and distraction was associated with lower levels of depression. Furthermore when levels of depression and gender were controlled for, rumination contributed to higher levels of hopelessness and distraction contributed to lower levels of hopelessness. Both rumination and levels of depression contributed significantly to higher levels of interpersonal distress when gender was controlled for. Ruminators were rated to have significantly more severe problems in intimate relationships while distractors were rated to have significantly higher social functioning. Our study suggests the importance of teaching patients techniques to distract themselves. This could prevent patients from getting into a vicious cycle of self-absorption and increased levels of hopelessness, finding it hard to interact with people in their social network and neglecting their intimate relationships.

  16. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  17. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  18. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  19. Do preterm infants with a birth weight ≤1250 g born to single-parent families have poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 3 than those born to two-parent families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Abhay; Lakhani, Jahan; Ediger, Krystyna; Tang, Selphee; Lodha, Arijit; Gandhi, Vardhil; Creighton, Dianne

    2018-05-08

    Investigate neurodevelopmental outcomes at 3 years corrected age in infants with a birth weight ≤1250 g born to single parents. Infants born between 1995 and 2010 with a birth weight ≤1250 g were considered eligible. Primary outcome was neurodevelopmental impairment; considered present if a child had any of the following: cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, visual impairment, or deafness/neurosensory hearing impairment. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 1900 infants were eligible for inclusion. Follow-up data were available for 1395; 88 were born to a single parent. Infants in the single-parent group had higher mortality (18% vs. 11%, p = 0.009), IQ ≥1 SD below the mean (40% vs. 21%, p = 0.001) and any neurodevelopmental impairment (47% vs. 29%, p = 0.003). Single-parent family status, maternal education, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and severe neurological injury were significant predictors of intellectual impairment at 3 years corrected age. Preterm infants with a birth weight ≤1250 g born to single parents at birth have poorer intellectual functioning at 3 years corrected age.

  20. Social Impact of Facial Infantile Hemangiomas in Preteen Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Victoria A; Haimowitz, Rachel; Cheng, Yao I; Wang, Jichuan; Silverman, Robert A; Bauman, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    %]), and ear (1 [3%]). Eighteen children (60%) had received treatment for their IH. With results reported as mean (SD), the SASC-R test showed that social anxiety of the children was not increased over normative data; however, those who did not receive IH treatment had significantly greater anxiety for new situations compared with those who received treatment (SAD-New: 15.5 [5.1] vs 11.5 [3.8]; P = .02). Results of the SCI scale indicated that the Prosocial Orientation domain score for the children was similar to normative data (3.96 [0.48] vs 3.89 [0.55], P = .50). Social Initiative domain scores were significantly poorer in children who did not receive treatment vs those who received treatment (3.45 [0.43] vs 4.03 [0.55]; P = .006). Preteen children with involuted, untreated facial IHs have higher Social Anxiety domain scores in new situations and decreased Social Initiative domain scores compared with children who receive treatment for facial IH. Although this study is limited by a small sample size, it raises important considerations for whether early treatment of facial IHs in cosmetically sensitive areas has a beneficial effect on social skills in preteens.

  1. Honing in on the Social Difficulties Associated With Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Children: Withdrawal, Peer Ignoring, and Low Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Garner, Annie A; Tamm, Leanne; Antonini, Tanya N; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2017-03-13

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms are associated with social difficulties in children, though findings are mixed and many studies have used global measures of social impairment. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCT would be uniquely associated with aspects of social functioning characterized by withdrawal and isolation, whereas attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms would be uniquely associated with aspects of social functioning characterized by inappropriate responding in social situations and active peer exclusion. Participants were 158 children (70% boys) between 7-12 years of age being evaluated for possible ADHD. Both parents and teachers completed measures of SCT, ADHD, ODD, and internalizing (anxiety/depression) symptoms. Parents also completed ratings of social engagement and self-control. Teachers also completed measures assessing asociality and exclusion, as well as peer ignoring and dislike. In regression analyses controlling for demographic characteristics and other psychopathology symptoms, parent-reported SCT symptoms were significantly associated with lower social engagement (e.g., starting conversations, joining activities). Teacher-reported SCT symptoms were significantly associated with greater asociality/withdrawal and ratings of more frequent ignoring by peers, as well as greater exclusion. ODD symptoms and ADHD hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were more consistently associated with other aspects of social behavior, including peer exclusion, being disliked by peers, and poorer self-control during social situations. Findings provide the clearest evidence to date that the social difficulties associated with SCT are primarily due to withdrawal, isolation, and low initiative in social situations. Social skills training interventions may be effective for children displaying elevated SCT symptomatology.

  2. An experimental manipulation of social comparison in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Negative self-appraisal is thought to maintain social anxiety particularly when comparing oneself to others. Work on social comparison suggests that gender may moderate the effects of social comparison in social anxiety. Self-appraisals of the desirability of one's personality may be more important to women, whereas self-appraisal of signs of anxiety may be more important to men. Within each gender, those with high social anxiety are expected to report more negative self-appraisal when comparing themselves to someone else described as high achieving. This study is the first we are aware of that examined gender-based interactive effects after a social comparison manipulation. Participants read a bogus profile of a fellow student's adjustment to college. They were randomly assigned to read a profile suggesting that the fellow student was "high achieving" or more normative in his/her achievements. When comparing to a "high achieving" individual, men with high social anxiety reported the most negative self-appraisals of their signs of anxiety. In addition, greater social anxiety was associated with a poorer self-appraisal of personality only among men. The implications of the findings for conceptualizing the role of social comparison in social anxiety are discussed.

  3. Social isolation in childhood and adult inflammation: evidence from the National Child Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Rebecca E; Kumari, Meena; Bartley, Mel

    2014-12-01

    Social isolation is known to be associated with poorer health amongst adults, including coronary heart disease. It is hypothesized that this association may be mediated by inflammation. There has been little prospective research on the long-term impact of social isolation in childhood on adult health or the pathways which might be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether social isolation in childhood is associated with increased adult inflammation and the mechanisms involved across the life course. This study used multiply-imputed data on 7462 participants of the National Child Development Study in Great Britain. The association between child social isolation (7-11 yrs) and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in middle age (44 yrs) was examined. We additionally investigated the role of adult social isolation, psychological distress, health behaviors and socioeconomic factors as potential mediators using path analysis and concurrent measurements made across the life course. Socially isolated children had higher levels of C-reactive protein in mid-life (standardized coefficient=0.05, p≤0.001). In addition, children who were socially isolated tended to have lower subsequent educational attainment, be in a less advantaged social class in adulthood, were more likely to be psychologically distressed across adulthood and were more likely to be obese and to smoke. All of these factors partially explained the association between childhood social isolation and CRP. However, this association remained statistically significant after considering all mediators simultaneously. Social isolation in childhood is associated with higher levels of C-reactive protein in mid-life. This is explained in part through complex mechanisms acting across the life course. Identification and interventions targeted toward socially isolated children may help reduce long-term adult health risk. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Lower blood pressure and apathy coincide in older persons with poorer functional ability: the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly People (DANTE) Study Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonen, Justine E F; Bertens, Anne Suzanne; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; Smit, Roelof A J; van der Grond, Jeroen; de Craen, Anton J M; de Ruijter, Wouter; van der Mast, Roos C

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between blood pressure (BP) measures and symptoms of apathy and depression in older adults with various levels of functional ability. Cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly people (DANTE) Study Leiden. Primary care setting, the Netherlands. Community-dwelling individuals aged 75 and older (N = 430). Systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured during home visits. Symptoms of apathy and depression were assessed using the Apathy Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), respectively. Stratified linear regression was performed in participants with better and worse functional ability according to the median of the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. In participants with lower functional ability, each 10-mmHg lower SBP, DBP, and MAP was associated with higher Apathy Scale scores (0.63, 0.92, and 0.94 points, respectively, all P < .005) but not with GDS-15 scores. In participants with higher functional ability, BP measures were not associated with Apathy Scale or GDS-15 scores. In older participants with poorer functional ability, lower BP was associated with more symptoms of apathy but not depression. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Poorer detection rates of severe fetal growth restriction in women of likely refugee background: A case for re-focusing pregnancy care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Mary Anne; East, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Severe fetal growth restriction (FGR) (Women of refugee background have been found to have poorer perinatal outcomes compared to others and these outcomes can in part be explained by previous history. However, less access to and engagement with pregnancy care may also be contributing factors. This study examined the impact of likely refugee background on severe FGR in a singleton pregnancy undelivered by 40 weeks. A retrospective study was undertaken utilising data on women who gave birth to a severely growth-restricted infant at Monash Health during January 2013-July 2015. Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were undertaken to examine the association between the mother being of likely refugee background and severe FGR in singletons delivered after 40 weeks. There was an association between the mother being of likely refugee background and giving birth to a severely growth-restricted baby after 40 weeks with these mothers at two and half times the odds compared to mothers of non-refugee background (adjusted odds ratio 2.52; 95% confidence interval: 1.44-4.42). While detecting FGR is clinically challenging, our findings suggest that maternity services need to be supported to offer care tailored to the specific needs of vulnerable and disadvantaged populations. Providing quality, culturally responsive and accessible care is fundamental to addressing refugee maternal and perinatal health inequalities. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. What is the empirical evidence that hospitals with higher-risk adjusted mortality rates provide poorer quality care? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mohammed A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing interest and publication of risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates, the relationship with underlying quality of care remains unclear. We undertook a systematic review to ascertain the extent to which variations in risk-adjusted mortality rates were associated with differences in quality of care. Methods We identified studies in which risk-adjusted mortality and quality of care had been reported in more than one hospital. We adopted an iterative search strategy using three databases – Medline, HealthSTAR and CINAHL from 1966, 1975 and 1982 respectively. We identified potentially relevant studies on the basis of the title or abstract. We obtained these papers and included those which met our inclusion criteria. Results From an initial yield of 6,456 papers, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several of these studies considered more than one process-versus-risk-adjusted mortality relationship. In total we found 51 such relationships in a widen range of clinical conditions using a variety of methods. A positive correlation between better quality of care and risk-adjusted mortality was found in under half the relationships (26/51 51% but the remainder showed no correlation (16/51 31% or a paradoxical correlation (9/51 18%. Conclusion The general notion that hospitals with higher risk-adjusted mortality have poorer quality of care is neither consistent nor reliable.

  7. Delinquency in incarcerated male adolescents is associated with single parenthood, exposure to more violence at home and in the community, and poorer self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdelja, Stanislava; Vokal, Petra; Bolfan, Marija; Erdelja, Sergej Augustin; Begovac, Branka; Begovac, Ivan

    2013-10-28

    To assess the relationships between delinquency and demographic and family variables, academic performance, war stressors, home/community, school, and media violence exposure, self-image, and psychopathology. This cross-sectional study included 100 delinquent, incarcerated male adolescents and 100 matched schoolchildren from Croatia. It lasted from January 2008 to June 2009, and used socio-demographic questionnaire, questionnaire on children's stressful and traumatic war experiences, exposure to violence scale, the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Youth Self-Report Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis showed that delinquency in incarcerated adolescents was more likely related to having parents who did not live together (odds ratio [OR] 2.40; confidence interval [CI] 1.18-4.90, P=0.015), being more exposed to violence at home/community (OR 3.84; CI 1.58-9.34, P=0.003), and having poorer self-image (OR 1.09; CI=1.03-1.16, P>0.002). Preventive and therapeutic interventions in incarcerated delinquents should be specifically targeted toward single parenthood, family factors, trauma oriented interventions, and focused on multiple dimensions of self-concept of adolescents.

  8. Computer-analyzed facial expression as a surrogate marker for autism spectrum social core symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiho Owada

    Full Text Available To develop novel interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD core symptoms, valid, reliable, and sensitive longitudinal outcome measures are required for detecting symptom change over time. Here, we tested whether a computerized analysis of quantitative facial expression measures could act as a marker for core ASD social symptoms. Facial expression intensity values during a semi-structured socially interactive situation extracted from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS were quantified by dedicated software in 18 high-functioning adult males with ASD. Controls were 17 age-, gender-, parental socioeconomic background-, and intellectual level-matched typically developing (TD individuals. Statistical analyses determined whether values representing the strength and variability of each facial expression element differed significantly between the ASD and TD groups and whether they correlated with ADOS reciprocal social interaction scores. Compared with the TD controls, facial expressions in the ASD group appeared more "Neutral" (d = 1.02, P = 0.005, PFDR 0.05 with lower variability in Happy expression (d = 1.10, P = 0.003, PFDR < 0.05. Moreover, the stronger Neutral facial expressions in the ASD participants were positively correlated with poorer ADOS reciprocal social interaction scores (ρ = 0.48, P = 0.042. These findings indicate that our method for quantitatively measuring reduced facial expressivity during social interactions can be a promising marker for core ASD social symptoms.

  9. Computer-analyzed facial expression as a surrogate marker for autism spectrum social core symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owada, Keiho; Kojima, Masaki; Yassin, Walid; Kuroda, Miho; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kano, Yukiko; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2018-01-01

    To develop novel interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) core symptoms, valid, reliable, and sensitive longitudinal outcome measures are required for detecting symptom change over time. Here, we tested whether a computerized analysis of quantitative facial expression measures could act as a marker for core ASD social symptoms. Facial expression intensity values during a semi-structured socially interactive situation extracted from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) were quantified by dedicated software in 18 high-functioning adult males with ASD. Controls were 17 age-, gender-, parental socioeconomic background-, and intellectual level-matched typically developing (TD) individuals. Statistical analyses determined whether values representing the strength and variability of each facial expression element differed significantly between the ASD and TD groups and whether they correlated with ADOS reciprocal social interaction scores. Compared with the TD controls, facial expressions in the ASD group appeared more "Neutral" (d = 1.02, P = 0.005, PFDR Neutral expression (d = 1.08, P = 0.003, PFDR 0.05) with lower variability in Happy expression (d = 1.10, P = 0.003, PFDR Neutral facial expressions in the ASD participants were positively correlated with poorer ADOS reciprocal social interaction scores (ρ = 0.48, P = 0.042). These findings indicate that our method for quantitatively measuring reduced facial expressivity during social interactions can be a promising marker for core ASD social symptoms.

  10. [Depression of married and employed women based on social-role theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Insook; Ahn, Sukhee; Kim, Souk Young; Park, Young Sook; Kim, Hae Won; Lee, Sun Ok; Lee, Sook Hee; Chung, Chae Weon

    2012-08-01

    This study was based on social-role theory, and purposes were to investigate (1) how depression and health determinants vary with married and employed women, and (2) what factors contribute to depression according to family cycle. A stratified convenience sample of 765 married and employed women was recruited during May to August 2010. Study variables of depression, socio-demographic threatening factors, psycho-stimulating factors, and social-role related factors were measured via a structured questionnaire. Prevalence rate for depression was 18.6%, with highest rate (25.4%) from elementary laborers. Greater levels of depression were related to women's occupation, higher life stress, and poorer health; lower social support and vulnerable personality; higher levels of social-role related stress. From multivariate analysis, women with preadolescents were the most vulnerable to depression affected by occupation, life stress, personality, and parenting stress. These factors (except for occupational class) combined with economic status, social support, and housework unfairness were significant for depression in women with adolescents. Depression among married and employed women differs by psycho-stimulating and social role relevant factors in addition to occupational class and family life cycle. Female elementary laborers and women with children need to have the highest prioritization for community mental health programs.

  11. Physical neighborhood and social environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin; Jung, Sunyoung; Latkin, Carl; Kershaw, Trace; Redeker, Nancy S

    2018-06-01

    African Americans (AAs) have a higher prevalence of sleep disorders than other racial/ethnic groups. However, little is known about the relationships among individual and neighborhood factors related to sleep quality in AAs. The purposes of this study were to (1) describe beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality among AAs; and (2) examine the relationships among sociodemographic characteristics, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 252 AA men and women in the Greater New Haven, CT, USA community. We assessed their sociodemographic characteristics, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene, and sleep quality with the following measures, respectively: the Neighborhood Environment Scale, the brief version of Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep, the Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We performed descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple hierarchical regression. About 72% of the participants (mean age: 53.88 ± 14.17 years, 77.8% women) reported experiencing sleep disturbance. People with poor sleep quality were more likely to report poorer neighborhood social environment (social cohesion), poorer overall neighborhood environment, more dysfunctional beliefs toward sleep, and poorer sleep hygiene than those who had good sleep quality. In the final multivariate model that controlled for a number of chronic comorbid conditions, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, and sleep hygiene behaviors were significantly associated with sleep quality. Future efforts are needed to improve sleep among AAs by considering both the individual's belief about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors and neighborhood factors. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Social functioning in Chinese college students with and without schizotypal personality traits: an exploratory study of the Chinese version of the First Episode Social Functioning Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The First Episode Social Functioning Scale (FESFS was designed to measure social functioning of young individuals with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to validate a Chinese version of the FESFS in a sample of young Chinese adults. METHOD: The FESFS was translated to Chinese prior to being administered to 1576 college students. The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the scale were examined. RESULTS: Two items were deleted after item analysis and the internal consistency of the whole scale was .89. A six-factor structure was derived by exploratory factor analysis. The factors were interpersonal, family and friends, school, living skills, intimacy, and balance. Estimates of the structural equation model supported this structure, with Goodness of Fit Chi-Square χ(2 = 1097.53 (p<0.0001, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = 0.058, and the comparative fit index (CFI = 0.93. Scale validity was supported by significant correlations between social functioning factors scores and schizophrenia personality questionnaire (SPQ scores. Individuals with schizotypal personality features presented poorer social functioning than those without schizotypal personality features. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese revised version of the FESFS was found to have good psychometric properties and could be used in the future to examine social functioning in Chinese college students.

  13. Social support following diagnosis and treatment for colorectal cancer and associations with health-related quality of life: Results from the UK ColoREctal Wellbeing (CREW) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Joanne; Sodergren, Samantha; Calman, Lynn; Corner, Jessica; Din, Amy; Fenlon, Deborah; Grimmett, Chloe; Richardson, Alison; Smith, Peter W; Winter, Jane; Foster, Claire

    2017-12-01

    Social support is acknowledged as important in cancer survivorship, but little is known about change in support after cancer diagnosis and factors associated with this, particularly in colorectal cancer. The CREW cohort study investigated social support up to 2 years following curative intent surgery for colorectal cancer. A total of 871 adults recruited pre-treatment from 29 UK centres 2010 to 2012 consented to follow-up. Questionnaires at baseline, 3, 9, 15, and 24 months post-surgery included assessments of social support (Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Survey, MOS-SSS) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Socio-demographic, clinical and treatment details were collected. Longitudinal analyses assessed social support over follow-up, associations with participant characteristics, and HRQoL. Around 20% were living alone and 30% without a partner. Perceived social support declined in around 29% of participants, with 8% of these reporting very low levels overall from baseline to 2 years (mean MOS-SSS overall score support. Poorer HRQoL outcomes (generic health/QoL, reduced wellbeing, anxiety, and depression) were significantly associated with lower levels of social support. Levels of social support decline following colorectal cancer diagnosis and treatment in nearly a third of patients and are an important risk factor for recovery of HRQoL. Assessment of support early on and throughout follow-up would enable targeted interventions to improve recovery, particularly in the more vulnerable patient groups at risk of poorer social support. © 2017 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Psychological distress and quality of life in lung cancer: the role of health-related stigma, illness appraisals and social constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Baade, Peter; Youl, Philippa; Aitken, Joanne; Occhipinti, Stefano; Vinod, Shalini; Valery, Patricia C; Garvey, Gail; Fong, Kwun M; Ball, David; Zorbas, Helen; Dunn, Jeff; O'Connell, Dianne L

    2015-11-01

    Health-related stigma is associated with negative psychological and quality of life outcomes in lung cancer patients. This study describes the impact of stigma on lung cancer patients' psychological distress and quality of life and explores the role of social constraints and illness appraisal as mediators of effect. A self-administered cross-sectional survey examined psychological distress and quality of life in 151 people (59% response rate) diagnosed with lung cancer from Queensland and New South Wales. Health-related stigma, social constraints and illness appraisals were assessed as predictors of adjustment outcomes. Forty-nine percent of patients reported elevated anxiety; 41% were depressed; and 51% had high global distress. Health-related stigma was significantly related to global psychological distress and quality of life with greater stigma and shame related to poorer outcomes. These effects were mediated by illness appraisals and social constraints. Health-related stigma appears to contribute to poorer adjustment by constraining interpersonal discussions about cancer and heightening feelings of threat. There is a need for the development and evaluation of interventions to ameliorate the negative effects of health-related stigma among lung cancer patients. © 2015 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Psychological distress and quality of life in lung cancer: the role of health‐related stigma, illness appraisals and social constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baade, Peter; Youl, Philippa; Aitken, Joanne; Occhipinti, Stefano; Vinod, Shalini; Valery, Patricia C.; Garvey, Gail; Fong, Kwun M.; Ball, David; Zorbas, Helen; Dunn, Jeff; O'Connell, Dianne L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective Health‐related stigma is associated with negative psychological and quality of life outcomes in lung cancer patients. This study describes the impact of stigma on lung cancer patients' psychological distress and quality of life and explores the role of social constraints and illness appraisal as mediators of effect. Methods A self‐administered cross‐sectional survey examined psychological distress and quality of life in 151 people (59% response rate) diagnosed with lung cancer from Queensland and New South Wales. Health‐related stigma, social constraints and illness appraisals were assessed as predictors of adjustment outcomes. Results Forty‐nine percent of patients reported elevated anxiety; 41% were depressed; and 51% had high global distress. Health‐related stigma was significantly related to global psychological distress and quality of life with greater stigma and shame related to poorer outcomes. These effects were mediated by illness appraisals and social constraints. Conclusions Health‐related stigma appears to contribute to poorer adjustment by constraining interpersonal discussions about cancer and heightening feelings of threat. There is a need for the development and evaluation of interventions to ameliorate the negative effects of health‐related stigma among lung cancer patients. © 2015 The Authors. Psycho‐Oncology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25920906

  16. Younger people with Type 2 diabetes have poorer self-care practices compared with older people: results from the Australian National Diabetes Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, N; Pease, A J; Ranasinha, S; Wischer, N; Andrikopoulos, S; de Courten, B; Zoungas, S

    2018-05-05

    This cross-sectional study compares the self-care practices of younger and older people with Type 2 diabetes. Data were analysed from the Australian National Diabetes Audit (ANDA) including 2552 adults with Type 2 diabetes from Australian Diabetes Centres. Pre-specified demographic and clinical variables were obtained. Self-care variables (physical activity, following dietary recommendations, medication adherence and monitoring blood glucose levels) were compared in people ≤ 64 and > 64 years of age. Mean age (± sd) of participants was 63 ± 13 years overall, 53 ± 9 years for the younger group and 73 ± 6 years for the older group. A greater proportion of younger people had HbA 1c levels > 53 mmol/mol (> 7.0%) (76% vs. 68%), reported difficulty following dietary recommendations (50% vs. 32%) and forgetting medications (37% vs. 22%) compared with older people (all P-values  64 years required insulin therapy (59% vs. 57%, P = 0.200). Younger age was associated with a twofold increase in the odds of not following the recommended self-care practices after adjustment for gender, smoking, insulin therapy, depression and allied health attendance (all P < 0.001). Despite shorter diabetes duration, younger age was associated with worse glycaemic control and poorer diabetes self-care practices among people with Type 2 diabetes. Targeted strategies are required to optimize diabetes self-care practices and thereby glycaemic control. © 2018 Diabetes UK.

  17. Exploring the influence of gender-role socialization and objectified body consciousness on body image disturbance in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquiren, Virginia M; Esplen, Mary Jane; Wong, Jiahui; Toner, Brenda; Warner, Ellen

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationships between gender-role socialization, objectified body consciousness and quality of life in breast cancer (BC) survivors with body image (BI) disturbance post-treatment. A total of 150 BC survivors participating in an ongoing randomized clinical trial of a group psychotherapy intervention for BI-related concerns completed a baseline battery of standardized measures including the following: Body Image Scale (BIS), Body Image after Breast Cancer Questionnaire (BIBCQ), Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS) measuring Body Shame and Surveillance, Gender-Role Socialization Scale (GRSS) measuring internalization of traditional gender roles and attitudes and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Quality-of-Life Instrument (FACT-B). Correlational analyses were conducted between the two BI questionnaires, the two primary psychosocial variables GRSS and OBCS, and FACT-B. Path analysis was conducted on a proposed theoretical model delineating pathways between the two primary psychosocial variables and BI disturbance. Significant positive correlations were found between the two BI scales and (a) GRSS (average r = 0.53, p traditional gender roles and attitudes, who engaged in greater self-surveillance and experienced greater body shame, reported greater BI disturbance and poorer quality of life post-treatment. Women with these predispositions are likely to be more vulnerable for psychological distress and may experience poorer adjustment after BC treatment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Characteristics of Social Network Gamers: Results of an Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisel, Olga; Panneck, Patricia; Stickel, Anna; Schneider, Michael; Müller, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    Current research on Internet addiction (IA) reported moderate to high prevalence rates of IA and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in users of social networking sites (SNS) and online role-playing games. The aim of this study was to characterize adult users of an Internet multiplayer strategy game within a SNS. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study using an online survey to assess sociodemographic variables, psychopathology, and the rate of IA in a sample of adult social network gamers by Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), and the WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). All participants were listed gamers of "Combat Zone" in the SNS "Facebook." In this sample, 16.2% of the participants were categorized as subjects with IA and 19.5% fulfilled the criteria for alexithymia. Comparing study participants with and without IA, the IA group had significantly more subjects with alexithymia, reported more depressive symptoms, and showed poorer quality of life. These findings suggest that social network gaming might also be associated with maladaptive patterns of Internet use. Furthermore, a relationship between IA, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms was found that needs to be elucidated by future studies.

  19. Comorbidities, Social Impact, and Quality of Life in Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Cavanna, Andrea E; Robertson, Mary M

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is more than having motor and vocal tics, and this review will examine the varied comorbidities as well as the social impact and quality of life (QoL) in individuals with TS. The relationship between any individual and his/her environment is complex, and this is further exaggerated in the case of a person with TS. For example, tics may play a significant role in shaping the person's experiences, perceptions, and interactions with the environment. Furthermore, associated clinical features, comorbidities, and coexisting psychopathologies may compound or alter this relationship. In this regard, the common comorbidities include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behaviors, obsessive compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorder, and coexistent problems include anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem, which can all lead to poorer psychosocial functioning and QoL. Thus, the symptoms of TS and the associated comorbid conditions may interact to result in a vicious cycle or a downward spiraling of negative experiences and poor QoL. The stigma and social maladjustment in TS and the social exclusion, bullying, and discrimination are considered to be caused in large part by misperceptions of the disorder by teachers, peers, and the wider community. Improved community and professional awareness about TS and related comorbidities and other psychopathologies as well as the provision of multidisciplinary services to meet the complex needs of this clinical population are critical. Future research to inform the risk and resilience factors for successful long-term outcomes is also warranted.

  20. Musical meaning and social significance : techno triggers for dancing

    OpenAIRE

    Gadir, Tami Ester

    2014-01-01

    Electronically-produced dance music has only recently achieved as much visibility in the global pop music industry as ‘live’ or instrumental pop. Yet the fascination of cultural scholars and sociologists with dance music predates its rise as a product of mass culture. Much of this interest derives from early associations of dance music with marginalised groups and oppositional ideologies. It therefore follows that many explorations of dance music focus on the ways in which tech...

  1. Social determinants of self-reported health in women and men: understanding the role of gender in population health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor

    Full Text Available Women and men share similar health challenges yet women report poorer health. The study investigates the social determinants of self-reported health in women and men, and male-female differences in health.Data on 103154 men and 125728 women were analysed from 57 countries in the World Health Survey 2002-2004. Item Response Theory was used to construct a composite measure of health. Associations between health and determinants were assessed using multivariate linear regression. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition partitioned the inequality in health between women and men into an "explained" component that arises because men and women differ in social and economic characteristics, and an "unexplained" component due to the differential effects of these characteristics. Decomposition was repeated for 18 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO African region and 19 countries in the WHO European region.Women's health was significantly lower than men's. Health was associated with education, household economic status, employment, and marital status after controlling for age. In the pooled analysis decomposition showed that 30% of the inequality was "explained", of which almost 75% came from employment, education, marital status. The differential effects of being in paid employment increased the inequality. When countries in Africa and Europe were compared, the "explained" component (31% and 39% respectively was largely attributed to the social determinants in the African countries and to women's longevity in the European countries. Being in paid employment had a greater positive effect on the health of males in both regions.Ways in which age and the social determinants contribute to the poorer health status of women compared with men varies between groups of countries. This study highlights the need for action to address social structures, institutional discrimination and harmful gender norms and roles that differently influence health with ageing.

  2. Subthreshold social cognitive deficits may be a key to distinguish 22q11.2DS from schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyroux, Elodie; Rigard, Caroline; Saucourt, Guillaume; Poisson, Alice; Plasse, Julien; Franck, Nicolas; Demily, Caroline

    2018-03-25

    Social cognitive impairments are core features in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Indeed, adults with 22q.11.2 DS often have poorer social competence as well as poorer performance on measures of social cognitive skills (emotion recognition and theory of mind, ToM) compared with typically developing people. However, studies comparing specific social cognitive components in 22q11.2DS and SCZ have not yet been widely conducted. In this study we compared performances of 22q11.2DS and SCZ on both facial emotion recognition and ToM. Patients with 22q11.2DS (n = 18) and matched SCZ patients were recruited. After neuropsychological testing, the facial emotion recognition test assessed the patients' ability to recognize six basic, universal emotions (joy, anger, sadness, fear, disgust, and contempt). The Versailles-situational intentional reading evaluated ToM with six scenes from movies showing characters in complex interactions (involving hints, lies, and indirect speech). We show that 22q11.2DS exhibited significantly lower performance in emotion recognition than SCZ patients did, especially for disgust, contempt, and fear. This impairment seems to be a core cognitive phenotype in 22q11.2DS, regardless of the presence of SCZ symptoms. Concerning ToM, our results may highlight the same impairment level in 22q11.2DS and SCZ but require to be replicated in a larger cohort. Our results document the existence of threshold social cognitive deficits distinguishing 22q11.2DS from SCZ. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Social determinants of self-reported health in women and men: understanding the role of gender in population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Amin, Avni; Araujo de Carvalho, Islene; Beard, John; Boerma, Ties; Kowal, Paul; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath

    2012-01-01

    Women and men share similar health challenges yet women report poorer health. The study investigates the social determinants of self-reported health in women and men, and male-female differences in health. Data on 103154 men and 125728 women were analysed from 57 countries in the World Health Survey 2002-2004. Item Response Theory was used to construct a composite measure of health. Associations between health and determinants were assessed using multivariate linear regression. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition partitioned the inequality in health between women and men into an "explained" component that arises because men and women differ in social and economic characteristics, and an "unexplained" component due to the differential effects of these characteristics. Decomposition was repeated for 18 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region and 19 countries in the WHO European region. Women's health was significantly lower than men's. Health was associated with education, household economic status, employment, and marital status after controlling for age. In the pooled analysis decomposition showed that 30% of the inequality was "explained", of which almost 75% came from employment, education, marital status. The differential effects of being in paid employment increased the inequality. When countries in Africa and Europe were compared, the "explained" component (31% and 39% respectively) was largely attributed to the social determinants in the African countries and to women's longevity in the European countries. Being in paid employment had a greater positive effect on the health of males in both regions. Ways in which age and the social determinants contribute to the poorer health status of women compared with men varies between groups of countries. This study highlights the need for action to address social structures, institutional discrimination and harmful gender norms and roles that differently influence health with ageing.

  4. Association of ADHD symptoms and social competence with cognitive status in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rosa; Freire, Carmen; Julvez, Jordi; Fernández, Mariana F; García-Esteban, Raquel; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and social competence outcomes with cognitive status in preschool children. The study population was drawn from three birth cohorts belonging to the Spanish INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) project: Menorca (n = 289), Ribera d'Ebre (n = 60), and Granada (n = 108). Children were assessed at the age of 4 years for cognitive functions (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, MSCA) by psychologists and for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ADHD-DSM-IV) and social competence (California Preschool Social Competence Scale) by their teachers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine potential associations between behavioral outcomes (ADHD symptoms and social competence) and MSCA cognitive outcomes, adjusting for confounders. The presence of general ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, or both) and poorer social competence both showed negative associations with cognitive outcomes. When we compared children according to ADHD subtypes, those with inattention symptoms alone and those with both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms showed significantly lower cognitive function scores in comparison to children with no ADHD symptoms. Behavioral dysfunctions in preschoolers may be associated with impairment of cognitive functions.

  5. Increase in the Inflammatory Marker GlycA over 13 Years in Young Adults Is Associated with Poorer Cognitive Function in Midlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Cohen-Manheim

    global cognition (standardized β = -.109, p = .011 as well as to the information processing speed and memory domains (standardized β = -.124, p = .008 and-.117, p = .014, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for low ranked global cognitive function (lowest fifth comparing the extreme quintiles of GlycA change was 4.8 (95%CI, 1.7-13.5, p = .003; p for trend = .031.In this longitudinal study of a novel systemic inflammatory marker in a population-based cohort of young adults, GlycA increase over 13 years, but not baseline measures of inflammation, was associated with poorer cognitive function in midlife.

  6. Social media use in the United States: implications for health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-ying Sylvia; Hunt, Yvonne M; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W

    2009-11-27

    Given the rapid changes in the communication landscape brought about by participative Internet use and social media, it is important to develop a better understanding of these technologies and their impact on health communication. The first step in this effort is to identify the characteristics of current social media users. Up-to-date reporting of current social media use will help monitor the growth of social media and inform health promotion/communication efforts aiming to effectively utilize social media. The purpose of the study is to identify the sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with current adult social media users in the United States. Data came from the 2007 iteration of the Health Information National Trends Study (HINTS, N = 7674). HINTS is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey on health-related communication trends and practices. Survey respondents who reported having accessed the Internet (N = 5078) were asked whether, over the past year, they had (1) participated in an online support group, (2) written in a blog, (3) visited a social networking site. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of each type of social media use. Approximately 69% of US adults reported having access to the Internet in 2007. Among Internet users, 5% participated in an online support group, 7% reported blogging, and 23% used a social networking site. Multivariate analysis found that younger age was the only significant predictor of blogging and social networking site participation; a statistically significant linear relationship was observed, with younger categories reporting more frequent use. Younger age, poorer subjective health, and a personal cancer experience predicted support group participation. In general, social media are penetrating the US population independent of education, race/ethnicity, or health care access. Recent growth of social media is not uniformly distributed across

  7. Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Social Phobia KidsHealth / For Teens / Social Phobia What's in ... an anxiety condition called social phobia. What Is Social Phobia? Social phobia (also called social anxiety ) is ...

  8. Individualism and sociocultural adaptation: Discrimination and social capital as moderators among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the associations of sociocultural adaptation with individualism and collectivism and the moderating roles of discrimination and social capital in the associations among rural-to-urban migrants ( N = 641) in Beijing, China. Results indicated that individualism was associated with poorer adaptation for migrants reporting low perceived discrimination or low social capital. However, migrants reporting high perceived discrimination showed poorer adaptation, regardless of individualism; and migrants reporting high social capital showed better adaptation, regardless of individualism. Collectivism was not related to adaptation. Findings suggest that individualism may be detrimental to migrants' adjustment to a collectivistic society.

  9. Social and attention-to-detail subclusters of autistic traits differentially predict looking at eyes and face identity recognition ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joshua; McKone, Elinor; Zirnsak, Marc; Moore, Tirin; O'Kearney, Richard; Apthorp, Deborah; Palermo, Romina

    2017-02-01

    This study distinguished between different subclusters of autistic traits in the general population and examined the relationships between these subclusters, looking at the eyes of faces, and the ability to recognize facial identity. Using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) measure in a university-recruited sample, we separate the social aspects of autistic traits (i.e., those related to communication and social interaction; AQ-Social) from the non-social aspects, particularly attention-to-detail (AQ-Attention). We provide the first evidence that these social and non-social aspects are associated differentially with looking at eyes: While AQ-Social showed the commonly assumed tendency towards reduced looking at eyes, AQ-Attention was associated with increased looking at eyes. We also report that higher attention-to-detail (AQ-Attention) was then indirectly related to improved face recognition, mediated by increased number of fixations to the eyes during face learning. Higher levels of socially relevant autistic traits (AQ-Social) trended in the opposite direction towards being related to poorer face recognition (significantly so in females on the Cambridge Face Memory Test). There was no evidence of any mediated relationship between AQ-Social and face recognition via reduced looking at the eyes. These different effects of AQ-Attention and AQ-Social suggest face-processing studies in Autism Spectrum Disorder might similarly benefit from considering symptom subclusters. Additionally, concerning mechanisms of face recognition, our results support the view that more looking at eyes predicts better face memory. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Social supports and prevention strategies as adjuncts and alternatives to sedation and anesthesia for people with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Paul; Miller, Christine

    2009-01-01

    People with special needs are assuming a more prominent place in our society. The number of people living in communities with medical, physical, and psychological conditions is increasing dramatically. In spite of the advances that people with special needs have made in recognition of their right to live in society and access services open to other people, their oral health is still significantly poorer than that of other groups. There are a number of modalities that can complement or replace pharmacological interventions and allow individuals to have dental treatment in a dental office or clinic. These include behavioral or psychological interventions and social support and prevention strategies. Social supports include care management and integration of oral health services with general health and social service systems. Preventive programs using modern "medical model" oral health prevention strategies also have the potential to reduce the burden of disease among people with special needs and therefore reduce the need for dental procedures. A social support system using community-based Dental Hygienists acting as Dental Coordinators, is described along with outcomes demonstrating improved oral health for people with special needs living in community residential care facilities. Combined social support systems and community prevention strategies have the potential to reduce the need for pharmacological interventions in order to maintain oral health in populations of people with special needs. Social supports and modern preventive strategies must be included in the range of options available in communities in order to improve and maintain oral health for people with special needs.

  11. Social Support May Buffer the Effect of Intrafamilial Stressors on Preschool Children's Television Viewing Time in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Excessive television (TV) viewing in preschool children has been linked to negative outcomes during childhood, including childhood obesity. In a sample of low-income families, this study examined associations between intrafamilial factors and preschool children's TV-viewing time and the moderating effect of social support from nonfamily members on this association. Methods: In 2010, 129 mothers/female guardians of 2- to 5-year-old children enrolled at five Head Start centers in Rensselaer County, New York, completed a self-report survey. The survey assessed child TV-viewing time (including TV, DVDs, and videos) and intrafamilial risk factors, including maternal perceived stress, depressive symptoms, TV viewing, leisure-time physical activity (inactivity), and family functioning. Social support from nonfamily members (nonfamily social support) was also measured and examined as an effect modifier. Results: Children watched TV an average of 160 minutes per day. Moderate depressive symptoms (Personal Health Questionnaire depression scale scores ≥10), higher perceived stress, poorer family functioning, and higher maternal TV-viewing were significantly and independently associated with greater minutes of child TV viewing, controlling for covariates. In all instances, nonfamily social support moderated these associations, such that negative experiences within the family environment were linked with higher child TV-viewing time under conditions of low nonfamily social support, but not high nonfamily support. Conclusions: Social support from nonfamily members may buffer potentially negative effects of intrafamilial factors on preschool children's TV-viewing time. PMID:24168754

  12. Social support may buffer the effect of intrafamilial stressors on preschool children's television viewing time in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-12-01

    Excessive television (TV) viewing in preschool children has been linked to negative outcomes during childhood, including childhood obesity. In a sample of low-income families, this study examined associations between intrafamilial factors and preschool children's TV-viewing time and the moderating effect of social support from nonfamily members on this association. In 2010, 129 mothers/female guardians of 2- to 5-year-old children enrolled at five Head Start centers in Rensselaer County, New York, completed a self-report survey. The survey assessed child TV-viewing time (including TV, DVDs, and videos) and intrafamilial risk factors, including maternal perceived stress, depressive symptoms, TV viewing, leisure-time physical activity (inactivity), and family functioning. Social support from nonfamily members (nonfamily social support) was also measured and examined as an effect modifier. Children watched TV an average of 160 minutes per day. Moderate depressive symptoms (Personal Health Questionnaire depression scale scores ≥10), higher perceived stress, poorer family functioning, and higher maternal TV-viewing were significantly and independently associated with greater minutes of child TV viewing, controlling for covariates. In all instances, nonfamily social support moderated these associations, such that negative experiences within the family environment were linked with higher child TV-viewing time under conditions of low nonfamily social support, but not high nonfamily support. Social support from nonfamily members may buffer potentially negative effects of intrafamilial factors on preschool children's TV-viewing time.

  13. Exposure of children with developmental delay to social determinants of poor health: cross-sectional case record review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, E; Brigham, P

    2015-03-01

    Research on child development in general has highlighted the importance that the family environment plays in mediating the pathway between exposure to low socio-economic position (SEP) and child well-being. While child developmental models in intellectual disability have highlighted the interplay between social context, family environment and child development, little empirical work has attempted to formally evaluate the evidence in support of specific mediating pathways between low SEP and child outcomes. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional confidentialized needs analysis data collected in three Primary Care Trusts in England covering a total population of 1.25 million people. Case record reviews were undertaken for 46 023 households, 2236 (4.9%) of which contained a child in the target age range with developmental delay. Children with developmental delay, when compared with their non-disabled peers, were at significantly increased risk of poorer health outcomes and of being exposed to a wide range of social determinants of poor health. Controlling for between-group differences in exposure to social determinants of poor health reduced the risk of developmental delay being associated with poorer health outcomes by 45% for behaviour problems and 89% for risk of significant harm. For children with developmental delay, parenting difficulties appears to play a particularly significant role in partially mediating the effects of low SEP. The findings of the present study point to the potential effectiveness of family-focused early intervention to prevent the emergence and escalation of behavioural difficulties and health problems in children with developmental delay. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Is Related to Reduced Risk in Heavy Drinking College Students with Poorer Mental and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…

  15. Theory of Mind, Emotion Recognition and Social Perception in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: findings from the NAPLS-2 cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Mariapaola; Liu, Lu; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Mathalon, Daniel H; Heinssen, Robert; Addington, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Social cognition, the mental operations that underlie social interactions, is a major construct to investigate in schizophrenia. Impairments in social cognition are present before the onset of psychosis, and even in unaffected first-degree relatives, suggesting that social cognition may be a trait marker of the illness. In a large cohort of individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) and healthy controls, three domains of social cognition (theory of mind, facial emotion recognition and social perception) were assessed to clarify which domains are impaired in this population. Six-hundred and seventy-five CHR individuals and 264 controls, who were part of the multi-site North American Prodromal Longitudinal Study, completed The Awareness of Social Inference Test , the Penn Emotion Recognition task , the Penn Emotion Differentiation task , and the Relationship Across Domains , measures of theory of mind, facial emotion recognition, and social perception, respectively. Social cognition was not related to positive and negative symptom severity, but was associated with age and IQ. CHR individuals demonstrated poorer performance on all measures of social cognition. However, after controlling for age and IQ, the group differences remained significant for measures of theory of mind and social perception, but not for facial emotion recognition. Theory of mind and social perception are impaired in individuals at CHR for psychosis. Age and IQ seem to play an important role in the arising of deficits in facial affect recognition. Future studies should examine the stability of social cognition deficits over time and their role, if any, in the development of psychosis.

  16. SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    substance abuse, and the disorder impacts significantly on social and ... characteristic fear of social and performance situations where exposure to unfamiliar ... concomitant therapy from psychoactive medications other than chloral hydrate; if ...

  17. Social Support and Maternal Depression from Pregnancy to Postpartum: The Association with Positive Maternal Behaviours among Brazilian Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; Koller, Sílvia H.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent motherhood is a risky situation related to poorer quality of infant caregiving. The lack of social support and increased odds for maternal depression are the main concerns. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal-foetal attachment, social support and maternal depression measured during pregnancy and after birth were associated…

  18. Are Generalized Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Associated with Social Competence in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Krista Haley Smith; Iarocci, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Generalized anxiety and depression symptoms may be associated with poorer social outcomes among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability. The goal of this study was to examine whether generalized anxiety and depression symptoms were associated with social competence after accounting for IQ, age, and gender in…

  19. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting.......08-1.41). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.......Aims: Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons...

  20. What happens at work stays at work? Workplace supervisory social interactions and blood pressure outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer H K; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between workplace supervisory social interactions and blood pressure outcomes using hourly diary entries and ambulatory blood pressure data from an experience sampling study of 55 long-term care employees. After accounting for relevant cardiovascular controls, significant effects of supervisory interactions on cardiovascular reactivity and recovery were found. Multilevel analyses revealed that negatively perceived supervisory interactions predicted higher systolic blood pressure at work (B = -1.59, p pressure recovery after work (B = -14.52, p < .05, N = 33). Specifically, negatively perceived supervisory interactions at work predicted poorer cardiovascular recovery after work. Suggestions for improving practices in organizations and in experience sampling research are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The association between body mass index and physical activity, and body image, self esteem and social support in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Laura A; Dewey, Deborah

    2014-08-01

    To examine the associations between body mass index (BMI) and physical activity with body image, self-esteem and social support in adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared to adolescents without health conditions. We studied 46 adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 27 comparison adolescents who provided self-reports of height and weight, which were used to calculate BMI z-scores. Participants also completed validated questionnaires that assessed physical activity, body image, self-esteem and social support. No significant group differences were found between adolescents with type 1 diabetes and comparison adolescents in terms of BMI and physical activity. Examination of group and gender revealed that higher BMI was significantly associated with a less positive body image in girls with diabetes only. Higher BMI was associated with poorer self-esteem and lower levels of social support in adolescents with diabetes, particularly girls. Higher levels of physical activity were not associated with a more positive body image and no significant associations were found between physical activity and self-esteem or social support. BMI and physical activity levels of adolescents with type 1 diabetes do not differ from those of adolescents without diabetes. Higher BMI is associated with a less positive body image and poorer psychosocial outcomes, particularly in girls with diabetes. As body image concerns and various psychosocial factors could be precursors to the development of eating-disorder symptoms, future research in adolescents with diabetes with higher BMIs should examine the associations among these variables. Further, it is essential that research on body image take into account gender differences. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of significant bacteriuria among symptomatic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Ill). Results: A total of 100 consenting participants were recruited into the study. The mean age was: 23.42 ± 8.31 years and a range of 14‑50 years. Only 9% (9/100) had significant bacteriuria while 44.4% (4/9) ...

  3. Social network properties and self-rated health in later life: comparisons from the Korean social life, health, and aging project and the national social life, health and aging project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Yoosik; Laumann, Edward O; Ferraro, Kenneth F; Waite, Linda J; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Park, Yeong-Ran; Chu, Sang Hui; Joo, Won-Tak; Lee, Jin A

    2014-09-14

    This paper has two objectives. Firstly, it provides an overview of the social network module, data collection procedures, and measurement of ego-centric and complete-network properties in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP). Secondly, it directly compares the KSHAP structure and results to the ego-centric network structure and results of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), which conducted in-home interviews with 3,005 persons 57 to 85 years of age in the United States. The structure of the complete social network of 814 KSHAP respondents living in Township K was measured and examined at two levels of networks. Ego-centric network properties include network size, composition, volume of contact with network members, density, and bridging potential. Complete-network properties are degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, and brokerage role. We found that KSHAP respondents with a smaller number of social network members were more likely to be older and tended to have poorer self-rated health. Compared to the NSHAP, the KSHAP respondents maintained a smaller network size with a greater network density among their members and lower bridging potential. Further analysis of the complete network properties of KSHAP respondents revealed that more brokerage roles inside the same neighborhood (Ri) were significantly associated with better self-rated health. Socially isolated respondents identified by network components had the worst self-rated health. The findings demonstrate the importance of social network analysis for the study of older adults' health status in Korea. The study also highlights the importance of complete-network data and its ability to reveal mechanisms beyond ego-centric network data.

  4. I Keep my Problems to Myself: Negative Social Network Orientation, Social Resources, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Yael; Campo, Rebecca A.; Wu, Lisa M.; Austin, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant rely on their social network for successful recovery. However, some survivors have negative attitudes about using social resources (negative social network orientation) that are critical for their recovery. Purpose We examined the association between survivors’ social network orientation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and whether it was mediated by social resources (network size, perceived support, and negative and positive support-related social exchanges). Methods In a longitudinal study, 255 survivors completed validated measures of social network orientation, HRQoL, and social resources. Hypotheses were tested using path analysis. Results More negative social network orientation predicted worse HRQoL (p social exchanges. Conclusions Survivors with negative social network orientation may have poorer HRQoL in part due to deficits in several key social resources. Findings highlight a subgroup at risk for poor transplant outcomes and can guide intervention development. PMID:26693932

  5. The Impact of Clinical Social Franchising on Health Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, Naomi; York De La Cruz, Anna; Montagu, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Background The private sector plays a large role in health services delivery in low- and middle-income countries; yet significant gaps remain in the quality and accessibility of private sector services. Clinical social franchising, which applies the commercial franchising model to achieve social goals and improve health care, is increasingly used in developing countries to respond to these limitations. Despite the growth of this approach, limited evidence documents the effect of social franchising on improving health care quality and access. Objectives and Methods We examined peer-reviewed and grey literature to evaluate the effect of social franchising on health care quality, equity, cost-effectiveness, and health outcomes. We included all studies of clinical social franchise programs located in low- and middle-income countries. We assessed study bias using the WHO-Johns Hopkins Rigour Scale and used narrative synthesis to evaluate the findings. Results Of 113 identified articles, 23 were included in this review; these evaluated a small sample of franchises globally and focused on reproductive health franchises. Results varied widely across outcomes and programs. Social franchising was positively associated with increased client volume and client satisfaction. The findings on health care utilization and health impact were mixed; some studies find that franchises significantly outperform other models of health care, while others show franchises are equivalent to or worse than other private or public clinics. In two areas, cost-effectiveness and equity, social franchises were generally found to have poorer outcomes. Conclusions Our review indicates that social franchising may strengthen some elements of private sector health care. However, gaps in the evidence remain. Additional research should include: further documentation of the effect of social franchising, evaluating the equity and cost-effectiveness of this intervention, and assessing the role of franchising

  6. The impact of clinical social franchising on health services in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, Naomi; York De La Cruz, Anna; Montagu, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    The private sector plays a large role in health services delivery in low- and middle-income countries; yet significant gaps remain in the quality and accessibility of private sector services. Clinical social franchising, which applies the commercial franchising model to achieve social goals and improve health care, is increasingly used in developing countries to respond to these limitations. Despite the growth of this approach, limited evidence documents the effect of social franchising on improving health care quality and access. We examined peer-reviewed and grey literature to evaluate the effect of social franchising on health care quality, equity, cost-effectiveness, and health outcomes. We included all studies of clinical social franchise programs located in low- and middle-income countries. We assessed study bias using the WHO-Johns Hopkins Rigour Scale and used narrative synthesis to evaluate the findings. Of 113 identified articles, 23 were included in this review; these evaluated a small sample of franchises globally and focused on reproductive health franchises. Results varied widely across outcomes and programs. Social franchising was positively associated with increased client volume and client satisfaction. The findings on health care utilization and health impact were mixed; some studies find that franchises significantly outperform other models of health care, while others show franchises are equivalent to or worse than other private or public clinics. In two areas, cost-effectiveness and equity, social franchises were generally found to have poorer outcomes. Our review indicates that social franchising may strengthen some elements of private sector health care. However, gaps in the evidence remain. Additional research should include: further documentation of the effect of social franchising, evaluating the equity and cost-effectiveness of this intervention, and assessing the role of franchising within the context of the greater healthcare delivery

  7. The impact of clinical social franchising on health services in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Beyeler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The private sector plays a large role in health services delivery in low- and middle-income countries; yet significant gaps remain in the quality and accessibility of private sector services. Clinical social franchising, which applies the commercial franchising model to achieve social goals and improve health care, is increasingly used in developing countries to respond to these limitations. Despite the growth of this approach, limited evidence documents the effect of social franchising on improving health care quality and access. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We examined peer-reviewed and grey literature to evaluate the effect of social franchising on health care quality, equity, cost-effectiveness, and health outcomes. We included all studies of clinical social franchise programs located in low- and middle-income countries. We assessed study bias using the WHO-Johns Hopkins Rigour Scale and used narrative synthesis to evaluate the findings. RESULTS: Of 113 identified articles, 23 were included in this review; these evaluated a small sample of franchises globally and focused on reproductive health franchises. Results varied widely across outcomes and programs. Social franchising was positively associated with increased client volume and client satisfaction. The findings on health care utilization and health impact were mixed; some studies find that franchises significantly outperform other models of health care, while others show franchises are equivalent to or worse than other private or public clinics. In two areas, cost-effectiveness and equity, social franchises were generally found to have poorer outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our review indicates that social franchising may strengthen some elements of private sector health care. However, gaps in the evidence remain. Additional research should include: further documentation of the effect of social franchising, evaluating the equity and cost-effectiveness of this intervention, and assessing

  8. Social stigma in diabetes : a framework to understand a growing problem for an increasing epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabert, Jasmin; Browne, Jessica L; Mosely, Kylie; Speight, Jane

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the social and psychological impact of diabetes mellitus is important for informing policy and practice. One potentially significant, yet under-researched, issue is the social stigma surrounding diabetes. This narrative review draws on literature about health-related stigma in diabetes and other chronic conditions in order to develop a framework for understanding diabetes-related stigma. Our review of the literature found that people who do not have diabetes assume that diabetes is not a stigmatized condition. In contrast, people with diabetes report that stigma is a significant concern to them, experienced across many life domains, e.g., in the workplace, in relationships. The experience of diabetes-related stigma has a significant negative impact on many aspects of psychological well-being and may also result in sub-optimal clinical outcomes for people with diabetes. We propose a framework that highlights the causes (attitudes of blame, feelings of fear and disgust, and the felt need to enforce social norms and avoid disease), experiences (being judged, rejected, and discriminated against), and consequences (e.g., distress, poorer psychological well-being, and sub-optimal self-care) of diabetes-related stigma and also identifies potential mitigating strategies to reduce diabetes-related stigma and/or enhance coping and resilience amongst people with diabetes. The systematic investigation of the experiences, causes, and consequences of diabetes-related stigma is an urgent research priority.

  9. Depression and anxiety mediate perceived social support to predict health-related quality of life in pregnant women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowen, Wang; Guangping, Guo; Ling, Zhou; Jiarui, Zheng; Xiumin, Liang; Zhaoqin, Li; Hongzhuan, Luo; Yuyan, Yang; Liyuan, Yang; Lin, Lu

    2018-04-01

    Pregnant women living with HIV represent one of the most high-priority groups for HIV treatment and health assessment. Although social support has been shown to be a protective factor for improved health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and depression and anxiety have been identified as two major causes of psychological distress among people living with HIV, it is still unclear how social support, anxiety, and depression interact to influence HRQoL. The objective of our study was to demonstrate the nature of predictors, direct effects and mediator effects among social support, anxiety, depression symptoms and HRQoL in pregnant women living with HIV. We investigated a total of 101 pregnant women living with HIV in Yunnan province in China from April 2016 to June 2016. All participants completed the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), the Chinese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS) and Quality of Life instruments (EuroQoL Five Dimensions Questionnaire, EQ-5D). The relationships between the variables were examined by Pearson's or Spearman's correlation analysis. Predictor effects were tested using separate multiple regressions, controlling for demographic variables and HIV diagnosis variables. Direct and mediation effects of social support on HRQoL were tested using a structural equation model (SEM). Anxiety and depression symptoms were negatively correlated with subjective social support, support utilization, social support and HRQoL. Social support significantly predicted better HRQoL, and anxiety and depression symptoms significantly predicted poorer HRQoL. Anxiety and depression symptoms partially mediated the associations between social support and HRQoL. Anxiety and depression symptoms completely mediated the associations of objective support and support utilization with HRQoL. Interventions to improve HRQoL in pregnant women living with HIV must consider the mediation effect of anxiety and depression symptoms on the association between

  10. "Trying to Get a Grip": Language Competence and Self-Reported Satisfaction With Social Relationships Three Decades Post-Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atay, Christina; Ryan, Sarah J; Lewis, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    (1) To investigate outcomes in language competence and self-reported satisfaction with social relationships in long-term survivors of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI); and (2) to establish whether language competence contributes to self-reported satisfaction with social relationships decades after sustaining childhood TBI. Twelve females and 8 males aged 30 to 55 (mean = 39.80, standard deviation = 7.54) years who sustained a TBI during childhood and were on average 31 years postinjury (standard deviation = 9.69). An additional 20 participants matched for age, sex, handedness, years of education, and socioeconomic status constituted a control group. Test of Language Competence-Expanded Edition and the Quality of Life in Brain Injury questionnaire. Individuals with a history of childhood TBI performed significantly poorer than their non-injured peers on 2 (Ambiguous Sentences and Oral Expression: Recreating Sentences) out of the 4 Test of Language Competence-Expanded Edition subtests used and on the Quality of Life in Brain Injury subscale assessing satisfaction with social relationships. In the TBI group, scores obtained on the Ambiguous Sentences subtest were found to be a significant predictor of satisfaction with social relationships, explaining 25% of the variance observed. The implication of high-level language skills to self-reported satisfaction with social relationships many decades post-childhood TBI suggests that ongoing monitoring of emerging language skills and support throughout the school years and into adulthood may be warranted if adult survivors of childhood TBI are to experience satisfying social relationships.

  11. Influence of Social Support on Health-Related Quality of Life in New-Generation Migrant Workers in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Haiyan; Yu, Wei; Chen, Sanmei; Zhang, Dengke; Tan, Rongmei

    2013-08-01

    The World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) has generally been used for patients, few studies in migrants who move from rural to urban within one country. Many studies asserted that social isolation presents a risk to individual health. Poor social networks are associated with worse QOL. This study examined health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and social support in new-generation migrant workers and compared it with urban workers. Nine hundred thirty new-generation migrant workers and 939 urban controls completed the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) by stratified sampling in 2011. Spearman's correlation was performed to clarify the relationship between social support and HRQOL in migrants. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify the variables that were associated with HRQOL. The general health, psychological health, and environmental scores of QOL in new-generation migrant workers were lower than in urban workers. New-generation migrants had poorer social support compared with urban controls with regard to general support, objective support, and support utilization. A positive correlation was found between social support and HRQOL. Workers with a higher level of education achieved better psychological, environmental, and general scores than workers with a primary education. Physical, social, environmental, and general health was also closely connected with the age factor. Physical health scores were higher in males than in females. These data suggest that new-generation migrant workers have significant impairment in HRQOL and receive less social support. HRQOL may be affected by social support, education, age, and gender.

  12. Social relationship satisfaction and PTSD: which is the chicken and which is the egg?

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Sara A.; Gilad, Moran; Ankri, Yael; Roziner, Ilan; Shalev, Arieh Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impaired social relationships are linked with higher levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the association’s underlying dynamics are unknown. PTSD may impair social relationships, and, vice versa, poorer relationship quality may interfere with the recovery from PTSD.Objective: This work longitudinally evaluates the simultaneous progression of PTSD symptoms and social relationship satisfaction (SRS) in a large cohort of recent trauma survivors. It also explores the ef...

  13. Association of Social Support and Family Environment with Cognitive Function in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Yang, Zhi-Kai; Sun, Xiu-Mei; Du, Yun; Song, Yi-Fan; Ren, Ye-Ping; Dong, Jie

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment (CI) is a common phenomenon and predictive of high mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This study aimed to analyze the association of social support and family environment with cognitive function in PD patients. ♦ METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of PD patients from Peking University First Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. Global cognitive function was measured using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), executive function was measured by the A and B trail-making tests, and other cognitive functions were measured by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Social support was measured with the Social Support Scale developed by Xiaoshuiyuan and family environment was measured with the Chinese Version of the Family Environment Scale (FES-CV). ♦ RESULTS: The prevalence of CI and executive dysfunction among the 173 patients in the study was, respectively, 16.8% and 26.3%. Logistic regression found that higher global social support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09, 1.01 - 1.17, p = 0.027) and subjective social support predicted higher prevalence of CI (OR = 1.13, 1.02 - 1.25, p = 0.022), adjusting for covariates. Analyses of the FES-CV dimensions found that greater independence was significantly associated with better immediate memory and delayed memory. Moreover, higher scores on achievement orientation were significantly associated with poorer language skills. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that social support is negatively associated with the cognitive function of PD patients and that some dimensions of the family environment are significantly associated with several domains of cognitive function. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  14. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chen

    Full Text Available Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between

  15. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  16. Are language and social communication intact in children with congenital visual impairment at school age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2010-06-01

    Development of children with congenital visual impairment (VI) has been associated with vulnerable socio-communicative outcomes often bearing striking similarities to those of sighted children with autism.(1) To date, very little is known about language and social communication in children with VI of normal intelligence. We examined the presentation of language and social communication of 15 children with VI and normal-range verbal intelligence, age 6-12 years, using a standardised language assessment and parental reports of everyday social and communicative behaviours. Their profiles were compared to those of typically developing sighted children of similar age and verbal ability. Compared to their sighted peers, and relative to their own good and potentially superior structural language skills, children with VI showed significantly poorer use of language for social purposes. Pragmatic language weaknesses were a part of a broader socio-communicative profile of difficulties, present in a substantial proportion of these children and consistent with the pattern found in sighted children with autism. There are ongoing socio-communicative and pragmatic language difficulties in children with congenital VI at school age, despite their good intellectual abilities and advanced linguistic skills. Further research is required to unpack the underlying causes and factors maintaining this vulnerability in such children.

  17. Social development of children born very preterm: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Kirsten; Bora, Samudragupta; Woodward, Lianne J

    2015-10-01

    To review systematically studies examining the development of social competence in children born very preterm (VPT) (gestation skills. Twenty-three studies were included. Seven focused on social competence and another 16 examined social competence within a range of outcomes. Study quality was low. Limitations included reliance on single informant data, cross-sectional measurement, use of brief screening tools, absence of child or peer report, and no conceptual model. In terms of social adjustment, 16 out of 21 studies found children born VPT had more peer problems and social withdrawal. Findings of social performance were mixed, with some studies suggesting differences in prosocial behavior (4/14) and others not. Social skills were assessed in four studies and showed children born VPT had poorer skills than children born at term. Predictors of social competence included gestational age, neonatal brain abnormalities, and family socio-economic status. Children born VPT have poorer social competence. These difficulties emerge early and persist throughout childhood. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  18. SOCIAL PHOBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabu Supramaniam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Social Phobia is a condition characterized by a marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur. Exposure to the social or performance situation almost invariably provokes an immediate anxiety response. Although adolescents and adults with this disorder recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, this may not be the case in children. Most often, the social or performance situation is avoided, although it is sometimes endured with dread. In individuals younger than 18, symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months before is disorder is diagnosed. This diagnosis should not be given if the fear is reasonable given the context of the stimuli (e.g., fear of being called on in class when unprepared. The disturbance must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. This disorder is not due to a medical condition, medication, or abused substance. It is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.    

  19. The Social Commerce System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubovyk Tetiana V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The social commerce is a relatively new phenomenon, found in the little researched direction of trade. Research results by the authors have provided to systematize the views on the concept of «social commerce», characterize the social commerce system, propose measures to develop a social commerce strategy. The authors have defined the social commerce as expansion of e-commerce in the social networks on the Internet, in which social factors are significant, and consumers use the right to create content through the media via forums, ratings, reviews, and recommendations on different platforms. Enterprises are advised to use social tools to perform social interaction with consumers in social networks, create a social climate in view of the social support on the Web. The authors have proposed the concept of «social commerce system», structure of which contains the following elements: individuality of consumer, social communications, social communities, e-commerce; defined the multidimensional attributes that are naturally associated with all four elements of the social commerce. They cover the quality of information, system quality, quality of service, convenience and ease-of-use, payment mechanism.

  20. Social opdrift - social arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Morten; Gabrielsen, G.; Nørrung, Per

    "Social opdrift - social arv" stiller på flere måder spørgsmål ved begrebet social arv. Bogen konkluderer blandt andet, at langt de fleste børn, der opvokser i en socialt belastet familie, bliver velfungerende voksne. Professionelle, der møder socialt belastede familier, har derfor et stort ansvar....... Naturligvis skal der tages hånd om udsatte børn, men det kræver samtidig stor opmærksomhed at sørge for, at fokuseringen på den sociale arv ikke tager overhånd, så det bliver en selvopfyldende profeti."Social opdrift - social" arv viser, hvordan forskningsresultater er blevet fremlagt på en måde, som har...... medvirket til at skabe en skæv opfattelse af, at forældrenes problemer er hovedårsag til børns sociale problemer. I selvstændige analyser vises, hvordan data, der normalt bruges som "bevis" for den sociale arvs betydning, tydeligt illustrerer, at det er en undtagelse, at børn får sociale problemer af samme...

  1. Association of demographic characteristics, symptomatology, retrospective and prospective memory, executive functioning and intelligence with social functioning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu-Tao; Shum, David; Chiu, Helen F K; Tang, Wai-Kwong; Ungvari, Gabor S

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors and neurocognitive variables (i.e. prospective and retrospective memory, executive functioning, and intelligence) on social functioning in Chinese schizophrenia patients. The study sample comprised 110 Chinese schizophrenia patients. Their clinical condition and social functioning were evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Functional Needs Assessment (FNA), respectively. Three prospective memory (PM) tasks (time-, event-, and activity-based), three tests of executive functioning (the Design Fluency Test [DFT], Tower of London [TOL], and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST]), one test of intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices), and two retrospective memory (RM) tasks (the immediate and delayed recall conditions of the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scales-Revised [WMS-R]) were administered to all patients. In correlation analyses higher education and better performance on the WCST (categories completed) and the Logical Memory subtests (delayed and immediate) of the WMS-R are significantly correlated with better social functioning, whereas a lower WCST score (perseverative errors) and more severe negative symptoms are associated with poorer social functioning. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that higher education and a lower WCST score (perseverative errors) independently contribute to better social functioning. Unexpectedly, most socio-demographic and clinical factors do not seem to have a significant impact on social functioning of Chinese schizophrenia patients living in a Chinese society. Negative symptoms and certain cognitive deficits were the main predictors of social functioning and they should be the main targets for antipsychotic treatment and psychosocial interventions to improve social adjustment in Chinese schizophrenia patients.

  2. Health, work, social trust, and financial situation in persons with Usher syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Mattias; Wahlqvist, Moa; Danermark, Berth; Dahlström, Örjan; Möller, Claes

    2018-05-28

    Research has demonstrated that persons with Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) have significantly poorer physical and psychological health compared to a reference group. To explore the relation between work, health, social trust, and financial situation in USH1 compared to a reference group. Sixty-six persons (18-65 y) from the Swedish Usher database received a questionnaire and 47 were included, 23 working and 24 non-working. The reference group comprised 3,049 working and 198 non-working persons. The Swedish Health on Equal Terms questionnaire was used and statistical analysis with multiple logistic regression was conducted. The USH1 non-work group had a higher Odds ratio (95% CI) in poor psychological and physical health, social trust, and financial situation compared to the USH1 work group and reference groups. Age, gender, hearing, and vision impairment did not explain the differences. The relation between the USH1 work and non-work groups showed the same pattern as the reference groups, but the magnitude of problems was significantly higher. Both disability and unemployment increased the risk of poor health, social trust and financial situation in persons with USH1, but having an employment seemed to counteract the risks related to disability.

  3. Are there cross-cultural differences in emotional processing and social problem-solving?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśniewska Aneta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional processing and social problem-solving are important for mental well-being. For example, impaired emotional processing is linked with depression and psychosomatic problems. However, little is known about crosscultural differences in emotional processing and social problem-solving and whether these constructs are linked. This study examines whether emotional processing and social problem-solving differs between Western (British and Eastern European (Polish cultures. Participants (N = 172 completed questionnaires assessing both constructs. Emotional processing did not differ according to culture, but Polish participants reported more effective social problem-solving abilities than British participants. Poorer emotional processing was also found to relate to poorer social problem-solving. Possible societal reasons for the findings and the implications of the findings for culture and clinical practice are discussed.

  4. Social networking site (SNS) use by adolescent mothers: Can social support and social capital be enhanced by online social networks? - A structured review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Samantha; Hendricks, Joyce; Ferguson, Sally; Towell, Amanda

    2017-05-01

    to critically appraise the available literature and summarise the evidence relating to adolescent mothers' use of social networking sites in terms of any social support and social capital they may provide and to identify areas for future exploration. social networking sites have been demonstrated to provide social support to marginalised individuals and provide psycho-social benefits to members of such groups. Adolescent mothers are at risk of; social marginalisation; anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms; and poorer health and educational outcomes for their children. Social support has been shown to benefit adolescent mothers thus online mechanisms require consideration. a review of original research articles METHOD: key terms and Boolean operators identified research reports across a 20-year timeframe pertaining to the area of enquiry in: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, ERIC, ProQuest, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Health Collection (Informit) and Google Scholar databases. Eight original research articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. studies demonstrate that adolescent mothers actively search for health information using the Internet and social networking sites, and that social support and social capital can be attributed to their use of specifically created online groups from within targeted health interventions. Use of a message board forum for pregnant and parenting adolescents also demonstrates elements of social support. There are no studies to date pertaining to adolescent mothers' use of globally accessible social networking sites in terms of social support provision and related outcomes. further investigation is warranted to explore the potential benefits of adolescent mothers' use of globally accessible social networking sites in terms of any social support provision and social capital they may provide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differentiating Anxiety and Depression in Relation to the Social Functioning of Young Adolescents With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Vaughn, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depressive symptoms in relation to the social functioning of young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and builds upon prior work by incorporating youths' self-reports of internalizing symptoms and examining distinct anxiety and depression dimensions to increase specificity. Participants were 310 young adolescents (ages 10-14; 71% male, 78% Caucasian) diagnosed with ADHD. Youth provided ratings of anxiety/depression, and parents provided ratings of their own depression. Parents and youth both reported on youths' social skills and perceived social acceptance. Path analyses indicated that above and beyond child demographics, ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptom severity, and parents' own depression, self-reported social anxiety and anhedonia were both associated with lower youth-reported social skills and both parent- and youth-reported social acceptance. Negative self-evaluation was associated with poorer parent-reported social skills. Finally, harm avoidance was positively associated with both youth- and parent-reported social skills. A path analysis using comorbid diagnoses (rather than symptom dimensions) indicated that that having a comorbid disruptive behavior disorder or depression diagnosis (but not a comorbid anxiety diagnosis) was associated with poorer parent-reported social functioning. Results demonstrate that the relation between internalizing symptoms and social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD is nuanced, with social anxiety and anhedonia symptoms associated with lower social skills and social acceptance in contrast to harm avoidance being associated with higher ratings of social skills (and unrelated to social acceptance). In terms of comorbid diagnoses, depression is more clearly related than anxiety to poorer social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD. These results point to the importance of attending to specific facets of anxiety and depression in

  6. Maternal Insomnia and Children's Family Socialization Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ambler, Antony; Arseneault, Louise; Houts, Renate M.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine concurrent associations between maternal insomnia and different aspects of the family socialization environment. Design: Mothers reported on their symptoms of insomnia in a private standardized interview and interviewers evaluated the family socialization environment using the Coder's Inventory. Setting: Assessments were conducted in participants' homes within the U.K. Patients or Participants: One thousand one hundred sixteen mothers of British children enrolled in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) study were invited to participate when their children were aged 12 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: After controlling for family socioeconomic status (SES), mothers' relationship status, and maternal depression, maternal insomnia was associated with a poorer family socialization environment (β = −0.10, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = −0.16, −0.04], P Ambler A; Arseneault L; Houts RM; Caspi A. Maternal insomnia and children's family socialization environments. SLEEP 2012;35(4):579-582. PMID:22467996

  7. National Academy of Medicine Social and Behavioral Measures: Associations With Self-Reported Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Gottlieb, Laura M; Giuse, Nunzia B; Koonce, Taneya Y; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Stead, William W; Adler, Nancy E

    2017-10-01

    Social and behavioral factors play important roles in physical and mental health; however, they are not routinely assessed in the healthcare system. A brief panel of measures of social and behavioral determinants of health (SBDs) were recommended in a National Academy of Medicine report for use in electronic health records. Initial testing of the panel established feasibility of use and robustness of the measures. This study evaluates their convergent and divergent validity in relation to self-reported physical and mental health and social desirability bias. Adults, aged ≥18 years, were recruited through Qualtrics online panel survey platform in 2015 (data analyzed in 2015-2016). Participants completed the (1) panel of SBD measures; (2) 12-Item Short Form Health Survey to assess associations with global physical and mental health; and (3) Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale short form to assess whether social desirability influenced associations between SBD measures and self-reported health. The sample included 513 participants (mean age, 47.9 [SD=14.2] years; 65.5% female). Several SBD domain measures were associated with physical and mental health. Adjusting for age, poorer physical and mental health were observed among participants reporting higher levels of financial resource strain, stress, depression, physical inactivity, current tobacco use, and a positive score for intimate partner violence. These associations remained significant after adjustment for social desirability bias. SBD domains were associated with global measures of physical and mental health and were not impacted by social desirability bias. The panel of SBD measures should now be tested in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Subjective Word-Finding Difficulty Reduces Engagement in Social Leisure Activities in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Meagan T.; Zahodne, Laura B.; Stern, Yaakov; Dorrejo, Jhedy; Yeung, Philip; Cosentino, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the influence of subjective word-finding difficulty on Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients’ likelihood of engaging in social leisure activities. Design Analysis of data collected from the second cohort of the Multicenter Study of Predictors of Disease Course in Alzheimer’s disease. Setting Four study sites in the U.S. and France. Participants Individuals diagnosed with mild to moderate AD (N = 236) Measurements On separate questionnaires, patients were asked to 1) report whether had trouble finding the right word when speaking (subjective word-finding difficulty), and 2) rate their frequency and enjoyment of both social and nonsocial leisure activities. Objective language measures included object naming and verbal fluency. Measures of dependence, depression, cognitive status, age, sex, and education were also included as covariates in regression analyses. Results Over half (52%) of the sample reported word-finding difficulty, and subjective complaints were correlated with poorer verbal fluency scores. Subjective word-finding difficulty was uniquely related to social activity measures. Endorsers of word-finding difficulty reported reduced frequency and enjoyment of social leisure activities, controlling for covariates. In contrast, engagement in nonsocial activities was associated with higher age and depression scores, but was not related to word-finding complaints. These results were corroborated by the caregivers’ reports, and occurred above and beyond the effect of objective word-finding ability. Conclusion AD patients who are aware of increasing word-finding failures are less likely to participate in and enjoy socially-oriented leisure activities. This finding may have significant implications for clinical and health outcomes in AD. A failure to evaluate subjective language complaints could result in social withdrawal symptoms, thereby threatening the patient’s quality of life as well as increasing caregiver burden. Importantly

  9. Time Allocation in Social Networks: Correlation Between Social Structure and Human Communication Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miritello, Giovanna; Lara, Rubén; Moro, Esteban

    Recent research has shown the deep impact of the dynamics of human interactions (or temporal social networks) on the spreading of information, opinion formation, etc. In general, the bursty nature of human interactions lowers the interaction between people to the extent that both the speed and reach of information diffusion are diminished. Using a large database of 20 million users of mobile phone calls we show evidence this effect is not homogeneous in the social network but in fact, there is a large correlation between this effect and the social topological structure around a given individual. In particular, we show that social relations of hubs in a network are relatively weaker from the dynamical point than those that are poorer connected in the information diffusion process. Our results show the importance of the temporal patterns of communication when analyzing and modeling dynamical process on social networks.

  10. Longitudinal social-interpersonal functioning among higher-risk responders to acute-phase cognitive therapy for recurrent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E; Jarrett, Robin B

    2016-07-15

    Social-interpersonal dysfunction increases disability in major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we clarified the durability of improvements in social-interpersonal functioning made during acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT), whether continuation CT (C-CT) or fluoxetine (FLX) further improved functioning, and relations of functioning with depressive symptoms and relapse/recurrence. Adult outpatients (N=241) with recurrent MDD who responded to acute-phase CT with higher risk of relapse (due to unstable or partial remission) were randomized to 8 months of C-CT, FLX, or pill placebo plus clinical management (PBO) and followed 24 additional months. We analyzed repeated measures of patients' social adjustment, interpersonal problems, dyadic adjustment, depressive symptoms, and major depressive relapse/recurrence. Large improvements in social-interpersonal functioning occurring during acute-phase CT (median d=1.4) were maintained, with many patients (median=66%) scoring in normal ranges for 32 months. Social-interpersonal functioning did not differ significantly among C-CT, FLX, and PBO arms. Beyond concurrently measured residual symptoms, deterioration in social-interpersonal functioning preceded and predicted upticks in depressive symptoms and major depressive relapse/recurrence. Results may not generalize to other patient populations, treatment protocols, or measures of social-interpersonal functioning. Mechanisms of risk connecting poorer social-interpersonal functioning with depression were not studied. Average improvements in social-interpersonal functioning among higher-risk responders to acute phase CT are durable for 32 months. After acute-phase CT, C-CT or FLX may not further improve social-interpersonal functioning. Among acute-phase CT responders, deteriorating social-interpersonal functioning provides a clear, measurable signal of risk for impending major depressive relapse/recurrence and opportunity for preemptive intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  11. Vulture significance in Ogoni Culture | Saale | AFRREV LALIGENS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explained the spiritual and social significance of vulture in Ogoni culture. It also explained how the use of vulture to refer to human beings and its characteristics became sources of social relations and conflicts in Ogoni culture. It adopted both the anthropological and sociological approaches. Findings from the ...

  12. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  13. Neural mechanisms linking social status and inflammatory responses to social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatell, Keely A; Dedovic, Katarina; Slavich, George M; Jarcho, Michael R; Breen, Elizabeth C; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-06-01

    Social stratification has important implications for health and well-being, with individuals lower in standing in a hierarchy experiencing worse outcomes than those higher up the social ladder. Separate lines of past research suggest that alterations in inflammatory processes and neural responses to threat may link lower social status with poorer outcomes. This study was designed to bridge these literatures to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms linking subjective social status and inflammation. Thirty-one participants reported their subjective social status, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while they were socially evaluated. Participants also provided blood samples before and after the stressor, which were analysed for changes in inflammation. Results showed that lower subjective social status was associated with greater increases in inflammation. Neuroimaging data revealed lower subjective social status was associated with greater neural activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in response to negative feedback. Finally, results indicated that activation in the DMPFC in response to negative feedback mediated the relation between social status and increases in inflammatory activity. This study provides the first evidence of a neurocognitive pathway linking subjective social status and inflammation, thus furthering our understanding of how social hierarchies shape neural and physiological responses to social interactions. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Peadiatric social admission

    OpenAIRE

    Carter Anand, Janet

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of paediatric social admission describes the hospitalisation of children for medicallynon- urgent and/or social reasons. Much of the research in this field has been in relation to avoidable admissions which have been identified, studied and condoned based on strict medical criteria. Such research has tended to mask the significance of social factors and the commonplace practice of Paediatric Social Admission. This paper examines decision making from the perspective of the healt...

  15. Parental Socialization, Vagal Regulation, and Preschoolers' Anxious Difficulties: Direct Mothers and Moderated Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Paul D.; Sullivan, Caroline; McShane, Kelly E.; Coplan, Robert J.; Utendale, William T.; Vyncke, Johanna D.

    2008-01-01

    Parental supportiveness and protective overcontrol and preschoolers' parasympathetic regulation were examined as predictors of temperamental inhibition, social wariness, and internalizing problems. Lower baseline vagal tone and weaker vagal suppression were expected to mark poorer dispositional self-regulatory capacity, leaving children more…

  16. Noncommunicable Diseases in Ghana: Does the Theory of Social Gradient in Health Hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Kuuire, Vincent Z.

    2016-01-01

    The theory of social gradient in health posits that individuals with lower socioeconomic status (SES) have poorer health outcomes, compared with those in higher socioeconomic brackets. Applied to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), this theory has largely been corroborated by studies from the West. However, evidence from sub-Saharan Africa are mixed,…

  17. A Study of Social Work Students' Knowledge and Perceptions of Stages of Latino Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Mary Lehman; Cuellar, Matthew J.; Cook Heffron, Laurie

    2018-01-01

    Latino immigrants encounter distinct hardships at each stage of the immigration process, including stressors that occur in the home countries, during travel, and on settlement, which correspond with poorer mental health status. Yet, much of social work education and service delivery centers only on postsettlement needs. This exploratory study…

  18. Social environment and frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2005-01-01

    inequalities in health or whether social factors in themselves determine the use of general practice. AIM: To examine if social factors are associated with frequent attendance in general practice after adjusting for physical and psychological health variables. DESIGN OF STUDY: Population-based cross......BACKGROUND: A lack of social support is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a decreased effect of prevention. Frequent attenders to primary care are characterised by poorer social conditions than other patients in general practice, but we do not know whether this is due to social...... during the period November 1997-October 1998. A questionnaire about physical, psychological and social factors was sent to the patients. The associations between social factors and frequent attendance were adjusted for physical and psychological health and tendency towards somatisation. RESULTS: A total...

  19. Perspectives on Gandhi’s Significance Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Simpson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gandhi’s example has inspired countless political struggles worldwide over the past century. We might then ask how his thought has been transferred and translated when taken out of the particular historical and geographic context in which he lived. How have Gandhi’s ideas been changed or altered when adopted in different contexts? Which aspects of Gandhi’s thinking remain most relevant to struggles for social and environmental justice today? These are just a few of the questions that were discussed at the “Perspectives on Gandhi’s Significance Workshop” hosted by Reed College in Portland Oregon (USA, on April 16th, 2016.

  20. Significant variables associated with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, F.A.; Qayyum, K.; Ahmad, N.; Makhdoomi, A.; Safdar, A.; Asif, A.; Chaudhry, H.R.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of the epileptics and the risk factors contributing to the development of epilepsy. Results: Majority of the subjects were single (77.84%), 1st born among their siblings (25.95%), belonged to low social class (50.63%), and unemployed(25.31%). The major risk factors were family history of illness (23.52%) and positive medical problem around birth (12.66%). The presence of family history of illness, positive medical problem around birth and advanced maternal age at birth were associated with early onset of epilepsy. Vulnerability for the epilepsy also increases among hospital deliveries. Conclusion: Although the present study has identified various risk factors, yet the results need to be further confirmed through case-control studies. (author)

  1. Investigating the relationship between self-rated health and social capital in South Africa: a multilevel panel data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yan Kwan; Ataguba, John E

    2015-03-19

    The relationship between social capital and self-rated health has been documented in many developed compared to developing countries. Because social capital and health play important roles in development, it may be valuable to study their relationship in the context of a developing country with poorer health status. Further, the role of social capital research for health policy has not received much attention. This paper therefore examines the relationship between social capital and health in South Africa, a country with the history of colonialism and apartheid that has contributed to the social disintegration and destruction of social capital. This study uses data from the National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS), the first nationally representative panel study in South Africa. Two waves of the NIDS were used in this paper--Wave 1 (2008) and Wave 2 (2010). Self-rated health, social capital (individual- and contextual-level), and other covariates related to the social determinants of health (SDH) were obtained from the NIDS. Individual-level social capital included group participation, personalised trust and generalised trust while contextual-level or neighbourhood-level social capital was obtained by aggregating from the individual-level and household-level social capital variables to the neighbourhood. Mixed effects models were fitted to predict self-rated health in Wave 2, using lagged covariates (from Wave 1). Individual personalised trust, individual community service group membership and neighbourhood personalised trust were beneficial to self-rated health. Reciprocity, associational activity and other types of group memberships were not found to be significantly associated with self-rated health in South Africa. Results indicate that both individual- and contextual-level social capital are associated with self-rated health. Policy makers may want to consider policies that impact socioeconomic conditions as well as social capital. Some of these policies are

  2. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  3. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Sassoon, Stephanie A.; Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II ≥ 14 vs. minimal, BDI-II < 14) was associated with poorer cognitive or psychosocial function in alcoholism-HIV co...

  4. Autistic traits are linked to reduced adaptive coding of face identity and selectively poorer face recognition in men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Taylor, Libby; Ewing, Louise

    2013-11-01

    Our ability to discriminate and recognize thousands of faces despite their similarity as visual patterns relies on adaptive, norm-based, coding mechanisms that are continuously updated by experience. Reduced adaptive coding of face identity has been proposed as a neurocognitive endophenotype for autism, because it is found in autism and in relatives of individuals with autism. Autistic traits can also extend continuously into the general population, raising the possibility that reduced adaptive coding of face identity may be more generally associated with autistic traits. In the present study, we investigated whether adaptive coding of face identity decreases as autistic traits increase in an undergraduate population. Adaptive coding was measured using face identity aftereffects, and autistic traits were measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and its subscales. We also measured face and car recognition ability to determine whether autistic traits are selectively related to face recognition difficulties. We found that men who scored higher on levels of autistic traits related to social interaction had reduced adaptive coding of face identity. This result is consistent with the idea that atypical adaptive face-coding mechanisms are an endophenotype for autism. Autistic traits were also linked with face-selective recognition difficulties in men. However, there were some unexpected sex differences. In women, autistic traits were linked positively, rather than negatively, with adaptive coding of identity, and were unrelated to face-selective recognition difficulties. These sex differences indicate that autistic traits can have different neurocognitive correlates in men and women and raise the intriguing possibility that endophenotypes of autism can differ in males and females. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceived epilepsy stigma mediates relationships between personality and social well-being in a diverse epilepsy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Seth A; Nakhutina, Luba; Schaffer, Sarah G; Grant, Arthur C; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S

    2018-01-01

    Perceived epilepsy stigma and reduced social well-being are prevalent sources of distress in people with epilepsy (PWE). Yet, research on patient-level correlates of these difficulties is lacking, especially among underserved groups. Racially/ethnically diverse adults with intractable seizures (N=60, 62% female; 79% Black, 20% Hispanic/Latino, 8% White) completed validated measures of personality (NEO Five Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI-3), perceived epilepsy stigma (Epilepsy Stigma Scale, ESS), and quality of life (Quality of Life Inventory in Epilepsy, QOLIE-89). Controlling for covariates, ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression evaluated the total, direct, and indirect effects of NEO-FFI-3 neuroticism and extraversion scores on epilepsy-related social well-being (i.e., combination of QOLIE-89 social isolation and work/driving/social function subscales, α=0.87), mediated through perceived stigma. In separate models, higher levels of neuroticism (N) and lower levels of extraversion (E) were significantly and independently associated with greater perceived stigma (N path a=0.71, p=0.005; E path a=-1.10, pStigma, in turn, was significantly and independently associated with poorer social well-being (N path b=0.23, psocial well-being through their respective associations with perceived stigma (N path ab=-0.16, 95% CIs [-0.347, -0.044]; E path ab=0.25, 95% CIs [0.076, 0.493]). Higher neuroticism and lower extraversion covaried with stigma beliefs, and these may be markers of poor social outcomes in PWE. Mediation models suggest that targeting epilepsy stigma beliefs may be a particularly useful component to incorporate when developing interventions aimed at promoting social well-being in diverse PWE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Resilience, political ecology, and well-being: an interdisciplinary approach to understanding social-ecological change in coastal Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia F. Hoque

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The commodification of peasant livelihoods through export-oriented aquaculture has brought about significant social-ecological changes in low-lying coastal areas in many parts of Asia. A better understanding of the underlying drivers and distributional effects of these changes requires integration of social and ecological approaches that often have different epistemological origins. Resilience thinking has gained increased traction in social-ecological systems research because it provides a dynamic analysis of the cross-scalar interactions between multiple conditions and processes. However, the system-oriented perspective inherent in resilience thinking fails to acknowledge the heterogeneous values, interests, and power of social actors and their roles in navigating social-ecological change. Incorporation of political ecology and well-being perspectives can provide an actor-oriented analysis of the trade-offs associated with change and help to determine which state is desirable for whom. However, empirical demonstrations of such interdisciplinary approaches remain scarce. Here, we explore the combined application of resilience, political ecology, and well-being in investigating the root causes of social-ecological change and identifying the winners and losers of system transformation through empirical analysis of the differential changes in farming systems in two villages in coastal Bangladesh. Using the adaptive cycle as a structuring model, we examine the evolution of the shrimp aquaculture system over the past few decades, particularly looking at the power dynamics between households of different wealth classes. We found that although asymmetric land ownership and political ties enabled the wealthier households to reach their desired farming system in one village, social resilience achieved through memory, leadership, and crisis empowered poorer households to exercise their agency in another village. Material dimensions such as improved

  7. Ongoing treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at time of admission is associated with poorer prognosis in patients with first-time acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamberts, Morten; Fosbøl, Emil L; Olsen, Anne-Marie S

    2013-01-01

    was significantly increased in patients receiving rofecoxib (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15; CI 1.04-1.27), celecoxib (HR 1.13; CI 1.01-1.26), diclofenac (HR 1.12; CI 1.04-1.20) or any NSAID use (HR 1.05; CI 1.02-1.09). No association was found for naproxen or ibuprofen. CONCLUSION: Ongoing treatment with NSAIDs...

  8. Wanting it Too Much: An Inverse Relation Between Social Motivation and Facial Emotion Recognition in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Garman, Heather D.; Spaulding, Christine J.; Webb, Sara Jane; Mikami, Amori Yee; Morris, James P.; Lerner, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined social motivation and early-stage face perception as frameworks for understanding impairments in facial emotion recognition (FER) in a well-characterized sample of youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Early-stage face perception (N170 event-related potential latency) was recorded while participants completed a standardized FER task, while social motivation was obtained via parent report. Participants with greater social motivation exhibited poorer FER, while those w...

  9. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  10. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  11. Five years after the accident, whiplash casualties still have poorer quality of life in the physical domain than other mildly injured casualties: analysis of the ESPARR cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Charlène; Hours, Martine; Charnay, Pierrette; Chossegros, Laetitia; Tardy, Hélène

    2016-01-05

    This study aims to compare health status and quality of life five years after a road accident between casualties with whiplash versus other mild injuries, to compare evolution of quality of life at 1 and 5 years after the accident, and to explore the relation between initial injury (whiplash vs. other) and quality of life. The study used data from the ESPARR cohort (a representative cohort of road accident casualties) and included 167 casualties with "pure" whiplash and a population of 185 casualties with other mild injuries (MAIS-1). All subjects with lesions classified as cervical contusion (AIS code 310402) or neck sprain (AIS code 640278) were considered as whiplash casualties. Diagnosis was made by physicians, at the outset of hospital care, based on interview, clinical findings and X-ray. Whiplash injuries were then classified following the Quebec classification (grades 1 and 2). Quality of life was assessed on the WHOQoL-Bref questionnaire. Correlations between explanatory variables and quality of life were explored by Poisson regression and variance analysis. Between 1 and 5 years, global QoL improved for both whiplash and non-whiplash casualties; but, considering the two whiplash groups separately, improvement in grade 2 was much less than in grade 1. At 5 years, grade-2 whiplash casualties were more dissatisfied with their health (39.4%; p whiplash (24.3%) or grade-1 whiplash casualties (27.0%). Deteriorated quality of life in the mental, social and environmental domains was mainly related to psychological and socioeconomic factors for both whiplash and other mildly injured road-accident casualties. While PTSD was a major factor for the physical domain, whiplash remained a predictive factor after adjustment on PTSD; unsatisfactory health at 5 years, with deteriorated quality of life in the physical domain, was observed specifically in the whiplash group, pain playing a predominant intermediate role. Deteriorated quality of life in the physical domain

  12. Higher admission fasting plasma glucose levels are associated with a poorer short-term neurologic outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients with good collateral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Jiang, Beisi; Kanesan, Lasheta; Zhao, Yuwu; Yan, Bernard

    2018-04-12

    In this retrospective study, we sought to delineate the collateral circulation status of acute ischemic stroke patients by CT perfusion and evaluate 90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores of patients with good or poor collaterals and its correlation with admission fasting plasma glucose (FPG). We enrolled acute ischemic stroke patients who presented to our hospital 4.5 h within an onset of the first episode between January 2009 and December 2015. Neurological assessment was performed using the 90-day mRS scores (0-2 for a favorable and 3-6 for an unfavorable neurologic outcome). Relative filling time delay (rFTD) was evaluated by CT perfusion scan. The primary outcomes were 90-day mRS scores stratified by good (rFTD ≤ 4 s) versus poor collateral circulation (rFTD > 4 s). Totally 270 patients were included, and 139 (51.5%) patients achieved a favorable neurologic outcome. One hundred eighty-five (68.5%) patients had good collateral circulation. Significantly greater portions of patients with good collateral circulation (60.5%, 112/185) achieved a favorable neurologic outcome compared to those with poor collateral circulation (31.8%, 27/85) (P collateral circulation achieving a favorable neurologic outcome had significantly lower baseline FPG (6.6 ± 1.96) than those with good collateral circulation achieving an unfavorable neurologic outcome (8.12 ± 4.02; P = 0.002). Spearman correlation analysis showed that rFTD significantly correlated with 90-day mRS scores (adjusted r = 0.258; P collateral circulation. FPG and rFTD may serve as useful predictors of short-term patient outcome and could be used for risk stratification in clinical decision making.

  13. Indigenous People in a Landscape of Risk: Teaching Social Work Students about Socially Just Social Work Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Hilary; Congress, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The need for social justice in social work practice is particularly apparent in work with indigenous populations. In spite of the social work profession's commitment to social justice, social workers have often done significant harm in their work with indigenous peoples. Social work educators are ideally positioned to close this gap between social…

  14. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  15. Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Refugee Children’s Forced Repatriation: Social Workers’ and Police Officers’ Health and Job Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Johanna; Hansson, Jonas; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Ögren, Kenneth; Padyab, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    During the past ten years the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children has dramatically increased in Sweden. Some of them are permitted to stay in the receiving country, but some are forced back to their country of origin. Social workers and police officers are involved in these forced repatriations, and such complex situations may cause stressful working conditions. This study aimed to bridge the gap in knowledge of the relationship between general mental health and working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children who are due for forced repatriation. In addition, the role of psychosocial job characteristics in such relationships was investigated. A questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, and the 12-item General Mental Health Questionnaire were distributed nationally. Univariate and multivariable regression models were used. Poorer mental health was associated with working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children among social workers but not among police officers. Psychological job demand was a significant predictor for general mental health among social workers, while psychological job demand, decision latitude, and marital status were predictors among police officers. Findings are discussed with special regard to the context of social work and police professions in Sweden. PMID:26153185

  16. Effects of gender role self-discrepancies and self-perceived attractiveness on social anxiety for women across social situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ashley N; Weeks, Justin W

    2017-01-01

    Psychosocial factors, such as gender role norms, may impact how social anxiety disorder (SAD) is experienced and expressed in different social contexts for women. However to date, these factors have not been examined via experimental methodology. This was a cross-sectional, quasi-experimental controlled study. The current study included 48 highly socially anxious (HSA) women (70.9% meeting criteria for SAD) and examined the relationships among psychosocial factors (i.e. gender role self-discrepancies and self-perceived physical attractiveness), self-perceived social performance, and state anxiety, across two in vivo social tasks (i.e. conversation and opinion speech). On average, participants reported belief that they ought to be less feminine for the speech task and more masculine for both the conversation and speech tasks. Also, for the conversation task, only lower self-rated attractiveness predicted poorer self-perceived performance and greater post-task state anxiety, above gender role self-discrepancies and confederate gender. For the speech task, only greater self-discrepancy in prototypical masculine traits predicted poorer performance ratings, and it was related to greater state anxiety in anticipation of the task. For HSA women, psychosocial factors may play different roles in social anxiety across social contexts.

  17. Comorbidities, Social Impact, and Quality of Life in Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Cavanna, Andrea E.; Robertson, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is more than having motor and vocal tics, and this review will examine the varied comorbidities as well as the social impact and quality of life (QoL) in individuals with TS. The relationship between any individual and his/her environment is complex, and this is further exaggerated in the case of a person with TS. For example, tics may play a significant role in shaping the person’s experiences, perceptions, and interactions with the environment. Furthermore, associated clinical features, comorbidities, and coexisting psychopathologies may compound or alter this relationship. In this regard, the common comorbidities include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behaviors, obsessive compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorder, and coexistent problems include anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem, which can all lead to poorer psychosocial functioning and QoL. Thus, the symptoms of TS and the associated comorbid conditions may interact to result in a vicious cycle or a downward spiraling of negative experiences and poor QoL. The stigma and social maladjustment in TS and the social exclusion, bullying, and discrimination are considered to be caused in large part by misperceptions of the disorder by teachers, peers, and the wider community. Improved community and professional awareness about TS and related comorbidities and other psychopathologies as well as the provision of multidisciplinary services to meet the complex needs of this clinical population are critical. Future research to inform the risk and resilience factors for successful long-term outcomes is also warranted. PMID:27375503

  18. Risk Factors for Social Isolation in Older Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Ko, Jisook; Lee, Juyoung; Kim, Miyong T

    2016-02-01

    Given the importance of social ties and connectedness in the lives of older ethnic immigrants, the present study examined the prevalence of social isolation and its risk factors in older Korean Americans. Using survey data from 1,301 participants (Mage = 70.5, SD = 7.24), risk groups for marginal social ties with family and friends were identified and predictors of each type of social isolation explored. Male gender and poorer rating of health were identified as common risk factors for marginal ties to both family and friends. Findings also present specific risk factors for each type of social isolation. For example, an increased risk of having marginal ties with friends was observed among individuals with perceived financial strain, greater functional impairment, and a shorter stay in the United States. The common and specific risk factors should be incorporated in programs to reduce social isolation in older immigrant populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Does elimination of planned postoperative radiation to the primary bed in p16-positive, transorally-resected oropharyngeal carcinoma associate with poorer outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Parul; Pipkorn, Patrik; Thorstad, Wade L; Gay, Hiram A; Haughey, Bruce H

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of our study is to compare oncologic and functional outcomes of p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) patients, in the presence and absence of planned radiation to the primary bed following transoral surgery (TOS), stratified by T-classification. Retrospective cohort study of 261, T1-T4, consecutively TOS-treated OPSCC patients. At a median follow-up of 61months, local recurrence (LR) occurred in 6 (2.3%)patients (3 each in T1-T2 and T3-T4 groups), of which 5 had tumors in the tongue base and one in the tonsil. Of patients not receiving planned primary bed radiation, LR occurred in 3% of T1-T2s versus 17% of T3-T4s. In patients with T1-T2 tumors, Absolute Risk Reduction of LR with primary bed radiation was 3.26% (95% CI: -0.37%, 7%); Number Needed to Treat to prevent one LR was 31 (95% CI: 14.5, 271). Absolute Risk Increase for gastrostomy-tube with primary bed radiation was 34.4% (95% CI: 24%, 45%); Number Needed to Harm was 3 (95% CI: 2.2, 4.2), i.e., for every three patients with T1-T2 tumors receiving primary bed radiation, one had a gastrostomy-tube. Elimination of primary bed radiation in margin-negative resected, T1-T2 p16-positive OPSCC was not associated with significant compromise of local control, and correlated with superior swallowing preservation, assessed using gastrostomy rate as a surrogate. Lack of primary bed radiation in T3-T4 tumors associated with significantly increased LR rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Brief Motivational Intervention for College Drinking: The Synergistic Impact of Social Anxiety and Perceived Drinking Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Terlecki, Meredith A.; Buckner, Julia D.; Larimer, Mary E.; Copeland, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the efficacy of Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), students with higher social anxiety appear vulnerable to poorer outcomes. A possible explanation for these outcomes is that corrective normative feedback (an active component of BASICS) may be less effective for socially anxious students if their beliefs about others’ drinking are less malleable due to intense fear of negative evaluation for deviating from perceived drinking norms. This study evalu...

  1. Problematic Smartphone Use, Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning, and Social Media Use in Lectures †

    OpenAIRE

    Rozgonjuk, Dmitri; Saal, Kristiina; Täht, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Several studies have shown that problematic smartphone use (PSU) is related to detrimental outcomes, such as worse psychological well-being, higher cognitive distraction, and poorer academic outcomes. In addition, many studies have shown that PSU is strongly related to social media use. Despite this, the relationships between PSU, as well as the frequency of social media use in lectures, and different approaches to learning have not been previously studied. In our study, we hypothesized that ...

  2. How equitable is social franchising? Case studies of three maternal healthcare franchises in Uganda and India.

    OpenAIRE

    Haemmerli, M; Santos, A; Penn-Kekana, L; Lange, I; Matovu, F; Benova, L; Wong, KLM; Goodman, C

    2018-01-01

    Substantial investments have been made in clinical social franchising to improve quality of care of private facilities in low- and middle-income countries but concerns have emerged that the benefits fail to reach poorer groups. We assessed the distribution of franchise utilization and content of care by socio-economic status (SES) in three maternal healthcare social franchises in Uganda and India (Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan). We surveyed 2179 women who had received antenatal care (ANC) and/o...

  3. Problematic Smartphone Use, Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning, and Social Media Use in Lectures

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitri Rozgonjuk; Kristiina Saal; Karin Täht

    2018-01-01

    Several studies have shown that problematic smartphone use (PSU) is related to detrimental outcomes, such as worse psychological well-being, higher cognitive distraction, and poorer academic outcomes. In addition, many studies have shown that PSU is strongly related to social media use. Despite this, the relationships between PSU, as well as the frequency of social media use in lectures, and different approaches to learning have not been previously studied. In our study, we hypothesized that ...

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Women with family cancer history are at risk for poorer physical quality of life and lower self-efficacy: a longitudinal study among men and women with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Anna; Schwarzer, Ralf; Pawlowska, Izabela; Boberska, Monika; Cieslak, Roman; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2017-04-04

    We investigated the determinants of trajectories of physical symptoms related to lung cancer (a quality of life [QOL] aspect) and self-efficacy among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It was hypothesized that gender and family cancer history in first-degree relatives would have synergistic effects on QOL-lung cancer specific symptoms and self-efficacy. Women with family cancer history were expected to be at risk of poorer adjustment. Quantitative, longitudinal design was applied. Participants provided their responses at 3-4 days after surgery, 1-month follow-up, and 4-month follow-up. We recruited 102 in-patients (men: 51%) with NSCLC who underwent surgery aimed at removing a lung tumor. Self-report data were collected with QLQ-LC13 and a scale for self-efficacy for managing illness. Mixed-models analysis indicated that trajectories of physical quality of life (symptoms of lung cancer) as well as self-efficacy were unfavorable among women with family cancer history. Among NSCLC patients, gender and family cancer history may be considered basic screening criteria for identifying groups of patients at risk for poorer physical QOL (higher level of physical symptoms related to lung cancer) and lower incline of self-efficacy after cancer surgery.

  8. Oral health related quality of life in pregnant and post partum women in two social network domains; predominantly home-based and work-based networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Individuals connected to supportive social networks have better general and oral health quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess whether there were differences in oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) between women connected to either predominantly home-based and work-based social networks. Methods A follow-up prevalence study was conducted on 1403 pregnant and post-partum women (mean age of 25.2 ± 6.3 years) living in two cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Women were participants in an established cohort followed from pregnancy (baseline) to post-partum period (follow-up). All participants were allocated to two groups; 1. work-based social network group - employed women with paid work, and, 2. home-based social network group - women with no paid work, housewives or unemployed women. Measures of social support and social network were used as well as questions on sociodemographic characteristics and OHRQoL and health related behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to obtain OR of relationships between occupational contexts, affectionate support and positive social interaction on the one hand, and oral health quality of life, using the Oral Health Impacts Profile (OHIP) measure, adjusted for age, ethnicity, family income, schooling, marital status and social class. Results There was a modifying effect of positive social interaction on the odds of occupational context on OHRQoL. The odds of having a poorer OHIP score, ≥4, was significantly higher for women with home-based social networks and moderate levels of positive social interactions [OR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.08-2.48)], and for women with home-based social networks and low levels of positive social interactions [OR 2.15 (95% CI: 1.40-3.30)] compared with women with work-based social networks and high levels of positive social interactions. Black ethnicity was associated with OHIP scores ≥4 [OR 1.73 (95% CI: 1.23-2.42)]. Conclusions Pregnant and post

  9. Oral health related quality of life in pregnant and post partum women in two social network domains; predominantly home-based and work-based networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarca, Gabriela A; Leal, Maria do C; Leao, Anna T T; Sheiham, Aubrey; Vettore, Mario V

    2012-01-13

    Individuals connected to supportive social networks have better general and oral health quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess whether there were differences in oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) between women connected to either predominantly home-based and work-based social networks. A follow-up prevalence study was conducted on 1403 pregnant and post-partum women (mean age of 25.2 ± 6.3 years) living in two cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Women were participants in an established cohort followed from pregnancy (baseline) to post-partum period (follow-up). All participants were allocated to two groups; 1. work-based social network group--employed women with paid work, and, 2. home-based social network group--women with no paid work, housewives or unemployed women. Measures of social support and social network were used as well as questions on sociodemographic characteristics and OHRQoL and health related behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to obtain OR of relationships between occupational contexts, affectionate support and positive social interaction on the one hand, and oral health quality of life, using the Oral Health Impacts Profile (OHIP) measure, adjusted for age, ethnicity, family income, schooling, marital status and social class. There was a modifying effect of positive social interaction on the odds of occupational context on OHRQoL. The odds of having a poorer OHIP score, ≥ 4, was significantly higher for women with home-based social networks and moderate levels of positive social interactions [OR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.08-2.48)], and for women with home-based social networks and low levels of positive social interactions [OR 2.15 (95% CI: 1.40-3.30)] compared with women with work-based social networks and high levels of positive social interactions. Black ethnicity was associated with OHIP scores ≥ 4 [OR 1.73 (95% CI: 1.23-2.42)]. Pregnant and post-partum Brazilian women in paid

  10. Staff working in hospital units with greater social capital experience less work-home conflict: Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Anika; Kuntz, Ludwig; Miedaner, Felix

    2017-10-01

    When the interplay between work and private life does not function correctly (work-home conflict), this constitutes a well-known risk factor for poorer health, increased absenteeism and lower work performance. Information about influencing factors of work-home conflict is therefore indispensable in order to avoid it. In this study, we analyse whether a good working atmosphere that fosters mutual trust, support and a 'sense of unity' (organizational social capital) can reduce an employee's conflict between work and private life. This study investigates the link between organizational social capital and work-home conflict in health professionals. This issue was investigated using a cross-sectional study conducted in 2013. Data from questionnaires completed by physicians and nurses (n=1733) were linked with structural data from 66 neonatal intensive care units in Germany. Using multi-level analyses, we investigated associations between organizational social capital at the ward level and work-home conflict at the level of individual employees, taking into account additional structural and individual characteristics. Employees on wards with greater social capital reported significantly less work-home conflict. Our results support the hypothesis that organizational social capital is an important collective resource. As such, more attention should be given to establishing a good working atmosphere that fosters mutual trust, support and a 'sense of unity', and this should be encouraged in a targeted fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of the antiapoptotic protein BAG3 is a feature of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and its overexpression is associated with poorer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alessandra; Bersani, Samantha; Tavano, Francesca; Dalla Pozza, Elisa; De Marco, Margot; Palmieri, Marta; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Franco, Renato; Scognamiglio, Giosuè; Palaia, Raffaele; Fontana, Andrea; di Sebastiano, Pierluigi; Donadelli, Massimo; Dando, Ilaria; Medema, Jan Paul; Dijk, Frederike; Welling, Lieke; di Mola, Fabio Francesco; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Turco, Maria Caterina; Scarpa, Aldo

    2012-11-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most deadly cancers, being the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Long-term survival reaching 15% is achieved in less than 5% of patients who undergo surgery, and median survival is only 6 months in those with inoperable lesions. A deeper understanding of PDAC biologic characteristics as well as novel prognostic markers are therefore required to improve outcomes. Herein we report that BAG3, a protein with recognized anti-apoptotic activity, was expressed in 346 PDACs analyzed, but was not expressed in the surrounding nonneoplastic tissue. In a cohort of 66 patients who underwent radical resection (R0), survival was significantly shorter in patients with high BAG3 expression (median, 12 months) than in those with low BAG3 expression (median, 23 months) (P = 0.001). Furthermore, we report that BAG3 expression in PDAC-derived cell lines protects from apoptosis and confers resistance to gemcitabine, offering a partial explanation for the survival data. Our results indicate that BAG3 has a relevant role in PDAC biology, and suggest that BAG3 expression level might be a potential marker for prediction of patient outcome. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. REFLECTIVE SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION IN SUPPORT OF SOCIALLY JUST SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE: THE EXPERIENCE OF SOCIAL WORK STUDENTS AT A UNIVERSITY IN SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Esau, Merlene; Keet, Anneline

    2014-01-01

    Social justice and human dignity are core components of social work principles and ethics; therefore social work education should lead to socially just practice. Social workers’ ability to practise in a socially just manner relies significantly on their ability to reflect on the influence of their personal and professional socialisation and the structural inequalities that influence the lives of service users. In order to achieve a deep sense of social justice, social workers should be educat...

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Clinical significance of neonatal menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Effect of fall-related concerns on physical, mental, and social function in community-dwelling older adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Erik; Zijlstra, G A Rixt; Ambergen, Ton; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M

    2014-12-01

    To determine the effect of fall-related concerns on physical, mental, and social function. Community-based prospective cohort study (secondary analysis using control group data from a randomized controlled trial). Two municipalities in the south of the Netherlands. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 260). Two groups were created using Modified Falls Efficacy Scale scores (high and low levels of fall-related concerns). Five outcome measures representing physical, mental, and social function were included: activities of daily living (ADLs), symptoms of depression, feelings of anxiety, social participation, and social support interactions. Outcomes were measured at baseline and at 2, 8, and 14 months. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance and mixed-effect regression models for longitudinal data, adjusting for age, sex, living status (alone or with another person), educational level, cognitive status, self-perceived health, and falls history at baseline. At baseline, significantly more limitations in ADLs and social participation were found for older persons with high levels of fall-related concerns than for those with low levels of concern. These differences persisted over 14 months of follow-up and were consistent over time. No significant differences were found for symptoms of depression, feelings of anxiety, or social support interactions, except for feelings of anxiety at 14 months. Older persons with higher levels of fall-related concerns reported up to 14 months poorer ADL and social participation for up to 14 months than those with lower levels of fall-related concerns. From a clinical point of view, the clear relationship between fall-related concerns and ADL dysfunction and social participation may help to target groups who are at risk of developing adverse consequences of concerns about falls. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. A high-fat high-sugar diet predicts poorer hippocampal-related memory and a reduced ability to suppress wanting under satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attuquayefio, Tuki; Stevenson, Richard J; Boakes, Robert A; Oaten, Megan J; Yeomans, Martin R; Mahmut, Mehmet; Francis, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Animal data indicate that greater intake of fats and sugars prevalent in a Western diet impairs hippocampal memory and tests of behavioral inhibition known to be related to hippocampal function (e.g., feature negative discrimination tasks). It has been argued that such high-fat high-sugar diets (HFS) impair the hippocampus, which then becomes less sensitive to modulation by physiological state. Thus retrieval of motivationally salient memories (e.g., when seeing or smelling food) occurs irrespective of state. Here we examine whether evidence of similar effects can be observed in humans using a correlational design. Healthy human participants (N = 94), who varied in their habitual consumption of a HFS diet, completed the verbal paired-associate (VPA) test, a known hippocampal-dependent process, as well as liking and wanting ratings of palatable snack foods, assessed both when hungry and when sated. Greater intake of a HFS diet was significantly associated with a slower VPA learning rate, as predicted. Importantly, for those who regularly consumed a HFS diet, though reductions in liking and wanting occurred between hungry and sated states, the reduction in wanting was far smaller relative to liking. The latter effect was strongly related to VPA learning rate, suggestive of hippocampal mediation. In agreement with the animal literature, human participants with a greater intake of a HFS diet show deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, and their desire to consume palatable food is less affected by physiological state-a process we suggest that is also hippocampal related. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Poorer Intermittent Sprints Performance in Ramadan-Fasted Muslim Footballers despite Controlling for Pre-Exercise Dietary Intake, Sleep and Training Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Che Muhamad, Ahmad Munir; Roslan, Siti Raifana; Ghulam Mohamed, Nazirah; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Chia, Michael Yong Hwa

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effects of Ramadan fasting on sprint performance during prolonged intermittent exercise in trained Muslim footballers, under controlled pre-exercise conditions. A within-group, cross-over study design with two non-fasted or Control trials performed before (i.e., CON1) and after (CON2) the Ramadan month, and with the Ramadan-fasted (RAM) trials performed within the Ramadan month. After familiarization, 14 players completed a modified 60-min (4 × 15-min exercise blocks interspersed with 3-min intervals) of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (mLIST) of fixed speeds of walking, jogging, running, but with all-out effort sprints. During the interval periods, capillary blood glucose and blood lactate measures were taken, rectal and skin temperatures were recorded and maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) of the dominant leg and hand-grip were performed to provide some indication to the cause(s) of ‘fatigue’ during exercise. Players were provided with standardized 24-h pre-packed meals prior to all trials. Sleep hours were objectively assessed and perceived training loads were monitored and these were equivalent between RAM and CON trials. Sprint times throughout mLIST were significantly faster in both CON1 and CON2 as compared to RAM trials (all P performance in RAM was observed as early as during the first 15-min of the mLIST. Blood markers, MVIC and thermoregulatory results were not substantially different between both CON and RAM trials. In conclusion, despite similarities in dietary intake, sleeping hours and training loads between conditions, results still indicate that Ramadan fasting had an adverse effect on prolonged intermittent performance. Nocebo effects plays a dominant role during exercise in the Ramadan-fasted state. PMID:29910364

  14. Apolipoprotein E epsilon-4 polymorphism is associated with younger age at referral to a lipidology clinic and a poorer response to lipid-lowering therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Pedro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of coronary heart disease (CHD is related to environmental factors and genetic variants. Apolipoprotein E (apoE polymorphisms are heritable determinants of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, with some authors suggesting an association between the ε4 allele and CHD. We investigated the relationship between apoE genotype and age at referral to a specialized lipid clinic by the primary care physician and whether the benefits of treatment with statin differed between genotypes. Methods We assessed individual apoE genotypes and lipid blood profile in a total of 463 patients followed at a specialized lipid clinic due to dyslipidemia, with a 3-year median follow-up time. The primary care physician at the time of the referral had no access to the apoE genotyping results. Carriers of apoE ε4/ε2 genotype were excluded. Results The frequencies of ε2, ε3 and ε4 alleles were 7.8, 78.9 and 13.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences between genders. Although with similar lipid profiles and antidyslipidemic drug usage at baseline, ε4-carriers were referred to the clinic at a younger age (44.2 ± 14.7 years compared with non-ε4 carriers (50.6 ± 13.8 years (p Conclusion Our findings support the concept that there is a reduced response to anti-dyslipidemic treatment in ε4 carriers; this can be a contributing factor for the earlier referral of these patients to our specialized lipid clinic and reinforces the usefulness of apoE genotyping in predicting patients response to lipid lowering therapies.

  15. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  16. Clinical significance of the fabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodevski, A.; Lazarova-Tosovska, D.; Zhivadinovik, J.; Lazareska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: There is variable number of sesamoid bones in the human body; one of them is fabella, located in the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of fabella in the Macedonian population and to discuss about clinical importance of this bone. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined radiographs of 53 patients who had knee exams undertaken for a variety of clinical reasons, performed as a part of their medical treatment. Over a time span of six months, 53 patients (38 males and 15 females, age range 19-60 years, mean age of 36.7±12.3 years) were examined. Results: In seven (13.2%) patients of 53 analyzed reports, fabella was found in the lateral tendon of gastrocnemius muscle. We did not find a significant gender or side difference in the appearance of fabella. Conclusion: Although anatomic studies emphasized a lack of significance of the fabella, this bone has been associated with a spectrum of pathology affecting the knee as fabellar syndrome, perineal nerve injury and fracture. We should think of this sesamoid bone while performing diagnostic and surgical procedures

  17. Avoidant personality disorder in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder: what does it add?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Luana; Porter, Eliora; Keshaviah, Aparna; Pollack, Mark H; Van Ameringen, Michael; Stein, Murray B; Simon, Naomi M

    2012-08-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) has a high level of symptom overlap and comorbidity with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). We examined whether the presence of comorbid AvPD adds significant clinically relevant information for individuals seeking treatment for GSAD. Results suggested that AvPD was significantly associated with poorer quality of life and greater disability in univariate, but not multivariate analyses. Endorsement of more AvPD symptoms was associated with increased disability, increased risk of intimacy, and lower social support, even after covariate adjustment. Specifically, AvPD item 3, hard to be "open" even with people you are close to, was most strongly correlated with quality of life and disability. A binary diagnosis of AvPD alone adds little beyond a marker of greater GSAD severity and depression among patients with GSAD, while a specific feature of AvPD not captured by the GSAD diagnosis, namely emotional guardedness, may be associated with greater impairment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Childhood adversity and cognitive function in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and healthy controls: evidence for an association between neglect and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, S; Asmal, L; Chiliza, B; Olivier, M R; Phahladira, L; Scheffler, F; Seedat, S; Marder, S R; Green, M F; Emsley, R

    2017-12-22

    Childhood adversity is associated with cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, findings to date are inconsistent and little is known about the relationship between social cognition and childhood trauma. We investigated the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and cognitive function in patients with a first-episode of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder (n = 56) and matched healthy controls (n = 52). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study assessing this relationship in patients and controls exposed to similarly high levels of trauma. Pearson correlational coefficients were used to assess correlations between Childhood Trauma Questionnaire abuse and neglect scores and cognition. For the MCCB domains displaying significant (p childhood neglect remained a significant predictor of impairment in social cognition in both patients and controls. Neglect was also a significant predictor of poorer verbal learning in patients and of attention/vigilance in controls. However, childhood abuse did not significantly predict cognitive impairments in either patients or controls. These findings are cross sectional and do not infer causality. Nonetheless, they indicate that associations between one type of childhood adversity (i.e. neglect) and social cognition are present and are not illness-specific.

  19. Association between social support and health-related quality of life among Chinese seafarers: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xiao

    Full Text Available Seafarers have reported impaired health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Social support might increase HRQOL, but little is known about this association among Chinese seafarers. The aim of this study was to describe social support and explore its association with HRQOL among Chinese seafarers.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the ports of Nantong and Rugao, China, from April to December 2013. A total of 917 Chinese seafarers were interviewed on social support, mental distress, perceived occupational stress, and HRQOL using the following self-administered questionnaires: The Social Support Rating Scale, Self-rating Depression Scale, Occupational Stress Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used to analyze the association between seafarers' subjective level of social support and their HRQOL.Of the 917 male Chinese seafarers included in the study, 40.7% perceived high levels of social support, and 39.1% were highly satisfied with their overall quality of life (QOL. Hierarchical regression analysis showed significant associations between level of social support and all health dimensions in the WHOQOL-BREF, even after adjusting for depressive symptoms, occupational stress, occupational activities, sleep duration, and other relevant covariates. Compared with the medium or low level social support group, seafarers with a high level of social support had better QOL scores in the general facet health and QOL (β = 2.43, p<0.05, and the physical health (β = 3.23, p<0.001, psychological health (β = 5.56, p<0.001, social relation (β = 6.07, p<0.001, and environment domains (β = 4.27, p<0.001. In addition, depression, occupational stress, occupational activities, and sleep duration were found to be determinants of seafarers' HRQOL.Chinese seafarers have poorer HRQOL than the general population, but social support has a significant

  20. Social support and health-related quality of life in women with breast cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janni; Pachana, Nancy A; McLaughlin, Deirdre

    2014-09-01

    A breast cancer diagnosis is a distressing event that impacts on physical and psychological functioning. This study examined the longitudinal relationships among a diagnosis of breast cancer, social support, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants were 412 women from the 1946-1951 birth cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health who self-reported a new diagnosis of breast cancer between 1998 and 2007. The three surveys of longitudinal data analyzed included data 3 years before diagnosis, at diagnosis (baseline), and 3 years after diagnosis (follow-up). Social support was measured using the 19-item Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey; HRQOL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. Compared with pre-diagnosis HRQOL, women newly diagnosed with breast cancer reported significantly poorer HRQOL in subscales related to pain, physical functioning, and health and vitality. At 3-year follow-up, HRQOL had improved in most domains to levels consistent with pre-diagnosis. Levels of social support remained stable across time. The structural equation model showed that social support was positively predictive of better physical and mental HRQOL at 3-year follow-up. Longitudinal analyses indicate that social support appears to be an important predictor of HRQOL in women diagnosed with breast cancer. In particular, positive emotional and informational support that may normally be provided by a partner is important in maintaining HRQOL. Identification of those lacking social support, especially patients without partners, will enable them to be guided to appropriate support networks and programs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Social networks and their influence on drinking behaviors: differences related to cognitive impairment in clients receiving alcoholism treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Jennifer F; Bates, Marsha E; Cisler, Ron A

    2007-09-01

    Mechanisms of behavioral change that support positive addiction treatment outcomes in individuals with co-occurring alcohol-use disorders and cognitive impairment remain largely unknown. This article combines person- and variable-centered approaches to examine the interrelated influence of cognitive impairment and social support on stability of and changes in drinking behaviors of Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity) outpatients and aftercare clients (N = 1,726) during the first year after their entry into treatment. Latent class analysis identified homogeneous groups of clients based on the nature and extent of social support for abstinence or drinking at treatment entry. Cognitive impairment and drinking outcomes were compared across latent classes, and the interaction between impairment and social support on drinking outcomes was examined using mixture probit regression. Three independent social support classes (frequent positive, limited positive, and negative) were identified. In the outpatient sample, the frequent positive support class had greater cognitive impairment at treatment entry versus other classes, and extent of impairment significantly predicted improved drinking outcomes in this class. In the aftercare sample, the frequent positive and negative support classes had heightened impairment, yet cognitive impairment significantly predicted relatively poorer drinking outcomes in the negative support class only. Cognitive impairment may increase the influence of the social network on the drinking outcomes of persons receiving treatment for alcohol-use disorders, but more research is needed to understand client characteristics that determine whether this influence is more likely to be manifest as increased salience of helping agents or of hindering agents in the social network.

  2. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  3. No significant fuel failures (NSFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domaratzki, Z.

    1979-01-01

    It has long been recognized that no emergency core cooling system (ECCS) could be absolutely guaranteed to prevent fuel failures. In 1976 the Atomic Energy Control Board decided that the objective for an ECCS should be to prevent fuel failures, but if the objective could not be met it should be shown that the consequences are acceptable for dual failures comprising any LOCA combined with an assumed impairment of containment. Out of the review of the Bruce A plant came the definition of 'no significant fuel failures': for any postulated LOCA combined with any one mode of containment impairment the resultant dose to a person at the edge of the exclusion zone is less than the reference dose limits for dual failures

  4. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  5. Dilemmas in providing resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients. A qualitative study of Swedish social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marttila Anneli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term recipients of social assistance face barriers to social and economic inclusion, and have poorer health and more limited opportunities for improving their health than many other groups in the population. During recent decades there have been changes in Swedish social policy, with cutbacks in public benefits and a re-emphasis on means-tested policies. In this context, it is important to investigate the necessary conditions for social workers to offer social assistance and services, as well as the mediating role of social workers between public policies and their clients. Swedish social services aim to promote social inclusion by strengthening the individual´s own resources. We investigated the issues that arise when providing social services to long-term social assistance clients within the framework of resilience, which focuses on the processes leading to positive functioning in adverse conditions. Methods Interviews were conducted with 23 social workers in Stockholm and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results The main theme to emerge from the interviews concerned the constraints that the social workers faced in providing social services to social assistance clients. The first subtheme focused on dilemmas in the interaction between social workers and clients resulting from the dual role of exercising authority and supporting and building trust with clients. Working conditions of social workers also played a crucial role. The second subtheme addressed the impact of the societal context, such as labour market opportunities and coordination between authorities. Conclusions Overall, we found that social workers to a great extent tried to find individual solutions to structural problems. To provide resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients with varying obstacles and needs requires a constructive working environment, supportive societal structures and inter-sectoral cooperation

  6. Dilemmas in providing resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients. A qualitative study of Swedish social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttila, Anneli; Johansson, Eva; Whitehead, Margaret; Burström, Bo

    2012-07-12

    Long-term recipients of social assistance face barriers to social and economic inclusion, and have poorer health and more limited opportunities for improving their health than many other groups in the population. During recent decades there have been changes in Swedish social policy, with cutbacks in public benefits and a re-emphasis on means-tested policies. In this context, it is important to investigate the necessary conditions for social workers to offer social assistance and services, as well as the mediating role of social workers between public policies and their clients. Swedish social services aim to promote social inclusion by strengthening the individual's own resources. We investigated the issues that arise when providing social services to long-term social assistance clients within the framework of resilience, which focuses on the processes leading to positive functioning in adverse conditions. Interviews were conducted with 23 social workers in Stockholm and analysed by qualitative content analysis. The main theme to emerge from the interviews concerned the constraints that the social workers faced in providing social services to social assistance clients. The first subtheme focused on dilemmas in the interaction between social workers and clients resulting from the dual role of exercising authority and supporting and building trust with clients. Working conditions of social workers also played a crucial role. The second subtheme addressed the impact of the societal context, such as labour market opportunities and coordination between authorities. Overall, we found that social workers to a great extent tried to find individual solutions to structural problems. To provide resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients with varying obstacles and needs requires a constructive working environment, supportive societal structures and inter-sectoral cooperation between different authorities.

  7. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  8. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  9. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  10. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  11. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  12. The significance of Alfred Adler for the concept of narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansbacher, H L

    1985-02-01

    Alfred Adler's significance for the concept of narcissism is presented with reference to four aspects: 1) Adler's theory of masculine protest was evidently a factor influencing Freud to turn toward the phenomenon of narcissism. 2) Present-day understanding of narcissism shows remarkable similarity to Adler's views on psychodynamics and neurotic egocentricity. 3) Some contemporary criticisms of Freud's theory of narcissism are very similar to Adler's criticism. 4) Adler's theory of social interest permits subsumption of narcissism under lack of social interest rather than acceptance of it as an expression of innate socially negative tendencies.

  13. What is social about social perception research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eTeufel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing consensus in social cognitive neuroscience holds that large portions of the primate visual brain are dedicated to the processing of social information, i.e., to those aspects of stimuli that are usually encountered in social interactions such as others’ facial expressions, actions and symbols. Yet, studies of social perception have mostly employed simple pictorial representations of conspecifics. These stimuli are social only in the restricted sense that they physically resemble objects with which the observer would typically interact. In an equally important sense, however, these stimuli might be regarded as ‘non-social’: the observer knows that they are viewing pictures and might therefore not attribute current mental states to the stimuli or might do so in a qualitatively different way than in a real social interaction. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of such higher-order conceptualisation of the stimulus for social perceptual processing. Here, we assess the similarity between the various types of stimuli used in the laboratory and object classes encountered in real social interactions. We distinguish two different levels at which experimental stimuli can match social stimuli as encountered in everyday social settings: (i the extent to which a stimulus’ physical properties resemble those typically encountered in social interactions and (ii the higher-level conceptualisation of the stimulus as indicating another person’s mental states. We illustrate the significance of this distinction for social perception research and report new empirical evidence further highlighting the importance of mental state attribution for perceptual processing. Finally, we discuss the potential of this approach to inform studies of clinical conditions such as autism.

  14. [Depression, social support and compliance in patients with chronic heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutlinger, Julia; Müller-Tasch, Thomas; Schellberg, Dieter; Frankenstein, Lutz; Zugck, Christian; Herzog, Wolfgang; Lossnitzer, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Depressive patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) show less social integration and greater physical impairment as well as poorer compliance than non depressive CHF patients. Using multiple regression analyses, this study (n=84) investigated a potential mediating effect of depression on the relationship between compliance and both social support and physical functioning. Results did not support the hypothesized mediating effect of depression. However, the variables age, depression, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and social support were associated with self-reported compliance. Therefore, a lack of social support and depression should be considered as possible reasons, if patients are noncompliant during the treatment process. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enjoyment of life. Social anxiety disorder can cause: Low self-esteem Trouble being assertive Negative self-talk Hypersensitivity to criticism Poor social skills Isolation and difficult social relationships Low academic and employment achievement Substance abuse, such as ...

  16. Detection of significant protein coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of proteins cannot be fully understood without taking into account the coevolutionary linkages entangling them. From a practical point of view, coevolution between protein families has been used as a way of detecting protein interactions and functional relationships from genomic information. The most common approach to inferring protein coevolution involves the quantification of phylogenetic tree similarity using a family of methodologies termed mirrortree. In spite of their success, a fundamental problem of these approaches is the lack of an adequate statistical framework to assess the significance of a given coevolutionary score (tree similarity). As a consequence, a number of ad hoc filters and arbitrary thresholds are required in an attempt to obtain a final set of confident coevolutionary signals. In this work, we developed a method for associating confidence estimators (P values) to the tree-similarity scores, using a null model specifically designed for the tree comparison problem. We show how this approach largely improves the quality and coverage (number of pairs that can be evaluated) of the detected coevolution in all the stages of the mirrortree workflow, independently of the starting genomic information. This not only leads to a better understanding of protein coevolution and its biological implications, but also to obtain a highly reliable and comprehensive network of predicted interactions, as well as information on the substructure of macromolecular complexes using only genomic information. The software and datasets used in this work are freely available at: http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/pMT/. pazos@cnb.csic.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Significance of Tc-99m pyrophosphate accumulation in unstable angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tange, Shoichi; Kondo, Chisato; Ohta, Yoshiko; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Shigeta, Akiko; Uchida, Tatsuro; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Noboru; Hosoda, Saichi

    1993-01-01

    Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) and Tl-201 simultaneous dual energy single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed in 33 patients with clinically unstable angina. According to the presence or absence of PYP accumulation in the myocardium, the patients were classified as PYP (+) group (n=22) and PYP (-) group (n=11). Clinical features, types of unstable angina, ECG changes, and serial creatine kinase (CK) data were compared in the two groups. The 'new angina at rest' type of unstable angina was more significantly common in the PYP (+) group (16/22) than the PYP (-) group (2/11). The remaining 6 patients in the PYP (+) group and 2 patients in the PYP (-) group had 'angina of effort with changing pattern'. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of ST elevation and ST depression between the group: 59% in the PYP (+) group vs. 18% in the PYP (-) group for ST elevation and 23% in the PYP (+) group vs. 64% in the PYP (-) group for ST depression. The PYP (+) group showed significant improvement in ejection fraction in the stable state (57±12%) as compared with the unstable state (62±11%), although there was no difference between the stable and unstable state in the PYP (-) group. Although wall motion abnormality index (WMI) was poorer in the PYP (+) group than the PYP (-) group, it improved to the same degree as the PYP (-) group one month later. These data suggest that the area showing PYP (+) may reflect stunned myocardium and that Tc-99m PYP accumulation may correlate with clinical features of unstable angina. (N.K.)

  18. Tumor-Associated Macrophages Provide Significant Prognostic Information in Urothelial Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna M Boström

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an important feature of carcinogenesis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs can be associated with either poor or improved prognosis, depending on their properties and polarization. Current knowledge of the prognostic significance of TAMs in bladder cancer is limited and was investigated in this study. We analyzed 184 urothelial bladder cancer patients undergoing transurethral resection of a bladder tumor or radical cystectomy. CD68 (pan-macrophage marker, MAC387 (polarized towards type 1 macrophages, and CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 (type 2 macrophages and lymphatic/blood vessels were detected immunohistochemically. The median follow-up time was 6.0 years. High macrophage counts associated with a higher pT category and grade. Among patients undergoing transurethral resection, all studied markers apart from CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 were associated with increased risk of progression and poorer disease-specific and overall survival in univariate analyses. High levels of two macrophage markers (CD68/MAC387+/+ or CD68/CLEVER-1+/+ groups had an independent prognostic role after transurethral resection in multivariate analyses. In the cystectomy cohort, MAC387, alone and in combination with CD68, was associated with poorer survival in univariate analyses, but none of the markers were independent predictors of outcome in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that macrophage phenotypes provide significant independent prognostic information, particularly in bladder cancers undergoing transurethral resection.

  19. Social-cognitive functioning and social skills in patients with early treated phenylketonuria: a PKU-COBESO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahja, Rianne; van Spronsen, Francjan J; de Sonneville, Leo M J; van der Meere, Jaap J; Bosch, Annet M; Hollak, Carla E M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Brouwers, Martijn C G J; Hofstede, Floris C; de Vries, Maaike C; Janssen, Mirian C H; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Langendonk, Janneke G; Huijbregts, Stephan C J

    2016-05-01

    Early treatment of phenylketonuria (ET-PKU) prevents mental retardation, but many patients still show cognitive and mood problems. In this study, it was investigated whether ET-PKU-patients have specific phenylalanine (Phe-)related problems with respect to social-cognitive functioning and social skills. Ninety five PKU-patients (mean age 21.6 ± 10.2 years) and 95 healthy controls (mean age 19.6 ± 8.7 years) were compared on performance of computerized and paper-and-pencil tasks measuring social-cognitive abilities and on parent- and self-reported social skills, using multivariate analyses of variance, and controlling for general cognitive ability (IQ-estimate). Further comparisons were made between patients using tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, N = 30) and patients not using BH4. Associations with Phe-levels on the day of testing, during childhood, during adolescence and throughout life were examined. PKU-patients showed poorer social-cognitive functioning and reportedly had poorer social skills than controls (regardless of general cognitive abilities). Quality of social-cognitive functioning was negatively related to recent Phe-levels and Phe-levels between 8 and 12 years for adolescents with PKU. Quality of social skills was negatively related to lifetime phenylalanine levels in adult patients, and specifically to Phe-levels between 0 and 7, and between 8 and 12 years. There were no differences with respect to social outcome measures between the BH4 and non-BH4 groups. PKU-patients have Phe-related difficulties with social-cognitive functioning and social skills. Problems seem to be more evident among adolescents and adults with PKU. High Phe-levels during childhood and early adolescence seem to be of greater influence than current and recent Phe-levels for these patients.

  20. Proyectos sociales

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana Zambrano, Waldo E.

    2011-01-01

    Explica qué es un Proyecto social, su formulación , y la importancia de los indicadores de desarrollo humano en la formulación de proyectos sociales. Explain what a social project, its formulation, and the importance of human development indicators in the formulation of social projects.

  1. SOCIAL MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    RESPONSIBILITY CENTCOM COALITION MEDIA SOCIAL MEDIA NEWS ARTICLES PRESS RELEASES IMAGERY VIDEOS TRANSCRIPTS VISITORS AND PERSONNEL FAMILY CENTER FAMILY READINESS CENTCOM WEBMAIL SOCIAL MEDIA SECURITY ACCOUNTABILITY HomeMEDIASOCIAL MEDIA Social Media CENTCOM'S ENGLISH SOCIAL MEDIA ACCOUNTS There are many U.S. military commands

  2. Social Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slover-Linett, Cheryl; Stoner, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, CASE formed a social media task force to explore what educational institutions are trying to achieve with social media presence and learn about social media engagements at member institutions. CASE, in partnership with mStoner and Slover Linett Strategies, in June launched a benchmarking survey on social media in advancement by…

  3. Poorer right ventricular systolic function and exercise capacity in women after repair of tetralogy of fallot: a sex comparison of standard deviation scores based on sex-specific reference values in healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikouch, Samir; Boethig, Dietmar; Peters, Brigitte; Kropf, Siegfried; Dubowy, Karl-Otto; Lange, Peter; Kuehne, Titus; Haverich, Axel; Beerbaum, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    In repaired congenital heart disease, there is increasing evidence of sex differences in cardiac remodeling, but there is a lack of comparable data for specific congenital heart defects such as in repaired tetralogy of Fallot. In a prospective multicenter study, a cohort of 272 contemporary patients (158 men; mean age, 14.3±3.3 years [range, 8-20 years]) with repaired tetralogy of Fallot underwent cardiac magnetic resonance for ventricular function and metabolic exercise testing. All data were transformed to standard deviation scores according to the Lambda-Mu-Sigma method by relating individual values to their respective 50th percentile (standard deviation score, 0) in sex-specific healthy control subjects. No sex differences were observed in age at repair, type of repair conducted, or overall hemodynamic results. Relative to sex-specific controls, repaired tetralogy of Fallot in women had larger right ventricular end-systolic volumes (standard deviation scores: women, 4.35; men, 3.25; P=0.001), lower right ventricular ejection fraction (women, -2.83; men, -2.12; P=0.011), lower right ventricular muscle mass (women, 1.58; men 2.45; P=0.001), poorer peak oxygen uptake (women, -1.65; men, -1.14; Pstandard deviation scores in repaired tetralogy of Fallot suggest that women perform poorer than men in terms of right ventricular systolic function as tested by cardiac magnetic resonance and exercise capacity. This effect cannot be explained by selection bias. Further outcome data are required from longitudinal cohort studies.

  4. Increased mRNA Levels of Sphingosine Kinases and S1P Lyase and Reduced Levels of S1P Were Observed in Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Association with Poorer Differentiation and Earlier Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Kurano, Makoto; Enooku, Kenichiro; Sato, Masaya; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Although sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) has been reported to play an important role in cancer pathophysiology, little is known about S1P and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To clarify the relationship between S1P and HCC, 77 patients with HCC who underwent surgical treatment were consecutively enrolled in this study. In addition, S1P and its metabolites were quantitated by LC-MS/MS. The mRNA levels of sphingosine kinases (SKs), which phosphorylate sphingosine to generate S1P, were increased in HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-HCC tissues. Higher mRNA levels of SKs in HCC were associated with poorer differentiation and microvascular invasion, whereas a higher level of SK2 mRNA was a risk factor for intra- and extra-hepatic recurrence. S1P levels, however, were unexpectedly reduced in HCC compared with non-HCC tissues, and increased mRNA levels of S1P lyase (SPL), which degrades S1P, were observed in HCC compared with non-HCC tissues. Higher SPL mRNA levels in HCC were associated with poorer differentiation. Finally, in HCC cell lines, inhibition of the expression of SKs or SPL by siRNA led to reduced proliferation, invasion and migration, whereas overexpression of SKs or SPL enhanced proliferation. In conclusion, increased SK and SPL mRNA expression along with reduced S1P levels were more commonly observed in HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-HCC tissues and were associated with poor differentiation and early recurrence. SPL as well as SKs may be therapeutic targets for HCC treatment.

  5. Social Consciousness and Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kevin; Cowles, Milly

    The act of disciplining children cannot be based upon merely "putting a stop" to negative actions by means of reactionary techniques of control. If educators begin to consider discipline as a major aspect of the educational aim of socialization of children, significant contributions toward their moral and social development will take place.…

  6. Social Innovation Policies with the Involvement of Social Economy Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassi, Andrea; Ecchia, Giulio; Guerra, Alice

    In this paper, we investigate significant social innovation policies (related to the concept of social investment) involving the role of Social Economy organizations, and we discuss some relevant national and regional social innovation experiences by relying upon the current national...... and international literature, reports and website information. During the 1990s and the first half of the 2000s, the concept of “social economy” has evolved from one where the emphasis was on the social (social outcomes and collective action) to a neo-liberal one with more emphasis on the economic and individual...... actors (social entrepreneurs). Nowadays we are facing a transition period nevertheless in the recent developments of the policy orientation at European level, there are some slight but significant clues of a move back towards a more ‘social’ concept. We will assume as operating definition of Social...

  7. The mediating role of Internet addiction in depression, social anxiety, and psychosocial well-being among adolescents in six Asian countries: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C M; Mak, K K; Watanabe, H; Jeong, J; Kim, D; Bahar, N; Ramos, M; Chen, S H; Cheng, C

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the associations of Internet addiction with social anxiety, depression, and psychosocial well-being among Asian adolescents. A self-medication model conceptualizing Internet addiction as a mediating role in relating depression and social anxiety to negative psychosocial well-being was tested. A cross-sectional survey. In the Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS), 5366 adolescents aged 12-18 years from six Asian countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and Philippines) completed a questionnaire with items of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD), Self-Rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA-SR) in the 2012-2013 school year. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the mediating role of Internet addiction in depression, social anxiety, and subjective psychosocial well-being. Significant differences on the scores of IAT, SAS-A, CESD, and HoNOSCA-SR across the six countries were found. The proposed self-medication model of Internet addiction received satisfactory goodness-of-fit with data of all countries. After the path from social anxiety to Internet addiction had been discarded in the revised model, there was a significant improvement of the goodness-of-fit in the models for Japan, South Korea, and the Philippines. Depression and social anxiety reciprocally influenced, whereas depression associated with poorer psychosocial well-being directly and indirectly through Internet addiction in all six countries. Internet addiction mediated the association between social anxiety and poor psychosocial well-being in China, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, R

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......, social anchorage and relational strain. We use this conceptual framework to describe social relations in the Danish population, with questionnaire data from the Danish Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study including a random sample of each of the age groups 25-, 50-, 60-and 70-year olds, N = 2......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...

  9. White matter microstructure predicts longitudinal social cognitive outcomes after paediatric traumatic brain injury: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, N P; Genc, S; Beauchamp, M H; Yeates, K O; Hearps, S; Catroppa, C; Anderson, V A; Silk, T J

    2018-03-01

    Deficits in social cognition may be among the most profound and disabling sequelae of paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the neuroanatomical correlates of longitudinal outcomes in this domain remain unexplored. This study aimed to characterize social cognitive outcomes longitudinally after paediatric TBI, and to evaluate the use of sub-acute diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to predict these outcomes. The sample included 52 children with mild complex-severe TBI who were assessed on cognitive theory of mind (ToM), pragmatic language and affective ToM at 6- and 24-months post-injury. For comparison, 43 typically developing controls (TDCs) of similar age and sex were recruited. DTI data were acquired sub-acutely (mean = 5.5 weeks post-injury) in a subset of 65 children (TBI = 35; TDC = 30) to evaluate longitudinal prospective relationships between white matter microstructure assessed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics and social cognitive outcomes. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis revealed significantly higher mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) in the sub-acute TBI group compared with TDC, with differences observed predominantly in the splenium of the corpus callosum (sCC), sagittal stratum (SS), dorsal cingulum (DC), uncinate fasciculus (UF) and middle and superior cerebellar peduncles (MCP & SCP, respectively). Relative to TDCs, children with TBI showed poorer cognitive ToM, affective ToM and pragmatic language at 6-months post-insult, and those deficits were related to abnormal diffusivity of the sCC, SS, DC, UF, MCP and SCP. Moreover, children with TBI showed poorer affective ToM and pragmatic language at 24-months post-injury, and those outcomes were predicted by sub-acute alterations in diffusivity of the DC and MCP. Abnormal microstructure within frontal-temporal, limbic and cerebro-cerebellar white matter may be a risk factor for long-term social difficulties observed in children with TBI. DTI may have

  10. A life course approach to explore the biological embedding of socioeconomic position and social mobility through circulating inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagné, Raphaële; Delpierre, Cyrille; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Campanella, Gianluca; Guida, Florence; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios; Hosnijeh, Fatemeh Saberi; Lang, Thierry; Vermeulen, Roel; Vineis, Paolo; Stringhini, Silvia; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc

    2016-04-27

    Lower socioeconomic position (SEP) has consistently been associated with poorer health. To explore potential biological embedding and the consequences of SEP experiences from early life to adulthood, we investigate how SEP indicators at different points across the life course may be related to a combination of 28 inflammation markers. Using blood-derived inflammation profiles measured by a multiplex array in 268 participants from the Italian component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we evaluate the association between early life, young adulthood and later adulthood SEP with each inflammatory markers separately, or by combining them into an inflammatory score. We identified an increased inflammatory burden in participants whose father had a manual occupation, through increased plasma levels of CSF3 (G-CSF; β = 0.29; P = 0.002), and an increased inflammatory score (β = 1.96; P = 0.029). Social mobility was subsequently modelled by the interaction between father's occupation and the highest household occupation, revealing a significant difference between "stable Non-manual" profiles over the life course versus "Manual to Non-manual" profiles (β = 2.38, P = 0.023). Low SEP in childhood is associated with modest increase in adult inflammatory burden; however, the analysis of social mobility suggests a stronger effect of an upward social mobility over the life course.

  11. Association between childhood obesity, cognitive development, physical fitness and social-emotional wellbeing in a transitional economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Marcos; Uauy, Ricardo; López-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Kain, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that obese children have lower cognitive function, demonstrate poorer physical performance and are more susceptible to social-emotional problems. To describe associations between human physical growth, cognitive development, physical fitness and social-emotional characteristics of obese and non-obese children and to verify the predictors of intellectual coefficient by socioeconomic status (SES). A sample of 107 non-obese (N-Ob) children [-1 z-score body mass index (BMI) ≤1 z-score] and 108 obese (Ob) children [2 z-score ≤BMI ≤5 z-score] from a larger cohort was evaluated. Intellectual coefficient (IQ), social-emotional wellbeing (SEW), 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and SES (mid-low, low and very low) were assessed. Ob children were taller, heavier and present more height for age and BMI than N-Ob children (p < 0.001). A significant correlation between IQ and SEW (r = 0.14), 6MWT and BMI z-score (r = -0.18) and 6MWT and SEW (r = 0.15) was found. Multiple regression analysis revealed that BMI z-score had a negative impact on IQ in the mid-low SES sub-group and that SEW had a positive effect on IQ in the very-low SES sub-group. In Chilean pre-school children from low-income families cognitive ability varied according to SES.

  12. Complementary Social Science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Pedersen, Morten Axel

    2014-01-01

    of measurement device deployed. At the same time, however, we also expect new interferences and polyphonies to arise at the intersection of Big and Small Data, provided that these are, so to speak, mixed with care. These questions, we stress, are important not only for the future of social science methods......The rise of Big Data in the social realm poses significant questions at the intersection of science, technology, and society, including in terms of how new large-scale social databases are currently changing the methods, epistemologies, and politics of social science. In this commentary, we address...

  13. Teasing and social rejection among obese children enrolling in family-based behavioural treatment: effects on psychological adjustment and academic competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, T; Njardvik, U; Olafsdottir, A S; Craighead, L W; Bjarnason, R

    2012-01-01

    The first objective was to determine the prevalence of psychological maladjustment (emotional and behavioural problems), low academic competencies and teasing/social rejection among obese Icelandic children enrolling in a family-based behavioural treatment. A second objective was to explore the degree to which teasing/social rejection specifically contributes to children's psychological adjustment and academic competencies when controlling for other variables, including demographics, children's physical activity, parental depression and life-stress. Participants were 84 obese children (mean body mass index-standard deviation score=3.11, age range=7.52-13.61 years). Height and weight, demographics and measures of children's psychological adjustment, academic competencies, teasing/social rejection and physical activity were collected from children, parents and teachers. Parental depression and life-stress was self-reported. Over half the children exceeded cutoffs indicating concern on at least one measure of behavioural or emotional difficulties. Children endorsed significant levels of teasing/social rejection, with almost half acknowledging they were not popular with same-gender peers. Parent reports of peer problems were even higher, with over 90% of both boys and girls being rated by their parents as having significant peer difficulties. However, rates of low academic competencies as reported by teachers were not different from those of the general population. In regression analyses controlling for other variables, self-reported teasing/social rejection emerged as a significant contributor to explaining both child psychological adjustment and academic competencies. The results indicate that among obese children enrolled in family-based treatment, self-reported teasing/social rejection is quite high and it is associated with poorer psychological adjustment as well as lower academic competencies. Parent reports corroborate the presence of substantial peer

  14. Prevalence of diabetic macular oedema and related health and social care resource use in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minassian, D C; Owens, D R; Reidy, A

    2012-03-01

    To address the absence from the public health ophthalmology literature of age- and sex-specific prevalence and related resource use for diabetic macular oedema (DMO) in England, UK. Calculation of age- and sex-specific rates from primary source clinical data, and application to the demographic structure of England to estimate the number of cases affected by DMO. A public health commissioner and provider of social care perspective was adopted in a standard cost of illness study. The number of people with diabetes in England in 2010 was estimated at 2,342,951 of which 2,334,550 were aged ≥ 12 years. An estimated 166,325 (7.12%) had DMO in one or both eyes, and of these, 64,725 individuals had clinically significant DMO reducing the visual acuity to poorer than 6/6 in at least one eye. The overall health and social care costs in 2010, on the pathway from screening to rehabilitation and care in the home, are estimated at £116,296,038. The outcomes of this study should alert public health commissioners and clinical providers to the burden of DMO. The methods employed should also encourage the use of clinical ophthalmic data at the interface between local population and hospital-based recording systems.

  15. IMPACT OF PERSONAL ORIENTATIONS ON ATTITUDES TO DIVERSITY AND CIVIC SOCIAL-POLITICAL ACTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Zografova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamically ongoing processes of integration are among the crucial premises for the development of contemporary interpersonal, intergroup and cross-cultural relations, attitudes, conflicts and more. The research problem here directs to an analysis, based on ESS data collected in 8 countries, rounds 2006 and 2008, on the extent to which Europeans' personal orientations significantly influence the attitudes towards ethno-national diversity, in this case, towards two social groups: immigrants coming from poorer countries outside Europe and people with different sexual orientation. Furthermore, the influence of the same factors on the civic activeness and involvement in the social-political processes has been followed. Through regressive analysis the important effect of the co-otherness orientation (a concept developed by Sicakkan, 2003, the orientation to success and traditionalism on all included dependent variables has been proved. The expectations for predicting effects of the three personal orientations have been confirmed regarding the civic involvement and tolerance to diversity. Simultaneously the necessity of working EU politics to deal with the risks of emerging negative attitudes has been pointed out in relation to the broad immigrant and refugee wave to European countries.

  16. Significant prognosticators after primary radiotherapy in 903 nondisseminated nasopharyngeal carcinoma evaluated by computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, P.; Yu, P.; Lee, W.Y.; Leung, S.F.; Kwan, W.H.; Yu, K.H.; Choi, P.; Johnson, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the significant prognosticators in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: From 1984 to 1989, 903 treatment-naive nondisseminated (MO) NPC were given primary radical radiotherapy to 60-62.5 Gy in 6 weeks. All patients had computed tomographic (CT) and endoscopic evaluation of the primary tumor. Potentially significant parameters (the patient's age and sex, the anatomical structures infiltrated by the primary lesion, the cervical nodal characteristics, the tumor histological subtypes, and various treatment variables were analyzed by both monovariate and multivariate methods for each of the five clinical endpoints: actuarial survival, disease-free survival, free from distant metastasis, free from local failure, and free from regional failure. Results: The significant prognosticators predicting for an increased risk of distant metastases and poorer survival included male sex, skull base and cranial nerve(s) involvement, advanced Ho's N level, and presence of fixed or partially fixed nodes or nodes contralateral to the side of the bulk of the nasopharyngeal primary. Advanced patient age led to significantly worse survival and poorer local tumor control. Local and regional failures were both increased by tumor infiltrating the skull base and/or the cranial nerves. In addition, regional failure was increased significantly by advancing Ho's N level. Parapharyngeal tumor involvement was the strongest independent prognosticator that determined distant metastasis and survival rates in the absence of the overriding prognosticators of skull base infiltration, cranial nerve(s) palsy, and cervical nodal metastasis. Conclusions: The significant prognosticators are delineated after the advent of CT and these should form the foundation of the modern stage classification for NPC

  17. Social support and mastery influence the association between stress and poor physical health in parents caring for children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Joanne; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    To date, much of the research linking the stress of caring for children with developmental disabilities (e.g. Autism & Down syndrome) with parental health outcomes have tended to concentrate on mental health with less attention paid to the physical health consequences. Thus, this study sought to explore the psychosocial predictors of poor physical health in these caring parents. One hundred and sixty-seven parents (109 caregivers and 58 control parents) completed measures of stress, child problem behaviours, social support, mastery and physical health. Parents of children with developmental disabilities had poorer physical health compared to control parents. Stress and mastery, but not social support and problem behaviours, were significant predictors of poor physical health within caring parents for children with developmental disabilities. However, the association between mastery and physical health was mediated by perceived stress such that those parents who were higher on mastery reported less stress and better physical health; furthermore, the association between stress and physical health was moderated by social support; those parents high on social support and low in stress had better physical health. These results indicate that the paths between psychosocial factors and poor physical health in the caring parents are working synergistically rather than in isolation. They also underscore the importance of providing multi-component interventions that offer a variety of psychosocial resources to meet the precise needs of the parents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anger profiles in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versella, Mark V; Piccirillo, Marilyn L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Heimberg, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) exhibit elevated levels of anger and anger suppression, which are both associated with increased depression, diminished quality of life, and poorer treatment outcomes. However, little is known about how anger experiences differ among individuals with SAD and whether any heterogeneity might relate to negative outcomes. This investigation sought to empirically define anger profiles among 136 treatment-seeking individuals with SAD and to assess their association with distress and impairment. A latent class analysis was conducted utilizing the trait subscales of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 as indicators of class membership. Analysis revealed four distinct anger profiles, with greatest distress and impairment generally demonstrated by individuals with elevated trait anger, a greater tendency to suppress the expression of anger, and diminished ability to adaptively control their anger expression. These results have implications for tailoring more effective interventions for socially anxious individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Compensatory internet use among individuals higher in social anxiety and its implications for well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Aaron C; Fernandez, Katya C; Levinson, Cheri A; Augustine, Adam A; Larsen, Randy J; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2012-08-01

    The social compensation hypothesis states that the internet primarily benefits individuals who feel uncomfortable communicating face-to-face. In the current research, we tested whether individuals higher in social anxiety use the internet as a compensatory social medium, and whether such use is associated with greater well-being. In Study 1, individuals higher in social anxiety reported greater feelings of comfort and self-disclosure when socializing online than less socially anxious individuals, but reported less self-disclosure when communicating face-to-face. However, in Study 2, social anxiety was associated with lower quality of life and higher depression most strongly for individuals who communicated frequently online. Our results suggest that, whereas social anxiety may be associated with using the internet as an alternative to face-to-face communication, such a strategy may result in poorer well-being.

  20. An overview of systematic reviews on the public health consequences of social isolation and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh-Hunt, N; Bagguley, D; Bash, K; Turner, V; Turnbull, S; Valtorta, N; Caan, W

    2017-11-01

    Social isolation and loneliness have been associated with ill health and are common in the developed world. A clear understanding of their implications for morbidity and mortality is needed to gauge the extent of the associated public health challenge and the potential benefit of intervention. A systematic review of systematic reviews (systematic overview) was undertaken to determine the wider consequences of social isolation and loneliness, identify any differences between the two, determine differences from findings of non-systematic reviews and to clarify the direction of causality. Eight databases were searched from 1950 to 2016 for English language reviews covering social isolation and loneliness but not solely social support. Suitability for inclusion was determined by two or more reviewers, the methodological quality of included systematic reviews assessed using the a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews (AMSTAR) checklist and the quality of evidence within these reviews using the grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluations (GRADE) approach. Non-systematic reviews were sought for a comparison of findings but not included in the primary narrative synthesis. Forty systematic reviews of mainly observational studies were identified, largely from the developed world. Meta-analyses have identified a significant association between social isolation and loneliness with increased all-cause mortality and social isolation with cardiovascular disease. Narrative systematic reviews suggest associations with poorer mental health outcomes, with less strong evidence for behavioural and other physical health outcomes. No reviews were identified for wider socio-economic or developmental outcomes. This systematic overview highlights that there is consistent evidence linking social isolation and loneliness to worse cardiovascular and mental health outcomes. The role of social isolation and loneliness in other conditions and their socio

  1. Clinical Significance of Preoperative Albumin and Globulin Ratio in Patients with Gastric Cancer Undergoing Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-jie Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The pretreatment albumin and globulin ratio (AGR was an inflammation-associated factor which was related to the overall survival in various malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of AGR in patients with gastric cancer. Method. This retrospective study included 862 cases pathologically diagnosed with gastric cancer. All patients were randomly divided into the testing group (431 cases and validation group (431 cases. The relationships of AGR with clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Results. In the testing group, the median overall survival was 26.90 months and the cutoff value of AGR was 1.50 based on R language. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that lower AGR was correlated with poorer overall survival. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that AGR was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR: 0.584, 95% CI = 0.351–0.973, and p = 0.039. In the validation group, the median overall survival was 24.10 months. Lower AGR (≤1.50 also had a significantly poorer overall survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis. According to multivariate analysis, the AGR was also confirmed to be an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR: 0.578, 95% CI = 0.373–0.897, and p = 0.015. Conclusions. Our study suggested that the pretreatment AGR could be a prognostic biomarker for overall survival in patients with gastric cancer.

  2. SOCIAL ENTREPRISES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PIRVU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social economy concept is relatively new in Romania, but the interest of specialists and practitioners is growing because significant funds has been allocated to stimulate the development of social economy organizations and numerous supporting statements was made by the European Commission. The present paper realizes an exploratory approach on the concept of social enterprise in Romania and clarifies some notions, given the practices of social economy in recent years. Also, a typology of the Romania's counties in terms of the presence of social enterprises has been obtained. A series of data were collected by accessing sites of specialized institutions or requesting information under the Law regarding the free access to information of public interest. After their processing a territorial distribution of social enterprises in Romania was shaped.

  3. Social mechanisms and social causation

    OpenAIRE

    Friedel Weinert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the notion of social mechanisms by comparison with the notions of evolutionary and physical mechanisms. It is argued that social mechanisms are based on trends, and not lawlike regularities, so that social mechanisms are different from mechanisms in the natural sciences. Taking as an example of social causation the abolition of the slave trade, this paper argues that social mechanisms should be incorporated in Weber’s wider ...

  4. Social entrepreneurship and social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dufays, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation, we argue that the sociology of social networks may provide interesting insights with regard to the emergence of social entrepreneurship both at micro and macro levels. There have already been several calls for research on social networks in the context of social entrepreneurship (Certo & Miller 2008; Gedajlovic, et al. 2013; Haugh 2007; Mair & Marti 2006; Short, et al. 2009). These calls often address the differences in structure and effects of social networks in a socia...

  5. Social and Economic Implications of Noncommunicable diseases in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs have become a major public health problem in India accounting for 62% of the total burden of foregone DALYs and 53% of total deaths. In this paper, we review the social and economic impact of NCDs in India. We outline this impact at household, health system and the macroeconomic level. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs figure at the top among the leading ten causes of adult (25-69 years deaths in India. The effects of NCDs are inequitable with evidence of reversal in social gradient of risk factors and greater financial implications for the poorer households in India. Out-of-pocket expenditure associated with the acute and long-term effects of NCDs is high resulting in catastrophic health expenditure for the households. Study in India showed that about 25% of families with a member with CVD and 50% with cancer experience catastrophic expenditure and 10% and 25%, respectively, are driven to poverty. The odds of incurring catastrophic hospitalization expenditure were nearly 160% higher with cancer than the odds of incurring catastrophic spending when hospitalization was due to a communicable disease. These high numbers also pose significant challenge for the health system for providing treatment, care and support. The proportion of hospitalizations and outpatient consultations as a result of NCDs rose from 32% to 40% and 22% to 35%, respectively, within a decade from 1995 to 2004. In macroeconomic term, most of the estimates suggest that the NCDs in India account for an economic burden in the range of 5-10% of GDP, which is significant and slowing down GDP thus hampering development. While India is simultaneously experiencing several disease burdens due to old and new infections, nutritional deficiencies, chronic diseases, and injuries, individual interventions for clinical care are unlikely to be affordable on a large scale. While it is clear that "treating our way out" of the NCDs may not be the efficient way, it has

  6. Prognostic significance of surgical extranodal extension in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Fumihiko; Mori, Taisuke; Matsumura, Satoko; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Fukasawa, Masahiko; Teshima, Masanori; Kobayashi, Kenya; Yoshimoto, Seiichi

    2017-08-01

    Lymph node metastasis with extranodal extension represents one of the most important adverse prognostic factors for survival in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. We propose that extranodal extension occurs to differing extents. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of extranodal extension in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Two hundred and ninety-eight patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who underwent surgical resection and neck dissection were included. Cervical lymph nodes were classified into four categories: (i) pathological N negative, (ii) extranodal extension negative, (iii) non-surgical extranodal extension and (iv) surgical extranodal extension. Lymph node metastases were detected in 67.1% of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer patients and 52.7% of oral cancer patients. The 3-year disease-specific survival rates for patients in the pathological N negative, extranodal extension negative, non-surgical extranodal extension and surgical extranodal extension groups were 90.9%, 79.6%, 63.8% and 48.3%, respectively. In laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer patients, surgical extranodal extension was associated with a significantly poorer disease-specific survival than a pathological N negative, extranodal extension negative or non-surgical extranodal extension status. In oral cancer patients, no significant differences were observed between the non-surgical and surgical extranodal extension groups. However, non-surgical extranodal extension was associated with a poorer disease-specific survival than a pathological N negative or extranodal extension negative status. Surgical extranodal extension was a poor prognostic factor in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The prognostic significance of surgical extranodal extension differed between laryngeal/hypopharyngeal and oral cancer patients. The clinical significance of surgical extranodal extension was much greater for

  7. Abnormal P-53 suppressor gene expression predicts for a poorer outcome in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated by external beam radiation therapy with or without pre-radiation androgen ablation: results based on RTOG study 86-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, Colleen A.; Grignon, David; Caplan, Richard; Sarkar, Fazlul; Forman, Jeffrey; Mesic, John; Fu, Karen K.; Abrams, Ross

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study is to establish the effect of the abnormal expression of the P-53 suppressor gene on the results of locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated with radiation therapy with or without pre-radiation therapy androgen ablation. Materials and Methods: Patients evaluated were part of a RTOG phase III multi-institutional trial. This trial assessed the value of pre-radiation therapy androgen ablation on patients with locally advanced disease (bulky stage B and stage C). Of the 471 patients registered, pre-treatment pathological material was available for 129 patients. P-53 status was determined immunohistochemically utilizing a commercially available antibody (D07). Clinical endpoints evaluated were overall survival and development of metastases. Results: Twenty-three of the 129 patients had abnormal expression of the P-53 suppressor gene. Presence of this abnormal expression significantly correlated with lower overall survival (p=0.03) and the development of distant metastases (p=0.03). Abnormal expression of the P-53 gene was an independent prognostic indicator when evaluated against clinical stage and Gleason score. Conclusion: This data from patients entered on a phase III multi-institutional, randomized clinical trial shows that abnormal P-53 suppressor gene expression as determined immunohistochemically is an independent predictor of poorer survival and the development of distant metastases in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated with radiation therapy with or without pre-radiation therapy androgen ablation

  8. Thematic Reasoning and Theory of Mind. Accounting for Social Inference Difficulties in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon Corcoran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Corcoran (2000, 2001 has suggested that theory of mind judgements can be arrived at using analogical reasoning skills and she has proposed that this is the route that people with schizophrenia take when they make inferences about others' mental states. Recent work has demonstrated a robust relationship between mental state inference and autobiographical memory, providing initial support for the model. This study examines the model further by exploring the assertion that in schizophrenia the ability to infer the mental states of others also depends upon effective social reasoning in conditional contexts. Method 59 people with a DSM IV diagnosis of schizophrenia and 44 healthy subjects performed four versions of the thematic selection task. The versions varied according to the familiarity and social nature of the material they incorporated. The same subjects also completed the Hinting Task, a measure of theory of mind and tests of intellectual functioning and narrative recall. Results The schizophrenia and the normal control groups differed in their performance on all of the measures except that of intellectual functioning. Explorations within the schizophrenia group indicated that social reasoning was most markedly affected in the patients with negative signs and in those with paranoid delusions while for the hinting task, those with negative signs performed significantly worse than those in remission but this difference seemed to be due to these patients' poorer narrative memory. There was evidence in the schizophrenia data to support the hypothesis of a relationship between theory of mind and social conditional reasoning. Conclusion This work provided further support for the idea that in patients with schizophrenia at least, judgements about the mental states of others are achieved using analogical reasoning.

  9. Social economy and social enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    2011-01-01

    practice will be put under increasing pressure. There is a difference between a social economy approach to the third sector and an approach based upon the notion of a non-profit constraint. Social economy is well positioned as a third sector to play a core role in meeting this urgency. But how does...... the social economy fit with current strategies in the areas of welfare policies and social service? Is it as a certain type of social entrepreneurship an integral part of a social innovation of the mainstream market economy or is it part of an emerging counter discourse in the sense of a participatory non...

  10. Things Fall Apart Across Cultures: The Universal Significance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Things Fall Apart Across Cultures: The Universal Significance of Chinua Achebe's 1958 Reconstruction of the African Heritage. ... There may be variations here and there in different social settings, but the novel portrays people in a communal environment grappling with survival on a daily basis on planet earth.

  11. Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelweit, Hilde T.

    1983-01-01

    Described are two longitudinal studies, one British, the other American, which examined the influences of varied socializing agents--e.g., family, school, peer groups--on voting behavior. The studies emphasized the hitherto unappreciated importance of the political, social, and economic climate of society and its changes on socialization. (CS)

  12. Neighborhood Economic Deprivation and Social Fragmentation: Associations With Children's Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Erika J; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Saini, Ekjyot K; Philbrook, Lauren E; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-12-09

    A growing body of work indicates that experiences of neighborhood disadvantage place children at risk for poor sleep. This study aimed to examine how both neighborhood economic deprivation (a measure of poverty) and social fragmentation (an index of instability) are associated with objective measures of the length and quality of children's sleep. Participants were 210 children (54.3% boys) living predominantly in small towns and semirural communities in Alabama. On average children were 11.3 years old (SD = .63); 66.7% of the children were European American and 33.3% were African American. The sample was socioeconomically diverse with 67.9% of the participants living at or below the poverty line and 32.1% from lower-middle-class or middle-class families. Indicators of neighborhood characteristics were derived from the 2012 American Community Survey and composited to create two variables representing neighborhood economic deprivation and social fragmentation. Child sleep period, actual sleep minutes, and efficiency were examined using actigraphy. Higher levels of neighborhood economic deprivation were associated with fewer sleep minutes and poorer sleep efficiency. More neighborhood social fragmentation was also linked with poorer sleep efficiency. Analyses controlled for demographic characteristics, child health, and family socioeconomic status. Findings indicate that living in economically and socially disadvantaged neighborhoods predicts risk for shorter and lower-quality sleep in children. Examination of community context in addition to family and individual characteristics may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the factors shaping child sleep.

  13. Social anhedonia is associated with neural abnormalities during face emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germine, Laura T; Garrido, Lucia; Bruce, Lori; Hooker, Christine

    2011-10-01

    Human beings are social organisms with an intrinsic desire to seek and participate in social interactions. Social anhedonia is a personality trait characterized by a reduced desire for social affiliation and reduced pleasure derived from interpersonal interactions. Abnormally high levels of social anhedonia prospectively predict the development of schizophrenia and contribute to poorer outcomes for schizophrenia patients. Despite the strong association between social anhedonia and schizophrenia, the neural mechanisms that underlie individual differences in social anhedonia have not been studied and are thus poorly understood. Deficits in face emotion recognition are related to poorer social outcomes in schizophrenia, and it has been suggested that face emotion recognition deficits may be a behavioral marker for schizophrenia liability. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to see whether there are differences in the brain networks underlying basic face emotion processing in a community sample of individuals low vs. high in social anhedonia. We isolated the neural mechanisms related to face emotion processing by comparing face emotion discrimination with four other baseline conditions (identity discrimination of emotional faces, identity discrimination of neutral faces, object discrimination, and pattern discrimination). Results showed a group (high/low social anhedonia) × condition (emotion discrimination/control condition) interaction in the anterior portion of the rostral medial prefrontal cortex, right superior temporal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex. As predicted, high (relative to low) social anhedonia participants showed less neural activity in face emotion processing regions during emotion discrimination as compared to each control condition. The findings suggest that social anhedonia is associated with abnormalities in networks responsible for basic processes associated with social cognition, and provide a

  14. Psicologia social

    OpenAIRE

    José Marques

    2000-01-01

    El treball comença explicant què és la psicologia social, condició indispensable per poder veure, a continuació, la relació que hi ha entre la sociolingüística i la psicologia social. Limitem a sis els factors analitzats: els factors socials que influeixen en l'aprenentatge de llengües; la identitat social i l'acomodació, amb una consideració de la teoria de la identitat social formulada per Tajfel; la vitalitat etnolingüística, que té un ventall de correlacions amb aspectes socio...

  15. Social relationship satisfaction and PTSD: which is the chicken and which is the egg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Freedman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impaired social relationships are linked with higher levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, but the association's underlying dynamics are unknown. PTSD may impair social relationships, and, vice versa, poorer relationship quality may interfere with the recovery from PTSD. Objective: This work longitudinally evaluates the simultaneous progression of PTSD symptoms and social relationship satisfaction (SRS in a large cohort of recent trauma survivors. It also explores the effect of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT on the association between the two. Method: Consecutive emergency department trauma admissions with qualifying PTSD symptoms (n=501 were assessed 3 weeks and 5 months after trauma admission. The World Health Organization Quality of Life evaluated SRS and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale evaluated PTSD symptom severity. Ninety-eight survivors received CBT between measurement sessions. We used Structural Equation Modeling to evaluate cross-lagged effects between the SRS and PTSD symptoms. Results: The cross-lagged effect of SRS on PTSD was statistically significant (β=−0.12, p=0.01 among survivors who did not receive treatment whilst the effect of PTDS on SRS was nil (β=−0.02, p=0.67. Both relationships were non-significant among survivors who received CBT. Discussion: SRS and PTSD are highly associated, and this study shows that changes in SRS in the early aftermath of traumatic events contribute to changes in PTSD, rather than vice versa. SRS impacts natural recovery, but not effective treatment. This study suggests that being satisfied with one's relationships might be considered as an important factor in natural recovery from trauma, as well as in intervention.

  16. Sociale problemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter Verner

    Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...... række fagfolk på tværs af det danske socialfaglige felt fokus på sociale problemer. Det diskuteres, hvad vi overhovedet forstår ved sociale problemer, hvordan de opstår, hvilke konsekvenser de har, og ikke mindst hvordan man som fagprofessionel håndterer sociale problemer i det daglige arbejde. Bogen er...... skrevet som lærebog til professionsuddannelser, hvor sociale problemer udgør en dimension, bl.a. socialrådgiver-, pædagog- og sygeplejerskeuddannelserne....

  17. Social Bricks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Can social sustainability be built? In this paper the potentialities and challenges of the concept of social sustainability are explored based on a collaboration project between the Danish Building Research Institute, a Danish social housing association and the Green Building Council Denmark......, aiming to better integrate standards of social sustainability in the application of certification systems like DGNB. The paper relates theory on social sustainability to the ways it is used in practice, and discusses whether and how social sustainability can be measured and certified in renewal...... and construction of housing and neighbourhoods. It is put forward that a certification has to take into account the housing complex’ or neighbourhood’s relation to the surrounding city, its development over time, its flexibility towards future needs and its social organisation and operation. Further, the interplay...

  18. Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar Naveed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. Methods We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and markers of ill health in adult subjects (n = 666 recruited from affluent and deprived areas. Classical and novel risk factors for chronic disease (lung function and atherosclerosis and for cognitive performance were assessed, and associations sought with early life variables including conditions in the parental home, family size and leg length. Results Associations were observed between father's occupation, childhood home status (owner-occupier; overcrowding and biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endothelial activation in adults (C reactive protein, interleukin 6, intercellular adhesion molecule; P P Conclusions Adverse levels of biomarkers of ill health in adults appear to be influenced by father's occupation and childhood home conditions. Chronic inflammation and endothelial activation may in part act as intermediary phenotypes in this complex relationship. Reducing the 'health divide' requires that these life course determinants are taken into account.

  19. The influence of job stress, social support and health status on intermittent and chronic sleep disturbance: an 8-year longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, John A; Batterham, Philip J; Glozier, Nick; Christensen, Helen

    2014-08-01

    To determine the role of health status and social support in the relationship between job stress and sleep disturbance, for both intermittent and chronic sleep disturbance. A total of 1946 mid-life adults completed three questionnaires spanning an 8-year time frame. Sleep disturbance was assessed at each time point, and participants were classified as experiencing intermittent, chronic or no sleep disturbance across this 8-year period. Independent variables included a range of job stress measures, social support, physical and mental health, and demographic characteristics. After controlling for physical and mental health, perceived lack of job marketability increased risk of intermittent sleep disturbance (odds ratio (OR)=1.33, p=0.012). No other job stress measures were associated with either intermittent or chronic sleep disturbance after adjusting for years of education, social support, and employment status. Poorer mental and physical health status, although significantly increasing odds for intermittent sleep disturbance, represented a significantly greater increase in the odds for chronic sleep disturbance over and above intermittent disturbance (OR=0.96, pjob stress had an independent effect on chronic or intermittent sleep disturbance independent of health, social support, and education. Risk profiles for intermittent and chronic sleep disturbance did not differ with regard to job stress; however, various demographic and social support factors were distinguishing factors. Health status, both physical and mental, also showed a significantly greater impact on chronic sleep disturbance than intermittent sleep disturbance. Karasek's model of job strain had little value in predicting sleep disturbance outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Psoriasis causes significant economic burden to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, A; Mattila, K; Leino, M; Koulu, L; Tuominen, R

    2014-06-01

    Psoriasis results in expenses to patients from many cost sources. Psoriasis treatments may result in considerable time and traveling costs, yet many studies fail to account for these costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the multidimensional economic burden of psoriasis to patients. The study was based on 232 Finnish patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis visiting a tertiary level dermatological clinic during a 1-year study period between October 1, 2009 and September 30, 2010. The data were based on a patient questionnaire, clinical data from the medical records and reimbursement data from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Item costs were based on true costs charged from the patients and all time cost estimates were based on the Human Capital Approach method. 199 patients with psoriasis and 33 with psoriatic arthritis were included in the study. Total costs were higher for patients receiving traditional systemic medications or phototherapy than those not receiving such treatment. Travel costs and travel time costs accounted for more than 60% of the costs of phototherapy. Skin care at home was time consuming and thus caused significant burden to patients. The majority of the visit costs arose from hospital visits and only a small proportion were attributed to visiting primary health care providers. Visit charges and other patient co-payments were estimated to play a minor role in the total cost of psoriasis incurred by patients, while travel costs and lost time comprised the majority of the costs, which should not be omitted in future studies regarding costs of treatments.

  1. Social Contributions in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Gyorgy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social contributions have an important impact on payroll policy. Also, social contributions represent a significant budgetary revenue item which can be viewed at the edge between taxation and insurance. Social contributions in Romania experienced many changes which ended in 2008. Nowadays, they are within a long transaction period towards partial externalization of the insurance activity to privately managed funds. The aim of this paper is to analyse the homogeneity of Romanian social security public scheme using annual data extracted from 2002-2009.The main findings reveal that social contributions reached the pinnacle of diversification, being too many, some of them with a small contribution rates; fiscal reforms which reduced contribution rates advantaged employers, and state will be interested to externalize this activity as far private sector will be able to assume this responsibility and the budgetary effects are acceptable for the public finance.

  2. Gender differences in the relationship between social communication and emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Radha; Skuse, David; Wakefield, Justin; Micali, Nadia

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the association between autistic traits and emotion recognition in a large community sample of children using facial and social motion cues, additionally stratifying by gender. A general population sample of 3,666 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were assessed on their ability to correctly recognize emotions using the faces subtest of the Diagnostic Analysis of Non-Verbal Accuracy, and the Emotional Triangles Task, a novel test assessing recognition of emotion from social motion cues. Children with autistic-like social communication difficulties, as assessed by the Social Communication Disorders Checklist, were compared with children without such difficulties. Autistic-like social communication difficulties were associated with poorer recognition of emotion from social motion cues in both genders, but were associated with poorer facial emotion recognition in boys only (odds ratio = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4, 2.6, p = .0001). This finding must be considered in light of lower power to detect differences in girls. In this community sample of children, greater deficits in social communication skills are associated with poorer discrimination of emotions, implying there may be an underlying continuum of liability to the association between these characteristics. As a similar degree of association was observed in both genders on a novel test of social motion cues, the relatively good performance of girls on the more familiar task of facial emotion discrimination may be due to compensatory mechanisms. Our study might indicate the existence of a cognitive process by which girls with underlying autistic traits can compensate for their covert deficits in emotion recognition, although this would require further investigation. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Making a More Significant Impact on Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Phyllis M.

    1989-01-01

    The current quest for technical professionalism in adult education is narrowing the field's focus. Ignored in the process is its social action history in such movements as popular education, socialist education, the education of African Americans, and workers' education. (SK)

  4. The adaptive significance of inquiline parasite workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2003-01-01

    Social parasites exploit the socially managed resources of their host's society. Inquiline social parasites are dependent on their host throughout their life cycle, and so many of the traits inherited from their free-living ancestor are removed by natural selection. One trait that is commonly lost...... is the worker caste, the functions of which are adequately fulfilled by host workers. The few inquiline parasites that have retained a worker caste are thought to be at a transitional stage in the evolution of social parasitism, and their worker castes are considered vestigial and non-adaptive. However...... a vital role in ensuring the parasite's fitness. We show that the presence of these parasite workers has a positive effect on the production of parasite sexuals and a negative effect on the production of host sexuals. This suggests that inquiline workers play a vital role in suppressing host queen...

  5. The Double Meaning of Online Social Space: Three-Way Interactions Among Social Anxiety, Online Social Behavior, and Offline Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hoon Jung; Woo, Sungbum; Yang, Eunjoo; Kwon, Jung Hye

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate how online and offline social behavior interact with each other ultimately to affect the well-being of socially anxious adolescents. Based on previous studies, it was assumed that there might be three-way interactive effects among online social behavior, offline social behavior, and social anxiety regarding the relationship with well-being. To measure social anxiety, online and offline social behavior, and mental well-being, self-report questionnaires such as the Korean-Social Avoidance and Distress Scale, Korean version of the Relational Maintenance Behavior Questionnaire, and Korean version of Mental Health Continuum Short Form were administered to 656 Korean adolescents. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the three-way interaction of online social behavior, offline social behavior, and social anxiety was indeed significant. First, online social behavior was associated with lower well-being of adolescents with higher social anxiety under conditions of low engagement in offline social behavior. In contrast, a higher level of online social behavior predicted greater well-being for individuals with high social anxiety under conditions of more engagement in offline social behavior. Second, online social behavior was not significantly related to well-being in youths with low social anxiety under conditions of both high and low engagement in offline social behavior. Implications and limitations of this study were discussed.

  6. Social entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social entrepreneurship has experienced a renaissance in the world over the last decade. The business sector, pressed by the economic crisis and social responsibility imperatives, started to turn towards some of the more sustainable organisational models, which combine profit and responsible orientation. Social entrepreneurship, as a whole, is characterised by the support and assistance rendered to the community and the vulnerable social groups. Social entrepreneurs are a proof that financial success does not exclude responsible behaviour towards the social community and the environment, and that the socially beneficial target may also serve as a successful business driver. At the same time, social enterprises may be a very useful source of entrepreneurial ideas in the economies which are passing through transition, with the high unemployment rates. Filling in the gaps in offering certain social services, with simultaneous profit making and offering option for engagement of entire families, are only some of the features characteristic for the social enterprises, which could become one of the leading models of business conducted in the Serbian economy.

  7. Social Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina ENACHE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of social business is growing rapidly and attracting increased attention from many sectors. The term itself shows up frequently in the media, is referenced by public officials, have become common on universities. The reasons behind the popularity of social entrepreneurship are many. On the most basic level, there’s something inherently interesting and appealing about entrepreneurs and the stories of why and how they do what they do. The interest in social entrepreneurship transcends the phenomenon of popularity and fascination with people. Social entrepreneurship signals the imperative to drive social change, and it is that potential payoff, with its lasting, transformational benefit to society, that sets the field and its practitioners apart. Although the potential benefits offered by social entrepreneurship are clear to many of those promoting and funding these activities, the actual definition of what social entrepreneurs do to produce this order of magnitude return is less clear. In fact, we would argue that the definition of social entrepreneurship today is anything but clear. As a result, social entrepreneurship has become so inclusive that it now has an immense tent into which all manner of socially beneficial activities fit. In some respects this inclusiveness could be a good thing. If we can achieve a rigorous definition, then those who support social entrepreneurship can focus their resources on building and strengthening a concrete and identifiable field. Absent that discipline, proponents of social entrepreneurship run the risk of giving the skeptics an ever-expanding target to shoot at, and the cynics even more reason to discount social innovation and those who drive it.

  8. Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In social entrepreneurship, social innovation and human economy coexist with democratic governance and volunteerism in the development of new initiatives and responses to wicked welfare problems. Volunteerism in social entrepreneurship takes up a prominent position, leading to the birth of new...... organisational hybrid formats: social enterprises. Drawing upon a single case study of ‘the Bridge’, a typical Danish work integration social enterprise (WISE), it is shown how social enterprises act as ‘strong learning arenas’, opting for a number of high-profile and ‘popular’ objectives: to train and empower...... marginal citizens, to create sustainable enterprises in a new economy, to strengthen the local community, to renew welfare services and labour strategies, and to develop social enterprise and business models. Adding to these objectives we can include democracy and participation, and positioning...

  9. #Sleepyteens: Social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Heather Cleland; Scott, Holly

    2016-08-01

    This study examined how social media use related to sleep quality, self-esteem, anxiety and depression in 467 Scottish adolescents. We measured overall social media use, nighttime-specific social media use, emotional investment in social media, sleep quality, self-esteem and levels of anxiety and depression. Adolescents who used social media more - both overall and at night - and those who were more emotionally invested in social media experienced poorer sleep quality, lower self-esteem and higher levels of anxiety and depression. Nighttime-specific social media use predicted poorer sleep quality after controlling for anxiety, depression and self-esteem. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that social media use is related to various aspects of wellbeing in adolescents. In addition, our results indicate that nighttime-specific social media use and emotional investment in social media are two important factors that merit further investigation in relation to adolescent sleep and wellbeing. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Social preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition...... of daycares as means for social and cultural integration, lines of division do exist amongst the children. Such divisions are established in the daily interactions of the daycare, but they also reflect those of the broader society. With a focus on children’s interactions and social preferences, the material...... indicates that children’s choices of playmates run along lines of ethnic and class divisions. The article will address this pattern and analyze its causes in order to understand why such lines of divisions are to be found in an institutional context designed to overcome social inequality and prevent social...

  11. Phenomenology & Sociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus; Cowley, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Although cognitive science has recently asked how human sociality is constituted, there is no clear and consistent account of the emergence of human style social agency. Previously, we have critiqued views based on 'participatory sense-making' by arguing that agency requires a distinctive kind...... of phenomenology that enables a diachronic social experience. In advancing the positive argument, we link developmental psychology to phenomenological insights by focusing on child-caregiver dynamics around the middle of the second year. Having developed very basic social skills, an infant comes to feel normative....... Developmental events thus transform the child's experience and drive the emergence of social agency. Once the child has successfully dealt with the environment’s normative perturbations she is able to develop the skills of a fully-fledged human social agent....

  12. Social Media Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael Andreas; Ravasi, Davide; Colleoni, Elanor

    motivational drivers and contextual conditions associated with the formation of narratives in traditional news media and social media influence their content, diffusion, and impact significantly. Our analysis suggests that current theories of media reputation may provide an incomplete representation......Social media enable millions of users to create and disseminate narratives about organizations that increase their public exposure and shape public perceptions. In this paper, we draw on the sociology of news production and research on computer-mediated communication to discuss how different...... of the phenomenon, and highlight theoretically relevant differences and interrelationships between reputational dynamics involving news media and social media....

  13. Behavioral and social cognitive processes in preschool children's social dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Anthony D; Van Ryzin, Mark J; Roseth, Cary; Bohn-Gettler, Catherine; Dupuis, Danielle; Hickey, Meghan; Peshkam, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal, naturalistic study addressed behavioral and social cognitive processes implicated in preschool children's social dominance. In the first objective, we examined the degree to which peer aggression, affiliation, and postaggression reconciliation predicted social dominance across a school year. Consistent with predictions, all three predicted dominance early in the year while only affiliation predicted dominance later in the year, suggesting that aggression, affiliation, and reconciliation were used to establish social dominance where affiliation was used to maintain it. In the second, exploratory, objective we tested the relative importance of social dominance and reconciliation (the Machiavellian and Vygotskian intelligence hypotheses, respectively) in predicting theory of mind/false belief. Results indicated that social dominance accounted for significant variance, beyond that related to reconciliation and affiliation, in predicting theory of mind/false belief status. Results are discussed in terms of specific behavioral and social cognitive processes employed in establishing and maintaining social dominance. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Stepping reaction time and gait adaptability are significantly impaired in people with Parkinson's disease: Implications for fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Allen, Natalie E; Brodie, Matthew A; Song, Jooeun; Paul, Serene S; Canning, Colleen G; Menant, Jasmine C

    2018-02-01

    Decline in the ability to take effective steps and to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be important reasons why people with Parkinson's disease (PD) have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to determine the extent of stepping and gait adaptability impairments in PD individuals as well as their associations with PD symptoms, cognitive function and previous falls. Thirty-three older people with PD and 33 controls were assessed in choice stepping reaction time, Stroop stepping and gait adaptability tests; measurements identified as fall risk factors in older adults. People with PD had similar mean choice stepping reaction times to healthy controls, but had significantly greater intra-individual variability. In the Stroop stepping test, the PD participants were more likely to make an error (48 vs 18%), took 715 ms longer to react (2312 vs 1517 ms) and had significantly greater response variability (536 vs 329 ms) than the healthy controls. People with PD also had more difficulties adapting their gait in response to targets (poorer stepping accuracy) and obstacles (increased number of steps) appearing at short notice on a walkway. Within the PD group, higher disease severity, reduced cognition and previous falls were associated with poorer stepping and gait adaptability performances. People with PD have reduced ability to adapt gait to unexpected targets and obstacles and exhibit poorer stepping responses, particularly in a test condition involving conflict resolution. Such impaired stepping responses in Parkinson's disease are associated with disease severity, cognitive impairment and falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    RTA HFM-201/RSM PAPER 3 - 1 © 2012 The MITRE Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Social Radar Barry Costa and John Boiney MITRE Corporation...defenders require an integrated set of capabilities that we refer to as a “ social radar.” Such a system would support strategic- to operational-level...situation awareness, alerting, course of action analysis, and measures of effectiveness for each action undertaken. Success of a social radar

  16. Positively Biased Processing of Mother's Emotions Predicts Children's Social and Emotional Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Meghan Rose; Goodman, Sherryl H; Tully, Erin C

    Risk for internalizing problems and social skills deficits likely emerges in early childhood when emotion processing and social competencies are developing. Positively biased processing of social information is typical during early childhood and may be protective against poorer psychosocial outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that young children with relatively less positively biased attention to, interpretations of, and attributions for their mother's emotions would exhibit poorer prosocial skills and more internalizing problems. A sample of 4- to 6-year-old children ( N =82) observed their mothers express happiness, sadness and anger during a simulated emotional phone conversation. Children's attention to their mother when she expressed each emotion was rated from video. Immediately following the phone conversation, children were asked questions about the conversation to assess their interpretations of the intensity of mother's emotions and misattributions of personal responsibility for her emotions. Children's prosocial skills and internalizing problems were assessed using mother-report rating scales. Interpretations of mother's positive emotions as relatively less intense than her negative emotions, misattributions of personal responsibility for her negative emotions, and lack of misattributions of personal responsibility for her positive emotions were associated with poorer prosocial skills. Children who attended relatively less to mother's positive than her negative emotions had higher levels of internalizing problems. These findings suggest that children's attention to, interpretations of, and attributions for their mother's emotions may be important targets of early interventions for preventing prosocial skills deficits and internalizing problems.

  17. A comparative study of the economic and social functioning of Vietnamese-Australians with low English proficiency living with psychotic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Yvonne; Sevar, Katherine; Tran, Nga; Mancuso, Serafino G; Chopra, Prem; Castle, David

    2015-06-01

    Because national surveys of people living with psychotic disorders tend to exclude people with low English proficiency (LEP), little is known of their economic and social functioning. Culturally influenced explanatory models may result in delayed presentation and poorer functioning. The study aimed to compare the functioning of LEP Vietnamese-Australian and Australian-born patients with psychosis and to investigate the Vietnamese-Australians' pathways to care. In all, 19 LEP Vietnamese-Australians, previously excluded from the Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP), were matched with 15 Australian-born controls, and interviewed by a Vietnamese bilingual mental health professional using the SHIP Interview Schedule. The Vietnamese-Australian patients were significantly more likely to live with family, rate spirituality as important and participate in community rehabilitation programs. Their work, social and independent functioning, was better than the controls. The groups did not differ in mental health services received and satisfaction with services. Although half of Vietnamese-Australians attributed mental illness to supernatural, among other causes, none had consulted traditional healers. Despite LEP, Vietnamese-Australians with psychosis showed comparable or better functioning than Australian-born patients. Further investigation is recommended into LEP patients' clinical and social recovery and the role of language communities' support networks. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Factors Influencing of Social Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwandi Sumartias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social conflicts that occur in several areas in Indonesia lately, one of them is caused by the weakness of law certainty. This is feared to threaten the integration of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to determine the factors that affect social conflict in Manis Lor village in Kuningan district. The method used the explanatory quantitative methods, the statistical test Path Analysis. The study population was a formal and informal community leaders (village chief, clergy, and youth, and the people who involved in a conflict in Manis Lor village Kuningan regency. The result shows a There is no significant influence between social identity factors with social conflict anarchist. b There is significant influence between socio-economic factors with social conflict anarchists. c There is no significant influence between the credibility factor anarchist leaders with social conflict. d There is no significant influence between the motive factor with anarchist social conflict. e There is significant influence between personality factors/beliefs with anarchist social conflict. f There is significant influence of behavioral factors anarchist communication with social conflict.

  19. Social Anxiety and Social Support in Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Eliora; Chambless, Dianne L

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the quality of socially anxious individuals' romantic relationships. In the present study, we examine associations between social anxiety and social support in such relationships. In Study 1, we collected self-report data on social anxiety symptoms and received, provided, and perceived social support from 343 undergraduates and their romantic partners. One year later couples were contacted to determine whether they were still in this relationship. Results indicated that men's social anxiety at Time 1 predicted higher rates of breakup at Time 2. Men's and women's perceived support, as well as men's provided support, were also significantly predictive of breakup. Social anxiety did not interact with any of the support variables to predict breakup. In Study 2, a subset of undergraduate couples with a partner high (n=27) or low (n=27) in social anxiety completed two 10-minute, lab-based, video-recorded social support tasks. Both partners rated their received or provided social support following the interaction, and trained observers also coded for support behaviors. Results showed that socially anxious individuals received less support from their partners during the interaction according to participant but not observer report. High and lower social anxiety couples did not differ in terms of the target's provision of support. Taken together, results suggest that social anxiety is associated with difficulties even in the context of established romantic relationships. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Associations between loneliness and perceived social support and outcomes of mental health problems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyi; Mann, Farhana; Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Ma, Ruimin; Johnson, Sonia

    2018-05-29

    The adverse effects of loneliness and of poor perceived social support on physical health and mortality are established, but no systematic synthesis is available of their relationship with the outcomes of mental health problems over time. In this systematic review, we aim to examine the evidence on whether loneliness and closely related concepts predict poor outcomes among adults with mental health problems. We searched six databases and reference lists for longitudinal quantitative studies that examined the relationship between baseline measures of loneliness and poor perceived social support and outcomes at follow up. Thirty-four eligible papers were retrieved. Due to heterogeneity among included studies in clinical populations, predictor measures and outcomes, a narrative synthesis was conducted. We found substantial evidence from prospective studies that people with depression who perceive their social support as poorer have worse outcomes in terms of symptoms, recovery and social functioning. Loneliness has been investigated much less than perceived social support, but there is some evidence that greater loneliness predicts poorer depression outcome. There is also some preliminary evidence of associations between perceived social support and outcomes in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders. Loneliness and quality of social support in depression are potential targets for development and testing of interventions, while for other conditions further evidence is needed regarding relationships with outcomes.