WorldWideScience

Sample records for significantly poorer mental

  1. Unaccompanied adolescents seeking asylum - Poorer mental health under a restrictive reception : poorer mental health under a restrictive reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; de Boer, J.B.; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%],

  2. Poorer mental health in UK bisexual women than lesbians: evidence from the UK 2007 Stonewall Women's Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colledge, Lisa; Hickson, Ford; Reid, David; Weatherburn, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Bisexual- and lesbian-identified women have significantly worse mental health than heterosexual women. Less evidence exists about mental health differences between lesbian and bisexual women. Self-completion survey with community-based, opportunistic sampling recruited 937 bisexual-identified and 4769 lesbian-identified women. Associations between sexual identity and mental health indicators were assessed by logistic regression, controlling for age, income, student status and employment. As a group, bisexual women were younger, poorer, and more likely to be trans-identified, minority ethnic identified and to use marijuana, compared with lesbians. Bisexuals were more likely than lesbians to report eating problems (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.64, P women attended lesbian or bisexual social events, were 'out', or had experienced any sexuality-related discrimination, compared with lesbians. More bisexual women reported poor mental health or psychological distress than did lesbians. Bisexual women may be more likely to experience social stress due to the 'double discrimination' of homophobia and biphobia. This stress, experienced mainly as internalized and felt stigma, could result in greater risk for poor mental health compared with lesbians. Addressing both biphobia and homophobia within UK society has important preventative mental health implications. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Expression of HIWI in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is significantly associated with poorer prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Wei; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Qi; Fan, Qingxia; Shou, Chengcao; Wang, Junsheng; Giercksky, Karl-Erik; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2009-01-01

    HIWI, the human homologue of Piwi family, is present in CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells and germ cells, but not in well-differentiated cell populations, indicating that HIWI may play an impotent role in determining or maintaining stemness of these cells. That HIWI expression has been detected in several type tumours may suggest its association with clinical outcome in cancer patients. With the methods of real-time PCR, western blot, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the expression of HIWI in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450 has been characterized. Then, we investigated HIWI expression in a series of 153 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and explored its association with clinicopathological features. The expression of HIWI was observed in tumour cell nuclei or/and cytoplasm in 137 (89.5%) cases, 16 (10.5%) cases were negative in both nuclei and cytoplasm. 86 (56.2%) were strongly positive in cytoplasm, while 49 (32.0%) were strongly positive in nuclei. The expression level of HIWI in cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells was significantly associated with histological grade (P = 0.011), T stage (P = 0.035), and clinic outcome (P < 0.001), while there was no correlation between the nuclear HIWI expression and clinicopathological features. The expression of HIWI in the cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells is significantly associated with higher histological grade, clinical stage and poorer clinical outcome, indicating its possible involvement in cancer development

  4. Expression of HIWI in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is significantly associated with poorer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou Chengcao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIWI, the human homologue of Piwi family, is present in CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and germ cells, but not in well-differentiated cell populations, indicating that HIWI may play an impotent role in determining or maintaining stemness of these cells. That HIWI expression has been detected in several type tumours may suggest its association with clinical outcome in cancer patients. Methods With the methods of real-time PCR, western blot, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the expression of HIWI in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450 has been characterized. Then, we investigated HIWI expression in a series of 153 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and explored its association with clinicopathological features. Results The expression of HIWI was observed in tumour cell nuclei or/and cytoplasm in 137 (89.5% cases, 16 (10.5% cases were negative in both nuclei and cytoplasm. 86 (56.2% were strongly positive in cytoplasm, while 49 (32.0% were strongly positive in nuclei. The expression level of HIWI in cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells was significantly associated with histological grade (P = 0.011, T stage (P = 0.035, and clinic outcome (P Conclusion The expression of HIWI in the cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells is significantly associated with higher histological grade, clinical stage and poorer clinical outcome, indicating its possible involvement in cancer development.

  5. Unaccompanied adolescents seeking asylum: Poorer mental health under a restrictive reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Boer, J.B.de; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%],

  6. Stunting and wasting are associated with poorer psychomotor and mental development in HIV-exposed Tanzanian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christine M; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Bellinger, David C; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Duggan, Christopher P

    2013-02-01

    Infants born to HIV-infected women are at increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment, but little research has attempted to identify modifiable risk factors. The objective of this prospective cohort analysis was to identify maternal, socioeconomic, and child correlates of psychomotor and mental development in the first 18 mo of life among Tanzanian infants born to HIV-infected women. We hypothesized that child HIV infection, morbidity, and undernutrition would be associated with lower developmental status when taking into consideration maternal health and socioeconomic factors. Baseline maternal characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, birth characteristics were collected immediately after delivery, infant micronutrient status was measured at 6 wk and 6 mo, and anthropometric measurements and morbidity histories were performed at monthly follow-up visits. The Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) were used to assess developmental functioning at 6, 12, and 18 mo of age. Multivariate repeated regression models with time-varying covariates were used to estimate adjusted mean MDI and PDI scores for each level of the variables. A total of 311 infants contributed ≥1 BSID-II assessments for 657 PDI and 655 MDI measurements. Of infants, 51% were male, 23% were born preterm, 7% were low birth weight, and 10% were HIV-positive at 6 wk. Preterm birth, child HIV infection, stunting, and wasting were independently associated with lower PDI and MDI scores. Strategies to lower mother-to-child transmission of HIV, prevent preterm birth, and enhance child growth could contribute to improved child psychomotor and mental development.

  7. Higher mental workload is associated with poorer laparoscopic performance as measured by the NASA-TLX tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurko, Yuliya Y; Scerbo, Mark W; Prabhu, Ajita S; Acker, Christina E; Stefanidis, Dimitrios

    2010-10-01

    Increased workload during task performance may increase fatigue and facilitate errors. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is a previously validated tool for workload self-assessment. We assessed the relationship of workload and performance during simulator training on a complex laparoscopic task. NASA-TLX workload data from three separate trials were analyzed. All participants were novices (n = 28), followed the same curriculum on the fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery suturing model, and were tested in the animal operating room (OR) on a Nissen fundoplication model after training. Performance and workload scores were recorded at baseline, after proficiency achievement, and during the test. Performance, NASA-TLX scores, and inadvertent injuries during the test were analyzed and compared. Workload scores declined during training and mirrored performance changes. NASA-TLX scores correlated significantly with performance scores (r = -0.5, P NASA-TLX questionnaire accurately reflects workload changes during simulator training and may identify individuals more likely to experience high workload and more prone to errors during skill transfer to the clinical environment.

  8. Significance of mental health legislation for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Getinet

    2018-03-29

     Mental health legislation (MHL) is required to ensure a regulatory framework for mental health services and other providers of treatment and care, and to ensure that the public and people with a mental illness are afforded protection from the often-devastating consequences of mental illness.  To provide an overview of evidence on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health servicesMethod: A qualitative review of the literature on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services was conducted.  In many countries, especially in those who have no MHL, people do not have access to basic mental health care and treatment they require. One of the major aims of MHL is that all people with mental disorders should be provided with treatment based on the integration of mental health care services into the primary healthcare (PHC). In addition, MHL plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, the provision of care of high quality, the improvement of access to care at community level. Community-based mental health care further improves access to mental healthcare within the city, to have better health and mental health outcomes, and better quality of life, increase acceptability, reduce associated social stigma and human rights abuse, prevent chronicity and physical health comorbidity will likely to be detected early and managed.  Mental health legislation plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, integration of mental health at primary health care, the provision of care of high quality and the improvement of access to care at community level. It is vital and essential to have MHL for every country.

  9. The Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Is Related to Reduced Risk in Heavy Drinking College Students with Poorer Mental and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…

  10. Significance of mental health legislation for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getinet Ayano

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Mental health legislation plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, integration of mental health at primary health care, the provision of care of high quality and the improvement of access to care at community level. It is vital and essential to have MHL for every country.

  11. The socio-cultural significance of the diagnostic label "neurasthenia" in Japan's mental health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, T

    1989-06-01

    This paper is an attempt to explore the socio-cultural significance of deliberately disguising schizophrenia as neurasthenia, neurosis or malfunction of autonomic nervous system. To understand its significance, the socio-cultural background of Japanese attitudes toward mental illness and Japan's mental health care system is also examined from a non-Western standpoint.

  12. Functional alterations of astrocytes in mental disorders: pharmacological significance as a drug target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka eKoyama

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes play an essential role in supporting brain functions in physiological and pathological states. Modulation of their pathophysiological responses have beneficial actions on nerve tissue injured by brain insults and neurodegenerative diseases, therefore astrocytes are recognized as promising targets for neuroprotective drugs. Recent investigations have identified several astrocytic mechanisms for modulating synaptic transmission and neural plasticity. These include altered expression of transporters for neurotransmitters, release of gliotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, and intercellular communication through gap junctions. Investigation of patients with mental disorders shows morphological and functional alterations in astrocytes. According to these observations, manipulation of astrocytic function by gene mutation and pharmacological tools reproduce mental disorder-like behavior in experimental animals. Some drugs clinically used for mental disorders affect astrocyte function. As experimental evidence shows their role in the pathogenesis of mental disorders, astrocytes have gained much attention as drug targets for mental disorders. In this article, I review functional alterations of astrocytes in several mental disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorder, drug dependence, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The pharmacological significance of astrocytes in mental disorders is also discussed.

  13. [How significant are customer surveys in the rehabilitation of patients with mental illness?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queri, S; Spörrle, M

    2008-12-01

    In Germany, customer surveys in the field of rehabilitation meanwhile are of high political relevance - particularly since the Deutsche Rentenversicherung (German Pension Insurance) has defined customer judgements as a significant outcome parameter. Both the theoretical conceptualization and the empirical data available suggest that customer satisfaction is a construct widely dependent on subjective factors, which has only little reference to the reality of treatment. In the Herzogsägmühle Rehabilitation Centre a detailed customer survey (rehabilitants with mental illness) was carried out for the first time in 2007 in the framework of internal quality management. Data analysis was to yield new knowledge concerning the validity of subjective patient-related outcome parameters as well as relative to the content dimensioning regarding satisfaction and quality judgments in this specific sample. A Centre-specific questionnaire was constructed taking into account existing empirical data and theoretical considerations concerning the relevant content dimensions of customer satisfaction. Forty-six mostly male rehabilitants with an average age of 25 were interviewed. The majority of the interviewees had been diagnosed as having a schizophrenic or an affective disorder. The data obtained was submitted to a predominantly explorative data analysis, also testing various hypotheses. The results show that the rehabilitants' judgements are differentiated and that the expected positive bias was restricted to a few areas. Also it could be shown that treatment satisfaction and quality evaluations present different content dimensions. While satisfaction depends on the evaluation of treatment efficacy, the quality judgement is dependent on evaluation of the professional skills of the staff involved. CONCLUSION/CONSEQUENCES: In particular the quality judgments of the rehabilitants are important in both internal and external (by the cost carriers) quality management assurance. Both

  14. [A mental health awareness anti-stigma program including user-trainers has a significant impact on knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of job centre professionals in Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouet, E; Moineville, M; Favriel, S; Leriche, P; Greacen, T

    2014-04-01

    Developing programs and actions to fight stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders is a priority both internationally and in France. Involving mental health service users in these anti-stigma programs has proved to be a key element for effective programs. The present study evaluates the impact of user-trainers in an anti-stigma campaign with job counselors on their knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance with regard to mental illness and the mentally ill. Eighty-nine professionals participated in eight mental health awareness days from December 2008 to June 2009. Each training day was built around two pedagogical units: firstly, a psychiatrist providing a theoretical overview of mental illness and care and secondly, user-trainers describing their point of view on mental illness and exchanging with participants. A questionnaire administered at the beginning and at the end of the mental health awareness day assessed the impact of the day on participants' knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance. Answers to open questions were evaluated using thematic qualitative analysis. The intervention had statistically significant positive effects on all three training objectives: knowledge, beliefs and desire for social distance. Analysis of qualitative data confirmed participants' need for information and training with regard to providing support to clients with mental health problems; participants frequently attributed their improved self-confidence at the end of the day with regard to providing job coaching for this population group to the presence of user-trainers. A mental health awareness day using mental health service users and psychiatrists as trainers had significant positive effects in terms of reducing stigma with regard to people with mental illness. Further research is needed to understand whether the impact of such awareness approaches can be maintained in everyday professional practice over time. Copyright © 2013

  15. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  16. Metabolic studies in older mentally retarded patients: significance of metabolic testing and correlation with the clinical phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buggenhout, G.J.C.M. van; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Wevers, R.A.; Trommelen, J.C.M.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Brunner, H.G.; Fryns, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In 471 adult mentally retarded adult patients (mean age 46 years; 92.6% males) living in an institution for the mentally retarded, a clinical examination, cytogenetic and molecular studies were done. 306 patients were screened for metabolic disorders. In 7 additional patients a metabolic disorder

  17. The significance of ethics reflection groups in mental health care: a focus group study among health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, Marit Helene; Molewijk, Bert; Gjerberg, Elisabeth; Lillemoen, Lillian; Pedersen, Reidar

    2018-06-05

    Professionals within the mental health services face many ethical dilemmas and challenging situations regarding the use of coercion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of participating in systematic ethics reflection groups focusing on ethical challenges related to coercion. In 2013 and 2014, 20 focus group interviews with 127 participants were conducted. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The analysis is inspired by the concept of 'bricolage' which means our approach was inductive. Most participants report positive experiences with participating in ethics reflection groups: A systematic and well-structured approach to discuss ethical challenges, increased consciousness of formal and informal coercion, a possibility to challenge problematic concepts, attitudes and practices, improved professional competence and confidence, greater trust within the team, more constructive disagreement and room for internal critique, less judgmental reactions and more reasoned approaches, and identification of potential for improvement and alternative courses of action. On several wards, the participation of psychiatrists and psychologists in the reflection groups was missing. The impact of the perceived lack of safety in reflection groups should not be underestimated. Sometimes the method for ethics reflection was utilised in a rigid way. Direct involvement of patients and family was missing. This focus group study indicates the potential of ethics reflection groups to create a moral space in the workplace that promotes critical, reflective and collaborative moral deliberations. Future research, with other designs and methodologies, is needed to further investigate the impact of ethics reflection groups on improving health care practices.

  18. Occupational musculoskeletal and mental health: Significance of rationalization and opportunities to create sustainable production systems - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgaard, R H; Winkel, J

    2011-01-01

    This literature review aims to identify occupational musculoskeletal and mental health effects of production system rationalization as well as organizational-level measures that may improve health outcome ("modifiers" in this review). A short review of the effect of ergonomic interventions is included as background and rationalization is discussed as a theoretical concept. Indicator variables for occupational musculoskeletal and mental health and related risk factors are presented. Variables with a generalized format were allowed in the literature searches (e.g., job satisfaction and absenteeism were accepted as risk factor and health indicator, respectively), suitable for the research fields of work sociology, organization science, human resource management (HRM) and economics research. One hundred and sixty-two studies of rationalization effects on health and risk factors and 72 organization-level modifier results were accepted into the final database. Entries were sorted by rationalization strategy and work life sector, and trends in outcome (positive, mixed, no effect, or negative effect on health and risk factors) were determined. Rationalizations have a dominant negative effect on health and risk factors (57% negative, 19% positive); the most negative effects were found for downsizing and restructuring rationalizations in general (71 studies negative, 13 positive) and for the health care sector in particular (36 studies negative, 2 positive). The rationalization strategy High Performance Work System (HPWS) was associated with the highest fraction positive outcome studies (6 of 10 studies). Other rationalization strategies (lean practices, parallel vs. serial production and mechanization level) reported intermediate results, in part dependent on work life sector, but also on the year when studies were carried out. Worker participation, resonant management style, information, support, group autonomy and procedural justice were modifiers with favourable

  19. Volunteering to Care for People with Severe Mental Illness: A Qualitative Study of the Significance of Professional and Private Life Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørtenblad, Lisbeth; Væggemose, Ulla; Gissel, Lene; Nissen, Nina Konstantin

    2018-02-06

    Challenges in recruiting volunteers encountered by psychiatric services are barely elucidated despite a general societal increase in volunteering. The aim of the study was to explore the significance of professional and private life experiences in willingness to volunteer to care for people with severe mental illness. Focus group interviews with volunteers in the Community Family Programme was conducted, followed by thematic analysis. All interviewees had professional and/or private experience of SMI, which had a major influence on their initial willingness to volunteer. Volunteering was an opportunity to pass on their experiences and to care for SMI people in ways that were not possible in their professions. The interviewees did not distinguish between the influences of professional and/or private life experiences on their willingness to volunteer. The study demonstrates the importance of professional and/or private life experiences in initial considerations about volunteering for mental health care. The consequences for recruitment practices are discussed.

  20. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks are associated with poorer cognitive function in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Torres, Rachael V

    2016-04-01

    The importance of adequate nutrition on cognitive performance is well recognised. Greater intakes of soft drinks are associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes, as well as other cardiometabolic diseases. A few studies have specifically examined whether the intake of soft drinks may be related to cognitive function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soft drink intakes, including both sugar-sweetened and diet beverages, are associated with cognitive function, with adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors, and stratified according to type 2 diabetes status. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken using 803 community-dwelling participants, aged 23-98 years, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Cognitive function was measured using an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Usual dietary intake of soft drinks was assessed using a FFQ. Stratification by type 2 diabetes indicated that a greater intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks was significantly associated with poorer performance in visual spatial memory, working memory, scanning and tracking, executive function, the global composite and the Mini-Mental State Examination in diabetic individuals. These relations were not attenuated with statistical control for BMI and other cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Diet soft drink intake was unrelated to cognitive performance. Frequent sugar-sweetened soft drink intake was associated with poorer cognitive performance, particularly in individuals with type 2 diabetes, but the underlying causal mechanisms are yet to be determined. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify these findings and the underlying causal mechanisms.

  1. Referential first mention in narratives by mildly mentally retarded adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, K T; Sabsay, S

    1987-01-01

    Referential first mentions in narrative reports of a short film by 40 mildly mentally retarded adults and 20 nonretarded adults were compared. The mentally retarded sample included equal numbers of male and female, and black and white speakers. The mentally retarded speakers made significantly fewer first mentions and significantly more errors in the form of the first mentions than did nonretarded speakers. A pattern of better performance by black males than by other mentally retarded speakers was found. It is suggested that task difficulty and incomplete mastery of the use of definite and indefinite forms for encoding old and new information, rather than some global type of egocentrism, accounted for the poorer performance by mentally retarded speakers.

  2. Mental health among single and partnered parents in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kyoung Ae; Choi, Hee Yeon; Kim, Soo In

    2017-01-01

    This study compares the mental health of single parents relative to partnered parents and assesses the contribution of the social and demographic factors to this difference, examining the gender difference in it. We analyzed 12,024 single and partnered subjects, aged 30-59 years, living with children, aged 0-19 years, drawn from the 4th, 5th, and 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) dataset in South Korea conducted from 2007-2013. Mental health was evaluated by self-reported questionnaires including depressive mood for recent two weeks, presence of suicidal ideation, and the Korean version of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Covariates included age, physical illness, socioeconomic status (family income, recipient of national basic livelihood guarantees, educational level, house ownership, job, and residential area), family structure, and support (co-residence of another adult). Multiple logistic regression was carried out and the explained fractions of each covariate was calculated. Single parents had significantly poorer mental health than their partnered counterparts, with odds ratio (OR) of 2.02 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-2.63) for depressive symptoms, 1.69 (95% CI 1.27-2.25) for suicidal ideation, and 1.74 (95% CI 1.38-2.20) for any of the three mental health statuses (suspicious depression, suicidal ideation, and alcohol dependence) after controlling for the covariates. The odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.50-3.93) and suicidal ideation (OR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.97-3.17) among both single fathers and mothers were higher than partnered parents. However, the odds of alcohol dependence were 3.6 times higher among single mothers than partnered mothers (OR = 3.58, 95% CI 1.81-7.08) and were 1.4 times greater among single fathers than partnered fathers (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.81-2.25). Socio-economic status explained more than 50% (except for substance use disorders) of the poorer mental health in single

  3. Mental health among single and partnered parents in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Ae Kong

    Full Text Available This study compares the mental health of single parents relative to partnered parents and assesses the contribution of the social and demographic factors to this difference, examining the gender difference in it.We analyzed 12,024 single and partnered subjects, aged 30-59 years, living with children, aged 0-19 years, drawn from the 4th, 5th, and 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES dataset in South Korea conducted from 2007-2013. Mental health was evaluated by self-reported questionnaires including depressive mood for recent two weeks, presence of suicidal ideation, and the Korean version of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Covariates included age, physical illness, socioeconomic status (family income, recipient of national basic livelihood guarantees, educational level, house ownership, job, and residential area, family structure, and support (co-residence of another adult. Multiple logistic regression was carried out and the explained fractions of each covariate was calculated.Single parents had significantly poorer mental health than their partnered counterparts, with odds ratio (OR of 2.02 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.56-2.63 for depressive symptoms, 1.69 (95% CI 1.27-2.25 for suicidal ideation, and 1.74 (95% CI 1.38-2.20 for any of the three mental health statuses (suspicious depression, suicidal ideation, and alcohol dependence after controlling for the covariates. The odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.50-3.93 and suicidal ideation (OR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.97-3.17 among both single fathers and mothers were higher than partnered parents. However, the odds of alcohol dependence were 3.6 times higher among single mothers than partnered mothers (OR = 3.58, 95% CI 1.81-7.08 and were 1.4 times greater among single fathers than partnered fathers (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.81-2.25. Socio-economic status explained more than 50% (except for substance use disorders of the poorer mental health in

  4. Effects of perceived discrimination on mental health and mental health services utilization among gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana; Tran, Alisia; Lee, Richard; van Ryn, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has found that lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals are at risk for a variety of mental health disorders. We examined the extent to which a recent experience of a major discriminatory event may contribute to poor mental health among LGBT persons. Data were derived from a cross-sectional strata-cluster survey of adults in Hennepin County, Minnesota, who identified as LGBT (n=472) or heterosexual (n=7,412). Compared to heterosexuals, LGBT individuals had poorer mental health (higher levels of psychological distress, greater likelihood of having a diagnosis of depression or anxiety, greater perceived mental health needs, and greater use of mental health services), more substance use (higher levels of binge drinking, greater likelihood of being a smoker and greater number of cigarettes smoked per day), and were more likely to report unmet mental healthcare needs. LGBT individuals were also more likely to report having experienced a major incident of discrimination over the past year than heterosexual individuals. Although perceived discrimination was associated with almost all of the indicators of mental health and utilization of mental health care that we examined, adjusting for discrimination did not significantly reduce mental health disparities between heterosexual and LGBT persons. LGBT individuals experienced more major discrimination and reported worse mental health than heterosexuals, but discrimination did not account for this disparity. Future research should explore additional forms of discrimination and additional stressors associated with minority sexual orientation that may account for these disparities.

  5. The relationship between physical inactivity and mental wellbeing: Findings from a gamification-based community-wide physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Marc Ashley

    2018-01-01

    Mental ill health accounts for 13 per cent of total global disease burden with predictions that depression alone will be the leading cause of disease burden globally by 2030. Poor mental health is consistently associated with deprivation, low income, unemployment, poor education, poorer physical health and increased health-risk behaviour. A plethora of research has examined the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing; however, the influence of community-wide gamification-based physical activity interventions on mental wellbeing, to the authors' knowledge, is yet to be explored. In view of this paucity of attention, the current study examined the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing pre/post a community-wide, gamification-based intervention. The findings revealed that increases in mental wellbeing were significantly greater for the least active prior to the intervention, and a strong, positive correlation between increase in physical activity and increase in mental wellbeing was observed.

  6. The relationship between physical inactivity and mental wellbeing: Findings from a gamification-based community-wide physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ashley Harris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental ill health accounts for 13 per cent of total global disease burden with predictions that depression alone will be the leading cause of disease burden globally by 2030. Poor mental health is consistently associated with deprivation, low income, unemployment, poor education, poorer physical health and increased health-risk behaviour. A plethora of research has examined the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing; however, the influence of community-wide gamification-based physical activity interventions on mental wellbeing, to the authors’ knowledge, is yet to be explored. In view of this paucity of attention, the current study examined the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing pre/post a community-wide, gamification-based intervention. The findings revealed that increases in mental wellbeing were significantly greater for the least active prior to the intervention, and a strong, positive correlation between increase in physical activity and increase in mental wellbeing was observed.

  7. Operational Stress and Correlates of Mental Health Among Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; De La Rosa, Gabriel M; Schmitz, Kimberly J; Vishnyak, Elizabeth J; Raducha, Stephanie C; Roesch, Scott C; Johnston, Scott L

    2015-12-01

    Military personnel deployed to Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay (JTF-GTMO) faced numerous occupational stressors. As part of a program evaluation, personnel working at JTF-GTMO completed several validated self-report measures. Personnel were at the beginning, middle, or end of their deployment phase. This study presents data regarding symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse, depression, and resilience among 498 U.S. military personnel deployed to JTF-GTMO in 2009. We also investigated individual and organizational correlates of mental health among these personnel. Findings indicated that tenure at JTF-GTMO was positively related to adverse mental health outcomes. Regression models including these variables had R2 values ranging from .02 to .11. Occupation at JTF-GTMO also related to mental health such that guards reported poorer mental health than medical staff. Reluctance to seek out mental health care was also related to mental health outcomes. Those who reported being most reluctant to seek out care tended to report poorer mental health than those who were more willing to seek out care. Results suggested that the JTF-GTMO deployment was associated with significant psychological stress, and that both job-related and attitude-related variables were important to understanding mental health symptoms in this sample. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  8. Night-shift work is associated with poorer glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manodpitipong, Areesa; Saetung, Sunee; Nimitphong, Hataikarn; Siwasaranond, Nantaporn; Wongphan, Thanawat; Sornsiriwong, Chotima; Luckanajantachote, Pranee; Mangjit, Prasitchai; Keesukphan, Prasit; Crowley, Stephanie J; Hood, Megan M; Reutrakul, Sirimon

    2017-12-01

    The circadian system plays a role in regulating metabolism. Night-shift work, a form of circadian misalignment, is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. This study aimed to determine if night-shift workers with type 2 diabetes experience poorer glycaemic control than non-shift workers. Patients with type 2 diabetes (104 unemployed, 85 day workers and 60 night-shift workers) participated. Sleep duration, sleep quality, morningness-eveningness preference, depressive symptoms and dietary intake were assessed using standardized questionnaires. Haemoglobin A1c levels were measured. Night-shift workers had significantly higher haemoglobin A1c levels compared with others, while there were no differences between day workers and unemployed participants (median 7.86% versus 7.24% versus 7.09%, respectively). Additionally, night-shift workers were younger, had a higher body mass index, and consumed more daily calories than others. Among night-shift workers, there were no significant differences in haemoglobin A1c levels between those performing rotating versus non-rotating shifts (P = 0.856), or those with clockwise versus counterclockwise shift rotation (P = 0.833). After adjusting for age, body mass index, insulin use, sleep duration, morningness-eveningness preference and percentage of daily intake from carbohydrates, night-shift work, compared with day work, was associated with significantly higher haemoglobin A1c (B = 0.059, P = 0.044), while there were no differences between unemployed participants and day workers (B = 0.016, P = 0.572). In summary, night-shift work is associated with poorer glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. © The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Women with epilepsy have poorer knowledge and skills in child rearing than women without epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramma, P P; Sarma, P S; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2011-09-01

    Epilepsy can negatively impact the child rearing ability of women because of the risk related to seizures, adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs and psychosocial factors. To compare the child rearing knowledge (CRK) and practices (CRP) of women with epilepsy (WWE) with a matched group of women without epilepsy (WWoE). This study was carried out in the Kerala registry of epilepsy and pregnancy (KREP) at Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology in India. We prospectively recruited 100 WWE in first trimester of pregnancy from the KREP and 93 age, education and parity matched pregnant WWoE from the antenatal clinics of the Government medical college Thiruvananthapuram. Their child rearing knowledge (CRK) and practices (CRP) were evaluated with previously validated protocols. The CRK was assessed at the time of enrolment (first trimester of pregnancy) and the CRP was assessed when the baby was three to four months old. Eighty-eight women each from WWE and WWoE had completed the study, over a period of three years. WWE and WWoE were comparable for age (25.56±4.66 and 25.69±4.49 years), pregnancy outcome and type of delivery. WWE had excess fetal loss and postnatal seizures. The CRK was significantly lower for WWE (23.53±6.3) than for WWoE (26.08±5.3). The CRP was significantly lower for WWE (25.01±9.6) than for WWoE (28.14±7.1). WWE performed poorer in all domains of child rearing practices namely feeding, growth and development, cleaning and protection and infant stimulation. Poorer CRK was strongly associated with lower CRP while several demographic and economic characteristics were not relevant. WWE fared poorer in feeding and nursing their babies in spite of having the right knowledge in that domain. This may be due to several undisclosed concerns and social dynamics that need to be addressed while preparing any interventions. Copyright © 2011 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Retirement and mental health: analysis of the Australian national survey of mental health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Peter; Gill, Sarah C; Rodgers, Bryan; Anstey, Kaarin J; Villamil, Elena; Melzer, David

    2006-03-01

    Nation-wide research on mental health problems amongst men and women during the transition from employment to retirement is limited. This study sought to explore the relationship between retirement and mental health across older adulthood, whilst considering age and known risk factors for mental disorders. Data were from the 1997 National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being, a cross-sectional survey of 10,641 Australian adults. The prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders was analysed in the sub-sample of men (n = 1928) and women (n = 2261) aged 45-74 years. Mental health was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument. Additional measures were used to assess respondents' physical health, demographic and personal characteristics. The prevalence of common mental disorders diminished across increasing age groups of men and women. Women aged 55-59, 65-69, and 70-74 had significantly lower rates of mental disorders than those aged 45-49. In contrast, only men aged 65-69 and 70-74 demonstrated significantly lower prevalence compared with men aged 45-49. Amongst younger men, retirees were significantly more likely to have a common mental disorder relative to men still in the labour force; however, this was not the case for retired men of, or nearing, the traditional retirement age of 65. Men and women with poor physical health were also more likely to have a diagnosable mental disorder. The findings of this study indicate that, for men, the relationship between retirement and mental health varies with age. The poorer mental health of men who retire early is not explained by usual risk factors. Given current policy changes in many countries to curtail early retirement, these findings highlight the need to consider mental health, and its influencing factors, when encouraging continued employment amongst older adults.

  11. Subjective memory complaints are associated with poorer cognitive performance in adults with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkwalala, Asante; Hulgan, Todd; Newhouse, Paul

    2017-05-01

    With successful antiretroviral therapy in the US, HIV-positive adults now routinely survive into old age. However, increased life expectancy with HIV introduces the added complication of age-related cognitive decline. Aging with HIV has been associated with poorer cognitive outcomes compared to HIV-negative adults. While up to 50% of older HIV-positive adults will develop some degree of cognitive impairment over their lifetime, cognitive symptoms are often not consistently monitored, until those symptoms are significant enough to impair daily life. In this study we found that subjective memory complaint (SMC) ratings correlated with measurable memory performance impairments in HIV-positive adults, but not HIV-negative adults. As the HIV-positive population ages, structured subjective cognitive assessment may be beneficial to identify the early signs of cognitive impairment, and subsequently allow for earlier interventions to maintain cognitive performance as these adults continue to survive into old age.

  12. Significant Need for a French Network of Expert Centers Enabling a Better Characterization and Management of Treatment-Resistant Depression (Fondation FondaMental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Yrondi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMajor depression is characterized by (i a high lifetime prevalence of 16–17% in the general population; (ii a high frequency of treatment resistance in around 20–30% of cases; (iii a recurrent or chronic course; (iv a negative impact on the general functioning and quality of life; and (v a high level of comorbidity with various psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders, high occurrence of completed suicide, significant burden along with the personal, societal, and economic costs. In this context, there is an important need for the development of a network of expert centers for treatment-resistant depression (TRD, as performed under the leadership of the Fondation FondaMental.MethodsThe principal mission of this national network is to establish a genuine prevention, screening, and diagnosis policy for TRD to offer a systematic, comprehensive, longitudinal, and multidimensional evaluation of cases. A shared electronic medical file is used referring to a common exhaustive and standardized set of assessment tools exploring psychiatric, non-psychiatric, metabolic, biological, and cognitive dimensions of TRD. This is paralleled by a medico-economic evaluation to examine the global economic burden of the disease and related health-care resource utilization. In addition, an integrated biobank has been built by the collection of serum and DNA samples for the measurement of several biomarkers that could further be associated with the treatment resistance in the recruited depressed patients. A French observational long-term follow-up cohort study is currently in progress enabling the extensive assessment of resistant depressed patients. In those unresponsive cases, each expert center proposes relevant therapeutic options that are classically aligned to the international guidelines referring to recognized scientific societies.DiscussionThis approach is expected to improve the overall clinical assessments and to provide evidence

  13. People with chronic low back pain have poorer balance than controls in challenging tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rubens A; Vieira, Edgar R; Fernandes, Karen B P; Andraus, Rodrigo A; Oliveira, Marcio R; Sturion, Leandro A; Calderon, Mariane G

    2018-06-01

    To compare the balance of individuals with and without chronic low back pain during five tasks. The participants were 20 volunteers, 10 with and 10 without nonspecific chronic low back pain, mean age 34 years, 50% females. The participants completed the following balance tasks on a force platform in random order: (1) two-legged stance with eyes open, (2) two-legged stance with eyes closed, (3) semi-tandem with eyes open, (4) semi-tandem with eyes closed and (5) one-legged stance with eyes open. The participants completed three 60-s trials of tasks 1-4, and three 30-s trials of task 5 with 30-s rests between trials. The center of pressure area, velocity and frequency in the antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions were computed during each task, and compared between groups and tasks. Participants with chronic low back pain presented significantly larger center of pressure area and higher velocity than the healthy controls (p chronic low back pain group than two-legged stance tasks 1 and 2 (effect size >1.37 vs. effect size chronic low back pain presented poorer postural control using center of pressure measurements than the healthy controls, mainly during more challenging balance tasks such as semi-tandem and one-legged stance conditions. Implications for Rehabilitation People with chronic low back had poorer balance than those without it. Balance tasks need to be sensitive to capture impairments. Balance assessments during semi-tandem and one-legged stance were the most sensitive tasks to determine postural control deficit in people with chronic low back. Balance assessment should be included during rehabilitation programs for individuals with chronic low back pain for better clinical decision making related to balance re-training as necessary.

  14. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Mann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is often poorer for a second language (L2. In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1 may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50 values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p < 0.001. Significant negative correlations were observed between the SNR50 and seven of the nine variables of English usage, learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50 , showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress – all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students’ Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = −0.023. Standard multiple regression was

  15. [Economic crisis and mental health. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gili, Margalida; García Campayo, Javier; Roca, Miquel

    2014-06-01

    Studies published before the financial crisis of 2008 suggest that economic difficulties contribute to poorer mental health. The IMPACT study conducted in primary health care centers in Spain found a significant increase in common mental disorders. Between 2006 and 2010, mood disorders increased by 19%, anxiety disorders by 8% and alcohol abuse disorders by 5%. There were also gender differences, with increased alcohol dependence in women during the crisis period. The most important risk factor for this increase was unemployment. In parallel, antidepressant consumption has increased in recent years, although there has not been a significant inrease in the number of suicides. Finally, the study offers some proposals to reduce the impact of the crisis on mental health: increased community services, employment activation measures, and active policies to reduce alcohol consumption and prevent suicidal behavior, particularly among young people. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often poorer for a second language (L2). In low noise conditions, people listening to a language other than their first language (L1) may have similar auditory perception skills for that L2 as native listeners, but do worse in high noise conditions, and this has been attributed to the poorer WM for L2. Given that WM is critical for academic success in children and young adults, these speech in noise effects have implications for academic performance where the language of instruction is L2 for a student. We used a well-established Speech-in-Noise task as a verbal WM (vWM) test, and developed a model correlating vWM and measures of English proficiency and/or usage to scholastic outcomes in a multi-faceted assessment medical education program. Significant differences in Speech-Noise Ratio (SNR50) values were observed between medical undergraduates who had learned English before or after five years of age, with the latter group doing worse in the ability to extract whole connected speech in the presence of background multi-talker babble (Student-t tests, p learning styles, stress, and musical abilities in a questionnaire administered to the students previously. The remaining two variables, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Age of Acquisition of English (AoAoE) were significantly positively correlated with the SNR50, showing that those with a poorer capacity to discriminate simple English sentences from noise had learnt English later in life and had higher levels of stress - all characteristics of the international students. Local students exhibited significantly lower SNR50 scores and were significantly younger when they first learnt English. No significant correlation was detected between the SNR50 and the students' Visual/Verbal Learning Style (r = -0.023). Standard multiple regression was carried out to assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the

  17. Mental health and sleep of older wife caregivers for spouses with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette-Murphy, Karen; Todero, Catherine; Yeaworth, Rosalee

    2006-10-01

    This descriptive study examined sleep and mental health variables in 37 older wife caregivers for spouses with dementia compared to 37 age-matched controls. The relationships among selected caregiving variables (behavioral problems, caregiving hours, and years of caregiving), appraisal of burden, self-reported sleep efficiency for the past week, and mental health outcomes were examined. Lazarus and Folkman's stress and coping framework guided the study. Mental health and sleep were poorer for caregivers. Caregiving and appraisal of burden variables showed direct and indirect effects on mental health. However, caregiving and appraisal of burden variables were not significant for predicting sleep efficiency. Sleep efficiency was a good predictor of mental health in this sample of wife caregivers.

  18. Are Psychotic Experiences Related to Poorer Reflective Reasoning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Mækelæ

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive biases play an important role in the formation and maintenance of delusions. These biases are indicators of a weak reflective mind, or reduced engaging in reflective and deliberate reasoning. In three experiments, we tested whether a bias to accept non-sense statements as profound, treat metaphorical statements as literal, and suppress intuitive responses is related to psychotic-like experiences.Methods: We tested deliberate reasoning and psychotic-like experiences in the general population and in patients with a former psychotic episode. Deliberate reasoning was assessed with the bullshit receptivity scale, the ontological confabulation scale and the cognitive reflection test (CRT. We also measured algorithmic performance with the Berlin numeracy test and the wordsum test. Psychotic-like experiences were measured with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experience (CAPE-42 scale.Results: Psychotic-like experiences were positively correlated with a larger receptivity toward bullshit, more ontological confabulations, and also a lower score on the CRT but not with algorithmic task performance. In the patient group higher psychotic-like experiences significantly correlated with higher bullshit receptivity.Conclusion: Reduced deliberate reasoning may contribute to the formation of delusions, and be a general thinking bias largely independent of a person's general intelligence. Acceptance of bullshit may be facilitated the more positive symptoms a patient has, contributing to the maintenance of the delusions.

  19. US public support for vaccine donation to poorer countries in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the global health community sought to make vaccine available "in developing nations in the same timeframe as developed nations." However, richer nations placed advance orders with manufacturers, leaving poorer nations dependent on the quantity and timing of vaccine donations by manufacturers and rich nations. Knowledge of public support for timely donations could be important to policy makers during the next pandemic. We explored what the United States (US public believes about vaccine donation by its country to poorer countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We surveyed 2079 US adults between January 22(nd and February 1(st 2010 about their beliefs regarding vaccine donation to poorer countries. Income (p = 0.014, objective priority status (p = 0.005, nativity, party affiliation, and political ideology (p<0.001 were significantly related to views on the amount of vaccine to be donated. Though party affiliation and political ideology were related to willingness to donate vaccine (p<0.001, there was bipartisan support for timely donations of 10% of the US vaccine supply so that those "at risk in poorer countries can get the vaccine at the same time" as those at risk in the US. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the US and other developed nations would do well to bolster support with education and public discussion on this issue prior to an emerging pandemic when emotional reactions could potentially influence support for donation. We conclude that given our evidence for bipartisan support for timely donations, it may be necessary to design multiple arguments, from utilitarian to moral, to strengthen public and policy makers' support for donations.

  20. Obesity is associated with a poorer prognosis in women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Penelope J; Bell, Robin J; Davis, Susan R

    2014-11-01

    Whether moderate to severe obesity (body mass index (BMI)≥30 to women, recruited within 12 months of their diagnosis of hormone receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (HER2-) invasive breast cancer completed an enrolment questionnaire and an annual follow-up questionnaire every 12 months for another 5 years. The impact of obesity on time to either local or distant recurrence or new breast cancer, or death due to breast cancer was determined by Cox regression. Women in the most extreme categories of BMI (women, mean age, 58.4±11.6 years, 53.8% had Stage 1 disease and 88.9% received oral adjuvant endocrine therapy (OAET) within 2 years of diagnosis. The likelihood of an event was significantly associated with moderate to severe obesity (HR=1.71, 95%CI, 1.12-2.62, p=0.014), disease beyond Stage 1 (HR=2.87, 95% CI 1.73-4.75, pobesity (HR 3.23, 95%CI 1.48-7.03, p=0.003) and OAET use (HR 0.41, 95%CI 0.17-0.98, p=0.046) were significantly associated with an event. Moderate to severe obesity is associated with a poorer invasive breast cancer prognosis; this is also true for women with Stage 1 disease, and is independent of age and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adults with an epilepsy history fare significantly worse on positive mental and physical health than adults with other common chronic conditions-Estimates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey and Patient Reported Outcome Measurement System (PROMIS) Global Health Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobau, Rosemarie; Cui, Wanjun; Zack, Matthew M

    2017-07-01

    Healthy People 2020, a national health promotion initiative, calls for increasing the proportion of U.S. adults who self-report good or better health. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Global Health Scale (GHS) was identified as a reliable and valid set of items of self-reported physical and mental health to monitor these two domains across the decade. The purpose of this study was to examine the percentage of adults with an epilepsy history who met the Healthy People 2020 target for self-reported good or better health and to compare these percentages to adults with history of other common chronic conditions. Using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, we compared and estimated the age-standardized prevalence of reporting good or better physical and mental health among adults with five selected chronic conditions including epilepsy, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and hypertension. We examined response patterns for physical and mental health scale among adults with these five conditions. The percentages of adults with epilepsy who reported good or better physical health (52%) or mental health (54%) were significantly below the Healthy People 2020 target estimate of 80% for both outcomes. Significantly smaller percentages of adults with an epilepsy history reported good or better physical health than adults with heart disease, cancer, or hypertension. Significantly smaller percentages of adults with an epilepsy history reported good or better mental health than adults with all other four conditions. Health and social service providers can implement and enhance existing evidence-based clinical interventions and public health programs and strategies shown to improve outcomes in epilepsy. These estimates can be used to assess improvements in the Healthy People 2020 Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being Objective throughout the decade. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Unemployment and mental health scarring during the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Mattias; Winefield, Anthony; Nilsson, Karina; Hammarström, Anne

    2014-06-01

    There has been little research on the long-term relationship between unemployment experiences and mental health over the life course. This article investigates the relationship between youth unemployment as well as that of unemployment experiences during later periods and mental health at ages 16, 21, 30 and 42 years. The study makes use of the 'Northern Swedish Cohort' (NSC), a 27-year prospective cohort study. The cohort, investigated at ages 16, 18, 21, 30 and 42 years, consisted of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in Sweden. Of the original 1083 participants, 94.3% of those still alive were still participating at the 27-year follow up. Mental health, measured through a three-item index of nervous symptoms, depressive symptoms and sleeping problems, was analysed using a repeated measures linear mixed models approach using ages 16, 21, 30 and 43 years. Unemployment exposure was measured as exposure to at least a 6-month spell during three periods; 18-21, 21-30 and 30-42 years. Youth unemployment was shown to be significantly connected with poorer mental health at all three target ages, 21, 30 and 42 years. Later singular unemployment experiences did not appear to have the same long-term negative effects. There was however an accumulation in poorer mental health among respondents with unemployment experiences during two, and even more so three, of the periods. There are long-term mental health scarring effects of exposure to youth unemployment and multiple exposure to unemployment during the life course. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhancing early engagement with mental health services by young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jane Burns, Emma Birrell Young and Well Cooperative Research Centre, Abbotsford, VIC, Australia Abstract: International studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness, and the fundamental contribution it make to the overall disease burden, is greatest in children and young people. Despite this high burden, adolescents and young adults are the least likely population group to seek help or to access professional care for mental health problems. This issue is particularly problematic given that untreated, or poorly treated, mental disorders are associated with both short- and long-term functional impairment, including poorer education and employment opportunities, potential comorbidity, including drug and alcohol problems, and a greater risk for antisocial behavior, including violence and aggression. This cycle of poor mental health creates a significant burden for the young person, their family and friends, and society as a whole. Australia is enviably positioned to substantially enhance the well-being of young people, to improve their engagement with mental health services, and – ultimately – to improve mental health. High prevalence but potentially debilitating disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are targeted by the specialized youth mental health service, headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation and a series of Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centres, will provide early intervention specialist services for low prevalence, complex illnesses. Online services, such as ReachOut.com by Inspire Foundation, Youthbeyondblue, Kids Helpline, and Lifeline Australia, and evidence-based online interventions, such as MoodGYM, are also freely available, yet a major challenge still exists in ensuring that young people receive effective evidence-based care at the right time. This article describes Australian innovation in shaping a comprehensive youth mental health system, which is informed by an evidence

  4. Health-related lifestyle, physical and mental health in children of alcoholic parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serec, Maša; Svab, Igor; Kolšek, Marko; Svab, Vesna; Moesgen, Diana; Klein, Michael

    2012-11-01

    To identify potential differences between children of alcoholics (COAs) and controls in their health-related lifestyle, mental and physical health. The recruitment of COAs took place in inpatient and outpatient treatment and rehabilitation units. Controls were recruited in elementary and high schools. 57 COAs (72% response rate) and 84 controls (88% response rate) aged between 12 and 18 years completed a postal questionnaire about their health-related lifestyle, and mental and physical health. Bivariate analysis showed that COAs' families have higher unemployment rates and lower economic status (P = 0.000). COAs reported poorer school performance (P = 0.000), spending more time in sedentary (television: P = 0.000, Internet: P = 0.014, music: P = 0.040) and less time in physical activities (P = 0.048), having poorer eating habits (fruits and vegetables: P = 0.001, sweets: P = 0.001, fast food: P = 0.000, soft drinks: P = 0.004), a higher substance use (cigarettes: P = 0.030; marijuana: P = 0.564, heavy drinking: P = 0.050) and more mental health difficulties (emotional symptoms: P = 0.015, conduct problems: P = 0.012, suicidal tendencies: P = 0.007, mental disorder: P = 0.040). Among COAs, girls reported more emotional and somatic symptoms compared to boys (P = 0.020 and P = 0.047, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that after controlling for socioeconomic status, significant mental health and health-related lifestyle inequalities between COAs and controls persist. Our findings suggest that COAs have a less healthy lifestyle and more mental health difficulties above and beyond the poorer economic environment they live in. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Impact of Social Cognition on Alcohol Dependence Treatment Outcome: Poorer Facial Emotion Recognition Predicts Relapse/Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Claudia I; Derntl, Birgit; Osthaus, Friederike; Kemmler, Georg; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    Despite growing evidence for neurobehavioral deficits in social cognition in alcohol use disorder (AUD), the clinical relevance remains unclear, and little is known about its impact on treatment outcome. This study prospectively investigated the impact of neurocognitive social abilities at treatment onset on treatment completion. Fifty-nine alcohol-dependent patients were assessed with measures of social cognition including 3 core components of empathy via paradigms measuring: (i) emotion recognition (the ability to recognize emotions via facial expression), (ii) emotional perspective taking, and (iii) affective responsiveness at the beginning of inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence. Subjective measures were also obtained, including estimates of task performance and a self-report measure of empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index). According to treatment outcomes, patients were divided into a patient group with a regular treatment course (e.g., with planned discharge and without relapse during treatment) or an irregular treatment course (e.g., relapse and/or premature and unplanned termination of treatment, "dropout"). Compared with patients completing treatment in a regular fashion, patients with relapse and/or dropout of treatment had significantly poorer facial emotion recognition ability at treatment onset. Additional logistic regression analyses confirmed these results and identified poor emotion recognition performance as a significant predictor for relapse/dropout. Self-report (subjective) measures did not correspond with neurobehavioral social cognition measures, respectively objective task performance. Analyses of individual subtypes of facial emotions revealed poorer recognition particularly of disgust, anger, and no (neutral faces) emotion in patients with relapse/dropout. Social cognition in AUD is clinically relevant. Less successful treatment outcome was associated with poorer facial emotion recognition ability at the beginning of

  6. Child labour in low- and middle-income countries and its consequences for mental health: a systematic literature review of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Sarah; Hodes, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, large numbers of children are involved in work. Whilst studies have shown that child labour may be harmful to children's physical health, little is known about child labour's effects on mental health. It is important to understand the relationship between work and mental health problems during childhood, and identify possible risk factors for poorer mental health. A systematic literature review was conducted. Published papers in any language that compared the mental health of children (work with those who had not been exposed to work were included. Twelve published observational studies on the association between child labour and general psychopathology, internalising and externalising problems were identified. Child labour was found to be strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes in seven studies. More significant associations were found between child labour and internalising problems than externalising problems. The burden of poor mental health as a result of child labour is significant given the numbers of children in work. Risk factors for poorer mental health were involvement in domestic labour, younger age, and greater intensity of work, which could be due to the potential of child labour to cause isolation, low self-esteem, and perception of an external locus of control. The risk factors suggested by this review will have implications for policy makers. Additional research is needed in low-income countries, risk factors and also into the potential psychological benefits of low levels of work.

  7. Poor Employment Conditions Adversely Affect Mental Health Outcomes Among Surgical Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevric, Jasmina; Papa, Nathan; Perera, Marlon; Rashid, Prem; Toshniwal, Sumeet

    Poor mental health in junior clinicians is prevalent and may lead to poor productivity and significant medical errors. We aimed to provide contemporary data on the mental health of surgical trainees and identify risk factors relating to poorer mental health outcomes. A detailed questionnaire was developed comprising questions based on the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) and Physical Activity Questionnaire. Each of the questionnaires has proven validity and reliability in the clinical context. Ethics approval was obtained from the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. The questionnaire was aimed at surgical registrars. We used Physical Activity Questionnaire, SF-36 scores and linear regression to evaluate the effect of putative predictors on mental health. A total of 83 responses were collected during the study period, of which 49 (59%) were from men and 34 (41%) were from women. The mean Mental Component Summary (MCS) score for both sexes was significantly lower than the population mean at ages 25-34 (p work culture and a feeling of a lack of support at work were extremely strong predictors of a lower MCS score (p Hours of overtime worked, particularly unpaid overtime, were also strong predictors of a poorer score. Australian surgical trainees reported lower MCS scores from the SF-36 questionnaire compared to the general population. Increasing working hours, unpaid overtime, poor job security, and job satisfaction were associated with poorer scores among trainees. Interventions providing improved working conditions need to be considered by professional training bodies and employers. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. All rights reserved.

  8. High Intrapatient Variability of Tacrolimus Exposure in the Early Period After Liver Transplantation Is Associated With Poorer Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayar, Michel; Tron, Camille; Jézéquel, Caroline; Beaurepaire, Jean Marie; Petitcollin, Antoine; Houssel-Debry, Pauline; Camus, Christophe; Verdier, Marie Clémence; Dehlawi, Ammar; Lakéhal, Mohamed; Desfourneaux, Véronique; Meunier, Bernard; Sulpice, Laurent; Bellissant, Eric; Boudjema, Karim; Lemaitre, Florian

    2018-03-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is the cornerstone of immunosuppressive regimen in liver transplantation (LT). Its pharmacokinetics is characterized by a high interpatient and intrapatient variability (IPV) leading to an unpredictable dose-response relationship. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of TAC IPV (IPV) on graft and patient outcomes after LT. We retrospectively analyzed 812 LT recipients treated with TAC. The IPV of TAC concentrations was estimated by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV) of whole blood trough concentrations. Patients were categorized in 2 groups: low IPV (CV < 40%) and high IPV (CV ≥ 40%). There were significantly more neurologic complications (31.2% vs 16.6%, P < 0.001), cardiovascular complications (19.7% vs 9.7%, P < 0.001), and acute renal failure requiring dialysis (8.5% vs 2.2%, P < 0.001) in the high CV group than in the low CV group. Moreover, graft survival was significantly poorer in the high CV group (hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.95; P = 0.03). A pretransplantation elevated Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score (P < 0.001) and Child-Pugh grade (P < 0.001) were identified as risk factors for presenting a high CV. A high CV of TAC concentrations was found to be predictive of TAC-related toxicity and poorer survival.

  9. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  10. Children's Executive Functions: Are They Poorer after Very Early Brain Insult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vicki; Spencer-Smith, Megan; Coleman, Lee; Anderson, Peter; Williams, Jackie; Greenham, Mardee; Leventer, Richard J.; Jacobs, Rani

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally early brain insult (EBI) has been considered to have better outcome than later injury, consistent with the notion that the young brain is flexible and able to reorganize. Recent research findings question this view, suggesting that EBI might lead to poorer outcome than brain insult at any other age. Exploring this early vulnerability…

  11. Improving the time efficiency of identifying dairy herds with poorer welfare in a population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2016-10-01

    Animal-based welfare assessment is time consuming and expensive. A promising strategy for improving the efficiency of identifying dairy herds with poorer welfare is to first estimate levels of welfare in herds based on data that are more easily obtained. Our aims were to evaluate the potential of herd housing and management data for estimating the level of welfare in dairy herds, and to estimate the associated reduction in the number of farm visits required for identification of herds with poorer welfare in a population. Seven trained observers collected data on 6 animal-based welfare indicators in a selected sample of 181 loose-housed Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 22 to 211 cows). Severely lame cows, cows with lesions or swellings, cows with a dirty hindquarter, and very lean cows were counted, and avoidance distance was assessed for a sample of cows. Occurrence of displacements (social behavior) was recorded in the whole barn during 120 min of observation. For the same herds, data regarding cattle housing and management were collected on farms, and data relating to demography, management, milk production and composition, and fertility were extracted from national databases. A herd was classified as having poorer welfare when it belonged to the 25% worst-scoring herds. We used variables of herd housing and management data as potential predictors for individual animal-based welfare indicators in logistic regressions at the herd level. Prediction was less accurate for the avoidance distance index [area under the curve (AUC)=0.69], and moderately accurate for prevalence of severely lame cows (AUC=0.83), prevalence of cows with lesions or swellings (AUC=0.81), prevalence of cows with a dirty hindquarter (AUC=0.74), prevalence of very lean cows (AUC=0.83), and frequency of displacements (AUC=0.72). We compared the number of farm visits required for identifying herds with poorer welfare in a population for a risk-based screening with predictions based on herd housing

  12. Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: poorer prognosis than non-head and neck sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, G B; Madana, J; Da Silva, S D; Hier, M P; Mlynarek, A M; Black, M J

    2016-04-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive neurocutaneous malignancy. This study investigated whether patients with Merkel cell carcinoma in the head and neck had poorer outcomes than patients with Merkel cell carcinoma located elsewhere. A retrospective study was performed of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma treated at the Jewish General Hospital in Montréal, Canada, from 1993 to 2013. Associations between clinicopathological characteristics and disease-free and disease-specific survival rates were examined according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Twenty-seven patients were identified. Although basic clinicopathological characteristics and treatments were similar between head and neck and non-head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma groups, disease-free and disease-specific survival rates were significantly lower in the head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma group (log-rank test; p = 0.043 and p = 0.001, respectively). Mortality was mainly due to distant metastasis. Patients with head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma had poorer survival rates than patients with non-head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma in our study. The tendency to obtain close margins, a less predictable metastatic pattern, and/or intrinsic tumour factors related to the head and neck may explain this discrepancy.

  13. Frequency of bullying at work, physiological response, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between bullying at work and cortisol secretion. Of particular interest was to examine whether frequently and occasionally bullied persons differed from nonbullied persons. The study included 1944 employees (1413 women and 531 men) from 55 workplaces in Denmark (16 private and 39 public workplaces). During a work day three saliva samples were collected at awakening, +30 min later, and at 20:00 hours, and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Mental health was assessed using items on somatic, cognitive, stress, and depressive mood. Of the 1944 employees, 1.1% was frequently bullied and 7.2% occasionally bullied. Frequently bullied persons reported poorer mental health and had a 24.8% lower salivary cortisol concentration compared with the nonbullied reference group. Occasionally bullied persons had a poorer self-reported mental health, but their cortisol concentrations did not deviate from the group of nonbullied persons. The associations remained significant even after controlling for age, gender, exact time of sampling, mental health, and duration of bullying. Bullying occurred at 78% of the workplaces (43 workplaces); frequent bullying occurred at 21% of the workplaces (40%). Frequent bullying was associated with lower salivary cortisol concentrations. No such association was observed for occasional bullying. Whether the generally lower secretion of cortisol among the frequently bullied persons indicate an altered physiological status remains to be evaluated in future studies. Yet, the physiological response seems to underscore the possibility that bullying indeed may have measurable physiological consequences. Hence, the physiological response supports the mental symptoms found among the frequently bullied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in mental state associated with prison environments: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Illingworth, C; Canning, A; Garner, E; Woolley, J; Taylor, P; Amos, T

    2014-06-01

    To develop an understanding of the stability of mental health during imprisonment through review of existing research evidence relating physical prison environment to mental state changes in prisoners. A systematic literature search was conducted looking at changes in mental state and how this related to various aspects of imprisonment and the prison environment. Fifteen longitudinal studies were found, and from these, three broad themes were delineated: being imprisoned and aspects of the prison regime; stage of imprisonment and duration of sentence; and social density. Reception into prison results in higher levels of psychiatric symptoms that seem to improve over time; otherwise, duration of imprisonment appears to have no significant impact on mental health. Regardless of social density, larger prisons are associated with poorer mental state, as are extremes of social density. There are large gaps in the literature relating prison environments to changes in mental state; in particular, high-quality longitudinal studies are needed. Existing research suggests that although entry to prison may be associated with deterioration in mental state, it tends to improve with time. Furthermore, overcrowding, ever more likely as prison populations rise, is likely to place a particular burden on mental health services. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Association Between Social Skills and Mental Health in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, With and Without Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Belinda; Wong, Michelle; Dossetor, David; Hayes, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with social skills deficits and co-occurring mental health difficulties. ASD frequently co-occurs with Intellectual Disability (ID). There is scant literature exploring the association between social skills and mental health in children with ASD, with or without ID. Participants were 292 children aged six to 13 with ASD (217 without ID; 76 with Mild ID). Parents and teachers rated social skills and mental health using standardised questionnaires. Greater mental health difficulties were associated with greater social responsiveness difficulties and poorer social skills across the sample. Effect sizes were large. Social skills explained a significant proportion of the variance in mental health scores across the sample. The study has important implications for treatment and future research.

  16. Poorer Financial and Health Literacy Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; James, Bryan D; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A

    2015-09-01

    Literacy is an important determinant of financial and health outcomes in old age, and cognitive decline has been linked with lower literacy. We tested the hypothesis that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with poorer financial and health literacy. Participants (n = 730) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project were given a clinical evaluation and an assessment of total, financial, and health literacy. Regression was used to examine whether MCI was associated with lower literacy. In secondary analyses, we investigated the association of particular cognitive systems with literacy. MCI was associated with lower total, financial, and health literacy. An interaction was observed such that higher education reduced the effect of MCI on total and financial literacy. Multiple cognitive systems were associated with literacy in participants with MCI, and semantic memory accounted for the most variance. Persons with MCI exhibit poorer financial and health literacy, and education mitigates this effect. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Parenting Stress in Mothers of Mentally Retarded, Blind, Deaf and Physically Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Atefvahid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Parents of children with disabilities are poorer physical and mental health and greater stress experience. This study was conducted to evaluate Parenting stress in mothers of mentally retarded, blind, deaf and physically disabled children.Materials and Methods: This study was causal-comparative. The study population included 310 mothers of exceptional children (mothers of children with mental retardation, blind, deaf and physical-motor disabilities 7 to 12 years of age enrolled in primary schools in the academic year 90-1389 exceptional Tehran. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was used. The data obtained from questionnaires parenting stress using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were analyzed.Results: The results showed that parenting stress in mothers of blind with mentally retarded, deaf with mentally retarded, physically with blind and deaf children are significantly different. As well as, there was significant difference between the mean score of blind, physical disorders, mentally retarded and deaf groups in terms of distraction- hyperactivity subscale.Conclusion: Mothers of children with mental retardation, physical disorders, blind and deaf have most parenting stress respectively.

  18. Depressive symptoms and poorer performance on the Stroop Task are associated with weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Emma J; Krakoff, Jonathan; Gluck, Marci E

    2018-03-15

    Executive function impairments and depression are associated with obesity but whether they predict weight gain is unclear. Forty-six individuals (35m, 37±10y) completed the Stroop Task, Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-SR), Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Body composition (DXA) and fasting glucose were also measured. Data from return visits were used to assess changes in weight. Poorer Stroop and WCST performance associated with higher BMI whereas poorer IGT and WCST performance associated with higher body fat (%; all p's≤0.05). Stroop interference (p=0.04; p=0.05) and IDS-SR (p=0.06; p=0.02) associated with increased BMI and weight gain (%/yr). In a multivariate linear model Stroop interference (β=0.40, p<0.01; β=0.35, p<0.01) and IDS-SR (β=0.38, p<0.01; β=0.37, p<0.01) independently predicted increased BMI and weight gain (%/yr) even after controlling for baseline weight and glucose levels. Poorer response inhibition and depressive symptoms, but not glucose levels, predicted weight gain. Evaluating neurocognitive and mood deficits could improve current treatment strategies for weight loss. Clinical Trial Registration Numbers NCT00523627, NCT00342732, NCT01224704. clinicaltrials.gov. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Mild cognitive impairment is associated with poorer decision-making in community-based older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; James, Bryan D; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A

    2015-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with poorer financial and healthcare decision-making. Community-based epidemiological cohort study. Communities throughout northeastern Illinois. Older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project (N = 730). All participants underwent a detailed clinical evaluation and decision-making assessment using a measure that closely approximates materials used in real-world financial and healthcare settings. This allowed for measurement of total decision-making and financial and healthcare decision-making. Regression models were used to examine whether MCI was associated with a lower level of decision-making. In subsequent analyses, the relationship between specific cognitive systems (episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perceptual speed, visuospatial ability) and decision-making was explored in participants with MCI. MCI was associated with lower total, financial, and healthcare decision-making scores after accounting for the effects of age, education, and sex. The effect of MCI on total decision-making was equivalent to the effect of more than 10 additional years of age. Additional models showed that, when considering multiple cognitive systems, perceptual speed accounted for the most variance in decision-making in participants with MCI. Persons with MCI may have poorer financial and healthcare decision-making in real-world situations, and perceptual speed may be an important contributor to poorer decision-making in persons with MCI. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Within-person analysis of welfare transitions in a longitudinal panel survey reveals change in mental health service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pymont, C; Schofield, T P; Butterworth, P

    2017-12-01

    While international research shows that receipt of welfare benefits is associated with poor mental health, less is known about the relationship between welfare receipt and mental health service use. We investigate whether within-person change in welfare recipient status is associated with change in mental health service use. Analysis of two waves of data from an Australian national household survey. Random- and fixed-effect models considered the effect of change in welfare receipt status, and assessed whether change in mental health service use differed by type of welfare benefit or the direction of welfare transition. Individuals were more likely to report greater mental health service use at times of welfare receipt. These associations were attenuated, but remained significant, after adjusting for mental health. Increased health service use was not tied to specific types of welfare benefits. The increase in mental health service use associated with a transition onto welfare benefits was much greater than the decline in service use associated with the transition off benefits. Within individuals, welfare receipt is associated with greater mental health service use. While this does reflect poorer mental health at the time of welfare receipt, other factors seem to facilitate health service use. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-01-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  2. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  3. Emotion regulation, mental health, and social wellbeing in a young adolescent sample: A concurrent and longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervonsky, Elizabeth; Hunt, Caroline

    2018-04-26

    Previous research has established that the ability to manage emotions effectively is critical to healthy psychological and social development in adolescents. However, less research has considered the relationships between specific emotion regulation (ER) strategies, such as reappraisal and suppression, and social wellbeing in this age group. The current study investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between 2 ER strategies (reappraisal and suppression) and social outcomes (peer victimization, friendship satisfaction, and family satisfaction) in young adolescents. Analyses also controlled for mental health (anxiety and depression). Given likely gender differences in these variables, key analyses were conducted in parallel for males and females. There were 232 Australian adolescents who completed measures in Grade 7 (Age Mean = 11.97, SD = .35; 64% female) and a year later in Grade 8. Zero-order correlations indicated an inverse relationship between suppression use and social wellbeing variables, although a number of these associations were no longer significant when controlling for mental health. There was limited evidence that reappraisal was uniquely related to social outcomes. However, interaction effects suggested that greater use of reappraisal might have provided some protection against the negative social effects of poorer mental health. Poorer mental and social wellbeing also appeared to be related to ER strategy use, particularly greater suppression use. The findings suggest that ER strategy use, mental health, and social outcomes all play important and interrelated roles in adolescent wellbeing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The potential role of attitudes towards suicide between mental health status and suicidal ideation among Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L; Yang, Q H; Chen, J L; Zou, H X; Xia, T S; Liu, Y

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the contributions of mental health status and attitudes towards suicide on suicidal ideation in a sample of 6568 Chinese children and adolescents in China. Attitudes towards suicide were investigated as a possible moderator and mediator of the influence of mental health status on suicidal ideation. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlation analyses and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Approximately 35.38% of children and adolescents in our study reported having suicidal ideation. Mental health status and attitudes towards suicide both had an independent effect on the severity of suicidal ideation. Results indicated that mental health status was positively associated with suicidal ideation, while attitudes towards suicide were negatively associated with suicidal ideation. Moderation analysis showed that the impact of mental health status on suicidal ideation was significantly greater among children and adolescents who reported favourable attitudes towards suicide. Attitudes towards suicide partially mediated the link between mental health status and the severity of suicidal ideation. Specifically, students who experienced poorer mental health status might be more likely to report significantly more favourable attitudes towards suicide, which in turn promote greater suicidal ideation. These results have implications for the prevention of youth suicide, suggesting that mental health status and attitudes towards suicide could be important targets for prevention and intervention for children and adolescents at risk of suicidal ideation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Workability and mental wellbeing among therapeutic prison officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, E J; Jackson, C A; Egan, H H; Tonkin, M

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has examined how age and health can shape workability (WA). This study seeks to explore how a lack of WA (inability) may affect the health of the employee. To explore the effects of work inability on mental wellbeing among therapeutic prison officers. An anonymous cross-sectional study of prison officers conducted in a category B English prison using the Work Ability Index (WAI) and General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ). Fifty-seven officers (59%) participated and of those 95% achieved GHQ caseness. Officers with poorer WA reported significantly higher GHQ scores. Work inability for mental demands had significant associations with anxiety (β = -0.58, 95% CI -4.21 to -1.88, particularly sleep loss; Pearson's r = -0.66). Our findings present clear associations between poor WA and its impact upon mental wellbeing. The results of this study may help to focus on areas for intervention such as improving WA and promoting mental wellbeing. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Increased Internet use and poorer ability to manage emotions in youth at high-risk for psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Internet use and social behavior remains unknown. However, research indicates that Internet use (IU may have some causal role in certain types of psychopathology and overall functioning. In contrast, other work suggests that IU may be protective and buffer against social isolation. Poorer emotional processing (EP is characteristic of schizophrenia, and these deficits are present prior to illness onset (the ultra high-risk period (UHR. UHR adolescents/young adults also fall within an age demographic characterized by extensive IU, which suggests that evaluating a link between IU and social behavior in this population may be especially informative. The present study examined the relationship between IU and emotional processing in 98 adolescents/young adults (52 UHR youth and 46 controls. UHR youth exhibited greater problematic IU (β = −6.49, F(1,95 = 8.79, p = 0.002 and social withdrawal/problems resulting from this use (β = −3.23, F(1,95 = 11.43, p < 0.001, as well deficits in emotional processing in comparison to healthy peers (β = 4.59, F(1,94 = 5.52, p = 0.011. Furthermore, the social problems resulting from IU were significantly related to the ability to process emotional information in the UHR group (β = −0.51, t(1,48 = −2.10, p = 0.021. UHR youth showed evidence of problematic IU relative to controls, and the social problems resulting from IU related to poorer EP. Findings replicate extant research involving other psychosis risk populations, while adding information regarding how social processes may relate to IU.

  7. Mild Cognitive Impairment is Associated with PoorerDecision Making in Community-Based Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke Han, S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; James, Bryan D.; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Financial and healthcare decision making are important for maintaining wellbeing and independence in old age. We tested the hypothesis that Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is associated with poorer decision making in financial and healthcare matters. Design Community-based epidemiologic cohort study. Setting Communities throughout Northeastern Illinois. Participants Participants were 730 older nondemented persons from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Measurements All participants underwent a detailed clinical evaluation and decision making assessment using a measure that closely approximates materials utilized in real world financial and healthcare settings. This allowed for measurement of total decision making, as well as financial and healthcare decision making. Regression models were used to examine whether the presence of MCI was associated with a lower level of decision making. In subsequent analyses, we explored the relation of specific cognitive systems (i.e., episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial ability) with decision making in those with MCI. Results Results showed that MCI was associated with lower decision making total scores as well as financial and healthcare scores, respectively, after accounting for the effects of age, education, and sex. The effect of MCI on total decision making was equivalent to the effect of more than 10 additional years of age. Additional models showed that when considering multiple cognitive systems, perceptual speed accounted for the most variance in decision making among participants with MCI. Conclusion Results suggest that persons with MCI may exhibit poorer financial and healthcare decision making in real world situations, and that perceptual speed may be an important contributor to poorer decision making among persons with MCI. PMID:25850350

  8. Comparing profiles of mental disorder across birth cohorts: results from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Buchan, Heather; Batterham, Philip J; Slade, Tim

    2014-05-01

    To describe and compare individuals with any DSM-IV mental disorder from three different birth cohorts - young (16-34 years), middle age (35-59 years) and older age (60-85 years) - on a range of clinically relevant factors. Data were derived from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Individuals from three birth cohorts with a range of mental health and substance use disorders were identified using DSM-IV criteria and compared using regression analysis. The specific factors that were compared include: (1) type of disorder/disorders present; (2) suicidality; (3) number of co-occurring disorders; (4) levels of distress and impairment; (5) self-assessed physical and mental health; (6) presence of physical conditions; (7) size and quality of social support/network; and (8) treatment-seeking behaviour. The birth cohorts differed dramatically in terms of the specific disorders that were present. The older cohort were significantly more likely to experience internalising disorders and significantly less likely to experience externalising disorders in comparison to the young cohort. The older cohort were significantly more likely to experience co-morbid physical conditions as well as lower life satisfaction, poorer self-rated physical health, increased functional impairment, and more days out of role. The younger cohort had a significantly larger peer group that they could confide in and rely on in comparison to the older cohort. Clinicians and researchers need to be cognisant that mental disorders manifest as highly heterogeneous constructs. The presentation of a disorder in a younger individual could be vastly different from the presentation of the same disorder in an older individual. The additional burden associated with these factors and how they apply to different birth cohorts must be taken into consideration when planning mental health services and effective treatment for the general population.

  9. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-01-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005–2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research

  10. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-09-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005-2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on

  11. Discrimination, perceived social inequity, and mental health among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Hong, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Qin, Xiong; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-04-01

    Status-based discrimination and inequity have been associated with the process of migration, especially with economics-driven internal migration. However, their association with mental health among economy-driven internal migrants in developing countries is rarely assessed. This study examines discriminatory experiences and perceived social inequity in relation to mental health status among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,006 rural-to-urban migrants in 2004-2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of being discriminated in daily life in urban destination and perceived social inequity. Mental health was measured using the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Multivariate analyses using general linear model were performed to test the effect of discriminatory experience and perceived social inequity on mental health. Experience of discrimination was positively associated with male gender, being married at least once, poorer health status, shorter duration of migration, and middle range of personal income. Likewise, perceived social inequity was associated with poorer health status, higher education attainment, and lower personal income. Multivariate analyses indicate that both experience of discrimination and perceived social inequity were strongly associated with mental health problems of rural-to-urban migrants. Experience of discrimination in daily life and perceived social inequity have a significant influence on mental health among rural-to-urban migrants. The findings underscore the needs to reduce public or societal discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants, to eliminate structural barriers (i.e., dual household registrations) for migrants to fully benefit from the urban economic development, and to create a positive atmosphere to improve migrant's psychological well-being.

  12. Common mental disorders, neighbourhood income inequality and income deprivation: small-area multilevel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fone, David; Greene, Giles; Farewell, Daniel; White, James; Kelly, Mark; Dunstan, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders are more prevalent in areas of high neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation but whether the prevalence varies with neighbourhood income inequality is not known. Aims To investigate the hypothesis that the interaction between small-area income deprivation and income inequality was associated with individual mental health. Method Multilevel analysis of population data from the Welsh Health Survey, 2003/04–2010. A total of 88 623 respondents aged 18–74 years were nested within 50 587 households within 1887 lower super output areas (neighbourhoods) and 22 unitary authorities (regions), linked to the Gini coefficient (income inequality) and the per cent of households living in poverty (income deprivation). Mental health was measured using the Mental Health Inventory MHI-5 as a discrete variable and as a ‘case’ of common mental disorder. Results High neighbourhood income inequality was associated with better mental health in low-deprivation neighbourhoods after adjusting for individual and household risk factors (parameter estimate +0.70 (s.e. = 0.33), P = 0.036; odds ratio (OR) for common mental disorder case 0.92, 95% CI 0.88–0.97). Income inequality at regional level was significantly associated with poorer mental health (parameter estimate -1.35 (s.e. = 0.54), P = 0.012; OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04–1.22). Conclusions The associations between common mental disorders, income inequality and income deprivation are complex. Income inequality at neighbourhood level is less important than income deprivation as a risk factor for common mental disorders. The adverse effect of income inequality starts to operate at the larger regional level. PMID:23470284

  13. Common mental disorders, neighbourhood income inequality and income deprivation: small-area multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fone, David; Greene, Giles; Farewell, Daniel; White, James; Kelly, Mark; Dunstan, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Common mental disorders are more prevalent in areas of high neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation but whether the prevalence varies with neighbourhood income inequality is not known. To investigate the hypothesis that the interaction between small-area income deprivation and income inequality was associated with individual mental health. Multilevel analysis of population data from the Welsh Health Survey, 2003/04-2010. A total of 88,623 respondents aged 18-74 years were nested within 50,587 households within 1887 lower super output areas (neighbourhoods) and 22 unitary authorities (regions), linked to the Gini coefficient (income inequality) and the per cent of households living in poverty (income deprivation). Mental health was measured using the Mental Health Inventory MHI-5 as a discrete variable and as a 'case' of common mental disorder. High neighbourhood income inequality was associated with better mental health in low-deprivation neighbourhoods after adjusting for individual and household risk factors (parameter estimate +0.70 (s.e. = 0.33), P = 0.036; odds ratio (OR) for common mental disorder case 0.92, 95% CI 0.88-0.97). Income inequality at regional level was significantly associated with poorer mental health (parameter estimate -1.35 (s.e. = 0.54), P = 0.012; OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22). The associations between common mental disorders, income inequality and income deprivation are complex. Income inequality at neighbourhood level is less important than income deprivation as a risk factor for common mental disorders. The adverse effect of income inequality starts to operate at the larger regional level.

  14. Cannabis Use Is Associated With Increased Psychotic Symptoms and Poorer Psychosocial Functioning in First-Episode Psychosis: A Report From the UK National EDEN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Jennifer L; Birchwood, Max; Copello, Alex; Everard, Linda; Jones, Peter B; Fowler, David; Amos, Tim; Freemantle, Nick; Sharma, Vimal; Marshall, Max; Singh, Swaran P

    2016-05-01

    The use of cannabis during the early stage of psychosis has been linked with increased psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to examine the use of cannabis in the 12 months following a first-episode of psychosis (FEP) and the link with symptomatic course and outcome over 1 year post psychosis onset. One thousand twenty-seven FEP patients were recruited upon inception to specialized early intervention services (EIS) for psychosis in the United Kingdom. Participants completed assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 months. The results indicate that the use of cannabis was significantly associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms, mania, depression and poorer psychosocial functioning. Continued use of cannabis following the FEP was associated with poorer outcome at 1 year for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score, negative psychotic symptoms, depression and psychosocial functioning, an effect not explained by age, gender, duration of untreated psychosis, age of psychosis onset, ethnicity or other substance use. This is the largest cohort study of FEP patients receiving care within EIS. Cannabis use, particularly "continued use," was associated with poorer symptomatic and functional outcome during the FEP. The results highlight the need for effective and early intervention for cannabis use in FEP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Preschool self regulation predicts later mental health and educational achievement in very preterm and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Lianne J; Lu, Zhigang; Morris, Alyssa R; Healey, Dione M

    2017-02-01

    To examine the extent to which preschool emotional and behavioral regulatory difficulties were associated with an increased risk of later mental health and educational problems. Of particular interest was whether early regulatory abilities contributed to later risk once baseline child behavioral adjustment and cognitive function were taken into account. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of 223 children born very preterm (VPT; Regulation Checklist, and (3) tester ratings of child behavior during neuropsychological testing. At age 9 years, mental health and educational achievement were assessed using the Development and Well-being Assessment interview and the Woodcock Johnson-III Tests of Achievement. VPT-born children had poorer emotional and behavioral regulation across all measures and time points. They also had higher rates of DSM-IV mental health disorder and educational delay at age 9. Across both study groups, poorer self regulation was associated with an increased risk of ADHD, conduct disorder, anxiety disorders and any disorder net of preschool child behavior problems and social risk. In contrast, only associations between early regulation and later language and any educational delay remained significant after adjustment for preschool cognitive functioning and family social risk. Early assessment of regulation in addition to behavioral screening may improve the early identification of preschool children at mental health risk.

  16. Economic diversification: Explaining the pattern of diversification in the global economy and its implications for fostering diversification in poorer countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freire Junior, Clovis

    2017-01-01

    Economic diversification is very relevant for poorer developing countries to create jobs and foster economic development. That need has been recognised in key internationally agreed development goals. The empirical economic literature has identified several stylised facts about the pattern of

  17. Prevalence and predictors of mental health distress post-Katrina: findings from the Gulf Coast Child and Family Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, David; Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Garfield, Richard; Redlener, Irwin

    2008-06-01

    Catastrophic disasters often are associated with massive structural, economic, and population devastation; less understood are the long-term mental health consequences. This study measures the prevalence and predictors of mental health distress and disability of hurricane survivors over an extended period of recovery in a postdisaster setting. A representative sample of 1077 displaced or greatly affected households was drawn in 2006 using a stratified cluster sampling of federally subsidized emergency housing settings in Louisiana and Mississippi, and of Mississippi census tracts designated as having experienced major damage from Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Two rounds of data collection were conducted: a baseline face-to-face interview at 6 to 12 months post-Katrina, and a telephone follow-up at 20 to 23 months after the disaster. Mental health disability was measured using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 12, version 2 mental component summary score. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted examining socioeconomic, demographic, situational, and attitudinal factors associated with mental health distress and disability. More than half of the cohort at both baseline and follow-up reported significant mental health distress. Self-reported poor health and safety concerns were persistently associated with poorer mental health. Nearly 2 years after the disaster, the greatest predictors of poor mental health included situational characteristics such as greater numbers of children in a household and attitudinal characteristics such as fatalistic sentiments and poor self-efficacy. Informal social support networks were associated significantly with better mental health status. Housing and economic circumstances were not independently associated with poorer mental health. Mental health distress and disability are pervasive issues among the US Gulf Coast adults and children who experienced long-term displacement or other serious effects as a result of Hurricanes

  18. Early Childhood Electronic Media Use as a Predictor of Poorer Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinkley, Trina; Verbestel, Vera; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    , and Social networks subscales from the KINDLR (Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents–Revised Version). Each scale was dichotomized to identify those children at risk for poorer outcomes. Indicators of electronic media use (weekday and weekend television......Importance Identifying associations between preschool-aged children’s electronic media use and their later well-being is essential to supporting positive long-term outcomes. Objective To investigate possible dose-response associations of young children’s electronic media use with their later well......-being. Design, Setting, and Participants The IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) study is a prospective cohort study with an intervention component. Data were collected at baseline from September 1, 2007, through June 30, 2008...

  19. HIV infection does not disproportionately affect the poorer in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vinod; Assche, Simona Bignami-Van; Greener, Robert; Vaessen, Martin; Hong, Rathavuth; Ghys, Peter D; Boerma, J Ties; Van Assche, Ari; Khan, Shane; Rutstein, Shea

    2007-11-01

    Wealthier populations do better than poorer ones on most measures of health status, including nutrition, morbidity and mortality, and healthcare utilization. This study examines the association between household wealth status and HIV serostatus to identify what characteristics and behaviours are associated with HIV infection, and the role of confounding factors such as place of residence and other risk factors. Data are from eight national surveys in sub-Saharan Africa (Kenya, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Tanzania, Lesotho, Malawi, and Uganda) conducted during 2003-2005. Dried blood spot samples were collected and tested for HIV, following internationally accepted ethical standards and laboratory procedures. The association between household wealth (measured by an index based on household ownership of durable assets and other amenities) and HIV serostatus is examined using both descriptive and multivariate statistical methods. In all eight countries, adults in the wealthiest quintiles have a higher prevalence of HIV than those in the poorer quintiles. Prevalence increases monotonically with wealth in most cases. Similarly for cohabiting couples, the likelihood that one or both partners is HIV infected increases with wealth. The positive association between wealth and HIV prevalence is only partly explained by an association of wealth with other underlying factors, such as place of residence and education, and by differences in sexual behaviour, such as multiple sex partners, condom use, and male circumcision. In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV prevalence does not exhibit the same pattern of association with poverty as most other diseases. HIV programmes should also focus on the wealthier segments of the population.

  20. Mental- and physical-health indicators and sexually explicit media use behavior by adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, James B; Weaver, Stephanie Sargent; Mays, Darren; Hopkins, Gary L; Kannenberg, Wendi; McBride, Duane

    2011-03-01

    Converging evidence from culturally diverse contexts indicates that sexually explicit media use behavior (SEMB; i.e., pornography consumption) is associated with risky sexual health perceptions and behaviors, many that involve high risks of HIV/STD transmission. Essentially unexplored, and the focus here, are potential relationships between SEMB and nonsexual mental- and physical-health indicators. Variability in six continuously measured health indicators (depressive symptoms, mental- and physical-health diminished days, health status, quality of life, and body mass index) was examined across two levels (users, nonusers) of SEMB. A sample of 559 Seattle-Tacoma Internet-using adults was surveyed in 2006. Multivariate general linear models parameterized in a SEMB by respondent gender (2 × 2) factorial design were computed incorporating adjustments for several demographics. SEMB was reported by 36.7% (n = 205) of the sample. Most SEMB users (78%) were men. After adjusting for demographics, SEMB users, compared to nonusers, reported greater depressive symptoms, poorer quality of life, more mental- and physical-health diminished days, and lower health status. The findings show that mental- and physical-health indicators vary significantly across SEMB, suggesting the value of incorporating these factors in future research and programmatic endeavors. In particular, the findings suggest that evidence-based sexual health promotion strategies simultaneously addressing individuals' SEMB and their mental health needs might be a useful approach to improve mental health and address preventable sexual health outcomes associated with SEMB. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Dutch food bank recipients have poorer dietary intakes than the general and low-socioeconomic status Dutch adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neter, J E; Dijkstra, S C; Dekkers, A L M; Ocké, M C; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A

    2017-10-03

    Food-assistance program users are a specific group of nutritional concern, as they are often food insufficient and have poorer diet quality compared to non-food-assistance program users. The aim of our study was to assess dietary intake of Dutch food bank recipients (n = 167) and to compare this with dietary intake of a representative sample of the general population (Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS-all): n = 1933), including a low-socioeconomic status (SES) sample (DNFCS-low SES: n = 312), using data from the DNFCS 2007-2010. In this cross-sectional study, 12 food banks throughout The Netherlands participated. Food bank recipients' characteristics were assessed with a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intake data were collected through three 24-h recalls. Habitual dietary intake (mean, percentiles, and 95% CI) was estimated for all samples. Differences between samples were determined by comparing the 95% CIs. Mean age of the study population (62.9% female) was 48.6 years (SD:10.1). Mean energy intake was 1986 (95% CI 1830-2089) kcal. The majority of the Dutch food bank recipients had lower intakes than dietary reference intakes for dietary fiber, fruit, vegetables, and fish (range 86.6-99.3%), and a higher intake for saturated fat [88.1% (95% CI 84.1-98.9)]. Furthermore, mean intakes of energy, fiber, fruit, and vegetables were significantly lower in Dutch food bank recipients than in the DNFCS-all and the DNFCS-low-SES [e.g., daily mean fruit intake (g) food bank recipients 62.8 (95% CI 45.5-76.5), DNFCS-all 105.8 (95% CI 105.4-117.9), and DNFCS-low-SES 85.1 (95% CI 78.7-100.2)]. Fish intake was significantly lower compared with the DNFCS-all, but not compared with the DNFCS-low-SES. Dutch food bank recipients, who largely rely on the content of food parcels, are not able to meet the nutritional guidelines for a healthy diet, and their dietary intake is poorer than the general as well as the low-SES sample of the Dutch adult population

  2. Individual and Community Socioeconomic Status: Impact on Mental Health in Individuals with Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivon A. Mingo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the impact of individual and community socioeconomic status (SES measures on mental health outcomes in individuals with arthritis, participants with self-reported arthritis completed a telephone survey assessing health status, health attitudes and beliefs, and sociodemographic variables. Regression analyses adjusting for race, gender, BMI, comorbidities, and age were performed to determine the impact of individual and community level SES on mental health outcomes (i.e., Medical Outcomes Study SF-12v2 mental health component, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life Healthy Days Measure, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression [CES-D] scale. When entered singly, lower education and income, nonmanagerial occupation, non-homeownership, and medium and high community poverty were all significantly associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Income, however, was more strongly associated with the outcomes in comparison to the other SES variables. In a model including all SES measures simultaneously, income was significantly associated with each outcome variable. Lower levels of individual and community SES showed most consistent statistical significance in association with CES-D scores. Results suggest that both individual and community level SES are associated with mental health status in people with arthritis. It is imperative to consider how interventions focused on multilevel SES factors may influence existing disparities.

  3. Common Crime and Domestic Violence Victimization of Older Chinese in Urban China: The Prevalence and Its Impact on Mental Health and Constrained Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Nan; Yan, Elsie

    2018-03-01

    This article examines the prevalence of victimization among older Chinese living in urban China and its psychological and behavioral impacts. A representative sample of 453 older adults aged 60 or above was recruited from Kunming, the People's Republic of China, using multistage sampling method. Participants were individually interviewed on their demographic characteristics, experience of common crime and domestic violence victimization, fear of common crime and domestic violence, mental health, and constrained behavior. Results showed that 254 participants (56.1%) reported one or more types of common crime and 21 (4.6%) reported experiencing domestic violence in the past. Seventeen participants (3.8%) reportedly experienced both common crime and domestic violence victimization. There was no gender difference in the overall incidence of victimization but in some subtypes. Regression analyses indicated that past experience of common crime victimization was significantly associated with greater fear of common crime (β = .136, p = .004), poorer mental health (β = .136, p = .003), and more constrained behavior (β = .108, p = .025). Fear of common crime predicted increased constrained behavior (β = .240, p < .001) independent of gender, age, education, household finances, living arrangement, and physical health. Domestic violence victimization was not significant in predicting poor mental health and constrained behavior but was significant in predicting fear of domestic violence (β = .266, p < .001), which was related to poorer mental health (β = .102, p = .039). The study suggests the importance of taking older people's risk and experience of victimization into consideration in gerontological research, practice, and policymaking.

  4. HIV Stigma and Its Relation to Mental, Physical and Social Health Among Black Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglini, Letitia E; Himelhoch, Seth S; Fang, Li Juan

    2018-02-07

    Black women living with HIV/AIDS (LWHA) are a subgroup with the highest growing rates of HIV infection in the United States. Stigma and co-occurring mental and physical health problems have been reported among Black women LWHA, and research on the benefits of social and religious support, often major protective factors among Black women, has been met with mixed findings. The current study examined the relation between anticipated HIV stigma and mental and physical health symptoms and risk and protective factors (discrimination, coping, social support) among Black women LWHA (N = 220). Results showed that greater anticipated stigma was significantly related to poorer mental health status, greater discrimination, and greater use of negative coping strategies. Stigma was not related to physical health, perceived social support or use of positive coping strategies. This study lends support to the need for psychosocial interventions that reduce anticipated stigma among individuals LWHA, particularly Black women LWHA.

  5. Social and material aspects of life and their impact on the physical health of people diagnosed with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Stephanie B; Happell, Brenda; Bocking, Julia; Platania-Phung, Chris; Stanton, Robert; Scholz, Brett

    2017-10-01

    People diagnosed with mental illness have shorter lives and poorer physical health, compared to the general population. These health inequities are usually viewed at an individual and clinical level, yet there is little research on the views of mental health consumers on clinical factors in broader contexts. To elicit the views of consumers of mental health services regarding their physical health and experiences of accessing physical health-care services. Qualitative exploratory design involving focus groups. The research was conducted in the Australian Capital Territory. Participants were consumers of mental health services. The Commission on Social Determinants of Health Framework was drawn on to lead deductive analysis of focus group interview transcripts. Issues impacting consumers included poverty, the neglect of public services and being treated as second-class citizens because of diagnosis of mental illness and/or experiencing a psychosocial disability. These factors were connected with significant barriers in accessing physical health care, including the quality and relevance of health provider communication, especially when the broader contexts of mental health consumer's lives are not well understood. These findings suggest the Commission on Social Determinants of Health Framework could be utilized in research and policy, and may provide an effective platform for exploring better health communication with mental health consumers regarding this neglected health inequity. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Retardo mental Mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio M. Vasconcelos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta revisão aborda as recentes descobertas da neurobiologia do retardo mental, enfatizando os novos recursos da citogenética, das técnicas moleculares e da neurorradiologia para esclarecer o diagnóstico. FONTES DE DADOS: O autor pesquisou o banco de dados MEDLINE da National Library of Medicine utilizando as palavras-chave "mental retardation", "developmental disability", "child" e "adolescent" em diferentes combinações, abrangendo o período de janeiro de 2000 a outubro de 2003. Também foram utilizados os bancos de dados das revistas científicas Pediatrics e New England Journal of Medicine através da palavra-chave "mental retardation". No total, o autor consultou cerca de 1.500 títulos de artigos e 500 resumos, e teve acesso direto a 150 artigos completos pertinentes. Quando oportuno, algumas referências dos artigos consultados também foram consideradas. O site Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man foi utilizado como fonte de informações em genética clínica. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Em outubro de 2003, o total de síndromes genéticas associadas a retardo mental chegou a 1.149. Considerando-se o conjunto das causas genéticas ou ambientais e congênitas ou adquiridas de retardo mental, a avaliação diagnóstica atual é capaz de esclarecer a etiologia em 50 a 70% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O autor sugere uma avaliação diagnóstica do retardo mental em etapas lógicas, visando ao uso racional dos dispendiosos recursos da citogenética, biologia molecular e neuroimagem.OBJECTIVE: This paper describes recent advances in the neurobiology of mental retardation, emphasizing new diagnostic resources provided by cytogenetics, molecular testing, and neuroimaging. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE (January 2000 through October 2003, using the following key words: mental retardation, developmental disability, child, and adolescent. Search of the Pediatrics and New England Journal of Medicine websites using the key word mental retardation. The

  7. Associations of adolescent cannabis use with academic performance and mental health: A longitudinal study of upper middle class youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H; Hill, Melanie L; Small, Phillip J; Luthar, Suniya S

    2015-11-01

    There is a hypothesis that low socioeconomic status (SES) may explain the link between cannabis use and poorer academic performance and mental health. A key question, therefore, is whether adolescent cannabis use is associated with poorer academic performance and mental health in high SES communities where there is reduced potential for confounding. Youth (n=254) from an upper middle class community were followed prospectively through the four years of high school (from age 14/15 to age 17/18). Past-year frequency of cannabis use was assessed annually. Official school records of academic performance and self-reported mental health symptoms (externalizing and internalizing symptoms) were assessed in grades 9 and 12. Persistent cannabis use across the four years of high school was associated with lower grade-point average (β=-0.18, p=.006), lower Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score (β=-0.13, p=.038), and greater externalizing symptoms (β=0.29, pgrade, but not with greater internalizing symptoms (β=0.04, p=.53). Moreover, persistent cannabis use was associated with lower grade-point average (β=-0.13, p=.014) and greater externalizing symptoms (β=0.24, p=.002) in 12th grade, even after controlling for 9th grade levels of these outcomes. Similar associations were observed for persistent alcohol and tobacco use. Effects for persistent cannabis use became non-significant after controlling for persistent alcohol and tobacco use, reflecting the difficulties of disentangling effects of cannabis from effects of alcohol and tobacco. Low SES cannot fully explain associations between cannabis use and poorer academic performance and mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased numbers of P63-positive/CD117-positive cells in advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma give a poorer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Quan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study consisted of two parts. One part was to analyze the survival rates of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC in Chinese and explain the difference between our data and the literature. The other was to analyze the relationship between the expression of CD117 and the histological grade and the prognosis. Methods A retrospective study of 80 ACC patients was performed. Clinical data were collected, and p63, CD117 were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results Eighty patients received follow-ups 3 to 216 months after initial diagnosis. ACC occurred in the lacrimal gland (26.3%, n = 21, nasal cavity and parasinus (33.8%, n = 27 and other sites (40.0%, n = 33. The 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 66.41% and 10.16%, respectively. Over expression of CD117 was detected in p63-negative cells in 94.3% of cases and in p63-positive cells in 45.8%. The expression of CD117 in p63-positive cells was significantly associated with the histological grade (P Conclusions ACC had a good 5-year survival but poor 10-year survival in Chinese, which differed from the occidental data. More p63+/CD117+ cells were associated with a higher histological grade and poorer outcome. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1701457278762097

  9. Job satisfaction, burnout and turnover intention in occupational therapists working in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Justin Newton; Still, Megan

    2013-10-01

    Employee wellbeing is an important issue for mental health services. Poor employee wellbeing (i.e., high levels of burnout or low job satisfaction) is associated with poorer consumer outcomes and higher staff turnover. This study set out to examine factors related to job satisfaction, turnover intention and burnout in a group of occupational therapists in mental health. Thirty-four occupational therapists (response rate approximately 60%) in a metropolitan public mental health service participated in a whole-of-service workforce survey. The survey included measures of job satisfaction, turnover intention, burnout, job hindrances, job challenges and job resources and questions about positive and negative aspects of positions and factors that attracted employees to their current position. Burnout was associated with lower job satisfaction and higher turnover intention. Higher job satisfaction was associated with rewards (remuneration and recognition) as well as cognitively challenging work. The variables most significantly associated with poorer wellbeing (higher turnover intention and burnout) were recipient contact demands (perception that contact with service users or families was demanding), and feelings of stress or fatigue. This study provides a detailed analysis of factors associated with job satisfaction, turnover intention and burnout in a group of occupational therapists working in mental health. To promote workforce wellbeing and enhanced retention, interventions to minimise burnout should be implemented and evaluated. These strategies should focus on enhancing job resources such as supervisor support, feedback and participation in decision making as well as building the personal resilience of occupational therapists working in mental health. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  10. Looked after children in Dublin and their mental health needs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, F

    2011-04-01

    Children in care in Ireland have increased by 27% in the last decade. This population is recognized to be among the most vulnerable. This study aims to describe their placement histories, service use and mental health needs. Data was obtained on 174 children (56.5% of eligible sample) with a mean age of 10.83 (SD = 5.04). 114 (65.5%) were in care for three years or more. 29 (16.7%) did not have a SW and 49 (37.7%) had no GP 50 (28.7%) were attending CAMHS. Long term care, frequent placement changes and residential setting were significantly related with poorer outcomes and increased MH contact. Given the increase in numbers in care and the overall decrease in resource allocation to health and social care, individual care planning and prioritizing of resources are essential.

  11. Just reading: increasing pace and volume of reading whole narratives on the comprehension of poorer adolescent readers in English classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Westbrook, Jo; Sutherland, Julia; Oakhill, Jane; Sullivan, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Poorer adolescent readers are often regarded by teachers as unable to read whole narratives and given short, simplified texts, yet are expected to analyse every part in a slow laborious read through. This article reports on a mixed methods study in which 20 English teachers in the South of England changed their current practice to read two whole challenging novels at a faster pace than usual in 12 weeks with their average and poorer readers ages 12-13. Ten teachers received additional trainin...

  12. Hyper-responsiveness to acute stress, emotional problems and poorer memory in former preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Andrea A; Tristão, Rosana M; Pratesi, Riccardo; Wolf, Oliver T

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of preterm birth (PTB) is high worldwide, especially in developing countries like Brazil. PTB is marked by a stressful environment in intra- as well as extrauterine life, which can affect neurodevelopment and hormonal and physiological systems and lead to long-term negative outcomes. Nevertheless, little is known about PTB and related outcomes later on in childhood. Thus, the goals of the current study were threefold: (1) comparing cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) profiles, including cortisol awakening response (CAR), between preterm and full-term children; (2) evaluating whether preterm children are more responsive to acute stress and (3) assessing their memory skills and emotional and behavioral profiles. Basal cortisol and sAA profiles, including CAR of 30 preterm children, aged 6 to 10 years, were evaluated. Further, we assessed memory functions using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and we screened behavior/emotion using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results of preterm children were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group. One week later, participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor [Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)], in which cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline, 1, 10 and 25 min after stressor exposure. Preterm children had higher cortisol concentrations at awakening, a flattened CAR and an exaggerated response to TSST-C compared to full-term children. These alterations were more pronounced in girls. In addition, preterm children were characterized by more emotional problems and poorer memory performance. Our findings illustrate the long-lasting and in part sex-dependent effects of PTB on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, internalizing behavior and memory. The findings are in line with the idea that early adversity alters the set-point of the HPA axis, thereby creating a more vulnerable phenotype.

  13. Dry Eye Disease Patients with Xerostomia Report Higher Symptom Load and Have Poorer Meibum Expressibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostad, Ida G; Eidet, Jon R; Utheim, Tor P; Ræder, Sten; Lagali, Neil S; Messelt, Edvard B; Dartt, Darlene A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if xerostomia (dry mouth) is associated with symptoms and signs of dry eye disease (DED). At the Norwegian Dry Eye Clinic, patients with symptomatic DED with different etiologies were consecutively included in the study. The patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological work-up and completed self-questionnaires on symptoms of ocular dryness (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI] and McMonnies Dry Eye Questionnaire) and the Sjögren's syndrome (SS) questionnaire (SSQ). Three hundred and eighteen patients (52% women and 48% men) with DED were included. Patient demographics were: 0 to 19 years (1%), 20 to 39 (25%), 40 to 59 (34%), 60 to 79 (35%) and 80 to 99 (5%). Xerostomia, defined as "daily symptoms of dry mouth the last three months" (as presented in SSQ) was reported by 23% of the patients. Female sex was more common among patients with xerostomia (81%) than among non-xerostomia patients (44%; Pxerostomia (60 ± 15 years) were older than those without xerostomia (51 ± 17; Pxerostomia patients (65%) than among non-xerostomia patients (35%; Pxerostomia had a higher OSDI score (19.0 ± 10.0) than those without xerostomia (12.9 ± 8.0; Pxerostomia patients had more pathological meibum expressibility (0.9 ± 0.7) than those without xerostomia (0.7 ± 0.8; P = 0.046). Comparisons of OSDI and ocular signs were performed after controlling for the effects of sex, age and the number of systemic prescription drugs used. In conclusion, xerostomia patients demonstrated a higher DED symptom load and had poorer meibum expressibility than non-xerostomia patients.

  14. Higher fasting glucose is associated with poorer cognition among healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Misty A W; Gunstad, John; Calvo, Dayana; Spitznagel, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with cognitive deficits; however, the mechanisms are unclear, especially among otherwise healthy adults. Our objectives were to examine (a) whether obesity is linked to elevations in fasting glucose and (b) whether these elevations are associated with cognitive impairment among otherwise healthy young adults. Participants were 35 normal weight adults and 35 young adults with obesity who completed a task from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4 (ANAM-4). Measured body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood glucose levels (mg/dL) were examined. Persons with obesity had higher fasting glucose levels than normal weight persons (p = .03). After applying Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, higher fasting glucose predicted less accurate performance on tests of inhibitory control: Go/No-Go Commission Errors (β = .33, p = .004). No effects were observed for sustained attention or working memory (ps ≥. 049). Persons with glucose levels in the prediabetes range had nearly twice as many errors as those with normal glucose, a large effect that was independent of BMI. Young adults who were obese but otherwise healthy had higher fasting glucose levels compared with normal weight peers. Higher glucose levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance on tests of inhibitory control, especially among individuals with prediabetes levels. Thus, subclinical elevations in blood glucose may contribute to cognitive impairment and, ultimately, greater impulsivity-well in advance of the development of chronic disease states (e.g., insulin resistance or Type 2 diabetes) and independently of excess adiposity--though prospective studies are needed to determine directionality of this relationship. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Severe retinopathy of prematurity predicts delayed white matter maturation and poorer neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Torin J A; Chau, Vann; Gardiner, Jane; Foong, Justin; Vinall, Jillian; Zwicker, Jill G; Grunau, Ruth E; Synnes, Anne; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Miller, Steven P

    2017-11-01

    To determine whether severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is associated with (1) abnormal white matter maturation and (2) neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months' corrected age (CA) compared with neonates without severe ROP. We conducted a prospective longitudinal cohort of extremely preterm neonates born 24-28 weeks' gestational age recruited between 2006 and 2013 with brain MRIs obtained both early in life and at term-equivalent age. Severe ROP was defined as ROP treated with retinal laser photocoagulation. Using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), white matter maturation was assessed by mean fractional anisotropy (FA) in seven predefined regions of interest. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (Bayley-III) composite scores at 18 months' CA. Subjects were compared using Fisher's exact, Kruskal-Wallis and generalised estimating equations. Families were recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit at BC Women's Hospital. Of 98 extremely preterm neonates (median: 26.0 weeks) assessed locally for ROP, 19 (19%) had severe ROP and 83 (85%) were assessed at 18 months' CA. Severe ROP was associated with lower FA in the posterior white matter, and with decreased measures of brain maturation in the optic radiations, posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and external capsule on TBSS. Bayley-III cognitive and motor scores were lower in infants with severe ROP. Severe ROP is associated with maturational delay in the optic radiations, PLIC, external capsule and posterior white matter, housing the primary visual and motor pathways, and is associated with poorer cognitive and motor outcomes at 18 months' CA. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Care and self-reported outcomes of care experienced by women with mental health problems in pregnancy: Findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jane; Jomeen, Julie; Redshaw, Maggie

    2018-01-01

    mental health problems in pregnancy and the postnatal period are relatively common and, in pregnancy, are associated with an increase in adverse outcome. It is recommended that all women are asked about their emotional and mental health and offered treatment if appropriate. to describe the care received by women self-identifying with mental health problems in pregnancy, and to describe the effects of support, advice and treatment on outcomes in the postnatal period. this study used cross-sectional survey data collected in 2014 which described women's experience of maternity care. England PARTICIPANTS: a random sample of women who had a live birth in January 2014. the questionnaire asked about sociodemographic characteristics, whether women were asked about emotional and mental health in pregnancy, support and treatment offered, about postnatal wellbeing, and questions relating to attachment to their baby. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to examine the associations between mental health and outcomes taking account of sociodemographic characteristics. the survey response rate was 47%. Women with antenatal mental health problems were significantly more worried at the prospect of labour and birth, had lower satisfaction with the experience of birth, worse postnatal mental health, and indications of poorer attachment to their baby. They received substantially more care than other women but they did not always view this positively. Support, advice and treatment for mental health problems had mixed effects. this study describes the significant additional care provided to women self-identifying with mental health problems in pregnancy, the mixed effects of support, advice and treatment, and the poor perception of staff interaction among women with mental health problems. health care professionals may need additional training to effectively support women with mental health problems during the perinatal period. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  17. Mental State Decoding in Adolescent Boys with Major Depressive Disorder versus Sex-Matched Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Several adult depression studies have investigated mental state decoding, the basis for theory of mind, using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Findings have been mixed, but a comprehensive study found a greater severity of depression to be associated with poorer mental state decoding. Importantly, there has yet to be a similar study of adolescent depression. Converging evidence suggests that atypical mental state decoding may have particularly profound effects for psychosocial functioning among depressed adolescent boys. Adolescent boys with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 33) and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 84) completed structured clinical interviews, self-report measures of psychopathology and the Child Eyes Test (CET). The MDD group performed significantly better than HCs on the CET overall (p = 0.002), underscored by greater accuracy for negatively valenced items (p = 0.003). Group differences on items depicting positive (p = 0.129) and neutral mental states (p = 0.081) were nonsignificant. Enhanced mental state decoding among depressed adolescent boys may play a role in the maintenance of and vulnerability to adolescent depression. Findings and implications are discussed. Limitations of this study include a reliance on self-report data for HC boys, as well as a lack of 'pure' depression among the boys with MDD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Relationship between Mental Health and Burden among Primary Caregivers of Outpatients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenjun; Chen, Jia; Hu, Jize; Hu, JingChu

    2018-01-24

    There is growing recognition that caring for a patient with schizophrenia often results in high levels of perceived burden and poorer overall mental health for caregivers. A quantitative cross-sectional design and standardized instruments were used to collect data from 355 primary caregivers of adults in outpatient care with schizophrenia in China. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the association between caregiver burden and mental health among primary caregivers and whether this association is influenced by personality, coping style, and family functioning, based on a diathesis-stress perspective. Goodness-of-fit indices (χ 2 /df = 1.406, GFI = 0.919, CFI = 0.957, etc.) confirmed that the modified model fit the data well. In line with the diathesis-stress model, and with this study's hypotheses, we found that caregiver burden was significantly related to mental health outcomes directly. The final model showed that personality traits, coping style, and family function influenced the relationship between caregiver burden and mental health. The neuroticism personality traits have a direct effect on caregiver burden and family functioning in this sample. Coping style had a direct effect on the caregiver burden, and family functioning had a direct effect on the caregiver burden. Our final model about primary caregivers can be applied clinically to predict mental health outcomes from caregiver burden. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  19. Health behaviours and mental health status of parents with intellectual disabilities: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, E; Brigham, P

    2013-12-01

    The authors sought to: (1) estimate the prevalence of health behaviours, mental health and exposure to social determinants of poorer health among parents with and without intellectual disability; and (2) determine the extent to which between-group differences in health behaviours/status may be attributable to differential exposure to social determinants of poorer health. Cross sectional survey. Secondary analysis of confidentialized needs analysis data collected in three Primary Care Trusts in England on 46,023 households with young children. Households containing a parent with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of: (1) poorer parental mental health, parental drug and alcohol abuse and smoking; (2) exposure to a range of environmental adversities. Controlling for the latter eliminated the increased risk of poorer health for single parent households headed by a person with intellectual disabilities. For two parent headed households, risk of poorer parental mental health remained elevated. The poorer health of parents with intellectual disability may be accounted for by their markedly greater risk of exposure to common social determinants of poorer health rather than being directly attributable to their intellectual disability. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adaptation of intensive mental health intensive case management to rural communities in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Somaia

    2013-03-01

    There has been increasing concern in recent years about the availability of mental health services for people with serious mental illness in rural areas. To meet these needs the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) implemented the Rural Access Networks for Growth Enhancement (RANGE) program, in 2007, modeled on the Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) model. This study uses VA administrative data from the RANGE program (N = 343) to compare client characteristics at program entry, patterns of service delivery, and outcomes with those of Veterans who received services from the general VA ACT-like program (Mental Health Intensive Case Management (MHICM) (N = 3,077). Veterans in the rural program entered treatment with similar symptom severity, less likelihood of being diagnosed with schizophrenia and having had long-term hospitalization, but significantly higher suicidality index scores and greater likelihood of being dually diagnosed compared with those in the general program. RANGE Veterans live further away from their treatment teams but did not differ significantly in measures of face-to-face treatment intensity. Similar proportions of RANGE and MHICM Veterans were reported to have received rehabilitation services, crisis intervention and substance abuse treatment. The rural programs had higher scores on overall satisfaction with VA mental health care than general programs, slightly poorer outcomes on quality of life and on the suicidality index but no significant difference on other outcomes. These data demonstrate the clinical need, practical feasibility and potential effectiveness of providing intensive case management through small specialized case management teams in rural areas.

  1. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play ...

  2. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  3. Staff and bed distribution in public sector mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is a resource-limited province with a fragmented mental health service.  Objective. To determine the current context of public sector mental health services in terms of staff and bed distribution, and how this corresponds to the population distribution in the province. Method. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, an audit questionnaire was submitted to all public sector mental health facilities. Norms and indicators were calculated at provincial and district level. This article investigates staff and bed distribution only. Results. Results demonstrated that within the province, only three of its seven districts have acute beds above the national baseline norm requirement of 13/100 000. The private mental health sector provides approximately double the number of medium- to long-stay beds available in the public sector. Only two regions have staff/population ratios above the baseline norm of 20/100 000. However, there are significant differences in this ratio among specific staff categories. There is an inequitable distribution of resources between the eastern and western regions of the province. When compared with the western regions, the eastern regions have poorer access to mental health facilities, human resources and non-governmental organisations.  Conclusion. Owing to the inequitable distribution of resources, the provincial authorities urgently need to develop an equitable model of service delivery. The province has to address the absence of a reliable mental health information system.

  4. Mental Health Outcomes Following Recent Parental Divorce: The Case of Young Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Teresa M.; Kurz, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Addresses association between recent parental divorce and mental health outcomes in young adults aged 18-23. Half of those studied (n=485) had experienced parental divorce within 15 months of the interview; the other half had not. Comparison indicated that, at the bivariate level, parental divorce was associated with poorer mental health outcomes…

  5. Vaccine-induced inflammation attenuates the vascular responses to mental stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paine, N.J.; Ring, C.; Bosch, J.A.; Drayson, M.T.; Aldred, S.; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with poorer vascular function, with evidence to suggest that inflammation can also impair the vascular responses to mental stress. This study examined the effects of vaccine-induced inflammation on vascular responses to mental stress in healthy participants. Eighteen male

  6. [Survey regarding mental health conditions of high school students and attitudes of students and their teachers toward students' mental health issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Isao; Fujii, Chiyo; Fukuzawa, Ayako

    2013-01-01

    We administered a self-reporting questionnaire survey regarding the mental health conditions of high school students and attitudes of students and their teachers toward students' mental health issues. In addition, we discussed the requirements for high school students' mental health support system. The subjects were 3,312 students and 208 teachers in four Shizuoka prefectural public high schools in 2009. University Personality Inventory (UPI) is usually conducted to assess university students' mental state and is a questionnaire that high school students can answer easily. Therefore, we adopted UPI for this survey. UPI was composed of 56 unhealthy and 4 healthy condition items. High school students completed the UPI and determined the sum of unhealthy condition items; a higher score indicated a poorer mental health status. The average UPI score of all students (n = 3,312) was 12.7 points, and that of females (n = 1,217)was 15.2 points, which was significantly higher than the 11.3 points of males (n = 2,095). Those with scores > or = 30 points (7.5%), which was more than half of the maximum score, were designated as the High Score (HS) group and considered to have poor mental health. Those with scores of > or = 40 (1.4%) seemed to have very poor mental health, and there was concern that they may be suffering from psychosis. Our observations indicated that HS students were likely to avoid seeking help regarding mental health issues, which was especially true for male HS students. The majority of students chose their friends and parents as advisers, but HS students were significantly more likely to choose advisers who were engaged in jobs related to medical work. Students in both the HS and non-HS groups who did not wish to consult anyone else about their mental conditions wanted to be approached by those around them. High school teachers hesitated to intervene with mentally disturbed students and attempted to resolve problems within the school. Thus, it appears

  7. The moderating role of ethnicity in the relation between religiousness and mental health among ethnically diverse college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin; Garcia, Daniel; Hall-Clark, Brittany; Tran, Kimberly; Rangel, Azucena

    2012-09-01

    Many studies have documented the links between dimensions of religiousness with mental health (e.g., Hackney and Sanders 2003; Mofidi et al. 2006). However, very little is known about whether these links differ across ethnic groups. This study examined the contribution of dimensions of religiousness to the prediction of mental health in an ethnically diverse sample of 413 college students (167 European Americans, 83 African Americans, 81 Asian Americans, and 82 Latino Americans). Results indicated significant ethnic differences across dimensions of religiousness. African Americans were significantly higher on religious engagement and religious conservatism than the other ethnic groups and significantly lower on religious struggle than European Americans. Moderated multiple regressions revealed that increases in religious struggle was associated with poorer mental health for African Americans and Latino Americans, while increases in religious engagement and ecumenical worldview were associated with better mental health for African Americans. The findings indicate that ethnicity is an important factor to consider when examining the link between religiousness and mental health.

  8. Dutch food bank recipients have poorer dietary intakes than the general and low-socioeconomic status Dutch adult population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neter, J E; Dijkstra, S C; Dekkers, A L M; Ocké, M C; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A

    2017-01-01

    Food-assistance program users are a specific group of nutritional concern, as they are often food insufficient and have poorer diet quality compared to non-food-assistance program users. The aim of our study was to assess dietary intake of Dutch food bank recipients (n = 167) and to compare this

  9. Dutch food bank recipients have poorer dietary intakes than the general and low-socioeconomic status Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neter, J E; Dijkstra, S C; Dekkers, A L M; Ocké, M C; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Food-assistance program users are a specific group of nutritional concern, as they are often food insufficient and have poorer diet quality compared to non-food-assistance program users. The aim of our study was to assess dietary intake of Dutch food bank recipients (n = 167) and to compare

  10. Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the same time. For example, you may have depression and a substance use disorder. Complications Mental illness is a leading cause of disability. Untreated mental illness can cause severe emotional, behavioral and physical health problems. Complications sometimes linked to mental illness include: ...

  11. The interaction of pregnancy, substance use and mental illness on birthing outcomes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; McCauley, Kay; Sheeran, Leanne

    2017-11-01

    this study aimed to (1) assess the prevalence, and demographic features of women with a history of mental illness during pregnancy and childbirth, (2) investigate maternal and perinatal outcomes in relation to mental illness and substance use, and (3) determine the effects of maternal characteristics, history of mental illness and substance use on birth outcomes. the records of 22,193 pregnant women who gave birth at one tertiary level health service comprising three maternity settings in Victoria, Australia from 2009 to 2011 were reviewed.Univariate comparisons for socio-demographic and birthing outcome variables by substance use and mental illness category were performed. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed to examine the effects of maternal characteristics on birth outcomes. mental illness was recorded for 1.08/1,000 delivery hospitalisations.Mothers with a history of mental illness had a significantly higher proportion of babies born with low birth weight (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.64 -2.09) and low Apgar 1 scoresmental illness and substance use on birth weight. This interaction effect was not significant for gestational age. Logistic regression showed the strongest predictor of reporting a premature birth and low birth weight was using substances, recording an odds ratio of 1.95 (95% CI 1.50-2.53) and 2.73 (95% CI 2.15-3.47) respectively. mental health history should be highlighted as being a common morbidity and the increased risk of poorer birth outcomes especially when the women were also using substances, alcohol or tobacco should be acknowledged by the health practitioners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Iconic Memory Deficit of Mildly Mentally Retarded Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Henry A.; Mosley, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Ten mildly retarded young adult males and nonretarded subjects matched for chronological age or mental age were required to recognize both verbal and nonverbal stimuli presented tachistoscopically. Results of a backward visual masking paradigm varying stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) indicated the retarded subjects performed poorer at the longest…

  13. Violence Affects Physical and Mental Health Differently: The General Population Based Tromsø Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddgeir Friborg

    Full Text Available This general population-based study examined associations between violence and mental health, musculoskeletal pain, and early disability pension. The prevalence and consequences of good vs. poor adjustment (resilience vs. vulnerability following encounters with violence were also examined. Data were based on the sixth wave of the "Tromsø Study" (N = 12,981; 65.7% response rate, 53.4% women, M-age = 57.5 years, SD-age = 12.7 years. Self-reported data on psychological (threats and physical violence (beaten/kicked, mental health (anxiety/depression, musculoskeletal pain (MSP, and granting of disability pension (DP were collected. Men suffered more violent events during childhood than women did, and vice versa during adulthood. Psychological violence implied poorer mental health and slightly more MSP than physical violence. The risk of MSP was highest for violence occurring during childhood in women and during the last year for men. A dose-response relationship between an increasing number of violent encounters and poorer health was observed. About 58% of individuals reported no negative impact of violence (hence, resilience group, whereas 42% considered themselves as more vulnerable following encounters with violence. Regression analyses indicated comparable mental health but slightly more MSP in the resilience group compared to the unexposed group, whereas the vulnerable group had significantly worse health overall and a higher risk of early granting of DP. Resilience is not an all-or-nothing matter, as physical ailments may characterize individuals adapting well following encounters with violence.

  14. Impact of childhood cancer on the mental health of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockerty, J D; Williams, S M; McGee, R; Skegg, D C

    2000-11-01

    When a child is diagnosed with cancer, the family experiences great stress and disruption to daily life. As part of a national study in New Zealand, we evaluated the mental health of mothers and fathers of children with cancer, making comparisons to parents of children from the general population. This was a cross-sectional study. All children diagnosed with cancer at ages 0-14 years in New Zealand during a defined period were ascertained from the national cancer registry and other databases. The population-based comparison children were selected using national birth records. Parents from both groups completed self-administered questionnaires containing the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and other measures. The analyses included 218 mothers and 179 fathers of children with cancer, and 266 mothers and 224 fathers of children in the comparison group. Multivariate regression was used to adjust for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, life events, and social support. Mothers and fathers of children with cancer had poorer GHQ-12 and mood rating scores than those of controls. The adjusted difference in the mean total GHQ-12 score (comparing mothers of children with cancer to mothers of controls) was 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.3-3.2). The 12 items of the GHQ were each scored 0-3, and the total score was the sum, so 2 points is a small difference. For fathers the difference was 1.5 (95% confidence interval 0.6-2.4). Some subgroups of cancer group parents had poorer emotional health scores than others, including those with poor social support and no paid employment and also those who were bereaved. We found statistically significant but small differences between the mental health of parents of children with cancer and controls. The small differences suggest that as a group the parents of children with cancer are relatively resilient. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Poorer divided attention in children born very preterm can be explained by difficulty with each component task, not the executive requirement to dual-task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delane, Louise; Campbell, Catherine; Bayliss, Donna M; Reid, Corinne; Stephens, Amelia; French, Noel; Anderson, Mike

    2017-07-01

    Children born very preterm (VP, ≤ 32 weeks) exhibit poor performance on tasks of executive functioning. However, it is largely unknown whether this reflects the cumulative impact of non-executive deficits or a separable impairment in executive-level abilities. A dual-task paradigm was used in the current study to differentiate the executive processes involved in performing two simple attention tasks simultaneously. The executive-level contribution to performance was indexed by the within-subject cost incurred to single-task performance under dual-task conditions, termed dual-task cost. The participants included 77 VP children (mean age: 7.17 years) and 74 peer controls (mean age: 7.16 years) who completed Sky Search (selective attention), Score (sustained attention) and Sky Search DT (divided attention) from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children. The divided-attention task requires the simultaneous performance of the selective- and sustained-attention tasks. The VP group exhibited poorer performance on the selective- and divided-attention tasks, and showed a strong trend toward poorer performance on the sustained-attention task. However, there were no significant group differences in dual-task cost. These results suggest a cumulative impact of vulnerable lower-level cognitive processes on dual-tasking or divided attention in VP children, and fail to support the hypothesis that VP children show a separable impairment in executive-level abilities.

  16. Screening an elderly hearing impaired population for mild cognitive impairment using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Magdalene Yeok Leng; Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin

    2018-07-01

    To determine if there is an association between hearing loss and poorer cognitive scores on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and to determine if poor hearing acuity affects scoring on the cognitive screening tests of MMSE and MoCA. One hundred fourteen elderly patients (Singapore residents) aged between 55 and 86 years were sampled. Participants completed a brief history questionnaire, pure tone audiometry, and 2 cognitive screening tests-the MMSE and MoCA. Average hearing thresholds of the better ear in the frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz were used for data analysis. Hearing loss was significantly associated with poorer cognitive scores in Poisson regression models adjusted for age. Mini-Mental State Examination scores were shown to decrease by 2.8% (P = .029), and MoCA scores by 3.5% (P = .013) for every 10 dB of hearing loss. Analysis of hearing-sensitive components of "Registration" and "Recall" in MMSE and MoCA using chi-square tests showed significantly poorer performance in the hearing loss group as compared to the normal hearing group. Phonetic analysis of target words with high error rates shows that the poor performance was likely contributed by decreased hearing acuity, on top of a possible true deficit in cognition in the hearing impaired. Hearing loss is associated with poorer cognitive scores on MMSE and MoCA, and cognitive scoring is likely confounded by poor hearing ability. This highlights an important, often overlooked aspect of sensory impairment during cognitive screening. Provisions should be made when testing for cognition in the hearing-impaired population to avoid over-referral and subsequent misdiagnoses of cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Is somatic comorbidity associated with more somatic symptoms, mental distress, or unhealthy lifestyle in elderly cancer survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Ellen Karine; Fosså, Sophie D; Dahl, Alv A

    2009-06-01

    The associations of lifestyle factors, somatic symptoms, mental distress, and somatic comorbidity in elderly cancer survivors have not been well studied. This study examines these associations among elderly cancer survivors (age >or=65 years) in a population-based sample. A cross-sectional comparative study of Norwegian elderly cancer survivors. Combining information from The Norwegian Cancer Registry, and by self-reporting, 972 elderly cancer survivors were identified, of whom 632 (65%) had somatic comorbidity and 340 did not. Elderly cancer survivors with somatic comorbidity had significantly higher BMI, more performed minimal physical activity, had more somatic symptoms, used more medication, and had more frequently seen a medical doctor than survivors without somatic comorbidity. In multivariable analyses, unhealthy lifestyle and higher somatic symptoms scores were significantly associated with cancer cases with somatic comorbidity. In univariate analyses those with somatic comorbidity were significantly older, had lower levels of education, higher proportions of BMI >or= 30, less physical activity, poorer self-rated health, higher somatic symptoms score, more mental distress, had more frequently seen a medical doctor last year, and more frequently used daily medication. Our outcome measures of lifestyle, somatic symptoms and mental distress were all significantly associated with somatic comorbidity in elderly cancer survivors, however only lifestyle and somatic symptoms were significant in multivariable analyses. In elderly cancer survivors not only cancer, but also somatic comorbidity, deserve attention. Such comorbidity is associated with unhealthy lifestyles, more somatic symptoms and mental distress which should be evaluated and eventually treated.

  18. Mental health, sexual identity, and interpersonal violence: Findings from the Australian longitudinal Women's health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L; McNair, Ruth; Loxton, Deborah

    2017-09-30

    We examined the relationships among experiences of interpersonal violence, mental health, and sexual identity in a national sample of young adult women in Australia. We used existing data from the third (2003) wave of young adult women (aged 25-30) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). We conducted bivariate analyses and fit multiple and logistic regression models to test experiences of six types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, harassment, and being in a violent relationship), and the number of types of violence experienced, as predictors of mental health. We compared types and number of types of violence across sexual identity subgroups. Experiences of interpersonal violence varied significantly by sexual identity. Controlling for demographic characteristics, compared to exclusively heterosexual women, mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were significantly more likely to report physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Mainly heterosexual and lesbian women were more likely to report severe physical abuse. Mainly heterosexual women were more than three times as likely to have been in a violent relationship in the past three years, and all three sexual minority subgroups were two to three times as likely to have experienced harassment. Bisexual women reported significantly higher levels of depression than any of the other sexual identity groups and scored lower on mental health than did exclusively heterosexual women. In linear regression models, interpersonal violence strongly predicted poorer mental health for lesbian and bisexual women. Notably, mental health indicators were similar for exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority women who did not report interpersonal violence. Experiencing multiple types of interpersonal violence was the strongest predictor of stress, anxiety and depression. Interpersonal violence is a key contributor to mental health disparities

  19. The associations between sedentary behaviour and mental health among adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Erin; Milton, Karen; Foster, Charlie; Allender, Steven

    2016-10-08

    With technological developments and modernised sedentary lifestyles has come an increase in diseases associated with inactivity such as obesity and other non-communicable diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that time spent sedentary may also interact with mental health. This systematic review examined the associations between sedentary behaviour and mental health problems among adolescents. This systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, and applied a quality assessment tool for quantitative studies to identity best available evidence. Following stringent search strategy of the databases; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsychARTICLES and PsycINFO, we identified 32 articles eligible for review. All studies reported leisure screen time among adolescents, and two thirds of identified studies examined depressive symptomatology. Other mental health measures were; anxiety symptoms, self-esteem, suicide ideation, loneliness, stress, and psychological distress. Strong consistent evidence was found for the relationship between both depressive symptomatology and psychological distress, and time spent using screens for leisure. Moderate evidence supported the relationship between low self-esteem and screen use. Poorer mental health status was found among adolescents using screen time more than 2-3 h per day, and gender differences exist. Essential information was missing for quality of evidence including heterogeneity in mental health and screen time-based measures, and self-report data collection methods. The findings are of particular significance given the global public health concern of lifestyle-attributed diseases and the possibility for novel approaches to mental health. Future research should examine the psychological impact of reducing time spent using screens for leisure among adolescents, whilst accounting for possible

  20. A prospective study of the impact of floods on the mental and physical health of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Bryant, Christina; Gilson, Kim-Michelle; Koh, Juliana; Gibson, Penelope; Komiti, Angela; Jackson, Henry; Judd, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    With a longitudinal prospective design, we examined the impact of floods on the mental and physical health of older adults and explored risk and protective factors. Two hundred and seventy four older adults (age ≥60) completed surveys before and after a flood event. Both the surveys included measures of anxiety, depression, self-reported health, and satisfaction with life; the post-flood survey also included questionnaires on flood experience, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), stoicism, and psychological coping with floods. Compared to those not personally affected (78.8%), personally affected individuals (21.2%) reported significantly higher PTSD symptoms, with about one in six reporting PTSD symptoms that might require clinical attention. Personally affected individuals also reported a greater increase in anxiety post-flood, but changes in their depressive symptoms and self-reported health were not significantly different from those not personally affected. Greater flood exposure and the lack of social support were the risk factors for poorer mental and physical health. Higher stoicism was associated with higher post-flood depression and poorer self-reported mental health. The use of maladaptive coping, such as venting and distraction, was associated with greater deterioration in mental health after floods, whilst emotion-focused coping such as acceptance, positive reframing, and humour, was protective against such deterioration. Floods had adverse psychological impacts on some older adults who were personally affected. Despite the evidence of resilience, a small proportion of older adults experienced significant difficulties after the floods. The findings in this study help understand older adults' psychological responses to disasters and have practical implications for service planning and delivery.

  1. Wellbeing, mental health knowledge and caregiving experiences of siblings of people with psychosis, compared to their peers and parents: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jacqueline; Murrells, Trevor; Spain, Debbie; Norman, Ian; Henderson, Claire

    2016-09-01

    The wellbeing and caregiving experiences of family carers supporting people with psychosis has garnered increasing interest. Evidence indicates that the burden of caregiving can adversely impact on parents' wellbeing, few studies have investigated whether this is also the case for siblings, who often take on caregiving responsibilities. This exploratory study investigated the wellbeing, mental health knowledge, and appraisals of caregiving in siblings of individuals with psychosis. Using a cross-sectional design, 90 siblings completed three validated questionnaires: Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS), Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS), and Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI). Data obtained were compared to general population norms and parent-carers' scores. Multi-variable regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between questionnaire scores and demographic characteristics including age, sex, birth order, marital status, accommodation and educational level. Siblings, especially sisters, had significantly poorer mental wellbeing, compared to normative scores. Conversely, they had better mental health knowledge. Siblings and parent-carers had comparable high levels of negative appraisals of caregiving experiences, but siblings reported more satisfaction with personal experiences and relationships. Education level was a significant predictor for better mental health knowledge; there were no other relationships between siblings' demographic factors and outcomes. Study findings suggest that siblings have overlapping as well as distinct needs, compared to parent-carers. Further research is required to better understand siblings' experiences so as to inform development of targeted interventions that enhance wellbeing and caregiving capacity.

  2. Relationships of alcohol use, stress, avoidance coping, and other factors with mental health in a highly educated workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Cheryl; Wanat, Stanley F; Whitsell, Shelly; Westrup, Darrah; Matano, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    The relationships of drinking, stress, life satisfaction, coping style, and antidepressant use to mental health were examined in a highly educated workforce. This study used a one-time mail-out, mail-back cross-sectional survey design to examine the relationships of mental health with three kinds of stress (life events, work stress, home stress); two kinds of life satisfaction (work and home); use of avoidance coping; and antidepressant use. This study was conducted at a large worksite in northern California in which the workforce was comprised of predominantly highly educated employees. Questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 10% of 8567 employees, and 504 were completed and returned by participants (59%). Complete data were provided by 460 participants (53%). Respondents completed the Mental Health Index, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and measures of coping style, work and home stress and satisfaction, stressful life events, and antidepressant use. Mean Mental Health Index scores were at the 32nd percentile of the U.S. population-based norms, with low percentile values associated with worse mental health. Using multiple regression analysis, the factors examined in this study were significantly related to Mental Health Index scores as the dependent variable [F(16, 443) = 27.41, p stress at work (p home (p work (p home life (p = .01); engaging in avoidance coping (p stress, home satisfaction and work stress, home satisfaction and avoidance coping, and home satisfaction and use of antidepressants. Mental health status was poorer on average in a highly educated workforce compared with general U.S. norms. Most of the factors that were found to be associated with poorer mental health were ones that are potentially modifiable, such as experiencing more stress and less satisfaction in work and home life and engaging in current hazardous or harmful drinking. The findings that mental health is worse among individual employees who exhibit

  3. Problem-Solving and Mental Health Outcomes of Women and Children in the Wake of Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Maddoux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental stress of intimate partner violence is common and often results in mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and PTSD for women and behavioral dysfunctions for their children. Problem-solving skills can serve to mitigate or accentuate the environmental stress of violence and associated impact on mental health. To better understand the relationship between problem-solving skills and mental health of abused women with children, a cross-sectional predictive analysis of 285 abused women who used justice or shelter services was completed. The women were asked about social problem-solving, and mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD as well as behavioral functioning of their children. Higher negative problem-solving scores were associated with significantly P<0.001 greater odds of having clinically significant levels of PTSD, anxiety, depression, and somatization for the woman and significantly P<0.001 greater odds of her child having borderline or clinically significant levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. A predominately negative problem-solving approach was strongly associated with poorer outcomes for both mothers and children in the aftermath of the environmental stress of abuse. Interventions addressing problem-solving ability may be beneficial in increasing abused women’s abilities to navigate the daily stressors of life following abuse.

  4. Mental disorder in Canada: an epidemiological perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Streiner, David L; Cairney, John

    2010-01-01

    ..., and analyses the prevalence of several significant mental disorders in the population. The collection also includes essays on stigma, mental disorder and the criminal justice system, and mental health among women, children, workers, and other demographic groups. Focusing on Canadian scholarship, yet wide-reaching in scope, Mental Disorder in C...

  5. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well Feeling guilty, worthless, or helpless Thinking about suicide or hurting yourself Other mental health conditions include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. For a good description ...

  6. Cross-sectional survey of daily junk food consumption, irregular eating, mental and physical health and parenting style of British secondary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, J; Ford, T; Jodrell, D

    2014-07-01

    Previous research has established that poor diets and eating patterns are associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. This study explored the relationships between two specific eating behaviours (daily junk food consumption and irregular eating) and self-reported physical and mental health of secondary school children, and their association with perceived parenting and child health. 10 645 participants aged between 12 and 16 completed measures of junk food consumption, irregular eating, parental style, and mental and physical health through the use of an online survey implemented within 30 schools in a large British city. 2.9% of the sample reported never eating regularly and while 17.2% reported daily consumption of junk food. Young people who reported eating irregularly and consuming junk food daily were at a significantly greater risk of poorer mental (OR 5.41, 95% confidence interval 4.03-7.25 and 2.75, 95% confidence interval 1.99-3.78) and physical health (OR 4.56, 95% confidence interval 3.56-5.85 and 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.63-2.47). Authoritative parenting was associated with healthier eating behaviours, and better mental and physical health in comparison to other parenting styles. A worrying proportion of secondary school children report unhealthy eating behaviours, particularly daily consumption of junk food, which may be associated with poorer mental and physical health. Parenting style may influence dietary habits. Interventions to improve diet may be more beneficial if also they address parenting strategies and issues related to mental and physical health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Physical Health Risk Behaviours in Young People with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Marabong, Nikka; Miu, David; Fethney, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Comorbid physical health conditions, commonly associated with mental illness, contribute to increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The trajectory to poorer health begins with the onset of mental illness. For young people with mental illness, health risk behaviours and poor physical health can progress to adulthood with long-term detrimental impacts. Using a cross-sectional survey design, self-reported health risk behaviours were gathered from 56 young (16-25 years) Australians who had been hospitalised for mental illness and taking psychotropic medication. Smoking, alcohol use, minimal physical activity, and lack of primary health care were evident. While these behaviours are typical of many young people, those with mental illness have substantially increased vulnerability to poor health and reduced life expectancy. Priority needs to be given to targeted health promotion strategies for young people with mental illness to modify their risky long-term health behaviours and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. Nurses in mental health settings play a vital role in promoting young peoples' well-being and preventing poorer physical health outcomes. Implementation of a cardiometabolic health nurse role in inpatient settings for young people with mental illness could facilitate prevention and early intervention for health risk behaviours.

  8. Patients with musculoskeletal conditions do less vigorous physical activity and have poorer physical fitness than population controls: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseng, T; Tveter, A T; Holm, I; Dagfinrud, H

    2014-12-01

    To compare physical activity and physical fitness in patients with various musculoskeletal conditions receiving physiotherapy in primary care with population controls. Cross-sectional. One hundred and sixty-seven patients with musculoskeletal conditions receiving physiotherapy in primary care and 313 population controls from various settings and geographical areas. Physical activity was measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short-form (IPAQ-sf) and reported in metabolic equivalents (METs). The 6-minute walk test and 30-second sit-to-stand test reflected cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular strength, respectively. Differences in physical activity between the groups were explored using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The patient group reported significantly less vigorous activity compared with the control group {median 0 [interquartile range (IQR) 0 to 960] vs median 240 [IQR 0 to 1440] MET minutes/week, respectively)} (P=0.001). A similar proportion of patients (68%) and controls (75%) reached the recommended level of health-enhancing physical activity (P=0.11). Linear regression analyses adjusted for age, body mass index and gender showed significantly poorer fitness in the patient group compared with the control group, reflected by the 6-minute walk test and the 30-second sit-to-stand test {mean difference 69m [95% confidence interval (CI) 52 to 85; P≤0.001] and six repetitions [95% CI 5 to 7; P≤0.001], respectively}. Patients with various long-term musculoskeletal conditions receiving physiotherapy in primary care had significantly poorer physical fitness and reported less vigorous physical activity compared with population controls. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Life space and mental health: a study of older community-dwelling persons in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byles, Julie E; Leigh, Lucy; Vo, Kha; Forder, Peta; Curryer, Cassie

    2015-01-01

    The ability of older people to mobilise within and outside their community is dependent on a number of factors. This study explored the relationship between spatial mobility and psychological health among older adults living in Australia. The survey sample consisted of 260 community-dwelling men and women aged 75-80 years, who returned a postal survey measuring spatial mobility (using the Life Space Questionnaire) and psychological health (using the SF36 Health Related Quality of Life Profile). From the Life Space Questionnaire, participants were given a life-space score and multinomial regression was used to explore the potential effect of mental health on life-space score. The study found a significant association between mental health and life space. However, gender, physical functioning, and ability to drive were most strongly associated with the extent of life space and spatial mobility. Compared to men, older women are more likely to experience less spatial mobility and restricted life space, and hence are more vulnerable to social isolation. Mental health and life space were associated for the older people in this study. These findings have important implications for health policy and highlight the need to support older persons to maintain independence and social networks, and to successfully age in place within their community. This study also highlights the utility of the Life Space Questionnaire in terms of identifying older persons at risk of poorer mental health.

  10. Beliefs and attitudes towards mental illness: an examination of the sex differences in mental health literacy in a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J. Gibbons

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The current study investigated mental health literacy in an Australian sample to examine sex differences in the identification of and attitudes towards various aspects of mental illness.Method. An online questionnaire was completed by 373 participants (M = 34.87 years. Participants were randomly assigned either a male or female version of a vignette depicting an individual exhibiting the symptoms of one of three types of mental illness (depression, anxiety, or psychosis and asked to answer questions relating to aspects of mental health literacy.Results. Males exhibited poorer mental health literacy skills compared to females. Males were less likely to correctly identify the type of mental illness, more likely to rate symptoms as less serious, to perceive the individual as having greater personal control over such symptoms, and less likely to endorse the need for treatment for anxiety or psychosis.Conclusion. Generally, the sample was relatively proficient at correctly identifying mental illness but overall males displayed poorer mental health literacy skills than females.

  11. Early childhood electronic media use as a predictor of poorer well-being: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Trina; Verbestel, Vera; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Lissner, Lauren; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Pigeot, Iris; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Reisch, Lucia A; Russo, Paola; Veidebaum, Toomas; Tornaritis, Michael; Williams, Garrath; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2014-05-01

    Identifying associations between preschool-aged children's electronic media use and their later well-being is essential to supporting positive long-term outcomes. To investigate possible dose-response associations of young children's electronic media use with their later well-being. The IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) study is a prospective cohort study with an intervention component. Data were collected at baseline from September 1, 2007, through June 30, 2008, and at follow-up from September 1, 2009, through May 31, 2010, in 8 European countries participating in the IDEFICS study. This investigation is based on 3604 children aged 2 to 6 years who participated in the longitudinal component of the IDEFICS study only and not in the intervention. Early childhood electronic media use. The following 6 indicators of well-being from 2 validated instruments were used as outcomes at follow-up: Peer problems and Emotional problems subscales from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Emotional well-being, Self-esteem, Family functioning, and Social networks subscales from the KINDLR (Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents-Revised Version). Each scale was dichotomized to identify those children at risk for poorer outcomes. Indicators of electronic media use (weekday and weekend television and electronic game [e-game]/computer use) from baseline were used as predictors. Associations varied between boys and girls; however, associations suggested that increased levels of electronic media use predicted poorer well-being outcomes. Television viewing on weekdays or weekends was more consistently associated with poorer outcomes than e-game/computer use. Across associations, the likelihood of adverse outcomes in children ranged from a 1.2- to 2.0-fold increase for emotional problems and poorer family functioning for each additional hour of

  12. Quality of Life, Stress, and Mental Health in Parents of Children with Parentally Diagnosed Food Allergy Compared to Medically Diagnosed and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdi, Gurkiran; Cooke, Richard; Knibb, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population completed validated measures of QoL, anxiety, depression, and stress. Results. Parents of children with food allergy (PA or MA) reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression than the control group (all p food allergy related QoL compared to parents of children with PA (p food allergy have significantly poorer mental health compared to healthy controls, irrespective of whether food allergy is medically diagnosed or not. It is important to encourage parents to have their child medically tested for food allergy and to recognise and refer for psychological support where needed.

  13. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A,; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This paper examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Method Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources-policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Results Roughly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students-to-mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. Conclusions School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. PMID:23622851

  14. Mental Illness Stigma as a Mediator of Differences in Caucasian and South Asian College Students' Attitudes toward Psychological Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Fred; Reddy, Radhika; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has established that Asian Americans use mental health services less frequently and hold poorer attitudes toward psychological counseling than Caucasians. The authors directly tested whether stigmatizing beliefs regarding mental illness might explain such differential attitudes toward counseling in a South Asian and Caucasian…

  15. E-Portfolios Rescue Biology Students from a Poorer Final Exam Result: Promoting Student Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haave, Neil

    2016-01-01

    E-portfolios have the potential to transform students' learning experiences. They promote reflection on the significance of what and how students have learned. Such reflective practices enhance students' ability to articulate their knowledge and skills to their peers, teachers, and future employers. In addition, e-portfolios can help assess the…

  16. Parental Divorce or Death During Childhood and Adolescence and Its Association With Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebeka, Sarah; Hoertel, Nicolas; Dubertret, Caroline; Le Strat, Yann

    2016-09-01

    Despite the severity of the loss of a parent and the frequency of parental divorce, few studies compared their impact on mental health in the general adult population. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, and psychiatric comorbidity of parental loss and parental divorce during childhood and adolescence. Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 43,093). Of the 43,093 participants, parental divorce during childhood or adolescence was reported by 5776 participants, whereas 3377 experienced parental death during childhood or adolescence. Participants reporting a history of parental divorce present a significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly alcohol and drug use disorders compared with control subjects. While participants experiencing the death of a parent reported a poorer overall health, the prevalence of psychiatric disorder after 17 years of age was not significantly higher than that of the control subjects.

  17. Acute, low-dose methamphetamine administration improves attention/information processing speed and working memory in methamphetamine-dependent individuals displaying poorer cognitive performance at baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, James J; Jackson, Brian J; Kalechstein, Ari D; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F

    2011-03-30

    Abstinent methamphetamine (Meth) dependent individuals demonstrate poorer performance on tests sensitive to attention/information processing speed, learning and memory, and working memory when compared to non-Meth dependent individuals. The poorer performance on these tests may contribute to the morbidity associated with Meth-dependence. In light of this, we sought to determine the effects of acute, low-dose Meth administration on attention, working memory, and verbal learning and memory in 19 non-treatment seeking, Meth-dependent individuals. Participants were predominantly male (89%), Caucasian (63%), and cigarette smokers (63%). Following a four day, drug-free washout period, participants were given a single-blind intravenous infusion of saline, followed the next day by 30 mg of Meth. A battery of neurocognitive tasks was administered before and after each infusion, and performance on measures of accuracy and reaction time were compared between conditions. While acute Meth exposure did not affect test performance for the entire sample, participants who demonstrated relatively poor performance on these tests at baseline, identified using a median split on each test, showed significant improvement on measures of attention/information processing speed and working memory when administered Meth. Improved performance was seen on the following measures of working memory: choice reaction time task (p≤0.04), a 1-back task (p≤0.01), and a 2-back task (p≤0.04). In addition, those participants demonstrating high neurocognitive performance at baseline experienced similar or decreased performance following Meth exposure. These findings suggest that acute administration of Meth may temporarily improve Meth-associated neurocognitive performance in those individuals experiencing lower cognitive performance at baseline. As a result, stimulants may serve as a successful treatment for improving cognitive functioning in those Meth-dependent individuals experiencing

  18. Can I Count on Getting Better? Association between Math Anxiety and Poorer Understanding of Medical Risk Reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Jonathan J; Morsanyi, Kinga; O'Connor, Patrick A

    2016-10-01

    Lower numerical ability is associated with poorer understanding of health statistics, such as risk reductions of medical treatment. For many people, despite good numeracy skills, math provokes anxiety that impedes an ability to evaluate numerical information. Math-anxious individuals also report less confidence in their ability to perform math tasks. We hypothesized that, independent of objective numeracy, math anxiety would be associated with poorer responding and lower confidence when calculating risk reductions of medical treatments. Objective numeracy was assessed using an 11-item objective numeracy scale. A 13-item self-report scale was used to assess math anxiety. In experiment 1, participants were asked to interpret the baseline risk of disease and risk reductions associated with treatment options. Participants in experiment 2 were additionally provided a graphical display designed to facilitate the processing of math information and alleviate effects of math anxiety. Confidence ratings were provided on a 7-point scale. Individuals of higher objective numeracy were more likely to respond correctly to baseline risks and risk reductions associated with treatment options and were more confident in their interpretations. Individuals who scored high in math anxiety were instead less likely to correctly interpret the baseline risks and risk reductions and were less confident in their risk calculations as well as in their assessments of the effectiveness of treatment options. Math anxiety predicted confidence levels but not correct responding when controlling for objective numeracy. The graphical display was most effective in increasing confidence among math-anxious individuals. The findings suggest that math anxiety is associated with poorer medical risk interpretation but is more strongly related to confidence in interpretations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Dutch food bank recipients have poorer dietary intakes than the general and low-socioeconomic status Dutch adult population.

    OpenAIRE

    Neter, J E; Dijkstra, S C; Dekkers, A L M; Ocké, M C; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A

    2017-01-01

    Food-assistance program users are a specific group of nutritional concern, as they are often food insufficient and have poorer diet quality compared to non-food-assistance program users. The aim of our study was to assess dietary intake of Dutch food bank recipients (n = 167) and to compare this with dietary intake of a representative sample of the general population (Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS-all): n = 1933), including a low-socioeconomic status (SES) sample (DNFCS-low SE...

  20. Pediatric SCI/D caregiver mental health and family dynamics in Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Sarah T; Perrin, Paul B; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Quintero, Lorena Medina; Otálvaro, Nadezda Yulieth Méndez; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the connections between family dynamics and the mental health of caregivers of youth with spinal cord injuries/disorders (SCI/D) caregivers from Colombia, South America. It was hypothesized that lower family functioning would be associated with poorer caregiver mental health. A cross-sectional study of self-report data collected from caregivers through the Hospital Universatario Hernando Moncaleano Perdomo in Neiva, Colombia. Thirty caregivers of children with SCI/D from Nevia, Colombia who were a primary caregiver for ≥3 months, providing care for an individual who was ≥6 months post-injury/diagnosis, familiar with the patient's history, and without neurological or psychiatric conditions. Caregivers' average age was 41.30 years (SD = 10.98), and 90% were female. Caregivers completed Spanish versions of instruments assessing their own mental health and family dynamics. Family dynamics explained 43.2% of the variance in caregiver burden and 50.1% of the variance in satisfaction with life, although family dynamics were not significantly associated with caregiver depression in the overall analysis. Family satisfaction was the only family dynamics variable to yield a significant unique association with any index of caregiver mental health (satisfaction with life). If similar findings emerge in future intervention research, interventions for pediatric SCI/D caregivers in Colombia and other similar global regions could benefit from including techniques to improve family dynamics, especially family satisfaction, given the strong potentially reciprocal connection between these dynamics and caregiver mental health. The degree of disability resulting from SCI/D can vary greatly depending on the severity and level of the lesion, though permanent impairment is often present that profoundly impacts both physical and psychological functioning. Very little is known about the impact of pediatric SCI/D in developing countries, despite the high rates of

  1. Impact of working hours on sleep and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, P; Fonseca, M; Pires, J F

    2017-07-01

    The number of hours people are required to work has a pervasive influence on both physical and mental health. Excessive working hours can also negatively affect sleep quality. The impact at work of mental health problems can have serious consequences for individuals' as well as for organizations' productivity. To evaluate differences in sleep quality and anxiety and depression symptoms between longer working hours group (LWHG) and regular working hours group (RWHG). To examine factors influencing weekly working hours, sleep quality and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were divided into two groups, RWHG and LWHG, based on working hours, with a cut-off of 48 h per week. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess anxiety and depression symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to measure the quality and patterns of sleep. The response rate was 23%. Among the 429 study participants, those in the LWHG group (n = 256, 53%) had significantly more depressive and anxiety symptoms and worse sleep quality than those in RWHG (n = 223, 47%). Working time was significantly positively correlated with higher corporate position and HADS scores. Moreover, HADS scores were positively correlated with PSQI scores and negatively correlated with age. This study suggests that longer working hours are associated with poorer mental health status and increasing levels of anxiety and depression symptoms. There was a positive correlation between these symptoms and sleep disturbances. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Scoring Mental Health Quality of Life With the SF-36 in Patients With and Without Diabetes Foot Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Junho; Del Core, Michael A; Wukich, Dane K; Liu, George T; Lalli, Trapper; VanPelt, Michael D; La Fontaine, Javier; Lavery, Lawrence A; Raspovic, Katherine M

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if using orthogonal and oblique factor analysis detect changes in health-related quality of life differently in diabetic patients on the Short Form-36 (SF-36) survey. A total of 155 patients had diabetic foot complications (DFC), and 145 patients had no DFCs. The SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores were calculated using scoring coefficients determined by orthogonal and oblique rotation principle component analyses of the subscales. The DFC group had lower orthogonal ( P < .00001) and oblique PCS scores ( P < .00001). However, despite lower Mental Health subscale scores in the patients with DFCs, orthogonal MCS scores ( P = .156) did not differ. In contrast, the oblique MCS scores reflected the difference in the Mental Health subscale ( P = .0005). Orthogonal and oblique PCS scores did not differ significantly. However, orthogonal MCS scores were significantly higher than oblique MCS scores in those with DFCs ( P = .0004) and without DFCs ( P = .005). The shorter, 12-item SF-12 survey demonstrated similar results. Poorer physical function leads to higher orthogonal MCS scores than if determined by oblique scoring coefficients since Physical Function, Bodily Pain, and General Health are weighted more negatively in orthogonal coefficients when calculating the MCS score. Oblique scoring coefficients may address this issue, but further study is necessary to confirm whether oblique MCS scores accurately represent the mental health of patients with diabetic foot disease.

  3. What Is Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myths and Facts Recovery Is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...

  4. A higher prevalence of endometriosis among Asian women does not contribute to poorer IVF outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ayae; Johnstone, Erica B; Bloom, Michael S; Huddleston, Heather G; Fujimoto, Victor Y

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether diagnosis of endometriosis or endometriosis with endometrioma influences in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in an ethnically diverse population. Women undergoing a first IVF cycle (n = 717) between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009, at a university-affiliated infertility clinic, were retrospectively assessed for an endometriosis diagnosis. Differences in prevalence of endometriosis by ethnicity were determined, as well as differences in IVF success by ethnicity, with a focus on country of origin for Asian women. A multivariate model was generated to assess the relative contributions of country of origin and endometriosis to chance of clinical pregnancy with IVF. Endometriosis was diagnosed in 9.5% of participants; 3.5% also received a diagnosis of endometrioma. Endometriosis prevalence in Asian women was significantly greater than in Caucasians (15.7 vs. 5.8%, p Women of Filipino (p women, although there was no difference in endometrioma presence by race/ethnicity. Oocyte quantity, embryo quality, and fertilization rates did not relate to endometriosis. Clinical pregnancy rates were significantly lower for Asian women, specifically in Indian (p women, compared to Caucasian women, even after controlling for endometriosis status. The prevalence of endometriosis appears to be higher in Filipino, Indian, Japanese, and Korean women presenting for IVF treatment than for Caucasian women; however, the discrepancy in IVF outcomes was conditionally independent of the presence of endometriosis. Future research should focus on improving pregnancy outcomes for Asian populations whether or not they are affected by endometriosis, specifically in the form of longitudinal studies where exposures can be captured prior to endometriosis diagnoses and infertility treatment.

  5. Gender inequality at home is associated with poorer health for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eek, Frida; Axmon, Anna

    2015-03-01

    As more women have joined the work force, the difference in employment rate between men and women has decreased, in Sweden as well as many other countries. Despite this, traditional gender patterns regarding, for example, responsibility for household duties still remain. Women are on sick leave more often than men, and previous studies have indicated that an unequal split of household responsibilities and perceived gender inequality could be associated with negative health outcomes. The aim of the present study was to explore whether an unequal distribution of responsibilities in the home was related to various health related outcomes among women. A sample consisting of 837 women living in a relationship, and working at least 50% of full time, responded to a questionnaire including information about division of responsibilities at home as well as various psychological and physiological health related outcomes. The results showed that women living in relationships with perceived more unequal distribution of responsibility for house hold duties showed significantly higher levels of perceived stress, fatigue, physical/psychosomatic symptoms, and work family conflict compared with women living in more equal relationships. They also had significantly increased odds for insufficient time for various forms of recovery, which may further contribute to an increased risk of poor health. Although an increasing employment rate among women is valuable for both society and individuals, it is important to work towards greater gender equality at home to maintain this development without it having a negative effect on women's health and well-being. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  6. Mental Health Service Delivery Systems and Perceived Qualifications of Mental Health Service Providers in School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Decia Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…

  7. Mental health among older married couples: the role of gender and family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Sanna; Grundy, Emily

    2011-04-01

    As shared family context may be an important influence on mental health, and gender differences in mental health, in later life we investigated how gender, family-related variables and gender roles were associated with mental health in older married couples. Using data on a sample of 2,511 married couples born between 1923 and 1953 (drawn from the British Household Panel Survey) we analysed differences in the mental health of husbands and wives by fertility history, length of marriage, presence of co-resident children, reported social support, hours of household work, attitudes to gender roles and health of husband and wife. Mental health in 2001 was measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Multilevel modelling was used to assess effects in husbands and wives and variations between husbands and wives. Results showed that although the mental health of married couples was correlated, wives had poorer mental health than their husbands. The gender difference was smaller in couples who lived with a child aged 16 or more (and had no younger co-resident children) and in couples in which both spouses had experienced early parenthood. The influence of individual and family characteristics on mental health also differed between husbands and wives. For husbands, early fatherhood and co-residence with a child or children aged 16 or more increased the odds of poor mental health. For wives, having had a child when aged 35 or more appeared protective while having traditional gender role attitudes increased the odds of poorer mental health. The role of family characteristics in the shared marital context has complex associations with mental health, some of which seem gender specific. Although wives express more mental distress, husbands in general show poorer mental health related to family characteristics.

  8. Characteristics of Fibromyalgia Independently Predict Poorer Long‐Term Analgesic Outcomes Following Total Knee and Hip Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Andrew G.; Hassett, Afton L.; Tsodikov, Alex; Hallstrom, Brian R.; Wood, Nathan I.; Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective While psychosocial factors have been associated with poorer outcomes after knee and hip arthroplasty, we hypothesized that augmented pain perception, as occurs in conditions such as fibromyalgia, may account for decreased responsiveness to primary knee and hip arthroplasty. Methods A prospective, observational cohort study was conducted. Preoperative phenotyping was conducted using validated questionnaires to assess pain, function, depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing. Participants also completed the 2011 fibromyalgia survey questionnaire, which addresses the widespread body pain and comorbid symptoms associated with characteristics of fibromyalgia. Results Of the 665 participants, 464 were retained 6 months after surgery. Since individuals who met criteria for being classified as having fibromyalgia were expected to respond less favorably, all primary analyses excluded these individuals (6% of the cohort). In the multivariate linear regression model predicting change in knee/hip pain (primary outcome), a higher fibromyalgia survey score was independently predictive of less improvement in pain (estimate −0.25, SE 0.044; P fibromyalgia survey score (P = 0.00032). The fibromyalgia survey score was also independently predictive of change in overall pain and patient global impression of change. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the fibromyalgia survey score is a robust predictor of poorer arthroplasty outcomes, even among individuals whose score falls well below the threshold for the categorical diagnosis of fibromyalgia. PMID:25772388

  9. Atrophy of spared grey matter tissue predicts poorer motor recovery and rehabilitation response in chronic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Lynne V.; Taub, Edward; Mark, Victor W.; Barghi, Ameen; Uswatte, Gitendra

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although the motor deficit following stroke is clearly due to the structural brain damage that has been sustained, this relationship is attenuated from the acute to chronic phases. We investigated the possibility that motor impairment and response to Constraint-Induced Movement therapy (CI therapy) in chronic stroke patients may relate more strongly to the structural integrity of brain structures remote from the lesion than to measures of overt tissue damage. Methods Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was performed on MRI scans from 80 chronic stroke patients to investigate whether variations in grey matter density were correlated with extent of residual motor impairment or with CI therapy-induced motor recovery. Results Decreased grey matter density in non-infarcted motor regions was significantly correlated with magnitude of residual motor deficit. In addition, reduced grey matter density in multiple remote brain regions predicted a lesser extent of motor improvement from CI therapy. Conclusions Atrophy in seemingly healthy parts of the brain that are distant from the infarct accounts for at least a portion of the sustained motor deficit in chronic stroke. PMID:22096036

  10. Long-term follow-up of mental health, health-related quality of life and associations with motor skills in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Ingrid Marie; Stray, Kaia Mølbach-Thellefsen; Olsen, Alexander; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Skranes, Jon; Evensen, Kari Anne I

    2016-04-07

    Being born with very low birth weight (VLBW: ≤ 1,500 g) is related to long-term disability and neurodevelopmental problems, possibly affecting mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, studies in young adulthood yield mixed findings. The aim of this study was to examine mental health and HRQoL at 23 years, including changes from 20 to 23 years and associations with motor skills in VLBW young adults compared with controls. In a geographically based follow-up study, 35 VLBW and 37 term-born young adults were assessed at 23 years by using Achenbach Adult Self-Report (ASR), Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and various motor tests. The ASR and SF-36 were also used at 20 years. Longitudinal changes in ASR and SF-36 from 20 to 23 years were analysed by linear mixed models and associations with motor skills at 23 years by linear regression. At 23 years, total ASR score was 38.6 (SD: 21.7) in the VLBW group compared with 29.0 (SD: 18.6) in the control group (p = 0.048). VLBW participants had higher scores for attention problems, internalizing problems and critical items, and they reported to drink less alcohol than controls. BDI total score did not differ between groups. On SF-36, VLBW participants reported significantly poorer physical and social functioning, more role-limitations due to physical and emotional problems, more bodily pain and lower physical and mental component summaries than controls. In the VLBW group, total ASR score increased by 9.0 (95 % CI: 3.3 to 14.7) points from 20 to 23 years (p = 0.009 vs controls), physical and mental component summaries of SF-36 decreased by 2.9 (95 % CI: -4.8 to -1.1) and 4.4 (95 % CI: -7.1 to -1.7) points, respectively (p = 0.012 and p = 0.022 vs controls). Among VLBW participants, more mental health problems and lower physical and mental HRQoL were associated with poorer motor skills at 23 years. VLBW young adults reported poorer and declining

  11. Male breast carcinoma: an evaluation of prognostic factors contributing to a poorer outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M G; Lee, A K; Loda, M; Camus, M G; Pedersen, C; Heatley, G J; Hughes, K S

    1996-02-01

    Although breast cancer in men is far less common than breast cancer in women, it is associated with a less favorable prognosis. Conventional histopathologic features and new prognostic markers were evaluated to explain the less favorable survival outcome. Forty-six consecutive male breast carcinomas were studied for size, histologic and nuclear grade, histologic subtype, presence of carcinoma in situ, nipple involvement, lymphovascular invasion, hormone receptor status, c-erbB-2 protein overexpression, and p53 protein accumulation. These findings were correlated with survival. Of the 46 carcinomas, 4 were noninvasive and 42 were invasive. In the invasive carcinomas, the median patient age was 64 years, and the median tumor size was 2 cm. The predominant histologic patterns were invasive ductal (45%) and mixed invasive ductal and cribriform (28%). Most tumors were of low histologic and nuclear grades (histologic grades: I, 17%; II, 50%; III, 33%; nuclear grade: I, 12%; II, 44%; III, 44%). Of those surgically staged, 22 patients (60%) were lymph node positive and 15 patients (40%) were node negative. Stage at presentation was higher than in women (0, 10%; 1, 17%; 2, 50%; 3, 13%; 4, 10%). The estrogen and progesterone receptor status was positive in 76% and 83% of tumors, respectively. Lymphatic vessel invasion (63%) and nipple involvement (48%) were also more common than in women. True Paget's disease of the nipple was not seen; all cases with nipple ulceration were the result of direct tumor extension to the epidermis. Of the 17 tumors tested, 41% were c-erbB-2 positive and 29% were p53 positive. Survival analysis was limited by the relatively small cohort size. Five- and 10-year adjusted overall survival rates for invasive tumors were 76 +/- 7% and 42 +/- 9%, respectively. Skin and nipple involvement (P = 0.03) and c-erbB-2-positivity (P = 0.03) were significant predictors of adverse survival. Male breast carcinoma presents in an advanced stage with less favorable

  12. Greater access to fast-food outlets is associated with poorer bone health in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, C; Parsons, C; Godfrey, K; Robinson, S; Harvey, N C; Inskip, H; Cooper, C; Baird, J

    2016-03-01

    A healthy diet positively influences childhood bone health, but how the food environment relates to bone development is unknown. Greater neighbourhood access to fast-food outlets was associated with lower bone mass among infants, while greater access to healthy speciality stores was associated with higher bone mass at 4 years. Identifying factors that contribute to optimal childhood bone development could help pinpoint strategies to improve long-term bone health. A healthy diet positively influences bone health from before birth and during childhood. This study addressed a gap in the literature by examining the relationship between residential neighbourhood food environment and bone mass in infants and children. One thousand one hundred and seven children participating in the Southampton Women's Survey, UK, underwent measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at birth and 4 and/or 6 years by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Cross-sectional observational data describing food outlets within the boundary of each participant's neighbourhood were used to derive three measures of the food environment: the counts of fast-food outlets, healthy speciality stores and supermarkets. Neighbourhood exposure to fast-food outlets was associated with lower BMD in infancy (β = -0.23 (z-score): 95% CI -0.38, -0.08) and lower BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables (β = -0.17 (z-score): 95% CI -0.32, -0.02). Increasing neighbourhood exposure to healthy speciality stores was associated with higher BMD at 4 and 6 years (β = 0.16(z-score): 95% CI 0.00, 0.32 and β = 0.13(z-score): 95% CI -0.01, 0.26 respectively). The relationship with BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables was statistically significant at 4 years, but not at 6 years. The neighbourhood food environment that pregnant mothers and young children are exposed may affect bone development during early childhood. If confirmed in

  13. Health Problems of Mentally Disabled Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yildirim Sari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mentally disabled individuals are at risk of health problems. In fact, health problems are more frequent in mentally disabled individuals than in the general population and mentally disabled individuals less frequently use health care facilities. It has been shown that mentally disabled individuals frequently have nutritional problems. They may suffer from low weight, malnutrition, high weight, pica, iron and zinc deficiencies and absorption and eating disorders. Activities can be limited due to motor disability and restricted movements. Depending on insufficient liquid intake and dietary fiber, constipation can be frequent. Another problem is sleep disorders such as irregular sleep hours, short sleep, waking up at night and daytime sleepiness. Visual-hearing losses, epilepsy, motor disability, hepatitis A infection and poor oral hygiene are more frequent in mentally disabled children than in the general population. The mentally disabled have limited health care facilities, poorer health status than the general population and difficulties in demanding for health care and expressing health problems. Therefore, they should be provided with more health promotion services. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 145-150

  14. Social and material aspects of life and their impact on the physical health of people diagnosed with mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Ewart, Stephanie B.; Happell, Brenda; Bocking, Julia; Platania‐Phung, Chris; Stanton, Robert; Scholz, Brett

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background People diagnosed with mental illness have shorter lives and poorer physical health, compared to the general population. These health inequities are usually viewed at an individual and clinical level, yet there is little research on the views of mental health consumers on clinical factors in broader contexts. Objective To elicit the views of consumers of mental health services regarding their physical health and experiences of accessing physical health‐care services. Design...

  15. Job stress and mental health among nonregular workers in Korea: What dimensions of job stress are associated with mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Kyung; Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Barak, Michàlle Mor

    2016-01-01

    Although nonregular workers experience higher job stress, poorer mental health, and different job stress dimensions relative to regular workers, little is known about which job stress dimensions are associated with poor mental health among nonregular workers. This study investigated the association between job stress dimensions and mental health among Korean nonregular workers. Data were collected from 333 nonregular workers in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province, and logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results of the study indicated that high job insecurity and lack of rewards had stronger associations with poor mental health than other dimensions of job stress when controlling for sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. It is important for the government and organizations to improve job security and reward systems to reduce job stress among nonregular workers and ultimately alleviate their mental health issues.

  16. Mental Byomdannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tina Vestermann; Boye, Anne Mette; Borchmann, Inger Haarup

    Formålet med publikationen er at præsentere metoden "Mental byomdannelse". Metoden viser, hvordan man via midlertidig brug af grunde kan undersøge et steds potentialer, tage et område i brug tidligt i en byomdannelsesproces og derved bidrage til at opbygge en ny identitet for området. Mental...... byomdannelse går ud på at skabe bevidsthed om et byudviklingsområde overfor byens borgere, kommende beboere og fremtidige brugere af området allerede mens den fysiske omdannelse er i gang. I publikationen præsenteres en værktøjskasse, som giver redskaber og ideer til, hvordan man kan sætte en mental...... byomdannelsesproces i gang i byens rum. Publikationen udgør en afrapportering fra et støttet forsøgsprojekt hvor metoden ”Mental byomdannelse” er udviklet ved at afprøve ideerne om mental byomdannelse i to cases i Ålborg Kommune, hhv. i Østre Havn og Nibe by. Formålet med at anvende metoden i de to cases har været...

  17. On poverty, politics and psychology: the socioeconomic gradient of mental healthcare utilisation and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, Jaime; Asaria, Miqdad; Ali, Shehzad; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-11-01

    Since 2008, the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme has disseminated evidence-based interventions for depression and anxiety problems. In order to maintain quality standards, government policy in England sets the expectation that 50% of treated patients should meet recovery criteria according to validated patient-reported outcome measures. Using national IAPT data, we found evidence suggesting that the prevalence of mental health problems is greater in poorer areas and that these areas had lower average recovery rates. After adjusting benchmarks for local index of multiple deprivation, we found significant differences between unadjusted (72.5%) and adjusted (43.1%) proportions of underperforming clinical commissioning group areas. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  18. Transgender Noninclusive Healthcare and Delaying Care Because of Fear: Connections to General Health and Mental Health Among Transgender Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelman, Kristie L.; Colón-Diaz, Matthew J.P.; LeCroix, Rebecca H.; Xavier-Brier, Marik; Kattari, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: There are many barriers to reliable healthcare for transgender people that often contribute to delaying or avoiding needed medical care. Yet, few studies have examined whether noninclusive healthcare and delaying needed medical care because of fear of discrimination are associated with poorer health among transgender adults. This study aims to address these gaps in the knowledge base. Methods: This study analyzed secondary data from a statewide survey of 417 transgender adults in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Independent variables included noninclusive healthcare from a primary care provider (PCP) and delay of needed medical care because of fear of discrimination. Dependent variables assessed general health and mental health. Results: Transgender individuals who delayed healthcare because of fear of discrimination had worse general health in the past month than those who did not delay or delayed care for other reasons (B=−0.26, pdiscrimination, having a noninclusive PCP was not significantly associated with either general health or mental health. Conclusion: This study suggests a significant association between delaying healthcare because of fear of discrimination and worse general and mental health among transgender adults. These relationships remain significant even when controlling for provider noninclusivity, suggesting that fear of discrimination and consequent delay of care are at the forefront of health challenges for transgender adults. The lack of statistical significance for noninclusive healthcare may be related to the measurement approach used; future research is needed to develop an improved tool for measuring transgender noninclusive healthcare. PMID:28861545

  19. The promotion of mental health and the prevention of mental health problems in child and adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    sunmi cho; yunmi shin

    2013-01-01

    Improving mental health and reducing the burden of mental illness are complementary strategies which, along with the treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental disorders, significantly improve population health and well-being. A Institute of Medicine report describes a range of interventions for mental disorders that included treatment and maintenance, reserving the term “prevention” for efforts that occur before onset of a diagnosable disorder. Mental health problems affect 10&am...

  20. Smaller Cerebellar Growth and Poorer Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Very Preterm Infants Exposed to Neonatal Morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Jill G; Miller, Steven P; Grunau, Ruth E; Chau, Vann; Brant, Rollin; Studholme, Colin; Liu, Mengyuan; Synnes, Anne; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Stiver, Mikaela L; Tam, Emily W Y

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between morphine exposure and growth of the cerebellum and cerebrum in very preterm neonates from early in life to term-equivalent age, as well as to examine morphine exposure and brain volumes in relation to neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months corrected age (CA). A prospective cohort of 136 very preterm neonates (24-32 weeks gestational age) was serially scanned with magnetic resonance imaging near birth and at term-equivalent age for volumetric measurements of the cerebellum and cerebrum. Motor outcomes were assessed with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Second Edition and cognitive outcomes with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition at 18 months CA. Generalized least squares models and linear regression models were used to assess relationships between morphine exposure, brain volumes, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. A 10-fold increase in morphine exposure was associated with a 5.5% decrease in cerebellar volume, after adjustment for multiple clinical confounders and total brain volume (P = .04). When infants exposed to glucocorticoids were excluded, the association of morphine was more pronounced, with an 8.1% decrease in cerebellar volume. Morphine exposure was not associated with cerebral volume (P = .30). Greater morphine exposure also predicted poorer motor (P growth. Morphine exposure in very preterm neonates is independently associated with impaired cerebellar growth in the neonatal period and poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood. Alternatives to better manage pain in preterm neonates that optimize brain development and functional outcomes are urgently needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MENTAL HEALTH: ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzdalifah M. Rahman

    2015-02-01

    of mental health, especially mental health needs to be developed with an Islamic perspective various studies and research, especially the development of mental health recovery means Islamic perspective.

  2. Women, the Poorer Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Maureen

    The purpose of this document is to present statistics which show clearly that poverty is a women's issue. The position of poor women relative to the total population living below the Federal poverty line is demonstrated. Income levels are analyzed to reveal the percentages of women whose annual income is below $5,000. The relationship of income…

  3. Physical and mental health status and health behaviors in male breast cancer survivors: a national, population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrykowski, Michael A

    2012-09-01

    Identify the current physical and mental health status and health behaviors of male breast cancer survivors. Using data from the national, population-based, 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, 66 cases of male breast cancer were identified (mean age = 66.2 years, mean time since diagnosis = 12.0 years). Male breast cancer cases were matched with 198 male BRFSS respondents with no history of cancer (control group) on age, education, and minority status. The male breast cancer and control groups were compared on physical and mental health status and health behaviors, using t-test and logistic regression analyses. The male breast cancer group reported poorer physical and mental health than controls. Male breast cancer survivors were significantly (p mental health (Effect Size = 0.49), and physical health (Effect Size = 0.29) were not good. In contrast, the male breast cancer and control groups were similar with regard to current health behaviors, including tobacco and alcohol use, diet, exercise, and health care. The diagnosis and treatment of male breast cancer may be associated with clinically important and long-term deficits in physical and mental health status, deficits which may exceed those evidenced by long-term female breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Design and Development of Staff Wellbeing Initiatives: Staff Stressors, Burnout and Emotional Exhaustion at Children and Young People's Mental Health in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Dominiek D; Howe, Deborah

    2015-11-01

    Mental health work presents problems for staff over and above those encountered in other organisations, including other areas of healthcare. Healthcare workers, in particular mental health workers, have poorer job satisfaction and higher job burnout and turnover compared with established norms for other occupational groups. To make sense of why healthcare workers experience high levels of burnout, a strong body of literature points to the emotionally demanding nature of people-work. The negative effects of mental health work on employee health can be mitigated by the provision of appropriate job resources and wellbeing initiatives. As to develop initiatives that appropriately target staff sources of stress and needs, it is important to engage staff in this process. As such, Children and Young People's Mental Health (CYPMH) and headspace Gosford, in Australia, New South Wales (NSW), developed a survey to identify how staff experience and manage the emotional demands of mental health work, what they identify as key stressors and which initiatives they would like to see implemented. Fifty-five staff (response rate of 73 %) completed the survey, and the results suggest that while staff find the work emotionally demanding, they do not appear to be emotionally exhausted and report administrative rather than client issues as their primary concerns. While a strong body of literature identifies the management of emotions in the workplace as a significant cause of stress, organisational stressors such as working in a bureaucratic environment are also important to understanding staff wellbeing.

  5. Mental health and substance use among bisexual youth and non-youth in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori E Ross

    Full Text Available Research has shown that bisexuals have poorer health outcomes than heterosexuals, gays, or lesbians, particularly with regard to mental health and substance use. However, research on bisexuals is often hampered by issues in defining bisexuality, small sample sizes, and by the failure to address age differences between bisexuals and other groups or age gradients in mental health. The Risk & Resilience Survey of Bisexual Mental Health collected data on 405 bisexuals from Ontario, Canada, using respondent-driven sampling, a network-based sampling method for hidden populations. The weighted prevalence of severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 20 was 4.7%, possible anxiety disorder (OASIS ≥ 8 was 30.9%, possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-C ≥ 50 was 10.8%, and past year suicide attempt was 1.9%. With respect to substance use, the weighted prevalence of problem drinking (AUDIT ≥ 5 was 31.2%, and the weighted prevalence of illicit polydrug use was 30.5%. Daily smoking was low in this sample, with a weighted prevalence of 7.9%. Youth (aged 16-24 reported significantly higher weighted mean scores on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, and higher rates of past year suicidal ideation (29.7% vs. 15.2% compared with those aged 25 and older. The burden of mental health and substance use among bisexuals in Ontario is high relative to population-based studies of other sexual orientation groups. Bisexual youth appear to be at risk for poor mental health. Additional research is needed to understand if and how minority stress explains this burden.

  6. Enhanced physical health screening for people with severe mental illness in Hong Kong: results from a one-year prospective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressington, Daniel; Mui, Jolene; Hulbert, Sabina; Cheung, Eric; Bradford, Stephen; Gray, Richard

    2014-02-27

    People with severe mental illness have significantly poorer physical health compared to the general population; previous health screening studies conducted outside Asian countries have demonstrated the potential in addressing this issue. This case series aimed to explore the effects and utility of integrating an enhanced physical health screening programme for community dwelling patients with severe mental illness into routine clinical practice in Hong Kong. This study utilises a consecutive prospective case series design. The serious mental illness Health Improvement Profile (HIP) was used as a screening tool at baseline and repeated at 12 months follow-up. A total of 148 community-based patients with severe mental illness completed the study. At one year follow-up analysis showed a significant improvement in self-reported levels of exercise and a reduction in the numbers of patients prescribed medications for diabetes However, mean waist circumference increased at follow-up. In addition to the statistically significant results some general trends were observed, including: a lack of deterioration in most areas of cardiovascular risk; a reduction in medicines prescribed for physical health problems; and general improvements in health behaviours over the 12 month period. The findings demonstrate that using the HIP is feasible and acceptable in Hong Kong. The results of the enhanced physical health-screening programme are promising, but require further testing using a randomised controlled trial design in order to more confidently attribute the improvements in well-being and health behaviours to the HIP. ISRCTN12582470.

  7. Mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    The article will describe factors of influence on return to work RTW and evidence-based interventions that enhance return to work (RTW) after sick leave due to common mental health disorders (CMD). First the concepts of both RTW and CMD are outlined. Second, the sense of urgency for effective RTW

  8. Control mental

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno i Torrens, David, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    La revista especialitzada NeuroReport ha publicat un article que m'ha aportat nous elements de reflexió sobre els mecanismes neurals de control mental que, de forma innata, realitzem les persones com a part de la nostra vida social.

  9. Public mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija

    2017-10-01

    Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Mindfulness og mental sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness is a way to practice 'healthy mindedness' – a form of self help that has been the subject for research and development of a number of new significant self-technologies, therapy and meditation treatment methods. To be mindful can help people to feel more relaxed (serenity) and fully...... alive. The article aims at describing realistic expectations to the contribution of mindfulness to health education work in the field of mental health. The article discuss ways in which mindfulnesss is connected with established health education in the mental health promotion field, and ways in which...... mindfulness breaks with established health education. Interest in utilising mindfulness and mindfulness-inspired methods in health-education intervention has increased in recent years. Mindfulness is seen here as an answer to how to achieve more accepting presence, and thereby a healthier mental life...

  11. Disentangling cognition and emotion in older adults: the role of cognitive control and mental health in emotional conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantke, Nathan C; Gyurak, Anett; Van Moorleghem, Katie; Waring, Jill D; Adamson, Maheen M; O'Hara, Ruth; Beaudreau, Sherry A

    2017-08-01

    Recent research suggests cognition has a bidirectional relationship with emotional processing in older adults, yet the relationship is still poorly understood. We aimed to examine a potential relationship between late-life cognitive function, mental health symptoms, and emotional conflict adaptation. We hypothesized that worse cognitive control abilities would be associated with poorer emotional conflict adaptation. We further hypothesized that a higher severity of mental health symptoms would be associated with poorer emotional conflict adaptation. Participants included 83 cognitively normal community-dwelling older adults who completed a targeted mental health and cognitive battery, and emotion and gender conflict-adaptation tasks. Consistent with our hypothesis, poorer performance on components of cognitive control, specifically attention and working memory, was associated with poorer emotional conflict adaptation. This association with attention and working memory was not observed in the non-affective-based gender conflict adaptation task. Mental health symptoms did not predict emotional conflict adaptation, nor did performance on other cognitive measures. Our findings suggest that emotion conflict adaptation is disrupted in older individuals who have poorer attention and working memory. Components of cognitive control may therefore be an important potential source of inter-individual differences in late-life emotion regulation and cognitive affective deficits. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Effects of Mental Health on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLind, Ren

    2017-01-01

    Learning can be hindered by students' mental health. Given the increased reports of mental health concerns among college students, it is imperative that we understand how best to provide supports to this population to help them learn and succeed. This is particularly significant given the body of research that demonstrates how mental illness may…

  13. Acculturation and Help-Seeking Behavior in Consultation: A Sociocultural Framework for Mental Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Andy V.; Goforth, Anisa N.; Chun, Heejung; Castro-Olivo, Sara; Costa, Annela

    2017-01-01

    Many immigrant and ethnic minority families demonstrate reluctance to pursue or utilize mental health services in community-based and clinical settings, which often leads to poorer quality of care for children and greater likelihood of early termination. Cultural variations in help-seeking behavior and acculturation are likely to influence…

  14. Short-Term Memory for Movement Duration in Mentally Retarded and Nonretarded Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Digby; Grundy, Stephen B.

    1984-01-01

    Both retarded and nonretarded adults (N=26) failed to benefit from opportunities to mentally rehearse their criterion movement over the retention interval, suggesting that strategic differences between the groups cannot explain the poorer performances of the retarded Ss. The retarded Ss appeared to have problems remembering the sensory…

  15. High dietary advanced glycation end products are associated with poorer spatial learning and accelerated Aβ deposition in an Alzheimer mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, Irit; Ricny, Jan; Atrakchi-Baranes, Dana; Shemesh, Chen; Kravitz, Efrat; Liraz-Zaltsman, Sigal; Maksin-Matveev, Anna; Cooper, Itzik; Leibowitz, Avshalom; Uribarri, Jaime; Schmeidler, James; Cai, Weijing; Kristofikova, Zdena; Ripova, Daniela; LeRoith, Derek; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal

    2016-04-01

    There is growing evidence of the involvement of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative processes including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their function as a seed for the aggregation of Aβ, a hallmark feature of AD. AGEs are formed endogenously and exogenously during heating and irradiation of foods. We here examined the effect of a diet high in AGEs in the context of an irradiated diet on memory, insoluble Aβ42 , AGEs levels in hippocampus, on expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), and on oxidative stress in the vasculature. We found that AD-like model mice on high-AGE diet due to irradiation had significantly poorer memory, higher hippocampal levels of insoluble Aβ42 and AGEs as well as higher levels of oxidative stress on vascular walls, compared to littermates fed an isocaloric diet. These differences were not due to weight gain. The data were further supported by the overexpression of RAGE, which binds to Aβ42 and regulates its transport across the blood-brain barrier, suggesting a mediating pathway. Because exposure to AGEs can be diminished, these insights provide an important simple noninvasive potential therapeutic strategy for alleviating a major lifestyle-linked disease epidemic. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. PBSCT is associated with poorer survival and increased chronic GvHD than BMT in Japanese paediatric patients with acute leukaemia and an HLA-matched sibling donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Aki; Tabuchi, Ken; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Inoue, Masami; Inagaki, Jiro; Yabe, Hiromasa; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Kato, Koji; Ohta, Hideaki; Kigasawa, Hisato; Kitoh, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Sasahara, Yoji; Kato, Shun-Ichi; Adachi, Souichi

    2013-09-01

    Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) may be used as an alternative to bone marrow (BM) for allogeneic transplantation. Since peripheral blood stem cell bank from unrelated volunteer donor has been started in Japan, use of PBSC allografts may be increased. Therefore we surveyed the outcomes of Japanese leukemia children after PBSC and BM transplantation. This retrospective study compared the outcomes of 661 children (0-18 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who received their first allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT; n = 90) or bone marrow transplantation (BMT; n = 571) from HLA-matched siblings between January 1996 and December 2007. Neutrophil recovery was faster after PBSCT than after BMT (ALL: P vs. 9.9%, P = 0.0066; AML: 41.6% vs. 11.1%, P vs. 57.1%, P = 0.0257). The 5-year overall survival (OS) was lower after PBSCT than after BMT for ALL (42.4% vs. 63.7%, P = 0.0032) and AML (49.8% vs. 71.8%, P = 0.0163). Multivariate analysis revealed the use of PBSC was a significant risk factor for DFS and OS. PBSCT and BMT did not differ in relapse rate, acute GvHD for ALL and AML, or in DFS for AML. PBSC allografts in Japanese children engraft faster but are associated with poorer survival and increased chronic GvHD. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The prognosis was poorer in colorectal cancers that expressed both VEGF and PROK1 (No correlation coefficient between VEGF and PROK1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goi, Takanori; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Hirono, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Akio

    2015-10-06

    The angiogenic proteins vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prokineticin1 (PROK1) proteins are considered important in colorectal cancer, the relationship between their simultaneous expression and prognosis was investigated in the present study. VEGF and PROK1 expression in 620 primary human colorectal cancer lesions was confirmed via immunohistochemical staining with anti-VEGF and anti-PROK1 antibodies, and the correlation between the expression of these 2 proteins and recurrence/prognosis were investigated. VEGF protein was expressed in 329 (53.1%) and PROK1 protein was expressed in 223 (36.0%). PROK1 and VEGF were simultaneously expressed in 116 (18.7%) of the 620 cases. The correlation coefficient between VEGF expression and PROK1 expression was r = 0.11, and therefore correlation was not observed. Clinical pathology revealed that substantially lymphnode matastasis, hematogenous metastasis, or TMN advanced-stage IV was significantly more prevalent in cases that expressed both VEGF and PROK1 than in the cases negative for both proteins or those positive for only 1 of the proteins. Also the cases positive for both proteins exhibited the worst recurrence and prognosis. In the Cox proportional hazards model, VEGF and PROK1 expression was an independent prognostic factor. The prognosis was poorer in colorectal cancers that expressed both PROK1 and VEGF relative to the cases that expressed only 1 protein, and the expression of both proteins was found to be an independent prognostic factor.

  18. Intimate partner violence and mental health effects: a population-based study among married women in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tazeen S; Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

    2013-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is recognized all over the world for its association with mental health problems in women. In Pakistan, such violence occurs commonly, but detailed information on mental health effects is scarce. The purpose of this study is to focused on married couples in urban Karachi to investigate mental health effects associated with physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated by husbands towards wives. Disclosure rates and health care-seeking behaviour were also investigated. This cross-sectional study involved 759 women between the ages of 25 and 60 years, selected using a multi-stage random sampling technique. The women were interviewed by trained community midwives using a structured questionnaire. In the total population of women, mental symptoms were prevalent. Women subjected to any form of violence reported, however, considerably poorer mental health than unexposed women. A statistically significant difference for almost all of the studied health parameters persisted even after controlling for socio-demographic factors. The strongest associations were found for suicidal thoughts and physical violence (OR 4.41; 3.18-6.12), sexual abuse (OR 4.39; 3.17-6.07) and psychological abuse (OR 5.17; 3.28-8.15). The interviews revealed that only 27% of the women subjected to violence had disclosed this to anyone, in most cases to their parents. The findings in this study highlight that the violence women have to face contributes to the development of multiple forms of psychological stress and serious mental health problems. Women's restrictive life circumstances seriously hamper women's empowerment. Reliable health surveillance system and health care services are needed to serve abused women. Policy initiatives focused on IPV and gender inequality in Pakistan should be initiated.

  19. Both high expression of pyruvate kinase M2 and vascular endothelial growth factor-C predicts poorer prognosis in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang; Liu, Fangfang; Fan, Yu; Qian, Xiaolong; Lang, Ronggang; Gu, Feng; Gu, Jun; Fu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) have been known to play an important role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in breast cancer. However, the association between PKM2 and VEGF-C in breast cancer remains unclear. In the present study, a total of 218 specimens from breast cancer patients and 26 paired breast tumors with adjacent normal tissues as well as two breast cancer cell lines were enrolled to investigate the correlation between PKM2 and VEGF-C. We found that PKM2 and VEGF-C mRNA levels were both significantly increasing in breast tumors compared with adjacent normal tissues. Knockdown of PKM2 mRNA expression resulted in VEGF-C mRNA and protein down-regulated as well as cell proliferation inhibited. A positive correlation between PKM2 and VEGF-C expression was identified by immunohistochemical analyses of 218 specimens of patients with breast cancer (P=0.023). PKM2 high expression was significantly correlated with histological grade (P=0.030), lymph node stage (P=0.001), besides VEGF-C high expression was significantly associated with lymphovascular invasion (P=0.012). While combined high expression of PKM2 and VEGF-C was found to be associated with worse histological grade, more lymph node metastasis, more lymphovascular invasion, shorter progression free survival (PFS), and poorer overall survival (OS) in human breast cancer. The results of the present study suggested that PKM2 expression was correlated with VEGF-C expression, and combination of PKM2 and VEGF-C levels had the better prognostic significance in predicting the poor outcome of patients with breast cancer.

  20. Bariatric surgery: a viable treatment option for patients with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Sarah R; Labott, Susan; Stout, Rebecca A

    2015-01-01

    Although bariatric surgery has become a recognized treatment for obesity, its utility among patients with severe psychiatric disorders has not been extensively studied. A few studies have reported similar weight loss outcomes in these patients, but psychiatric status after bariatric surgery has been studied only minimally, and it is unknown if exacerbation of the mental illness affects weight loss. The aim of this study was to shed greater light on the issue of serious mental illness and bariatric surgery. Specifically, do patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II have poorer weight loss outcomes postbariatric surgery than the general bariatric surgery population? Also, do patients with these diagnoses experience an exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms after bariatric surgery, and if so, is the exacerbation of these disorders linked to poorer weight loss results? Midwest university medical center. A medical record review of approximately 1500 bariatric patients in a Midwest university medical center was conducted to identify those patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II. Information was gathered on bariatric surgery outcomes and changes in psychiatric status postsurgery. Eighteen patients were identified as undergoing bariatric surgery and having a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar I, or bipolar II. Weight loss in this group was significant and comparable to expected outcomes of absolute weight lost, changes in body mass index, and percentage excess weight loss for patients in the typical bariatric population. Postsurgery psychiatric status was known on 10 patients. All 10 patients experienced some exacerbation of psychiatric problems yet weight loss outcomes were still as expected. Bariatric surgery is a viable obesity treatment option for patients with schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II disorders. Symptom exacerbations occurred postsurgery, although it is not clear if these were due to the surgery or

  1. Diurnal cortisol slopes and mental and physical health outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Emma K; Quinn, Meghan E; Tavernier, Royette; McQuillan, Mollie T; Dahlke, Katie A; Gilbert, Kirsten E

    2017-09-01

    Changes in levels of the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol from morning to evening are referred to as diurnal cortisol slopes. Flatter diurnal cortisol slopes have been proposed as a mediator between chronic psychosocial stress and poor mental and physical health outcomes in past theory and research. Surprisingly, neither a systematic nor a meta-analytic review of associations between diurnal cortisol slopes and health has been conducted to date, despite extensive literature on the topic. The current systematic review and meta-analysis examined associations between diurnal cortisol slopes and physical and mental health outcomes. Analyses were based on 179 associations from 80 studies for the time period up to January 31, 2015. Results indicated a significant association between flatter diurnal cortisol slopes and poorer health across all studies (average effect size, r=0.147). Further, flatter diurnal cortisol slopes were associated with poorer health in 10 out of 12 subtypes of emotional and physical health outcomes examined. Among these subtypes, the effect size was largest for immune/inflammation outcomes (r=0.288). Potential moderators of the associations between diurnal cortisol slopes and health outcomes were examined, including type of slope measure and study quality indices. The possible roles of flatter slopes as either a marker or a mechanism for disease etiology are discussed. We argue that flatter diurnal cortisol slopes may both reflect and contribute to stress-related dysregulation of central and peripheral circadian mechanisms, with corresponding downstream effects on multiple aspects of biology, behavior, and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender differences in the mental health of single parents: New Zealand evidence from a household panel survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Sunny; Jenkin, Gabrielle; Carter, Kristie; Signal, Louise

    2014-05-01

    In many countries single parents report poorer mental health than partnered parents. This study investigates whether there are gender differences in the mental health of single parents in New Zealand (and whether any gender difference varies with that among partnered parents), and examines key social and demographic mediators that may account for this difference. We used data on 905 single parents and 4,860 partnered parents from a New Zealand household panel survey that included the Kessler-10 measure of psychological distress. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate both interactions of gender and parental status, and confounding or mediation by other covariates. High/very high levels of psychological distress were reported by 15.7 % of single mothers and 9.1 % of single fathers, and 6.1 % of partnered mothers and 4.1 % of partnered fathers. In an Ordinary Least Squares regression of continuous K10 scores on gender, parental status and the interaction of both (plus adjustment for ethnicity, number of children and age), female single parents had a 1.46 higher K10 score than male single parents (95 % CI 0.48-2.44; 1.46). This difference was 0.98 (95 % CI -0.04 to 1.99) points greater than the gender difference among partnered parents. After controlling for further confounding or mediating covariates (educational level, labour force status and socioeconomic deprivation) both the gender difference among single parents (0.38, -0.56 to 1.31) and the interaction of gender and parental status (0.28 greater gender difference among single parents, -0.69 to 1.65) greatly reduced in magnitude and became non-significant, mainly due to adjustment for individual socioeconomic deprivation. The poorer mental health of single parents remains an important epidemiological phenomenon. Although research has produced mixed findings of the nature of gender differences in the mental health of single parents, our research adds to the increasing evidence that it is single

  3. Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.

  4. Physical activity interventions for people with mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Simon; Tiedemann, Anne; Sherrington, Catherine; Curtis, Jackie; Ward, Philip B

    2014-09-01

    To determine effects of physical activity on depressive symptoms (primary objective), symptoms of schizophrenia, anthropometric measures, aerobic capacity, and quality of life (secondary objectives) in people with mental illness and explore between-study heterogeneity. MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) were searched from earliest record to 2013. Randomized controlled trials of adults with a DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, or clinician-confirmed diagnosis of a mental illness other than dysthymia or eating disorders were selected. Interventions included exercise programs, exercise counseling, lifestyle interventions, tai chi, or physical yoga. Study methodological quality and intervention compliance with American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines were also assessed. Two investigators extracted data. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to examine sources of between-study heterogeneity. Thirty-nine eligible trials were identified. The primary meta-analysis found a large effect of physical activity on depressive symptoms (n = 20; standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.80). The effect size in trial interventions that met ACSM guidelines for aerobic exercise did not differ significantly from those that did not meet these guidelines. The effect for trials with higher methodological quality was smaller than that observed for trials with lower methodological quality (SMD = 0.39 vs 1.35); however, the difference was not statistically significant. A large effect was found for schizophrenia symptoms (SMD = 1.0), a small effect was found for anthropometry (SMD = 0.24), and moderate effects were found for aerobic capacity (SMD = 0.63) and quality of life (SMD = 0.64). Physical activity reduced depressive symptoms in people with mental illness. Larger effects were seen in studies of poorer methodological quality. Physical activity reduced symptoms of

  5. Greater dietary acculturation (dietary change) is associated with poorer current self-rated health among African immigrant adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Maria-Theresa C; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Zhan, Min

    2014-01-01

    Investigate the relationship between dietary acculturation and current self-rated health (SRH) among African immigrants, by country or region of origin. Cross-sectional, mixed-methods design using baseline data from longitudinal study of immigrants granted legal permanent residence May to November, 2003, and interviewed June, 2003 to June, 2004. 2003 New Immigrant Survey. African immigrants from a nationally representative sample (n = 763) averaged 34.7 years of age and 5.5 years' US residency; 56.6% were male, 54.1% were married, 26.1% were Ethiopian, and 22.5% were Nigerian. Current SRH (dependent variable) was measured using 5-point Likert scale questions; dietary acculturation (independent variable) was assessed using a quantitative dietary change scale. Multivariate logistic regression tested the relationship of dietary acculturation with current SRH (α = .05; P food/beverages consumed pre-/post-migration. African immigrants reporting moderate dietary change since arrival in the US had higher odds of poorer SRH status than immigrants reporting low dietary change (odds ratio, 1.903; 95% confidence interval, 1.143-3.170; P = .01). Among most dietary change groups, there was an increase in fast food consumption and decrease in fruit and vegetable consumption. Nutrition educators and public health practitioners should develop targeted nutrition education for African immigrants who are older, less educated, and at increased health risk. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High bone sialoprotein (BSP expression correlates with increased tumor grade and predicts a poorer prognosis of high-grade glioma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the expression and prognostic value of bone sialoprotein (BSP in glioma patients. METHODS: We determined the expression of BSP using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays containing 15 normal brain and 270 glioma samples. Cumulative survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed by the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by the stepwise forward Cox regression model. RESULTS: Both BSP mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in high-grade glioma tissues compared with those of normal brain and low-grade glioma tissues, and BSP expression positively correlated with tumor grade (P<0.001. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed high BSP expression was an independent prognostic factor for a shorter progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS in both grade III and grade IV glioma patients [hazard ratio (HR = 2.549 and 3.154 for grade III glioma, and HR = 1.637 and 1.574 for grade IV glioma, respectively]. Patients with low BSP expression had a significantly longer median OS and PFS than those with high BSP expression. Small extent of resection and lineage of astrocyte served as independent risk factors of both shorter PFS and OS in grade III glioma patients; GBM patients without O(6-methylguanine (O(6-meG DNA methyltransferase (MGMT methylation and Karnofsky performance score (KPS less than 70 points were related to poor prognosis. Lack of radiotherapy related to shorter OS but not affect PFS in both grade III and grade IV glioma patients. CONCLUSION: High BSP expression occurs in a significant subset of high-grade glioma patients and predicts a poorer outcome. The study identifies a potentially useful molecular marker for the categorization and targeted therapy of gliomas.

  7. Red Flags for Maltese Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: Poorer Dental Care and Less Sports Participation Compared to Other European Patients-An APPROACH-IS Substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Maryanne; Apers, Silke; Kovacs, Adrienne H; Luyckx, Koen; Thomet, Corina; Budts, Werner; Sluman, Maayke; Eriksen, Katrine; Dellborg, Mikael; Berghammer, Malin; Johansson, Bengt; Soufi, Alexandra; Callus, Edward; Moons, Philip; Grech, Victor

    2017-06-01

    Studies in recent years have explored lifestyle habits and health-risk behaviours in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients when compared to controls. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in lifestyle habits between Maltese and other European ACHD patients. Data on alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, substance misuse, dental care and physical activity collected in 2013-2015 during "Assessment of Patterns of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Adults with Congenital Heart disease-International Study" (APPROACH-IS) were analysed. Responses from 119 Maltese participants were compared to those of 1616 participants from Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the Netherlands. Significantly fewer Maltese patients with simple (Maltese 84.1% vs. European 97.5%, p < 0.001) and moderately complex CHD (Maltese 83.6% vs. European 97.4%, p < 0.001) brushed their teeth daily. Only 67.2% of Maltese with moderately complex disease had dental reviews in the previous year compared to 80.3% of Europeans (p = 0.02). Maltese patients with simple (Maltese 31.8% vs. European 56.1%, p = 0.002) and moderately complex lesions (Maltese 30.0% vs. European 59.2%, p < 0.001) performed less regular sport activities. Comparison by country showed Maltese patients to have significantly poorer tooth brushing and sports participation than patients from any other participating country. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and substance misuse were not significantly different. This study highlights lifestyle aspects that Maltese ACHD patients need to improve on, which might not be evident upon comparing patients to non-CHD controls. These findings should also caution researchers against considering behaviours among patients in one country as necessarily representative of patients on the larger scale.

  8. [Poverty and Mental Disorders in the Colombian Population: National Mental Health Survey 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitian, Hoover; Ruiz-Gaviria, Rafael E; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Poverty has been associated in some studies with poorer outcomes in mental problems and disorders. A circular relationship has been considered in which poverty fosters the appearance of mental illness and this facilitates greater poverty. There are no studies in Colombia on this subject. To describe the association between mental problems and disorders and poverty according to the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) in Colombia. Using the 2015 National Mental Health Survey, adjusted with the expansion factors for the population. The prevalences of mental problems and disorders obtained through semi-structured interviews employing the instruments SRQ-20, AUDIT C and A, modified PCL, familiar APGAR and CIDI CAPI. The poverty status was determined by the MPI. A total of 13,200 households were interviewed, of which 13.5% were classified as in a poverty condition, 6.3% of the adolescents of poor households reported a life-time prevalence of any mental disorder, and 4.6% in the last 12 months. On the other hand, the prevalences for the same age group not in a poverty condition were 7.2% and 3.3%, respectively. For adults in poverty, the prevalence of life-time mental disorders were 9.2%, with 4.3% in the last year, while those not considered poor showed prevalences of 9.1% and 3.9% for the same time periods. For the population of Colombia, there is a relationship between not being able to access the basic basket of goods and the presence of mental diseases, although there does not seems to be an association between an increase in poverty and the deterioration of mental health. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. How are the employed and unemployed affected by the economic crisis in Spain? Educational inequalities, life conditions and mental health in a context of high unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio; San Sebastián, Miguel; Gustafsson, Per E

    2016-03-15

    Despite an increasing number of studies on the factors mediating the impact of the economic recession on mental health, research beyond the individual employment status is scarce. Our objectives were to investigate in which ways the mental health of employed and unemployed populations is differently affected by the current economic recession along the educational scale and to examine whether financial strain and social support explain these effects of the crisis. A repeated cross-sectional study, using two waves of the Andalusian Health Survey in 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011-2012 (crisis). A population aged between 19 and 64 years was selected. The dependent variable was the Mental Component Summary of the SF-12 questionnaire. We performed Poisson regression models stratified by working status, with period, educational level, financial strain and social support as independent variables. We examined interactions between period and educational level. Age, sex, main earner, cohabitation and partner's working status were considered as covariates. The study included 3210 individuals (1185 women) in 2007 and 3633 individuals (1486 women) in 2011-2012. In working individuals the prevalence of poor mental health increased for secondary and complete primary studies groups during crisis compared to the pre-crisis period, while it decreased significantly in the university study group (PR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.58-0.99). However, in unemployed individuals prevalence ratios for poor mental health increased significantly only in the secondary studies group (PR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.06-2.83). Financial strain and social support yielded consistent associations with mental health in all subgroups. Only financial strain could partly explain the crisis effect on mental health among the unemployed. Our study supports the finding that current economic recession is associated with poorer mental health differentially according to labour market status and educational level. Those with secondary

  10. Self-rated health and mental health of lone fathers compared with lone mothers and partnered fathers: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Rahman, Farah; Kurdyak, Paul; Cairney, John; Jembere, Nathaniel; Vigod, Simone

    2017-05-01

    Lone parenthood is associated with poorer health; however, the vast majority of previous studies have examined lone mothers and only a few have focused on lone fathers. We aimed to examine the self-rated health and mental health status among a large population-based cross-sectional sample of Canadian lone fathers compared with both partnered fathers and lone mothers. We investigated differences in self-rated health and mental health among 1058 lone fathers compared with 20 692 partnered fathers and 5725 lone mothers using the Ontario component of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2001-2013). Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the odds of poor/fair self-rated health and mental health between the study groups while adjusting for a comprehensive list of sociodemographic factors, stressors and lifestyle factors. Lone fathers and lone mothers showed similar prevalence of poor/fair self-rated health (11.6% and 12.5%, respectively) and mental health (6.2% and 8.4%, respectively); the odds were similar even after multivariable adjustment. Lone fathers showed higher odds of poor/fair self-rated health (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.17) and mental health (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.46) than partnered fathers after adjustment for sociodemographic factors; however, these differences were no longer significant after accounting for stressors, including low income and unemployment. In this large population-based study, lone fathers had worse self-rated health and mental health than partnered fathers and similarly poor self-rated health and mental health as lone mothers. Interventions, supports and social policies designed for single parents should also recognise the needs of lone fathers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Multilineage dysplasia is associated with a poorer prognosis in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia with intermediate-risk cytogenetics and wild-type NPM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, María; Navarro, José-Tomás; Arenillas, Leonor; Aventín, Anna; Giménez, Teresa; Alonso, Esther; Perea, Granada; Camós, Mireia; Navarrete, Mayda; Tuset, Esperanza; Florensa, Lourdes; Millá, Fuensanta; Nomdedéu, Josep; de la Banda, Esmeralda; Díaz-Beyá, Marina; Pratcorona, Marta; Garrido, Ana; Navarro, Blanca; Brunet, Salut; Sierra, Jorge; Esteve, Jordi

    2014-10-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with myelodysplasia-related changes is characterized by the presence of multilineage dysplasia (MLD), frequently related to high-risk cytogenetics and poor outcome. However, the presence of MLD does not modify the favorable prognostic impact of NPM1 mutation. The prognosis of patients with AML presenting marked dysplasia lacking high-risk cytogenetics and NPM1 mutation is uncertain. We evaluated the prognostic impact of MLD in 177 patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics AML (IR-AML) and wild-type NPM1. Patients were categorized as MLD-WHO (WHO myelodysplasia criteria; n = 43, 24 %), MLD-NRW (significant MLD non-reaching WHO criteria; n = 16, 9 %), absent MLD (n = 80, 45 %), or non-evaluable MLD (n = 38, 22 %). No differences concerning the main characteristics were observed between patients with or without MLD. Outcome of patients with MLD-WHO and MLD-NRW was similar, and significantly worse than patients lacking MLD. The presence of MLD (66 vs. 80 %, p = 0.03; HR, 95 % CI = 2.3, 1.08-4.08) and higher leukocyte count at diagnosis was the only variable associated with lower probability of complete remission after frontline therapy. Concerning survival, age and leukocytes showed an independent prognostic value, whereas MLD showed a trend to a negative impact (p = 0.087, HR, 95 % CI = 1.426, 0.95-2.142). Moreover, after excluding patients receiving an allogeneic stem cell transplantation in first CR, MLD was associated with a shorter survival (HR, 95 % CI = 1.599, 1.026-2.492; p = 0.038). In conclusion, MLD identifies a subgroup of patients with poorer outcome among patients with IR-AML and wild-type NPM1.

  12. Reentry challenges facing women with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visher, Christy A; Bakken, Nicholas W

    2014-01-01

    Women entering the correctional system represent a population at high risk for mental health and the body of research on the mental health needs of women offenders is growing. These mental health problems pose challenges for women at every stage of the criminal justice process, from arrest to incarceration to community reentry and reintegration. In this article, we examined mental health status among a sample of 142 women leaving confinement and the role that mental health problems played in shaping their reentry outcomes using data collected between 2002 and 2005 in Houston, Texas. In the year after leaving prison, women with mental health problems reported poorer health, more hospitalizations, more suicidal thoughts, greater difficulties securing housing and employment, more involvement in criminal behavior, and less financial support from family than women with no indication of mental health problems. However, mental health status did not increase the likelihood of substance use relapse or reincarceration. The article concludes with a discussion of recommendations for improved policy and practice.

  13. Higiene mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gomez Pinzón

    1940-08-01

    Full Text Available El número cada día mayor de enfermos mentales, que hace “contraste con  la evidente disminución de enfermedades infecto-contagiosas, -lograda a favor de los modernos métodos de curación y profilaxis- es un hecho que está siendo comprobado “en todos los países civilizados y que constituye motivo de justificada alarma para cuantos se preocupan por cuestiones del orden biológico y social”

  14. Early term and late preterm birth are associated with poorer school performance at age 5 years: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Maria A; Poulsen, Gry; Boyle, Elaine; Wolke, Dieter; Field, David; Alfirevic, Zarko; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J

    2012-05-01

    To compare school performance at age 5 years in children born at full term (39-41 weeks gestation) with those born at early term (37-38 weeks gestation), late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation), moderately preterm (32-33 weeks gestation) and very preterm (2000-2001 and attending school in England in 2006. School performance was measured using the foundation stage profile (FSP), a statutory assessment by teachers at the end of the child's first school year. The FSP comprises 13 assessment scales (scored from 1 to 9). Children who achieve an average of 6 points per scale and at least 6 in certain scales are classified as 'reaching a good level of overall achievement'. Fifty-one per cent of full term children had not reached a good level of overall achievement; this proportion increased with prematurity (55% in early term, 59% in late preterm, 63% in moderately preterm and 66% in very preterm children). Compared with full term children, an elevated risk remained after adjustment, even in early term (adjusted RR 1.05, 95% 1.00 to 1.11) and late preterm children (adjusted RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22). Similar effects were noted for 'not working securely' in mathematical development, physical development and creative development. The effects of late preterm and early term birth were small in comparison with other risk factors. Late preterm and early term birth are associated with an increased risk of poorer educational achievement at age 5 years.

  15. Food Insecurity among Homeless Adults with Mental Illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Parpouchi

    Full Text Available The prevalence of food insecurity and food insufficiency is high among homeless people. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among a cohort of homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.Data collected from baseline questionnaires in the Vancouver At Home study were analysed to calculate the prevalence of food insecurity within the sample (n = 421. A modified version of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Adult Food Security Survey Module was used to ascertain food insecurity. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine potential correlates of food insecurity.The prevalence of food insecurity was 64%. In the multivariable model, food insecurity was significantly associated with age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, less than high school completion (aOR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.35-0.93, needing health care but not receiving it (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.00-2.72, subjective mental health (aOR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96-0.99, having spent over $500 for drugs and alcohol in the past month (aOR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.16-4.36, HIV/AIDS (aOR = 4.20; 95% CI: 1.36-12.96, heart disease (aOR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16-0.97 and having gone to a drop-in centre, community meal centre or program/food bank (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.01-2.68.The prevalence of food insecurity was extremely high in a cohort with longstanding homelessness and serious mental illness. Younger age, needing health care but not receiving it, poorer subjective mental health, having spent over $500 for drugs and alcohol in the past month, HIV/AIDS and having gone to a drop-in centre, community meal centre or program/food bank each increased odds of food insecurity, while less than high school completion and heart disease each decreased odds of food insecurity. Interventions to reduce food insecurity in this population are urgently needed.

  16. Generational attitudes of rural mental health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Andrew; Kemp, Michael

    2009-04-01

    To determine how attitudes of rural mental health nurses differ across generations. Survey. Mental health services in rural New South Wales. Practising mental health nurses. Survey responses. Survey response rate 44%. A total of 89 mental health nurses, clustered in inpatient units and community health centres, responded. Of these nurses, 4 were veterans, 52 baby boomers, 17 Generation X and 5 Generation Y. There are significant differences in how mental health nurses from different generations view their work, and in what is expected from managers. Managers need to modify traditional working styles, allowing greater flexibility of employment. They must also accept lower staff retention rates, and facilitate the development of younger staff.

  17. Mental health and satisfaction with life among upper limb amputees: a Norwegian population-based survey comparing adult acquired major upper limb amputees with a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østlie, Kristin; Magnus, Per; Skjeldal, Ola H; Garfelt, Beate; Tambs, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    To assess how upper limb amputation affects mental health and life satisfaction. Cross-sectional study comparing the mental health and perceived satisfaction with life among adult acquired major upper limb amputees in Norway with a control group drawn from the Norwegian general population. The scales used were the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and the Hopkins Symptom Check List 25-item (SCL-25). The groups were compared using multiple linear regression analyses. The amputees scored significantly lower on life satisfaction than the control group. A tendency to poorer mental health in the amputee group was observed, but there was no clear evidence of such a difference. The amputation effect on life satisfaction seemed to be mediated mainly by changes in occupational status and by the occurrence of short- or long-term complications related to the amputation. Our findings imply that rehabilitation of upper limb amputees should emphasise facilitating return to work as well as the prevention of short- and long-term complications, and that this will be of importance not only for the amputees' physical function, but for the maintenance of acceptable life satisfaction. Further studies on the effect of upper limb amputation on mental health are recommended.

  18. Deinstitutionalization: Its Impact on Community Mental Health Centers and the Seriously Mentally Ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Stephen P.; McNally Melissa; Trippany, Robyn L.

    2009-01-01

    Deinstitutionalization has had a significant impact on the mental health system, including the client, the agency, and the counselor. For clients with serious mental illness, learning to live in a community setting poses challenges that are often difficult to overcome. Community mental health agencies must respond to these specific needs, thus…

  19. Do South Asian women with PCOS have poorer health-related quality of life than Caucasian women with PCOS? A comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Georgina L; Palep-Singh, Manisha; Ledger, William L; Balen, Adam H; Jenkinson, Crispin; Campbell, Michael J; Lashen, Hany

    2010-12-20

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the HRQoL of South Asian and white Caucasian women with PCOS, given that it is particularly common among women of South Asian origin and they have been shown to have more severe symptoms. The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) were administered in a cross-sectional survey to 42 South Asian and 129 Caucasian women diagnosed with PCOS recruited from the gynaecology outpatient clinics of two university teaching hospitals in Sheffield and Leeds. Additional clinical data was abstracted from medical notes. Normative data, collected as part of the Oxford Health and Lifestyles II survey, was obtained to compare SF-36 results with ethnically matched women from the general UK population. Using the SF-36, normative HRQoL scores for women of South Asian origin were lower than for Caucasian women. Given this lower baseline we tested whether the same relationship holds true among those with PCOS. Although HRQoL scores for women with PCOS were lower than normative data for both groups, South Asian women with PCOS did not have poorer HRQoL than their Caucasian counterparts. For both the SF-36 and PCOSQ, mean scores were broadly the same for both Asian and Caucasian women. For both groups, the worst two HRQoL domains as measured on the PCOSQ were 'infertility' and 'weight', with respective scores of 35.3 and 42.3 for Asian women with PCOS compared to 38.6 and 35.4 for Caucasian women with PCOS. The highest scoring domain for South Asian women with PCOS was 'menstrual problems' (55.3), indicating best health, and was the only statistically significant difference from Caucasian women (p = 0.01). On the SF-36, the lowest scoring domain was 'Energy & Vitality' for Caucasian women with PCOS, but this was significantly higher for Asian women with PCOS (p = 0.01). The best health status for both groups

  20. Co-colonisation with Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with poorer health in cystic fibrosis patients: an Irish registry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Emma; Segurado, Ricardo; Jackson, Abaigeal; McClean, Siobhán; Renwick, Julie; Greally, Peter

    2017-04-21

    Pulmonary infection is the main cause of death in cystic fibrosis (CF). Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) are the most prevalent fungal and bacterial pathogens isolated from the CF airway, respectively. Our aim was to determine the effect of different colonisation profiles of AF and PA on the clinical status of patients with CF. A retrospective analysis of data from the Cystic Fibrosis Registry of Ireland from 2013 was performed to determine the effect of intermittent and persistent colonisation with AF or PA or co-colonisation with both microorganisms on clinical outcome measures in patients with CF. Key outcomes measured included forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ), number of hospitalisations, respiratory exacerbations and antimicrobials prescribed, and complications of CF, including CF related diabetes (CFRD) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The prevalence of AF and PA colonisation were 11% (5% persistent, 6% intermittent) and 31% (19% persistent, 12% intermittent) in the Irish CF population, respectively. Co-colonisation with both pathogens was associated with a 13.8% reduction in FEV 1 (p = 0.016), higher levels of exacerbations (p = 0.042), hospitalisations (p = 0.023) and antimicrobial usage (p = 0.014) compared to non-colonised patients and these clinical outcomes were comparable to those persistently colonised with PA. Intermittent and persistent AF colonisation were not associated with poorer clinical outcomes or ABPA. Patients with persistent PA had a higher prevalence of CFRD diagnosis (p = 0.012). CF patients co-colonised with AF and PA had poor clinical outcomes comparable to patients persistently colonised with PA, emphasising the clinical significance of co-colonisation with these microorganisms.

  1. Impulsiveness, overactivity, and poorer sustained attention improve by chronic treatment with low doses of l-amphetamine in an animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagvolden, Terje

    2011-03-30

    ADHD is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. Overactivity, impulsiveness, and inattentiveness are presently regarded as the main clinical symptoms. There is no biological marker, but there is considerable evidence to suggest that ADHD behavior is associated with poor dopaminergic and noradrenergic modulation of neuronal circuits that involve the frontal lobes. The best validated animal model of ADHD, the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR), shows pronounced overactivity, impulsiveness, and deficient sustained attention. The primary objective of the present research was to investigate behavioral effects of a range of doses of chronic l-amphetamine on ADHD-like symptoms in the SHR. The present study tested the behavioral effects of 0.75 and 2.2 mg l-amphetamine base/kg i.p. in male SHRs and their controls, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). ADHD-like behavior was tested with a visual discrimination task measuring overactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness. The striking impulsiveness, overactivity, and poorer sustained attention seen during baseline conditions in the SHR were improved by chronic treatment with l-amphetamine. The dose-response curves were, however, different for the different behaviors. Most significantly, the 0.75 mg/kg dose of l-amphetamine improved sustained attention without reducing overactivity and impulsiveness. The 2.2 mg/kg dose improved sustained attention as well as reduced SHR overactivity and impulsiveness. The effects of l-amphetamine to reduce the behavioral symptoms of ADHD in the SHR were maintained over the 14 days of daily dosing with no evidence of tolerance developing.

  2. Stronger default mode network connectivity is associated with poorer clinical insight in youth at ultra high-risk for psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah V; Mittal, Vijay A; Bernard, Jessica A; Ahmadi, Aral; King, Tricia Z; Turner, Jessica A

    2018-03-01

    Impaired clinical insight (CI) is a common symptom of psychotic disorders and a promising treatment target. However, to date, our understanding of how variability in CI is tied to underlying brain dysfunction in the clinical high-risk period is limited. Developing a stronger conception of this link will be a vital first step for efforts to determine if CI can serve as a useful prognostic indicator. The current study investigated whether variability in CI is related to major brain networks in adolescents and young adults at ultra high-risk (UHR) of developing psychosis. Thirty-five UHR youth were administered structured clinical interviews as well as an assessment for CI and underwent resting-state magnetic resonance imaging scans. Functional connectivity was calculated in the default mode network (DMN) and fronto-parietal network (FPN), two major networks that are dysfunctional in psychosis and are hypothesized to affect insight. Greater DMN connectivity between the posterior cingulate/precuneus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (DMN) was related to poorer CI (R 2 =0.399). There were no significant relationships between insight and the FPN. This is the first study to relate a major brain network to clinical insight before the onset of psychosis. Findings are consistent with evidence if a hyperconnected DMN in schizophrenia and UHR, and similar to a previous study of insight and connectivity in schizophrenia. Results suggest that a strongly connected DMN may be related to poor self-awareness of subthreshold psychotic symptoms in UHR adolescents and young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Poorer Intermittent Sprints Performance in Ramadan-Fasted Muslim Footballers despite Controlling for Pre-Exercise Dietary Intake, Sleep and Training Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of Ramadan fasting on sprint performance during prolonged intermittent exercise in trained Muslim footballers, under controlled pre-exercise conditions. A within-group, cross-over study design with two non-fasted or Control trials performed before (i.e., CON1 and after (CON2 the Ramadan month, and with the Ramadan-fasted (RAM trials performed within the Ramadan month. After familiarization, 14 players completed a modified 60-min (4 × 15-min exercise blocks interspersed with 3-min intervals of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (mLIST of fixed speeds of walking, jogging, running, but with all-out effort sprints. During the interval periods, capillary blood glucose and blood lactate measures were taken, rectal and skin temperatures were recorded and maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC of the dominant leg and hand-grip were performed to provide some indication to the cause(s of ‘fatigue’ during exercise. Players were provided with standardized 24-h pre-packed meals prior to all trials. Sleep hours were objectively assessed and perceived training loads were monitored and these were equivalent between RAM and CON trials. Sprint times throughout mLIST were significantly faster in both CON1 and CON2 as compared to RAM trials (all P < 0.017; d = small to moderate, and this poorer performance in RAM was observed as early as during the first 15-min of the mLIST. Blood markers, MVIC and thermoregulatory results were not substantially different between both CON and RAM trials. In conclusion, despite similarities in dietary intake, sleeping hours and training loads between conditions, results still indicate that Ramadan fasting had an adverse effect on prolonged intermittent performance. Nocebo effects plays a dominant role during exercise in the Ramadan-fasted state.

  4. Clear cell carcinomas of the ovary have poorer outcomes compared with serous carcinomas: Results from a single-center Taiwanese study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Chun Ku

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: The clinical outcomes of CCC are generally poorer than SC. Complete cytoreduction to no gross residual disease should be ideally achieved in CCC patients. A greater understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of CCC may lead to tailored therapies, ultimately optimizing outcomes.

  5. A cross-sectional exploration of the clinical characteristics of disengaged (NEET) young people in primary mental healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Bridianne; Glozier, Nicholas; Purcell, Rosemary; McGorry, Patrick D; Scott, Jan; Feilds, Kristy-Lee; Hermens, Daniel F; Buchanan, John; Scott, Elizabeth M; Yung, Alison R; Killacky, Eoin; Guastella, Adam J; Hickie, Ian B

    2014-12-23

    Youth with mental health problems often have difficulties engaging in education and employment. In Australia, youth mental health services have been widely established with a key aim of improving role functioning; however, there is little knowledge of those who are not engaged in employment, education or training (NEET) and the factors which may influence this. This study aimed to examine NEET status and its correlates in a sample of such youth. Cross-sectional data from a longitudinal cohort study. Between January 2011 and August 2012, young people presenting to one of the four primary mental health centres in Sydney or Melbourne were invited to participate. Young adults (N=696) aged between 15 and 25 years (M=19.0, SD=2.8), 68% female, 58% (n=404) attended headspace in Sydney. Individuals 'Not in any type of Education, Employment or Training' in the past month were categorised as NEET. Demographic, psychological and clinical factors alongside disability and functioning were assessed using clinical interview and self-report. A total of 19% (n=130/696) were NEET. NEETs were more likely to be male, older, have a history of criminal charges, risky cannabis use, higher level of depression, poorer social functioning, greater disability and economic hardship, and a more advanced stage of mental illness than those engaged in education, training or work. Demographics such as postsecondary education, immigrant background and indigenous background, were not significantly associated with NEET status in this sample. One in five young people seeking help for mental health problems were not in any form of education, employment and training. The commonly observed risk factors did not appear to influence this association, instead, behavioural factors such as criminal offending and cannabis use appeared to require targeted intervention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Attitudes towards mental illness of nursing students in a Baccalaureate programme in Jamaica: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J; Stennett, R

    2015-10-01

    There is longstanding evidence of nurses demonstrating negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Student nurses' fear or discomfort with mentally ill patients results in poorer outcomes for patients and students' dissatisfaction with their experience of mental health nursing. There is evidence of negative attitudes towards mental illness in the Jamaican society; however, no studies have explored whether these attitudes are held by nursing students. The aim of the study was to examine the attitudes of nursing students towards mental illness. A questionnaire survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 143 third-year nursing students who were enrolled in a baccalaureate programme. Data were collected using the Attitudes Towards Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS). A response rate of 71% was achieved for the survey. The findings indicated that the student nurses held an overall negative attitude towards mental illness, with a general perception that mentally ill people are dangerous. The student nurses were divided in their opinions in a number of areas, suggesting a possible conflict of opinions. Negative attitudes towards mental illness impact client outcomes and the career choices made by nurses. This study provides baseline data within the Jamaican context that adds to the evidence on nursing students' attitude to mental illness. Further research is needed to explore whether nursing education and clinical experience enables student nurses in Jamaica to develop a more positive attitude towards mental illness and mental health nursing and whether cultural factors contribute to negative attitudes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  8. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  9. Mental Illness Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News & Events About Us Home > Health Information Share Statistics Research shows that mental illnesses are common in ... of mental illnesses, such as suicide and disability. Statistics Top ı cs Mental Illness Any Anxiety Disorder ...

  10. Women with knee osteoarthritis have more pain and poorer function than men, but similar physical activity prior to total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonelli Shalome M

    2011-11-01

    duration, pain catastrophizing, body mass index (BMI, and heat pain threshold; and (3 physical activity (average metabolic equivalent tasks (METS/day were BMI, age, Short-Form 36 (SF-36 Physical Function, Kellgren-Lawrence osteoarthritis grade, depression, and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS pain subscale. Conclusions Women continue to be as physically active as men prior to total knee replacement even though they have significantly more pain, greater pain sensitivity, poorer perceived function, and more impairment on specific functional tasks.

  11. MENTAL HEALTH: ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Muzdalifah M. Rahman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explain the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, describes the mental health of an Islamic perspective and describes how mental health recovery. The theory used is the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, and the concept of mental health perspective Islamic Psychology Writing is writing method using qualitative research methods. Mental health is avoiding an Islamic perspective of all symptoms, complaints and...

  12. Cognitive profile and mental health in adult phenylketonuria: A PKU-COBESO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahja, Rianne; Huijbregts, Stephan C J; de Sonneville, Leo M J; van der Meere, Jaap J; Legemaat, Amanda M; Bosch, Annet M; Hollak, Carla E M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Brouwers, Martijn C G J; Hofstede, Floris C; de Vries, Maaike C; Janssen, Mirian C H; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Langendonk, Janneke G; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2017-05-01

    Despite early dietary treatment phenylketonuria patients have lower IQ and poorer executive functions compared to healthy controls. Cognitive problems in phenylketonuria have often been associated with phenylalanine levels. The present study examined the cognitive profile and mental health in adult phenylketonuria, in relation to phenylalanine levels and tetrahydrobiopterin treatment. Fifty-seven early treated adult patients with phenylketonuria and 57 healthy matched controls (18-40 years) performed IQ subtests and executive function tests from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks. They also completed the Adult Self-Report on mental health problems. Analyses of variance were performed to examine group differences. Patients with phenylketonuria had normal IQs although lower than controls. They performed poorer on working memory, inhibitory control, and sustained attention tasks. Patients reported Depressive and Avoidant Personality problems more frequently. Specifically, patients with childhood and lifetime phenylalanine ≥360 μmol/L had poorer cognitive and mental health outcomes than controls. In a subset of patients, comparisons between patients on and off tetrahydrobiopterin showed that nontetrahydrobiopterin users (matched for childhood, pretreatment phenylalanine) were slower (on number of tasks) and reported more mental health problems. Adult patients had lower IQ and poorer executive functions than controls, resembling problems observed in younger patients with phenylketonuria, as well as more internalizing problems. Group differences and phenylalanine-outcome associations were smaller than those observed in younger populations. A subset of nontetrahydrobiopterin users, matched for childhood phenylalanine level, had a poorer outcome on some tests than tetrahydrobiopterin users, which might indicate an impact of tetrahydrobiopterin treatment beyond lowering phenylalanine. However, clinical relevance needs further investigation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. [Distant mental influence on living organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    This article reviews studies of distant mental influence on living organisms, including mental suggestions of sleeping and awakening, mental influence at long distances, mental interactions with remote biological systems, mental effects on physiological activity and the sense of being stared at. Significant effects of distant mental influence have been shown in several randomized controlled trials in humans, animals, plants, bacteria and cells in the laboratory. Although distant mental influence on living organisms appears to contradict our ordinary sense of reality and the laws defined by conventional science, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed effects; they include skeptical, signal transfer, field, multidimensional space/time and quantum mechanics hypotheses. In conclusion, as the progress of physics continues to expand our comprehension of reality, a rational explanation for distant mind-matter interaction will emerge and, as history has shown repeatedly, the supernatural events will evolve into paranormal and then, into normal ones, as the scientific frontiers expand.

  14. Male and female ecstasy users: differences in patterns of use, sleep quality and mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogeil, Rowan P; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Broadbear, Jillian H

    2013-09-01

    Ecstasy users report a number of adverse effects following use including mood and sleep disturbances. The present study examined differences in characteristics of ecstasy use (amount, frequency of use, reported harm resulting from use) between males and females and assessed relationships between ecstasy use, sleep quality and mental health outcomes. An online survey of 268 ecstasy users (54.1% male, 45.9% female) was conducted. Validated sleep instruments assessing sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness, as well as questionnaires regarding physical and mental health (measured using the short-form health survey 12 (SF-12) and details of drug use were included. Male ecstasy users reported taking larger amounts of ecstasy, but were not more frequent users compared to females. Female ecstasy users were more likely to report increased harm following ecstasy including: feelings of guilt and remorse; failing to do what was normally expected of them; and having been told by others to cut down their ecstasy use. There were interactions between amount and gender and frequency and gender in predicting use of sleep medication and daytime dysfunction. There was a positive correlation between poorer sleep quality and negative mood, although this relationship was not moderated by sex. There is a significant association between sleep quality and mood disturbance in ecstasy users suggesting that these negative outcomes are co-morbid. These findings have implications for the treatment and advice given to ecstasy users who are experiencing sleep and/or mood related complaints. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of a Nursing in Psychiatry Course on Students' Attitudes Toward Mental Health Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbanas, Goran; Bosnjak, Dina; Sabo, Tamara

    2018-03-01

    Negative attitudes toward patients with mental illnesses are not uncommon among health professionals, and lead to poorer quality and outcomes of care. Because attitudes are formed early in life, the current study aimed to investigate if teaching psychiatry in secondary school nursing students (i.e., adolescents) changes attitudes toward three prevalent psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression. A pilot quasi-experimental study was conducted with 51 fourth-year students in secondary nursing school who completed a questionnaire regarding attitudes toward these disorders on the first and last day of their Nursing in Psychiatry course. Results show that the stigma attached to all three disorders was significantly reduced after students completed the course. Students attached greater stigma to schizophrenia than PTSD, and to PTSD than depression, before and after the course. The study indicates that education in psychiatry helps reduce negative attitudes toward PTSD, schizophrenia, and depression. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 56(3), 45-51.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Barriers to effective diabetes management - a survey of people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kathleen; McBain, Hayley; Lamontagne-Godwin, Frederique; Chapman, Jacqui; Flood, Chris; Haddad, Mark; Jones, Julia; Simpson, Alan

    2018-06-01

    People with severe mental illnesses (SMI) such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and have poorer health outcomes than those with diabetes alone. To maintain good diabetes control, people with diabetes are advised to engage in several self-management behaviours. The aim of this study was to identify barriers or enablers of diabetes self-management experienced by people with SMI. Adults with type 2 diabetes and SMI were recruited through UK National Health Service organisations and mental health and diabetes charities. Participants completed an anonymous survey consisting of: Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA); CORE-10 measure of psychological distress; a measure of barriers and enablers of diabetes self-management based on the Theoretical Domains Framework; Diabetes UK care survey on receipt of 14 essential aspects of diabetes healthcare. To identify the strongest explanatory variables of SDSCA outcomes, significant variables (p consequences of diabetes self-management. Several aspects of diabetes healthcare and self-management are suboptimal in people with SMI. There is a need to improve diabetes self-management support for this population by integrating diabetes action plans into care planning and providing adequate psychological support to help people with SMI manage their diabetes.

  17. A Peer-Support and Mindfulness Program to Improve the Mental Health of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Fiona; Henning, Marcus; Hassed, Craig; Moyes, Simon A; Elley, C Raina

    2016-01-01

    evidence exists for effectiveness of peer support and mindfulness in other contexts, this exploratory study was not able to show a statistically significant effect. Future studies could consider using a longer training period for the peer leaders, as well as targeting the study population to those most likely to benefit such as those with poorer mental health, or using a more intensive intervention or larger sample size. A cluster randomized study design would also reduce the risk of contamination.

  18. PERFIL DEL MINI-MENTAL EN POLICONSUMIDORES DE 25 A 50 AÑOS DEL ÁREA METROPOLITANA DE LA CIUDAD DE BARRANQUILLA-COLOMBIA - PROFILE OF THE MINI-MENTAL POLICONSUMER FROM 25 TO 50 YEAR OF THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF THE CITY OF BARRANQUILLA-COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHAN ACOSTA LÓPEZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE is a widely used screening test for assessing mental status and cognitive decline in particular. Includes assessment of temporo-spatial orientation, immediate evocation, attention, calculation, evoking lazy, language (verbal description, reading, writing. The criteria in this instrument are highly sensitive to cognitive impairment. This study seeks to establish the significant differences in mental status among consumers poly (cases and nonusers (controls through a screening test in cognitive-behavioral scales to confirm and quantify a person’s mental state MMSE. Intentionally were selected 55 adults of both sexes aged 25 to 50 years grouped in 25 cases and 30 controls that met the inclusion criteria, a structured interview, medical and neurological evaluation, neuropsychological assessment that includes various tests that assessed cognitive functions, were administrated as the main finding indicates that the MMSE total score statistically separated the consumer poly (cases and nonusers (controls, gave a poorer score in those affected. An 32%consumers poly a totalof 30 points, while 16%had a score of 29 points in the scale, followed by 44%, poly consumerswith a score of 28 points, and finally in records obtained by 8% of consumers cop was 26 points. The case group showed greater disturbances in the areas that assess memory and attention.

  19. Mental Health Insurance Parity and Provider Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberstein, Ezra; Busch, Susan H

    2017-06-01

    Policymakers frequently mandate that employers or insurers provide insurance benefits deemed to be critical to individuals' well-being. However, in the presence of private market imperfections, mandates that increase demand for a service can lead to price increases for that service, without necessarily affecting the quantity being supplied. We test this idea empirically by looking at mental health parity mandates. This study evaluated whether implementation of parity laws was associated with changes in mental health provider wages. Quasi-experimental analysis of average wages by state and year for six mental health care-related occupations were considered: Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists; Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors; Marriage and Family Therapists; Mental Health Counselors; Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers; and Psychiatrists. Data from 1999-2013 were used to estimate the association between the implementation of state mental health parity laws and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and average mental health provider wages. Mental health parity laws were associated with a significant increase in mental health care provider wages controlling for changes in mental health provider wages in states not exposed to parity (3.5 percent [95% CI: 0.3%, 6.6%]; pwages. Health insurance benefit expansions may lead to increased prices for health services when the private market that supplies the service is imperfect or constrained. In the context of mental health parity, this work suggests that part of the value of expanding insurance benefits for mental health coverage was captured by providers. Given historically low wage levels of mental health providers, this increase may be a first step in bringing mental health provider wages in line with parallel health professions, potentially reducing turnover rates and improving treatment quality.

  20. Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar Naveed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. Methods We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and markers of ill health in adult subjects (n = 666 recruited from affluent and deprived areas. Classical and novel risk factors for chronic disease (lung function and atherosclerosis and for cognitive performance were assessed, and associations sought with early life variables including conditions in the parental home, family size and leg length. Results Associations were observed between father's occupation, childhood home status (owner-occupier; overcrowding and biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endothelial activation in adults (C reactive protein, interleukin 6, intercellular adhesion molecule; P P Conclusions Adverse levels of biomarkers of ill health in adults appear to be influenced by father's occupation and childhood home conditions. Chronic inflammation and endothelial activation may in part act as intermediary phenotypes in this complex relationship. Reducing the 'health divide' requires that these life course determinants are taken into account.

  1. Semantic and Phonological Loop Effects on Verbal Working Memory in Middle-Age Adults with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, Phyllis; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.

    2004-01-01

    Semantic and phonological loop effects on verbal working memory were examined among middle-age adults with Down syndrome and those with unspecified mental retardation in the context of Baddeley's working memory model. Recall was poorer for phonologically similar, semantically similar, and long words compared to recall of dissimilar short words.…

  2. Sexual Attraction and Trajectories of Mental Health and Substance Use during the Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Belinda L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minority youth have poorer health-related outcomes than their heterosexual peers. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in mental health and substance use increase, decrease, or remain the same during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Data are from Waves…

  3. Brain drain: a challenge to global mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeji, Bibilola D; Gureje, Oye

    2016-08-01

    The brain drain of medical professionals from lower-income to higher-income countries contributes to the current inequity that characterises access to mental healthcare by those in need across the world and hinders efforts to scale up mental health services in resource-constrained settings, especially in Nigeria and other West African countries. The migration of skilled workers is driven by a combination of the globalisation of the labour market and the ability of highly resourced countries to attract and retain specialists from poorer countries. If we are to ameliorate the worldwide shortage of mental health professionals, we need to find innovative ways of attracting young doctors into psychiatric training in all countries. We must also introduce measures to improve health worker retention in low- and middle-income countries.

  4. Physical and mental decline and yet rather happy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Sonja; Thinggaard, Mikael; Jeune, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about whether the feeling of happiness follows the age-related decline in physical and mental functioning. The objective of this study was to analyze differences with age in physical and mental functions and in the feeling of happiness among Danes aged 45 years and older......-reported mobility, a cognitive composite score, and a depression symptomatology score including a question about happiness were assessed. T-score metric was used to compare across domains and age groups. Results: Overall, successively older age groups performed worse than the youngest age group (45-49 years.......9), and the total depression symptomatology score (men: 15.5, women: 17.4). Conversely, the T-score difference in happiness was small (men: 5.6, women: 6.0). Conclusion: Despite markedly poorer physical and mental functions with increasing age, in this Danish sample age did not seem to affect happiness...

  5. Eating patterns and mental health problems in early adolescence--a cross-sectional study of 12-13-year-old Norwegian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellingrath, Inger M; Svendsen, Martin V; Hestetun, Ingebjørg

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the association between eating patterns and mental health problems in young Norwegian adolescents (12-13 years of age). Cross-sectional study. Dietary information was reported by parents using a retrospective FFQ. Eating patterns were identified using principal component analysis. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure mental health problems. The association between eating patterns and mental health problems was examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Primary schools, Telemark County, Norway. Children (n 1095) aged 12-13 years and their parents. Children with high scores on a 'varied Norwegian' eating pattern were less likely to have indications of any psychiatric disorders (adjusted OR = 0·5; 95 % CI 0·3, 1·0) and hyperactivity-inattention disorders (adjusted OR = 0·4; 95 % CI 0·2, 0·8) than children with low scores on this pattern. Children with high scores on a 'junk/convenient' eating pattern were more likely to have indications of hyperactivity-inattention disorders (adjusted OR = 3·4; 95 % CI 1·3, 8·6) than children with low scores on this pattern. Children with high scores on a 'snacking' eating pattern were more likely to have indications of conduct/oppositional disorders (adjusted OR = 3·8; 95 % CI 1·2, 11·5) than those with low scores on this eating pattern. We identified a significant association between eating patterns and mental health problems in young adolescents, independently of physical activity, sedentary activity and background variables. A diverse diet rich in unrefined plant foods, fish and regular meals was associated with better mental health, while energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets and irregular meals were associated with poorer mental health.

  6. Mental Health Professionals' Attitudes Toward Offenders With Mental Illness (Insanity Acquittees) in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjorlolo, Samuel; Abdul-Nasiru, Inusah; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Bambi, Laryea Efua

    2018-02-01

    Mental health professionals' attitudes toward offenders with mental illness have significant implications for the quality of care and treatment rendered, making it imperative for these professionals to be aware of their attitudes. Yet, this topical issue has received little research attention. Consequently, the present study investigates attitudes toward offenders with mental illness (insanity acquittees) in a sample of 113 registered mental health nurses in Ghana. Using a cross-sectional survey and self-report methodology, the participants respond to measures of attitudes toward offenders with mental illness, attitudes toward mental illness, conviction proneness, and criminal blameworthiness. The results show that mental health nurses who reportedly practiced for a longer duration (6 years and above) were more likely to be unsympathetic, while the male nurses who were aged 30 years and above were more likely to hold offenders with mental illness strictly liable for their offenses. Importantly, the nurses' scores in conviction proneness and criminal blameworthiness significantly predict negative attitudes toward the offenders even after controlling for their attitudes toward mental illness. Yet, when the nurses' conviction proneness and criminal blameworthiness were held constant, their attitudes toward mental illness failed to predict attitudes toward the offenders. This initial finding implies that the nurses' views regarding criminal blameworthiness and conviction may be more influential in understanding their attitudes toward offenders with mental illness relative to their attitudes toward mental illness.

  7. Employment insecurity and mental health during the economic recession: An analysis of the young adult labour force in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Francesca; Rinesi, Francesca; Spizzichino, Daniele; Di Giorgio, Ginevra

    2016-03-01

    A growing body of scientific literature highlights the negative consequences of employment insecurity on several life domains. This study focuses on the young adult labour force in Italy, investigating the relationship between employment insecurity and mental health and whether this has changed after years of economic downturn. It enhances understanding by addressing differences in mental health according to several employment characteristics; and by exploring the role of respondents' economic situation and educational level. Data from a large-scale, nationally representative health survey are used to estimate the relationship between employment insecurity and the Mental Health Inventory (MHI), by means of multiple linear regressions. The study demonstrates that employment insecurity is associated with poorer mental health. Moreover, neither temporary workers nor unemployed individuals are a homogeneous group. Previous job experience is important in differentiating the mental health risks of unemployed individuals; and the effects on mental health vary according to occupational status and to the amount of time spent in a condition of insecurity. Further, the experience of financial difficulties partly explains the relationship between employment insecurity and mental health; and different mental health outcomes depend on respondents' educational level. Lastly, the risks of reporting poorer mental health were higher in 2013 than in 2005. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential Aging Trajectories of Modulation of Activation to Cognitive Challenge in APOE ε4 Groups: Reduced Modulation Predicts Poorer Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Chris M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Rodrigue, Karen M

    2017-07-19

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), ApolipoproteinE ε4 (APOEε4), on the ability of the brain to modulate activation in response to cognitive challenge in a lifespan sample of healthy human adults. A community-based sample of 181 cognitively intact, healthy adults were recruited from the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. Thirty-one APOEε4+ individuals (48% women), derived from the parent sample, were matched based on sex, age, and years of education to 31 individuals who were APOEε4-negative (APOEε4-). Ages ranged from 20 to 86 years of age. Blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging was collected during the performance of a visuospatial distance judgment task with three parametric levels of difficulty. Multiple regression was used in a whole-brain analysis with age, APOE group, and their interaction predicting functional brain modulation in response to difficulty. Results revealed an interaction between age and APOE in a large cluster localized primarily to the bilateral precuneus. APOEε4- individuals exhibited age-invariant modulation in response to task difficulty, whereas APOEε4+ individuals showed age-related reduction of modulation in response to increasing task difficulty compared with ε4- individuals. Decreased modulation in response to cognitive challenge was associated with reduced task accuracy as well as poorer name-face associative memory performance. Findings suggest that APOEε4 is associated with a reduction in the ability of the brain to dynamically modulate in response to cognitive challenge. Coupled with a significant genetic risk factor for AD, changes in modulation may provide additional information toward identifying individuals potentially at risk for cognitive decline associated with preclinical AD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding how risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) affect brain function and cognition in healthy adult samples

  9. Landless female peasants living in resettlement residential areas in China have poorer quality of life than males: results from a household study in the Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Li, Shuqin

    2014-05-15

    Urbanization has accelerated in China, and a large amount of arable land has been transformed into urban land. Moreover, the number of landless peasants has continually increased. Peasants lose not only their land, but also a series of rights and interests related with land. The problems of landless peasants have been long-standing; however, only a few studies have examined their health or quality of life (QOL). This paper assesses the QOL of landless peasants in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, analyzes gender differences, and explores health inequity. Data are derived from household samples in six resettlement residential areas of three cities (Nanjing, Hangzhou, and Yangzhou) in the YRD region (N = 1,500; the effective rate = 82.4%). This study uses the short version of World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) scale to measure the QOL of landless peasants, and performs confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and analyze gender differences in QOL on the basis of CFA. First, we use Analysis of Variance and Non-parametric Tests to test if the differences of mean value of testing generals have statistical significances. Results shows significant differences occur between the impacts of different genders on the four domains of QOL (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment). The internal reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF scale is good (Cronbach's alpha > 0.8), and the four domains of QOL are connected with each other. Second, scores in each QOL domain are commonly low, whereas the scores of females are much lower, indicating a poorer QOL than that of males. Third, results of the CFA of the QOL domains and their related observed variables indicate a good model fit. Fourth, results imply that the order of importance of the four domains (psychological health (males = 26.74%, females = 27.17%); social relationships (males = 26.23%, females = 25.35%); environment (males = 25

  10. Clinical Study of Mental Health Status and Personality in Patients with Cirrhosis%50例肝硬化患者心理问题的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志霞; 郭克峰; 郎红娟

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To study mental health status and personality of patients with cirrhosis, for examining the role of psychological factors in the genesis and development of the illness.Methods: Mental health status and personality of patients with cirrhosis were assessed by Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90)and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Results: Except for Interpersonal Sensitivity (IS) and Psychosis (P), factor scores of SCL were found to be significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis when compared to controls (P<0.01), especially for Somatization (S), Obsessive-Compulsion (OC), Anxiety (A) and Depression (D). Neuroticism score of EPQ in patients with cirrhosis were also significantly higher than that in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Mental health status of patients with cirrhosis was shown to be poor, as characterized by greater emotional distress and poorer regulatory control over environmental stress. The higher Neuroticism score of EPQ indicated higher levels of emotional instability and mental irritability among patients with cirrhosis, which should be addressed by appropriate psychological interventions for better clinical outcomes.

  11. The effect of housing on the mental health of older people: the impact of lifetime housing history in Whitehall II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This study describes differences in trajectories of self-reported mental health in an ageing cohort, according to their housing, while controlling for confounders. Methods The General Health Questionnaire was measured on six occasions as part of Whitehall II cohort study of office-based British civil servants (1985-2009); 10,308 men and women aged 35-55 at baseline. Results Home-ownership was the predominant tenure at baseline and increased over the life-course, but the social gradient remained. In the bivariate analysis, by phase nine, renters had higher (poorer mental health) GHQ scores (55.48) than owner occupiers (51.98). Those who reported difficulty paying bills or problems with housing had higher GHQ scores at baseline (financial difficulties 57.70 vs 54.34; house problems 58.06 vs 53.99) and this relative difference increased by phase nine (financial difficulties 59.64 vs 51.67; house problems 56.68 vs 51.22). In multivariate models, the relative differences in GHQ scores by tenure increased with age, but were no longer significant after adjusting for confounders. Whereas GHQ scores for those with housing problems and financial difficulties were still significantly higher as participants grew older. Conclusion The social gradient in the effect of home ownership on mental health, which is evident at baseline, diminishes as people get older, whereas housing quality and financial problems become relatively more important in explaining older people's health. Inequalities in housing quality and ability to deal with household financial problems will become increasingly important mental health issues as the population ages. PMID:21884619

  12. Latino Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Do Mental Health Conditions Affect the Latino Community? Common mental health disorders among Latinos are generalized anxiety disorder , major ... quality care. Lack of Information and Misunderstanding about Mental Health Overall, the Latino community does not talk about mental health issues. There ...

  13. Mental health of Chinese primary care patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Edmond P H; Lam, Cindy L K; Chin, Weng Yee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental health of Chinese primary care patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This was a cross-sectional observational study. Five hundred and nineteen subjects with LUTS completed a structured questionnaire containing the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-Short Form, the International Prostate Symptom Score, the adapted International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form and questions about socio-demographics. Overall, 17.7% of subjects reported depressive symptoms, 24.3% anxiety symptoms and 9.6% stress symptoms. In males, demographic factors associated with poorer mental health included being not married; clinical factors included higher LUTS severity, weak stream, straining and mixed urinary incontinence. In females, demographic factors associated with poorer mental health included being younger, not married and lower household income; clinical factors included higher LUTS severity, incomplete bladder emptying, urgency and weak stream. Chinese primary care patients with LUTS appear to be an at-risk group for poorer mental health with increased prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and may require routine screening to identify those who may require more tailored interventions to address both their urinary symptoms and psychological distress.

  14. Utilization of Mental Health Services and Mental Health Status Among Children Placed in Out-of-Home Care: A Parallel Process Latent Growth Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Sharrock, Patty J; Clark, Colleen; Hanson, Ardis

    2017-10-01

    This longitudinal study examined the parallel trajectories of mental health service use and mental health status among children placed in Florida out-of-home care. The results of growth curve modeling suggested that children with greater mental health problems initially received more mental health services. Initial child mental health status, however, had no effect on subsequent service provision when all outpatient mental health services were included. When specific types of mental health services, such as basic outpatient, targeted case management, and intensive mental health services were examined, results suggested that children with compromised functioning during the baseline period received more intensive mental health services over time. However, this increased provision of intensive mental health services did not improve mental health status, rather it was significantly associated with progressively worse mental health functioning. These findings underscore the need for regular comprehensive mental health assessments focusing on specific needs of the child.

  15. The Significance of the Nursery School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    From the standpoint of mental health and perhaps even from the standpoint of human culture, the complete realization of the educational possibilities of the preschool child is of foundational significance. Normative and comparative studies performed at a psychological clinic at Yale examining norms of development in children from one month to five…

  16. Mental kontroll under prestasjoner

    OpenAIRE

    Egeland, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Mental control in a performance setting was examined based on the theory of ironic processes (Wegner, 1994). The theory of ironic processes argues that attempted mental control can result in intentional or ironic effects. According to the theory, the outcome of mental control is mediated by (a) mental load, (b) concentration and suppression strategies, and (c) learning. These hypotheses were examined by reviewing research related to mental control in a performance setting. This...

  17. How does maternal oxytocin influence children's mental health problem and maternal mental health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wai S; Siu, Angela F Y; Wong, Tracy K Y

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to explore the interrelationship among maternal oxytocin (OT) responsiveness, maternal mental health, maternal parenting behavior, and mental health of children under a free-play interaction. 61 mother-child dyads were recruited for the study. Maternal mental health problem and parenting self-efficacy were measured using self-reported questionnaires. The mental health problems of children were also evaluated using a mother-reported questionnaire. Furthermore, salivary OT was collected before and after a standardized 10min free-play interaction. Parenting behaviors, including eye gaze and touch, were measured during the free-play interaction. Maternal OT responsiveness was significantly associated with less maternal mental health problem, touch frequency, and mental health problem of children but not with parenting self-efficacy. In the multivariate linear regression analysis that considers maternal OT responsiveness and maternal and children's mental health problems, maternal OT responsiveness was not associated with the mental health problems of children. This result suggested that maternal mental health problem played a mediational role between maternal OT responsiveness and the mental health problem of children. Results supported the assertion that maternal OT responsiveness contributed to the increased risk of maternal mental health problems and, subsequently, the risk of mental health problems of their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Circulating CD8+CD28- suppressor T cells tied to poorer prognosis among metastatic breast cancer patients receiving adoptive T-cell therapy: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingkun; Ren, Jun; Zhou, Xinna; Wang, Xiaoli; Song, Guohong; Hobeika, Amy; Yuan, Yanhua; Lyerly, Herbert Kim

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of circulating CD8 + CD28 - T lymphocytes among breast cancer patients treated with adoptive T-lymphocyte immunotherapy after chemotherapy. Two hundred and thirty-two breast cancer patients underwent adoptive T-cell immunotherapy. Circulating CD8 + CD28 - proportion was measured by flow cytometry. Median proportion of CD8 + CD28 - was 24.2% and set as the categorical cutoff value for further analysis. The median survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier curve, with difference detection and hazard ratio estimation by log-rank test and Cox hazard proportion regression model. With adoptive T-cell therapy, patients with higher CD8 + CD28 - levels experienced median progression-free and overall survival of 7.1 months and 26.9 months, respectively-significantly shorter than patients with lower levels (11.8 and 36.2 months). CD8 + CD28 - proportion >24.2% demonstrated a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-3.12) for progression and an HR of 1.97 (95% CI 1.06-3.67) for death. Among patients who had received previous first-line chemotherapy, CD8 + CD28 - proportion >24.2% demonstrated an HR of 2.66 (95% CI 1.45-4.88) for progression. Among patients exposed to previous second-line or higher chemotherapy, CD8 + CD28 - proportion >24.2% demonstrated a 486% higher risk for death (HR = 5.86, 95% CI 1.77-19.39). A 1% increase in suppressive T cells was associated with a 5% increased risk of death. Elevated peripheral blood CD8 + CD28 - was associated with poorer prognosis for metastatic breast cancer, especially for higher risk of progression among patients with first-line chemotherapy and higher risk of death among patients with more than second-line chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of community mental health services in supporting oral health outcomes among consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Rebecca; Ho, Hillary; Satur, Julie

    2018-04-16

    People with a lived experience of mental illness are at a higher risk for developing oral diseases and having poorer oral health than the broader population. This paper explores the role of Australian community mental health services in supporting the prevention and management of poor oral health among people living with mental illness. Through focus groups and semi-structured interviews, participants identified the value of receiving oral health support within a community mental health setting, in particular the delivery of basic education, preventive strategies, assistance with making or attending appointments and obtaining priority access to oral health services. Engagement with Community Health Services and referrals generated through the priority access system were identified as key enablers to addressing oral health issues. This study provides new insight into the importance of undertaking an integrated approach to reducing the oral health disparities experienced by those living with mental illness.

  20. Risk factors for common mental disorders in women. Population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Kirkwood, Betty R; Pednekar, Sulochana; Weiss, Helen; Mabey, David

    2006-12-01

    The determinants of common mental disorders in women have not been described in longitudinal studies from a low-income country. Population-based cohort study of 2494 women aged 18 to 50 years, in India. The Revised Clinical Interview Schedule was used for the detection of common mental disorders. There were 39 incident cases of common mental disorder in 2166 participants eligible for analysis (12-month rate 1.8%, 95% CI 1.3-2.4%). The following baseline factors were independently associated with the risk for common mental disorder: poverty (low income and having difficulty making ends meet); being married as compared with being single; use of tobacco; experiencing abnormal vaginal discharge; reporting a chronic physical illness; and having higher psychological symptom scores at baseline. Programmes to reduce the burden of common mental disorder in women should target poorer women, women with chronic physical illness and who have gynaecological symptoms, and women who use tobacco.

  1. Neurophysiological Correlates of Various Mental Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo eHinterberger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A common view of consciousness is that our mind presents emotions, experiences and images in an internal mental (re-presentation space which in a state of wakefulness is triggered by the world outside. Consciousness can be defined as the observation of this inner mental space. We propose a new model, in which the state of the conscious observer is defined by the observer’s mental position and focus of attention. The mental position of the observer can either be within the mental self (intrapersonal space, in the mental outer world (extrapersonal space or in an empathic connection, i.e. within the intrapersonal space of another person (perspective taking. The focus of attention can be directed towards the self or towards the outside world. This mental space model can help us to understand the patterns of relationships and interactions with other persons as they occur in social life.To investigate the neurophysiological correlates and discriminability of the different mental states, we conducted an EEG experiment measuring the brain activity of 16 subjects via 64 electrodes while they engaged in different mental positions (intrapersonal, extrapersonal, perspective taking with different attentional foci (self, object. Compared to external mental locations, internal ones showed significantly increased alpha2 power, especially when the observer was focusing on an object. Alpha2 and beta2 were increased in the empathic condition compared to the extrapersonal perspective. Delta power was significantly higher when the attentional focus was directed towards an object in comparison to the participant’s own self. This exploratory study demonstrates highly significant differences between various mental locations and foci, suggesting that the proposed categories of mental location and intra- and interpersonal attentional foci are not only helpful theoretical concepts but are also physiologically relevant and therefore may relate to basic brain processing

  2. Racial Differences in Mental Health Recovery among Veterans with Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mana K; Hack, Samantha M; Brown, Clayton H; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Lijuan; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Park, Stephanie G; Dixon, Lisa B; Kreyenbuhl, Julie A

    2018-04-01

    Black consumers with serious mental illness (SMI) face significant challenges in obtaining quality mental health care and are at risk for experiencing significant disparities in mental health care outcomes, including recovery from mental illness. Patient-provider interactions may partly contribute to this disparity. The purpose of the current study was to understand the effects of race, psychosis, and therapeutic alliance on mental health recovery orientation among Veterans with SMI. Participants were Veterans who had an SMI being treated at two Veteran Affairs outpatient mental health clinics by a psychiatrist or nurse practitioner. Participants completed the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-24), Mental Health Recovery Measure, and patient-report Scale to Assess the Therapeutic Relationship (STAR-P) which includes three subscales: positive collaboration, positive clinician input, and non-supportive clinician input. Regression analyses were used to determine interactive effects of race, psychosis severity, and therapeutic alliance variables. The sample was 226 Veterans (50% black, 50% white). Black participants were slightly older (p mental health recovery (p mental health recovery orientation for black participants. Conversely, for white participants, positive collaboration had little effect on the negative relationship between psychosis severity and mental health recovery orientation. Increased levels of psychosis may inhibit patients' perceptions of their ability to recover from SMI. However, for black participants, positive collaboration with mental health providers may moderate the effects of psychotic symptomatology.

  3. The association between role overload and women's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Keva; Maclean, Heather; Forte, Tonia; Cohen, Marsha

    2009-02-01

    To determine the importance of role overload (the extent to which a person feels overwhelmed by her total responsibilities) relative to other known social determinants of women's mental health. A Canadian national, random sample, cross-sectional telephone survey in 2003 assessed the association among role overload, types and quality of roles (parent, employee, spouse), sociodemographics, and mental health (using the SF-12) using linear regression. Analysis included 716 women aged 25-54 who indicated that their youngest child living in the household was aged < or =17 years. Perceptions of greater role overload were associated with poorer mental health (p < 0.0001). Women working <35 hours per week (p = 0.04) or 35-40 hours per week (p 5 0.002) reported better mental health than nonemployed women, as did women with the highest annual household income ($70,000+)(p = 0.001). Also associated with better mental health were higher marital status quality scores for both married and single women (p < 0.001), higher job quality scores among employed women (p = 0.02), greater homemaking quality scores among unemployed women (p = 0.03), and women reporting high parental quality (p = 0.04) Role overload showed a stronger relationship to mental health than other sociodemographic variables, including income. Our findings indicate the importance of measuring women's experience of their multiple roles rather than focusing on single roles. More research is warranted on the totality of women's experiences of their many social role obligations.

  4. Mental toughness latent profiles in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Joanna S; Zeiger, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    Mental toughness in endurance athletes, while an important factor for success, has been scarcely studied. An online survey was used to examine eight mental toughness factors in endurance athletes. The study aim was to determine mental toughness profiles via latent profile analysis in endurance athletes and whether associations exist between the latent profiles and demographics and sports characteristics. Endurance athletes >18 years of age were recruited via social media outlets (n = 1245, 53% female). Mental toughness was measured using the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ), Psychological Performance Inventory-Alternative (PPI-A), and self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). A three-class solution emerged, designated as high mental toughness (High MT), moderate mental toughness (Moderate MT) and low mental toughness (Low MT). ANOVA tests showed significant differences between all three classes on all 8 factors derived from the SMTQ, PPI-A and the RSE. There was an increased odds of being in the High MT class compared to the Low MT class for males (OR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.39, 2.83; Pathletes who were over 55 compared to those who were 18-34 (OR = 2.52; 95% CI, 1.37, 4.62; Pathletes. High MT is associated with demographics and sports characteristics. Mental toughness screening in athletes may help direct practitioners with mental skills training.

  5. Do South Asian women with PCOS have poorer health-related quality of life than Caucasian women with PCOS? A comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common chronic endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the HRQoL of South Asian and white Caucasian women with PCOS, given that it is particularly common among women of South Asian origin and they have been shown to have more severe symptoms. Methods The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ and the Short Form-36 (SF-36 were administered in a cross-sectional survey to 42 South Asian and 129 Caucasian women diagnosed with PCOS recruited from the gynaecology outpatient clinics of two university teaching hospitals in Sheffield and Leeds. Additional clinical data was abstracted from medical notes. Normative data, collected as part of the Oxford Health and Lifestyles II survey, was obtained to compare SF-36 results with ethnically matched women from the general UK population. Using the SF-36, normative HRQoL scores for women of South Asian origin were lower than for Caucasian women. Given this lower baseline we tested whether the same relationship holds true among those with PCOS. Results Although HRQoL scores for women with PCOS were lower than normative data for both groups, South Asian women with PCOS did not have poorer HRQoL than their Caucasian counterparts. For both the SF-36 and PCOSQ, mean scores were broadly the same for both Asian and Caucasian women. For both groups, the worst two HRQoL domains as measured on the PCOSQ were 'infertility' and 'weight', with respective scores of 35.3 and 42.3 for Asian women with PCOS compared to 38.6 and 35.4 for Caucasian women with PCOS. The highest scoring domain for South Asian women with PCOS was 'menstrual problems' (55.3, indicating best health, and was the only statistically significant difference from Caucasian women (p = 0.01. On the SF-36, the lowest scoring domain was 'Energy & Vitality' for Caucasian women with PCOS, but this was significantly higher for Asian women with PCOS (p

  6. Copenhagen infant mental health project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  7. Twins conceived using assisted reproduction: parent mental health, family relationships and child adjustment at middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kayla N; Koh, Bibiana D; Connor, Jennifer J; Koerner, Ascan F; Damario, Mark; Rueter, Martha A

    2014-10-10

    Compared with singletons, what is the parent mental health, parent-child and couple relationship satisfaction, and child adjustment of 6- to 12-year-old assisted reproduction technology (ART) twins and their families? There are no differences between 6- and 12-year-old ART twin and singleton families in parent mental health or family relationships; however, twins had significantly fewer behavior and attention problems than singletons in middle childhood. When ART twins are younger than 5 years old, parents have more mental health difficulties and poorer parent-child relationship quality, and no differences have been found in ART twin and singletons' psychosocial adjustment. However, studies have only examined the implications of ART twin status in families with infant and toddler aged children. A cross-sectional study of 300 6-12-year-old ART children (n = 124 twins and n = 176 singletons) from 206 families at a reproductive endocrinology clinic in the USA. Patients from one clinic with a child born between 1998 and 2004 were invited to participate in an online survey (82% recruitment rate). Participants provided information on each 6- to 12-year-old ART child in the family, and responded to questions on parent mental health, family relationships and child adjustment. There were no differences in parent mental health or family relationships in families with 6- to 12-year-old ART twins versus singletons. However, twins (M = 2.40, SE = 0.35) had significantly fewer behavior problems than singletons (M = 3.47, SE = 0.36; F(1, 201) = 4.54, b = 1.08, P difficulties and lower parent-child relationship quality than singleton families. This study indicates the negative effects of twin status may have ameliorated by middle childhood, and twins may even have more optimum psychosocial adjustment than singletons in this developmental period. This research is based on a collaborative research effort supported by University of Minnesota Agriculture Experiment Station Project

  8. Mental Health Status of Double Minority Adolescents: Findings from National Cross-Sectional Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Szu-Ying; Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs; Fenaughty, John; Clark, Terryann; Denny, Simon

    2017-06-01

    Little population-based work has been published about the mental health of adolescents with both sexual/gender (SG) and ethnic minority (i.e. double minority) status. This study aimed to provide an overview on their mental health. Analysis of data from a total of 17,607 high school students from New Zealand's 2007 and 2012 cross-sectional nationally representative Adolescent Health Surveys, including a total of 1306 (7.4%) SG minority participants, of whom 581 (3.3%) were also an ethnic minority. SG minority status, minority ethnicity, and female sex were associated with higher mental distress and poorer well-being. Generally speaking, double minority students reported poorer mental health than SG majority students of the same ethnicity, but reported better mental health than SG minority New Zealand European students. Explanations and future directions for research were suggested to further explore how double minority students negotiate mental health in the context of their communities/cultures in New Zealand.

  9. Anatomical Position of Mental foramen: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinit Aher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental foramen is a key factor in many of the surgical as well as clinical procedures in routine clinical practice. The variations of mental foramen with respect to position, size and number dose significantly alter the clinical implications of various intraoral treatments. The accurate knowledge of the mental nerve and its position helps the clinician for delivering local anesthesia effectively also placement of implants and dentures intraorally to replace missing teeth is important in prosthetic point of view. While doing the surgical procedures in this region the position of mental nerve and its foramen is of importance to avoid intraoperative neurovascular damage and to avoid postoperative neurosensory disturbances. The ethnic and racial variations are seen in the position of mental foramen, although a gender variation in same population has not been seen. Thus the knowledge of the position of mental nerve is important for day to day clinical practice of dentistry.

  10. [Mental disease as disturbance of essential functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramme, T

    2015-01-01

    The article defends an interpretation of mental illness as mental dysfunction. It develops a concept in line with the naturalistic viewpoint in the philosophy of medicine. The concept of mental function is scrutinized. Functions are regarded as effects of traits that enable an organism to live independently. The significance of this theoretical perspective for the psychiatric practice is discussed. Finally, the developed conceptualization is compared to the current edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM). It is emphasized that the theoretical conceptualization of mental disorder determines what may justifiably and in a scientifically valid way be deemed a disease entity. Nevertheless, the practical perspective needs an additional element of individual well-being as not every mental dysfunction involves impairment in this respect. It is claimed that the DSM takes a perspective similar to the one defended in this article.

  11. Differential mental health impact of cancer across racial/ethnic groups: findings from a population-based study in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Héctor E

    2014-09-08

    Little research has examined the interactive effect of cancer status and race/ethnicity on mental health. As such, the present study examined the mental health of adults, 18 and over, diagnosed with cancer. This study examined the extent to which a cancer diagnosis is related to poorer mental health because it erodes finances and the extent to which the mental health impact of cancer differs across racial/ethnic groups. Furthermore, this study aimed to test the stress process model, which posits that the proliferation of stress can lead to mental illness and this process can differ across racial/ethnic groups. Data from the 2005 Adult California Health Interview Survey was used (N = 42,879). The Kessler 6, a validated measure of psychological distress, was used to measure mental health, with higher scores suggesting poorer mental health. Scores on the Kessler 6 ranged from 0 to 24. Linear regression models estimating psychological distress tested each aim. The mediating effect of income and the race by cancer interaction were tested. After controlling for gender, age, insurance status, education and race/ethnicity, cancer was associated with higher Kessler 6 scores. About 6% of this effect was mediated by household income (t = 4.547; SE = 0.011; p groups. Future work should explore reasons for these disparities. Efforts to increase access to mental health services among minorities with cancer are needed.

  12. Vulnerability and mental health in Afghanistan: looking beyond war exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Jean-François; Bakhshi, Parul

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the prevalence of mental distress among groups in Afghanistan considered to be at risk. Data were drawn from a representative cross-sectional disability survey carried out in Afghanistan including 5,130 households in 171 clusters throughout the 34 provinces of the country. The sample included 838 nondisabled control participants aged above 14, and 675 disabled participants. Results showed that various vulnerable groups (disabled people, the unemployed, the elderly, minority ethnic groups, as well as widowed, divorced or separated women) were at higher risk of experiencing mild to severe mental health problems. The adjusted odds ratio for war-related disability compared to nondisabled was 4.09 (95% confidence interval 2.09 to 7.99) for mild mental distress disorders, and 7.10 (3.45-14.5) and 14.14 (3.38-59.00) for moderate or severe mental distress disorders, respectively. Women with disabilities (whatever the cause of impairment) when compared with nondisabled men, as well as poorer segments of society compared to the richest, had a higher prevalence of mental health problems. Women with non-war-related disabilities compared with nondisabled men were respectively 3.35 (1.27-8.81) and 8.57 (3.03-24.1) times more likely to experience mild or moderate mental distress disorders. People who experience multiple vulnerabilities are more at risk of deteriorating mental health in conflict zones. The study shows that mental health, in times of war, is influenced by a combination of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics linked to social exclusion mechanisms that were in place before the conflict began and that are redefined in relation to the changing social, cultural, and economic contexts. Mental health policies and programmes must prioritise the most vulnerable segments of Afghan society.

  13. Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Australian culturally and linguistically diverse communities: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2015-04-18

    Racial discrimination denies those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds access to rights such as the ability to participate equally and freely in community and public life, equitable service provision and freedom from violence. Our study was designed to examine how people from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds in four Australian localities experience and respond to racial discrimination, as well as associated health impacts. Data were collected from 1,139 Australians regarding types of racial discrimination experienced, settings for these incidents, response mechanisms and psychological distress as measured by the Kessler 6 (K6) Psychological Distress Scale. Age, education, religion, gender, visibility and rurality were all significantly associated with differences in the frequency of experiencing racial discrimination. Experiencing racial discrimination was associated with worse mental health. Mental health impacts were not associated with the type of discriminatory experience, but experiencing racial discrimination in shops and in employment and government settings was associated with being above the threshold for high or very high psychological distress. One out of twelve response mechanisms was found to be associated with lower stress following a discriminatory incident. Study results indicate that poorer mental health was associated with the volume of discrimination experienced, rather than the type of experience. However, the impact of experiencing discrimination in some settings was shown to be particularly associated with high or very high psychological distress. Our findings suggest that interventions designed to prevent the occurrence of racism have more potential to increase mental health in racial and ethnic minority communities than interventions that work with individuals in response to experiencing racism.

  14. On the nature of the mental image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Wiel

    1976-01-01

    The present study investigates the nature of the so-called visual mental image. Specifically it is examined to what degree there is a correspondence between the structures of visual images and visual percepts. After introducing the general problem in Chapter 1 the functional significance of mental

  15. Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…

  16. Social Work Faculty and Mental Illness Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.; Fulambarker, Anjali; Kondrat, David C.; Holley, Lynn C.; Kranke, Derrick; Wilkins, Brittany T.; Stromwall, Layne K.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2017-01-01

    Stigma is a significant barrier to recovery and full community inclusion for people with mental illnesses. Social work educators can play critical roles in addressing this stigma, yet little is known about their attitudes. Social work educators were surveyed about their general attitudes about people with mental illnesses, attitudes about practice…

  17. The intergenerational consequences of war: anxiety, depression, suicidality, and mental health among the children of war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Walter; Edwards, Ben; Daraganova, Galina

    2018-03-24

    The long-term effects of military deployment on the mental health of war veterans have been investigated extensively, but few studies have examined the long-term impact of parental deployment on children's mental health. Using a retrospective, multigenerational survey and propensity score analysis to adjust for selection effects and endogeneity bias, we investigated the impact of parental deployment on the mental health of the adult children of Australian veterans of the Vietnam War. We analysed data from 1966 adult men (35%) and women (65%) whose fathers (N = 1418) were selected at random from the population of surviving men who served in the Australian army during the Vietnam War (1962-75). Mean age of respondents was 37. The main outcome measures were self-reported diagnosis or treatment for anxiety and depression (i.e. lifetime and previous 12 months), suicidality based on Psychiatric Symptom Frequency Scale, and current mental health as measured by the Mental Health Inventory of the SF-36. The key independent variable was whether their fathers were deployed to the Vietnam War. Almost 40 years after the war, the adult children of deployed veterans were more likely to have been diagnosed with anxiety [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54, confidence interval (CI) = 1.04, 2.28] and depression (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.03, 3.05), to have had thoughts of suicide and self-harm (OR = 2.39, CI = 1.57, 3.65) and to have made suicidal plans (OR = 3.52, CI = 1.40, 8.85) than the offspring of comparable, non-deployed army veterans. They also reported poorer current mental health (Coefficient = -5.08, CI = -6.60 - -3.56). The results imply that there are significant and enduring adverse effects of parental deployment on the mental health of children in military families, and provide some insight into the potential long-term impacts of recent military engagements in Afghanistan and Iraq.

  18. Loneliness is adversely associated with physical and mental health and lifestyle factors: Results from a Swiss national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Vandeleur, Caroline L.; Schmid, Margareta; Barth, Jürgen; Eichholzer, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Loneliness is a common, emotionally distressing experience and is associated with adverse physical and mental health and an unhealthy lifestyle. Nevertheless, little is known about the prevalence of loneliness in different age groups in Switzerland. Furthermore, the existing evidence about age and gender as potential effect modifiers of the associations between loneliness, physical and mental health and lifestyle characteristics warrants further investigation. Thus, the aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of loneliness among adults in Switzerland and to assess the associations of loneliness with several physical and mental health and behavioral factors, as well as to assess the modifying effect of sex and age. Methods Data from 20,007 participants of the cross-sectional population-based Swiss Health Survey 2012 (SHS) were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations of loneliness with physical and mental health or lifestyle characteristics (e.g. diabetes, depression, physical activity). Wald tests were used to test for interactions. Results Loneliness was distributed in a slight U-shaped form from 15 to 75+ year olds, with 64.1% of participants who had never felt lonely. Lonely individuals were more often affected by physical and mental health problems, such as self-reported chronic diseases (Odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30–1.54), high cholesterol levels (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.18–1.45), diabetes (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.16–1.67), moderate and high psychological distress (OR 3.74, 95% CI 3.37–4.16), depression (OR 2.78, 95% CI 2.22–3.48) and impaired self-perceived health (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.74–2.16). Loneliness was significantly associated with most lifestyle factors (e.g. smoking; OR 1.13, 95% 1.05–1.23). Age, but not sex, moderated loneliness’ association with several variables. Conclusion Loneliness is associated with poorer physical and mental health and unhealthy lifestyle

  19. The impact of minority stressors on the mental and physical health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, Guy; Mor, Zohar

    2014-08-01

    Research relating to minority stressors generally explores mental health outcomes, with limited focus on the physical dimension. In addition, minority stress research is conducted mainly in Christian-oriented societies. To address these pitfalls we used Web sampling targeting Israeli participants ages 12 to 30 (N = 952; 28 percent heterosexuals, 78 percent lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB] adolescents and young adults) to assess their mental health, physical and sexual risk behaviors, minority stressors, and coping resources. Results indicate that young LGBs had lower levels of mental and physical health than heterosexuals. Among LGB participants, high levels of minority stressors and low levels of coping resources predicted lower levels of mental health, and lower levels of mental health predicted lower levels of physical health. These results emphasize that minority stressors should be recognized as risk factors for poorer mental health, as well as for physical and sexual risk behaviors.

  20. The stigma of mental illness in the labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition: Mental Control Process or Mental Resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…

  2. International Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  3. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...

  4. Mental toughness in soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diment, Gregory Michael

    2014-01-01

    a systematic observation checklist of mental toughness behavior in professional soccer. Consistent with existing studies, the results created a systematic observation instrument containing 15 mental toughness behaviors. Practical implications include goal-setting, game analysis and self-modeling interventions...

  5. Household food production is positively associated with dietary diversity and intake of nutrient-dense foods for older preschool children in poorer families: Results from a nationally-representative survey in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulmi, Prajula; Masters, William A; Ghosh, Shibani; Namirembe, Grace; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Manohar, Swetha; Shrestha, Binod; West, Keith P; Webb, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition-sensitive interventions supporting enhanced household food production have potential to improve child dietary quality. However, heterogeneity in market access may cause systematic differences in program effectiveness depending on household wealth and child age. Identifying these effect modifiers can help development agencies specify and target their interventions. This study investigates mediating effects of household wealth and child age on links between farm production and child diets, as measured by production and intake of nutrient-dense food groups. Two rounds (2013 and 2014) of nationally representative survey data (n = 5,978 observations) were used to measure production and children's dietary intake, as well as a household wealth index and control variables, including breastfeeding. Novel steps used include measuring production diversity in terms of both species grown and food groups grown, as well as testing for mediating effects of family wealth and age of child. We find significant associations between child dietary diversity and agricultural diversity in terms of diversity of food groups and of species grown, especially for older children in poorer households, and particularly for fruits and vegetables, dairy and eggs. With each additional food group produced, log-odds of meeting minimum dietary diversity score (≥4) increase by 0.25 (p = 0.01) for children aged 24-59 months. For younger children aged 18-23 months there is a similar effect size but only in the poorest two quintiles of household wealth, and for infants 6-18 months we find no correlation between production and intake in most models. Child dietary intake is associated with the composition of farm production, most evident among older preschool children and in poorer households. To improve the nutrition of infants, other interventions are needed; and for relatively wealthier households, own farm production may displace market purchases, which could attenuate the impact of household

  6. Household food production is positively associated with dietary diversity and intake of nutrient-dense foods for older preschool children in poorer families: Results from a nationally-representative survey in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajula Mulmi

    Full Text Available Nutrition-sensitive interventions supporting enhanced household food production have potential to improve child dietary quality. However, heterogeneity in market access may cause systematic differences in program effectiveness depending on household wealth and child age. Identifying these effect modifiers can help development agencies specify and target their interventions.This study investigates mediating effects of household wealth and child age on links between farm production and child diets, as measured by production and intake of nutrient-dense food groups.Two rounds (2013 and 2014 of nationally representative survey data (n = 5,978 observations were used to measure production and children's dietary intake, as well as a household wealth index and control variables, including breastfeeding. Novel steps used include measuring production diversity in terms of both species grown and food groups grown, as well as testing for mediating effects of family wealth and age of child.We find significant associations between child dietary diversity and agricultural diversity in terms of diversity of food groups and of species grown, especially for older children in poorer households, and particularly for fruits and vegetables, dairy and eggs. With each additional food group produced, log-odds of meeting minimum dietary diversity score (≥4 increase by 0.25 (p = 0.01 for children aged 24-59 months. For younger children aged 18-23 months there is a similar effect size but only in the poorest two quintiles of household wealth, and for infants 6-18 months we find no correlation between production and intake in most models.Child dietary intake is associated with the composition of farm production, most evident among older preschool children and in poorer households. To improve the nutrition of infants, other interventions are needed; and for relatively wealthier households, own farm production may displace market purchases, which could attenuate the impact

  7. Malaysian mental health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nusrat N; Yahya, Badi'ah; Abu Bakar, Abd Kadir; Ho, Roger C

    2015-05-01

    The Malaysian Mental Health Act 2001 did not come into effect until the Mental Health Regulations 2010 came into force. The Act provides a framework for the delivery of comprehensive care, treatment, control, protection and rehabilitation of those with mental disorders. The Act governs the establishment of private and government psychiatric hospitals, psychiatric nursing homes and community mental health centres. This paper outlines the provisions of the Act and the Regulations.

  8. Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Packard, Chris J

    2011-01-17

    Abstract Background Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid) study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. Methods We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and markers of ill health in adult subjects (n = 666) recruited from affluent and deprived areas. Classical and novel risk factors for chronic disease (lung function and atherosclerosis) and for cognitive performance were assessed, and associations sought with early life variables including conditions in the parental home, family size and leg length. Results Associations were observed between father\\'s occupation, childhood home status (owner-occupier; overcrowding) and biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endothelial activation in adults (C reactive protein, interleukin 6, intercellular adhesion molecule; P < 0.0001) but not number of siblings and leg length. Lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and cognition (Choice Reaction Time, the Stroop test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test) were likewise related to early life conditions (P < 0.001). In multivariate models inclusion of inflammatory variables reduced the impact and independence of early life conditions on lung function and measures of cognitive ability. Including variables of adult socioeconomic status attenuated the early life associations with disease biomarkers. Conclusions Adverse levels of biomarkers of ill health in adults appear to be influenced by father\\'s occupation and childhood home conditions. Chronic inflammation and endothelial activation may in part act as intermediary phenotypes in this complex relationship. Reducing the \\'health divide\\' requires that these life course determinants are taken into account.

  9. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  10. Quality of Life, Stress, and Mental Health in Parents of Children with Parentally Diagnosed Food Allergy Compared to Medically Diagnosed and Healthy Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Birdi, Gurkiran; Cooke, Richard; Knibb, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population complet...

  11. Nutrition and Mental Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Zena; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine of 1944-45 had no detectable effects on the adult mental performance of surviving male offspring; birth weight was not related to mental performance; and the association of social class with mental performance was strong. (AL)

  12. Mental Health Issues and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.

  13. Vestibulosympathetic reflex during mental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Cooke, William H.

    2002-01-01

    Increases in sympathetic neural activity occur independently with either vestibular or mental stimulation, but it is unknown whether sympathetic activation is additive or inhibitive when both stressors are combined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of vestibular and mental stimulation on sympathetic neural activation and arterial pressure in humans. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate were recorded in 10 healthy volunteers in the prone position during 1) head-down rotation (HDR), 2) mental stress (MS; using arithmetic), and 3) combined HDR and MS. HDR significantly (P < 0.05) increased MSNA (9 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 bursts/min). MS significantly increased MSNA (8 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 bursts/min) and mean arterial pressure (87 +/- 2 to 101 +/- 2 mmHg). Combined HDR and MS significantly increased MSNA (9 +/- 1 to 16 +/- 2 bursts/min) and mean arterial pressure (89 +/- 2 to 100 +/- 3 mmHg). Increases in MSNA (7 +/- 1 bursts/min) during the combination trial were not different from the algebraic sum of each trial performed alone (8 +/- 2 bursts/min). We conclude that the interaction for MSNA and arterial pressure is additive during combined vestibular and mental stimulation. Therefore, vestibular- and stress-mediated increases of MSNA appear to occur independently in humans.

  14. Continuing evidence for poorer treatment outcomes for single male patients: Retreatment data from RTOG 97-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konski, Andre; DeSilvio, Michelle; Hartsell, William; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Coyne, James; Scarantino, Charles; JanJan, Nora

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The specific aim of this study was to evaluate outcome differences by gender and partner status for patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 97-14. Methods and Materials: RTOG 97-14 randomized patients with metastatic breast or prostate cancer to bone to receive 8 Gy in 1 fraction or 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Retreatment rates and overall survival were made based upon gender, marital status, and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS). The cumulative incidence method was used to estimate retreatment time at 36 months from enrollment, and Gray's test was used to test for treatment differences within the same groupings. Marital status, gender, KPS, and treatment were variables tested in a univariate Cox model evaluating the time to retreatment. Results: Married men and women and single women receiving 30 Gy had significantly longer time to retreatment, p = 0.0067, p = 0.0052, and p = 0.0009 respectively. We failed to show a difference in retreatment rates over time in single men receiving either 30 Gy or 8 Gy. Univariate analysis of the entire group determined patients receiving 30 Gy in 10 fractions significantly less likely to receive retreatment, p < 0.0001, with a trend toward single patients less likely to be re-treated, p = 0.07. Conclusion: Non-disease-related variables, such as social support, might influence the results of clinical trials with subjective endpoints such as retreatment rates. The statistically nonsignificant difference in the 36-month retreatment rates observed in single male patients receiving 8 Gy may be a result of inadequate social support systems in place to facilitate additional care. Patients receiving 8 Gy in a single fraction had significantly higher retreatment rates compared with patients receiving 30 Gy in 10 fractions

  15. Mental illness stigma, secrecy and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, N; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Kilian, R; Müller, M; Rodgers, S; Xu, Z; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N

    2017-02-01

    Whether the public stigma associated with mental illness negatively affects an individual, largely depends on whether the person has been labelled 'mentally ill'. For labelled individuals concealing mental illness is a common strategy to cope with mental illness stigma, despite secrecy's potential negative consequences. In addition, initial evidence points to a link between stigma and suicidality, but quantitative data from community samples are lacking. Based on previous literature about mental illness stigma and suicidality, as well as about the potential influence of labelling processes and secrecy, a theory-driven model linking perceived mental illness stigma and suicidal ideation by a mediation of secrecy and hopelessness was established. This model was tested separately among labelled and unlabelled persons using data derived from a Swiss cross-sectional population-based study. A large community sample of people with elevated psychiatric symptoms was examined by interviews and self-report, collecting information on perceived stigma, secrecy, hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Participants who had ever used mental health services were considered as labelled 'mentally ill'. A descriptive analysis, stratified logistic regression models and a path analysis testing a three-path mediation effect were conducted. While no significant differences between labelled and unlabelled participants were observed regarding perceived stigma and secrecy, labelled individuals reported significantly higher frequencies of suicidal ideation and feelings of hopelessness. More perceived stigma was associated with suicidal ideation among labelled, but not among unlabelled individuals. In the path analysis, this link was mediated by increased secrecy and hopelessness. Results from this study indicate that among persons labelled 'mentally ill', mental illness stigma is a contributor to suicidal ideation. One explanation for this association is the relation perceived stigma has with

  16. Upper esophageal sphincter abnormalities: frequent finding on high-resolution esophageal manometry and associated with poorer treatment response in achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Yamile H; Ciarleglio, Maria M; Clarke, John O; Nandwani, Monica; Stein, Ellen; Roland, Bani C

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) on high-resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) have been observed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals and are often interpreted as incidental findings of unclear clinical significance. Our primary aims were: (1) to assess the frequency of UES abnormalities in consecutive patients referred for HREM studies; and (2) to characterize the demographics, clinical symptoms, and manometric profiles associated with UES abnormalities as compared with those with normal UES function. We performed a retrospective study of 200 consecutive patients referred for HREM. Patients were divided into those with normal and abnormal UES function, including impaired relaxation (residual pressure >12 mm Hg), hypertensive (>104 mm Hg), and hypotensive (achalasia were significantly more likely to have UES abnormalities as compared with normal UES function (57.2% vs. 42.9%, P=0.04), with the most frequent abnormality being a hypertensive UES (50%). In addition, patients with impaired lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction or achalasia) were more likely to have an UES abnormality present as compared with those with normal LES relaxation (53.1% vs. 28.6%, P=0.01). When we assessed for treatment response among patients with achalasia, we found that subjects with evidence of UES dysfunction had significantly worse treatment outcomes as compared with those without UES abnormalities present (20% improved vs. 100%, P=0.015). This remained true even after adjusting for type of treatment received (surgical myotomy, per-oral endoscopic mytotomy, botulinum toxin injection, pneumatic dilatation, medical therapy, P=0.67) and achalasia subtype (P=1.00). UES abnormalities are a frequent finding on HREM studies, especially in patients with impaired LES relaxation, including both achalasia and esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction. Interestingly, the most common UES abnormality associated

  17. Cell Proliferation (KI-67) Expression Is Associated with Poorer Prognosis in Nigerian Compared to British Breast Cancer Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboola, Ayodeji O. J.; Banjo, Adekumbiola A. F.; Anunobi, Charles C.; Salami, Babatunde; Agboola, Mopelola Deji; Musa, Adewale A.; Nolan, Christopher C.; Rakha, Emad A.; Ellis, Ian O.; Green, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Black women with breast cancer (BC) in Nigeria have higher mortality rate compared with British women. This study investigated prognostic features of cell proliferation biomarker (Ki-67) in Nigerian breast cancer women. Materials and Methods. The protein expression of Ki-67 was investigated in series of 308 Nigerian women, prepared as a tissue microarray (TMA), using immunohistochemistry. Clinic-pathological parameters, biomarkers, and patient outcome of tumours expressing Ki-67 in Nigerian women were correlated with UK grade-matched series. Results. A significantly larger proportion of breast tumours from Nigerian women showed high Ki-67 expression. Those tumours were significantly correlated with negative expression of the steroid hormone receptors (ER and PgR), p21, p27, E-cadherin, BRCA-1, and Bcl-2 (all P < 0.001), but positively associated with EGFR (P = 0.003), p53, basal cytokeratins: CK56, CK14, triple negative, and basal phenotype using Nielsen's classification (all P < 0.001) compared to UK women. Multivariate analyses showed that race was also associated with BCSS independent of tumour size, lymph node status, and ER status. Conclusion. Ki-67 expression was observed to have contributed to the difference in the BCSS in Nigerian compared with British BC women. Therefore, targeting Ki-67 in the indigenous black women with BC might improve the patient outcome in the black women with BC. PMID:23691362

  18. Employment, family roles, and mental ill health in young married women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, N F

    1985-01-01

    Women are entering the labor force at unprecedented rates, many combining employment with their roles as wives and mothers. The purpose of this study was to determine if the complement of women's roles was associated with negative mental health effects. It was hypothesized that multiple roles would have negative effects on mental health only in the presence of a social context that itself was associated with symptoms of mental ill health. The contextual variables included influence of sex role norms, task-sharing support from the spouse, and support from a confidant. A sample of 140 married women randomly selected from registrants at a family health clinic were interviewed about their roles and mental health. The complement of the women's roles was not associated with mental ill health, nor was there a clear relationship between employment or parenting on mental health. Each of the contextual variables had a moderate influence on symptoms of mental ill health. Women who had traditional sex role norms, little task-sharing support from a spouse, and little support from a confidant had poorer mental health than their counterparts. Thus, in this sample, the context for role performance had a stronger influence on mental health than did the actual roles women performed. In addition, the importance of the social contextual variables was contingent on the woman's complement of roles. For women who were both spouse and parent, confiding support was most important.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Associations of Work-Related Factors and Work Engagement with Mental and Physical Health: A 1-Year Follow-up Study Among Older Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; van den Heuvel, S.G.; van der Beek, A.J.; Ybema, J.F.; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goals of this study were to determine whether, among older employees, unfavourable physical and psychosocial work-related factors were associated with poorer mental and physical health and whether high work engagement buffered the associations between unfavourable work-related factors

  20. Associations of Work-Related Factors and Work Engagement with Mental and Physical Health : A 1-Year Follow-up Study Among Older Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Fenna R M; van den Heuvel, Swenne G.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goals of this study were to determine whether, among older employees, unfavourable physical and psychosocial work-related factors were associated with poorer mental and physical health and whether high work engagement buffered the associations between unfavourable work-related factors

  1. Associations of work-related factors and work engagement with mental and physical health: a 1-year follow-up study among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Fenna R M; van den Heuvel, Swenne G; van der Beek, Allard J; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-03-01

    The goals of this study were to determine whether, among older employees, unfavourable physical and psychosocial work-related factors were associated with poorer mental and physical health and whether high work engagement buffered the associations between unfavourable work-related factors and poorer health. A 1-year longitudinal study with employed persons aged 45-64 was conducted within the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (n = 8,837). Using an online questionnaire, work-related factors (physical: physical load; psychosocial: psychological job demands, autonomy, and support) and work engagement were measured at baseline and health at baseline and 1-year follow-up. General linear models were used to assess associations of work-related factors and work engagement with health. Tests of interaction terms assessed whether work engagement buffered the work-related factor-health associations. Unfavourable psychosocial work-related factors at baseline were associated with poorer mental health at follow-up. Higher physical load, higher psychological job demands, and lower autonomy at baseline were associated with poorer physical health at follow-up. Higher work engagement at baseline was related to better physical and especially better mental health during the 1-year follow-up. Work engagement had a small effect on the associations between work-related factors and health. Among older employees, especially the promotion of a high work engagement and, to a lesser extent, favourable work-related factors can be beneficial for mental health in particular.

  2. AUTISTIC FEATURES IN CHILDREN WITH MENTAL RETARDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Nilamadhab; Khanna, Rakesh; Kar, Gopal Chandra

    1997-01-01

    Most of the autistic disorder patients are also mentally retarded and many mentally retarded persons exhibit autistic symptoms. By using a standard instrument (Ritvo-Freeman Real Life Rating Scale) the autistic features of the mentally retarded children were studied. The study also examined the influence of age, sex and level of mental retardation on the occurrence of autistic symptoms. Children who came for consultation to child psychiatric unit were compared with those at a school for children with mental retardation receiving stimulation. Male children from child psychiatric unit had significantly higher scores than those from the school. Social and language impairment could be reliably identified and grouped. It was possible to diagnose the syndrome of autism in children with mental retardation in a significant number (9.6%)as compared to that was possible only clinically (1.9%). More number of children with severe/ profound mental retardation could be diagnosed as autistic. The autistic syndrome in children with mental retardation can be picked up more effectively by the use of structured instrument. PMID:21584097

  3. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  4. Mental Health and Mental Disorder Recommendation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchiwit, Manyat

    2017-12-01

    The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.

  5. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  6. Mental Wellbeing of Family Members of Autistic Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrema, Renske; Garland, Deborah; Osborne, Malcolm; Freeston, Mark; Honey, Emma; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2017-11-01

    Family members are often the primary caregiver for autistic adults and this responsibility may impact on the carer's wellbeing and quality of life. 109 family members of autistic adults completed an online survey assessing their wellbeing relating to their caring role for their autistic relative. Family members who were supporting an autistic relative with co-occurring mental health difficulties and who they reported as unprepared for the future, self-reported higher levels of worry, depression, anxiety and stress, and poorer quality of life. These findings emphasise the importance of support for family members of autistic adults, whether through external services to support their relative or individual mental health support for the carer.

  7. Mental Health Consultation Among Ontario's Immigrant Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Macpherson, Alison; Tamim, Hala

    2017-11-16

    To determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of past-year mental health consultation for Ontario's adult (18 + years old) immigrant populations. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2012 was used to calculate the prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation by service provider type. Characteristics associated with mental health consultation were determined by carrying out multivariable logistic regression analysis on merged CCHS 2008-2012 data. Adult immigrant populations in Ontario (n = 3995) had lower estimated prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation across all service provider types compared to Canadian-born populations (n = 14,644). Amongst those who reported past-year mental health consultation, 57.89% of Ontario immigrants contacted their primary care physician, which was significantly higher than the proportion who consulted their family doctor from Canadian-born populations (45.31%). The factors of gender, age, racial/ethnic background, education level, working status, food insecurity status, self-perceived health status, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, years since immigration, and age at time of immigration were significantly associated with past-year mental health consultation for immigrant populations. Ontario's adult immigrant populations most commonly consult their family doctor for mental health care. Potential exists for expanding the mental health care role of primary care physicians as well as efforts to increase accessibility of specialized mental health services. Integrated, coordinated care where primary care physicians, specialized mental health professionals, social workers, and community educators, etc. working together in a sort of "one-stop-shop" may be the most effective way to mitigate gaps in the mental health care system. In order to effectively tailor mental health policy, programming, and promotion to suit the needs of immigrant populations initiatives that focus on

  8. Mental health challenges of LGBT forced migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Shidlo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many LGBT forced migrants have significant and sometimesincapacitating psychological scars. Mental health providers can assistin documenting the psychological impact of anti-LGBT persecutionand its impact on the ability to secure refugee status.

  9. Evaluation of the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative: community program to promote awareness about mental health and aging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjani, Faika; Kruger, Tina; Murray, Deborah

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative, designed to promote community awareness and knowledge about mental health and aging issues. This study occurred during 2007-2009 in 67 of 120 counties in Kentucky. A rural region (11 counties) received the intervention, consisting of focus groups, Extension Agent training, and television-based social marketing campaign. Partial-intervention counties (29 counties) received only the television-based social marketing campaign. The control counties (27 counties) received no intervention activities. Results indicated that the intervention counties agreed more with being able to assist elder adults with a potential mental illness. Also, the intervention counties understood the risk of consuming alcohol and medications better, but had a poorer recognition of drinking problems in elder adults. These findings need to be considered within study limitations, such as measurement error, degree of intervention exposure, and regional differences across intervention groups. The study demonstrates that community interventions on mental health awareness and knowledge are feasible within majority rural regions, with Extension Agents being gatekeepers, for promoting positive messages about mental health and aging issues.

  10. Younger Age Is Associated with Poorer Survival in Patients with Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Colon without Distant Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In general, younger age is associated with better survival in patients with colon cancer. In this study, we aim to analyze the impact of age on cancer-specific survival (CSS in patients with signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC of the colon, a particularly aggressive type of colon cancer. Methods. Information on patients with SRCC of the colon with no distant metastasis was extracted from the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database. An X-tile plot was used to determine the optimal cutoff age at diagnosis. Results. A total of 776 patients were included in data analysis. The X-tile program revealed an optimal cutoff at 35 years of age. A higher percentage of stage III disease and a higher percentage of N2 disease were observed in patients ≤ 35 years of age. The multivariate Cox proportional model demonstrated that patients ≤ 35 years of age were more likely to have a poorer survival outcome compared with patients aged >35 years (HR 1.411, 95% CI 1.032–1.929, and P=0.031. Conclusion. In contrast to the association of younger age with better survival in colon cancer patients, younger age (≤35 years is associated with poorer survival outcome in patients with SRCC of the colon without distant metastasis.

  11. Mental and somatic health and pre- and post-migration factors among older Somali refugees in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölsä, Mulki; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Saarni, Samuli I; Tiilikainen, Marja; Kuittinen, Saija; Honkasalo, Marja-Liisa

    2014-08-01

    Mental and somatic health was compared between older Somali refugees and their pair-matched Finnish natives, and the role of pre-migration trauma and post-migration stressors among the refugees. One hundred and twenty-eight Somalis between 50-80 years of age were selected from the Somali older adult population living in the Helsinki area (N = 307). Participants were matched with native Finns by gender, age, education, and civic status. The BDI-21 was used for depressive symptoms, the GHQ-12 for psychological distress, and the HRQoL was used for health-related quality of life. Standard instruments were used for sleeping difficulties, somatic symptoms and somatization, hypochondria, and self-rated health. Clinically significant differences in psychological distress, depressive symptoms, sleeping difficulties, self-rated health status, subjective quality of life, and functional capacity were found between the Somali and Finnish groups. In each case, the Somalis fared worse than the Finns. No significant differences in somatization were found between the two groups. Exposure to traumatic events prior to immigrating to Finland was associated with higher levels of mental distress, as well as poorer health status, health-related quality of life, and subjective quality of life among Somalis. Refugee-related traumatic experiences may constitute a long lasting mental health burden among older adults. Health care professionals in host countries must take into account these realities while planning for the care of refugee populations. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. A qualitative exploration of the perspectives of mental health professionals on stigma and discrimination of mental illness in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafiah, Ainul Nadhirah; Van Bortel, Tine

    2015-01-01

    Background Stigma of mental illness has been identified as a significant barrier to help-seeking and care. Basic knowledge of mental illness - such as its nature, symptoms and impact - are neglected, leaving room for misunderstandings on mental health and ?stigma?. Numerous researches have been conducted on stigma and discrimination of people with mental disorders. However, most of the literature investigates stigma from a cultural conception point of view, experiences of patients or public a...

  13. Deployment, Mental Health Problems, Suicidality, and Use of Mental Health Services Among Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carol; Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Lim, Ingrid C; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Following deployment, soldiers may struggle to cope with the after-effects of combat service and experience increased suicidality. Therefore, connection to mental health services is vital. Research regarding the relationship between deployment, suicidality, and mental health connections has been equivocal, with some studies finding a link between deployment history and mental health outcomes, and others not. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of military deployment on mental health and service utilization outcomes using a longitudinal design. Deployment history, mental health visits, symptoms of suicidality, and various mental health outcomes were assessed in a sample of 1,566 Army recruiters at study entry and 18-months follow-up. Deployment history was positively associated with mental health visits, number of major depressive episodes, and acquired capability for suicide at baseline; however, no significant relationship between deployment, mental health visits, and any other suicide or mental health-related outcomes emerged at baseline or follow-up. Findings suggest a disconnection from mental health services among military personnel. Implications for treatment and suicide prevention efforts among military personnel are discussed.

  14. Increasing Severity of Malnutrition Is Associated With Poorer 30-Day Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Hip Fracture Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Andrew S; Hustedt, Joshua W; Walker, Robert; Jones, Clifford; Lowe, Jason; Russell, George V

    2018-04-01

    Low serum albumin levels (hypoalbuminemia) have classically been used to identify malnutrition. The effect of increasing severity of malnutrition on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery has not been well delineated on a large scale. Retrospective. Multicenter. A total of 12,373 patients undergoing hip fracture surgery from 2006 to 2013 National Surgery Quality Improvement Project data were identified. Patient demographic, comorbidity, and preoperative laboratory data and complication, reoperation, and readmission data were collected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the effect of increasing severity of malnutrition on rates of 30-day postoperative complications, readmissions, and reoperations. A total of 12,373 hip fractures met inclusion criteria. A total of 6506 (52.6%) patients had normal albumin levels (albumin ≥3.5 g/dL), 3205 (25.9%) patients were mildly malnourished (albumin 3.1-3.49 g/dL), 2265 (18.3%) were moderately malnourished (albumin 2.4-3.1 g/dL), and 397 (3.2%) patients were severely malnourished (albumin malnutrition was associated with a 2-fold increase in the odds of postoperative complications and mortality when compared with mild malnutrition (P malnutrition was associated with significantly longer lengths of stay and higher odds of experiencing a related readmission (P hip fracture surgery. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  15. A Quantitative Analysis of Mental Health Among Sexual and Gender Minority Groups in ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rita; Stokes, Mark A

    2018-01-23

    There is increased mental-health adversity among individuals with autism spectrum disorder. At the same time, sexual and gender minority groups experience poorer mental-health when compared to heteronormative populations. Recent research suggests that autistic individuals report increased non-heterosexuality and gender-dysphoric traits. The current study aimed to investigate whether as membership of minority grouping becomes increasingly narrowed, mental health worsened. The present study compared the rates of depression, anxiety, and stress using the DASS-21 and Personal Well-Being using the personal well-being index between 261 typically-developing individuals and 309 autistic individuals. As membership to a minority group became more restrictive, mental health symptoms worsened (p < .01), suggesting stressors added. Specialized care is recommended for this vulnerable cohort.

  16. 'Lost': listening to the voices and mental health needs of forced migrants in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David; Ward, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Research into the mental health needs of asylum seekers and refugees has revealed that they are likely to experience poorer mental health as well as higher levels of exclusion and vulnerability than native populations. This paper reports on data drawn from semi-structured interviews of 21 refugees and asylum seekers that describe the complexity experienced by those living in exile, and the necessity for a more integrated and holistic approach in the planning and delivery of services to support mental health. Incorporating a perspective from service users will encourage providers to take account of the multitude of practical, social, cultural, economic and legal difficulties that can influence the long-term mental health of this population. The implications highlight a need to shift from a simple biomedical model of the causes and effects of ill-health to a social model, which will require reorganisation not only in healthcare but in welfare, housing, employment and immigration policy.

  17. [A lower adherence to Mediterranean diet is associated with a poorer self-rated health in university population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios-Vicedo, Ricardo; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; García de la Hera, Manuela; González-Palacios, Sandra; Valera-Gran, Desirée; Checa-Sevilla, José Francisco; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Vioque, Jesús

    2014-09-15

    A higher adherence to Mediterranean diet is considered as a protective factor against the large number of deaths attributable to the main chronic degenerative diseases in developed countries. Self-rated health is established as a good indicator of population health status and as a predictor of mortality. Studies exploring the relationship between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and self-rated health are scarce, especially, in young adults. Our aim was to explore the factors related, specially the adherence to a priori-defined Mediterranean diet with self-rated health in a cohort of Spanish university students. We analyzed data from 1110 participants of Spanish DiSA-UMH (Dieta, Salud y Antropometría en universitarios de la Universidad Miguel Hernández) study. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the adherence to Mediterranean diet was calculated using the relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED; score range: 0-18) according to the consumption of 9 dietary components. Self-rated health was gathered from the question: "In general, how do you consider your health to be? (Excellent, good, fair, poor, very poor). Information on sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics was also collected. Multinomial logistic regression (using relative risk ratio, RRR) was used to analyze the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet (low rMED: 0-6 points; medium: 7-10 points; high: 11-18 points) and self-rated health (Excellent (reference), good and fair/ poor/very poor). A low, medium or high adherence to Mediterranean diet conformed to 26.8%, 58.7% and 14.4% of participants, which of them reported an excellent (23.1%), good (65.1%) and fair/poor or very poor health, respectively. In multivariate analysis, a lower adherence to Mediterranean diet was significantly (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Medicare Under Age 65 and Medicaid Patients Have Poorer Bowel Preparations: Implications for Recommendations for an Early Repeat Colonoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan B Brimhall

    Full Text Available Colonoscopy is performed on patients across a broad spectrum of demographic characteristics. These characteristics may aggregate by patient insurance provider and influence bowel preparation quality and the prevalence of adenomas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of insurance status and suboptimal bowel preparation, recommendation for an early repeat colonoscopy due to suboptimal bowel preparation, adenoma detection rate (ADR, and advanced ADR (AADR.This is a cohort study of outpatient colonoscopies (n = 3113 at a single academic medical center. Patient insurance status was categorized into five groups: 1 Medicare < 65y; 2 Medicare ≥ 65y; 3 Tricare/VA; 4 Medicaid/Colorado Indigent Care Program (CICP; and 5 commercial insurance. We used multivariable logistic or linear regression modeling to estimate the risks for the association between patient insurance and suboptimal bowel preparation, recommendation for an early repeat colonoscopy due to suboptimal bowel preparation, ADR, and AADR. Models were adjusted for appropriate covariates.Medicare patients < 65y (OR 4.91; 95% CI: 3.25-7.43 and Medicaid/CICP patients (OR 4.23; 95% CI: 2.65-7.65 were more likely to have a suboptimal preparation compared to commercial insurance patients. Medicare patients < 65y (OR 5.58; 95% CI: 2.85-10.92 and Medicaid/CICP patients (OR 3.64; CI: 1.60-8.28 were more likely to receive a recommendation for an early repeat colonoscopy compared to commercial insurance patients. Medicare patients < 65y had a significantly higher adjusted ADR (OR 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03-2.18 and adjusted AADR (OR 1.99; 95% CI: 1.15-3.44 compared to commercial insurance patients.Understanding the reasons for the higher rate of a suboptimal bowel preparation in Medicare < 65y and Medicaid/CICP patients and reducing this rate is critical to improving colonoscopy outcomes and reducing healthcare costs in these populations.

  19. High levels of physical activity are associated with poorer asthma control in young females but not in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövström, Ludvig; Emtner, Margareta; Alving, Kjell; Nordvall, Lennart; Borres, Magnus P; Janson, Christer; Malinovschi, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies on the levels of physical activity in asthma patients compared with controls have yielded varying results. We have previously reported that high versus moderate levels of physical activity were associated with higher prevalence of wheezing, especially in females. Here we studied the levels of physical activity in young patients with asthma and healthy subjects and their effect on asthma control. Four hundred eight physician-diagnosed patients with asthma and 118 controls (10-34 years) answered questions concerning frequency and/or duration of physical activity and undertook the Asthma Control Test (ACT), spirometry, methacholine challenges and exhaled nitric oxide measurements. Asthma patients were more frequently physically active (P = 0.01) and for longer durations (P = 0.002) than controls. Highly versus moderately physically active patients with asthma had a higher prevalence of not well-controlled asthma (ACT < 20) when physical activity was assessed by frequency (40.6% vs 24.1%, P = 0.001) or duration (39.0% vs 21.7%, P < 0.001). This was only seen in females who had reduced ACT items (P < 0.05). Frequently versus moderately active females had an odds ratio of 4.81 (2.43, 9.51) to have ACT < 20, while no such effect was found in males (OR 1.18 (0.61, 2.30)) and this interaction was statistically significantly associated with gender (P = 0.003). No differences in fraction of exhaled nitric oxide or methacholine reactivity were found between moderately and highly physically active females with asthma. Young asthma patients were more active than controls. High levels of physical activity were associated with poor asthma control as judged by the ACT in females, but not in males, and this appears unrelated to airway inflammation or responsiveness. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder in a Community Mental Health Clinic: Prevalence, Comorbidity and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew J; Youngstrom, Eric A; Youngstrom, Jennifer K; Findling, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    The revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) added a new diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) to depressive disorders. This study examines the prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates of the new disorder, with a particular focus on its overlap with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), with which DMDD shares core symptoms. Data were obtained from 597 youth 6-18 years of age who participated in a systematic assessment of symptoms offered to all intakes at a community mental health center (sample accrued from July 2003 to March 2008). Assessment included diagnostic, symptomatic, and functional measures. DMDD was diagnosed using a post-hoc definition from item-level ratings on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children that closely matches the DSM-5 definition. Caregivers rated youth on the Child Behavior Checklist. Approximately 31% of youth met the operational definition of DMDD, and 40% had Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) diagnoses of ODD. Youth with DMDD almost always had ODD (odds ratio [OR] = 53.84) and displayed higher rates of comorbidity with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder than youth without DMDD. Caregivers of youth with DMDD reported more symptoms of aggressive behavior, rule-breaking, social problems, anxiety/depression, attention problems, and thought problems than all other youth without DMDD. Compared with youth with ODD, youth with DMDD were not significantly different in terms of categorical or dimensional approaches to comorbidity and impairment. The new diagnosis of DMDD might be common in community mental health clinics. Youth with DMDD displayed more severe symptoms and poorer functioning than youth without DMDD. However, DMDD almost entirely overlaps with ODD and youth with DMDD were not significantly different than youth with ODD. These findings raise concerns

  1. Mental toughness latent profiles in endurance athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna S Zeiger

    Full Text Available Mental toughness in endurance athletes, while an important factor for success, has been scarcely studied. An online survey was used to examine eight mental toughness factors in endurance athletes. The study aim was to determine mental toughness profiles via latent profile analysis in endurance athletes and whether associations exist between the latent profiles and demographics and sports characteristics. Endurance athletes >18 years of age were recruited via social media outlets (n = 1245, 53% female. Mental toughness was measured using the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ, Psychological Performance Inventory-Alternative (PPI-A, and self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. A three-class solution emerged, designated as high mental toughness (High MT, moderate mental toughness (Moderate MT and low mental toughness (Low MT. ANOVA tests showed significant differences between all three classes on all 8 factors derived from the SMTQ, PPI-A and the RSE. There was an increased odds of being in the High MT class compared to the Low MT class for males (OR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.39, 2.83; P<0.001, athletes who were over 55 compared to those who were 18-34 (OR = 2.52; 95% CI, 1.37, 4.62; P<0.01, high sports satisfaction (OR = 8.17; 95% CI, 5.63, 11.87; P<0.001, and high division placement (OR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.46,3.26; P<0.001. The data showed that mental toughness latent profiles exist in endurance athletes. High MT is associated with demographics and sports characteristics. Mental toughness screening in athletes may help direct practitioners with mental skills training.

  2. CT findings of mentally retarded patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Akihiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Cranial CT findings were compared according to the age group in 192 mentally retarded patients aged from 15 to 59 years and in 132 control subjects. Enlargement of the ventricles, cisterns or fissures was judged. The incidence of ''enlargement'' was higher, irrespective of age, in mentally retarded group than in the control group. When the mentally retarded patients were divided into the group with pathologic symptoms and the group without them, the incidence of ''enlargement'' was higher in the former group than in the control group, but there was no significant difference between the latter group and the control group. There was no consistent relationship between the degree of mental retardation and the incidence of ''enlargement''. Many of the mentally retarded patients with pathologic symptoms tended to have a wide range of enlargement, while many of the patients without them had narrowed lateral ventricle. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Social inequalities in mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden – epidemiological studies of register data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Anna-Clara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this PhD project was to increase knowledge, using population-based registers, of how pre- and post-migration factors and social determinants of health are associated with inequalities in poor mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden. Study I and II had cross-sectional designs and used logistic regression analysis to study differences in poor mental health (measured with prescribed psychotropic drugs purchased) between refugee and non-refugee immigrants. In Study I, there was a significant difference in poor mental health between female refugees and non-refugees (OR=1.27; CI=1.15–1.40) when adjusted for socio-economic factors. In Study II, refugees of most origins had a higher likelihood of poor mental health than non-refugees of the same origin. Study III and IV had cohort designs and used Cox regression analysis. Study III analysed mortality rates among non-labour immigrants. Male refugees had higher relative risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR=1.53; CI=1.04–2.24) and external causes (HR=1.59; CI=1.01–2.50) than male non-refugees did, adjusted for socio-economic factors. Study IV included the population with a strong connection to the labour market in 1999 to analyse the relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment. The lowest relative risk was found among employed Swedish-born men and the highest among foreign-born females who lost employment during follow-up (HR=3.47; CI=3.02–3.98). Immigrants, and particularly refugees, have poorer mental health than native Swedes. Refugee men have a higher relative mortality risk for cardiovascular disease and external causes of death than do non-refugees. The relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment was highest among immigrant women. To promote mental health and reduce mortality among immigrants, it is important to consider pre- and post-migration factors and the general social

  4. Social inequalities in mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden--epidemiological studies of register data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Anna-Clara

    2013-06-27

    The aim of this PhD project was to increase knowledge, using population-based registers, of how pre- and post-migration factors and social determinants of health are associated with inequalities in poor mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden. Study I and II had cross-sectional designs and used logistic regression analysis to study differences in poor mental health (measured with prescribed psychotropic drugs purchased) between refugee and non-refugee immigrants. In Study I, there was a significant difference in poor mental health between female refugees and non-refugees (OR=1.27; CI=1.15-1.40) when adjusted for socio-economic factors. In Study II, refugees of most origins had a higher likelihood of poor mental health than non-refugees of the same origin. Study III and IV had cohort designs and used Cox regression analysis. Study III analysed mortality rates among non-labour immigrants. Male refugees had higher relative risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR=1.53; CI=1.04-2.24) and external causes (HR=1.59; CI=1.01-2.50) than male non-refugees did, adjusted for socio-economic factors. Study IV included the population with a strong connection to the labour market in 1999 to analyse the relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment. The lowest relative risk was found among employed Swedish-born men and the highest among foreign-born females who lost employment during follow-up (HR=3.47; CI=3.02-3.98). Immigrants, and particularly refugees, have poorer mental health than native Swedes. Refugee men have a higher relative mortality risk for cardiovascular disease and external causes of death than do non-refugees. The relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment was highest among immigrant women. To promote mental health and reduce mortality among immigrants, it is important to consider pre- and post-migration factors and the general social

  5. Social inequalities in mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden – epidemiological studies of register data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Clara Hollander

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this PhD project was to increase knowledge, using population-based registers, of how pre- and post-migration factors and social determinants of health are associated with inequalities in poor mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden. Study I and II had cross-sectional designs and used logistic regression analysis to study differences in poor mental health (measured with prescribed psychotropic drugs purchased between refugee and non-refugee immigrants. In Study I, there was a significant difference in poor mental health between female refugees and non-refugees (OR=1.27; CI=1.15–1.40 when adjusted for socio-economic factors. In Study II, refugees of most origins had a higher likelihood of poor mental health than non-refugees of the same origin. Study III and IV had cohort designs and used Cox regression analysis. Study III analysed mortality rates among non-labour immigrants. Male refugees had higher relative risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR=1.53; CI=1.04–2.24 and external causes (HR=1.59; CI=1.01–2.50 than male non-refugees did, adjusted for socio-economic factors. Study IV included the population with a strong connection to the labour market in 1999 to analyse the relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment. The lowest relative risk was found among employed Swedish-born men and the highest among foreign-born females who lost employment during follow-up (HR=3.47; CI=3.02–3.98. Immigrants, and particularly refugees, have poorer mental health than native Swedes. Refugee men have a higher relative mortality risk for cardiovascular disease and external causes of death than do non-refugees. The relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment was highest among immigrant women. To promote mental health and reduce mortality among immigrants, it is important to consider pre- and post-migration factors and the

  6. Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Per

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about their children. Methods The study was based on questionnaire data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Many of the mothers in the MoBa study also took part in the MIDIA study, in which their newborn children were tested for HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. We used MoBa questionnaire data from the 30th week of pregnancy (baseline and 6 months post-partum (3-3.5 months after disclosure of test results. We measured maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-8, maternal self-esteem (RSES, and satisfaction with life (SWLS. The mothers also reported whether they were seriously worried about their child 6 months post-partum. We compared questionnaire data from mothers who had received information about having a newborn with high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (N = 166 with data from mothers who were informed that their baby did not have a high-risk genotype (N = 7224. The association between genetic risk information and maternal mental health was analysed using multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for baseline mental health scores. Results Information on genetic risk in newborns was found to have no significant impact on maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (p = 0.9, self-esteem (p = 0.2, satisfaction with life (p = 0.2, or serious worry about their child (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.64-1.48. Mental health before birth was strongly associated with mental health after birth. In addition, an increased

  7. Prospective associations between adolescent mental health problems and positive mental wellbeing in early old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Richards, Marcus; Stafford, Mai

    2016-01-01

    Mental health problems in adolescence are predictive of future mental distress and psychopathology; however, few studies investigated adolescent mental health problems in relation to future mental wellbeing and none with follow-up to older age. To test prospective associations between adolescent mental health problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction in early old age. A total of 1561 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Teachers had previously completed rating scales to assess emotional adjustment and behaviours, which allowed us to extract factors of mental health problems measuring self-organisation, behavioural problems, and emotional problems during adolescence. Between the ages of 60-64 years, mental wellbeing was assessed using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) and life satisfaction was self-reported using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). After controlling for gender, social class of origin, childhood cognitive ability, and educational attainment, adolescent emotional problems were independently inversely associated with mental wellbeing and with life satisfaction. Symptoms of anxiety/depression at 60-64 years explained the association with life satisfaction but not with mental wellbeing. Associations between adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction were of negligible magnitude, but higher childhood cognitive ability significantly predicted poor life satisfaction in early old age. Adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems may not be predictive of future mental wellbeing and life satisfaction. Adolescent emotional problems may be inversely associated with future wellbeing, and may be associated with lower levels of future life satisfaction through symptoms of anxiety/depression in early old age. Initiatives to prevent and treat emotional problems in adolescence may

  8. A cross-sectional study of pain sensitivity, disease-activity assessment, mental health, and fibromyalgia status in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joharatnam, Nalinie; McWilliams, Daniel F; Wilson, Deborah; Wheeler, Maggie; Pande, Ira; Walsh, David A

    2015-01-20

    Pain remains the most important problem for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Active inflammatory disease contributes to pain, but pain due to non-inflammatory mechanisms can confound the assessment of disease activity. We hypothesize that augmented pain processing, fibromyalgic features, poorer mental health, and patient-reported 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) components are associated in RA. In total, 50 people with stable, long-standing RA recruited from a rheumatology outpatient clinic were assessed for pain-pressure thresholds (PPTs) at three separate sites (knee, tibia, and sternum), DAS28, fibromyalgia, and mental health status. Multivariable analysis was performed to assess the association between PPT and DAS28 components, DAS28-P (the proportion of DAS28 derived from the patient-reported components of visual analogue score and tender joint count), or fibromyalgia status. More-sensitive PPTs at sites over or distant from joints were each associated with greater reported pain, higher patient-reported DAS28 components, and poorer mental health. A high proportion of participants (48%) satisfied classification criteria for fibromyalgia, and fibromyalgia classification or characteristics were each associated with more sensitive PPTs, higher patient-reported DAS28 components, and poorer mental health. Widespread sensitivity to pressure-induced pain, a high prevalence of fibromyalgic features, higher patient-reported DAS28 components, and poorer mental health are all linked in established RA. The increased sensitivity at nonjoint sites (sternum and anterior tibia), as well as over joints, indicates that central mechanisms may contribute to pain sensitivity in RA. The contribution of patient-reported components to high DAS28 should inform decisions on disease-modifying or pain-management approaches in the treatment of RA when inflammation may be well controlled.

  9. [Mental health financing in Chile: a pending debt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errázuriz, Paula; Valdés, Camila; Vöhringer, Paul A; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-09-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of mental health disorders in Chile, there is a significant financing deficit in this area when compared to the world's average. The financing for mental health has not increased in accordance with the objectives proposed in the 2000 Chilean National Mental Health and Psychiatry Plan, and only three of the six mental health priorities proposed by this plan have secure financial coverage. The National Health Strategy for the Fulfilment of Health Objectives for the decade 2011-2020 acknowledges that mental disorders worsen the quality of life, increase the risk of physical illness, and have a substantial economic cost for the country. Thus, this article focuses on the importance of investing in mental health, the cost of not doing so, and the need for local mental health research. The article discusses how the United States is trying to eliminate the financial discrimination suffered by patients with mental health disorders, and concludes with public policy recommendations for Chile.

  10. Determining the effectiveness of a video-based contact intervention in improving attitudes of Penang primary care nurses towards people with mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Ping Ng

    Full Text Available Mental illness-related stigma is common, and is associated with poorer outcomes in people with mental illness. This study evaluated the attitudes of primary care nurses towards people with mental illness and its associated factors; and the effectiveness of a short video-based contact intervention (VBCI in improving these attitudes using a Malay version of the 15-item Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Healthcare Providers (OMS-HC-15-M.A 5-minute VBCI was developed comprising elements of psychoeducation and interviews of people with mental illness and the people they interact with, relating to experience of mental illness and recovery. A pre-post cross-sectional study was conducted on 206 randomly selected primary care nurses in Penang, Malaysia. The OMS-HC-15-M questionnaire was administered before and immediately after participants viewed the VBCI. The difference in mean pre-post VBCI scores using paired t-tests, effect size and standardised response mean (SRM were obtained. Factors correlating to attitudes were obtained using univariate and multivariate regression analyses.Differences in pre-post VBCI score were statistically significant (p<0.001 with a 14% score reduction, a moderate effect size and SRM at 0.97 (0.85-0.11 and 1.1 (0.97-1.2 respectively. By factoring in the Minimal Detectable Change statistic of 7.76, the VBCI produced a significant improvement of attitudes in 30% of the participants. Factors associated with less stigmatising attitudes at baseline were previous psychiatry-related training, desiring psychiatric training, and positive contact with people with mental illness.This is the first study in Malaysia to show that a brief VBCI is effective in improving attitudes of primary care nurses towards people with mental illness in the immediate term. Further studies are needed to determine if these results can be sustained in the longer term and generalizable to other health care professionals. Qualitative studies are warranted to

  11. Effect of Dynamic Meditation on Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema

    2016-02-01

    Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.

  12. Disease network of mental disorders in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myoungje; Lee, Dong-Woo; Cho, Maeng Je; Park, Jee Eun; Gim, Minsook

    2015-12-01

    Network medicine considers networks among genes, diseases, and individuals. Networks of mental disorders remain poorly understood, despite their high comorbidity. In this study, a network of mental disorders in Korea was constructed to offer a complementary approach to treatment. Data on the prevalence and morbidity of mental disorders were obtained from the 2006 and 2011 Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study, including 22 psychiatric disorders. Nodes in the network were disease phenotypes identified by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, and the links connected phenotypes showing significant comorbidity. Odds ratios were used to quantify the distance between disease pairs. Network centrality was analyzed with and without weighting of the links between disorders. Degree centrality was correlated with suicidal behaviors and use of mental health services. In 2011 and 2006, degree centrality was highest for major depressive disorder, followed by nicotine dependence and generalized anxiety disorder (2011) or alcohol dependence (2006). Weighted degree centrality was highest in conversion disorder in both years. Therefore, major depressive disorder and nicotine dependence are highly connected to other mental disorders in Korea, indicating their comorbidity and possibility of shared biological mechanisms. The use of networks could enhance the understanding of mental disorders to provide effective mental health services.

  13. Mental health promotion for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex New Zealanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A number of studies have identified that gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (GLBTI people have poorer mental health than the general population. This article describes current mental health promotion and service provision for GLBTI people in New Zealand, and the views of stakeholders on current service delivery and concerns facing the sector. METHODS: An email survey of service providers gathered descriptive data about mental health promotion and services provided for GLBTI people. Data obtained from interviews with key informants and online submissions completed by GLBTI individuals were analysed thematically. FINDINGS: Five organisations provide clear, specific and utilised services and programmes to some or all of the GLBTI populations. Twelve GLBTI-focused mental health promotion resources are identified. The analysis of data from key informants and GLBTI respondents identified factors affecting mental health for these populations occurring at three levels-macro-social environment, social acceptance and connection, and services and support. CONCLUSION: While GLBTI individuals have the same basic mental health promotion and service provision needs as members of the general population, they have additional unique issues. To enhance the mental health of GLBTI New Zealanders, a number of actions are recommended, including building sector capacity, allocating sufficient funding, ensuring adequate research and information is available, and reducing stigma, enhancing young people's safety, and supporting practitioners through training and resources. An important role for government, alongside GLBTI input, for improving mental health is noted.

  14. A good-quality breakfast is associated with better mental health in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Robinson, Monique; Kendall, Garth E; Miller, Margaret; Jacoby, Peter; Silburn, Sven R; Oddy, Wendy H

    2009-02-01

    Breakfast consumption has been associated with better mental health in adulthood, but the relationship between breakfast and mental health in adolescence is less well known. The aims of the present study were to evaluate breakfast quality in a cohort of adolescents and to investigate associations with mental health. Cross-sectional population-based study. Breakfast quality was assessed by intake of core food groups at breakfast, as determined from 3 d food diaries. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), with higher scores representing poorer behaviour. The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, Perth, Western Australia. Eight hundred and thirty-six males and females aged between 13 and 15 years. Mean mental health score as assessed by the CBCL was 45.24 (sd 11.29). A high-quality breakfast consisting of at least three food groups was consumed by 11 % of adolescents, while 7 % of adolescents did not consume any items from core food groups on average over the 3 d period. The two most common core food groups consumed at breakfast in this population were dairy products followed by breads and cereals. For every additional food group eaten at breakfast, the associated total mental health score decreased by 1.66 (95 % CI -2.74, -0.59) after adjustment for potential confounding factors, representing an improvement in mental health score. These findings support the concept that breakfast quality is an important component in the complex interaction between lifestyle factors and mental health in early adolescence.

  15. Mental Pain and Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Carrozzino, Danilo; Marchetti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    ideation than depression. Conclusion: Mental pain is a core clinical factor for understanding suicide, both in the context of mood disorders and independently from depression. Health care professionals need to be aware of the higher suicidal risk in patients reporting mental pain. In this regard......Background: Mental pain, defined as a subjective experience characterized by perception of strong negative feelings and changes in the self and its function, is no less real than other types of grief. Mental pain has been considered to be a distinct entity from depression. We have performed...... a systematic review analyzing the relationship between mental pain and suicide by providing a qualitative data synthesis of the studies. Methods: We have conducted, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search for the literature in PubMed, Web Of Science, and Scopus. Search terms were "mental pain...

  16. Decentralizing provision of mental health care in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Neil; Suveendran, Thirupathy; de Silva, Chithramalee

    2017-04-01

    In the past, mental health services in Sri Lanka were limited to tertiary-care institutions, resulting in a large treatment gap. Starting in 2000, significant efforts have been made to reconfigure service provision and to integrate mental health services with primary health care. This approach was supported by significant political commitment to establishing island-wide decentralized mental health care in the wake of the 2004 tsunami. Various initiatives were consolidated in The mental health policy of Sri Lanka 2005-2015, which called for implementation of a comprehensive community-based, decentralized service structure. The main objectives of the policy were to provide mental health services of good quality at primary, secondary and tertiary levels; to ensure the active involvement of communities, families and service users; to make mental health services culturally appropriate and evidence based; and to protect the human rights and dignity of all people with mental health disorders. Significant improvements have been made and new cadres of mental health workers have been introduced. Trained medical officers (mental health) now provide outpatient care, domiciliary care, mental health promotion in schools, and community mental health education. Community psychiatric nurses have also been trained and deployed to supervise treatment adherence in the home and provide mental health education to patients, their family members and the wider community. A total of 4367 mental health volunteers are supporting care and raising mental health literacy in the community. Despite these important achievements, more improvements are needed to provide more timely intervention, combat myths and stigma, and further decentralize care provision. These, and other challenges, will be targeted in the new mental health policy for 2017-2026.

  17. Physiotherapy and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Physiotherapy in mental health care and psychiatry is a recognized specialty within physiotherapy. It offers a rich variety of observational and evaluation tools as well as a range of interventions that are related to the patient’s physical and mental health problems based on evidence-based literature and a 50-year history. Physiotherapy in mental health care addresses human movement, function, physical activity and exercise in individual and group therapeutic settings. Additionally, it conne...

  18. Disaster mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....

  19. Social and emotional training in Swedish classrooms for the promotion of mental health: results from an effectiveness study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Birgitta; Sandell, Rolf; Bremberg, Sven

    2008-06-01

    Mental ill-health is a major problem worldwide. It includes depression, aggressive behavior, feeling down and alcohol and drug abuse. Since all children go to school, the school is an obvious arena for health interventions. A set of educational techniques named Social and Emotional Learning, based on the use by teachers of cognitive and behavioral methods, which teaches students self-control, social competence, empathy, motivation and self-awareness, has shown promising results in the USA. This paper reports on the application of similar techniques in Sweden (the Social and Emotional Training [SET] program). The study has a quasi-experimental longitudinal design, with two intervention and two control schools. A wide range of instruments, both Swedish and international, are employed. In this paper, results from the school years 1999-2000 (baseline) through to 2001-2002 are reported. Both the intervention and the data collection were performed by ordinary school staff in a routine school setting. Independent bi-annual ratings of teachers' performance were moderate to high, and teachers' perceptions of the program were generally, although by no means universally, high. However, their performance was poorer with regard to the collection of data. In terms of promotion, findings with regard to the impact of the program on mental health are generally favorable-in particular through the promotion of aspects of self-image, including well-being and the hindering of aggressiveness, bullying, attention-seeking and alcohol use. There was, however, no differential effect on social skills. It seems that SET has the potential to operate effectively as a health-promoting intervention during the school period, although its main impact may rather be to act as a brake on the deterioration in some aspects of mental health that is common during adolescence. Positively significant relationships were found on some but not all of the instrument scales, and effect sizes were medium.

  20. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  1. [Formula: see text]Higher cortisol is associated with poorer executive functioning in preschool children: The role of parenting stress, parent coping and quality of daycare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shannon L; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2016-01-01

    Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3-5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child's daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness.

  2. Higher cortisol is associated with poorer executive functioning in preschool children: The role of parenting stress, parent coping and quality of daycare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3–5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child’s daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale – Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness. PMID:26335047

  3. Triple difficulties in Japanese women with hearing loss: marriage, smoking, and mental health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko; Tamiya, Nanako; Moriyama, Yoko; Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    To examine the consequences of early-onset hearing loss on several social and health measures and any related gender differences in Japanese populations. Data from a 2007 nationally representative cross-sectional household survey of 136,849 men and women aged 20 to 39 years were obtained (prevalence of self-reported hearing loss: 0.74%). We focused particularly on four social and health measures: employment status (employed/unemployed), marital status (married/unmarried), smoking behavior (yes/no), and psychological distress (K6 instrument: ≥ 5 or not). We examined the association of hearing loss for each measure using generalized estimating equations to account for correlated individuals within households. There was no significant association with employment status (p = 0.447). Men with hearing loss were more likely to be married, whereas women with hearing loss were less likely to be married (p issues in daily life, including a lower likelihood of marriage, more frequent smoking, and poorer mental health, especially in women. These issues may reflect a gap between the actual needs of women with hearing loss and the formal support received as a result of existing public health policies in Japan.

  4. Triple Difficulties in Japanese Women with Hearing Loss: Marriage, Smoking, and Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko; Tamiya, Nanako; Moriyama, Yoko; Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the consequences of early-onset hearing loss on several social and health measures and any related gender differences in Japanese populations. Methods Data from a 2007 nationally representative cross-sectional household survey of 136,849 men and women aged 20 to 39 years were obtained (prevalence of self-reported hearing loss: 0.74%). We focused particularly on four social and health measures: employment status (employed/unemployed), marital status (married/unmarried), smoking behavior (yes/no), and psychological distress (K6 instrument: ≥ 5 or not). We examined the association of hearing loss for each measure using generalized estimating equations to account for correlated individuals within households. Findings There was no significant association with employment status (p = 0.447). Men with hearing loss were more likely to be married, whereas women with hearing loss were less likely to be married (p hearing loss was not associated with a current smoking status in men, women with hearing loss were more likely to be current smokers (p hearing loss was associated with psychological distress in men and women (both p hearing loss is related to social and health issues in daily life, including a lower likelihood of marriage, more frequent smoking, and poorer mental health, especially in women. These issues may reflect a gap between the actual needs of women with hearing loss and the formal support received as a result of existing public health policies in Japan. PMID:25651532

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Financial Difficulties and Mental Health in a National Sample of British Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Thomas; Elliott, Peter; Roberts, Ron; Jansen, Megan

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has shown a relationship between financial difficulties and poor mental health in students, but most research is cross-sectional. To examine longitudinal relationships over time between financial variables and mental health in students. A national sample of 454 first year British undergraduate students completed measures of mental health and financial variables at up to four time points across a year. Cross-sectional relationships were found between poorer mental health and female gender, having a disability and non-white ethnicity. Greater financial difficulties predicted greater depression and stress cross-sectionally, and also predicted poorer anxiety, global mental health and alcohol dependence over time. Depression worsened over time for those who had considered abandoning studies or not coming to university for financial reasons, and there were effects for how students viewed their student loan. Anxiety and alcohol dependence also predicted worsening financial situation suggesting a bi-directional relationship. Financial difficulties appear to lead to poor mental health in students with the possibility of a vicious cycle occurring.

  6. Salud mental y adicciones

    OpenAIRE

    Boccalari, Paola

    2013-01-01

    La recientemente reglamentada Ley Nacional de Salud Mental 26.657 plantea amplias reformas en el ámbito de la salud pública. Este escrito se detendrá en uno de los puntos de la ley referido al lugar de las adicciones en las políticas de salud mental. Reflexionará sobre las conexiones entre la salud mental y adicciones. Si bien desde la nueva ley las adicciones forman parte de las políticas de salud mental, la “Y” conectora entre ambas, a la vez que unifica ambos campos, también hace pensar en...

  7. Sport and physical activity for mental health

    CERN Document Server

    Carless, David

    2010-01-01

    With approximately 1 in 6 adults likely to experience a significant mental health problem at any one time (Office for National Statistics), research into effective interventions has never been more important. During the past decade there has been an increasing interest in the role that sport and physical activity can play in the treatment of mental health problems, and in mental health promotion. The benefits resulting from physiological changes during exercise are well documented, including improvement in mood and control of anxiety and depression. Research also suggests that socio-cultural a

  8. Weak expression of cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with poorer outcome in endemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: analysis of data from randomized trial between radiation alone versus concurrent chemo-radiation (SQNP-01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loong, Susan Li Er; Hwang, Jacqueline Siok Gek; Li, Hui Hua; Wee, Joseph Tien Seng; Yap, Swee Peng; Chua, Melvin Lee Kiang; Fong, Kam Weng; Tan, Terence Wee Kiat

    2009-01-01

    Over-expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme has been reported in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the prognostic significance of this has yet to be conclusively determined. Thus, from our randomized trial of radiation versus concurrent chemoradiation in endemic NPC, we analyzed a cohort of tumour samples collected from participants from one referral hospital. 58 out of 88 patients from this institution had samples available for analysis. COX-2 expression levels were stratified by immunohistochemistry, into negligible, weak, moderate and strong, and correlated with overall and disease specific survivals. 58% had negligible or weak COX-2 expression, while 14% and 28% had moderate and strong expression respectively. Weak COX-2 expression conferred a poorer median overall survival, 1.3 years for weak versus 6.3 years for negligible, 7.8 years, strong and not reached for moderate. There was a similar trend for disease specific survival. Contrary to literature published on other malignancies, our findings seemed to indicate that over-expression of COX-2 confer a better prognosis in patients with endemic NPC. Larger studies are required to conclusively determine the significance of COX-2 expression in these patients

  9. Poor Pre-Pregnancy and Antepartum Mental Health Predicts Postpartum Mental Health Problems among US Women: A Nationally Representative Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Whitney P.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Hampton, John M.; Creswell, Paul; Hagen, Erika W.; Spear, Hilary A.; Maddox, Torsheika; DeLeire, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mental health problems disproportionately affect women, particularly during childbearing years. However, there is a paucity of research on the determinants of postpartum mental health problems using representative US populations. Taking a life course perspective, we determined the potential risk factors for postpartum mental health problems, with a particular focus on the role of mental health before and during pregnancy. Methods We examined data on 1,863 mothers from eleven panels of the 1996-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Poor postpartum mental health was defined using self-reports of mental health conditions, symptoms of mental health conditions, or global mental health ratings of “fair” or “poor.” Results 9.5% of women reported experiencing postpartum mental health problems, with over half of these women reporting a history of poor mental health. Poor pre-pregnancy mental health and poor antepartum mental health both independently increased the odds of having postpartum mental health problems. Staged multivariate analyses revealed that poor antepartum mental health attenuated the relationship between pre-pregnancy and postpartum mental health problems. Additionally, significant disparities exist in women's report of postpartum mental health status. Conclusions While poor antepartum mental health is the strongest predictor of postpartum mental health problems, pre-pregnancy mental health is also important. Accordingly, health care providers should identify, treat, and follow women with a history of poor mental health, as they are particularly susceptible to postpartum mental health problems. This will ensure that women and their children are in the best possible health and mental health during the postpartum period and beyond. PMID:21349740

  10. Mental healthcare staff well-being and burnout: A narrative review of trends, causes, implications, and recommendations for future interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Judith; Hall, Louise H; Berzins, Kathryn; Baker, John; Melling, Kathryn; Thompson, Carl

    2018-02-01

    Rising levels of burnout and poor well-being in healthcare staff are an international concern for health systems. The need to improve well-being and reduce burnout has long been acknowledged, but few interventions target mental healthcare staff, and minimal improvements have been seen in services. This review aimed to examine the problem of burnout and well-being in mental healthcare staff and to present recommendations for future research and interventions. A discursive review was undertaken examining trends, causes, implications, and interventions in burnout and well-being in healthcare staff working in mental health services. Data were drawn from national surveys, reports, and peer-reviewed journal articles. These show that staff in mental healthcare report poorer well-being than staff in other healthcare sectors. Poorer well-being and higher burnout are associated with poorer quality and safety of patient care, higher absenteeism, and higher turnover rates. Interventions are effective, but effect sizes are small. The review concludes that grounding interventions in the research literature, emphasizing the positive aspects of interventions to staff, building stronger links between healthcare organizations and universities, and designing interventions targeting burnout and improved patient care together may improve the effectiveness and uptake of interventions by staff. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  11. Work life and mental well-being: single and coupled employed mothers in Southern Europe and Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Torill

    2009-09-01

    Many European mothers, single and coupled, combine work outside the home and family life. The effects of this on their mental well-being may vary depending on the level of support available from the State's welfare system, since welfare may buffer working mothers from some of the stress that can arise from trying to manage significant responsibilities on the job and at home. Welfare may be especially important for single working mothers, for whom the burden of multiple roles may be even heavier. The present study assessed levels and predictors of well-being of single and coupled employed mothers in Greece, Portugal and Spain, where welfare support is relatively limited. Results were compared to a parallel study with data from Denmark, Norway and Sweden, where welfare support is relatively comprehensive. Coupled mothers in Scandinavia had significantly lower financial hardship, longer education, higher life satisfaction, more enriching jobs, practical support, financial support and social participation than coupled mothers in the Southern European sample. On the other hand, the Scandinavian coupled mothers had higher levels of work family conflict than coupled mothers in Southern Europe. Single mothers in Scandinavia, compared to single mothers in Southern Europe, had significantly longer education, higher life satisfaction and positive affect, more enriching jobs, confidant support, practical support, financial support and social participation. Level of job stress was the same for all mother groups. All groups differed significantly from each other in level of financial hardship, with Scandinavian coupled mothers being best off, followed by Scandinavian single mothers, Southern European coupled mothers, and Southern European single mothers. The regional differences suggest that single motherhood per se need not be a risk factor for poorer well-being, and that welfare policies may have a protective effect for the mental well-being of single mothers.

  12. Alcohol consumption and self-reported (SF12) physical and mental health among working aged-men in a typical Russian city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Nete; Gil, Artyom; Keenan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    the associations with PCS considerably. CONCLUSION: Among working age male adults in Russia, hazardous patterns of alcohol drinking are associated with poorer self-reported physical health, and even more strongly with poorer self-reported mental health. Physical health appears to be lower in those reporting......AIM: To investigate the association between patterns of alcohol consumption and self-reported physical and mental health in a population with a high prevalence of hazardous drinking. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of an age-stratified random sample of a population register. SETTING: The city...... of Izhevsk, The Russian Federation, 2008-9. PARTICIPANTS: 1031 men aged 25 to 60 years (68% response rate). MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported health was evaluated with the SF12 physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summaries. Measures of hazardous drinking (based on frequency of adverse effects of alcohol...

  13. Mental Health Utilization Among Diverse Parenting Young Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Gibson, Crystal; Sipsma, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-09-01

    Mental health issues often become apparent as adolescents emerge into young adulthood. The use of mental health services is low among adolescents and young adults, and use is particularly low among minorities. In this study, we examine mental health utilization among diverse young parenting couples. The sample consisted of 296 couples. We used the social-personal framework to examine personal, family, partner relationship, and environmental predictors for using mental health services. We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to assess actor and partner effects on mental health utilization. We also examined moderator effects for gender and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. We found that being female, being White, higher income, more conduct problems, and less anxious romantic attachment predicted mental health utilization. Significant moderator effects included depression × gender, depression × medical insurance, and stress × Latino. Implications for community mental health practice include conducting mental health assessments during medical visits and systematic mental health follow-up for individuals and couples with identified mental health and support needs. Future research should include married couples and the spouse's influence on mental health use and examine relevant parenting factors that may also predict mental health utilization among couples.

  14. Exercise following Mental Work Prevented Overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeier, William H; Goodner, Emily; Biasini, Fred; Dhurandhar, Emily J; Menear, Kristi S; Turan, Bulent; Hunter, Gary R

    2016-09-01

    Mental work may promote caloric intake, whereas exercise may offset positive energy balance by decreasing energy intake and increasing energy expenditure. This study aimed to replicate previous findings that mental work increases caloric intake compared with a rest condition and assess whether exercise after mental work can offset this effect. Thirty-eight male and female university students were randomly assigned to mental work + rest (MW + R) or mental work + exercise (MW + E). Participants also completed a baseline rest (BR) visit consisting of no mental work or exercise. Visit order was counterbalanced. During the MW + R or MW + E visit, participants completed a 20-min mental task and either a 15-min rest (MW + R) or a 15-min interval exercise (MW + E). Each visit ended with an ad libitum pizza lunch. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare eating behavior between groups. Participants in the MW + R condition consumed an average of 100 more kilocalories compared with BR (633.3 ± 72.9 and 533.9 ± 67.7, respectively, P = 0.02), and participants in MW + E consumed an average of 25 kcal less compared with BR (432.3 ± 69.2 and 456.5 ± 64.2, respectively, P > 0.05). When including the estimated energy expenditure of exercise in the MW + E conditions, participants were in negative energy balance by an average of 98.5 ± 41.5 kcal, resulting in a significant difference in energy balance between the two groups (P = 0.001). An acute bout of interval exercise after mental work resulted in significantly decreased food consumption compared with a nonexercise condition. These results suggest that an acute bout of exercise may be used to offset positive energy balance induced by mental tasks.

  15. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  16. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  17. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  18. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  19. Workplace Health Promotion and Mental Health: Three-Year Findings from Partnering Healthy@Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Lisa; Martin, Angela; Venn, Alison; Otahal, Petr; Blizzard, Leigh; Teale, Brook; Sanderson, Kristy

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between mental health and comprehensive workplace health promotion (WHP) delivered to an entire state public service workforce (~28,000 employees) over a three-year period. Government departments in a state public service were supported to design and deliver a comprehensive, multi-component health promotion program, Healthy@Work, which targeted modifiable health risks including unhealthy lifestyles and stress. Repeated cross-sectional surveys compared self-reported psychological distress (Kessler-10; K10) at commencement (N = 3406) and after 3 years (N = 3228). WHP availability and participation over time was assessed, and associations between the K10 and exposure to programs estimated. Analyses were repeated for a cohort subgroup (N = 580). Data were weighted for non-response. Participation in any mental health and lifestyle programs approximately doubled after 3 years. Both male and female employees with poorer mental health participated more often over time. Women's psychological distress decreased over time but this change was only partially attributable to participation in WHP, and only to lifestyle interventions. Average psychological distress did not change over time for men. Unexpectedly, program components directly targeting mental health were not associated with distress for either men or women. Cohort results corroborated findings. Healthy@Work was successful in increasing participation across a range of program types, including for men and women with poorer mental health. A small positive association of participation in lifestyle programs with mental health was observed for women but not men. The lack of association of mental health programs may have reflected program quality, its universality of application or other contextual factors.

  20. Workplace Health Promotion and Mental Health: Three-Year Findings from Partnering Healthy@Work.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Jarman

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the association between mental health and comprehensive workplace health promotion (WHP delivered to an entire state public service workforce (~28,000 employees over a three-year period. Government departments in a state public service were supported to design and deliver a comprehensive, multi-component health promotion program, Healthy@Work, which targeted modifiable health risks including unhealthy lifestyles and stress. Repeated cross-sectional surveys compared self-reported psychological distress (Kessler-10; K10 at commencement (N = 3406 and after 3 years (N = 3228. WHP availability and participation over time was assessed, and associations between the K10 and exposure to programs estimated. Analyses were repeated for a cohort subgroup (N = 580. Data were weighted for non-response. Participation in any mental health and lifestyle programs approximately doubled after 3 years. Both male and female employees with poorer mental health participated more often over time. Women's psychological distress decreased over time but this change was only partially attributable to participation in WHP, and only to lifestyle interventions. Average psychological distress did not change over time for men. Unexpectedly, program components directly targeting mental health were not associated with distress for either men or women. Cohort results corroborated findings. Healthy@Work was successful in increasing participation across a range of program types, including for men and women with poorer mental health. A small positive association of participation in lifestyle programs with mental health was observed for women but not men. The lack of association of mental health programs may have reflected program quality, its universality of application or other contextual factors.

  1. Seizures in the elderly: Impact on mental status, mood and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haut, Sheryl R.; Katz, Mindy; Masur, Jonathan; Lipton, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Co-morbidities of epilepsy have not been well explored in the elderly. Herein, we examined mental status, mood, and sleep in elderly patients with epilepsy, compared to age and gender matched community controls without epilepsy from the Einstein Aging Study. Testing included a mental status test, the Blessed Information Memory and Concentration (BIMC) test; Prime-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) Depression and Anxiety Modules; and Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale. Persons with epilepsy (n=31) had higher mean BIMC scores than controls (n=31, BIMC 6.3 vs.1.2; p<0.0001). Mean PHQ Depression scores were higher for cases than controls indicating more depressive symptoms (4.2 vs. 0.8; p=0.006); six cases (18%) and no controls met screening criteria for depression. Mean PHQ Anxiety scores were also higher for cases than controls (3.7 vs. 0.0; p=0.001). Cases demonstrated poorer sleep scores in the categories of somnolence (p=0.009) and shortness of breath/headache (p=0.021). Thus, co-morbidities of epilepsy in this elderly population included decreased mental status, a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety, and poorer sleep health when compared to age mates without epilepsy. Mental status impairment was not related to anti-epileptic medication or mood disturbance. Further investigation will explore these associations prospectively. PMID:19189862

  2. Differences in mental health outcomes by acculturation status following a major urban disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N= 2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, panic attack, anxiety symptoms, and general physical and mental health status. We classified study respondents into "low," "moderate," or "high" acculturation, based on survey responses. Bivariate results indicated that low acculturation individuals were more likely to experience negative life events, have low social support, and less likely to have pre-disaster mental health disorders. Those in the low acculturation group were also more likely to experience post-disaster perievent panic attacks, have higher anxiety, and have poorer mental health status. However, using logistic regression to control for confounding, and adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that none of these outcomes were associated with acculturation status. Thus, our study suggests that acculturation was not associated with mental health outcomes following a major traumatic event.

  3. Mental Health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, Zoe; Janssen, Jessica; Roddam, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose- Burnout in mental health staff is acknowledged as a major problem. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of mental health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness in mental health staff.\\ud Design/methodology/approach-Ten participants from two mental health rehabilitation units across the North West of England took part in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Participants consisted of mental health workers from varied roles in order to\\ud capture views from a...

  4. Parents with serious mental illness: differences in internalised and externalised mental illness stigma and gender stigma between mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Melanie; Paolini, Stefania; Hanlon, Mary-Claire; Melville, Jessica; Galletly, Cherrie; Campbell, Linda E

    2015-02-28

    Research demonstrates that people living with serious mental illness (SMI) contend with widespread public stigma; however, little is known about the specific experiences of stigma that mothers, and in particular fathers, with SMI encounter as parents. This study aimed to explore and compare the experiences of stigma for mothers and fathers with SMI inferred not only by living with a mental illness but also potential compounding gender effects, and the associated impact of stigma on parenting. Telephone surveys were conducted with 93 participants with SMI who previously identified as parents in the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis. Results indicated that mothers were more likely than fathers to perceive and internalise stigma associated with their mental illness. Conversely, fathers were more inclined to perceive stigma relating to their gender and to hold stigmatising attitudes towards others. Mental illness and gender stigma predicted poorer self-reported parenting experiences for both mothers and fathers. These findings may assist in tailoring interventions for mothers and fathers with SMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN INDIVIDULAS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag VUJOVIKJ

    2017-10-01

    included analysis of documentation, testing and survey. As the most suitable instruments for this research, I decided to use the test for measuring the IQ and level of mental deterioration of the respondents – WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for the Macedonian population and Demographic questionnaire which determined the basic demographic characteristics of the respondents. With the help of these two instruments, the most important data for achieving the research goals were obtained, which were further processed and gave the end results of this research. Results: The processing of the data from the study showed that a significant proportion of the individuals with mental disorders do not have intellectual disability as a second diagnosis (p=0,0001, however in the population with mental disorders there will be an appearance of intellectual disability in a significantly greater extend in comparison to the general population (p=0,00096. The type of mental disorder has an effect on the appearance of intellectual disability(p=0,015. The gender (p=0,683 and the age (p=0,669 of the individuals with mental disorders are not affecting the appearance and the level of intellectual disability. There is no statically significant connection between the appearance and the level of mental deterioration and intellectual disability in individuals with mental disorders (p=0,921 and its appearance does not depend on the gender (p=0,606 and age (p=0,649 of the individual with a mental disorder. Conclusion: Considering the fact that there are a great number of people in the institutions for individuals with mental disorders, who despite having a mental disorder also have an intellectual disability as a second diagnosis, a lot more research is needed which will be beneficial for the better understanding of the condition and needs of these individuals, thus improving the diagnostics and the treatment, as well as the quality of their life.

  6. [Homicide and major mental disorder: what are the social, clinical, and forensic differences between murderers with a major mental disorder and murderers without any mental disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, S; Chocard, A-S; Bourdel, M-C; Gohier, B; Duflot, J-P; Lhuillier, J-P; Garré, J-B

    2009-09-01

    To establish the social, clinical, and forensic differences between murderers suffering from a major mental disorder and murderers without any psychiatric disorder and, in particular, to compare their respective records of psychiatric symptoms and their respective relationship with their victims. We studied 210 forensic examinations of murderers, the offences related to the murders, and the social and clinical information collected from psychiatric court reports on persons convicted of homicide. Firstly, we identified the socio-demographic, clinical and criminological profiles of 210 murderers from which were distinguished murderers with major mental disorder. Then, we compared the profiles of murderers suffering from a major mental disorder with those of murderers without any mental disease. In other words, we compared 37 persons affected with major mental disorder (schizophrenia, paranoiac delusional disorder, and affective disorder) with 73 persons without any mental disorder. We deliberately excluded subjects with personality disorder or abuse of/dependency on drugs, mental retardation or dementia. With the exception of certain variables, murderers with major mental disorder have the same characteristics as others murderers: young man, living alone, with psychiatric and offence records and substance abuse. Murderers with major mental disorder are older (37.8 versus 31.7 years old) than perpretators without any mental disorder, and the former have a psychiatric record more often than the latter (81 versus 32.9%). In addition, contrary to the latter, the former show clinical symptoms of a psychopathological process. Depression, delusional and suicidal ideas are frequent among murderers with a major mental disorder, whereas the persons without mental disorder quarrel or have a row with their victim just before their crime. The victim was known to the perpetrator significantly more often in the major mental disorder group than in the no mental disorder group (94

  7. Women and mental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohen, Dora

    2000-01-01

    ... for the individual. Covering issues including perinatal psychiatric disorders, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol and drug abuse - from a female perspective - Women and Mental Health will prove a valuable tool for all those working in the fields of mental health. Dora Kohen is a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Honorary Senior...

  8. Rural Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social networks While there are drawbacks to small communities when it comes to mental health, there are positives as well. The close-knit ... to refer patients to facilities outside of the community. The Substance Abuse and Mental ... Administration (SAMHSA) maintains the 2016 National Directory ...

  9. Children's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, ... is doing to improve access to care. Children’s Mental Health: What's New Article: U.S. Children with Diagnosed Anxiety ...

  10. Mental activity and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Gert Jan

    2018-01-01

    How does culture affect mental activity? That question, applied to the design of social agents, is tackled in this chapter. Mental activity acts on the perceived outside world. It does so in three steps: perceive, interpret, select action. We see that when culture is taken into account, objective

  11. Mental Health - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Well-Being 1 - Stress - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Health and Well-Being ... Well-Being 2 - Mental Health - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center What Is Mental Distress - ...

  12. Women and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unaiza Niaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.

  13. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  14. Shared decision-making, stigma, and child mental health functioning among families referred for primary care-located mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashley M

    2014-03-01

    There is growing emphasis on shared decision making (SDM) to promote family participation in care and improve the quality of child mental health care. Yet, little is known about the relationship of SDM with parental perceptions of child mental health treatment or child mental health functioning. The objectives of this preliminary study were to examine (a) the frequency of perceived SDM with providers among minority parents of children referred to colocated mental health care in a primary care clinic, (b) associations between parent-reported SDM and mental health treatment stigma and child mental health impairment, and (c) differences in SDM among parents of children with various levels of mental health problem severity. Participants were 36 Latino and African American parents of children (ages 2-7 years) who were referred to colocated mental health care for externalizing mental health problems (disruptive, hyperactive, and aggressive behaviors). Parents completed questions assessing their perceptions of SDM with providers, child mental health treatment stigma, child mental health severity, and level of child mental health impairment. Descriptive statistics demonstrated the majority of the sample reported frequent SDM with providers. Correlation coefficients indicated higher SDM was associated with lower stigma regarding mental health treatment and lower parent-perceived child mental health impairment. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference in SDM among parents of children with different parent-reported levels of child mental health severity. Future research should examine the potential of SDM for addressing child mental health treatment stigma and impairment among minority families.

  15. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  16. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  17. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  18. National Institute of Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to content Home Health Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental ... signs and symptoms of depression in men. More Mental Health Services Research Conference Register now for the nation’s ...

  19. Changes in Antipsychotic Medication Use after Implementation of a Medicaid Mental Health Carve-Out in the US

    OpenAIRE

    John Robst

    2012-01-01

    Background:Background: Many Medicaid programmes now offer behavioural healthcare through managed care organizations. Medicaid programmes are concerned about carve-outs because the use of non-included services may rise, limiting the efficiencies anticipated with the implementation of managed care. There also exist concerns that patients with serious mental illness may receive reduced care through managed care and consequently have poorer outcomes. Abstract: Objective:Objective: This study exam...

  20. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  1. Relationship between positive mental health and appreciation in Korean individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2017-06-01

    Appreciation is a key component of subjective well-being and may contribute to positive mental health. Few studies have examined relationships between specific aspects of appreciation and the 3 dimensions of positive mental health, and thus, the aim of this study was to identify associations between aspects of appreciation and positive mental health. Appreciation and positive mental health were measured in 266 Korean university students (50% females) using the Appreciation Inventory and the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. The results obtained showed that Have Focus significantly predicted Emotional Well-being; Have Focus and Loss/Adversity significantly predicted Social Well-being and Have Focus, Expression and Nature/Daily Life significantly predicted Psychological Well-being. The implications of results that might enable positive mental health to be enhanced are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Do preterm infants with a birth weight ≤1250 g born to single-parent families have poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 3 than those born to two-parent families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Abhay; Lakhani, Jahan; Ediger, Krystyna; Tang, Selphee; Lodha, Arijit; Gandhi, Vardhil; Creighton, Dianne

    2018-05-08

    Investigate neurodevelopmental outcomes at 3 years corrected age in infants with a birth weight ≤1250 g born to single parents. Infants born between 1995 and 2010 with a birth weight ≤1250 g were considered eligible. Primary outcome was neurodevelopmental impairment; considered present if a child had any of the following: cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, visual impairment, or deafness/neurosensory hearing impairment. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 1900 infants were eligible for inclusion. Follow-up data were available for 1395; 88 were born to a single parent. Infants in the single-parent group had higher mortality (18% vs. 11%, p = 0.009), IQ ≥1 SD below the mean (40% vs. 21%, p = 0.001) and any neurodevelopmental impairment (47% vs. 29%, p = 0.003). Single-parent family status, maternal education, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and severe neurological injury were significant predictors of intellectual impairment at 3 years corrected age. Preterm infants with a birth weight ≤1250 g born to single parents at birth have poorer intellectual functioning at 3 years corrected age.

  3. The effects of socioeconomic incongruity in the neighbourhood on social support, self-esteem and mental health in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albor, C; Uphoff, E P; Stafford, M; Ballas, D; Wilkinson, R G; Pickett, K E

    2014-06-01

    Analyses of neighbourhood socioeconomic characteristics and health indicators consistently show that health is worse in poorer neighbourhoods. However, some studies that examined neighbourhood effects separately for individuals of different socioeconomic position found that poor people may derive health benefits from living in poor neighbourhoods where they are socioeconomically congruous. This study investigates whether such patterns may be driven by psychosocial factors. The sample consisted of 4871 mothers in the Millennium Cohort Study aged 14-53. The outcomes analysed were neighbourhood friendship, emotional support, self-esteem and depression or anxiety. Neighbourhood status was classified by residents' educational and occupational status derived from the 2001 Census. We used multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for mothers' socio-demographic characteristics: first analysing health by neighbourhood status separately for the highest and lowest status mothers, then testing for modification in the association between neighbourhood status and health, by individual status. Results show that for highest status mothers, living in mixed or high status neighbourhoods compared to low status neighbourhoods significantly reduced the odds of having no friends in the neighbourhood by 65%. Living in high status neighbourhoods compared to low status neighbourhoods also significantly reduced the odds of depression or anxiety for highest status mothers by 41%. No associations were found for emotional support or self-esteem amongst highest status mothers. No associations were found for any outcome among lowest status mothers. In conclusion, low status mothers in England did not have better social support, self-esteem, or mental health when living in low status neighbourhoods compared to high status neighbourhoods; any benefits of socioeconomic congruity may have been counteracted by neighbourhood deprivation. Nevertheless, we found that mothers of high status do have

  4. Mental and behavioural disorders among people with congenital deafblindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2011-01-01

    The population of people with congenital deafblindness faces challenges concerning communication and mobility. Due to the significance of the sensory loss it is difficult to diagnose mental and behavioral disorders. This article investigates the prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders among...... 95 congenitally deafblind adults. Seventy-four percent were found to have a mental and/or behavioral diagnose. Mental retardation was found among 34%, psychosis among 13%. Mental and behavioral disorders, especially with symptoms of psychosis and mental retardation, are common among people...... with congenital deafblindness. Clinical experience is needed, as well as cross-disciplinary cooperation and specialized diagnostic methods together with a observation and intervention period in order to be able to assess and differentiate mental and behavioral symptoms from sensory deprivation in people...

  5. Change in economic difficulties and physical and mental functioning: Evidence from British and Finnish employee cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Ferrie, Jane E; Rahkonen, Ossi; Shipley, Martin J; Pietiläinen, Olli; Kivimäki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G; Lahelma, Eero

    2013-09-01

    The main aims of this longitudinal study were to (i) examine associations between changes in economic difficulties and health functioning among middle-aged employees and (ii) assess whether the associations remained after considering conventional domains of socioeconomic position. The associations were tested in two European welfare state occupational cohorts to strengthen the evidence base and improve generalizability. Data came from two cohorts: the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (baseline 2000-2002, follow-up 2007, N = 6328) and the British Whitehall II Study (baseline 1997-1999, follow-up 2003-2004, N = 4350). Responses to the survey item "finding it hard to afford adequate food and clothes and pay bills" repeated at baseline and follow-up were used to examine persistent, increasing, and decreasing economic difficulties. Poor physical and mental health functioning were denoted as being in the lowest quartile of the Short Form 36 physical and mental component summary. Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for sex, age, childhood economic difficulties, household income at baseline and follow-up, employment status at follow-up, and baseline health functioning. We observed strong sex- and age-adjusted associations between increasing [odds ratio (OR) range 1.69-2.96] and persistent (OR range 2.54-3.21) economic difficulties and poorer physical and mental health functioning in both British and Finnish occupational cohorts. These associations remained after full adjustments. Those reporting decreasing difficulties over follow-up also had poorer functioning (OR range 1.30-1.61) compared to those who did not have difficulties at baseline, possibly reflecting residual effects of economic difficulties at baseline. Changes in economic difficulties are associated with poorer physical and mental health functioning independent of income, employment status, and baseline health functioning.

  6. The influence of process and patient factors on the recall of consent information in mentally competent patients undergoing surgery for neck of femur fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S K; Karuppaiah, K; Bajwa, A S

    2012-07-01

    Informed consent is an ethical and legal prerequisite for major surgical procedures. Recent literature has identified 'poor consent' as a major cause of litigation in trauma cases. We aimed to investigate the patient and process factors that influence consent information recall in mentally competent patients (abbreviated mental test score [AMTS] ≥6) presenting with neck of femur (NOF) fractures. A prospective study was conducted at a tertiary unit. Fifty NOF patients (cases) and fifty total hip replacement (THR) patients (controls) were assessed for process factors (adequacy and validity of consent) as well as patient factors (comprehension and retention) using consent forms and structured interview proformas. The two groups were matched for ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) grade and AMTS. The consent forms were adequate in both groups but scored poorly for validity in the NOF group. Only 26% of NOF patients remembered correctly what surgery they had while only 48% recalled the risks and benefits of the procedure. These results were significantly poorer than in THR patients (p = 0.0001). This study confirms that NOF patients are poor at remembering the information conveyed to them at the time of consent when compared with THR patients despite being intellectually and physiologically matched. We suggest using preprinted consent forms (process factors), information sheets and visual aids (patient factors) to improve retention and recall.

  7. [Work-related stress and mental health - can work lead to mental disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptáček, Radek; Vňuková, Martina; Raboch, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    In the past two decades, special attention was paid to mental health issues. The available literature suggests, for example, the relationship between the workload and mental discomfort and the occurrence of myocardial infarction. This article focuses mainly on the issue of work-related stress and its impact on mental health. In this context, it must be acknowledged that possible psychological problems due to work are not only employees problem. These difficulties can significantly affect performance - and thus they should be the concern of the employer, but also of customers, clients and patients who come into contact with the worker who might develop some mental problems, due to the nature of his work and working conditions. This article provides an overview of the various factors affecting the mental health of employees. These are, for example, work demands, working hours and workplace relations. In conclusion, it brings results of Czech study examining job stress among working population.

  8. Undergraduate nursing students' attitudes toward mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; Leuck, Susan E; Powell, Rhonda L; Young, Staci; Schuler, Suzanne G; Hughes, Ronda G

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe undergraduate nursing students' attitudes toward mental health nursing and how these attitudes influenced their professional career choices in mental health nursing. A descriptive, online survey was utilized to examine students' perceptions of mental health nursing. A total of 229 junior and senior nursing students were recruited from eight nursing colleges in Midwestern United States to participate in this survey. Students of different ages, genders, ethnicities, and nursing programs did not report significantly different perceptions of: (a) knowledge of mental illness; (b) negative stereotypes; (c) interest in mental health nursing as a future career; and (d), and beliefs that psychiatric nurses provide a valuable contribution to consumers and the community. Negative stereotypes were significantly different between students who had mental health nursing preparation either in class (p=0.0147) or in clinical practice (p=0.0018) and students who had not. There were significant differences in anxiety about mental illness between students who had classes on mental health nursing (p=.0005), clinical experience (p=0.0035), and work experience in the mental health field (p=0.0012). Significant differences in an interest in a future career in mental health nursing emerged between students with and without prior mental health experience and between students with and without an interest in an externship program with p-values of 0.0012 and students have to mental health nursing through clinical experiences, theory classes, and previous work in the field, the more prepared they feel about caring for persons with mental health issues. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Predictors of mental health in female teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, Reingard; Spitzer, Silvia; Druschke, Diana; Scheuch, Klaus; Hinz, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47 ± 7 years) participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history), scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB) and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA), sense of coherence (SOC) and health behaviour. First, mentally fit (MH(+)) and mentally impaired teachers (MH(-)) were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH(+): teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH(+) and MH(-). Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%). Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.

  10. Predictors of mental health in female teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reingard Seibt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. Material and Methods: A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47±7 years participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history, scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA, sense of coherence (SOC and health behaviour. Results: First, mentally fit (MH+ and mentally impaired teachers (MH- were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH+: < 5; MH-: ≥ 5; 18% of the teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH+ and MH-. Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%. Conclusion: Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.

  11. Public green spaces and positive mental health - investigating the relationship between access, quantity and types of parks and mental wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa; Hooper, Paula; Foster, Sarah; Bull, Fiona

    2017-11-01

    Associations between parks and mental health have typically been investigated in relation to the presence or absence of mental illness. This study uses a validated measure of positive mental health and data from RESIDential Environments (RESIDE) Project to investigate the association between the presence, amount and attributes of public green space in new greenfield neighbourhood developments and the mental health of local residents (n = 492). Both the overall number and total area of public green spaces were significantly associated with greater mental wellbeing, and findings support a dose-response relationship. Positive mental health was not only associated with parks with a nature focus, but also with green spaces characterised by recreational and sporting activity. The study demonstrates that adequate provision of public green space in local neighbourhoods and within walking distance is important for positive mental health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The Influence of Masculine Norms and Occupational Factors on Mental Health: Evidence From the Baseline of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Kavanagh, Anne; King, Tania; Currier, Dianne

    2018-01-01

    Men employed in male-dominated occupations are at elevated risk of work-related fatalities, injuries, and suicide. Prior research has focused on associations between psychosocial and physical exposures at work and health outcomes. However, masculine norms may also contribute to mental health. We used data from the baseline survey of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health to examine whether: (a) men in male-dominated jobs report greater adherence to masculine norms; (b) being in a male-dominated occupation is associated with poorer mental health; and (c) being in a male-dominated occupation modifies the association between masculine norms and mental health. Masculine norms were measured using the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI-22). Mental health was assessed using the SF-12. Results of regression analysis (adjusted for covariates) suggest a linear relationship between the extent to which an occupation is male-dominated and endorsement of values on the CMNI-22. Many CMNI-22 subscales were related to poorer mental health. However, the need for self-reliance was identified as the strongest predictor of poorer mental health. The mental health scale did not appear to be patterned by occupational gender composition and we did not find an interaction between the gender ratio of an occupation and the CNMI-22 scale. These findings highlight the need to address harmful aspects of masculinity as a potential cause of mental health problems. More longitudinal research is needed on the social domains in which gender and health are experienced, such as in the workplace.

  13. Religiousness and Mental Health: Systematic Review Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdAleati, Naziha S; Mohd Zaharim, Norzarina; Mydin, Yasmin Othman

    2016-12-01

    Many people use religious beliefs and practices to cope with stressful life events and derive peace of mind and purpose in life. The goal of this paper was to systematically review the recent psychological literature to assess the role of religion in mental health outcomes. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and psychological databases on the relationship between religiosity and mental health. Seventy-four articles in the English and Arabic languages published between January 2000 and March 2012 were chosen. Despite the controversial relationship between religion and psychiatry, psychology, and medical care, there has been an increasing interest in the role which spirituality and religion play in mental health. The findings of past research showed that religion could play an important role in many situations, as religious convictions and rules influence the believer's life and health care. Most of the past literature in this area reported that there is a significant connection between religious beliefs and practices and mental health.

  14. Mental imagery boosts music compositional creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sarah Shi Hui; Lim, Stephen Wee Hun

    2017-01-01

    We empirically investigated the effect of mental imagery on young children's music compositional creativity. Children aged 5 to 8 years participated in two music composition sessions. In the control session, participants based their composition on a motif that they had created using a sequence of letter names. In the mental imagery session, participants were given a picture of an animal and instructed to imagine the animal's sounds and movements, before incorporating what they had imagined into their composition. Six expert judges independently rated all music compositions on creativity based on subjective criteria (consensual assessment). Reliability analyses indicated that the expert judges demonstrated a high level of agreement in their ratings. The mental imagery compositions received significantly higher creativity ratings by the expert judges than did the control compositions. These results provide evidence for the effectiveness of mental imagery in enhancing young children's music compositional creativity.

  15. Mental imagery boosts music compositional creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Stephen Wee Hun

    2017-01-01

    We empirically investigated the effect of mental imagery on young children’s music compositional creativity. Children aged 5 to 8 years participated in two music composition sessions. In the control session, participants based their composition on a motif that they had created using a sequence of letter names. In the mental imagery session, participants were given a picture of an animal and instructed to imagine the animal’s sounds and movements, before incorporating what they had imagined into their composition. Six expert judges independently rated all music compositions on creativity based on subjective criteria (consensual assessment). Reliability analyses indicated that the expert judges demonstrated a high level of agreement in their ratings. The mental imagery compositions received significantly higher creativity ratings by the expert judges than did the control compositions. These results provide evidence for the effectiveness of mental imagery in enhancing young children’s music compositional creativity. PMID:28296965

  16. Permissive parenting and mental health in college students: Mediating effects of academic entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alison L; Hirsch, Jameson K

    2016-01-01

    Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants were 524 undergraduate students at a single institution (52% female; age range = 18-22). Data collection was completed in May 2011. Cross-sectional design. Participants completed online self-report measures of parenting styles, academic entitlement, stress, depressive symptoms, and well-being. Permissive parenting was associated with greater academic entitlement and, in turn, to more perceived stress and poorer mental health. Mother/father differences were found in some cases. Academic entitlement may partially explain why permissive parenting is detrimentally related to mental health for college students. Implications for academic affairs and counseling include helping students develop an appreciation of the role of self-regulation in college success.

  17. Lower blood pressure and apathy coincide in older persons with poorer functional ability: the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly People (DANTE) Study Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonen, Justine E F; Bertens, Anne Suzanne; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; Smit, Roelof A J; van der Grond, Jeroen; de Craen, Anton J M; de Ruijter, Wouter; van der Mast, Roos C

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between blood pressure (BP) measures and symptoms of apathy and depression in older adults with various levels of functional ability. Cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly people (DANTE) Study Leiden. Primary care setting, the Netherlands. Community-dwelling individuals aged 75 and older (N = 430). Systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured during home visits. Symptoms of apathy and depression were assessed using the Apathy Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), respectively. Stratified linear regression was performed in participants with better and worse functional ability according to the median of the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. In participants with lower functional ability, each 10-mmHg lower SBP, DBP, and MAP was associated with higher Apathy Scale scores (0.63, 0.92, and 0.94 points, respectively, all P < .005) but not with GDS-15 scores. In participants with higher functional ability, BP measures were not associated with Apathy Scale or GDS-15 scores. In older participants with poorer functional ability, lower BP was associated with more symptoms of apathy but not depression. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Poorer detection rates of severe fetal growth restriction in women of likely refugee background: A case for re-focusing pregnancy care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Mary Anne; East, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Severe fetal growth restriction (FGR) (Women of refugee background have been found to have poorer perinatal outcomes compared to others and these outcomes can in part be explained by previous history. However, less access to and engagement with pregnancy care may also be contributing factors. This study examined the impact of likely refugee background on severe FGR in a singleton pregnancy undelivered by 40 weeks. A retrospective study was undertaken utilising data on women who gave birth to a severely growth-restricted infant at Monash Health during January 2013-July 2015. Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were undertaken to examine the association between the mother being of likely refugee background and severe FGR in singletons delivered after 40 weeks. There was an association between the mother being of likely refugee background and giving birth to a severely growth-restricted baby after 40 weeks with these mothers at two and half times the odds compared to mothers of non-refugee background (adjusted odds ratio 2.52; 95% confidence interval: 1.44-4.42). While detecting FGR is clinically challenging, our findings suggest that maternity services need to be supported to offer care tailored to the specific needs of vulnerable and disadvantaged populations. Providing quality, culturally responsive and accessible care is fundamental to addressing refugee maternal and perinatal health inequalities. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. What is the empirical evidence that hospitals with higher-risk adjusted mortality rates provide poorer quality care? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mohammed A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing interest and publication of risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates, the relationship with underlying quality of care remains unclear. We undertook a systematic review to ascertain the extent to which variations in risk-adjusted mortality rates were associated with differences in quality of care. Methods We identified studies in which risk-adjusted mortality and quality of care had been reported in more than one hospital. We adopted an iterative search strategy using three databases – Medline, HealthSTAR and CINAHL from 1966, 1975 and 1982 respectively. We identified potentially relevant studies on the basis of the title or abstract. We obtained these papers and included those which met our inclusion criteria. Results From an initial yield of 6,456 papers, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several of these studies considered more than one process-versus-risk-adjusted mortality relationship. In total we found 51 such relationships in a widen range of clinical conditions using a variety of methods. A positive correlation between better quality of care and risk-adjusted mortality was found in under half the relationships (26/51 51% but the remainder showed no correlation (16/51 31% or a paradoxical correlation (9/51 18%. Conclusion The general notion that hospitals with higher risk-adjusted mortality have poorer quality of care is neither consistent nor reliable.

  20. Delinquency in incarcerated male adolescents is associated with single parenthood, exposure to more violence at home and in the community, and poorer self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdelja, Stanislava; Vokal, Petra; Bolfan, Marija; Erdelja, Sergej Augustin; Begovac, Branka; Begovac, Ivan

    2013-10-28

    To assess the relationships between delinquency and demographic and family variables, academic performance, war stressors, home/community, school, and media violence exposure, self-image, and psychopathology. This cross-sectional study included 100 delinquent, incarcerated male adolescents and 100 matched schoolchildren from Croatia. It lasted from January 2008 to June 2009, and used socio-demographic questionnaire, questionnaire on children's stressful and traumatic war experiences, exposure to violence scale, the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Youth Self-Report Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis showed that delinquency in incarcerated adolescents was more likely related to having parents who did not live together (odds ratio [OR] 2.40; confidence interval [CI] 1.18-4.90, P=0.015), being more exposed to violence at home/community (OR 3.84; CI 1.58-9.34, P=0.003), and having poorer self-image (OR 1.09; CI=1.03-1.16, P>0.002). Preventive and therapeutic interventions in incarcerated delinquents should be specifically targeted toward single parenthood, family factors, trauma oriented interventions, and focused on multiple dimensions of self-concept of adolescents.

  1. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904

  2. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B

    2015-09-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.

  3. Food Insecurity and Mental Health Status: A Global Analysis of 149 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D

    2017-08-01

    This study sought to determine the association of individual-level food insecurity (FI) with mental health status across all global regions. Cross-sectional data were analyzed in 2016 from the 2014 Gallup World Poll, a series of globally implemented, nationally representative surveys. FI was assessed using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale Survey Module for Individuals, an eight-question psychometric scale reporting individuals' experiences of FI. Individual-level composite indices of mental health, the Negative Experience Index and Positive Experience Index (0-100 scale), were calculated based on responses to five questions of respondents' recent negative and positive experiences, respectively, associated with depression and mental distress. The prevalence of any FI ranged from 18.3% in East Asia to 76.1% in Sub-Saharan Africa. In global analyses (149 countries) using adjusted multiple regression analyses, FI was associated in a dose-response fashion with poorer scores on the mental health indices (coefficient [95% CI]: Negative Experience Index: mild FI, 10.4 [9.5, 11.2]; moderate FI, 17.7 [16.4, 19.0]; severe FI, 24.5 [22.7, 26.3]; Positive Experience Index: mild FI, -8.3 [-9.3, -7.4]; moderate FI, -12.6 [-13.8, -11.3]; severe FI, -16.2 [-17.9, -14.5]). Within-region analyses (11 regions) consistently demonstrated the same trends. FI is associated with poorer mental health and specific psychosocial stressors across global regions independent of SES. The numerous pathways via which FI may contribute to common mental disorders, and the broad social implications of FI linked to cultural norms and self-efficacy, may contribute to the cross-cultural consistency of the findings. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mindfulness in Salah Prayer and its Association with Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Shahid; Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Ahmad, Irshad

    2017-12-01

    Plethora of researches has been carried out for the last many decades and has identified relationship between mental health and religious convictions; in particular, range of religious practices has been found instrumental in the promotion of mental health. The aim of this paper is to find out association between mindfulness in Salah (prayer) and mental health of individuals who identify themselves with Islam and to examine the mental health of those Muslims who offer Salah prayer with mindfulness and those who offer without mindfulness. A total of 174 participants with mean age of 21.57 including 62% males and females 38% were selected through convenient sampling. RAND Mental Health Inventory was used to measure mental health and other three variables; three self-reported measures were constructed. They included Islamic religious education scale, Salah education scale and mindfulness in Salah scale. Psychometric properties for all scales were established. The findings indicated that mean on mindfulness and mental health was significantly higher for those who were offering Salah (prayer) regularly (p prayer) with mindfulness had also significantly higher mean for mental health (p prayer regularly and with mindfulness have better mental health as compared with those who don't offer it regularly and with mindfulness. The findings of this study urge to spread awareness regarding offering prayer regularly with mindfulness for the better outcome of mental health in people.

  5. Co-occurring mental illness, substance use disorders, and antisocial personality disorder among clients of forensic mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogloff, James R P; Talevski, Diana; Lemphers, Anthea; Wood, Melisa; Simmons, Melanie

    2015-03-01

    Despite the number of studies investigating co-occurring disorders, and more recently, co-occurring disorders and criminal offending, few studies have considered samples from forensic mental health services. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between mental illness, substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, and offending. The prevalence of co-occurring disorders was investigated in 130 male offenders who had contact with the statewide forensic mental health service in Victoria, Australia. Offense histories and severity of offending were compared among participants diagnosed with a single mental illness (or no mental illness), co-occurring mental illness and substance use, and co-occurring disorders plus antisocial personality disorder. The majority of participants had co-occurring mental and substance use disorders; a significant minority met the criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Participants with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders, and those who had an additional diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, were responsible for more serious and frequent offending than those with mental illness alone. Forensic mental health services must take into account the effect that co-occurring disorders have on clients' functioning and offending. Those who work with people with psychiatric disabilities and co-occurring substance use disorders must ensure that the substance disorders are addressed to help ensure recovery from the mental illness and to reduce the likelihood of offending. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Postoperative mental confusion--association with postoperative hypoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Kehlet, H

    1993-01-01

    under general anesthesia, were monitored for oxygen saturation (SpO2) with a pulse oximeter on a preoperative night and on the second night after operation (11:00 PM to 7:00 AM). All patients were tested with a mental test questionnaire (the Hodkinson modification of the original Roth-Hopkins test...... major surgery had decreased mental function on the third day (p operation, whereas minor surgery did not impair mental function. There was a significant correlation between mental function on the third day after operation and mean SpO2 on the second postoperative.......04). During stepwise multiple regression analysis in patients undergoing major surgery, a significant relationship was found between postoperative mental test score and SpO2 (p mental function and other perioperative variables (age, premedication dose, duration of operation...

  7. Physical Punishment, Mental Health and Sense of Coherence Among Parents of Children with Intellectual Disability in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Miyako; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2016-09-01

    Although sense of coherence (SOC) moderates parental stress, the relationship between SOC, parental mental health and physical punishment of children with intellectual disabilities remains uncertain. The present authors describe parental physical punishment towards children with intellectual disabilities and investigate its related demographic characteristics, SOC and parental mental health. With the cooperation of Tokyo's 10 special needs schools, the present authors obtained 648 questionnaire responses from parents of children with intellectual disabilities. Of the parents, 69.7% reported having physically punished their children with intellectual disabilities. This was positively associated with parents' younger age, poorer mental health, lower SOC, children's younger age, birth order (firstborns) and disability type (autism/pervasive developmental disorder). This is the first study supporting the relationship between SOC, mental health and physical punishment use among parents of children with intellectual disabilities. It may assist the development of strategies to prevent physical abuse of children with disabilities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Women and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are not there Extremely high and low moods Aches, headaches, or digestive problems without a clear cause Irritability Social withdrawal Thoughts of suicide Mental disorders can be treated : If you are unsure where ...

  9. Mentalization, embodiment and narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of a strong interactive focus, it remains fundamentally rooted in a Cartesian ontology, overlooking embodied, expressive, enactive and sociocultural dimensions of social cognition. Furthermore, since mentalization theory was originally developed as a framework for understanding Borderline Personality Disorder...

  10. Obesity and Mental Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    People with serious mental illness who are overweight or obese can benefit from taking part in a fitness program called InSHAPE where they receive help with fitness, weight loss, and even grocery shopping on a budget.

  11. Help for Mental Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local university health centers for their psychiatry or psychology departments. You can also go to the website ... may face different mental health issues than the general public. For resources for both service members and ...

  12. Psychoneuroimmunology of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Virginia; Uribe, Javiera; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Palao, Diego; Menchón, José Manuel; Labad, Javier

    The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments. This study aims to conduct a narrative review of the scientific literature on the role of Psychoneuroimmunology in mental disorders, with special focus on diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues. The development of this body of knowledge may bring in the future important advances in the vulnerability, aetiopathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of some mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Mental Health Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress ... public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy and security of drugs (medications), biological products, medical devices, our ...

  14. Mental health awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-22

    Independent, family-owned veterinary group White Cross Vets has been focusing on wellbeing. One of its clinic directors, Rob Reid, joined a group from the practice for some training in mental health awareness. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  16. The promotion of mental health and the prevention of mental health problems in child and adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sunmi cho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving mental health and reducing the burden of mental illness are complementary strategies which, along with the treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental disorders, significantly improve population health and well-being. A Institute of Medicine report describes a range of interventions for mental disorders that included treatment and maintenance, reserving the term “prevention” for efforts that occur before onset of a diagnosable disorder. Mental health problems affect 10&#8211;20% of children and adolescents worldwide. Despite their relevance as a leading cause of health-related disability and their long lasting consequences, the mental health needs of children and adolescents are neglected. Early intervention can help reduce the significant impacts that children and adolescents with serious mental health problems may experience. Screening is the first step in early intervention, recognizing emotional and behavioral problems and providing help at an early stage. It is essential to implement early intervention in a sensitive and ethical manner to avoid any of the negative outcomes.

  17. Stereotactic lesioning for mental illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.-C.; Lee, T.-K.

    2008-01-01

    The authors report stereotactically created lesioning by radiofrequency or Cyberknife radiosurgery for patients with mental illness. Since 1993, thirty-eight patients have undergone stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable mental illnesses. Two patients had aggressive behavior. Twenty-five patients suffered from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and ten patients had depression. Another patient suffered from atypical psychosis. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were done for aggressive behavior. Limbic leucotomy or anterior cingulotomy was done for CCD and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was done for depression. In twenty-three patients, the lesions were made by a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator. In fifteen cases, the lesions were made with Cyberknife Radiosurgery (CKRS). The Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement during follow up period. With long-term follow up (meaning 57 months) in 25 OCDs, the mean Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (YBOCS) declined from 34 to 13 (n = 25). The Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD) for ten patients with depression declined from 38.5 to 10.5 (n = 10). There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except one case with transient urinary incontinence. Authors suggest that stereotactic psychosurgery by RF and CKRS could be a safe and effective means of treating some medically intractable mental illnesses. (author)

  18. The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire: a psychometric evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim of the pre......The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim...... 0.30 for the 12 and the 22 item scales. All five Mental Vulnerability scales had positively skewed score distributions which were associated significantly with both SCL-90-R symptom scores and NEO-PI-R personality scales (primarily Neuroticism and Extraversion). Coefficient alpha was highest...

  19. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.

  20. Mental sundhed i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Grabowski, Dan

    Denne rapport sætter fokus på børn og unges mentale sundhed. Skolen kan gøre en forskel ved at skabe rammerne for en mental sundhedsfremmende skole, der tænker sundhedsbegrebet bredt. Men skolen bør ikke stå alene med ansvaret og derfor er der behov for en samlet strategi. En mentalt sundhedsfrem...

  1. Radiation and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    A brief article discusses mental retardation in children who had been exposed to ionizing radiation in utero. The time of greatest sensitivity is between the 8th and 15th week after conception and the time of lesser sensitivity between the 16th and 25th weeks. An examination of the thresholds for exposure indicate that severe mental retardation would not result from any present environmental exposures of the public. (U.K.)

  2. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  3. Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

  4. Business travel and behavioral and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, Andrew G; Revenson, Tracey A; Friedman, Michael

    2017-12-21

    Assess associations between business travel and behavioral and mental health. Cross-sectional analyses of de-identified electronic medical record data from EHE International, Inc. a provider of corporate wellness programs. Higher levels of business travel were associated with poorer outcomes. Compared to traveling 1-6 nights/month for work, those who traveled 21 + nights were more likely to: smoke (prevalence ratio = 3.74, 95% CI 2.56, 5.46), report trouble sleeping (PR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.09, 1.71), be sedentary (PR = 1.95, 95%CI 1.56, 2.43) and score above clinical thresholds for alcohol dependence (CAGE score>1: PR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.26, 3.29), and mild or worse anxiety (GAD-7 Score>4: PR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.29, 2.21) and depression symptoms (PHQ-9 Score>4: PR = 2.27, 95%CI 1.70, 3.03). Employers should provide programs to help employees manage stress and maintain health while traveling for work.

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder: An exploratory study examining rates of trauma and PTSD and its effect on client outcomes in community mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yellowlees Peter

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD were examined in order to compare the profile in clients of an Australian Public Mental Health Service with that reported in the international literature for clients with major mental illness and to explore the effect of this on client health outcomes. Potential factors contributing to increased levels of trauma/PTSD in this group of clients and the issue of causality between PTSD and subsequent mental illness was also explored. Methods A convenience sample of 29 clients was screened for trauma and PTSD using the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale™ (PDS and selected outcome measures. Paired and independent samples t-test and ANOVA were applied to the data. Results High levels of undocumented trauma and PTSD were found. Twenty clients, (74% reported exposure to multiple traumatic events; 33.3% (9 met DSM IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Significant difference was found for PTSD symptomatology, severity and impairment and for client and clinician-rated scores of Quality of Life (QOL outcomes in the PTSD group. No effect for PTSD symptomatology on the Working Alliance (WA was found. Factors that may influence higher rates of PTSD in this group were identified and included issues associated with the population studied, the predominance of assaultive violence found, and vulnerability and risks factors associated with re-traumatisation within the social and treating environments. Conclusion A similar trauma and PTSD profile to that reported in the international literature, including greater levels of trauma and PTSD and a poorer QOL, was found in this small sample of clients. It is postulated that the increased levels of trauma/PTSD as reported for persons with major mental illness, including those found in the current study, are primarily related to the characteristics of the population that access public mainstream psychiatric services and that these factors have

  6. Students' benefits and barriers to mental health help-seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Nabors, Laura A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma is recognized as a potential barrier to seeking help for a mental health disorder. The present study assessed college students' perceived benefits and barriers to obtaining mental health treatment and stigma-related attitudes via a four-page survey. A total of 682 students at one Midwestern university participated in the study. Findings indicated that females perceived a greater number of benefits to having participated in mental health services and held significantly lower stigma-rela...

  7. Self-reliance, mental health need, and the use of mental healthcare among island Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Alegría, Margarita

    2002-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between self-reliance (preference to solve emotional problems on one's own) and 5 mental healthcare utilization outcomes for Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas. A random probability community sample of noninstitutionalized Puerto Ricans, ages 18-69, living in low-income areas of the island were selected and interviewed in 1992-93 and 1993-94. A series of logistic regression models tested the association between self-reliance and 5 mental health utilization measures, after adjusting for covariates measuring predisposing, enabling, need and barrier factors: any use of mental health services, any use of general health services for mental healthcare, any use of specialty care, use of psychotropic medications, and retention in mental healthcare. Self-reliance was found to be negatively associated with all 5 dependent service utilization measures. Those with a positive self-reliant attitude were 40% less likely to use care on any of the 5 outcome measures. An interaction was also observed between definite need for mental healthcare and having a self-reliant attitude when predicting mental health service use. Definite needers with a self-reliant attitude were 54%-58% less likely to use mental health services compared with definite needers who did not have a self-reliant attitude. Further, decreases in self-reliant attitude over the two data collection periods were associated with increases in mental health service use. Our findings suggest that self-reliance is a significant and robust predictor of mental healthcare utilization among Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas of the island.

  8. Sleep problems and mental health in primary school new entrants: cross-sectional community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Jon; Hiscock, Harriet; Wake, Melissa

    2012-12-01

    To determine at school entry (i) the prevalence and types of child sleep problems; (ii) sleep difficulties and hygiene practices associated with sleep problems; and (iii) their associations with child health-related quality of life, mental health and parent mental health. We conducted a cross-sectional community-based study at 22 primary schools in Melbourne, Australia. One thousand five hundred and twelve (70%) parents of children in the first 6 months of the child's first year of primary school took part. Parent report of child sleep problems (none, mild, and moderate/severe); sleep difficulties; pre-bedtime activities (television in bedroom, television or electronic games before bedtime, television or electronic games >2 h/day) and caffeine intake; child mental health (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), health-related quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory); and parent mental health (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21). 38.6% of children had a parent-reported sleep problem (27.9% mild, 10.8% moderate/severe). Sleep problems were characterised by problematic sleep difficulties but not poor sleep hygiene practices. Moderate/severe sleep problems were associated with poorer child mental health (mean difference -0.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.1 to -0.5, P health-related quality of life (mean difference -9.9; 95% CI -11.9 to -7.9, P mental health (mean difference 9.8; 95% CI 7.7-11.9, P school entrants, sleep problems are common and associated with poorer child mental health, health-related quality of life and parent mental health. Future research needs to determine if systematically addressing sleep problems improves these outcomes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. Prior Mental Fatigue Impairs Marksmanship Decision Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Head

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mental fatigue has been shown to impair subsequent physical performance in continuous and discontinuous exercise. However, its influence on subsequent fine-motor performance in an applied setting (e.g., marksmanship for trained soldiers is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether prior mental fatigue influences subsequent marksmanship performance as measured by shooting accuracy and judgment of soldiers in a live-fire scenario.Methods: Twenty trained infantry soldiers engaged targets after completing either a mental fatigue or control intervention in a repeated measure design. Heart rate variability and the NASA-TLX were used to gauge physiological and subjective effects of the interventions. Target hit proportion, projectile group accuracy, and precision were used to measure marksmanship accuracy. Marksmanship accuracy was assessed by measuring bullet group accuracy (i.e., how close a group of shots are relative to center of mass and bullet group precision (i.e., how close are each individual shot to each other. Additionally, marksmanship decision accuracy (correctly shooting vs. correctly withholding shot when engaging targets was used to examine marksmanship performance.Results: Soldiers rated the mentally fatiguing task (59.88 ± 23.7 as having greater mental workload relative to the control intervention [31.29 ± 12.3, t(19 = 1.72, p < 0.001]. Additionally, soldiers completing the mental fatigue intervention (96.04 ± = 37.1 also had lower time-domain (standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals heart rate variability relative to the control [134.39 ± 47.4, t(18 = 3.59, p < 0.001]. Projectile group accuracy and group precision failed to show differences between interventions [t(19 = 0.98, p = 0.34, t(19 = 0.18, p = 0.87, respectively]. Marksmanship decision errors significantly increased after soldiers completed the mental fatigue intervention (48% ± 22.4 relative to the control

  10. Salud Mental y desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Sarmiento Suárez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre salud mental y desarrollo es tan estrecha como ignorada. Aunque ambas buscan potenciar las capacidades de los individuos para lograr un bienestar individual que redunde en la comunidad, la salud mental ha sido sistemáticamente excluida de los planes de desarrollo. Los problemas de salud mental afectan a millones de personas en el mundo quienes, al no recibir un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno, pueden desarrollar un trastorno. Se calcula que una de cada cuatro personas desarrolla algún tipo de enfermedad mental a lo largo de su vida. En tanto se cree que no es posible recuperarse de estas enfermedades, los recursos no están dirigidos a intervenir sobre ellas. Siendo absolutamente transversal a todos los aspectos de nuestras vidas, y por tanto un pilar fundamental en el desarrollo sostenible, el gasto global en salud mental es de menos de dos dólares por persona por día. Situación que no sólo impacta directamente sobre las tres dimensiones del Índice de Desarrollo Humano (IDH - salud, educación y estándares de vida - sino que perpetúa la condición de desigualdad estructural en que viven las personas con trastornos mentales. Mientras los problemas de salud mental afectan la esperanza de vida, los años de instrucción esperados y el Ingreso Nacional Bruto per cápita, siendo a su vez causa y consecuencia de la pobreza, las personas con trastornos mentales deben enfrentar numerosas barreras para el acceso a la educación, a las oportunidades de empleo y otras fuentes de generación de ingresos, debido a la estigmatización, discriminación y marginación que históricamente han vivido. Por tanto, si queremos que todos sean partícipes de las oportunidades de desarrollo, es necesario un cambio estructural donde desaparezca el estigma frente a los trastornos mentales, que permita posicionar la salud mental como eje de los planes de desarrollo y aumentar la inversión en la promoción de la salud mental y la prevención e

  11. Do Undiagnosed Suicide Decedents Have Symptoms of a Mental Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Thomas E; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Chu, Carol

    2017-12-01

    Psychological autopsy studies consistently report that the rate of detected mental disorders among suicide decedents is below 100%. This implies three possibilities: (a) a subset of suicide decedents did not have a mental disorder at the time of death; (b) all suicide decedents suffered from a mental disorder, but some were undetected due to methodological limitations; and/or (c) suicide decedents with an undetected mental disorder displayed significant and perhaps subclinical features of a mental disorder. In this article, we examined these possibilities by evaluating the differences in symptoms and stressors between suicide decedents who were undiagnosed and those diagnosed with a mental disorder at the time of death. We reviewed 130 case studies of community-based suicide decedents originally described in Robins' (1981) psychological autopsy study. Without exception, suicide decedents in Robins' sample suffered either from a clearly diagnosable mental disorder or displayed features indicative of a significant, even if subclinical, presentation of a mental disorder. Undiagnosed and diagnosed suicide decedents did not significantly differ with regards to demographics, violence of suicide method, suicide attempt history, the number and intensity of stressful life events preceding death, and whether their death was a murder-suicide. Although clearly not all who suffer from mental disorders will die by suicide, these findings imply that all who die by suicide appear to exhibit, at minimum, subclinical psychiatric symptoms with the great majority showing prominent clinical symptoms. We conclude with clinical implications and recommendations for future study. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Life satisfaction and mental health problems (18 to 35 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, D M; McLeod, G F H; Horwood, L J; Swain, N R; Chapple, S; Poulton, R

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has found that mental health is strongly associated with life satisfaction. In this study we examine associations between mental health problems and life satisfaction in a birth cohort studied from 18 to 35 years. Data were gathered during the Christchurch Health and Development Study, which is a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 children, born in Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1977. Assessments of psychiatric disorder (major depression, anxiety disorder, suicidality, alcohol dependence and illicit substance dependence) using DSM diagnostic criteria and life satisfaction were obtained at 18, 21, 25, 30 and 35 years. Significant associations (p life satisfaction and the psychiatric disorders major depression, anxiety disorder, suicidality, alcohol dependence and substance dependence. After adjustment for non-observed sources of confounding by fixed effects, statistically significant associations (p life satisfaction and major depression, anxiety disorder, suicidality and substance dependence. Overall, those reporting three or more mental health disorders had mean life satisfaction scores that were nearly 0.60 standard deviations below those without mental health problems. A structural equation model examined the direction of causation between life satisfaction and mental health problems. Statistically significant (p life satisfaction and mental health problems. After adjustment for confounding, robust and reciprocal associations were found between mental health problems and life satisfaction. Overall, this study showed evidence that life satisfaction influences mental disorder, and that mental disorder influences life satisfaction.

  13. Younger people with Type 2 diabetes have poorer self-care practices compared with older people: results from the Australian National Diabetes Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, N; Pease, A J; Ranasinha, S; Wischer, N; Andrikopoulos, S; de Courten, B; Zoungas, S

    2018-05-05

    This cross-sectional study compares the self-care practices of younger and older people with Type 2 diabetes. Data were analysed from the Australian National Diabetes Audit (ANDA) including 2552 adults with Type 2 diabetes from Australian Diabetes Centres. Pre-specified demographic and clinical variables were obtained. Self-care variables (physical activity, following dietary recommendations, medication adherence and monitoring blood glucose levels) were compared in people ≤ 64 and > 64 years of age. Mean age (± sd) of participants was 63 ± 13 years overall, 53 ± 9 years for the younger group and 73 ± 6 years for the older group. A greater proportion of younger people had HbA 1c levels > 53 mmol/mol (> 7.0%) (76% vs. 68%), reported difficulty following dietary recommendations (50% vs. 32%) and forgetting medications (37% vs. 22%) compared with older people (all P-values  64 years required insulin therapy (59% vs. 57%, P = 0.200). Younger age was associated with a twofold increase in the odds of not following the recommended self-care practices after adjustment for gender, smoking, insulin therapy, depression and allied health attendance (all P < 0.001). Despite shorter diabetes duration, younger age was associated with worse glycaemic control and poorer diabetes self-care practices among people with Type 2 diabetes. Targeted strategies are required to optimize diabetes self-care practices and thereby glycaemic control. © 2018 Diabetes UK.

  14. Mental health, employment status and parenthood: the impact of the economic downturn on portuguese youth mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Frasquilho, Diana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background: Economic recessions pose significant risks to individuals’ mental health and well-being. Common mental disorders are already highly prevalent in Europe, and more so in Portugal. Thus, changes in macroeconomic conditions are likely to aggravate this scenario. The exponential and rapid increase of unemployment is a particular consequence of the economic recession that has been proven to have a detrimental effect on mental health and well-being at both individual and popula...

  15. Developing mental health services in Nigeria : the impact of a community-based mental health awareness programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Julian; Agomoh, Ahamefula O

    2008-07-01

    This grass-roots level mental health awareness programme considerably increased use of community-based mental health services in a part of Nigeria where knowledge about treatability of mental illness was limited. The benefits of the programme were sustained for a significant period after the initial awareness programme. In order for attitude changes to be reinforced, similar awareness programmes must be repeated at regular intervals.

  16. Moral Decisions and Military Mental Health (Decisions morales et sante mentale dans l’armee)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    combat exposures were significantly more likely to have a history of psychiatric health issues, to have been engaged in physical altercation with spouse...perspective because of the focus on daily functioning and the subjective experience of the physical , mental and social health . Among soldiers seize experiences... physical [34], and mental health [3], [39]. The personality trait neuroticism would be a good predictor of physical and psychological symptoms following

  17. [Greek students' attitudes towards mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, D; Gouti, A; Kaloudi, E; Τourlende, N; Douzenis, A; Christodoulou, C; Lykouras, L; Livaditis, M; Samakouri, M

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs of the population regarding the mentally ill have been universally subject of many researches. Research of different groups' opinion for mental disorders has given remarkable findings that assist in the right design of psychiatric services. Objective of this thesis is to study the attitude of students towards mental illness. In particular, it intends to study the differences derived from the age, gender, place of birth, kind of studies, year of study, duration of stay at the place of studies and the existence of mental disorders in the student's family. Data were collected from 536 students randomly selected from Universities and Technological Institutions both in Athens and Thessaloniki. In general, the participants are being divided based on the subject of their studies in undergraduates of human sciences, exact sciences, social and health sciences. The short version of the scale "Community Attitudes Toward the Mentality III" (CAMI) was used, which consists of 26 questions sorted to four subscales (domination scale, humanism scale, social exclusion scale and the scale measuring the community beliefs regarding the care of mentally ill), along with a special questionnaire in order to collect social and demographic data. Students' attitudes towards mental illness are influenced by demographic factors, the department they are studying at and the year of study. Female gender (p=0.000), personal contact with mentally ill (p=0.012), studying in Universities (p=0.031) and especially social sciences (p=0.009) are associated with positive attitudes. On the contrary, less years of studying are associated with negative attitudes whereas older students appear to score less in the Domination Scale (p=0.000). It is significant that the place of birth (p=0,335) and the duration of stay at the place of studies (r=0.735) did not show any association with the variables studied in this research. However these results cannot be compared with older researches

  18. Feminism, eating, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J H

    1991-03-01

    Eating disorders are prevalent health problems for women today. The traditional biomedical or psychiatric approaches offer a narrow perspective of the problem, its courses, and its treatment. Analyzing disordered eating from a feminist perspective, this article discusses cultural, political, and social phenomena that have had a significant impact on the development of these disorders. Parallels of eating disorders and other women's mental illnesses and the medicalization of their symptoms is explored. A "new view" of disordered eating in women is proposed that can be advanced only through feminist research.

  19. Dating violence, quality of life and mental health in sexual minority populations: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Choi, Edmond Pui-Hang; Lo, Herman Hay-Ming; Wong, Wendy; Chio, Jasmine Hin-Man; Choi, Anna Wai-Man; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak

    2017-04-01

    Theories explaining the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health have focused on heterosexual relationships. It is unclear whether mental health disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority people are due to IPV or factors related to sexual orientation. The present study aimed to investigate pathways of how sexual orientation influenced quality of life and mental health. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 1076 young adults in a university population (934 heterosexual and 142 sexual minority groups). Structural equation modelling was used to examine the pathways of sexual orientation, dating violence, sexual orientation concealment, quality of life and mental health (perceived stress, anxiety and depression). After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, quality of life in sexual minority people was poorer [estimate -2.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI) -4.77 to -0.86, p = 0.005], and stress (estimate 2.77, 95 % CI 1.64-3.92, p violence and sexual orientation concealment were mediators, with the models showing a good fit. Our study has progressed investigation of the link between sexual orientation and quality of life and mental health in the Chinese context. It has helped identify health disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority people and determined specific factors affecting their quality of life and mental health.

  20. From Discrimination to Internalized Mental Illness Stigma: The Mediating Roles of Anticipated Discrimination and Anticipated Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Diane M.; Williams, Michelle K.; Weisz, Bradley M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Internalizing mental illness stigma is related to poorer well-being, but less is known about the factors that predict levels of internalized stigma. This study explored how experiences of discrimination relate to greater anticipation of discrimination and devaluation in the future, and how anticipation of stigma, in turn predicts greater stigma internalization. Method Participants were 105 adults with mental illness who self-reported their experiences of discrimination based on their mental illness, their anticipation of discrimination and social devaluation from others in the future, and their level of internalized stigma. Participants were approached in several locations and completed surveys on laptop computers. Results Correlational analyses indicated that more experiences of discrimination due to one’s mental illness were related to increased anticipated discrimination in the future, increased anticipated social stigma from others, and greater internalized stigma. Multiple serial mediator analyses showed that the effect of experiences of discrimination on internalized stigma was fully mediated by increased anticipated discrimination and anticipated stigma. Conclusion and Implications for Practice Experiences of discrimination over the lifetime may influence not only how much future discrimination people with mental illness are concerned with but also how much they internalize negative feelings about the self. Mental health professionals may need to address concerns with future discrimination and devaluation in order to decrease internalized stigma. PMID:25844910

  1. From discrimination to internalized mental illness stigma: The mediating roles of anticipated discrimination and anticipated stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Diane M; Williams, Michelle K; Weisz, Bradley M

    2015-06-01

    Internalizing mental illness stigma is related to poorer well-being, but less is known about the factors that predict levels of internalized stigma. This study explored how experiences of discrimination relate to greater anticipation of discrimination and devaluation in the future and how anticipation of stigma in turn predicts greater stigma internalization. Participants were 105 adults with mental illness who self-reported their experiences of discrimination based on their mental illness, their anticipation of discrimination and social devaluation from others in the future, and their level of internalized stigma. Participants were approached in several locations and completed surveys on laptop computers. Correlational analyses indicated that more experiences of discrimination due to one's mental illness were related to increased anticipated discrimination in the future, increased anticipated social stigma from others, and greater internalized stigma. Multiple serial mediator analyses showed that the effect of experiences of discrimination on internalized stigma was fully mediated by increased anticipated discrimination and anticipated stigma. Experiences of discrimination over one's lifetime may influence not only how much future discrimination people with mental illness are concerned with but also how much they internalize negative feelings about the self. Mental health professionals may need to address concerns with future discrimination and devaluation in order to decrease internalized stigma. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Shorter time since inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis in children is associated with lower mental health in parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, H; Braegger, Cp; Buehr, P; Koller, R; Nydegger, A; Spalinger, J; Heyland, K; Schibli, S; Landolt, Ma

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the mental health of parents of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared their mental health with age-matched and gender-matched references and examined parental and child predictors for mental health problems. A total of 125 mothers and 106 fathers of 125 children with active and inactive IBD from the Swiss IBD multicentre cohort study were included. Parental mental health was assessed by the Symptom Checklist 27 and child behaviour problems by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Child medical data were extracted from hospital records. While the mothers reported lower mental health, the fathers' mental health was similar, or even better, than in age-matched and gender-matched community controls. In both parents, shorter time since the child's diagnosis was associated with poorer mental health. In addition, the presence of their own IBD diagnosis and child behaviour problems predicted maternal mental health problems. Parents of children with IBD may need professional support when their child is diagnosed, to mitigate distress. This, in turn, may help the child to adjust better to IBD. Particular attention should be paid to mothers who have their own IBD diagnosis and whose children display behaviour problems. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Community Perceptions of Mental Illness in Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeeta, S J; Mathew, K J

    2017-09-01

    Understanding and perceptions about mental illness vary among individuals based on their experience with the illness or their contact with the people affected by it. These may be further influenced by the individuals' sociocultural background. This study aimed to understand the differences in the beliefs about, understanding of, and explanations for mental illness between different population groups of Jharkhand, India. During July 2014 to February 2016, we recruited the following 3 groups of individuals aged between 18 and 60 years: individuals with mental illness (group 1, n = 240), relatives of individuals with mental illness (group 2, n = 240), and the general public (group 3, n = 240). Qualitative and quantitative findings were combined in this study, and participants were asked about their beliefs about, understanding of, and explanations about mental illness. Individuals with mental illness and their relatives shared similar beliefs whereas the general public held a different opinion in various domains. There were significant differences among all groups in their understanding of various aspects of mental illnesses including the definition, causes, signs and symptoms, treatment, and outcomes. Individuals' perception towards different aspects of mental illness varies, despite they are sharing the same sociocultural milieu. Differences in beliefs, understanding, and explanations may lead to conflicts in treatment goals and expectations, and hamper the intervention strategies that promote mental health and patient care. Focused strategies to develop uniformity in beliefs and explanations about various aspects of mental illness may help to develop collaboration with different community groups that may in turn help in developing effective interventions and treatment.

  4. The relationship between physical and mental health: A mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrnberger, Julius; Fichera, Eleonora; Sutton, Matt

    2017-12-01

    There is a strong link between mental health and physical health, but little is known about the pathways from one to the other. We analyse the direct and indirect effects of past mental health on present physical health and past physical health on present mental health using lifestyle choices and social capital in a mediation framework. We use data on 10,693 individuals aged 50 years and over from six waves (2002-2012) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Mental health is measured by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES) and physical health by the Activities of Daily Living (ADL). We find significant direct and indirect effects for both forms of health, with indirect effects explaining 10% of the effect of past mental health on physical health and 8% of the effect of past physical health on mental health. Physical activity is the largest contributor to the indirect effects. There are stronger indirect effects for males in mental health (9.9%) and for older age groups in mental health (13.6%) and in physical health (12.6%). Health policies aiming at changing physical and mental health need to consider not only the direct cross-effects but also the indirect cross-effects between mental health and physical health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Observation of influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with heal...

  6. Mental resilience, perceived immune functioning, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Schrojenstein Lantman M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman,1 Marlou Mackus,1 Leila S Otten,1 Deborah de Kruijff,1 Aurora JAE van de Loo,1,2 Aletta D Kraneveld,1,2 Johan Garssen,1,3 Joris C Verster1,2,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Background: Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods: A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ, and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results: When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001, perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002, and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001. Conclusion: A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Keywords: mental resilience, immune functioning, health, vitality, quality of life

  7. Patterns of multiple health risk-behaviours in university students and their association with mental health: application of latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, M Y; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, K P; Duku, E; Faulkner, G

    2016-08-01

    University and college campuses may be the last setting where it is possible to comprehensively address the health of a large proportion of the young adult population. It is important that health promoters understand the collective challenges students are facing, and to better understand the broader lifestyle behavioural patterning evident during this life stage. The purpose of this study was to examine the clustering of modifiable health-risk behaviours and to explore the relationship between these identified clusters and mental health outcomes among a large Canadian university sample. Undergraduate students (n = 837; mean age = 21 years) from the University of Toronto completed the National College Health Assessment survey. The survey consists of approximately 300 items, including assessments of student health status, mental health and health-risk behaviours. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterning based on eight salient health-risk behaviours (marijuana use, other illicit drug use, risky sex, smoking, binge drinking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and insufficient sleep). A three-class model based on student behavioural patterns emerged: "typical," "high-risk" and "moderately healthy." Results also found high-risk students reporting significantly higher levels of stress than typical students (χ2(1671) = 7.26, p Students with the highest likelihood of engaging in multiple health-risk behaviours reported poorer mental health, particularly as it relates to stress. Although these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the 28% response rate, they do suggest that interventions targeting specific student groups with similar patterning of multiple health-risk behaviours may be needed.

  8. Patterns of multiple health risk–behaviours in university students and their association with mental health: application of latent class analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, M. Y.; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, K. P.; Duku, E.; Faulkner, G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: University and college campuses may be the last setting where it is possible to comprehensively address the health of a large proportion of the young adult population. It is important that health promoters understand the collective challenges students are facing, and to better understand the broader lifestyle behavioural patterning evident during this life stage. The purpose of this study was to examine the clustering of modifiable health-risk behaviours and to explore the relationship between these identified clusters and mental health outcomes among a large Canadian university sample. Methods: Undergraduate students (n = 837; mean age = 21 years) from the University of Toronto completed the National College Health Assessment survey. The survey consists of approximately 300 items, including assessments of student health status, mental health and health-risk behaviours. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterning based on eight salient health-risk behaviours (marijuana use, other illicit drug use, risky sex, smoking, binge drinking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and insufficient sleep). Results: A three-class model based on student behavioural patterns emerged: “typical,” “high-risk” and “moderately healthy.” Results also found high-risk students reporting significantly higher levels of stress than typical students (χ2(1671) = 7.26, p Students with the highest likelihood of engaging in multiple health-risk behaviours reported poorer mental health, particularly as it relates to stress. Although these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the 28% response rate, they do suggest that interventions targeting specific student groups with similar patterning of multiple health-risk behaviours may be needed. PMID:27556920

  9. Patterns of multiple health risk-behaviours in university students and their association with mental health: application of latent class analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Kwan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available University and college campuses may be the last setting where it is possible to comprehensively address the health of a large proportion of the young adult population. It is important that health promoters understand the collective challenges students are facing, and to better understand the broader lifestyle behavioural patterning evident during this life stage. The purpose of this study was to examine the clustering of modifiable health-risk behaviours and to explore the relationship between these identified clusters and mental health outcomes among a large Canadian university sample. Methods: Undergraduate students (n = 837; mean age = 21 years from the University of Toronto completed the National College Health Assessment survey. The survey consists of approximately 300 items, including assessments of student health status, mental health and health-risk behaviours. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterning based on eight salient health-risk behaviours (marijuana use, other illicit drug use, risky sex, smoking, binge drinking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and insufficient sleep. Results: A three-class model based on student behavioural patterns emerged: "typical," "high-risk" and "moderately healthy." Results also found high-risk students reporting significantly higher levels of stress than typical students (χ2(1671 = 7.26, p < .01. Conclusion: Students with the highest likelihood of engaging in multiple health-risk behaviours reported poorer mental health, particularly as it relates to stress. Although these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the 28% response rate, they do suggest that interventions targeting specific student groups with similar patterning of multiple health-risk behaviours may be needed.

  10. Cognitive, physical, and mental health outcomes between long-term cannabis and tobacco users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, M E; Bruno, R; Johnston, J; Matthews, A; McGregor, I; Allsop, D J; Lintzeris, N

    2018-04-01

    Cannabis intoxication adversely affects health, yet persistent effects following short-term abstinence in long-term cannabis users are unclear. This matched-subjects, cross-sectional study compared health outcomes of long-term cannabis and long-term tobacco-only users, relative to population norms. Nineteen long-term (mean 32.3years of use, mean age 55.7years), abstinent (mean 15h) cannabis users and 16 long-term tobacco users (mean 37.1years of use, mean age 52.9years), matched for age, educational attainment, and lifetime tobacco consumption, were compared on measures of learning and memory, response inhibition, information-processing, sustained attention, executive control, and mental and physical health. Cannabis users exhibited poorer overall learning and delayed recall and greater interference and forgetting than tobacco users, and exhibited poorer recall than norms. Inhibition and executive control were similar between groups, but cannabis users had slower reaction times during information processing and sustained attention tasks. Cannabis users had superior health satisfaction and psychological, somatic, and general health than tobacco users and had similar mental and physical health to norms whilst tobacco users had greater stress, role limitations from emotional problems, and poorer health satisfaction. Long-term cannabis users may exhibit deficits in some cognitive domains despite short-term abstinence and may therefore benefit from interventions to improve cognitive performance. Tobacco alone may contribute to adverse mental and physical health outcomes, which requires appropriate control in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Brief report: Cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with socio-demographics, aggressive behaviour at school, and mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Adam; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Jones, Rebecca; Allen, Elizabeth; Viner, Russell M; Bonell, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Relatively little is known about those who cyberbully others, especially in a UK context. We drew on data from 1144 young people aged 12-13 in eight English secondary schools to examine the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with sociodemographics, other behaviours, and health outcomes. Overall, 14.1% of respondents reported ever cyberbullying others with no significant differences by gender or socioeconomic status. Drawing on mixed-effects logistic regression models, first we found a strong, dose-response relationship between aggressive behaviour at school and cyberbullying others, suggesting that cyberbullying may not only be a facet of wider patterns of bullying but also of aggression more broadly. Second, cyberbullying others was associated with poorer quality of life and with psychological difficulties but not with peer/social problems or worse mental wellbeing. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess whether such associations are causal. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Atheism and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of the impact of religiosity on mental health is an enduring, if somewhat quiet, tradition. There has been virtually no exploration, however, of the influence of atheism on mental health. Though not a "religion," atheism can be an orienting worldview that is often consciously chosen by its adherents, who firmly believe in the "truth" of atheism-a phenomenon known as "positive atheism." Atheism, especially positive atheism, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance in the Western liberal democracies-a trend often referred to as the "new atheism." I argue that atheism, especially positive atheism, should be treated as a meaningful sociocultural variable in the study of mental health. I argue that atheism (just like theism) is an appropriate domain of study for social and cultural psychiatrists (and allied social scientists) interested in exploring socio-environmental stressors and buffers relating to mental health. Specifically, I argue that (1) atheism needs to be accurately measured as an individual-level exposure variable, with the aim of relating that variable to psychiatric outcomes, (2) there needs to be greater systematic investigation into the influence of atheism on psychiatry as an institution, and (3) the relation of atheism to mental health needs to be explored by examining atheistic theory and its practical application, especially as it relates to the human condition, suffering, and concepts of personhood.

  13. Change in subjective social status following HIV diagnosis and associated effects on mental and physical health among HIV-positive gay men in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the impact of HIV diagnosis on subjective social status and if changes are linked to health outcomes. Two measures of subjective social status, socio-economic and standing in the community were examined in 342 Australian HIV-positive gay men in 2014. Participants recalled ratings at diagnosis were compared with current ratings. Self-reported mental (psychological distress, self-esteem, positive mental health and satisfaction with life) and physical health (self-rated health, CD4 count, viral load). Half of the participants reported improvements in subjective socio-economic status (59%) or standing in the community (52%) since diagnosis, yet one quarter reported socio-economic status (25%) or standing in the community had decreased (23%). Increases in either measure of subjective social status were linked to higher self-esteem, positive mental health, satisfaction with life and better self-rated health. Decreases in subjective social status, however, were strongly linked to poorer outcomes on all mental health measures. Decreases in standing in the community were also associated with poorer physical self-rated health. Most participants reported their subjective social status were the same or better since diagnosis. Changes in subjective social status following diagnosis were strongly linked to mental health outcomes. Those who reported a decrease in subjective social status were particularly vulnerable to mental health problems.

  14. Structural and functional social network attributes moderate the association of self-rated health with mental health in midlife and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Tim D; Rioseco, Pilar; Fiori, Katherine L; Curtis, Rachel G; Booth, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Social relationships are multifaceted, and different social network components can operate via different processes to influence well-being. This study examined associations of social network structure and relationship quality (positive and negative social exchanges) with mental health in midlife and older adults. The focus was on both direct associations of network structure and relationship quality with mental health, and whether these social network attributes moderated the association of self-rated health (SRH) with mental health. Analyses were based on survey data provided by 2001 (Mean age = 65, SD = 8.07) midlife and older adults. We used Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to classify participants into network types based on network structure (partner status, network size, contact frequency, and activity engagement), and used continuous measures of positive and negative social exchanges to operationalize relationship quality. Regression analysis was used to test moderation. LCA revealed network types generally consistent with those reported in previous studies. Participants in more diverse networks reported better mental health than those categorized into a restricted network type after adjustment for age, sex, education, and employment status. Analysis of moderation indicated that those with poorer SRH were less likely to report poorer mental health if they were classified into more diverse networks. A similar moderation effect was also evident for positive exchanges. The findings suggest that both quantity and quality of social relationships can play a role in buffering against the negative implications of physical health decline for mental health.

  15. Internet information-seeking in mental health: population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John; Clarke, Aileen

    2006-09-01

    A major use of the of the internet is for health information-seeking. There has been little research into its use in relation to mental health. To investigate the prevalence of internet use for mental health information-seeking and its relative importance as a mental health information source. General population survey. Questions covered internet use, past psychiatric history and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Eighteen per cent of all internet users had used the internet for information related to mental health. The prevalence was higher among those with a past history of mental health problems and those with current psychological distress. Only 12% of respondents selected the internet as one of the three most accurate sources of information, compared with 24% who responded that it was one of the three sources they would use. The internet has a significant role in mental health information-seeking. The internet is used more than it is trusted.

  16. Mental vulnerability--a risk factor for ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Jørgensen, Torben; Birket-Smith, Morten

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine whether mental vulnerability is a risk factor for the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) after adjustment for well-established risk factors. METHODS: In three prospective cohort studies in Copenhagen County, Denmark, we recorded the level...... of mental vulnerability and possible risk factors to IHD at baseline. For follow-up, the sample was linked to relevant registries to identify all cases of fatal and nonfatal IHD. The relationship between mental vulnerability and IHD was examined using both Kaplan-Meir and Cox proportional hazard models...... adjusting for possible confounding factors. RESULTS: Mental vulnerability was significantly associated with the risk for IHD (medium mental vulnerability: hazard ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.91; and high mental vulnerability: hazard ratio 2.05; 95% confidence interval 1.46-2.88), after...

  17. Romantic relationships and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Home foreclosure, health, and mental health: a systematic review of individual, aggregate, and contextual associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Tsai

    Full Text Available The U.S. foreclosure crisis intensified markedly during the Great Recession of 2007-09, and currently an estimated five percent of U.S. residential properties are more than 90 days past due or in the process of foreclosure. Yet there has been no systematic assessment of the effects of foreclosure on health and mental health.I applied systematic search terms to PubMed and PsycINFO to identify quantitative or qualitative studies about the relationship between home foreclosure and health or mental health. After screening the titles and abstracts of 930 publications and reviewing the full text of 76 articles, dissertations, and other reports, I identified 42 publications representing 35 unique studies about foreclosure, health, and mental health. The majority of studies (32 [91%] concluded that foreclosure had adverse effects on health or mental health, while three studies yielded null or mixed findings. Only two studies examined the extent to which foreclosure may have disproportionate impacts on ethnic or racial minority populations.Home foreclosure adversely affects health and mental health through channels operating at multiple levels: at the individual level, the stress of personally experiencing foreclosure was associated with worsened mental health and adverse health behaviors, which were in turn linked to poorer health status; at the community level, increasing degradation of the neighborhood environment had indirect, cross-level adverse effects on health and mental health. Early intervention may be able to prevent acute economic shocks from eventually developing into the chronic stress of foreclosure, with all of the attendant benefits this implies for health and mental health status. Programs designed to encourage early return of foreclosed properties back into productive use may have similar health and mental health benefits.

  19. Pakistan mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.

  20. Mental representation of arm motion dynamics in children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Crognier

    Full Text Available Motor imagery, i.e., a mental state during which an individual internally represents an action without any overt motor output, is a potential tool to investigate action representation during development. Here, we took advantage of the inertial anisotropy phenomenon to investigate whether children can generate accurate motor predictions for movements with varying dynamics. Children (9 and 11 years, adolescents (14 years and young adults (21 years carried-out actual and mental arm movements in two different directions in the horizontal plane: rightwards (low inertia and leftwards (high inertia. We recorded and compared actual and mental movement times. We found that actual movement times were greater for leftward than rightward arm movements in all groups. For mental movements, differences between leftward versus rightward movements were observed in the adults and adolescents, but not among the children. Furthermore, significant differences between actual and mental times were found at 9 and 11 years of age in the leftward direction. The ratio R/L (rightward direction/leftward direction, which indicates temporal differences between low inertia and high inertia movements, was inferior to 1 at all ages, except for the mental movements at 9 years of age, indicating than actual and mental movements were shorter for the rightward than leftward direction. Interestingly, while the ratio R/L of actual movements was constant across ages, it gradually decreased with age for mental movements. The ratio A/M (actual movement/mental movement, which indicates temporal differences between actual and mental movements, was near to 1 in the adults' groups, denoting accurate mental timing. In children and adolescents, an underestimation of mental movement times appeared for the leftward movements only. However, this overestimation gradually decreased with age. Our results showed a refinement in the motor imagery ability during development. Action representation

  1. Determinants of Quality of Life and the Need for Support for the Elderly with Good Physical and Mental Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarska, Dorota; Tobis, Sławomir; Kotkowiak, Marta; Strugała, Magdalena; Stanisławska, Joanna; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna

    2018-03-19

    BACKGROUND The ageing of population is the reason that there are various strategies developed to help seniors acquire greater independence and a better quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the elderly peope's need for assistance and assessed quality of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 100 participants who were members of a Seniors Club in Poznań, Poland. The cross-sectional study utilized the following instruments: Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), EASY-Care Standard 2010 questionnaire, (WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. RESULTS Members of the Seniors' Club showed good functional condition. In the AMTS test, they scored near maximum values (average 9.39±0.77 points), somewhat poorer results were found in the IADL scale (average 20.92±3.96 points). In the EASY-Care questionnaire, the study participants usually required partial support in the following areas: Mental health and well-being (59%), Staying healthy (29%), Getting around (22%), and Seeing, hearing and communicating (22%). The average score on Independence was 13.13±18.51, The risk of breakdown in care scale was 4.39±3.21. The risk of falls affected 21 participants (21%). Quality of life study using WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire found that the highest scores were achieved in Psychological and Environment domains, and the lowest score in the Physical health domain. CONCLUSIONS Quality of life as well as level of independence, risk of falls, and need for 24-hour care were significantly affected by the following factors: urinary incontinence, difficulties in mobility outside the home, despondency, and forgetfulness.

  2. Severe interpersonal violence against children in sport: Associated mental health problems and quality of life in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Uzieblo, Kasia; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2018-02-01

    In a recent large-scale prevalence study of interpersonal violence (IV) against child athletes in the Netherlands and Belgium we found that 9% of adult respondents who participated in organized sports before the age of 18 had experienced severe psychological violence, 8% severe physical violence, and 6% severe sexual violence in various sport settings. While the general literature has repeatedly shown that exposure to IV during childhood is associated with mental health problems in adulthood and to a lesser extent with reduced quality of life (QOL), these relationships have not been demonstrated in (former) athletes. Thus, the current study aims to assess the association of severe childhood IV in sport and adult wellbeing. Depression, anxiety, and somatization were assessed in the same general population sample (N = 4043) using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18) and QOL with the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-Brèf). The association between severe IV in sport and adult wellbeing was investigated using multiple linear regression while controlling for demographics, recent life events, and relatives' psychological problems. We found severe sexual, physical, and psychological childhood IV in sport to be associated with more adult psychological distress and reduced QOL. Polyvictimization shows the strongest correlation with poorer wellbeing and QOL. Recent life events, relatives' psychological problems, marital status, and level of education were significant covariates in the psychological symptoms and QOL assessed. We hope that these new insights prompt sport administrators to implement broad spectrum child protection measures and raise the awareness of mental health professionals about the necessity to also screen for adverse childhood experiences in the sport context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Yoga as a School-Based Mental Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Research has estimated that the percentage of children and adolescents experiencing significant mental health difficulties is as high as 20% of all youth, and that only one-fourth of these students receive therapeutic services outside of school. Given this gap between the need and availability of mental health services, schools often become the…

  4. Identifying risks for mental health problems in HIV positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mental health problems of adolescents are underserved in low and middle-income countries where they account for a significant proportion of disease burden. Perinatally infected HIV-positive adolescents have a high prevalence of mental health disorders; however, little is known about those retained in care in ...

  5. Mental and Behavioral Disorders among People with Congenital Deafblindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The population of people with congenital deafblindness faces challenges concerning communication and mobility. Due to the significance of the sensory loss it is difficult to diagnose mental and behavioral disorders. This article investigates the prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders among 95 congenitally deafblind adults. Seventy-four…

  6. Mild mental stress in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Mehlsen, J; Sestoft, L

    1985-01-01

    A TV-game of tennis of 20 min duration was used to study the influence of mild mental stress on subcutaneous blood-flow (SBF), blood-pressure and heart rate in nine insulin-dependent diabetics and nine healthy subjects. SBF was measured on the thigh by local clearance of xenon-133. Measurements...... were made before, during and after the period of stress. During stress, SBF increased significantly by 26% in the healthy subjects, while SBF remained unchanged in the diabetics. The difference between the two groups was significant (P less than 0.05). Following stress, SBF returned to pre-stress level...... in the healthy subjects, while a significant decrease of 33% was observed in the diabetics. The pre-stress heart rate level was higher and the stress-induced increase in heart rate was less in the diabetics compared with the healthy subjects (P less than 0.05). During the stress a slight--but insignificant...

  7. Effect of pregnancy during TMI crisis on mothers' mental health and their child's development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, P.S.; Tokuhata, G.K.; Bratz, J.; Bartholomew, M.J.; Sheffer, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Five years after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, the mental health of women who had been pregnant and living within 10 miles of Three Mile Island at the time of the accident was similar to that of women from the same area who became pregnant after the accident. Ratings of the development of the two groups of children when they were 5 years old were also similar. However, women who were pregnant during the crisis and had been extremely disturbed about their pregnancies rated their children's health as poorer than did the women who were pregnant later

  8. Mental distress predicts divorce over 16 years: the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idstad, Mariann; Torvik, Fartein Ask; Borren, Ingrid; Rognmo, Kamilla; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian

    2015-04-01

    The association between mental distress and divorce is well established in the literature. Explanations are commonly classified within two different frameworks; social selection (mentally distressed people are selected out of marriage) and social causation (divorce causes mental distress). Despite a relatively large body of literature on this subject, selection effects are somewhat less studied, and research based on data from both spouses is scarce. The purpose of the present study is to investigate selection effects both at the individual level and the couple level. The current study is based on couple-level data from a Norwegian representative sample including 20,233 couples. Long-term selection effects were tested for by means of Cox proportional hazard models, using mental distress in both partners at baseline as predictors of divorce the next 16 years. Three identical sets of analyses were run. The first included the total sample, whereas the second and third excluded couples who divorced within the first 4 or 8 years after baseline, respectively. An interaction term between mental distress in husband and in wife was specified and tested. Hazard of divorce was significantly higher in couples with one mentally distressed partner than in couples with no mental distress in all analyses. There was also a significant interaction effect showing that the hazard of divorce for couples with two mentally distressed partners was higher than for couples with one mentally distressed partner, but lower than what could be expected from the combined main effects of two mentally distressed partners. Our results suggest that mentally distressed individuals are selected out of marriage. We also found support for a couple-level effect in which spouse similarity in mental distress to a certain degree seems to protect against divorce.

  9. Mental health informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Insu; Yellowlees, Peter; Diederich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces approaches that have the potential to transform the daily practice of psychiatrists and psychologists. This includes the asynchronous communication between mental health care providers and clients as well as the automation of assessment and therapy. Speech and language are particularly interesting from the viewpoint of psychological assessment. For instance, depression may change the characteristics of voice in individuals and these changes can be detected by a special form of speech analysis. Computational screening methods that utilise speech and language can detect subtle changes and alert clinicians as well as individuals and caregivers. The use of online technologies in mental health, however, poses ethical problems that will occupy concerned individuals, governments and the wider public for some time. Assuming that these ethical problems can be solved, it should be possible to diagnose and treat mental health disorders online (excluding the use of medication).

  10. Increase in the Inflammatory Marker GlycA over 13 Years in Young Adults Is Associated with Poorer Cognitive Function in Midlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Cohen-Manheim

    global cognition (standardized β = -.109, p = .011 as well as to the information processing speed and memory domains (standardized β = -.124, p = .008 and-.117, p = .014, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for low ranked global cognitive function (lowest fifth comparing the extreme quintiles of GlycA change was 4.8 (95%CI, 1.7-13.5, p = .003; p for trend = .031.In this longitudinal study of a novel systemic inflammatory marker in a population-based cohort of young adults, GlycA increase over 13 years, but not baseline measures of inflammation, was associated with poorer cognitive function in midlife.

  11. Mental health-related discrimination as a predictor of low engagement with mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Sarah; Williams, Paul; Farrelly, Simone; Hatch, Stephani L; Schauman, Oliver; Jeffery, Debra; Henderson, R Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that mental health-related discrimination experienced by adults receiving care from community mental health teams is associated with low engagement with services and to explore the pathways between these two variables. In this cross-sectional study, 202 adults registered with inner-city community mental health teams in the United Kingdom completed interviews assessing their engagement with mental health services (service user-rated version of the Service Engagement Scale), discrimination that they experienced because of mental illness, and other variables. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the relationship of experienced discrimination and service engagement with potential mediating and moderating variables, such as anticipated discrimination (Questionnaire on Anticipated Discrimination), internalized stigma (Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale), stigma stress appraisal (Stigma Stress Appraisal), mistrust in services, the therapeutic relationship (Scale to Assess Therapeutic Relationships), difficulty disclosing information about one's mental health, and social support. Analyses controlled for age, race-ethnicity, and symptomatology. No evidence was found for a direct effect between experienced discrimination and service engagement. The total indirect effect of experienced discrimination on service engagement was statistically significant (coefficient=1.055, 95% confidence interval [CI]=.312-2.074, p=.019), mainly via mistrust in mental health services and therapeutic relationships (coefficient=.804, CI=.295-1.558, p=.019). A 1-unit increase in experienced discrimination via this pathway resulted in .804-unit of deterioration in service engagement. Findings indicate the importance of building and maintaining service users' trust in mental health services and in therapeutic relationships with professionals and countering the discrimination that may erode trust.

  12. Poverty, social stress & mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, A; Jacob, K S

    2007-10-01

    While there is increasing evidence of an association between poor mental health and the experience of poverty and deprivation, the relationship is complex. We discuss the epidemiological data on mental illness among the different socio-economic groups, look at the cause -effect debate on poverty and mental illness and the nature of mental distress and disorders related to poverty. Issues related to individual versus area-based poverty, relative poverty and the impact of poverty on woman's and child mental health are presented. This review also addresses factors associated with poverty and the difficulties in the measurement of mental health and illness and levels/impact of poverty.

  13. Mental representation and mental practice: experimental investigation on the functional links between motor memory and motor imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Frank

    Full Text Available Recent research on mental representation of complex action has revealed distinct differences in the structure of representational frameworks between experts and novices. More recently, research on the development of mental representation structure has elicited functional changes in novices' representations as a result of practice. However, research investigating if and how mental practice adds to this adaptation process is lacking. In the present study, we examined the influence of mental practice (i.e., motor imagery rehearsal on both putting performance and the development of one's representation of the golf putt during early skill acquisition. Novice golfers (N = 52 practiced the task of golf putting under one of four different practice conditions: mental, physical, mental-physical combined, and no practice. Participants were tested prior to and after a practice phase, as well as after a three day retention interval. Mental representation structures of the putt were measured, using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation. This method provides psychometric data on the distances and groupings of basic action concepts in long-term memory. Additionally, putting accuracy and putting consistency were measured using two-dimensional error scores of each putt. Findings revealed significant performance improvements over the course of practice together with functional adaptations in mental representation structure. Interestingly, after three days of practice, the mental representations of participants who incorporated mental practice into their practice regime displayed representation structures that were more similar to a functional structure than did participants who did not incorporate mental practice. The findings of the present study suggest that mental practice promotes the cognitive adaptation process during motor learning, leading to more elaborate representations than physical practice only.

  14. Mental health need and access to mental health services by youths involved with child welfare: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Barbara J; Phillips, Susan D; Wagner, H Ryan; Barth, Richard P; Kolko, David J; Campbell, Yvonne; Landsverk, John

    2004-08-01

    This study assessed the relationship between the need for and use of mental health services among a nationally representative sample of children who were investigated by child welfare agencies after reported maltreatment. Data were collected at study entry into the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and were weighted to provide population estimates. Nearly half (47.9%) of the youths aged 2 to 14 years (N = 3,803) with completed child welfare investigations had clinically significant emotional or behavioral problems. Youths with mental health need (defined by a clinical range score on the Child Behavior Checklist) were much more likely to receive mental health services than lower scoring youth; still, only one fourth of such youths received any specialty mental health care during the previous 12 months. Clinical need was related to receipt of mental health care across all age groups (odds ratio = 2.7-3.5). In addition, for young children (2-5 years), sexual abuse (versus neglect) increased access to mental health services. For latency-age youths, African-American race and living at home significantly reduced the likelihood of care. Adolescents living at home were also less likely to receive services, whereas having a parent with severe mental illness increased (odds ratio = 2.4) the likelihood of service use. Routine screening for mental health need and increasing access to mental health professionals for further evaluation and treatment should be a priority for children early in their contact with the child welfare system.

  15. Sustained improvements in students' mental health literacy with use of a mental health curriculum in Canadian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcluckie, Alan; Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Weaver, Cynthia

    2014-12-31

    Enhancement of mental health literacy for youth is a focus of increasing interest for mental health professionals and educators alike. Schools are an ideal site for addressing mental health literacy in young people. Currently, there is limited evidence regarding the impact of curriculum-based interventions within high school settings. We examined the effect of a high-school mental health curriculum (The Guide) in enhancing mental health literacy in Canadian schools. We conducted a secondary analysis on surveys of students who participated in a classroom mental health course taught by their usual teachers. Evaluation of students' mental health literacy (knowledge/attitudes) was completed before and after classroom implementation and at 2-month follow-up. We used paired-samples t-tests and Cohen's d value to determine the significance and impact of change. There were 265 students who completed all surveys. Students' knowledge significantly improved between pre- and post-tests (p mental health. This is the first study to demonstrate the positive impact of a curriculum-based mental health literacy program in a Canadian high school population.

  16. [Prevention of mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Gühne, Uta

    2013-12-01

    Investment in prevention is a major public health requirement. Mental disorders are common and are associated with severe consequences. They are a major target for prevention. Based on vulnerabilitiy-stress-models the theoretical background for prevention in mental disorders is outlined. Effective strategies for children, adolescents, adults and individuals in old age do exist. Results regarding the prevention of depres-sion and psychoses are outlined and risk groups which require current actions are determined. Current activities towards a national prevention strategy in Germany are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. The Role of Mental Health Professionals Contributes to Mental Health Promotion and Prevention: Innovative Programmes in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovancevic, Milica Pejovic; Jovicic, Milica

    2013-01-01

    It has been estimated that 9 to 13% of children and adolescents have a mental disorder that causes significant functioning impairment and that only one fifth of those who need mental health services actually receive them. The majority of children and adolescents are enrolled in schools, where they spend a considerable amount of time, and this is…

  18. Child Neglect and Maltreatment and Childhood-to-Adulthood Cognition and Mental Health in a Prospective Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Pinto Pereira, Snehal; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Life-long adverse effects of childhood maltreatment on mental health are well established, but effects on child-to-adulthood cognition and related educational attainment have yet to be examined in the general population. We aimed to establish whether different forms of child maltreatment are associated with poorer cognition and educational qualifications in childhood/adolescence and whether associations persist to midlife, parallel to associations for mental health. Cognitive abilities at ages 7, 11, and 16 years (math, reading, and general intellectual ability) and 50 years (immediate/delayed memory, verbal fluency, processing speed) were assessed using standardized tests, and qualifications by age 42 were self-reported. Information on childhood maltreatment (neglect and abuse: sexual, physical, psychological, witnessed), cognition, and mental health was available for 8,928 participants in the 1958 British Birth Cohort. We found a strong association of child neglect with cognitive deficits from childhood to adulthood. To illustrate, the most neglected 6% of the population (score ≥4) had a 0.60 (95% CI = 0.56-0.68) SD lower cognitive score at age 16 and a 0.28 (95% CI = 0.20-0.36) SD deficit at age 50 years relative to the non-neglected participants (score = 0) after adjustment for confounding factors and mental health, and they also had increased risk of poor qualifications (i.e., none/low versus degree-level). Childhood neglect and all forms of abuse were associated with poorer child-to-adulthood mental health, but abuse was mostly unrelated to cognitive abilities. The study provides novel data that child neglect is associated with cognitive deficits in childhood/adolescence and decades later in adulthood, independent of mental health, and highlights the lifelong burden of child neglect on cognitive abilities and mental health. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cultural misconceptions and public stigma against mental illness among Lebanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmad; Fawaz, Mirna

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cultural misconceptions about mental illness and how they are associated with the public stigma against mental illness among Lebanese university students. A sample of 203 participants completed the study. Data about cultural misconceptions, attitudes about mental illness, and public stigma of mental illness were obtained. The researchers examined the mean difference in public stigma according to cultural beliefs about mental illness. The majority of students believe that mental health professionals have inadequate knowledge and expertise to treat mental disorders. Various cultural misconceptions about mental illness were reported. Public stigma significantly differed based on these cultural misconceptions. Psychiatric nurses should play a vital role in reshaping the inappropriate cultural view about mental illness. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Internet and mental health of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opsenica-Kostić Jelena J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's generations of adolescents have grown up with information and communication technologies which have a significant place in their lives. One of the important issues in this context is the relation between the Internet and the mental health of adolescents. The first topic that this paper deals with, is the relationship between the use of the Internet and mental health, and the other is related to the planned use of the Internet for the purpose of improving wellbeing. The most common activity of young people on the Internet is social networking. Online social networks can positively affect wellbeing through facilitating self-disclosing and the availability of social support. Such findings from empirical research support the ideas of theories that emphasize the positive aspects of online relating. However, social networks (and online communication in general can also have significant negative effects on the mental health of adolescents, if they are exposed to cyberbullying. The second topic of the paper is the planned use of the Internet for the purpose of improving mental health. To young people (and to members of other age groups, as well online support groups are the most accessible nowadays, aimed at supporting a group of people with a common problem or life challenge. These forums are most often text-based and this kind of communication has a number of potential benefits for users. It is also possible to organize online interventions that promote mental health and prevent its deterioration. Research shows that online skill-based interventions can have a positive impact on adolescent mental health. The results of the online prevention interventions indicate the encouraging evidence concerning computerized cognitive behavioral therapy interventions and their impact on adolescent's anxiety and depression symptoms. Although it contains potentially negative aspects, the Internet has a positive significance and potential for the development

  1. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Lai, Grace Ying-Chi; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person's participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) have specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from 2 Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semistructured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants' consideration of 3 critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network, involuntary disclosure could happen without participants' permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations in which they experienced little discriminatory treatment, and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all

  2. Psychedelics and mental health: a population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri S Krebs

    Full Text Available The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline.To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population.Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale, mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive, symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis, and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events.21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems.We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.

  3. Mental Health Services at Selected Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Thomas J.; Sherwin, Tierney E.; Baggish, Rosemary C.; Tacy, Peter B.; Meehan, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    Private schools educate a significant percentage of US children and adolescents. Private schools, particularly where students reside during the academic year, assume responsibility for the health and well-being of their students. Children and adolescents experience mental health problems at a predictable rate, and private schools need a mechanism…

  4. Relationship between mental toughness, stress appraisal, and innovation performance of R&D personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred and two R&D personnel were surveyed through questionnaires to study the relationship between mental toughness, stress appraisal (including experience of stress and stress control, and innovation performance. The findings reveal a significant negative correlation between mental toughness and stress experience and a significant positive correlation between mental toughness and both stress control and innovation performance. Furthermore, although the experience of stress was negatively correlated with innovation performance, stress control had the opposite effect. Experience of stress and stress control were the mediating variables for mental toughness and innovation performance, respectively. There was also a significant interaction effect between stress appraisal and mental toughness.

  5. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

  6. Teacher Candidate Mental Health and Mental Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dods, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…

  7. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...

  8. Mental Health Handbook for Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, M; Hornby, G

    2002-01-01

    This text provides information on a range of mental health problems that confront teachers and discusses their underlying causes. It considers what schools can do to help pupils and reflects on the role of the mental health services.

  9. Epidemiology of Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Rick

    Prevalence data on mental retardation is presented including international estimates on general prevalence, age directions, geographical variations within the United States, racial and ethnic variations, economic class distributions, family variations, and population distribution in institutions. Statistics are also provided in areas of specific…

  10. Mini mental state examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Lauritzen, Lise; Wang, August

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...... the severity of dementia disorders. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb-25...

  11. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  12. Nations for Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.

  13. Mental retirement and schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Martinello, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    , which affect cognitive functioning at old ages, they are invalid as instruments without controlling for schooling. We show by means of simulation and a replication study that unless the model incorporates schooling, the estimated effect of retirement is negatively biased. This explains a large part...... of the “mental retirement” effects which have recently been found...

  14. Mental sundhed i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    Baggrund: Skolebørns opfattelse af sundhed har i høj grad noget med deres selvbilleder, trivsel og sociale inklusion at gøre. Det viser en lang række nyere undersøgelser, der alle peger på, at det er nødvendigt at skærpe opmærksomheden på børn og unges mentale sundhed. Internationalt er der...... udviklet og afprøvet en række pædagogiske programmer, der kan bruges til at igangsætte aktiviteter, der fremmer børn og unges mentale sundhed i skolen. Især i USA, Australien og Storbritannien har der været fokus på evidensbaseret praksis og praksisbaseret evidens i denne sammenhæng. I Danmark har man ikke...... på sammen måde tilgængelig systematiseret viden herom. Sundhedsstyrelsen har gennem de senere år prioriteret indsatser og fremskrivning af evidensgrundlag til fremme af mental sundhed højt. Betydningen af børns mentale sundhed og overvejelser om, hvilken slags evidens der er behov for på dette område...

  15. Deploying the mental eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, A.J.; Wagemans, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Three observers performed a task designed to quantify their "pictorial relief" in visual awareness for a photograph of a piece of sculpture. In separate sessions, they were instructed to assume one of two "mental viewpoints." The main objective was to investigate whether human observers have such

  16. Incompatibility and Mental Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Thomas R.; Hayes, Lauren J.; Applin, Rebecca C.; Weatherly, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person's life should be positively correlated with that person's level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate…

  17. Pennsylvania Women's Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Kathryn; And Others

    Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…

  18. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  19. Social inequality, scientific inequality, and the future of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Charles E

    2017-12-19

    Despite five decades of increasingly elegant studies aimed at advancing the pathophysiology and treatment of mental illness, the results have not met expectations. Diagnoses are still based on observation, the clinical history, and an outmoded diagnostic system that stresses the historic goal of disease specificity. Psychotropic drugs are still based on molecular targets developed decades ago, with no increase in efficacy. Numerous biomarkers have been proposed, but none have the requisite degree of sensitivity and specificity, and therefore have no usefulness in the clinic. The obvious lack of progress in psychiatry needs exploration. The historical goals of psychiatry are reviewed, including parity with medicine, a focus on diagnostic reliability rather than validity, and an emphasis on reductionism at the expense of socioeconomic issues. Data are used from Thomas Picketty and others to argue that our failure to advance clinical care may rest in part on the rise in social and economic inequality that began in the 1970s, and in part on our inability to move beyond the medical model of specificity of disease and treatment. It is demonstrated herein that the historical goal of specificity of disease and treatment has not only impeded the advance of diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, but, in combination with a rapid increase in socioeconomic inequality, has led to poorer outcomes and rising mortality rates in a number of disorders, including schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression. It is proposed that Psychiatry should recognize the fact of socioeconomic