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Sample records for significantly increased relative

  1. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  2. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec......The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...

  3. Clinical significance of stress-related increase in blood pressure: current evidence in office and out-of-office settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Masanori

    2018-05-29

    High blood pressure is the most significant risk factor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases worldwide. Blood pressure and its variability are recognized as risk factors. Thus, hypertension control should focus not only on maintaining optimal levels but also on achieving less variability in blood pressure. Psychosocial stress is known to contribute to the development and worsening of hypertension. Stress is perceived by the brain and induces neuroendocrine responses in either a rapid or long-term manner. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation might be further involved in the modulation of blood pressure elevation associated with stress. White-coat hypertension, defined as high clinic blood pressure but normal out-of-office blood pressure, is the most popular stress-related blood pressure response. Careful follow-up is necessary for this type of hypertensive patients because some show organ damage or a worse prognosis. On the other hand, masked hypertension, defined as high out-of-office blood pressure but normal office blood pressure, has received considerable interest as a poor prognostic condition. The cause of masked hypertension is complex, but evidence suggests that chronic stress at the workplace or home could be involved. Chronic psychological stress could be associated with distorted lifestyle and mental distress as well as long-lasting allostatic load, contributing to the maintenance of blood pressure elevation. Stress issues are common in patients in modern society. Considering psychosocial stress as the pathogenesis of blood pressure elevation is useful for achieving an individual-focused approach and 24-h blood pressure control.

  4. Italian Credit Mobility Students Significantly Increase Their Alcohol Intake, Risky Drinking and Related Consequences During the Study Abroad Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresi, Giovanni; Moore, Simon; Marta, Elena

    2016-11-01

    To examine changes in alcohol intake and consequences in Italian students studying abroad. Italian exchange students planning to study abroad were invited to report on their drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences before and after their time abroad. After excluding those who abstained throughout, data on 121 students were analysed and showed that they tended to consume more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related negative consequences compared to their pre-departure levels. The added alcohol risk of study abroad for Italian students merits consideration of possible opportunities for intervention. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  6. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  7. MaquiBright™ standardized maqui berry extract significantly increases tear fluid production and ameliorates dry eye-related symptoms in a clinical pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitoe, S; Tanaka, J; Shimoda, H

    2014-09-01

    Dry eye symptoms, resulting from insufficient tear fluid generation, represent a considerable burden for a largely underestimated number of people. We concluded from earlier pre-clinical investigations that the etiology of dry eyes encompasses oxidative stress burden to lachrymal glands and that antioxidant MaquiBright™ Aristotelia chilensis berry extract helps restore glandular activity. In this pilot trial we investigated 13 healthy volunteers with moderately dry eyes using Schirmer test, as well as a questionnaire which allows for estimating the impact of dry eyes on daily routines. Study participants were assigned to one of two groups, receiving MaquiBright™ at daily dosage of either 30 mg (N.=7) or 60 mg (N.=6) over a period of 60 days. Both groups presented with significantly (Peye dryness on daily routines was evaluated employing the "Dry Eye-related Quality of life Score" (DEQS), with values spanning from zero (impact) to a maximum score of 60. Participants had comparable baseline values of 41.0±7.7 (30 mg) and 40.2±6.3 (60 mg). With 30 mg treatment the score significantly decreased to 21.8±3.9 and 18.9±3.9, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. With 60 mg treatment the DEQS significantly decreased to 26.9±5.3 and 11.1±2.7, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. Blood was drawn for safety analyses (complete blood rheology and -chemistry) at all three investigative time points without negative findings. In conclusion, while daily supplementation with 30 mg MaquiBright™ is effective, the dosage of 60 significantly increased tear fluid volume at all investigative time points and decreased dry eye symptoms to almost a quarter from initial values after two months treatment.

  8. Increased superior frontal gyrus activation during working memory processing in psychosis: Significant relation to cumulative antipsychotic medication and to negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Smieskova, Renata; Schmidt, André; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Eckert, Anne; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Graf, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Impairment in working memory (WM) is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, little is known about how clinical features influence functional brain activity specific to WM processing during the development of first-episode psychosis (FEP) to schizophrenia (SZ). We compared functional WM-specific brain activity in FEP and SZ patients, including the effects of the duration of illness, psychopathological factors and antipsychotic medication. Cross-sectional study of male FEP (n=22) and SZ (n=20) patients performing an n-back task when undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Clinical features were collected by semi-structured interviews and medical records. The SZ group performed significantly worse than the FEP group in the 2-back condition. The SZ group also showed significantly higher activation in the left superior frontal gyrus in the 2-back versus 0-back condition (2-back>0-back). This frontal activation correlated positively with negative symptoms and with cumulative antipsychotic medication during the year before the fMRI examination. There were no significant correlations between activation and duration of illness. There was greater frontal neural activation in SZ than in FEP. This indicated differences in WM processing, and was significantly related to cumulative antipsychotic exposure and negative symptoms, but not to the duration of illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sixteen-Day Bedrest Significantly Increases Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Hsieh, S. T.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Convertino, V. A.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Upon exposure to microgravity, astronauts lose up to 10% of their total plasma volume, which may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after space flight. Because plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is a primary factor maintaining plasma volume, our objective was to measure time course changes in COP during microgravity simulated by 6 deg. head-down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy male subjects (30-55 years of age) were placed in HDT for 16 days. For the purpose of another study, three of the seven subjects were chosen to exercise on a cycle ergometer on day 16. Blood samples were drawn immediately before bedrest on day 14 of bedrest, 18-24 hours following exercise while all subjects were still in HDT and 1 hour following bedrest termination. Plasma COP was measured in all 20 microliter EDTA-treated samples using an osmometer fitted with a PM 30 membrane. Data were analyzed with paired and unpaired t-tests. Plasma COP on day 14 of bedrest (29.9 +/- 0.69 mmHg) was significantly higher (p less than 0.005) than the control, pre-bedrest value (23.1 +/- 0.76 mmHg). At one hour of upright recovery after HDT, plasma COP remained significantly elevated (exercise: 26.9 +/- 0.87 mmHg; no exercise: 26.3 +/- 0.85 mmHg). Additionally, exercise had no significant effect on plasma COP 18-24 hours following exercise (exercise: 27.8 +/- 1.09 mmHg; no exercise: 27.1 +/- 0.78 mmHg). Our results demonstrate that plasma COP increases significantly with microgravity simulated by HDT. However, preliminary results indicate exercise during HDT does not significantly affect plasma COP.

  10. Significance in the increase of women psychiatrists in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Kyoung; Kim, Soo In

    2008-01-01

    The number of female doctors has increased in Korea; 18.9% (13,083) of the total medical doctors registered (69,097) were women in 2006, compared to 13.6% (2,216) in 1975. The proportion of female doctors will jump up by 2010 considering that nearly 40% of the medical students are women as of today. This trend has had strong influence on the field of psychiatry; the percentage of women psychiatrists rose from 1.6 (6)% to 18% (453), from 1975 to 2006 and now women residents comprise 39% (206) of all. This is not only a reflection of a social phenomenon of the increase in professional women but also attributed to some specific characteristics of the psychiatry. Psychiatric practice may come more natural to women. While clinical activities of women psychiatrists are expanding, there are few women leaders and much less women are involving in academic activities in this field as yet. Though there is less sexual discrimination in the field of psychiatry, women psychiatrists are still having a lot of difficulties in balancing work and family matters. Many women psychiatrists also report they've ever felt an implied discrimination in their careers. In this study, we are to identify the characteristics of women psychiatrists and to explore the significance of the increase in women psychiatrists in Korea and the situation in which they are.

  11. Increasing the statistical significance of entanglement detection in experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnitsch, Bastian; Niekamp, Sönke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Gühne, Otfried; Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2010-05-28

    Entanglement is often verified by a violation of an inequality like a Bell inequality or an entanglement witness. Considerable effort has been devoted to the optimization of such inequalities in order to obtain a high violation. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that such an optimization does not necessarily lead to a better entanglement test, if the statistical error is taken into account. Theoretically, we show for different error models that reducing the violation of an inequality can improve the significance. Experimentally, we observe this phenomenon in a four-photon experiment, testing the Mermin and Ardehali inequality for different levels of noise. Furthermore, we provide a way to develop entanglement tests with high statistical significance.

  12. Increasing the statistical significance of entanglement detection in experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungnitsch, Bastian; Niekamp, Soenke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Innsbruck (Austria); Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Zeng-Bing [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Entanglement is often verified by a violation of an inequality like a Bell inequality or an entanglement witness. Considerable effort has been devoted to the optimization of such inequalities in order to obtain a high violation. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that such an optimization does not necessarily lead to a better entanglement test, if the statistical error is taken into account. Theoretically, we show for different error models that reducing the violation of an inequality can improve the significance. We show this to be the case for an error model in which the variance of an observable is interpreted as its error and for the standard error model in photonic experiments. Specifically, we demonstrate that the Mermin inequality yields a Bell test which is statistically more significant than the Ardehali inequality in the case of a photonic four-qubit state that is close to a GHZ state. Experimentally, we observe this phenomenon in a four-photon experiment, testing the above inequalities for different levels of noise.

  13. Do the Uncertainty Relations Really have Crucial Significances for Physics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is proved the falsity of idea that the Uncertainty Relations (UR have crucial significances for physics. Additionally one argues for the necesity of an UR-disconnected quantum philosophy.

  14. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalencein foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C.; Roon, van A.M.; Takumi, K.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of

  15. Increasing vaginal progesterone gel supplementation after frozen-thawed embryo transfer significantly increases the delivery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Elbaek, Helle Olesen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive outcome in patients receiving frozen-thawed embryo transfer before and after doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation. The study was a retrospective study performed in The Fertility Clinic, Skive Regional Hospital, Denmark....... A total of 346 infertility patients with oligoamenorrhoea undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer after priming with oestradiol and vaginal progesterone gel were included. The vaginal progesterone dose was changed from 90mg (Crinone) once a day to twice a day and the reproductive outcome during the two...... rate (8.7% versus 20.5%, respectively; P=0.002). Doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation during frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles decreased the early pregnancy loss rate, resulting in a significantly higher delivery rate. This study evaluated the reproductive outcome of 346 women...

  16. Religiosity, health and happiness: significant relations in adolescents from Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have revealed positive associations between religiosity, health and happiness. However, the vast majority of these studies were carried out on native English-speaking participants. The objective of this study was to estimate the relations between religiosity, health and happiness among a sample (N = 372) of Qatari adolescents (M age = 15.2). The students responded to five self-rating scales to assess religiosity, mental health, physical health, happiness and satisfaction with life. Boys obtained a higher mean score on mental health than did their female counterparts. All the correlations between the rating scales were significant and positive. Principal component analysis disclosed one component and labelled 'Religiosity, health and happiness' in both sexes. The multiple stepwise regression indicated that the predictors of religiosity were the self-ratings of satisfaction with life and happiness in boys, whereas the predictors among girls were satisfaction with life and physical health. On the basis of the responses of the present sample, it was concluded that those who consider themselves as religious were more happy, satisfied with their life and healthy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. The Relative Importance of Low Significance Level and High Power in Multiple Tests of Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Rainer; Hager, Willi

    1983-01-01

    Two psychological experiments--Anderson and Shanteau (1970), Berkowitz and LePage (1967)--are reanalyzed to present the problem of the relative importance of low Type 1 error probability and high power when answering a research question by testing several statistical hypotheses. (Author/PN)

  18. [Significance of expert-guided groups for relatives in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessen, U; Postzich, M; Wilkmann, M

    1985-03-01

    Psychiatric interest in relatives of patients was concentrated in the past on their pathogenetic and etiological influence on mental illness. The medical paradigma of mental illness did not account for relatives affliction in psychic disturbance of their family member. Against this a community care oriented approach involves relatives into psychiatric care, particularly under the aspects of coping strategies and rehabilitative sources. Practicability and effects of this approach were explored in expert-guided relative groups at the Psychiatric Hospital Gütersloh (FRG). Results indicated that relatives are concerned with a series of problems. Participating in relative groups facilitates coping with these problems. Expert-guided and relative centered groups were found helpful, discharging and encouraging for relatives.

  19. Significance of Microbiology in Porous Hydrocarbon Related Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Augsburger, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores bio-mediated processes in geotechnical and petroleum engineering. Worldwide energy consumption is rapidly increasing as the world population and per-capita consumption rises. The US Energy Information Agency (EIA) predicts

  20. Broken home or drug using peers : "Significant relations"?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quensel, S; McArdle, P; Brinkley, A; Wiegersma, A; Blom, M; Fitzgerald, M; Johnson, R; Kolte, B; Michels, [No Value; Pierolini, A; Pos, R; Stoeckel, [No Value

    2002-01-01

    This study reports the results of a comparative survey with representative samples of 3,386 school attending youths, most of whom were 15 years of age and residing in five European cities. We found significant but low correlations between the type of family structure (intact family, model family,

  1. Relating Business Goals to Architecturally Significant Requirements for Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    must respond within five seconds” [ EPF 2010]. A major source of architecturally significant requirements is the set of business goals that led to the...Projects for Competitive Advantage, Center for Business Practices, 1999. [ EPF 2010] Eclipse Process Framework Project. Concept: Architecturally

  2. Significance of the NCA's "Dialogue on Public Relations Education" Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckeberg, Dean; Paluszek, John L.

    1999-01-01

    Contends that the 1998 Summer Conference of the National Communication Association, and the massive formative research in preparation for it, were seminal in examining current public-relations practice and education, in advocating education norms for the future, and in contributing to a much-needed ecumenism among the diverse public-relations…

  3. The Increasing Importance of Employee Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckley, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Surveys corporate public relations executives for information about their concern for and involvement with employee relations programming in their organizations and analyzes current public relations education as it relates to these findings. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland,…

  4. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum on CT : related condition and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Im, Jung Gi; Seo, Joon Beom; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to tabulate underlying disease and to assess the clinical significance of CT-diagnosed spontaneous pneumomediastinum. We retrospectively reviewed CT scans and medical records of 11 consecutive patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum, and analyzed their clinical history and course, and in five cases, pulmonary function. CT scans of 126 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPE) collected while the 11 consecutive patients were being treated were analyzed for the prevalence of pneumomediastinum. We analyzed CT findings with respect to the amount and distribution of air in the mediastinum, and the presence of absence of air outside the mediastinum. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum might be associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and might be a poor prognostic factor in patients with IPE or BOOP. (author). 18 refs., 2 figs

  5. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum on CT : related condition and its clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Im, Jung Gi; Seo, Joon Beom; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to tabulate underlying disease and to assess the clinical significance of CT-diagnosed spontaneous pneumomediastinum. We retrospectively reviewed CT scans and medical records of 11 consecutive patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum, and analyzed their clinical history and course, and in five cases, pulmonary function. CT scans of 126 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPE) collected while the 11 consecutive patients were being treated were analyzed for the prevalence of pneumomediastinum. We analyzed CT findings with respect to the amount and distribution of air in the mediastinum, and the presence of absence of air outside the mediastinum. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum might be associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and might be a poor prognostic factor in patients with IPE or BOOP. (author). 18 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Phytohormone supplementation significantly increases growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultivated for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Kun; Yoo, Gursong; Moon, Myounghoon; Kim, Chul Woong; Choi, Yoon-E; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-11-01

    Cultivation is the most expensive step in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, and substantial research has been devoted to developing more cost-effective cultivation methods. Plant hormones (phytohormones) are chemical messengers that regulate various aspects of growth and development and are typically active at very low concentrations. In this study, we investigated the effect of different phytohormones on microalgal growth and biodiesel production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and their potential to lower the overall cost of commercial biofuel production. The results indicated that all five of the tested phytohormones (indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, kinetin, 1-triacontanol, and abscisic acid) promoted microalgal growth. In particular, hormone treatment increased biomass production by 54 to 69 % relative to the control growth medium (Tris-acetate-phosphate, TAP). Phytohormone treatments also affected microalgal cell morphology but had no effect on the yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as a percent of biomass. We also tested the effect of these phytohormones on microalgal growth in nitrogen-limited media by supplementation in the early stationary phase. Maximum cell densities after addition of phytohormones were higher than in TAP medium, even when the nitrogen source was reduced to 40 % of that in TAP medium. Taken together, our results indicate that phytohormones significantly increased microalgal growth, particularly in nitrogen-limited media, and have potential for use in the development of efficient microalgal cultivation for biofuel production.

  7. Single-trial event-related potentials to significant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, Jacqueline A; Barry, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    The stimulus-response pattern of the skin conductance response (SCR) was used as a model of the Orienting Reflex (OR) to assess the P1, N1, P2, N2 and late positive complex (LPC/P300) components of the ERP in a simple habituation paradigm, in which a single series of 12 innocuous tones were presented at a very long interstimulus interval (2 min). To maintain their waking state during this boring task, participants were instructed to alternately close or open their eyes to each stimulus. None of the baseline-to-peak ERP measures showed trials effects comparable with the marked habituation over trials shown by the SCRs. Principal Components Analysis was used to decompose the ERP, yielding factors identified as the N1, N2, P3a, P3b and Novelty P3 components. An additional factor represented later eye-movement activity. No trial effects were apparent for the N1, N2, P3a or P3b components. The Novelty P3 showed marked response decrement over trials. These results are discussed in relation to current conceptualisations of the OR.

  8. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    Application of bioorganic fertilizers has been reported to improve crop yields and change soil bacterial community structure; however, little work has been done in apple orchard soils where the biological properties of the soils are being degraded due to long-term application of chemical fertilizers. In this study, we used Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community in the 0-60-cm soil profile under different fertilizer regimes in the Loess Plateau. The experiment includes three treatments: (1) control without fertilization (CK); (2) application of chemical fertilizer (CF); and (3) application of bioorganic fertilizer and organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (BOF). The results showed that the treatment BOF increased the apple yields by 114 and 67 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The treatment BOF also increased the soil organic matter (SOM) by 22 and 16 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The Illumina-based sequencing showed that Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla and Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant classes in the soil profile. The bacterial richness for ACE was increased after the addition of BOF. Compared to CK and CF treatments, BOF-treated soil revealed higher abundance of Proteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, Rhizobiales, and Xanthomonadales while Acidobacteria, Gp7, Gp17, and Sphaerobacter were found in lower abundance throughout the soil profile. Bacterial community structure varied with soil depth under different fertilizer treatments, e.g., the bacterial richness, diversity, and the relative abundance of Verruccomicrobia, Candidatus Brocadiales, and Skermanella were decreased with the soil depth in all three treatments. Permutational multivariate analysis showed that the fertilizer regime was the major factor than soil depth in the variations of the bacterial community composition. Two groups, Lysobacter

  9. Significance of Microbiology in Porous Hydrocarbon Related Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Augsburger, Nicolas

    2017-07-01

    This thesis explores bio-mediated processes in geotechnical and petroleum engineering. Worldwide energy consumption is rapidly increasing as the world population and per-capita consumption rises. The US Energy Information Agency (EIA) predicts that hydrocarbons will remain the primary energy source to satisfy the surging energy demands in the near future. The three topics described in detail in this document aim to link microbiology with geotechnical engineering and the petroleum industry. Microorganisms have the potential to exploit residual hydrocarbons in depleted reservoirs in a technique known as microbial enhanced oil recovery, MEOR. The potential of biosurfactants was analyzed in detail with a literature review. Biosurfactant production is the most accepted MEOR technique, and has been successfully implemented in over 700 field cases. Temperature is the main limiting factor for these techniques. The dissolution of carbonates by microorganisms was investigated experimentally. We designed a simple, economical, and robust procedure to monitor diffusion through porous media. This technique determined the diffusion coefficient of H+ in 1.5% agar, 1.122 x 10-5 cm2 sec-1, by using bromothymol blue as a pH indicator and image processing. This robust technique allows for manipulation of the composition of the agar to identify the effect of specific compounds on diffusion. The Red Sea consists of multiple seeps; the nearby sediments are telltales of deeper hydrocarbon systems. Microbial communities associated with the sediments function as in-situ sensors that provide information about the presence of carbon sources, metabolites, and the remediation potential. Sediments seeps in the Red Sea revealed different levels of bioactivity. The more active seeps, from the southern site in the Red Sea, indicated larger pore sizes, higher levels of carbon, and bioactivity with both bacteria and archaeal species present.

  10. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 μg/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 μg/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 μg/l). - Highlights: →Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. → A case

  11. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  12. Skipping one or more dialysis sessions significantly increases mortality: measuring the impact of non-adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gottlieb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-adherence to the prescribed dialysis sessions frequency ranges from 2% to 50% of patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of detecting and measuring the non-adherence to the prescribed dialysis frequency and to determine the importance of a multidisciplinary approach with the aim of improving adherence. Methods: longitudinal cohort study including 8,164 prevalent hemodialysis patients in April 2010, with more than 90 days of treatment, in Fresenius Medical Care Argentina units that were monitored for 3 years. The survey evaluated: interruption of at least one dialysis session in a month or reduction at least 10 minutes of a dialysis session in a month, during 6 months prior to the survey. Relative mortality risks were evaluated among groups. Results: 648 patients (7.9% interrupted dialysis sessions: 320 (3.9% interrupted one session per month and 328 (4.01% interrupted more than one session per month. After 3 years monitoring, 349 patients (53.8 % remained active in hemodialysis and 299 were inactive due to different reasons: 206 deceased (31.8 %, 47 transfers or monitoring losses (7.25 %, 36 transplanted (5.55 %, 8 changes to PD modality (1.2% and 2 recovered their kidney function (0.3 %.Interrupting one session per month significantly increased the mortality risk comparing both groups (interrupters and non-interrupters: RR 2.65 (IC 95% 2.24 – 3.14. Interrupting more than one dialysis session also increased significantly mortality risk comparing to the non-interrupters: RR 2.8 (IC 95% 2.39 – 3.28. After 3 years monitoring, 41.6 % of interrupters at the beginning had improved their adherence through a multidisciplinary program of quality improvement. Conclusion: Global mortality was greater among patients who interrupted dialysis sessions. A considerable proportion of interrupter patients at the beginning modified their behavior through the implementation of a multidisciplinary program of quality

  13. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2012-01-01

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C max of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  15. Increased frequency of retinopathy of prematurity over the last decade and significant regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Gerd; Tornqvist, Kristina; Al-Hawasi, Abbas; Nilsson, Åsa; Wallin, Agneta; Hellström, Ann

    2018-03-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) causes childhood blindness globally in prematurely born infants. Although increased levels of oxygen supply lead to increased survival and reduced frequency of cerebral palsy, increased incidence of ROP is reported. With the help of a Swedish register for ROP, SWEDROP, national and regional incidences of ROP and frequencies of treatment were evaluated from 2008 to 2015 (n = 5734), as well as before and after targets of provided oxygen changed from 85-89% to 91-95% in 2014. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was found in 31.9% (1829/5734) of all infants with a gestational age (GA) of <31 weeks at birth and 5.7% of the infants (329/5734) had been treated for ROP. Analyses of the national data revealed an increased incidence of ROP during the 8-year study period (p = 0.003), but there was no significant increase in the frequency of treatment. There were significant differences between the seven health regions of Sweden, regarding both incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment (p < 0.001). Comparison of regional data before and after the new oxygen targets revealed a significant increase in treated ROP in one region [OR: 2.24 (CI: 1.11-4.49), p = 0.024] and a borderline increase in one other [OR: 3.08 (CI: 0.99-9.60), p = 0.052]. The Swedish national ROP register revealed an increased incidence of ROP during an 8-year period and significant regional differences regarding the incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. THE SMALL BUT SIGNIFICANT AND NONTRANSITORY INCREASE IN PRICES (SSNIP TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Niminet

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Small but Significant Nontransitory Increase in Price Test was designed to define the relevant market by concepts of product, geographical area and time. This test, also called the ,,hypothetical monopolistic test” is the subject of many researches both economical and legal as it deals with economic concepts as well as with legally aspects.

  17. Evaluation of Significance of Diffusely Increased Bilateral Renal Uptake on Bone Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook; Yang, Woo Jin; Byun, Jae Young; Park, Jung Mi; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-03-15

    Unexpected renal abnormality can be detected on bone scan using {sup 99m}Tc-MDP. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic significance of diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake on bone scan. 1,500 bone scan were reviewed and 43 scans which showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake were selected for analysis. Laboratory findings for renal and liver function tests including routine urinalysis were reviewed in 43 patients. 26 of 43 case showed abnormality in urinalysis and renal function study. 20 of 43 cases showed abnormal liver function study and 3 of these cases were diagnosed as hepatorenal syndrome later. 13 of those 20 cases had liver cirrhosis with or without hepatoma. 12 of 43 cases showed abnormality both in renal and liver function studies. 2 of 43 cases showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake after chemotherapy for cancer but not on previous scans before chemotherapy. 2 of 43 cases showed hypercalcaemia and 8 of 43 cases had multifocal bone uptake due to metastasis or benign bone lesion. But the latter showed no hypercalcaemia at all. There was no significant correlation between increased renal uptake and MDP uptake in soft tissue other than kidneys. This study raised the possibility that the impaired liver and/or renal function may result in diffuse increase of bilateral renal uptake of MDP of unknown mechanism. It seems to need further study on this correlation.

  18. Evaluation of Significance of Diffusely Increased Bilateral Renal Uptake on Bone Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Mi Sook; Yang, Woo Jin; Byun, Jae Young; Park, Jung Mi; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Unexpected renal abnormality can be detected on bone scan using 99m Tc-MDP. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic significance of diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake on bone scan. 1,500 bone scan were reviewed and 43 scans which showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake were selected for analysis. Laboratory findings for renal and liver function tests including routine urinalysis were reviewed in 43 patients. 26 of 43 case showed abnormality in urinalysis and renal function study. 20 of 43 cases showed abnormal liver function study and 3 of these cases were diagnosed as hepatorenal syndrome later. 13 of those 20 cases had liver cirrhosis with or without hepatoma. 12 of 43 cases showed abnormality both in renal and liver function studies. 2 of 43 cases showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake after chemotherapy for cancer but not on previous scans before chemotherapy. 2 of 43 cases showed hypercalcaemia and 8 of 43 cases had multifocal bone uptake due to metastasis or benign bone lesion. But the latter showed no hypercalcaemia at all. There was no significant correlation between increased renal uptake and MDP uptake in soft tissue other than kidneys. This study raised the possibility that the impaired liver and/or renal function may result in diffuse increase of bilateral renal uptake of MDP of unknown mechanism. It seems to need further study on this correlation.

  19. Introducing extra NADPH consumption ability significantly increases the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Fuliang; Meng, Hengkai; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Increasing photosynthetic efficiency is crucial to increasing biomass production to meet the growing demands for food and energy. Previous theoretical arithmetic analysis suggests that the light reactions and dark reactions are imperfectly coupled due to shortage of ATP supply, or accumulation of NADPH. Here we hypothesized that solely increasing NADPH consumption might improve the coupling of light reactions and dark reactions, thereby increasing the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production. To test this hypothesis, an NADPH consumption pathway was constructed in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The resulting extra NADPH-consuming mutant grew much faster and achieved a higher biomass concentration. Analyses of photosynthesis characteristics showed the activities of photosystem II and photosystem I and the light saturation point of the NADPH-consuming mutant all significantly increased. Thus, we demonstrated that introducing extra NADPH consumption ability is a promising strategy to increase photosynthetic efficiency and to enable utilization of high-intensity lights. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrologic effects of large southwestern USA wildfires significantly increase regional water supply: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, M. L.; Cadol, D.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years climate change and historic fire suppression have increased the frequency of large wildfires in the southwestern USA, motivating study of the hydrological consequences of these wildfires at point and watershed scales, typically over short periods of time. These studies have revealed that reduced soil infiltration capacity and reduced transpiration due to tree canopy combustion increase streamflow at the watershed scale. However, the degree to which these local increases in runoff propagate to larger scales—relevant to urban and agricultural water supply—remains largely unknown, particularly in semi-arid mountainous watersheds co-dominated by winter snowmelt and the North American monsoon. To address this question, we selected three New Mexico watersheds—the Jemez (1223 km2), Mogollon (191 km2), and Gila (4807 km2)—that together have been affected by over 100 wildfires since 1982. We then applied climate-driven linear models to test for effects of fire on streamflow metrics after controlling for climatic variability. Here we show that, after controlling for climatic and snowpack variability, significantly more streamflow discharged from the Gila watershed for three to five years following wildfires, consistent with increased regional water yield due to enhanced infiltration-excess overland flow and groundwater recharge at the large watershed scale. In contrast, we observed no such increase in discharge from the Jemez watershed following wildfires. Fire regimes represent a key difference between the contrasting responses of the Jemez and Gila watersheds with the latter experiencing more frequent wildfires, many caused by lightning strikes. While hydrologic dynamics at the scale of large watersheds were previously thought to be climatically dominated, these results suggest that if one fifth or more of a large watershed has been burned in the previous three to five years, significant increases in water yield can be expected.

  1. Breast-cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) may contribute

  2. Breast cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. Methods To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. Results We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor

  3. Perception and significance of an assistive technology intervention - the perspectives of relatives of persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwin, Jenny; Persson, Jan; Krevers, Barbro

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relatives' perception of an assistive technology intervention aimed at persons with dementia (PwDs) and their relatives, and to examine whether, and how, experiences of the intervention process differed between relatives valuing the intervention to be of high, and relatives perceiving it to be of low significance. A total of 47 relatives of PwDs within the Swedish Technology and Dementia project were interviewed telephonically using a modified version of the Patient perspective on Care and Rehabilitation process instrument. A total of 46 participants were divided into two groups depending on whether they valued the intervention to be of great significance (GS group; N = 33) or of some/no significance (SNS group; N = 13). Several aspects of the intervention were perceived as highly important, e.g. being shown consideration and respect, and having somewhere to turn. The results indicate that relatives in the GS group perceived certain aspects of the intervention process as highly fulfilled to a larger extent than did relatives in the SNS group. This study illustrates how process evaluations can be used to increase the understanding and to identify improvement aspects of interventions. Process evaluation is a good method for understanding how interventions can be improved - a keystone for quality work. Based on relatives' ratings, a high fulfilment of the AT intervention process was associated with the perception of a significant outcome of the intervention.

  4. Significant increase of surface ozone at a rural site, north of eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone pollution in eastern China has become one of the top environmental issues. Quantifying the temporal trend of surface ozone helps to assess the impacts of the anthropogenic precursor reductions and the likely effects of emission control strategies implemented. In this paper, ozone data collected at the Shangdianzi (SDZ regional atmospheric background station from 2003 to 2015 are presented and analyzed to obtain the variation in the trend of surface ozone in the most polluted region of China, north of eastern China or the North China Plain. A modified Kolmogorov–Zurbenko (KZ filter method was performed on the maximum daily average 8 h (MDA8 concentrations of ozone to separate the contributions of different factors from the variation of surface ozone and remove the influence of meteorological fluctuations on surface ozone. Results reveal that the short-term, seasonal and long-term components of ozone account for 36.4, 57.6 and 2.2 % of the total variance, respectively. The long-term trend indicates that the MDA8 has undergone a significant increase in the period of 2003–2015, with an average rate of 1.13 ± 0.01 ppb year−1 (R2 = 0.92. It is found that meteorological factors did not significantly influence the long-term variation of ozone and the increase may be completely attributed to changes in emissions. Furthermore, there is no significant correlation between the long-term O3 and NO2 trends. This study suggests that emission changes in VOCs might have played a more important role in the observed increase of surface ozone at SDZ.

  5. Terrorism-related trauma in Africa, an increasing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfa-Wali, Maryam; Sritharan, Kaji; Mehes, Mira; Abdullah, Fizan; Rasheed, Shahnawaz

    2015-06-01

    Global terrorist activities have increased significantly over the past decade. The impact of terrorism-related trauma on the health of individuals in low- and middle-income countries is under-reported. Trauma management in African countries in particular is uncoordinated, with little or no infrastructure to cater for emergency surgical needs. This article highlights the need for education, training and research to mitigate the problems related to terrorism and surgical public health. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modern environmental health hazards: a public health issue of increasing significance in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Sanders, William H

    2009-06-01

    Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa's environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent's disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa's disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa's environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future.

  7. One stone, two birds: silica nanospheres significantly increase photocatalytic activity and colloidal stability of photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamani, Kowsalya D.; Foley, Jonathan J., IV; Sun, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Silver-doped silver chloride [AgCl(Ag)] nanoparticles represent a unique class of visible-light-driven photocatalysts, in which the silver dopants introduce electron-abundant mid-gap energy levels to lower the bandgap of AgCl. However, free-standing AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles, particularly those with small sizes and large surface areas, exhibit low colloidal stability and low compositional stability upon exposure to light irradiation, leading to easy aggregation and conversion to metallic silver and thus a loss of photocatalytic activity. These problems could be eliminated by attaching the small AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles to the surfaces of spherical dielectric silica particles with submicrometer sizes. The high optical transparency in the visible spectral region (400-800 nm), colloidal stability, and chemical/electronic inertness displayed by the silica spheres make them ideal for supporting photocatalysts and significantly improving their stability. The spherical morphology of the dielectric silica particles can support light scattering resonances to generate significantly enhanced electric fields near the silica particle surfaces, on which the optical absorption cross-section of the AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles is dramatically increased to promote their photocatalytic activity. The hybrid silica/AgCl(Ag) structures exhibit superior photocatalytic activity and stability, suitable for supporting photocatalysis sustainably; for instance, their efficiency in the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue decreases by only ˜9% even after ten cycles of operation.

  8. Exposure to Tumescent Solution Significantly Increases Phosphorylation of Perilipin in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ilknur; Sutcu, Mustafa; Eren, Hilal; Keskin, Mustafa

    2017-02-01

    Lidocaine and epinephrine could potentially decrease adipocyte viability, but these effects have not been substantiated. The phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes may be predictive of cell viability. Perilipin coats lipid droplets and restricts access of lipases; phospho-perilipin lacks this protective function. The authors investigated the effects of tumescent solution containing lidocaine and epinephrine on the phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes. In this in vitro study, lipoaspirates were collected before and after tumescence from 15 women who underwent abdominoplasty. Fat samples were fixed, sectioned, and stained for histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Relative phosphorylation of perilipin was inferred from pixel intensities of immunostained adipocytes observed with confocal microscopy. For adipocytes collected before tumescent infiltration, 10.08% of total perilipin was phosphorylated. In contrast, 30.62% of total perilipin was phosphorylated for adipocytes collected from tumescent tissue (P < .01). The tumescent technique increases the relative phosphorylation of perilipin in adipocytes, making these cells more vulnerable to lipolysis. Tumescent solution applied for analgesia or hemostasis of the donor site should contain the lowest possible concentrations of lidocaine and epinephrine. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Increased Body Mass Index during Therapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Significant and Underestimated Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen C. Atkinson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective & Design. We undertook a retrospective review of children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and treated with modern COG protocols (n=80 to determine longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI and the prevalence of obesity compared with a healthy reference population. Results. At diagnosis, the majority of patients (77.5% were in the healthy weight category. During treatment, increases in BMI z-scores were greater for females than males; the prevalence of obesity increased from 10.3% to 44.8% (P<0.004 for females but remained relatively unchanged for males (9.8% to 13.7%, P=0.7. Longitudinal analysis using linear mixed-effects identified associations between BMI z-scores and time-dependent interactions with sex (P=0.0005, disease risk (P<0.0001, age (P=0.0001, and BMI z-score (P<0.0001 at diagnosis and total dose of steroid during maintenance (P=0.01. Predicted mean BMI z-scores at the end of therapy were greater for females with standard risk ALL irrespective of age at diagnosis and for males younger than 4 years of age at diagnosis with standard risk ALL. Conclusion. Females treated on standard risk protocols and younger males may be at greatest risk of becoming obese during treatment for ALL. These subgroups may benefit from intervention strategies to manage BMI during treatment for ALL.

  10. [Significant increase in the colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus among medical students during their hospital practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Avial, Carmen; Alvarez-Novoa, Andrea; Losa, Azucena; Picazo, Juan J

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen of major concern. The emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has increasingly complicated the therapeutic approach of hospital-acquired infections. Surveillance of MRSA and control measures must be implemented in different healthcare settings, including screening programs for carriers. Our first aim was to determine the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA nasal carriage in medical students from the Clínico San Carlos Hospital (Madrid). As the MRSA carrier rate in healthcare workers is higher than in the general population, we hypothesised that carrier rate could be increased during their clinical practice in their last three years. We performed an epidemiologic al study of the prevalence of S. aureus colonisation among a group of medical students, who were sampled in 2008 in their third-year, and in 2012 when this class was in its sixth year. We have found a significant increase in MSSA carriage, from 27% to 46%. There were no MRSA colonisations in the third-year, but one was found in the sixth-year group. The large majority of strains (89%) of strains were resistant to penicillin, and 27% to erythromycin and clindamycin. As 19 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus MR were also identified, a horizontal transfer of genes, such as mecA gene to S. aureus, could have occurred. Medical students are both, at risk for acquiring, and a potential source of nosocomial pathogens, mainly MSSA. Therefore, they should take special care for hygienic precautions, such as frequent and proper hand washing, while working in the hospital. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal undernutrition significantly impacts ovarian follicle number and increases ovarian oxidative stress in adult rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B Bernal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown recently that maternal undernutrition (UN advanced female pubertal onset in a manner that is dependent upon the timing of UN. The long-term consequence of this accelerated puberty on ovarian function is unknown. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress may be one mechanism whereby early life events impact on later physiological functioning. Therefore, using an established rodent model of maternal UN at critical windows of development, we examined maternal UN-induced changes in offspring ovarian function and determined whether these changes were underpinned by ovarian oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study is the first to show that maternal UN significantly reduced primordial and secondary follicle number in offspring in a manner that was dependent upon the timing of maternal UN. Specifically, a reduction in these early stage follicles was observed in offspring born to mothers undernourished throughout both pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, antral follicle number was reduced in offspring born to all mothers that were UN regardless of whether the period of UN was restricted to pregnancy or lactation or both. These reductions were associated with decreased mRNA levels of genes critical for follicle maturation and ovulation. Increased ovarian protein carbonyls were observed in offspring born to mothers UN during pregnancy and/or lactation and this was associated with peroxiredoxin 3 hyperoxidation and reduced mRNA levels; suggesting compromised antioxidant defence. This was not observed in offspring of mothers UN during lactation alone. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that maternal UN, particularly at a time-point that includes pregnancy, results in reduced offspring ovarian follicle numbers and mRNA levels of regulatory genes and may be mediated by increased ovarian oxidative stress coupled with a decreased ability to repair the resultant oxidative damage. Together these data are suggestive of

  12. Free ammonia pre-treatment of secondary sludge significantly increases anaerobic methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jing; Wang, Qilin

    2017-07-01

    Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH 3 ) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH 3 -N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i.e. 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS). Biochemical methane potential assays showed that FA pre-treatment at above 250 mg NH 3 -N/L is effective in improving anaerobic methane production. The highest improvement in biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) and hydrolysis rate (k) was achieved at FA concentrations of 420-680 mg NH 3 -N/L, and was determined as approximately 22% (from 160 to 195 L CH 4 /kg VS added) and 140% (from 0.22 to 0.53 d -1 ) compared to the secondary sludge without pre-treatment. More analysis revealed that the FA induced improvement in B 0 and k could be attributed to the rapidly biodegradable substances rather than the slowly biodegradable substances. Economic and environmental analyses showed that the FA-based technology is economically favourable and environmentally friendly. Since this FA technology aims to use the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) waste (i.e. anaerobic digestion liquor) to enhance methane production from the WWTPs, it will set an example for the paradigm shift of the WWTPs from 'linear economy' to 'circular economy'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Myriocin significantly increases the mortality of a non-mammalian model host during Candida pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Rodrigues de Melo

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major human pathogen whose treatment is challenging due to antifungal drug toxicity, drug resistance and paucity of antifungal agents available. Myrocin (MYR inhibits sphingosine synthesis, a precursor of sphingolipids, an important cell membrane and signaling molecule component. MYR also has dual immune suppressive and antifungal properties, potentially modulating mammalian immunity and simultaneously reducing fungal infection risk. Wax moth (Galleria mellonella larvae, alternatives to mice, were used to establish if MYR suppressed insect immunity and increased survival of C. albicans-infected insects. MYR effects were studied in vivo and in vitro, and compared alone and combined with those of approved antifungal drugs, fluconazole (FLC and amphotericin B (AMPH. Insect immune defenses failed to inhibit C. albicans with high mortalities. In insects pretreated with the drug followed by C. albicans inoculation, MYR+C. albicans significantly increased mortality to 93% from 67% with C. albicans alone 48 h post-infection whilst AMPH+C. albicans and FLC+C. albicans only showed 26% and 0% mortalities, respectively. MYR combinations with other antifungal drugs in vivo also enhanced larval mortalities, contrasting the synergistic antifungal effect of the MYR+AMPH combination in vitro. MYR treatment influenced immunity and stress management gene expression during C. albicans pathogenesis, modulating transcripts putatively associated with signal transduction/regulation of cytokines, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade, G-protein coupled receptor and inflammation. In contrast, all stress management gene expression was down-regulated in FLC and AMPH pretreated C. albicans-infected insects. Results are discussed with their implications for clinical use of MYR to treat sphingolipid-associated disorders.

  14. Global health-related publications in otolaryngology are increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kyle J; Creighton, Francis; Abdul-Aziz, Dunia; Cheney, Mack; Randolph, Gregory W

    2015-04-01

    Determine trends in global health-related publication in otolaryngology. A review of research databases. A search of publications available on PubMed and nine additional databases was undertaken reviewing two time periods 10 years apart for the timeframes 1998 to 2002 (early time period) and 2008 to 2012 (recent time period) using specific search terms to identify global health-related publications in otolaryngology. Publications were examined for region of origin, subspecialty, type of publication, and evidence of international collaboration. χ and t test analyses were used to identify trends. In the 1998 to 2002 time period, a total of 26 publications met inclusion criteria for the study, with a mean of 5.2 ± 2.8 publications per year. In the 2008 to 2012 time period, a total of 61 publications met inclusion criteria, with a mean of 12.3 ± 5.6 publications per year. The 235% increase in global health-related publications identified between the two study periods was statistically significant (P = .02). The absolute number of publications in which collaboration occurred between countries increased from three in the early time period to nine the recent time period. There has been a significant increase in the volume of global health-related publications in English language otolaryngology journals over the past decade, providing strong evidence of the increasing trend of global health as an academic pursuit within the field of otolaryngology. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  16. Increased Mortality in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients: The Significance of Ulcer Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammas, N. K.; Hill, R. L. R.; Edmonds, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients have a greater than twofold increase in mortality compared with nonulcerated diabetic patients. We investigated (a) cause of death in DFU patients, (b) age at death, and (c) relationship between cause of death and ulcer type. This was an eleven-year retrospective study on DFU patients who attended King's College Hospital Foot Clinic and subsequently died. A control group of nonulcerated diabetic patients was matched for age and type of diabetes mellitus. The cause of death was identified from death certificates (DC) and postmortem (PM) examinations. There were 243 DFU patient deaths during this period. Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was the major cause of death in 62.5% on PM compared to 45.7% on DC. Mean age at death from IHD on PM was 5 years lower in DFU patients compared to controls (68.2 ± 8.7 years versus 73.1 ± 8.0 years, P = 0.015). IHD as a cause of death at PM was significantly linked to neuropathic foot ulcers (OR 3.064, 95% CI 1.003–9.366, and P = 0.049). Conclusions. IHD is the major cause of premature mortality in DFU patients with the neuropathic foot ulcer patients being at a greater risk. PMID:27213157

  17. Factors associated with an increased risk of vertebral fracture in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piot, J M; Royer, M; Schmidt-Tanguy, A; Hoppé, E; Gardembas, M; Bourrée, T; Hunault, M; François, S; Boyer, F; Ifrah, N; Renier, G; Chevailler, A; Audran, M; Chappard, D; Libouban, H; Mabilleau, G; Legrand, E; Bouvard, B

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of fractures. This study describes prospectively the bone status of MGUS patients and determines the factors associated with vertebral fracture. We included prospectively 201 patients with MGUS, incidentally discovered, and with no known history of osteoporosis: mean age 66.6±12.5 years, 48.3% women, 51.7% immunoglobulin G (IgG), 33.3% IgM and 10.4% IgA. Light chain was kappa in 64.2% patients. All patients had spinal radiographs and bone mineral density measurement in addition to gammopathy assessment. At least one prevalent non-traumatic vertebral fracture was discovered in 18.4% patients and equally distributed between men and women. Fractured patients were older, had a lower bone density and had also more frequently a lambda light chain isotype. Compared with patients with κ light chain, the odds ratio of being fractured for patients with λ light chain was 4.32 (95% confidence interval 1.80–11.16; P=0.002). These results suggest a high prevalence of non-traumatic vertebral fractures in MGUS associated with lambda light chain isotype and not only explained by low bone density

  18. Significance of Increasing n-3 PUFA Content in Pork on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianyong; Jiang, Zongyong; Lai, Chaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for the health-promoting effects of food rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is reviewed. Pork is an important meat source for humans. According to a report by the US Department of Agriculture ( http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics ), the pork consumption worldwide in 2011 was about 79.3 million tons, much higher than that of beef (48.2 million tons). Pork also contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids relative to ruminant meats (Enser, M., Hallett, K., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J. and Wood, J. D. (1996) . Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb, and pork at retail. Meat Sci. 44:443-458). The available literature indicates that the levels of eicosatetraenoic and docosahexaenoic in pork may be increased by fish-derived or linseed products, the extent of which being dependent on the nature of the supplementation. Transgenic pigs and plants show promise with high content of n-3 PUFA and low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in their tissues. The approaches mentioned for decreasing n-6/n-3 ratios have both advantages and disadvantages. Selected articles are critically reviewed and summarized.

  19. Continues administration of Nano-PSO significantly increased survival of genetic CJD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyamin, Orli; Keller, Guy; Frid, Kati; Larush, Liraz; Magdassi, Shlomo; Gabizon, Ruth

    2017-12-01

    We have shown previously that Nano-PSO, a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil, delayed progression of neurodegeneration signs when administered for a designated period of time to TgMHu2ME199K mice, modeling for genetic prion disease. In the present work, we treated these mice with a self-emulsion formulation of Nano-PSO or a parallel Soybean oil formulation from their day of birth until a terminal disease stage. We found that long term Nano-PSO administration resulted in increased survival of TgMHu2ME199K lines by several months. Interestingly, initiation of treatment at day 1 had no clinical advantage over initiation at day 70, however cessation of treatment at 9months of age resulted in the rapid loss of the beneficial clinical effect. Pathological studies revealed that treatment with Nano-PSO resulted in the reduction of GAG accumulation and lipid oxidation, indicating a strong neuroprotective effect. Contrarily, the clinical effect of Nano-PSO did not correlate with reduction in the levels of disease related PrP, the main prion marker. We conclude that long term administration of Nano-PSO is safe and may be effective in the prevention/delay of onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as genetic CJD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. [Trampoline-related injuries in children: an increasing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königshausen, M; Gothner, M; Kruppa, C; Dudda, M; Godry, H; Schildhauer, T A; Seybold, D

    2014-06-01

    The sales of recreational trampolines have increased during the past few years. Severe injuries are associated in part with trampoline sport in the domestic setting. Therefore, this study was conducted to confirm the hypothesis of an increase in trampoline-related injuries in conjunction with the increasing sales of recreational trampolines and to find out what kind of injuries are most frequent in this context. Between 01/1999 and 09/2013 all trampoline-related injuries of children (0-16 years of age) were assessed retrospectively. Only those cases were evaluated which described with certainty a trampoline-associated trauma. The fractures were considered separately and assigned to specific localisations. Additionally, accidents at home were differentiated from institutional accidents. Within the past 13 years and 9 months trampoline-related injuries were seen in 195 infants. Fractures were present in 83 cases (42 %). The average age was 10 ± 3.4 years (range: 2-16 years). Within first half of the observed time period (7½ years; 01/1999 to 06/2006) 73 cases were detected with a significantly increasing number of injuries up to 122 cases between 07/2006 and 09/2013 (7 years, 3 months), which corresponds to an increase of 67 % (p = 0,028). The vast majority of these injuries happened in the domestic setting (90 %, n = 175), whereas only 10 % (n = 20) of the traumas occurred in public institutions. In 102 children (52 %) the lower extremity was affected and in 51 patients (26 %) the upper extremity was involved (head/spine/pelvis: n = 42, 22 %). The upper extremity was primarily affected by fractures and dislocations (n = 38, 76 %). At the upper extremity there were more injuries requiring surgery in contrast to the lower extremity (n = 11) or cervical spine (n = 1). The underlying data show a significant increase of trampoline-related injuries within the past years. The upper extremity is the second most affected

  1. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-04-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of 'self' and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the 'positivity' or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity causes significant increase of modelled tropical vegetation surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattge, J.; Knorr, W.; Raddatz, T.; Wirth, C.

    2009-04-01

    Photosynthetic capacity is one of the most sensitive parameters of terrestrial biosphere models whose representation in global scale simulations has been severely hampered by a lack of systematic analyses using a sufficiently broad database. Due to its coupling to stomatal conductance changes in the parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity may potentially influence transpiration rates and vegetation surface temperature. Here, we provide a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity for different plant functional types in the context of the photosynthesis model proposed by Farquhar et al. (1980), based on a comprehensive compilation of leaf photosynthesis rates and leaf nitrogen content. Mean values of photosynthetic capacity were implemented into the coupled climate-vegetation model ECHAM5/JSBACH and modelled gross primary production (GPP) is compared to a compilation of independent observations on stand scale. Compared to the current standard parameterisation the root-mean-squared difference between modelled and observed GPP is substantially reduced for almost all PFTs by the new parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity. We find a systematic depression of NUE (photosynthetic capacity divided by leaf nitrogen content) on certain tropical soils that are known to be deficient in phosphorus. Photosynthetic capacity of tropical trees derived by this study is substantially lower than standard estimates currently used in terrestrial biosphere models. This causes a decrease of modelled GPP while it significantly increases modelled tropical vegetation surface temperatures, up to 0.8°C. These results emphasise the importance of a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity not only for the carbon cycle, but also for the climate system.

  3. Increased anxiety-related behaviour in Hint1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajulu, Jeeva; Lebar, Maria; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy; Habelt, Sonja; Lu, Jia; Bernard Weinstein, I; Li, Haiyang; Holsboer, Florian; Turck, Christoph W; Touma, Chadi

    2011-07-07

    Several reports have implicated a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein-1 (Hint1) in psychiatric disorders. We have studied the emotional behaviour of male Hint1 knockout (Hint1 KO) mice in a battery of tests and performed biochemical analyses on brain tissue. The behavioural analysis revealed that Hint1 KO mice exhibit an increased emotionality phenotype compared to wildtype (WT) mice, while no significant differences in locomotion or general exploratory activity were noted. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, the Hint1 KO animals entered the open arms of the apparatus less often than WT littermates. Similarly, in the dark-light box test, Hint1 KO mice spent less time in the lit compartment and the number of entries were reduced, which further confirmed an increased anxiety-related behaviour. Moreover, the Hint1 KO animals showed significantly more struggling and less floating behaviour in the forced swim test (FST), indicating an increased emotional arousal in aversive situations. Hint1 is known as a protein kinase C (PKC) interacting protein. Western blot analysis showed that PKCγ expression was elevated in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. Interestingly, PKCγ mRNA levels of the two groups did not show a significant difference, implying a post-transcriptional PKCγ regulation. In addition, PKC enzymatic activity was increased in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. In summary, our results indicate a role for Hint1 and PKCγ in modulating anxiety-related and stress-coping behaviour in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Significant yield increases from control of leaf diseases in maize - an overlooked problem?!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2012-01-01

    The area of maize has increased in several European countries in recent years. In Denmark, the area has increased from 10,000 ha in 1980 to 185,000 ha in 2011. Initially only silage maize was cultivated in Denmark, but in more recent years the area of grain maize has also increased. Farms growing...

  5. The significance of relative density for particle damage in loaded and sheared gravels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fityus Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For granular assemblages of strong particles, an increase in the relative density usually leads to a significant increase in shear strength, which is evident as a peak strength, accompanied by significant dilation as the peak strength is attained. This paper describes an experimental study of shearing in assemblages of weak particles, where particle breakage offsets dilation for all but the lowest of confining stresses. In such materials, prone to particle breakage, the shear strengths of loose and dense assemblages rapidly converge to similar values as confining stress increases, and any benefit of greater relative density is lost. This is attributed to the densification effect associated with the loading under a high stress prior to shearing, which is characterised by widespread particle breakage and the formation of smaller particles to occupy space between coarser ones. Interestingly, under both low and high stresses, there was a tendency for greater particle breakage in the loose samples, as a result of both shearing and compression. This result suggests that, despite the denser assemblage having its particles more rigidly constrained and less able to rearrange to avoid direct loading, the influence of greater load-spreading capacity afforded by an increased number of particle contacts in a denser sample, is more dominant in controlling breakage.

  6. The contribution of human agricultural activities to increasing evapotranspiration is significantly greater than climate change effect over Heihe agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Minzhong; Niu, Jun; Kang, Shaozhong; Li, Xiaolin; Lu, Hongna

    2017-08-18

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component linking the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Understanding changes in ET and the relative contribution rates of human activity and of climate change at the basin scale is important for sound water resources management. In this study, changes in ET in the Heihe agricultural region in northwest China during 1984-2014 were examined using remotely-sensed ET data with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Correlation analysis identified the dominant factors that influence change in ET per unit area and those that influence change in total ET. Factor analysis identified the relative contribution rates of the dominant factors in each case. The results show that human activity, which includes factors for agronomy and irrigation, and climate change, including factors for precipitation and relative humidity, both contribute to increases in ET per unit area at rates of 60.93% and 28.01%, respectively. Human activity, including the same factors, and climate change, including factors for relative humidity and wind speed, contribute to increases in total ET at rates of 53.86% and 35.68%, respectively. Overall, in the Heihe agricultural region, the contribution of human agricultural activities to increased ET was significantly greater than that of climate change.

  7. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. → We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. → Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. → Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related hormones such as leptin

  8. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); others, and

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related

  9. Relative frequencies and significance of faecal coliforms as indicators related to water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auban, E G; Ripolles, A A; Domarco, M J

    1983-01-01

    The faecal coliforms at different sites of a hypereutrophic lake near Valencia (Albufera) were identified and their relative amounts established along an annual cycle. Using lauryl tryptose broth at 35 degrees C, followed by incubation at 44.4 degrees C in 2% brilliant green bile, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are practically the only coliforms present. A positive correlation was found between the water temperature and the relative amount of these two coliforms: K. pneumoniae predominates at high water temperatures, whereas E. coli shows preponderance during the cold period. The role of K. pneumoniae as the only faecal indicator under the circumstances described in the work is emphasized and discussed.

  10. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis significantly increases hospital charges in patients undergoing heart valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Elangovan, Satheesh; Rampa, Sankeerth; Shin, Kyungsup; Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and impact of gingivitis and periodontitis in patients having heart valve surgical procedures. Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2004-2010 was used. All patients who had heart valve surgical procedures were selected. Prevalence of gingivitis/periodontitis was examined in these patients. Impact of gingivitis/periodontitis on hospital charges, length of stay, and infectious complications was examined. 596,190 patients had heart valve surgical procedures. Gingivitis/periodontitis was present in 0.2 percent. Outcomes included: median hospital charges ($175,418 with gingivitis/ periodontitis versus $149,353 without gingivitis/periodontitis) and median length of stay (14 days with gingivitis/periodontitis versus 8 days without gingivitis/periodontitis). After adjusting for the effects of patient- and hospital-level confounding factors, hospital charges and length of stay were significantly higher (p gingivitis/periodontitis compared to their counterparts. Further, patients with gingivitis/periodontitis had significantly higher odds for having bacterial infections (OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.33-4.98, p gingivitis/periodontitis. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis is associated with higher risk for bacterial infections and significant hospital resource utilization.

  11. Self-relation and relations with significant adults as factors of satisfaction with life in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovey L.A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of factors influencing life satisfaction of teenagers raised in families as well as those raised in orphanages. Both groups are studied with regard to their self-attitude, self-confidence and relationships with significant adults. Sample: 96 teenagers aged between 14 and 16 years (46 of them live in or- phanages. Methods: Self-attitude methodology by S.R. Pantileev, Trust questionnaire by T.P. Skripkina, Child-parent relationships questionnaire by O.A. Karabanova and P.V. Troyanskaya, Life Satisfaction scale by E. Diner. The research proved the level of trust in orphanage-raised teenagers to be considerably lower than that of family-raised teenagers. The way teenagers see their relationships with significant adults also turned out to be fairly different in case of orphanage-raised groups due to their caregivers' authoritarian attitude towards them and lack of empathy and communication. The study also shows that the level of life satisfaction in the orphanage group is significantly below the average and substantially lower than in the group from family-raised teenagers. Positive self-attitude, person’s approval of his/ her intellectual capacities, as well as the caregiver's understanding of his pupil's features, are predictors of life satisfaction in the group of teenagers from orphanages. Concerning the family-raised teenagers, much more factors are involved in maintaining their subjective well-being.

  12. Transabdominal cerclage: the significance of dual pathology and increased preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Roy G; Topping, Joanne; Quenby, Siobhan M

    2005-10-01

    Transabdominal cerclage is a recognised treatment for cervical weakness with a history of recurrent mid-trimester loss and a failed elective vaginal suture. The emergence of dual pathology, such as antiphospholipid syndrome and bacterial vaginosis, is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (RR 2.34, 95% CI 1.15-5.8). The first 40 cases are described where strict adherence to an investigation protocol and consistent treatment plan has been implemented.

  13. Clinical significance of increased lung/heart ratio in 210Tl stress myocardial image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zaoli; Chang Fengqin; Zhang Fengge; Wang Xiaoyuan; Liu Liuhua

    1990-01-01

    230 cases were studied with 201 Tl stress image. The results showed that the lung/heart ratio closely correlated with the presence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD). Among them, 18 cases (7.8%) showed significantly elevated lung/heart ratio (> 0.50). It was confirmed that all of the 18 cases have severe CHD with left ventricular insufficiency. The author emphasizes that measurement of the lung/heart ratio during 201 Tl stress myocardial image may be useful for the assessment of the severity, evalation of the left ventricular function and judgement of prognosis in CHD

  14. Strong Selection Significantly Increases Epistatic Interactions in the Long-Term Evolution of a Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein's adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness landscape, but little is known about how the epistatic interactions change under selection in the long-term evolution of a protein. Here we analyze the evolution of epistasis in the protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 using protease sequences collected for almost a decade from both treated and untreated patients, to understand how epistasis changes and how those changes impact the long-term evolvability of a protein. We use an information-theoretic proxy for epistasis that quantifies the co-variation between sites, and show that positive information is a necessary (but not sufficient condition that detects epistasis in most cases. We analyze the "fossils" of the evolutionary trajectories of the protein contained in the sequence data, and show that epistasis continues to enrich under strong selection, but not for proteins whose environment is unchanged. The increase in epistasis compensates for the information loss due to sequence variability brought about by treatment, and facilitates adaptation in the increasingly rugged fitness landscape of treatment. While epistasis is thought to enhance evolvability via valley-crossing early-on in adaptation, it can hinder adaptation later when the landscape has turned rugged. However, we find no evidence that the HIV-1 protease has reached its potential for evolution after 9 years of adapting to a drug environment that itself is constantly changing. We suggest that the mechanism of encoding new information into pairwise interactions is central to protein evolution not just in HIV-1 protease, but for any protein adapting to a changing

  15. Corruption Significantly Increases the Capital Cost of Power Plants in Developing Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Biswajit Debnath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging economies with rapidly growing population and energy demand, own some of the most expensive power plants in the world. We hypothesized that corruption has a relationship with the capital cost of power plants in developing countries such as Bangladesh. For this study, we analyzed the capital cost of 61 operational and planned power plants in Bangladesh. Initial comparison study revealed that the mean capital cost of a power plant in Bangladesh is twice than that of the global average. Then, the statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between corruption and the cost of power plants, indicating that higher corruption leads to greater capital cost. The high up-front cost can be a significant burden on the economy, at present and in the future, as most are financed through international loans with extended repayment terms. There is, therefore, an urgent need for the review of the procurement and due diligence process of establishing power plants, and for the implementation of a more transparent system to mitigate adverse effects of corruption on megaprojects.

  16. Combining modularity, conservation, and interactions of proteins significantly increases precision and coverage of protein function prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sers Christine T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the number of newly sequenced genomes and genes is constantly increasing, elucidation of their function still is a laborious and time-consuming task. This has led to the development of a wide range of methods for predicting protein functions in silico. We report on a new method that predicts function based on a combination of information about protein interactions, orthology, and the conservation of protein networks in different species. Results We show that aggregation of these independent sources of evidence leads to a drastic increase in number and quality of predictions when compared to baselines and other methods reported in the literature. For instance, our method generates more than 12,000 novel protein functions for human with an estimated precision of ~76%, among which are 7,500 new functional annotations for 1,973 human proteins that previously had zero or only one function annotated. We also verified our predictions on a set of genes that play an important role in colorectal cancer (MLH1, PMS2, EPHB4 and could confirm more than 73% of them based on evidence in the literature. Conclusions The combination of different methods into a single, comprehensive prediction method infers thousands of protein functions for every species included in the analysis at varying, yet always high levels of precision and very good coverage.

  17. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift.

  18. Significantly Increased Extreme Precipitation Expected in Europe and North America from Extratropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawcroft, M.; Hodges, K.; Walsh, E.; Zappa, G.

    2017-12-01

    For the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, changes in circulation are key to determining the impacts of climate warming. The mechanisms governing these circulation changes are complex, leading to the well documented uncertainty in projections of the future location of the mid-latitude storm tracks simulated by climate models. These storms are the primary source of precipitation for North America and Europe and generate many of the large-scale precipitation extremes associated with flooding and severe economic loss. Here, we show that in spite of the uncertainty in circulation changes, by analysing the behaviour of the storms themselves, we find entirely consistent and robust projections across an ensemble of climate models. In particular, we find that projections of change in the most intensely precipitating storms (above the present day 99th percentile) in the Northern Hemisphere are substantial and consistent across models, with large increases in the frequency of both summer (June-August, +226±68%) and winter (December-February, +186±34%) extreme storms by the end of the century. Regionally, both North America (summer +202±129%, winter +232±135%) and Europe (summer +390±148%, winter +318±114%) are projected to experience large increases in the frequency of intensely precipitating storms. These changes are thermodynamic and driven by surface warming, rather than by changes in the dynamical behaviour of the storms. Such changes in storm behaviour have the potential to have major impacts on society given intensely precipitating storms are responsible for many large-scale flooding events.

  19. Circulatory nucleosome levels are significantly increased in early and late-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao Yan; Gebhardt, Stefan; Hillermann, Renate; Tofa, Kashefa Carelse; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sinuhe

    2005-08-01

    Elevations in circulatory DNA, as measured by real-time PCR, have been observed in pregnancies with manifest preeclampsia. Recent reports have indicated that circulatory nucleosome levels are elevated in the periphery of cancer patients. We have now examined whether circulatory nucleosome levels are similarly elevated in cases with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma samples were prepared from 17 cases with early onset preeclampsia (34 weeks gestation) with 10 matched normotensive controls. Levels of circulatory nucleosomes were quantified by commercial ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay). The level of circulatory nucleosomes was significantly elevated in both study preeclampsia groups, compared to the matched normotensive control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001, respectively). Our data suggests that preeclampsia is associated with the elevated presence of circulatory nucleosomes, and that this phenomenon occurs in both early- and late-onset forms of the disorder. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. TNFRSF14 aberrations in follicular lymphoma increase clinically significant allogeneic T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, Eleni; Okosun, Jessica; Besley, Caroline; Iqbal, Sameena; Matthews, Janet; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Gribben, John G; Davies, Jeffrey K

    2016-07-07

    Donor T-cell immune responses can eradicate lymphomas after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), but can also damage healthy tissues resulting in harmful graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Next-generation sequencing has recently identified many new genetic lesions in follicular lymphoma (FL). One such gene, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 14 (TNFRSF14), abnormal in 40% of FL patients, encodes the herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) which limits T-cell activation via ligation of the B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator. As lymphoma B cells can act as antigen-presenting cells, we hypothesized that TNFRSF14 aberrations that reduce HVEM expression could alter the capacity of FL B cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell responses and impact the outcome of AHSCT. In an in vitro model of alloreactivity, human lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had reduced HVEM expression and greater alloantigen-presenting capacity than wild-type lymphoma B cells. The increased immune-stimulatory capacity of lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had clinical relevance, associating with higher incidence of acute GVHD in patients undergoing AHSCT. FL patients with TNFRSF14 aberrations may benefit from more aggressive immunosuppression to reduce harmful GVHD after transplantation. Importantly, this study is the first to demonstrate the impact of an acquired genetic lesion on the capacity of tumor cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell immune responses which may have wider consequences for adoptive immunotherapy strategies. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Elicitor Mixtures Significantly Increase Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters in Sweet Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Garcia-Mier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet bell peppers are greatly appreciated for their taste, color, pungency, and aroma. Additionally, they are good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be improved by the use of elicitors. Elicitors act as metabolite-inducing factors (MIF by mimic stress conditions. Since plants rarely experience a single stress condition one by one but are more likely to be exposed to simultaneous stresses, it is important to evaluate the effect of elicitors on plant secondary metabolism as mixtures. Jasmonic acid (JA, hydrogen peroxide (HP, and chitosan (CH were applied to fruits and plants of bell pepper as mixtures. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters were evaluated. The assessed elicitor cocktail leads to an increase in the variables evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 when applied to mature fruits after harvest, whereas the lowest values were observed in the treatment applied to immature fruits. Therefore, the application of the elicitor cocktail to harvested mature fruits is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell peppers.

  2. Neurite outgrowth is significantly increased by the simultaneous presentation of Schwann cells and moderate exogenous electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppes, Abigail N.; Seggio, Angela M.; Thompson, Deanna M.

    2011-08-01

    Axonal extension is influenced by a variety of external guidance cues; therefore, the development and optimization of a multi-faceted approach is probably necessary to address the intricacy of functional regeneration following nerve injury. In this study, primary dissociated neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and Schwann cells were examined in response to an 8 h dc electrical stimulation (0-100 mV mm-1). Stimulated samples were then fixed immediately, immunostained, imaged and analyzed to determine Schwann cell orientation and characterize neurite outgrowth relative to electric field strength and direction. Results indicate that Schwann cells are viable following electrical stimulation with 10-100 mV mm-1, and retain a normal morphology relative to unstimulated cells; however, no directional bias is observed. Neurite outgrowth was significantly enhanced by twofold following exposure to either a 50 mV mm-1 electric field (EF) or co-culture with unstimulated Schwann cells by comparison to neurons cultured alone. Neurite outgrowth was further increased in the presence of simultaneously applied cues (Schwann cells + 50 mV mm-1 dc EF), exhibiting a 3.2-fold increase over unstimulated control neurons, and a 1.2-fold increase over either neurons cultured with unstimulated Schwann cells or the electrical stimulus alone. These results indicate that dc electric stimulation in combination with Schwann cells may provide synergistic guidance cues for improved axonal growth relevant to nerve injuries in the peripheral nervous system.

  3. Is the relative increase in income inequality related to tooth loss in middle-aged adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Mariél de Aquino; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2016-01-01

    To assess whether Brazilian middle-aged adults living in cities that experienced a relative increase on income inequality were more likely to have severe tooth loss and lack a functional dentition. Data on Brazilian adults aged 35-44 years from state capitals and Federal District from the 2010 Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil 2010) were analyzed. Clinically assessed tooth loss outcomes were severe tooth loss (Income inequality was assessed by Gini Index in 1991, 2000, and 2003 using tertiles of distribution. Variation in Gini Index was assessed by changes in the tertiles distribution between years. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95 percent CI) between variation in income inequality and tooth loss outcomes adjusting for individual socio-demographic characteristics. Prevalence of severe tooth loss and lack of functional dentition was 4.8 percent and 21.2 percent, respectively. Individuals living in cities with moderate and high increase in income inequality between 1991 and 2003 were more likely to have severe tooth loss and lack a functional dentition in 2010 compared with those living in cities with stable income inequality in the same period. Relationships between low family income and both tooth loss outcomes were significantly attenuated by relative increases in income inequality. Relative increases in income inequality were significantly associated with severe tooth loss and lack of a functional dentition in Brazilian middle-aged adults. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  4. Chemical and Biological Significance of Oenothein B and Related Ellagitannin Oligomers with Macrocyclic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yoshida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, Okuda et al. reported the first isolation and characterization of oenothein B, a unique ellagitannin dimer with a macrocyclic structure, from the Oenothera erythrosepala leaves. Since then, a variety of macrocyclic analogs, including trimeric–heptameric oligomers have been isolated from various medicinal plants belonging to Onagraceae, Lythraceae, and Myrtaceae. Among notable in vitro and in vivo biological activities reported for oenothein B are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, enzyme inhibitory, antitumor, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. Oenothein B and related oligomers, and/or plant extracts containing them have thus attracted increasing interest as promising targets for the development of chemopreventive agents of life-related diseases associated with oxygen stress in human health. In order to better understand the significance of this type of ellagitannin in medicinal plants, this review summarizes (1 the structural characteristics of oenothein B and related dimers; (2 the oxidative metabolites of oenothein B up to heptameric oligomers; (3 the distribution of oenotheins and other macrocyclic analogs in the plant kingdom; and (4 the pharmacological activities hitherto documented for oenothein B, including those recently found by our laboratory.

  5. Balance disorder and increased risk of falls in osteoporosis and kyphosis: significance of kyphotic posture and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaki, Mehrsheed; Brey, Robert H; Hughes, Christine A; Larson, Dirk R; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2005-08-01

    This controlled trial was designed to investigate the influence of osteoporosis-related kyphosis (O-K) on falls. Twelve community-dwelling women with O-K (Cobb angle, 50-65 degrees measured from spine radiographs) and 13 healthy women serving as controls were enrolled. Mean age of the O-K group was 76 years (+/-5.1), height 158 cm (+/-5), and weight 61 kg (+/-7.9), and mean age of the control group was 71 years (+/-4.6), height 161 cm (+/-3.8), and weight 66 kg (+/-11.7). Quantitative isometric strength data were collected. Gait was monitored during unobstructed level walking and during stepping over an obstacle of four different heights randomly assigned (2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of the subject's height). Balance was objectively assessed with computerized dynamic posturography consisting of the sensory organization test. Back extensor strength, grip strength, and all lower extremity muscle groups were significantly weaker in the O-K group than the control group (P controls for all conditions of unobstructed and obstructed level walking. Obstacle height had a significant effect on all center-of-mass variables. The O-K subjects had significantly greater balance abnormalities on computerized dynamic posturography than the control group (P =0.002). Data show that thoracic hyperkyphosis on a background of reduced muscle strength plays an important role in increasing body sway, gait unsteadiness, and risk of falls in osteoporosis.

  6. The increasing incidence of snowboard-related trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John R.; Groner, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate injuries among children and adolescents who participate in downhill sports. Methods We collected trauma registry data (January 1999–May 2006) from a level 1 pediatric trauma center with an average snowfall of 28 in (71 cm)/y. Cases were analyzed for injury mechanism, injury type, organ injured, Injury Severity Score, age, sex, and whether or not an operation was required. Results There were 57 snowboarders and 22 skiers admitted during the study period. Forty-one (72%) of snowboarders and 16 (73%) of skiers required operations; 32 (56%) of snowboarders and 9 (41%) of skiers sustained fractures; and 14 (25%) of snowboarders and 6 (27%) of skiers sustained abdominal injuries. (P = NS for all comparisons). Serious splenic injuries were more common in snowboarders (14% vs 4%), but the difference was not statistically significant. All skiing injuries occurred at recreational facilities (commercial skiing areas), whereas 12% of snowboard injuries occurred at home, other residence, or public parks (P = .08). The most striking finding is the rising number of snowboarding injuries and the relatively stable rate of skiing injuries (see graph). Conclusions As the popularity of snowboarding rises, snowboarding injuries in children are increasing. Pediatric surgeons should be wary of the “snowboard spleen.” PMID:18485968

  7. Significant change of predictions related to the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrache, Ion

    2002-01-01

    During the last two decades of the 20th century, nuclear power contribution increased slowly in the world. This trend was mainly determined by the commissioning of new nuclear power plants, NPP, in the non-developed countries, except for Japan and South Korea. Almost all the forecasts offered the image of the stagnant nuclear power business. Sweden, Germany, Holland and Belgium Governments made clear the intention to stop the production of electricity based on fission. Recently, despite the negative effects on nuclear power of the terrorism events of September 11, 2001, the predictions related to the nuclear power future become much more optimistic. USA, Japan, South Korea and Canada made clear that new NPPs will offer their significant electricity contribution several decades, even after years 2020-2030. Moreover, several old NPP from USA obtained the license for an additional 20 years period of operation. The analysis indicated that most of the existing NPP in USA may increase the level of the maximum global power defined by the initial design. In the European Union the situation is much more complicated. About 35% of the electricity is based now on fission. Several countries, like Sweden and Germany, maintain the position of phasing out the NPPs, as soon as the licensed life-time is over. Finland decided to build a new power plant. France is very favorable to nuclear power, but does not need more energy. In the UK several very old NPP will be shut down, and companies like BNFL and British Energy intend to build new NPP, based on Westinghouse or AECL-Canada advanced reactors. Switzerland and Spain are favorable to the future use of nuclear power. In the eastern part of Europe, almost all the countries intend to base their electricity production on coal, fission, hydro and gas, nuclear contribution being significant. The most impressive increases of nuclear power output are related to Asia; in China, from 2.2 Gwe in 1999, to 18.7 Gwe in 2020, reference case, or 10

  8. Significance of increased lung thallium-201 activity on serial cardiac images after dipyridamole treatment in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Dai, Y.H.; Boucher, C.A.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Increased lung thallium-201 (Tl-201) activity occurs in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) on initial postexercise images. To determine the significance of assessing lung Tl-201 on serial imaging after dipyridamole therapy, initial and delayed (2 to 3 hours) Tl-201 imaging was performed in 40 patients with CAD and 26 normal control subjects. Lung Tl-201 activity was quantitated as a percentage of maximal myocardial activity for each imaging time (lung Tl-201 index). The mean initial lung Tl-201 activity was 42 +/- 2% (+/- standard error of the mean) in 26 control subjects, 56 +/- 2% in 25 patients with 2- or 3-vessel CAD (p less than 0.001) and 53 +/- 2% in 15 patients with 1-vessel CAD (p less than 0.005 compared with control subjects) (difference not significant between 1-vessel and multivessel CAD). Dipyridamole lung Tl-201 activity decreased relative to the myocardium from initial to delayed images (p less than 0.001) in patients with CAD but not in control subjects. When a dipyridamole lung Tl-201 index of 58% (mean +/- 2 standard deviations for control subjects) was chosen as the upper limit of normal, 14 of 40 of the CAD patients (35%) had abnormal values and all control patients had values within normal limits. These 14 patients with CAD and abnormal initial lung Tl-201 indexes had rest ejection fractions that were not significantly different from those in patients with CAD, and normal initial dipyridamole lung Tl-201 index (58 +/- 4% and 63 +/- 2%, respectively)

  9. Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2010-01-01

    Investments in children are generally seen as investments in the future economy. In this study I focus on time investments in children as I investigate the long-term educational effects on children of increasing parents' birth-related leave from 14 to 20 weeks using a natural experiment from 1984...

  10. Significance of experts' overall ratings for medical student competence in relation to history-taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernesto de Almeida Troncon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Overall ratings (ORs of competence, given by expert physicians, are increasingly used in clinical skills assessments. Nevertheless, the influence of specific components of competence on ORs is incompletely understood. The aim here was to investigate whether ORs for medical student history-taking competence are influenced by performance relating to communication skills, completeness of questioning and asking contentdriven key questions. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive, quantitative study at Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Thirty-six medical students were examined in a 15-station high-stake objective structured clinical examination (OSCE. At four stations devoted to history-taking, examiners filled out checklists covering the components investigated and independently rated students’ overall performance using a five-point scale from 1 (poor to 5 (excellent. Physician ratings were aggregated for each student. Nonparametric correlations were made between ORs. RESULTS: ORs presented significant correlations with checklist scores (Spearman’s rs = 0.38; p = 0.02 and OSCE general results (rs = 0.52; p < 0.001. Scores for "communication skills" tended to correlate with ORs (rs = 0.31, but without reaching significance (p = 0.06. Neither the scores for "completeness" (rs = 0.26; p = 0.11 nor those for "asking key questions" (rs = 0.07; p = 0.60 correlated with ORs. CONCLUSIONS: Experts’ overall ratings for medical student competence regarding history-taking is likely to encompass a particular dimension, since ratings were only weakly influenced by specific components of performance.

  11. Categorical and associative relations increase false memory relative to purely associative relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coane, Jennifer H; McBride, Dawn M; Termonen, Miia-Liisa; Cutting, J Cooper

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the contributions of associative strength and similarity in terms of shared features to the production of false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott list-learning paradigm. Whereas the activation/monitoring account suggests that false memories are driven by automatic associative activation from list items to nonpresented lures, combined with errors in source monitoring, other accounts (e.g., fuzzy trace theory, global-matching models) emphasize the importance of semantic-level similarity, and thus predict that shared features between list and lure items will increase false memory. Participants studied lists of nine items related to a nonpresented lure. Half of the lists consisted of items that were associated but did not share features with the lure, and the other half included items that were equally associated but also shared features with the lure (in many cases, these were taxonomically related items). The two types of lists were carefully matched in terms of a variety of lexical and semantic factors, and the same lures were used across list types. In two experiments, false recognition of the critical lures was greater following the study of lists that shared features with the critical lure, suggesting that similarity at a categorical or taxonomic level contributes to false memory above and beyond associative strength. We refer to this phenomenon as a "feature boost" that reflects additive effects of shared meaning and association strength and is generally consistent with accounts of false memory that have emphasized thematic or feature-level similarity among studied and nonstudied representations.

  12. Serious fighting-related injuries produce a significant reduction in intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2013-10-01

    Fighting-related injuries are common among adolescents within the United States, but how such injuries relate to subsequent cognitive functioning remains unclear. In particular, the long-term effect of fighting-related injuries suffered during important developmental periods, such as adolescence, on subsequent cognitive functioning has been overlooked by previous studies. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between sustaining serious fighting-related injuries and changes in verbal intelligence (IQ) over a 5- to 6-year time period. Longitudinal multivariate statistical models were used to analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected between 1994 and 2002 and analyzed in 2013. Even a single fighting-related injury resulted in a significant reduction in IQ over time even after controlling for age, race, sex, and changes in socioeconomic status (SES) over the study period. Additionally, females experienced a significantly greater reduction in IQ from each fighting-related injury than males. Fighting-related injuries have a significant impact on subsequent cognitive functioning and intelligence. The implications for future policies and research are discussed in more detail. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Jealousy increased by induced relative left frontal cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Eastwick, Paul W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric frontal cortical activity may be one key to the process linking social exclusion to jealous feelings. The current research examined the causal role of asymmetric frontal brain activity in modulating jealousy in response to social exclusion. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the frontal cortex to manipulate asymmetric frontal cortical activity was combined with a modified version of the Cyberball paradigm designed to induce jealousy. After receiving 15 min of tDCS, participants were excluded by a desired partner and reported how jealous they felt. Among individuals who were excluded, tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity caused greater levels of self-reported jealousy compared to tDCS to increase relative right frontal cortical activity or sham stimulation. Limitations concerning the specificity of this effect and implications for the role of the asymmetric prefrontal cortical activity in motivated behaviors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Categorization of safety related motor operated valve safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Kim, K. Y.

    2002-03-01

    We performed a categorization of safety related Motor Operated Valve (MOV) safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3. The safety evaluation of MOV of domestic nuclear power plants affects the generic data used for the quantification of MOV common cause failure ( CCF) events in Ulchin Units 3 PSA. Therefore, in this study, we re-estimated the MGL(Multiple Greek Letter) parameter used for the evaluation of MOV CCF probabilities in Ulchin Units 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and performed a classification of the MOV safety significance. The re-estimation results of the MGL parameter show that its value is decreased by 30% compared with the current value in Ulchin Unit 3 PSA. The categorization results of MOV safety significance using the changed value of MGL parameter shows that the number of HSSCs(High Safety Significant Components) is decreased by 54.5% compared with those using the current value of it in Ulchin Units 3 PSA

  15. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  16. Prognostic significance of specific injury patterns in casualties of traffic-related accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosevic, Srdjan; Lovric, Zvonimir

    2015-11-01

    Fatal triad and ipsilateral dyad are patterns of pedestrian injuries related to significant mortality in traffic-related accidents. The aim of this research was to investigate the correlation between specific injury patterns and fatal outcome in other participants of traffic-related accidents. This was a retrospective study of traffic-related accidents in the broader area of the city of Osijek in a five-year period from 1995 to 1999. Autopsy results from the Institute of Pathology and Forensic Medicine of the Clinical Hospital Centre Osijek were analysed of individuals who died after their accident. The total severity of injuries was measured using the ISS. Logistic regression analysis was used for assessing the correlation between specific injury patterns and an early outcome from the severe injury. There were 213 individuals included in the study: 72 pedestrians and 141 other participants (drivers, assistant drivers, passengers, cyclists and motorcyclists). A total of129 individuals died on the spot and 84 died in the hospital during the first 48h. Femoral and pelvic fracture, fatal triad and both variants of ipsilateral dyad were related to higher ISS values. Ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremities (ipsilateral dyad 1) was associated with a 4.59 times higher risk of an immediate fatal outcome in the total sample. In pedestrians, the risk was 5.99 higher, and in other participants, the risk was 4.11 times higher. Specific skeletal injuries and injury patterns are a significant indicator for total injury severity and related poor prognosis for all participants of traffic-related injuries, not only for pedestrians. In this study, the ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremity was related to the largest total severity of injuries and the poorest prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion). © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Marrying Step Feed with Secondary Clarifier Improvements to Significantly Increase Peak Wet Weather Treatment Capacity: An Integrated Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2017-08-01

      The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, Ohio, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter units), indicated that a significant increase in capacity from 416 000 to 684 000 m3/d or more was possible by adding step feed capabilities to the existing bioreactors and upgrading the existing secondary clarifiers. One of the six treatment units at the WRF was modified, and an extensive 2-year testing program was conducted to determine the total peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity achievable. The results demonstrated that a peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity approaching 974 000 m3/d is possible as long as secondary clarifier solids and hydraulic loadings could be separately controlled using the step feed capability provided. Excellent sludge settling characteristics are routinely experienced at the City of Akron WRF, raising concerns that the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity could not be maintained should sludge settling characteristics deteriorate for some reason. Computational fluid dynamics analysis indicated that the impact of the deterioration of sludge settling characteristics could be mitigated and the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity maintained by further use of the step feed capability provided to further reduce secondary clarifier solids loading rates at the identified high surface overflow rates. The results also demonstrated that effluent limits not only for total suspended solids (TSS) and five-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) could be

  19. A possible mechanism relating increased soil temperature to forest decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Nutrient cations are removed from the soil by uptake in biomass, and by leaching as a result of soil acidification. Such acidification results from acid deposition and/or from HNO 3 formed by mineralization and nitrification of humus, when at a rate in excess of the tree's nutritional requirements. This has been found to occur during and following periods of increased temperature and reduced rainfall. The cumulative loss of either Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ or K + by one or more of these processes, if greater than the amount released from the specific minerals in that soil, leads to nutrient deficiency, fine root mortality, poor growth, and eventually to die-back. Trees growing in soils derived from specific minerals in which there is a strong imbalance in the elements from which the exchangeable nutrients are formed, are vulnerable to nutrient deficiency. This paper discusses the relevance of earlier studies, when considered in relation to more recent findings. In Hawaii there have been frequent periods of increased temperature and drought resulting from the El Nino Southern Oscillation. This fact, when considered in relation to the relatively low K content, and its imbalance with Ca and Mg in the lava and volcanic ash on which the trees have grown, could result in K deficiency in the declining ohia trees. It is possible that the unusual periods of increased temperature and drought which have occurred in certain other localized areas may have led to the decline symptoms recently observed. In view of the threat of global warming, this possibility should be investigated. 39 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Kenji; Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-01-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  1. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Kenji [Hiroshima City Hospital (Japan); Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-12-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  2. Triglyceride content in remnant lipoproteins is significantly increased after food intake and is associated with plasma lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Sakamaki, Koji; Shimomura, Younosuke; Kobayashi, Junji; Kamachi, Keiko; Tanaka, Akira; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J; Wang, Tao; Machida, Tetsuo; Murakami, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Previous large population studies reported that non-fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) reflect a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than TG in the fasting plasma. This is suggestive of the presence of higher concentration of remnant lipoproteins (RLP) in postprandial plasma. TG and RLP-TG together with other lipids, lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in both fasting and postprandial plasma were determined in generally healthy volunteers and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after consuming a fat load or a more typical moderate meal. RLP-TG/TG ratio (concentration) and RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio (particle size) were significantly increased in the postprandial plasma of both healthy controls and CAD patients compared with those in fasting plasma. LPL/RLP-TG ratio demonstrated the interaction correlation between RLP concentration and LPL activity The increased RLP-TG after fat consumption contributed to approximately 90% of the increased plasma TG, while approximately 60% after a typical meal. Plasma LPL in postprandial plasma was not significantly altered after either type of meal. Concentrations of RLP-TG found in the TG along with its particle size are significantly increased in postprandial plasma compared with fasting plasma. Therefore, non-fasting TG determination better reflects the presence of higher RLP concentrations in plasma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shih-Ying [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Juang, Shin-Hun [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Chi, E-mail: hou5133@gmail.com [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C{sub max} of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  4. Theorising international monetary relations: three questions about the significance of materiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Leander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article engages a conversation with Benjamin Cohen by raising three questions about the significance of materiality. The paper's questions focus on how materiality can be included in theorizations so that its political import is not defined away from the outset. The article does this focussing on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments and counterarguments are advanced. The questions are therefore posed with Cohen's contributions to theorizing the political significance of materiality as their point of departure. They are formulated as a consequence of bringing these contributions in relation to insights from the Social Studies of Finance. From this perspective it would seem that a more far reaching engagement with materiality (in terms of ontology, agency and epistemology is necessary to capture its political significance for international monetary politics and currency hierarchies. The article does not conclude in conventional fashion but purposefully strives to leave these questions open for discussion.

  5. Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Tien-Shang; Ko, Wen-Je; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2014-03-04

    Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Taiwan's extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan's crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan's crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan's and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan's trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Significant social events, such as a well-known person's successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of

  6. Weight-related stigma is a significant psychosocial stressor in developing countries: Evidence from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Joseph; Maupin, Jonathan; Brewis, Alexandra A

    2016-07-01

    Weight-related stigma is established as a major psychosocial stressor and correlate of depression among people living with obesity in high-income countries. Anti-fat beliefs are rapidly globalizing. The goal of the study is to (1) examine how weight-related stigma, enacted as teasing, is evident among women from a lower-income country and (2) test if such weight-related stigma contributes to depressive symptoms. Modeling data for 12,074 reproductive-age women collected in the 2008-2009 Guatemala National Maternal-Infant Health Survey, we demonstrate that weight-related teasing is (1) experienced by those both underweight and overweight, and (2) a significant psychosocial stressor. Effects are comparable to other factors known to influence women's depressive risk in lower-income countries, such as living in poverty, experiencing food insecurity, or suffering sexual/domestic violence. That women's failure to meet local body norms-whether they are overweight or underweight-serves as such a strong source of psychological distress is particularly concerning in settings like Guatemala where high levels of over- and under-nutrition intersect at the household and community level. Current obesity-centric models of weight-related stigma, developed from studies in high-income countries, fail to recognize that being underweight may create similar forms of psychosocial distress in low-income countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Social marketing campaign significantly associated with increases in syphilis testing among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jorge A; Kent, Charlotte K; Rotblatt, Harlan; McCright, Jacque; Kerndt, Peter R; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2005-07-01

    Between 1999 and 2002, San Francisco experienced a sharp increase in early syphilis among gay and bisexual men. In response, the San Francisco Department of Public Health launched a social marketing campaign to increase testing for syphilis, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men. A convenience sample of 244 gay and bisexual men (18-60 years of age) were surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign. Respondents were interviewed to elicit unaided and aided awareness about the campaign, knowledge about syphilis, recent sexual behaviors, and syphilis testing behavior. After controlling for other potential confounders, unaided campaign awareness was a significant correlate of having a syphilis test in the last 6 months (odds ratio, 3.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-7.97) compared with no awareness of the campaign. A comparison of respondents aware of the campaign with those not aware also revealed significant increases in awareness and knowledge about syphilis. The Healthy Penis 2002 campaign achieved its primary objective of increasing syphilis testing, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

  8. Significances and meanings of the musical identity of patients and relatives receiving oncological palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Araujo de Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological study was structured on Heidegger’s theoretical-philosophical framework, with the objective of unveiling the significances and meanings of the musical identity of patients and relatives under oncological palliative care. Individual interviews were performed with 12 clients (seven patients and five relatives staying at the support residence of the Maringa Female Network Against Cancer. A total of eight musical meetings were performed between January and February of 2011. I understood that the musical identity of the evidenced beings refers to the religious and country music styles, that their significances and meanings are connected to their spirituality and the significant events of their historicity, and that their mood and reflection intermediated by music can influence their musical choice. I gave evidence to the need to consider the music identity and empowerment in musical choices, which carries existential, social, cultural, spiritual and family aspects as qualifying elements of nursing in palliative care. Descriptors: Nursing Care; Oncology Nursing; Music; Music Therapy; Palliative Care.

  9. Correlation and clinical significance between glomerular filtration rate and age in living-related kidney donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiuyi; Shao Yahui; Wang Yanming; Zhang Aimin; Hao Junwen; Tian Jun; Sun Ben; Han Jiankui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To quantitatively investigate the effect of age on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in living-related kidney donors. to analyze the clinical value and the dependence of GFR on age and to provide an objective basis for the selection of the living kidney donor. Methods: One hundred and sixty-one living-related kidney donors were divided into four age groups, namely 20-29 years (n=52), 30-39 years (n=44), 40-49 years (n=38) and ≥50 years (n=27). On the other hand, the total donors were divided into the groups older than 55 years (n=24) and younger than 55 years (n=137). To quantify GFR in all the subjects using the 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99 Tc m -DTPA) renography according to standard procedure and to evaluate the effects of age on renal function. Results: The total GFR in living-related kidney donors was calculated as (89.55±12.87) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 . The GFR in the first to the four age groups were (88.27±12.29) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , (91.85±14.51) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , (98.25±11.26) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 and (88.24±13.20) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 . The difference of GFR were not significant between the four age groups (F=2.09, P=0.10). The GFR in the donors older than 55 years and younger than 55 years were (88.57±13.14) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 and (89.44±10.34) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , there no significant difference in GFR between the two groups (F=1.31, P=0.25). When relating GFR to age in all the living-related kidney donors, there was no significant correlation (r=-0.033, P=0.69). No serious complications occurred after living kidney transplantation, serum creatinine values and blood urea nitrogen recovered to the normal levels in a short period, hepatic and renal functions were normal. Conclusion: This study indicated that the GFR values were not correlated with the change of age in living-related kidney donors, and the results were helpful for the selection of living

  10. Significance of categorization and the modeling of age related factors for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed that the categorization and modelling are necessary with regard to age related factors of radionuclide metabolism for the radiation protection of the public. In order to utilize the age related information as a model for life time risk estimate of public, it is necessary to generalize and simplify it according to the categorized model patterns. Since the patterns of age related changes in various parameters of radionuclide metabolism seem to be rather simple, it is possible to categorize them into eleven types of model patterns. Among these models, five are selected as positively significant models to be considered. Examples are shown as to the fitting of representative parameters of both physiological and metabolic parameter of radionuclides into the proposed model. The range of deviation from adult standard value is also analyzed for each model. The fitting of each parameter to categorized models, and its comparative consideration provide the effective information as to the physiological basis of radionuclide metabolism. Discussions are made on the problems encountered in the application of available age related information to radiation protection of the public, i.e. distribution of categorized parameter, period of life covered, range of deviation from adult value, implication to other dosimetric and pathological models and to the final estimation. 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  11. RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PRECHOROIDAL CLEFT IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Se Woong; Son, Dae Yong; Bae, Kunho

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the risk factors associated with prechoroidal cleft occurrence after treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to elucidate its clinical significance. Two hundred thirty-four subjects who were treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration were assessed to identify prechoroidal cleft on optical coherence tomography. Clinical variables were compared between patients manifesting a cleft (cleft group) and patients who did not (control group). Prechoroidal cleft was detected in 29 of 234 patients (8.1%). Although the baseline visual acuity was not different between the 2 groups, logMAR visual acuity at final visit was 0.89 ± 0.74 (with approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/160) in the cleft group and 0.65 ± 0.69 (with approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/100) in controls (P age-related macular degeneration (P age-related macular degeneration, and a submacular hemorrhage treated by pneumatic displacement were the independent risk factors for development of prechoroidal cleft. Eyes with a cleft, especially clefts that develop early, generally had worse prognoses than eyes without clefts.

  12. Liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Zhu Hong

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.

  13. Noninvasive scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Ye, Linglong; Jin, Li-Xin; Ren, Yan-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Fang, Kuangnan; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2017-03-01

    Although a liver stiffness measurement-based model can precisely predict significant intrahepatic inflammation, transient elastography is not commonly available in a primary care center. Additionally, high body mass index and bilirubinemia have notable effects on the accuracy of transient elastography. The present study aimed to create a noninvasive scoring system for the prediction of intrahepatic inflammatory activity related to chronic hepatitis B, without the aid of transient elastography. A total of 396 patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in the present study. Liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored using the Scheuer scoring system, and serum markers and liver function were investigated. Inflammatory activity scoring models were constructed for both hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) and hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve were 86.00%, 84.80%, 62.32%, 95.39%, and 0.9219, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) group and 91.89%, 89.86%, 70.83%, 97.64%, and 0.9691, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) group. Significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy by using our logistic regression-based scoring system.

  14. Relative significance of surgery and radiotherapy in treatment of brain metastases of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Junkoh; Ohtsuka, Sinichi; Yamasaki, Toshiki; Gi, Hidefuku; Ha, Young-Soo; Handa, Hajime

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and sixteen cases of brain metastases of lung cancer were retrospectively analysed with special reference to the relative significance of surgery and radiotherapy. The median survival time from diagnosis of brain metastases was 1.2 months in 27 cases without treatment, 2.5 months in 51 cases treated by surgery alone, 4.2 months in 31 cases treated by radiotherapy alone and 6.5 months in 7 cases treated by surgery and radiotherapy. The survival rate in patients treated by radiotherapy was significantly better than in those not treated by radiotherapy. However, the effect of surgery was not significant in prolongation of survival time. On the other hand, the rate of improvement in neurological symptoms assessed at one month after the initiation of treatment was 80.9% in 47 cases treated by surgery and 19.4 % in 31 cases treated by radiotherapy. The result suggested that surgery is superior to radiotherapy in alleviating neurological symptoms. It is important to understand the nature of effect of each treatment. A better result will be anticipated by proper selection or combination of these treatments. (author)

  15. [Clinical significance of calcitonin gene-related peptide level before and after treatment in patients with chronic periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Xiang, Xue-Rong; Wang, Chun; Ye, Guo; Fan, Xiao-Ping

    2016-08-01

    To explore the clinical significance of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels in patients with chronic periodontitis before and after treatment, and to detect the calcitonin gene-related peptide content in human venous blood. Thirty healthy controls and thirty patients with mild, moderate, severe periodontitis were enrolled from August 2014 to June 2015.CGRP level in the patients' peripheral blood was detected by ELISA. Three months after periodontal treatment, CGRP level in mild, moderate, severe periodontitis patients' peripheral blood was re-examined by ELISA. Then the correlation between calcitonin gene-related peptide and inflammation of chronic periodontitis was analyzed with SPSS 22.0 software package. The content of CGRP in healthy controls was significantly higher than that in patients with periodontitis. With the aggravation of periodontal inflammation, blood level of CGRP decreased gradually, and the lowest was in patients with severe periodontitis (Pperiodontal treatment, CGRP content was significantly higher compared with that before treatment (Pperiodontitis (P>0.05). The level of CGRP in venous blood decreased with the increasing severity of chronic periodontitis, and CGRP was negatively correlated with the degree of inflammation of chronic periodontitis. CGRP may be involved in the occurrence and development of chronic periodontitis. CGRP content in serum of patients with chronic periodontitis after treatment was significantly increased, CGRP may be used as the basis for clinical detection of chronic periodontitis.

  16. Significance and prognostic value of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis in Chinese rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chun; Fang, Long; Li, Jing-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Chuan

    2016-02-28

    To determine the significance of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in Chinese rectal cancer patients, after those with known hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases were excluded. A cohort of 469 patients, who were treated at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Ministry of Health (Beijing, China), in the period from January 2003 to June 2011, and with a pathological diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma, were recruited. They included 231 patients with LNM (49.3%) and 238 patients without LNM. Follow-up for these patients was taken through to December 31, 2012. The baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration was (median/inter-quartile range) 2.30/1.60-3.42 μmol/L. Univariate analysis showed that compared with patients without LNM, the patients with LNM had an increased level of direct bilirubin (2.50/1.70-3.42 vs 2.10/1.40-3.42, P = 0.025). Multivariate analysis showed that direct bilirubin was independently associated with LNM (OR = 1.602; 95%CI: 1.098-2.338, P = 0.015). Moreover, we found that: (1) serum direct bilirubin differs between male and female patients; a higher concentration was associated with poor tumor classification; (2) as the baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration increased, the percentage of patients with LNM increased; and (3) serum direct bilirubin was associated with the prognosis of rectal cancer patients and higher values indicated poor prognosis. Higher serum direct bilirubin concentration was associated with the increased risk of LNM and poor prognosis in our rectal cancers.

  17. Expression of a bacterial catalase in a strictly anaerobic methanogen significantly increases tolerance to hydrogen peroxide but not oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Matthew E.; Schaff, Cody W.; Horne, Alexandra J.; Lessner, Faith H.

    2014-01-01

    Haem-dependent catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that degrades H2O2, producing H2O and O2, and is common in aerobes. Catalase is present in some strictly anaerobic methane-producing archaea (methanogens), but the importance of catalase to the antioxidant system of methanogens is poorly understood. We report here that a survey of the sequenced genomes of methanogens revealed that the majority of species lack genes encoding catalase. Moreover, Methanosarcina acetivorans is a methanogen capable of synthesizing haem and encodes haem-dependent catalase in its genome; yet, Methanosarcina acetivorans cells lack detectable catalase activity. However, inducible expression of the haem-dependent catalase from Escherichia coli (EcKatG) in the chromosome of Methanosarcina acetivorans resulted in a 100-fold increase in the endogenous catalase activity compared with uninduced cells. The increased catalase activity conferred a 10-fold increase in the resistance of EcKatG-induced cells to H2O2 compared with uninduced cells. The EcKatG-induced cells were also able to grow when exposed to levels of H2O2 that inhibited or killed uninduced cells. However, despite the significant increase in catalase activity, growth studies revealed that EcKatG-induced cells did not exhibit increased tolerance to O2 compared with uninduced cells. These results support the lack of catalase in the majority of methanogens, since methanogens are more likely to encounter O2 rather than high concentrations of H2O2 in the natural environment. Catalase appears to be a minor component of the antioxidant system in methanogens, even those that are aerotolerant, including Methanosarcina acetivorans. Importantly, the experimental approach used here demonstrated the feasibility of engineering beneficial traits, such as H2O2 tolerance, in methanogens. PMID:24222618

  18. Prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of a prospective DCE-MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Maximilian; Hillengass, Jens [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Moehler, Thomas M.; Ritsch, Judith; Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Baeuerle, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Zechmann, Christian M. [Rinecker Proton Therapy, Muenchen (Germany); Wagner, Barbara; Hose, Dirk [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Jauch, Anna [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Human Genetics, Heidelberg (Germany); Kunz, Christina; Hielscher, Thomas [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Laue, Hendrik [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Aim of this prospective study was to investigate prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation as detected by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for survival and local complications in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We performed DCE-MRI of the lumbar spine in 131 patients with newly diagnosed MM and analysed data according to the Brix model to acquire amplitude A and exchange rate constant k{sub ep}. In 61 patients a second MRI performed after therapy was evaluated to assess changes in vertebral height and identify vertebral fractures. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive association between beta2-microglobulin as well as immunoparesis with DCE-MRI parameters A and k{sub ep}. Additionally, A was negatively correlated with haemoglobin levels and k{sub ep} was positively correlated with LDH levels. Higher baseline k{sub ep} values were associated with decreased vertebral height in a second MRI (P = 0.007) and A values were associated with new vertebral fractures in the lower lumbar spine (P = 0.03 for L4). Pre-existing lytic bone lesions or remission after therapy had no impact on the occurrence of vertebral fractures. Multivariate analysis revealed that amplitude A is an independent adverse risk factor for overall survival. DCE-MRI is a non-invasive tool with significance for systemic prognosis and vertebral complications. (orig.)

  19. Highly significant linkage to chromosome 3q13.31 for rhinitis and related allergic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Brasch; Haagerup, Annette; Børglum, Anders D.

    2006-01-01

    or all are still inconclusive. Following genome-wide scans on multiple phenotypes, we previously suggested that chromosome 3q13.12-q21.2 harbours an allergy locus. OBJECTIVE: To identify candidate loci in the Danish population, two additional independent sets of sib-pair families were fine-scale mapped......BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis have closely related phenotypes and often occur with atopy. They show strong familial and intra-individual clustering, suggesting overlapping disease aetiology. Various loci and candidate genes have been suggested to underlie allergy. Many...... in candidate regions showing maximum likelihood scores (MLS) > or =1.5 in the genome-wide scans. RESULTS: Twenty eight microsatellite markers in a denser map on chromosome 3q were analysed in 236 allergy sib-pair families including 125 sib pairs with rhinitis. We report significant evidence for linkage...

  20. On the relative significance of lithospheric weakening mechanisms for sustained plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araceli Sanchez-Maes, Sophia

    2018-01-01

    Plate tectonics requires the bending of strong plates at subduction zones, which is difficult to achieve without a secondary weakening mechanism. Two classes of weakening mechanisms have been proposed for the generation of ongoing plate tectonics, distinguished by whether or not they require water. Here we show that the energy budget of global subduction zones offers a simple yet decisive test on their relative significance. Theoretical studies of mantle convection suggest bending dissipation to occupy only 10-20 % of total dissipation in the mantle, and our results indicate that the hydrous mechanism in the shallow part of plates is essential to satisfy the requirement. Thus, surface oceans are required for the long-term operation of plate tectonics on terrestrial worlds. Establishing this necessary and observable condition for sustained plate tectonics carries important implications for planetary habitability at large.

  1. Contextual Variability in Personality from Significant-Other Knowledge and Relational Selves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Andersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the self is intrinsically embedded in an interpersonal context such that it varies in IF-THEN terms, as the relational self. We have demonstrated that representations of the significant other and the relationship with that other are automatically activated by situational cues and that this activation affects both experienced and expressed aspects of the self and personality. Here, we expand on developments of the IF–THEN cognitive-affective framework of personality (CAPS, Mischel & Shoda, 1995, by extending it to the domain of interpersonal relationships at the dyadic level (Andersen & Chen, 2002. Going beyond Mischel’s early research (Mischel, 1968, our framework combines social cognition and learning theory with a learning-based psychodynamic approach, which provides the basis for extensive research on the social-cognitive process of transference and the relational self as it arises in everyday social interactions (Andersen & Cole, 1990, evidence from which contributes to a modern conceptualization of personality that emphasizes the centrality of the situation.

  2. Concrete component aging and its significance relative to life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.

    1986-09-01

    The objectives of this study are to (1) expand upon the work that was initiated in the first two Electric Power Research Institute studies relative to longevity and life extension considerations of safety-related concrete components in light-water reactor (LWR) facilities and (2) provide background that will logically lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based materials and components. These objectives are consistent with Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program goals: (1) to identify and characterize aging and service wear effects that, if unchecked, could cause degradation of structures, components, and systems and, thereby, impair plant safety; (2) to identify methods of inspection, surveillance, and monitoring or of evaluating residual life of structures, components, and systems that will ensure timely detection of significant aging effects before loss of safety function; and (3) to evaluate the effectiveness of storage, maintenance, repair, and replacement practices in mitigating the rate and extent of degradation caused by aging and service wear

  3. Contextual Variability in Personality From Significant-Other Knowledge and Relational Selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susan M; Tuskeviciute, Rugile; Przybylinski, Elizabeth; Ahn, Janet N; Xu, Joy H

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the self is intrinsically embedded in an interpersonal context such that it varies in IF-THEN terms, as the relational self. We have demonstrated that representations of the significant other and the relationship with that other are automatically activated by situational cues and that this activation affects both experienced and expressed aspects of the self and personality. Here, we expand on developments of the IF-THEN cognitive-affective framework of personality system (Mischel and Shoda, 1995), by extending it to the domain of interpersonal relationships at the dyadic level (Andersen and Chen, 2002). Going beyond Mischel's early research (Mischel, 1968), our framework combines social cognition and learning theory with a learning-based psychodynamic approach, which provides the basis for extensive research on the social-cognitive process of transference and the relational self as it arises in everyday social interactions (Andersen and Cole, 1990), evidence from which contributes to a modern conceptualization of personality that emphasizes the centrality of the situation.

  4. Energy Services in Sweden - Customer Relations towards Increased Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin

    2008-06-15

    Energy use and supply are evident issues to consider for a sustainable development, where the economic, social and environmental aspects are all important. In large grid-bound systems, the supply of energy is usually a rather invisible activity and the contacts between household customers and utilities are sometimes only represented through the energy bill. In this thesis, three particular fields are emphasized where these interactions comes into focus: Electricity peak load problems and load management in households; Energy monitoring and feedback, and; The selling of district heating to households in detached house areas. Improved customer relations in these areas can both increase the energy utilities abilities to compete on the markets and to contribute to an increased sustainable development within the energy sector. The traditional ways to handle peak load problems in the Swedish electricity system have been to build new power plants and to reinforce the electricity grid. However, there are many reasons why solutions should be sought for on the demand-side. This thesis discusses the issues of load management through technical load control of households' electric heating systems and electric water heaters, and through indirect load management with different pricing of electricity.The new Swedish law about monthly accurate billing of electricity for household customers has influenced the electricity network owners to install new automatic meter reading (AMR) systems. Hourly metering can give raise to a new set of data about household electricity use, that can be utilised to provide detailed characteristics of load demand and consumption patterns and serve as a basis for customer segmentation. This information can be useful when developing new energy services, new pricing of electricity, new load management strategies and demand response programs. In this thesis, customer preferences towards feedback on electricity use and different types of billing are

  5. Study of stone composition changes in melamine-related urinary calculi and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Chen, YiRong; Zhang, Wei; Huang, XiaoGang; Li, WenHui; Ru, XiaoRui; Meng, Min; Xi, Xinsheng; Huang, Gang; Shi, BaoGuang; Liu, Gang; Li, WeiHua; Xu, Hui

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the composition changes in melamine-related urinary calculi and their clinical significance. A total of 49 melamine-related urinary calculi were included from 49 children (age 4-82 months, mean 22). The qualitative analysis of stone composition was determined using Fourier transform infrared. The quantitative analysis of the stone computed tomography (CT) attenuation value, stone uric acid level, and stone calcium level were measured using spiral CT, high-performance liquid chromatography, and flame atomic absorption spectrum, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that 41 (84%) of the 49 stones contained uric acid and 25 (51%) contained calcium compounds. The data from the qualitative and quantitative analysis were available for 15 stones because of sample consumption in the detection process (Fourier transform infrared, atomic absorption spectrum, and high-performance liquid chromatography). A negative correlation was observed between stone uric acid level and stone calcium level (n = 15, r = -0.629, P = .009). A positive correlation was observed between the stone calcium level and stone CT attenuation value (n = 25, r = 0.855, P = .000). Compared with the ≤1-year-age group and the 1-2-year-age group, the stone calcium level in the >2-year-age group was significantly greater (27.51% ± 12.65% vs 1.60% ± 1.68% or 10.12% ± 8.69%, P = .000 and P = .003, respectively). Compared with the alkalization-alone group, the stone calcium level in the nonalkalization-alone group was significant greater (19.83% ± 7.48% vs 1.25% ± 1.43%, n = 19, P = .000). The stones from children >2 years old were not amenable to medical treatment because they contained greater levels of calcium, which can be demonstrated by the radiologic "positive stone image" or stone CT attenuation value. We believe that surgical invention will be the best choice for such patients if extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has failed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Increasing Incidence of Severe Epstein-Barr Virus-Related Infectious Mononucleosis: Surveillance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattevin, Pierre; Le Tulzo, Yves; Minjolle, Sophie; Person, Arnaud; Chapplain, Jean Marc; Arvieux, Cedric; Thomas, Remi; Michelet, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Older patients are more susceptible to severe Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related infectious mononucleosis (IM). This condition may increase in industrialized countries where primary EBV infection occurs later in life. Between 1990 and 2004, 38 patients were admitted to our department with EBV-related IM. Two patients died. The annual incidence increased significantly (r = 0.623; P = 0.013). PMID:16672427

  7. Praxis induction. Definition, relation to epilepsy syndromes, nosological and prognostic significance. A focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacubian, Elza Márcia; Wolf, Peter

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing awareness that reflex epileptic mechanisms provide unique insight into ictogenesis in human epilepsies. Several of the described triggers have in common that they imply complex visuomotor coordination and decision-making; they are today regarded as variations of one principle, i.e. praxis induction (PI). This focused review considers PI from the aspects of history and delineation, clinical and electroencephalographic presentation, syndromatic relations, prevalence, mechanisms of ictogenesis and nosological implications, treatment and prognosis. We reviewed a series of published articles and case reports on PI in order to clarify clinical and electroencephalographic findings, treatment and outcome. Findings of both induction and inhibition by the same stimuli suggest widening the reflex epilepsy concept into a broader one of epilepsies with exogenous modification of ictogenesis. PI is closely related to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) where hyperexcitability and hyperconnectivity of the entire network of visuomotor coordination seem to provide the precondition for eliciting reflex myocloni in the musculature active in the precipitating task. The conclusions on ictogenesis derived from PI support the concept of JME as a system disorder of the brain. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plucking the Golden Goose: Higher Royalty Rates on the Oil Sands Generate Significant Increases in Government Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alberta government’s 2009 New Royalty Framework elicited resistance on the part of the energy industry, leading to subsequent reductions in the royalties imposed on natural gas and conventional oil. However, the oil sands sector, subject to different terms, quickly accepted the new arrangement with little complaint, recognizing it as win-win situation for industry and the government. Under the framework, Alberta recoups much more money in royalties — about $1 billion over the two year period of 2009 and 2010 — without impinging significantly on investment in the oil sands. This brief paper demonstrates that by spreading the financial risks and benefits to everyone involved, the new framework proves it’s possible to generate increased revenue without frightening off future investment. The same model could conceivably be applied to the conventional oil and natural gas sectors.

  9. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Packianathan, Satyaseelan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  10. Pressure sores significantly increase the risk of developing a Fournier's gangrene in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, M; Citak, M; Tilkorn, D-J; Meindl, R; Schildhauer, T A; Fehmer, T

    2011-11-01

    Retrospective chart review. The aim of our study was to evaluate the mortality rate and further specific risk factors for Fournier's gangrene in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Division of Spinal Cord Injury, BG-University Hospital Bergmannsheil Bochum, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. All patients with a SCI and a Fournier's gangrene treated in our hospital were enrolled in this study. Following parameters were taken form patients medical records: age, type of SCI, cause of Fournier's gangrene, number of surgical debridements, length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, co morbidity factors and mortality rate. In addition, laboratory parameter including the laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINEC) score and microbiological findings were analyzed. Clinical diagnosis was made via histological examination. A total of 16 male patients (15 paraplegic and one tetraplegic) were included in the study. In 81% of all cases, the origin of Fournier's gangrene was a pressure sore. The median LRINEC score on admission was 6.5. In the vast majority of cases, a polybacterial infection was found. No patient died during the hospital stay. The mean number of surgical debridements before soft tissue closure was 1.9 and after a mean time interval of 39.1 days wound closure was performed in all patients. Pressure sores significantly increase the risk of developing Fournier's gangrene in patients with SCI. We reported the results of our patients to increase awareness among physicians and training staff working with patients with a SCI in order to expedite the diagnosis.

  11. High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan T Clarke

    Full Text Available Occasional risk of serious liver dysfunction and autoimmune hepatitis during atorvastatin therapy has been reported. We compared the risk of hepatotoxicity in atorvastatin relative to simvastatin treatment.The UK GPRD identified patients with a first prescription for simvastatin [164,407] or atorvastatin [76,411] between 1997 and 2006, but with no prior record of liver disease, alcohol-related diagnosis, or liver dysfunction. Incident liver dysfunction in the following six months was identified by biochemical value and compared between statin groups by Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, year treatment started, dose, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index and comorbid conditions.Moderate to severe hepatotoxicity [bilirubin >60μmol/L, AST or ALT >200U/L or alkaline phosphatase >1200U/L] developed in 71 patients on atorvastatin versus 101 on simvastatin. Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for all atorvastatin relative to simvastatin was 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.4-2.6]. High dose was classified as 40-80mg daily and low dose 10-20mg daily. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 0.44% of 4075 patients on high dose atorvastatin [HDA], 0.07% of 72,336 on low dose atorvastatin [LDA], 0.09% of 44,675 on high dose simvastatin [HDS] and 0.05% of 119,732 on low dose simvastatin [LDS]. AHRs compared to LDS were 7.3 [4.2-12.7] for HDA, 1.4 [0.9-2.0] for LDA and 1.5 [1.0-2.2] for HDS.The risk of hepatotoxicity was increased in the first six months of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin treatment, with the greatest difference between high dose atorvastatin and low dose simvastatin. The numbers of events in the analyses were small.

  12. High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Alan T.; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Hall, Gillian C.; Ford, Ian; Mills, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Occasional risk of serious liver dysfunction and autoimmune hepatitis during atorvastatin therapy has been reported. We compared the risk of hepatotoxicity in atorvastatin relative to simvastatin treatment. Methods The UK GPRD identified patients with a first prescription for simvastatin [164,407] or atorvastatin [76,411] between 1997 and 2006, but with no prior record of liver disease, alcohol-related diagnosis, or liver dysfunction. Incident liver dysfunction in the following six months was identified by biochemical value and compared between statin groups by Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, year treatment started, dose, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index and comorbid conditions. Results Moderate to severe hepatotoxicity [bilirubin >60μmol/L, AST or ALT >200U/L or alkaline phosphatase >1200U/L] developed in 71 patients on atorvastatin versus 101 on simvastatin. Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for all atorvastatin relative to simvastatin was 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.4–2.6]. High dose was classified as 40–80mg daily and low dose 10–20mg daily. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 0.44% of 4075 patients on high dose atorvastatin [HDA], 0.07% of 72,336 on low dose atorvastatin [LDA], 0.09% of 44,675 on high dose simvastatin [HDS] and 0.05% of 119,732 on low dose simvastatin [LDS]. AHRs compared to LDS were 7.3 [4.2–12.7] for HDA, 1.4 [0.9–2.0] for LDA and 1.5 [1.0–2.2] for HDS. Conclusions The risk of hepatotoxicity was increased in the first six months of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin treatment, with the greatest difference between high dose atorvastatin and low dose simvastatin. The numbers of events in the analyses were small. PMID:26983033

  13. Significance of breast boost volume changes during radiotherapy in relation to current clinical interobserver variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, Coen; Admiraal, Marjan; Sangen, Maurice van der; Dijkmans, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Nowadays, many departments introduce CT images for breast irradiation techniques, aiming to obtain a better accuracy in the definition of the relevant target volumes. However, the definition of the breast boost volume based on CT images requires further investigation, because it may not only vary between observers, but it may also change during the course of treatment. This study aims to quantify the variability of the CT based visible boost volume (VBV) during the course of treatment in relation to the variability between observers. Materials and methods: Ten patients with stage T1-2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast conservative surgery and post surgical radiotherapy were included in this study. In addition to the regular planning CT which is obtained several days prior to radiotherapy, three additional CT scans were acquired 3, 5 and 7 weeks after the planning CT scan. Four radiation oncologists delineated the VBV in all scans. Conformity of the delineations was analysed both between observers, and between scans taken at different periods of the radiotherapy treatment. Results: The VBV averaged over all patients decreased during the course of the treatment from an initial 40 cm 3 to 28 cm 3 , 27 cm 3 and 25 cm 3 after 3, 5 and 7 weeks, respectively. Assuming the VBV to be spherical, this corresponds to a reduction in diameter of 5-6 mm. More detailed analysis revealed that this reduction was more pronounced when radiotherapy started within 30 days after surgery. These boost volume changes over time were found to be significant (p = 0.02) even in the presence of interobserver variations. Moreover, the conformity index (CI) for the volume changes was of the same magnitude as the conformity index for the interobserver variation (0.25 and 0.31, respectively). Conclusions: Breast boost volume variations during a course of radiotherapy are significant in relation to current clinical interobserver variations. This is an important

  14. The clinical significance of thymidylate synthase expression in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hisayuki; Yui, Takehiro; Okada, Tatsuyoshi; Urano, Makoto; Sakurai, Kazuo; Naito, Kensei; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    The focus of human papilloma virus (HPV), particulary HPV 16 is on the role of carcinogenic and prognostic factors on oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma (OSCC). However, it remains unclear why patients with HPV-positive tumors have better outcomes than those with HPV-negative tumors. Thymidylate synthase (TS) is one of the initial key enzymes in the 5-fluouracil (5-FU) metabolic pathway. Clinical studies showed that intratumoural TS level was related to the response to 5-FU-based chemotherapy in patients with several types of cancer such as gastroenterological and head and neck cancers. We investigated the prevalence of HPV infection and TS expression in the patients with OSCC and evaluated the prognostic implications according to the HPV status and TS expression. We evaluated for high-risk HPV types (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 51, 52, 58) using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay on archival biopsies from 54 patients with OSCC. Immunohistochemical assessments for TS were also performed. HPV was positive in 22 (40.7%) of 54 samples. Of these positive cases, 21 (95%) carried HPV 16 and only 1 (5%) HPV58 sequences. TS was overexpressed in 25 (46.3%) of 54 samples. Of these, 19 (76.0%) had an HPV-negative status and 21 (84.0%) were heavy smokers. TS overexpression was associated with the patients with HPV-negative tumors (P=0.02) and heavy smokers (p=0.012). Univariate analysis revealed that HPV positive status (77.3% vs. 29.0%; p=0.006) significantly improved overall survival. Conversely, no remarkable prognostic difference was observed on immunohistochemical analysis of TS expression. A multivariate analysis using Cox's proportional hazard model showed that early T stage (T1-2), early N stage (N0-1), and positive HPV status were significantly independent predictors for superior overall survival. Our studies suggested that positive HPV status was most strongly associated with a favorable prognosis in the patients with OSCC. TS expression has an unusual aspect

  15. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a

  16. Relation of milrinone after surgery for congenital heart disease to significant postoperative tachyarrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew H; Owen, Jill; Borgman, Kristie Y; Fish, Frank A; Kannankeril, Prince J

    2011-12-01

    Milrinone reduces the risk of low cardiac output syndrome for some pediatric patients after congenital heart surgery. Data from adults undergoing cardiac surgery suggest an association between milrinone and an increased risk of postoperative arrhythmias. We tested the hypothesis that milrinone is an independent risk factor for tachyarrhythmias after congenital heart surgery. Subjects undergoing congenital heart surgery at our institution were consecutively enrolled for 38 months, through September 2010. The data were prospectively collected, including a review of full-disclosure telemetry and the medical records. Within 38 months, 603 enrolled subjects underwent 724 operative procedures. The median age was 5.5 months (range 0.0 to 426), the median weight was 6.0 kg (range 0.7 to 108), and the cohort was 45% female. The overall arrhythmia incidence was 50%, most commonly monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (n = 85, 12%), junctional ectopic tachycardia (n = 69, 10%), accelerated junctional rhythm (n = 58, 8%), and atrial tachyarrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ectopic or chaotic atrial tachycardia, n = 58, 8%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent of age 3, and the use of epinephrine or dopamine, milrinone use on admission to the cardiac intensive care unit remained independently associated with an increase in the odds of postoperative tachyarrhythmia resulting in an intervention (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 6.0, p = 0.007). In conclusion, milrinone use is an independent risk factor for clinically significant tachyarrhythmias in the early postoperative period after congenital heart surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relation of Milrinone Following Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease to Significant Postoperative Tachyarrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew H.; Owen, Jill; Borgman, Kristie Y.; Fish, Frank A.; Kannankeril, Prince J.

    2011-01-01

    Milrinone reduces the risk of low cardiac output syndrome for some pediatric patients following congenital heart surgery. Data from adults undergoing cardiac surgery suggest an association between milrinone and increased risk for postoperative arrhythmias. We tested the hypothesis that milrinone is an independent risk factor for tachyarrhythmias following congenital heart surgery. Subjects undergoing congenital heart surgery at our institution were consecutively enrolled for 38 months, through September 2010. Data was prospectively collected, including review of full-disclosure telemetry and the medical record. Over 38 months, 603 enrolled subjects underwent 724 operative procedures. The median age was 5.5 months (0.0–426), weight was 6.0 kg (0.7–108), and the cohort was 45% female. Overall arrhythmia incidence was 50%, most commonly monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (n=85, 12%), junctional ectopic tachycardia (n=69, 10%), accelerated junctional rhythm (n=58, 8%), and atrial tachyarrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ectopic or chaotic atrial tachycardia, n=58, 8%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent of age less than 1 month, use of cardiopulmonary bypass, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, RACHS-1 score greater than 3, and the use of epinephrine or dopamine, milrinone use on admission to the cardiac intensive care unit remained independently associated with an increase in the odds of postoperative tachyarrhythmia resulting in an intervention (OR 2.8 [95%CI 1.3–6.0], p=0.007). In conclusion, milrinone use is an independent risk factor for clinically significant tachyarrhythmias in the early postoperative period following congenital heart surgery. PMID:21890079

  18. Significance of glycolytic metabolism-related protein expression in colorectal cancer, lymph node and hepatic metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Sandra Fernandes; Amorim, Ricardo; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Pinheiro, Céline; Costa, Ricardo Filipe Alves; Silva, Patrícia; Couto, Carla; Alves, Sara; Fernandes, Sara; Vilaça, Sónia; Falcão, Joaquim; Marques, Herlander; Pardal, Fernando; Rodrigues, Mesquita; Preto, Ana; Reis, Rui Manuel; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Baltazar, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Most cancer cells display high rates of glycolysis with production of lactic acid, which is then exported to the microenvironment by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). The main aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of MCT expression in a comprehensive series of primary CRC cases, lymph node and hepatic metastasis. Expressions of MCT1, MCT4, CD147 and GLUT1 were studied in human samples of CRC, lymph node and hepatic metastasis, by immunohistochemistry. All proteins were overexpressed in primary CRC, lymph node and hepatic metastasis, when compared with non-neoplastic tissue, with exception of MCT1 in lymph node and hepatic metastasis. MCT1 and MCT4 expressions were associated with CD147 and GLUT1 in primary CRC. These markers were associated with clinical pathological features, reflecting the putative role of these metabolism-related proteins in the CRC setting. These findings provide additional evidence for the pivotal role of MCTs in CRC maintenance and progression, and support the use of MCTs as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in primary and metastatic CRC

  19. [Significance of non-organ-specific autoantibodies in HCV-related chronic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Marcello; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Muratori, Luigi; Pappas, Georgios; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2005-12-01

    The preliminary question regarding the clinical issue of the antiviral therapy in the HCV related chronic hepatitis patients is: is it mandatory the research for the autoantibodies in the eligible patients for the antiviral treatment? This issue is of particular interest at the light of the the reported cases of HCV positive patients with positivity for liver kidney microsome type 1 antibody who developed a hepatitic flare during the antiviral treatment. The data from literature about the efficacy and safety on the antiviral treatment in patients with autoantibodies are few and controversial, particularly if the ones regarding antiviral drugs and more recent treatment regimens are taking into account (peg-interferon, combined therapy of interferon and ribavirin). Large and prospective studies are needed for a thorough evaluation about the potential impact of autoantibodies reactivity on the therapeutic outcome. To date, it must be confirmed that a strict monitoring of hepatic parameters is to recommend during the whole treatment phase. This in the light of a potential appearance of significant flares of aminotransferases, particularly in subjects with anti LKM-1 autoantibodies, during interferon therapy.

  20. Significance of Alkali-Silica reaction in nuclear safety-related concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pape, Y.; Field, K.G.; Mattus, C.H.; Naus, D.J.; Busby, J.T.; Saouma, V.; Ma, Z.J.; Cabage, J.V.; Guimaraes, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant license renewal up to 60 years and possible life extension beyond has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and particularly, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete components. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis, jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Academia and the Power Generation Industry, identified the need to develop a consistent knowledge base of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) within concrete as an urgent priority (Graves et al., 2014). ASR results in an expansion of Concrete produced by the reaction between alkali (generally from cement), reactive aggregate (like amorphous silica) and water absorption. ASR causes expansion, cracking and loss of mechanical properties. Considering that US commercial reactors in operation enter the age when ASR distress can be potentially observed and that numerous non-nuclear infrastructures (transportation, energy production) in a majority of the States have already experienced ASR-related concrete degradation, the susceptibility and significance of ASR for nuclear concrete structures must be addressed. This paper outlines an on-going research program including the investigation of the possibility of ASR in nuclear power plants, and the assessment of the residual shear bearing capacity of ASR-subjected nuclear structures. (authors)

  1. The significance of residual stresses in relation to the integrity of LWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidbury, D.P.G.

    1984-01-01

    The level and distribution of residual stresses in heavy section weldments and the factors affecting their relaxation with post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) are discussed; residual stresses are also considered in relation to the deposition of austenitic strip cladding and repair welding. A brief survey is made of currently available methods of measuring surface and sub-surface residual stresses in heavy section weldments; the effects of compressive residual stresses on the detection and sizing of planar defects are similarly considered. Available fracture mechanics methodologies with the capability of evaluation defect significance in the presence of residual and other secondary stresses are reviewed in some detail. On-going experimental investigations of the effects of residual stresses on structural integrity are also described. Following a general discussion, the desirability of internationally agreed Codes and Methods for assessing defects in the presence of residual and other self-limiting stresses is pointed out. It is argued that before such agreement could be achieved, however, further work is necessary, and a number of recommendations are given. (author)

  2. Meniscofibular Ligament: Morphology and Functional Significance of a Relatively Unknown Anatomical Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Natsis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. A relatively unknown ligamentous structure of the posterolateral corner of the knee joint, the so-called meniscofibular ligament (MFL, was investigated as regards its macroscopic morphology, its histological features, and its reaction to knee movements. Material and Methods. MFL was exposed on 21 fresh-frozen unpaired knee joints. Its microscopic morphology was examined utilizing for comparison the fibular collateral and the popliteofibular ligament. Results. MFL was encountered in 100% of the specimens as a thin striplike fibrous band extending between the lower border of the lateral meniscus and the head of the fibula. MFL was tense during knee extension and external rotation of the tibia, whereas its histological features were similar to those of fibular collateral and popliteofibular ligament. Discussion. Its precise histological nature is studied as well as its tension alterations during knee movements. The potential functional significance of the MFL with respect to its role in avoidance of lateral meniscus and lateral coronary ligament tears is discussed. Conclusions. MFL presumably provides an additional protection to the lateral meniscus during the last stages of knee extension, as well as to the lateral coronary ligament reducing the possibility of a potential rupture.

  3. The Significance of Electronic Commerce to Firms' Operations in Relation to Business Location: an empirical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchenna Eze

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of production and increasing competition spurs greater business use of innovative information systems. As globalization extends its reach over cities and regions, the positions of those places within the emerging global paradigms of regional economies is changing. Only those regions and cities that can mobilize assets for local advantage would succeed. This research examines the implications of location for electronic commerce (EC role in firm operations through the lens of managerial perceptions of EC systems, EC activities, agglomeration economies, firm-specific features and outputs relative to industry. The input-based view and industrial development frameworks provide the theoretical underpinning for this research. Fully completed instruments from 106 firms in Singapore and Lagos financial services sector, respectively, are the basis of our analysis. Our findings reveal varying results between industries across the two cities, supporting our propositions. Firms with well-configured EC systems are more likely to experience efficiency in EC activities and outputs, given conducive operational conditions. However, firm-specific features were not linked to output, a finding inconsistent with prior studies. Finally, EC business models that focus on operational efficiency strongly complement the historically relevant location variable in industrial operations. These findings provide basis for recommendations to policymakers, practitioners, and researchers.

  4. Factors Related to Significant Improvement of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rates in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Receiving Telbivudine Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Fu Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The improvement of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients receiving telbivudine therapy is well known. The aim of this study was to clarify the kinetics of eGFRs and to identify the significant factors related to the improvement of eGFRs in telbivudine-treated CHB patients in a real-world setting. Methods. Serial eGFRs were calculated every 3 months using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation. The patients were classified as CKD-1, -2, or -3 according to a baseline eGFR of ≥90, 60–89, or <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. A significant improvement of eGFR was defined as a more than 10% increase from the baseline. Results. A total of 129 patients were enrolled, of whom 36% had significantly improved eGFRs. According to a multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus (DM (p=0.028 and CKD-3 (p=0.043 were both significantly related to such improvement. The rates of significant improvement of eGFR were about 73% and 77% in patients with DM and CKD-3, respectively. Conclusions. Telbivudine is an alternative drug of choice for the treatment of hepatitis B patients for whom renal safety is a concern, especially patients with DM and CKD-3.

  5. Irrigation Is Significantly Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Produce Production Environments in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-06-01

    Environmental (i.e., meteorological and landscape) factors and management practices can affect the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes), Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in produce production environments and to identify environmental factors and management practices associated with their isolation. Ten produce farms in New York State were sampled during a 6-week period in 2010, and 124 georeferenced samples (80 terrestrial, 33 water, and 11 fecal) were collected. L. monocytogenes, Listeria spp., Salmonella, and STEC were detected in 16, 44, 4, and 5% of terrestrial samples, 30, 58, 12, and 3% of water samples, and 45, 45, 27, and 9% of fecal samples, respectively. Environmental factors and management practices were evaluated for their association with terrestrial samples positive for L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species by univariate logistic regression; analysis was not conducted for Salmonella or STEC because the number of samples positive for these pathogens was low. Although univariate analysis identified associations between isolation of L. monocytogenes or Listeria spp. from terrestrial samples and various water-related factors (e.g., proximity to wetlands and precipitation), multivariate analysis revealed that only irrigation within 3 days of sample collection was significantly associated with isolation of L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 39) and Listeria spp. (odds ratio = 5) from terrestrial samples. These findings suggest that intervention at the irrigation level may reduce the risk of produce contamination.

  6. 'Knowledge for better health' revisited - the increasing significance of health research systems: a review by departing Editors-in-Chief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2017-10-02

    How can nations organise research investments to obtain the best bundle of knowledge and the maximum level of improved health, spread as equitably as possible? This question was the central focus of a major initiative from WHO led by Prof Tikki Pang, which resulted in a range of developments, including the publication of a conceptual framework for national health research systems - Knowledge for better health - in 2003, and in the founding of the journal Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS). As Editors-in-Chief of the journal since 2006, we mark our retirement by tracking both the progress of the journal and the development of national health research systems. HARPS has maintained its focus on a range of central themes that are key components of a national health research system in any country. These include building capacity to conduct and use health research, identifying appropriate priorities, securing funds and allocating them accountably, producing scientifically valid research outputs, promoting the use of research in polices and practice in order to improve health, and monitoring and evaluating the health research system. Some of the themes covered in HARPS are now receiving increased attention and, for example, with the assessment of research impact and development of knowledge translation platforms, the journal has covered their progress throughout that expansion of interest. In addition, there is increasing recognition of new imperatives, including the importance of promoting gender equality in health research if benefits are to be maximised. In this Editorial, we outline some of the diverse and developing perspectives considered within each theme, as well as considering how they are held together by the growing desire to build effective health research systems in all countries.From 2003 until mid-June 2017, HARPS published 590 articles on the above and related themes, with authors being located in 76 countries. We present quantitative data tracing

  7. Extreme weather is increasing flood-related damage along ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-08

    Jun 8, 2016 ... IDRC-supported researchers have found changes in weather patterns and in the intensity of extreme weather events are resulting in the ... the design of adaptation policies and risk management scenarios. ... Related articles ...

  8. Fatal alcohol-related traffic crashes increase subsequent to changes to and from daylight savings time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, G J; Davis, J W; Hicks, R A

    1998-06-01

    On the hypothesis that sleepiness and alcohol interact to increase the risk of alcohol-related traffic fatalities, the percentages of alcohol-related fatal traffic crashes were assessed for the entire state of New Mexico for the years 1989-1992, for each of the seven days that preceded the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time and for each of the 14 days which followed the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time. Consistent with our hypothesis the percentage of alcohol-related fatal crashes increased significantly during the first seven days after these changes in Daylight Savings Time.

  9. Safety aspects related to burnup increase and mixed oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.

    1992-01-01

    The dominant factor presently limiting the fuel burnup is the response of the cladding hulls. To maintain the excellent record of very low fuel failure rates for increased burnups further technical development is underway and necessary. In the nuclear fuel cycle increased burnups lead to a remarkable reduction of spent fuel arisings and corresponding economic savings. Thermal recycling of plutonium presently provides an opportunity to reduce the rising accumulation of plutunium in a situation where there is no demand for this fissile material in Fast Breeder Reactors. (orig.) [de

  10. Evaluating clinically significant changes in health-related quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate change and predictors of change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) during rehabilitation, and to analyse associations between changes in HRQoL and symptoms of anxiety...

  11. Comparison of 5 health care professionals’ratings of the clinical significance of drug related problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Christine; Hojsted, Jette; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel

    2014-01-01

    to a mutual agreement on the level of clinical significance. However, to what degree does the panel agree?Purpose To compare the agreement between different health care professionals who have evaluated the clinical significance of DRPs.Materials and methods DRPs were identified in 30 comprehensive medicines...... reviews conducted by a clinical pharmacist. Two hospital pharmacists, a general practitioner and two specialists in pain management from hospital care (the Panel) evaluated each DRP considering the potential clinical outcome for the patient. The DRPs were rated either nil, low, minor, moderate or highly...... clinically significant. Agreement was analysed using Kappa statistics. A Kappa value of 0.8 to 1.0 indicated nearly perfect agreement between ratings of the Panel members.Results The Panel rated 45 percent of the total 162 DRPs as of moderate clinical significance. However, the overall kappa score was 0...

  12. Significance of relative velocity in drag force or drag power estimation for a tethered float

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Sastry, J.S.

    There is difference in opinion regarding the use of relative velocity instead of particle velocity alone in the estimation of drag force or power. In the present study, a tethered spherical float which undergoes oscillatory motion in regular waves...

  13. Analysing the significance of silence in qualitative interviewing: questioning and shifting power relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Fynbo, Lars

    2017-01-01

    In this article we analyse the significance of silence in qualitative interviews with 36 individuals interviewed about high-risk, illegal activities. We describe how silence expresses a dynamic power relationship between interviewer and interviewee. In the analysis, we focus on two different types...... significant data. We conclude that silence constitutes possibilities for interviewees and interviewers to handle the complex power at play in qualitative interviewing either by maintaining or by losing control of the situation....

  14. Increased multiple sclerosis relapses related to lower prevalence of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vinícius Martins da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study aims to investigate the presence of pain amongst multiple sclerosis (MS patients. Method One hundred MS patients responded to questionnaires evaluating neuropathic and nociceptive pain, depression and anxiety. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann–Whitney U, Chi-Square and two-tailed Fisher’s exact tests and multivariate logistic regression. Results Women had a statistically higher prevalence of pain (p = 0.037, and chances of having pain after the age of 50 reduced. Women with pain had a statistically significant lower number of relapses (p = 0.003, restricting analysis to those patients with more than one relapse. After the second relapse, each relapse reduced the chance of having pain by 46%. Presence of pain was independent of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS anxiety, and depression. Conclusion Our findings suggest a strong inverse association between relapses and pain indicating a possible protective role of focal inflammation in the control of pain.

  15. Increased Mindfulness Skills as Predictors of Reduced Trauma-Related Guilt in Treatment-Seeking Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Philip; Owens, Gina P; Monroe, J Richard; Chard, Kathleen M

    2017-08-01

    The present study examined the predictive role of increased self-reported mindfulness skills on reduced trauma-related guilt in a sample of veterans over the course of residential treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; N = 128). The residential treatment consisted of seven weeks of intensive cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for PTSD, as well as additional psychoeducational groups, including seven sessions on mindfulness skills. Increased mindfulness skills describing, acting with awareness, and accepting without judgment were significantly associated with reductions in trauma-related guilt over the course of treatment. Increases in the ability to act with awareness and accept without judgment were significantly associated with reductions in global guilt, R 2 = .26, guilt distress, R 2 = .23, guilt cognitions, R 2 = .23, and lack of justification, R 2 = .11. An increase in the ability to accept without judgment was the only self-reported mindfulness skill that was associated with reductions in hindsight bias, β = -.34 and wrongdoing, β = -.44. Increases in self-reported mindfulness skills explained 15.1 to 24.1% of the variance in reductions in trauma-related guilt, suggesting that mindfulness skills may play a key role in reducing the experience of trauma-related guilt during psychotherapy. Our results provide preliminary support for the use of mindfulness groups as an adjunct to traditional evidence-based treatments aimed at reducing trauma-related guilt, though this claim needs to be tested further using experimental designs. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  16. Health-related quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Which factors are of significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, L.; Sørensen, J.; Ostergaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease causing joint pain, loss of function and decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). HRQoL in RA patients is associated with several risk factors; in this paper the evidence relating to the most important risk factors is reviewed....... Modern medical therapy has improved HRQoL in RA patients, while demographic factors (female sex and older age), low socioeconomic status (in terms of education and position in the work force) and the presence of comorbid conditions appear to be associated with poorer HRQoL Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3/3...

  17. Sleep spindles predict stress-related increases in sleep disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Thanh eDang-Vu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Predisposing factors place certain individuals at higher risk for insomnia, especially in the presence of precipitating conditions such as stressful life events. Sleep spindles have been shown to play an important role in the preservation of sleep continuity. Lower spindle density might thus constitute an objective predisposing factor for sleep reactivity to stress. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the relationship between baseline sleep spindle density and the prospective change in insomnia symptoms in response to a standardized academic stressor. Methods: 12 healthy students had a polysomnography (PSG recording during a period of lower stress at the beginning of the academic semester, along with an assessment of insomnia complaints using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI. They completed a second ISI assessment at the end of the semester, a period coinciding with the week prior to final examinations and thus higher stress. Spindle density, amplitude, duration and frequency, as well as sigma power were computed from C4-O2 electroencephalography (EEG derivation during stages N2-N3 of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM sleep, across the whole night and for each NREM sleep period. To test for the relationship between spindle density and changes in insomnia symptoms in response to academic stress, spindle measurements at baseline were correlated with changes in ISI across the academic semester.Results: Spindle density (as well as spindle amplitude and sigma power, particularly during the first NREM sleep period, negatively correlated with changes in ISI (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Lower spindle activity, especially at the beginning of the night, prospectively predicted larger increases in insomnia symptoms in response to stress. This result indicates that individual differences in sleep spindle activity contribute to the differential vulnerability to sleep disturbances in the face of precipitating factors.

  18. 76 FR 65753 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... determined that there is no significant difference in the environmental impacts that result from WEC decision... Environmental Quality, and is not an NRC-licensed facility. Pursuant to 10 CFR 30.11 and 70.17, WEC's... amendment request, the July 28, 2009, public meeting, the July 2009 WEC Environmental Report, and other...

  19. Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdenak, Nils; Wang Junru; Sung, C.-C.; Kelly, Thomas; Fajardo, Luis F.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Rectal toxicity (proctitis) is a dose-limiting factor in pelvic radiation therapy. Mucosal atrophy, i.e., net extracellular matrix degradation, is a prominent feature of radiation proctitis, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We prospectively examined changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 (gelatinase A and B) in the rectal mucosa during radiation therapy of prostate cancer, as well as the relationships of these changes with symptomatic, structural, and cellular evidence of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients scheduled for external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled. Symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity were recorded, and endoscopy with biopsy of the rectal mucosa was performed before radiation therapy, as well as 2 and 6 weeks into the treatment course. Radiation proctitis was assessed by endoscopic scoring, quantitative histology, and quantitative immunohistochemistry. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were localized immunohistochemically, and activities were determined by gelatin zymography. Results: Symptoms, endoscopic scores, histologic injury, and mucosal macrophages and neutrophils increased from baseline to 2 weeks. Symptoms increased further from 2 weeks to 6 weeks, whereas endoscopic and cellular evidence of proctitis did not. Compared to pretreatment values, there was increased total gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 at 2 weeks (p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively) and 6 weeks (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively). Active MMP-2 was increased at both time points (p=0.0001 and p=0.002). Increased MMP-9 and MMP-2 at 6 weeks was associated with radiation-induced diarrhea (p=0.007 and p=0.02, respectively) and with mucosal neutrophil infiltration (rho=0.62). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation therapy causes increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the rectal mucosa. These changes correlate with radiation-induced diarrhea and granulocyte infiltration and may contribute to abnormal

  20. Paraprotein–Related Kidney Disease: Diagnosing and Treating Monoclonal Gammopathy of Renal Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Mitchell H.; Edeani, Amaka; Yanagita, Motoko; Glezerman, Ilya G.

    2016-01-01

    Paraprotein–related kidney disease represents a complex group of diseases caused by an abnormal paraprotein secreted by a clone of B cells. The disease manifestations range from tubulopathies, such as the Fanconi syndrome, to a spectrum of glomerular diseases that can present with varying degrees of proteinuria and renal dysfunction. Diagnosis of these diseases can be challenging because of the wide range of manifestations as well as the relatively common finding of a serum paraprotein, especially in elderly patients. Thus, renal biopsy along with detailed hematologic workup is essential to link the presence of the paraprotein to the associated renal disease. Recent advances in treatment with more effective and targeted chemotherapies, as well as stem cell transplantation, have improved the renal and overall prognosis for many of these disorders. PMID:27526705

  1. Relative Significance of Journals, Authors, and Articles Cited in Financial Research.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, John C; Mabry, Rodney H

    1994-01-01

    The authors evaluate journals based on their relative contributions to top-level finance research in a recent period. Journals are ranked according to the number of citations found in articles published in the Journal of Finance, Journal of Financial Economics, Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, and Review of Financial Studies. The analysis controls for both the average number of articles and average number of words published annually in each cited journal. The authors identify t...

  2. Intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in cardiovascular risk in male offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Backstrom, Miles A.; Carter, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Placental insufficiency programs an increase in blood pressure associated with a twofold increase in serum testosterone in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age. Population studies indicate that the inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure is amplified with age. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction programs an age-related increase in blood pressure in male offspring. Growth-restricted offspring retained a significantly higher blood pressure at 12 but not at 18 mo of age compared with age-matched controls. Blood pressure was significantly increased in control offspring at 18 mo of age relative to control counterparts at 12 mo; however, blood pressure was not increased in growth-restricted at 18 mo relative to growth-restricted counterparts at 12 mo. Serum testosterone levels were not elevated in growth-restricted offspring relative to control at 12 mo of age. Thus, male growth-restricted offspring no longer exhibited a positive association between blood pressure and testosterone at 12 mo of age. Unlike hypertension in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age, inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system with enalapril (250 mg/l for 2 wk) did not abolish the difference in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring relative to control counterparts at 12 mo of age. Therefore, these data suggest that intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring. Furthermore, this study suggests that the etiology of increased blood pressure in male growth-restricted offspring at 12 mo of age differs from that at 4 mo of age. PMID:27147668

  3. Crystalline lens paradoxes revisited: significance of age-related restructuring of the GRIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Conor J; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2017-09-01

    The accommodating volume-constant age-dependent optical (AVOCADO) model of the crystalline lens is used to explore the age-related changes in ocular power and spherical aberration. The additional parameter m in the GRIN lens model allows decoupling of the axial and radial GRIN profiles, and is used to stabilise the age-related change in ocular power. Data for age-related changes in ocular geometry and lens parameter P in the axial GRIN profile were taken from published experimental data. In our age-dependent eye model, the ocular refractive power shows behaviour similar to the previously unexplained "lens paradox". Furthermore, ocular spherical aberration agrees with the data average, in contrast to the proposed "spherical aberration paradox". The additional flexibility afforded by parameter m , which controls the ratio of the axial and radial GRIN profile exponents, has allowed us to study the restructuring of the lens GRIN medium with age, resulting in a new interpretation of the origin of the power and spherical aberration paradoxes. Our findings also contradict the conceptual idea that the ageing eye is similar to the accommodating eye.

  4. Interim Policy Determination Related to NSR/PSD Significance Level for ODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. The Nordic model”: historical origins and its significance for the work place dialogue towards increased organizational sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, B.; Winkel, Jørgen; Edwards, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    of the labour market and a principle of no-state intervention in industrial conflicts. Thus, the industrial relations in the Nordic countries still seem to be exceptional. Key research issues are now to further investigate the Nordic Model in terms of: - critical prerequisites for a positive environment...... for dialogues based on workplace agreements - how such insights can be measured and further developed - how they can be made available to a wider audience in an applicable way...

  6. Increased levels of circulating CD34+ cells in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: relation with clinical and OCT features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Caner; Özdal, Pınar Ç; Beyazyıldız, Emrullah; Özcan, Nurgül E; Teke, Mehmet Y; Vural, Gülden; Öztürk, Faruk

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the levels of circulating CD34+ stem cells in patients with neovascular type age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and its relation with clinical and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings. The study consisted of 55 patients: 28 patients (18 male and 10 female) with neovascular type AMD as a study group and 27 patients (12 male and 15 female) scheduled for cataract surgery as a control group. The level of CD34+ stem cells was measured by flow cytometry. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. The mean ages of patients in the study and control groups were 71 ± 8 and 68 ± 6 years, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of age, sex, or systemic disease association between study and control groups. However, smoking status was significantly higher in the study group (67.9% vs 37.0%; p = 0.02). Stem cell levels were significantly higher in the study group (1.5 ± 0.9 vs 0.5 ± 0.3; p<0.001), but there was no relation between stem cell levels and clinical and OCT findings. Increased circulating CD34+ stem cell levels were observed in patients with choroidal neovascular membrane associated with AMD, but no significant relation was found between cell levels and clinical and OCT findings.

  7. Age-related increase in brain activity during task-related and -negative networks and numerical inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Qi, Zhigang; Li, Kuncheng

    2014-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that elderly adults exhibit increased and decreased activation on various cognitive tasks, yet little is known about age-related changes in inductive reasoning. To investigate the neural basis for the aging effect on inductive reasoning, 15 young and 15 elderly subjects performed numerical inductive reasoning while in a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis revealed that numerical inductive reasoning, relative to rest, yielded multiple frontal, temporal, parietal, and some subcortical area activations for both age groups. In addition, the younger participants showed significant regions of task-induced deactivation, while no deactivation occurred in the elderly adults. Direct group comparisons showed that elderly adults exhibited greater activity in regions of task-related activation and areas showing task-induced deactivation (TID) in the younger group. Our findings suggest an age-related deficiency in neural function and resource allocation during inductive reasoning.

  8. Identification of significant problems related to light water reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    Work on the project was divided into three tasks. In Task 1, past surveys of LWR piping system problems and recent Licensee Event Report summaries are studied to identify the significant problems of LWR piping systems and the primary causes of these problems. Pipe cracking is identified as the most recurring problem and is mainly due to the vibration of pipes due to operating pump-pipe resonance, fluid-flow fluctuations, and vibration of pipe supports. Research relevant to the identified piping system problems is evaluated. Task 2 studies identify typical LWR piping systems and the current loads and load combinations used in the design of these systems. Definitions of loads are reviewed. In Task 3, a comparative study is carried out on the use of nonlinear analysis methods in the design of LWR piping systems. The study concludes that the current linear-elastic methods of analysis may not predict accurately the behavior of piping systems under seismic loads and may, under certain circumstances, result in nonconservative designs. Gaps at piping supports are found to have a significant effect on the response of the piping systems

  9. Increased Risk of Clinically Significant Gallstones following an Appendectomy: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available Although the vermiform appendix is commonly considered a vestigial organ, adverse health consequences after an appendectomy have garnered increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the risks of gallstone occurrence during a 5-year follow-up period after an appendectomy, using a population-based dataset. We used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The exposed cohort included 4916 patients who underwent an appendectomy. The unexposed cohort was retrieved by randomly selecting 4916 patients matched with the exposed cohort in terms of sex, age, and year. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who received a diagnosis of gallstones during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for the analysis. During the 5-year follow-up period, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 4.71 for patients who had undergone an appendectomy, compared to a rate of 2.59 for patients in the unexposed cohort (p<0.001. Patients who had undergone an appendectomy were independently associated with a 1.79 (95% CI = 1.29~2.48-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with gallstones during the 5-year follow-up period. We found that among female patients, the adjusted hazard ratio of gallstones was 2.25 (95% CI = 1.41~3.59 for patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. However, for male patients, we failed to observe an increased hazard for gallstones among patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. We found an increased risk of a subsequent gallstone diagnosis within 5 years after an appendectomy.

  10. Epidemiology and Clinical Significance of Secondary and Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granfeldt Østgård, Lene Sofie; Medeiros, Bruno C; Sengeløv, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Secondary and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (sAML and tAML, respectively) remain therapeutic challenges. Still, it is unclear whether their inferior outcome compared with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) varies as a result of previous hematologic disease or can be explained...... leukemia and myeloproliferative neoplasia) versus de novo AML. Limited to intensive therapy patients, we compared chance of complete remission by logistic regression analysis and used a pseudo-value approach to compare relative risk (RR) of death at 90 days, 1 year, and 3 years, overall and stratified...... myeloid disorder or prior cytotoxic exposure was associated with decreased complete remission rates and inferior survival (3-year adjusted RR for MDS-sAML, non-MDS-sAML, and tAML: RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.32; RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.34; and RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.32, respectively) compared...

  11. Health Related Quality of Life May Increase when Patients with a Stoma Attend Patient Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Adaptation to living with a stoma is complex, and studies have shown that stoma creation has a great impact on patients' health related quality of life. The objective was to explore the effect of a structured patient education program on health related quality of life. Therefore, we...... included 50 patients in the study. Health related quality of life was measured before hospital discharge, three months and six months after stoma creation. The program included educational interventions involving lay-teachers, alongside health professional teachers. RESULTS: We found a significant rise...... in health related quality of life baseline (p = 0.045) with lower scores in the intervention group compared with the intervention group. However, there were no significant differences in the demographic variables at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Educational activities aimed at increase in knowledge and focusing...

  12. Significant Features of Warm Season Water Vapor Flux Related to Heavy Rainfall and Draught in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Koji; Iseri, Yoshihiko; Jinno, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    In this study, our objective is to reveal complicated relationships between spatial water vapor inflow patterns and heavy rainfall activities in Kyushu located in the western part of Japan, using the outcomes of pattern recognition of water vapor inflow, based on the Self-Organizing Map. Consequently, it could be confirmed that water vapor inflow patterns control the distribution and the frequency of heavy rainfall depending on the direction of their fluxes and the intensity of Precipitable water. Historically serious flood disasters in South Kyushu in 1993 were characterized by high frequency of the water vapor inflow patterns linking to heavy rainfall. On the other hand, severe draught in 1994 was characterized by inactive frontal activity that do not related to heavy rainfall.

  13. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of epithelial mesenchymal transition-related protein expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao X

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Xing Yao,1,* Xiang Wang,1,* Zishu Wang,2,* Licheng Dai,1 Guolei Zhang,1 Qiang Yan,1 Weimin Zhou11Huzhou Central Hospital, Zhejiang Huzhou, 2Department of Medical Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital, Bengbu Medical College, Anhui, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this study was to examine the patterns of expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-related proteins in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The clinicopathological and prognostic value of these markers was also evaluated.Methods: We detected the expression status of three EMT-related proteins, ie, E-cadherin, vimentin, and N-cadherin, by immunohistochemistry in consecutive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma specimens from 96 patients.Results: The frequency of loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, and acquisition of mesenchymal markers, vimentin and N-cadherin, in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was 43.8%, 37.5% and 57.3%, respectively. Altered expression of EMT markers was associated with aggressive tumor behavior, including lymph node metastasis, undifferentiated-type histology, advanced tumor stage, venous invasion, and shorter overall survival. Moreover, loss of E-cadherin was retained as an independent prognostic factor for patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in multivariate analysis.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the EMT process is associated with tumor progression and a poor outcome in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and inhibition of EMT might offer novel promising molecular targets for the treatment of affected patients.Keywords: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, expression, prognosis, immunohistochemistry

  14. Modifications resulting in significant increases in the beam usage time of a 60 keV electron beam welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, R.E.; Harrison, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Short beam usage times were encountered using a 60 keV electron beam welder. These short times were the direct result of a buildup of a reaction product (WO 2 . 90 ) that occurred on graphite washers which housed the tungsten emitter plate. While it was not possible to prevent the reaction product, its growth rate was sufficiently altered by changing graphite materials and minor design changes of the washers. With these modifications beam usage times increased from an original 40 min to approximately 675 min

  15. Was there significant tax evasion after the 1999 50 cent per pack cigarette tax increase in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, S; White, M; Gilpin, E; Pierce, J

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Several states, including California, have implemented large cigarette excise tax increases, which may encourage smokers to purchase their cigarettes in other lower taxed states, or from other lower or non-taxed sources. Such tax evasion thwarts tobacco control objectives and may cost the state substantial tax revenues. Thus, this study investigates the extent of tax evasion in the 6–12 months after the implementation of California's $0.50/pack excise tax increase. Design and setting: Retrospective data analysis from the 1999 California Tobacco Surveys (CTS), a random digit dialled telephone survey of California households. Main outcome measures: Sources of cigarettes, average daily cigarette consumption, and reported price paid. Results: Very few (5.1 (0.7)% (±95% confidence limits)) of California smokers avoided the excise tax by usually purchasing cigarettes from non- or lower taxed sources, such as out-of-state outlets, military commissaries, or the internet. The vast majority of smokers purchased their cigarettes from the most convenient and expensive sources: convenience stores/gas (petrol) stations (45.0 (1.9)%), liquor/drug stores (16.4 (1.6)%), and supermarkets (8.8 (1.2)%). Conclusions: Despite the potential savings, tax evasion by individual smokers does not appear to pose a serious threat to California's excise tax revenues or its tobacco control objectives. PMID:12035006

  16. Love is the triumph of the imagination: Daydreams about significant others are associated with increased happiness, love and connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerio, Giulia L; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2015-05-01

    Social relationships and interactions contribute to daily emotional well-being. The emotional benefits that come from engaging with others are known to arise from real events, but do they also come from the imagination during daydreaming activity? Using experience sampling methodology with 101 participants, we obtained 371 reports of naturally occurring daydreams with social and non-social content and self-reported feelings before and after daydreaming. Social, but not non-social, daydreams were associated with increased happiness, love and connection and this effect was not solely attributable to the emotional content of the daydreams. These effects were only present when participants were lacking in these feelings before daydreaming and when the daydream involved imagining others with whom the daydreamer had a high quality relationship. Findings are consistent with the idea that social daydreams may function to regulate emotion: imagining close others may serve the current emotional needs of daydreamers by increasing positive feelings towards themselves and others. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Electronic prompts significantly increase response rates to postal questionnaires: a randomized trial within a randomized trial and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Laura; Ronaldson, Sarah; Dyson, Lisa; Hewitt, Catherine; Torgerson, David; Adamson, Joy

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sending electronic prompts to randomized controlled trial participants to return study questionnaires. A "trial within a trial" embedded within a study determining the effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) screening on smoking cessation. Those participants taking part in DOC who provided a mobile phone number and/or an electronic mail address were randomized to either receive an electronic prompt or no electronic prompt to return a study questionnaire. The results were combined with two previous studies in a meta-analysis. A total of 437 participants were randomized: 226 to the electronic prompt group and 211 to the control group. A total of 285 (65.2%) participants returned the follow-up questionnaire: 157 (69.5%) in the electronic prompt group and 128 (60.7%) in the control group [difference 8.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11%, 17.7%; P = 0.05]. The mean time to response was 23 days in the electronic prompt group and 33 days in the control group (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.105, 1.47). The meta-analysis of all three studies showed an increase in response rate of 7.1% (95% CI: 0.8%, 13.3%). The use of electronic prompts increased response rates and reduces the time to response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Attachment Avoidance Is Significantly Related to Attentional Preference for Infant Faces: Evidence from Eye Movement Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuncheng; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Dajun; Ta, Na; Xia, Mu; Ding, Fangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of adult attachment orientations on infant preference. Methods: We adopted eye-tracking technology to monitor childless college women's eye movements when looking at pairs of faces, including one adult face (man or woman) and one infant face, with three different expressions (happy, sadness, and neutral). The participants ( N = 150; 84% Han ethnicity) were aged 18-29 years ( M = 19.22, SD = 1.72). A random intercepts multilevel linear regression analysis was used to assess the unique contribution of attachment avoidance, determined using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale, to preference for infant faces. Results: Women with higher attachment avoidance showed less infant preference, as shown by less sustained overt attentional bias to the infant face than the adult face based on fixation time and count. Conclusion: Adult attachment might be related to infant preference according to eye movement indices. Women with higher attachment avoidance may lack attentional preference for infant faces. The findings may aid the treatment and remediation of the interactions between children and mothers with insecure attachment.

  19. Labour Mobility and Plant Performance in Denmark: The Significance of Related Inflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram; Boschma, Ron

    This paper investigates the impact of different types of labour mobility on plant performance, making use of the IDA-database that provides detailed information on all individuals and plants for the whole of Denmark. Our study shows that the effect of labour mobility can only be assessed when one...... performance. Moreover, intra-regional skilled labour mobility had a negative effect on plant performance in general, while the effect of inter-regional labour mobility depends on the type of skills that flow into the plant. We used a sophisticated indicator of revealed relatedness that measures the degree...... accounts for the type of skills that flow into the plant, and the degree to which these match the existing set of skills at the plant level. We found that the inflow of related skills has a positive impact on plant performance, while inflows of similar and unrelated skills have a negative effect on plant...

  20. Aging of concrete components and its significance relative to life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power currently supplies about 16% of the US electricity requirements, with the percentage expected to rise to 20% by 1990. Despite the increasing role of nuclear power in energy production, cessation of orders for new nuclear plants in combination with expiration of operating licenses for several plants in the next 15 to 20 years results in a potential loss of electrical generating capacity of 50 to 60 gigawatts during the time period 2005 to 2020. A potential timely and cost-effective solution to the problem of meeting future energy demand is available through extension of the service life of existing nuclear plants. Any consideration of plant life extension, however, must consider the concrete components in these plants, since they play a vital safety role. Under the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, a study was conducted to review operating experience and to provide background that will lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based structures. The approach followed was in conformance with the NPAR strategy

  1. High density renal medulla on unenhanced CT : significance and relation with hydration status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyun Suk; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Sung Min; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk

    1999-01-01

    To assess the effect of hydration status on renal medullary attenuation and to evaluate the incidence of dense renal medulla, as seen on unenhanced CT. We prospectively studied unenhanced CT scans of 12 healthy volunteers. Obtained done after 10 hours and 15 hours of dehydration and after oral intake of 2L of water. BUN/Cr, urine specific gravity, urine osmole and hematocrit were evaluated after 10 hours of dehydration. CT images were reviewed for the presence of dense renal medulla and differential attenuation of dense renal and isodense medulla and cortex at the same level. The density changes of renal medulla after hydration were evaluated. and CT findings were compared with the results of biochemical studies. In addition, we retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of 200 consecutive patients for evaluation of the incidence of dense renal medulla. In 8 of 12 volunteers, dense renal medulla was seen on CT scan after dehydration. Mean attenuation was 71.3±10.42HU after 10 hours of dehydration, 68.6±13.54HU after 15 hours, and 34.5±11.47HU after hydration. No significant attenuation differences were detected between 10 hours and 15 hours of dehydration, but significantly lower attenuation values were noted after hydration. For isodense medulla, the mean attenuation value was 35.7±7.9HU after 10 hours of dehydration, 39.58±9.66HU after 15 hours, and 36.58±7.77HU after hydration. The mean attenuation values of cortex were 35.9±5.95HU after 10 hours of dehydration. 37.58±5.95HU after 15 hours, and 37.08±9.75HU after hydration. With regard not only to duration of dehydration, but also ti hydration, no differences in attenuation values were noted for renal cortex or isodense renal medulla. However, higher density was noted in dense renal medulla than in isodense medulla or cortex for the same duration of dehydration. After hydration, complete resolution was seen at five of eight sites and incomplete resolution at three of eight sites. There was no correlation

  2. Increasing insect reactions in Alaska: is this related to changing climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, Jeffrey G; Gessner, Bradford D; McLaughlin, Joseph B; Sikes, Derek S; Foote, J Timothy

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, Fairbanks, AK, reported its first cases of fatal anaphylaxis as a result of Hymenoptera stings concurrent with an increase in insect reactions observed throughout the state. This study was designed to determine whether Alaska medical visits for insect reactions have increased. We conducted a retrospective review of three independent patient databases in Alaska to identify trends of patients seeking medical care for adverse reactions after insect-related events. For each database, an insect reaction was defined as a claim for the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD-9), codes E9053, E906.4, and 989.5. Increases in insect reactions in each region were compared with temperature changes in the same region. Each database revealed a statistically significant trend in patients seeking care for insect reactions. Fairbanks Memorial Hospital Emergency Department reported a fourfold increase in patients in 2006 compared with previous years (1992-2005). The Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Center of Alaska reported a threefold increase in patients from 1999 to 2002 to 2003 to 2007. A retrospective review of the Alaska Medicaid database from 1999 to 2006 showed increases in medical claims for insect reactions among all regions, with the largest percentage of increases occurring in the most northern areas. Increases in insect reactions in Alaska have occurred after increases in annual and winter temperatures, and these findings may be causally related.

  3. Plant Explants Grown on Medium Supplemented with Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Have a Significant Increase in Embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inese Kokina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of nanotechnology leads to the increasing release of nanoparticles in the environment that results in accumulation of different NPs in living organisms including plants. This can lead to serious changes in plant cultures which leads to genotoxicity. The aims of the present study were to detect if iron oxide NPs pass through the flax cell wall, to compare callus morphology, and to estimate the genotoxicity in Linum usitatissimum L. callus cultures induced by different concentrations of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Two parallel experiments were performed: experiment A, where flax explants were grown on medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l, 1 mg/l, and 1.5 mg/l Fe3O4 NPs for callus culture obtaining, and experiment B, where calluses obtained from basal MS medium were transported into medium supplemented with concentrations of NPs identical to experiment A. Obtained results demonstrate similarly in both experiments that 25 nm Fe3O4 NPs pass into callus cells and induce low toxicity level in the callus cultures. Nevertheless, calluses from experiment A showed 100% embryogenesis in comparison with experiment B where 100% rhizogenesis was noticed. It could be associated with different stress levels and adaptation time for explants and calluses that were transported into medium with Fe3O4 NPs supplementation.

  4. Impact of Alcohol Tax Increase on Maryland College Students' Alcohol-Related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Mieka J; Yearwood, Safiya S; Hwang, Seungyoung; Thorpe, Roland J; Furr-Holden, C Debra

    2018-05-12

    This study A) assessed whether levels of alcohol-related disciplinary actions on college campuses changed among MD college students after the 2011 Maryland (MD) state alcohol tax increase from 6% to 9%, and B) determined which school-level factors impacted the magnitude of changes detected. A quasi-experimental interrupted time series (ITS) analysis of panel data containing alcohol-related disciplinary actions on 33 MD college campuses in years 2006-2013. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine whether there was a statistically significant difference in counts of alcohol-related disciplinary actions comparing time before and after the tax increase. The ITS anaysis showed an insignificant relationship between alcohol-related disciplinary actions and tax implementation (β = -.27; p =.257) but indicated that alcohol-related disciplinary actions decreased significantly over the time under study (β = -.05; p =.022). Alcohol related disciplinary actions did decrease over time in the years of study, and this relationship was correlated with several school-level characteristics, including school price, school funding type, types of degrees awarded, and specialty. School price may serve as a proxy mediator or confounder of the effect of time on disciplinary actions.

  5. A significant increase in the pepsinogen I/II ratio is a reliable biomarker for successful Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Osumi

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori eradication is usually assessed using the 13C-urea breath test (UBT, anti-H. pylori antibody and the H. pylori stool antigen test. However, a few reports have used pepsinogen (PG, in particular, the percentage change in the PG I/II ratio. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of the percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios for determining the success of eradication therapy for H. pylori.In total, 650 patients received eradication therapy from October 2008 to March 2013 in our Cancer Institute Hospital. We evaluated the relationship between H. pylori eradication and percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios before and 3 months after treatment with CLEIA® (FUJIREBIO Inc, Tokyo, Japan. The gold standard of H. pylori eradication was defined as negative by the UBT performed 3 months after completion of eradication treatment. Cut-off values for percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios were set as +40, +25 and +10% when the serum PG I/II ratio before treatment was below 3.0, above 3.0 but below 5.0 and 5.0 or above, respectively.Serum PG I and PG II levels were measured in 562 patients with H. pylori infection before and after eradication therapy. Eradication of H. pylori was achieved in 433 patients studied (77.0%. The ratios of first, second, third-line and penicillin allergy eradication treatment were 73.8% (317/429, 88.3% (99/112, 75% (12/16 and 100% (5/5, respectively. An increasing percentage in the serum levels of the PG I/II ratios after treatment compared with the values before treatment clearly distinguished success from failure of eradication (108.2±57.2 vs. 6.8±30.7, p<0.05. Using the above cut-off values, the sensitivity, specificity and validity for determination of H. pylori were 93.1, 93.8 and 93.2%, respectively.In conclusion, the percentage changes in serum PG I/II ratios are useful as evaluation criteria for assessing the success of eradication therapy for H. pylori.

  6. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  7. Statewide ban on recreational fires resulted in a significant decrease in campfire-related summer burn center admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, David Manh; Reid, Dixie; Lentz, Christopher William

    2013-01-01

    Every summer, there is an increase in the number of burn injuries caused by accidents around campfires. Because of the prevalence of drought, high winds, and uncontrolled wild fires, a statewide ban on recreational fires was instituted in New Mexico from June to July 2011. We hypothesized that this legislation would have a significant impact on burn admissions caused by campfire-related injuries. A retrospective review of summer admissions to a state burn center was conducted to assess the effect of this ban on recreational fire injuries, and these data were compared with that of the previous summer when no ban was in effect. All burn admissions to a state burn center were reviewed from Memorial Day to Labor Day in 2010 and 2011. Data collected included cause, % TBSA, age, days of hospitalization, intensive care unit days, and total surface area grafted. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed with Fisher exact test for dichotomous data and Mann-Whitney test for continuous data with significance at P fires during the study period (n = 14 [17%] in 2010 and 4 [5%] in 2011; P = .02). This resulted in a decrease in the number of patient-days from 91 in 2010 to 25 in 2011. Half of the camp fire admissions required skin grafts to definitively close the wounds (6/14 in 2010 and 2/4 in 2011). Recreational fire bans targeted at controlling wildfires during conditions favoring rapid spread were associated with a 3- to 4-fold decrease in campfire-related burn admissions. Compared with a summer when no fire ban was in effect, the number of patient-days decreased from 91 to 25.

  8. Factors significantly related to science achievement of Malaysian middle school students: An analysis of TIMSS 1999 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokshein, Siti Eshah

    The importance of science and technology in the global economy has led to growing emphasis on math and science achievement all over the world. In this study, I seek to identify variables at the student-level and school-level that account for the variation in science achievement of the eighth graders in Malaysia. Using the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 for Malaysia, a series of HLM analysis was performed. Results indicate that (1) variation in overall science achievement is greater between schools than within schools; (2) both the selected student-level and school-level factors are Important in explaining the variation in the eight graders' achievement In science; (3) the selected student-level variables explain about 13% of the variation in students' achievement within schools, but as an aggregate, they account for a much larger proportion of the between-school variance; (4) the selected school-level variables account for about 55% of the variation between schools; (5) within schools, the effects of self-concept In science, awareness of the social implications of science, gender, and home educational resources are significantly related to achievement; (6) the effects of self-concept in science and awareness of social implications of science are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES; (7) between schools, the effects of the mean of home educational resources, mean of parents' education, mean of awareness of the social implications of science, and emphasis on conducting experiments are significantly related to achievement; (8) the effects of SES variables explain about 50% of the variation in the school means achievement; and (9) the effects of emphasis on conducting experiments on achievement are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES. Since it is hard to change the society, it is recommended that efforts to Improve science achievement be focused more at the school-level, concentrating on variables that

  9. Among Metabolic Factors, Significance of Fasting and Postprandial Increases in Acyl and Desacyl Ghrelin and the Acyl/Desacyl Ratio in Obstructive Sleep Apnea before and after Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Yuichi; Akamizu, Takashi; Azuma, Masanori; Murase, Kimihiko; Harada, Yuka; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2015-08-15

    There are reports suggesting that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may itself cause weight gain. However, recent reports showed increases in body mass index (BMI) following continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatments. When considering weight changes, changes in humoral factors that have significant effects on appetite such as acyl (AG) and desacyl ghrelin (DAG), leptin, insulin, and glucose and their interactions, examples of which are AG/DAG and AG/insulin, are important. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that some appetite-related factors had a specific profile before and after CPAP treatment. Metabolic parameters were measured cross-sectionally while fasting and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min following breakfast in no or mild OSA (apnea-hypopnea index fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, and leptin levels did not differ between no or mild OSA and moderate-to-severe OSA participants, AG and DAG, including AG/DAG and AG/insulin, under fasting and postprandial conditions were significantly increased in the moderate-to-severe OSA patients (p continuous changes in ghrelin secretion in OSA patients existed at least within 3 months of CPAP treatment. Methods to prevent OSA as well as treatment in its early stage may be recommended. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  10. Assessment of Credit Risk Approaches in Relation with Competitiveness Increase of the Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipovová Eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on a presentation and analysis of selected methods of credit risk management in relation with competitiveness increase of the banking sector. The article is defined credit risk approaches under the Basel III gradually. Aim of this contribution constitutes various methods of credit risk management and effects of their usage on regulatory capital amount in respect of corporate exposures. Optimal equity amount in relation to the risk portfolio presents an essential prerequisite of performance and competitiveness growth of commercial banks. Gradually capital requirements using Standardized Approach and Internal Based Approach in a case of used and unused techniques of credit risk reduce has been quantified. We presume that sophisticated approach means significant saving for bank’s equity which increases competitiveness of banking sector also. Within the article, quantification of capital savings in case of Standardized (with and without assigned external ratings and Foundation Internal Based Approach at the selected credit portfolio has been effected.

  11. Reward anticipation modulates the effect of stress-related increases in cortisol on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quent, Jörn A; McCullough, Andrew M; Sazma, Matt; Wolf, Oliver T; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2018-01-01

    When acute stress is experienced shortly after an event is encoded into memory, this can slow the forgetting of the study event, which is thought to reflect the effect of cortisol on consolidation. In addition, when events are encoded under conditions of high reward they tend to be remembered better than those encoded under non-rewarding conditions, and these effects are thought to reflect the operation of the dopaminergic reward system. Although both modulatory systems are believed to impact the medial temporal lobe regions critical for episodic memory, the manner, and even the extent, to which these two systems interact is currently unknown. To address this question in the current study, participants encoded words under reward or non-reward conditions, then one half of the participants were stressed using the social evaluation cold pressor task and the other half completed a non-stress control task. After a two-hour delay, all participants received a free recall and recognition memory test. There were no significant effects of stress or reward on overall memory performance. However, for the non-reward items, increases in stress-related cortisol in stressed participants were related to increases in recall and increases in recollection-based recognition responses. In contrast, for the reward items, increases in stress-related cortisol were not related to increases in memory performance. The results indicate that the stress and the reward systems interact in the way they impact episodic memory. The results are consistent with tag and capture models in the sense that cortisol reactivity can only affect non-reward items because plasticity-related products are already provided by reward anticipation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in rocket salad phytochemicals within the commercial supply chain: Glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, amino acids and bacterial load increase significantly after processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Luke; Yahya, Hanis Nadia; Oloyede, Omobolanle Oluwadamilola; Methven, Lisa; Wagstaff, Carol

    2017-04-15

    Five cultivars of Eruca sativa and a commercial variety of Diplotaxis tenuifolia were grown in the UK (summer) and subjected to commercial growth, harvesting and processing, with subsequent shelf life storage. Glucosinolates (GSL), isothiocyanates (ITC), amino acids (AA), free sugars, and bacterial loads were analysed throughout the supply chain to determine the effects on phytochemical compositions. Bacterial load of leaves increased significantly over time and peaked during shelf life storage. Significant correlations were observed with GSL and AA concentrations, suggesting a previously unknown relationship between plants and endemic leaf bacteria. GSLs, ITCs and AAs increased significantly after processing and during shelf life. The supply chain did not significantly affect glucoraphanin concentrations, and its ITC sulforaphane significantly increased during shelf life in E. sativa cultivars. We hypothesise that commercial processing may increase the nutritional value of the crop, and have added health benefits for the consumer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The normal limits, subclinical significance, related metabolic derangements and distinct biological effects of body site-specific adiposity in relatively healthy population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ho Yun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accumulation of visceral adipose tissue that occurs with normal aging is associated with increased cardiovascular risks. However, the clinical significance, biological effects, and related cardiometabolic derangements of body-site specific adiposity in a relatively healthy population have not been well characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we consecutively enrolled 608 asymptomatic subjects (mean age: 47.3 years, 27% female from 2050 subjects undergoing an annual health survey in Taiwan. We measured pericardial (PCF and thoracic peri-aortic (TAT adipose tissue volumes by 16-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA and related these to clinical characteristics, body fat composition (Tanita 305 Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, coronary calcium score (CCS, serum insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP level and circulating leukocytes count. Metabolic risk was scored by Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. RESULTS: TAT, PCF, and total body fat composition all increased with aging and higher metabolic scores (all p<0.05. Only TAT, however, was associated with higher circulating leukocyte counts (ß-coef.:0.24, p<0.05, serum insulin (ß-coef.:0.17, p<0.05 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (ß-coef.:0.24, p<0.05. These relationships persisted after adjustment in multivariable models (all p<0.05. A TAT volume of 8.29 ml yielded the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC: 0.79, 95%CI: 0.74-0.83 to identify metabolic syndrome. TAT but not PCF correlated with higher coronary calcium score after adjustment for clinical variables (all p<0.05. CONCLUSION: In our study, we observe that age-related body-site specific accumulation of adipose tissue may have distinct biological effects. Compared to other adiposity measures, peri-aortic adiposity is more tightly associated with cardiometabolic risk profiles and

  14. Rumination but not distraction increases eating-related symptoms in anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Eva; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Caffier, Detlef; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Recent models of eating disorders emphasize the importance of ruminative thinking in the occurrence of unhealthy eating behavior. Hence, the aim of the current study was to examine the influence of induced rumination and distraction on the desire to engage in eating-related symptoms in anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). After a sadness induction, either a ruminative or distractive emotion regulation style was encouraged in women with AN (n = 38), BN (n = 37), and non-eating disordered controls (CG; n = 36). At baseline and after the emotion regulation induction feelings of sadness, desire to abstain from eating (DTA) and desire to binge (DTB) were assessed. Main results reveal that rumination led to a significant increase of DTA in the AN group and of DTB in patients with BN. In the CG, DTA significantly decreased after distraction. Although there were significant increases in subjective sadness in the rumination condition, no changes were found in the distraction condition. The results suggest that rumination in response to sadness has a detrimental effect on eating-related symptoms in eating disorders. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Oral Bioavailability of Trans-Resveratrol from a Grapevine-Shoot Extract in Healthy Humans is Significantly Increased by Micellar Solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Castro, Laura A; Schiborr, Christina; David, Franziska; Ehrt, Heidi; Voggel, Jenny; Sus, Nadine; Behnam, Dariush; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Frank, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Grapevine-shoot extract Vineatrol30 contains abundant resveratrol monomers and oligomers with health-promoting potential. However, the oral bioavailability of these compounds in humans is low (˂1-2%). The aim of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of resveratrol from vineatrol by micellar solubilization. Twelve healthy volunteers (six women, six men) randomly ingested a single dose of 500 mg vineatrol (30 mg trans-resveratrol, 75 mg trans-ε-viniferin) as native powder or liquid micelles. Plasma and urine were collected at baseline and over 24 h after intake. Resveratrol and viniferin were analyzed by HPLC. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and mean maximum plasma trans-resveratrol concentrations were 5.0-fold and 10.6-fold higher, respectively, after micellar supplementation relative to the native powder. However, no detectable amounts of trans-ε-viniferin were found in either plasma or urine. The transepithelial permeability of trans-resveratrol and trans-ε-viniferin across differentiated Caco-2 monolayers was consistent to the absorbed fractions in vivo. The oral bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from the grapevine-shoot extract Vineatrol30 was significantly increased using a liquid micellar formulation, without any treatment-related adverse effects, making it a suitable system for improved supplementation of trans-resveratrol. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Implementing software based on relation frame theory to develop and increase relational cognitive skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Giovambattista; Messina, Concetta; Mongelli, Francesca; Sireci, Maria Josè; Collotta, Mario

    2017-11-01

    Relational Frame Theory is a post-skinnerian theory of language and cognition based on more than thirty years of basic and applied research. It defines language and cognitive skills as an operant repertoire of responses to arbitrarily related stimuli specific, as far as is now known, of the human species. RFT has been proved useful in addressing cognitive barriers to human action in psychotherapy and also improving children skills in reading, IQ testing, and in metaphoric and categorical repertoires. We present a frame of action where RFT can be used in programming software to help autistic children to develop cognitive skills within a developmental vision.

  17. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechle, Karin; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Merchant-Borna, Kian; Stoecklein, Veit; Rozen, Eric; Blyth, Brian; Huang, Jason H; Dayawansa, Samantha; Kanz, Karl; Biberthaler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The on-field diagnosis of sports-related concussion (SRC) is complicated by the lack of an accurate and objective marker of brain injury. To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences in S100B before and after non-contact exertion. Longitudinal cohort study. From 2009-2011, we performed a prospective study of athletes from Munich, Germany, and Rochester, New York, USA. Serum S100B was measured in all SRC athletes at pre-season baseline, within 3 hours of injury, and at days 2, 3 and 7 post-SRC. Among a subset of athletes, S100B was measured after non-contact exertion but before injury. All samples were collected identically and analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescent assay to quantify serum S100B levels. Forty-six athletes (30 Munich, 16 Rochester) underwent baseline testing. Thirty underwent additional post-exertion S100B testing. Twenty-two athletes (16 Rochester, 6 Munich) sustained a SRC, and 17 had S100B testing within 3 hours post-injury. The mean 3-hour post-SRC S100B was significantly higher than pre-season baseline (0.099±0.008 µg/L vs. 0.058±0.006 µg/L, p = 0.0002). Mean post-exertion S100B was not significantly different than the preseason baseline. S100B levels at post-injury days 2, 3 and 7 were significantly lower than the 3-hour level, and not different than baseline. Both the absolute change and proportional increase in S100B 3-hour post-injury were accurate discriminators of SRC from non-contact exertion without SRC (AUC 0.772 and 0.904, respectively). A 3-hour post-concussion S100B >0.122 µg/L and a proportional S100B increase of >45.9% over baseline were both 96.7% specific for SRC. Relative and absolute increases in serum S100B can accurately distinguish SRC from sports-related exertion, and may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SRC.

  18. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kiechle

    Full Text Available The on-field diagnosis of sports-related concussion (SRC is complicated by the lack of an accurate and objective marker of brain injury.To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences in S100B before and after non-contact exertion.Longitudinal cohort study.From 2009-2011, we performed a prospective study of athletes from Munich, Germany, and Rochester, New York, USA. Serum S100B was measured in all SRC athletes at pre-season baseline, within 3 hours of injury, and at days 2, 3 and 7 post-SRC. Among a subset of athletes, S100B was measured after non-contact exertion but before injury. All samples were collected identically and analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescent assay to quantify serum S100B levels.Forty-six athletes (30 Munich, 16 Rochester underwent baseline testing. Thirty underwent additional post-exertion S100B testing. Twenty-two athletes (16 Rochester, 6 Munich sustained a SRC, and 17 had S100B testing within 3 hours post-injury. The mean 3-hour post-SRC S100B was significantly higher than pre-season baseline (0.099±0.008 µg/L vs. 0.058±0.006 µg/L, p = 0.0002. Mean post-exertion S100B was not significantly different than the preseason baseline. S100B levels at post-injury days 2, 3 and 7 were significantly lower than the 3-hour level, and not different than baseline. Both the absolute change and proportional increase in S100B 3-hour post-injury were accurate discriminators of SRC from non-contact exertion without SRC (AUC 0.772 and 0.904, respectively. A 3-hour post-concussion S100B >0.122 µg/L and a proportional S100B increase of >45.9% over baseline were both 96.7% specific for SRC.Relative and absolute increases in serum S100B can accurately distinguish SRC from sports-related exertion, and may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SRC.

  19. Increased circulating calcitonin in cirrhosis. Relation to severity of disease and calcitonin gene-related peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Schifter, S; Møller, S

    2000-01-01

    circulating plasma concentrations of CT in patients with cirrhosis in relation to the severity of disease and the plasma level of CGRP. Moreover, the kinetics of CT was evaluated for different organ systems by determination of arteriovenous extraction. Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (Child...... system, lower extremities, or peripheral circulation, but there was a substantial rate of pulmonary disposal and clearance (P

  20. Protein Carbamylation: A Marker Reflecting Increased Age-Related Cell Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Carracedo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbamylation is a post-translational modification of proteins that may partake in the oxidative stress-associated cell damage, and its increment has been recently proposed as a “hallmark of aging”. The molecular mechanisms associated with aging are related to an increased release of free radicals. We have studied whether carbamylated proteins from the peripheral blood of healthy subjects are related to oxidative damage and aging, taking into account the gender and the immune profile of the subjects. The study was performed in healthy human volunteers. The detection of protein carbamylation and malondialdehyde (MDA levels was evaluated using commercial kits. The immune profile was calculated using parameters of immune cell function. The results show that the individuals from the elderly group (60–79 years old have increased carbamylated protein and MDA levels. When considered by gender, only men between 60 and 79 years old showed significantly increased carbamylated proteins and MDA levels. When those subjects were classified by their immune profile, the carbamylated protein levels were higher in those with an older immune profile. In conclusion, the carbamylation of proteins in peripheral blood is related to age-associated oxidative damage and to an aging functional immunological signature. Our results suggest that carbamylated proteins may play an important role at the cellular level in the aging process.

  1. Cancer patients undertaking bone scans in a department of Nuclear Medicine have significant stress related to the examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioka, C.; Manetou, M.; Dimakopoulos, N.; Christidi, S.; Kouraklis, G.

    2005-01-01

    Bone scanning is a standard screening procedure for evaluation of metastases in cancer patient. In addition to the staging procedures, bone scan is a valuable test for deciding palliative therapeutic options in selected patients. The aim of this study was to investigate if patients with cancer who were undertaking routine bone scans had any stress related to the test. We asked 83 consecutive patients with various types of cancer if they had anxiety just prior to undergoing the test. Overall, we found that 53 (64%) patients had increased anxiety related to the examination and 30 (36%) patients did not. Among the 53 patients who were anxious about the bone scan, 32 were concerned about the results of the examination, 13 worried about the effects of the radiation, 4 were anxious for both results/radiation, and 4 patients had stress but could not specify the reason. Among the 32 patients who were concerned about the results of the examination, 15 were having their first bone scans, while 17 had already undergone the procedure before. Among the 13 patients who were mainly concerned about the risks of the radiation exposure during the test, 9 were having bone scans for the first time. Out of the 4 patients who feared both the results and radiation, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and 1 had it for several times. Finally, out of the 4 patients who had anxiety about the test but could not identify the reason, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and one had the test before but was claustrophobic. Our findings indicate that most patients (64%) with cancer who underwent a routine bone scan to check for metastatic disease had intense stress related either to the results or the side effects of the examination. However, there were more patients who were concerned about the results of the test rather than the effects of radiation. Among the patients who feared the effects of radioactivity most were having the test for the first time. A previous study in a

  2. Has the American Public's Interest in Information Related to Relationships Beyond "The Couple" Increased Over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Amy C

    2017-01-01

    Finding romance, love, and sexual intimacy is a central part of our life experience. Although people engage in romance in a variety of ways, alternatives to "the couple" are largely overlooked in relationship research. Scholars and the media have recently argued that the rules of romance are changing, suggesting that interest in consensual departures from monogamy may become popular as people navigate their long-term coupling. This study utilizes Google Trends to assess Americans' interest in seeking out information related to consensual nonmonogamous relationships across a 10-year period (2006-2015). Using anonymous Web queries from hundreds of thousands of Google search engine users, results show that searches for words related to polyamory and open relationships (but not swinging) have significantly increased over time. Moreover, the magnitude of the correlation between consensual nonmonogamy Web queries and time was significantly higher than popular Web queries over the same time period, indicating this pattern of increased interest in polyamory and open relationships is unique. Future research avenues for incorporating consensual nonmonogamous relationships into relationship science are discussed.

  3. Personal significance is encoded automatically by the human brain: an event-related potential study with ringtones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roye, Anja; Jacobsen, Thomas; Schröger, Erich

    2007-08-01

    In this human event-related brain potential (ERP) study, we have used one's personal--relative to another person's--ringtone presented in a two-deviant passive oddball paradigm to investigate the long-term memory effects of self-selected personal significance of a sound on the automatic deviance detection and involuntary attention system. Our findings extend the knowledge of long-term effects usually reported in group-approaches in the domains of speech, music and environmental sounds. In addition to the usual mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a component elicited by deviants in contrast to standard stimuli, we observed a posterior ERP deflection directly following the MMN for the personally significant deviant only. This specific impact of personal significance started around 200 ms after sound onset and involved neural generators that were different from the mere physical deviance detection mechanism. Whereas the early part of the P3a component was unaffected by personal significance, the late P3a was enhanced for the ERPs to the personal significant deviant suggesting that this stimulus was more powerful in attracting attention involuntarily. Following the involuntary attention switch, the personally significant stimulus elicited a widely-distributed negative deflection, probably reflecting further analysis of the significant sound involving evaluation of relevance or reorienting to the primary task. Our data show, that the personal significance of mobile phone and text message technology, which have developed as a major medium of communication in our modern world, prompts the formation of individual memory representations, which affect the processing of sounds that are not in the focus of attention.

  4. Increased bone morphogenetic protein signaling contributes to age-related declines in neurogenesis and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Emily A; Gobeske, Kevin T; Bond, Allison M; Jarrett, Jennifer C; Peng, Chian-Yu; Kessler, John A

    2016-02-01

    Aging is associated with decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus and diminished hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) increases with age by more than 10-fold in the mouse dentate gyrus while levels of the BMP inhibitor, noggin, decrease. This results in a profound 30-fold increase in phosphorylated-SMAD1/5/8, the effector of canonical BMP signaling. Just as observed in mice, a profound increase in expression of BMP4 is observed in the dentate gyrus of humans with no known cognitive abnormalities. Inhibition of BMP signaling either by overexpression of noggin or transgenic manipulation not only increases neurogenesis in aging mice, but remarkably, is associated with a rescue of cognitive deficits to levels comparable to young mice. Additive benefits are observed when combining inhibition of BMP signaling and environmental enrichment. These findings indicate that increased BMP signaling contributes significantly to impairments in neurogenesis and to cognitive decline associated with aging, and identify this pathway as a potential druggable target for reversing age-related changes in cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical significance of changes of serum true insulin and proinsulin levels in relations of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiaoping; Huang Huijian; Huang Haibo; Wu Yan; He Haoming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the degree of insulin resistance and β-cell secretory function impairment in close (1st degree) relations of patients with type 2 diabetes (DMII). Methods: Serum true insulin (TI), pro-insulin (PI), immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels at fasting and after oral 75g glucose loading were determined in: 1) patients with DM 2, n=65 2)relations of DM 2 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), n=34 3) relations of DM 2 patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), n=66 and 4) controls, n=48. HOMA-IR and HOMA-β cell secretory indices were calculated from the data. Results: Fasting serum PI levels were significantly higher in DM 2 patients, relations with IGT and NGT than those in the controls (t=2.38, t=2.16, t=1.95, P 1 C percentages were significantly higher in DM 2 patients and IGT, NGT groups than those in controls (t=3.67, t=2.45, t=1.97, P 1 C percentage, fasting TI and IRI levels. Conclusion: Insulin resistance was already obvious in those relations of DM 2 patients with normal glucose tolerance and β-cell secretory function impairment was also present. Early intervention in these subjects might be beneficial. (authors)

  6. Increased risk taking in relation to chronic stress in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandita eCeccato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured learning-independent risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS. We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify chronic cortisol exposure. We discovered a significant, positive correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations.

  7. Increased release of histamine in patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, J; Skov, P S; Mosbech, H; Holst, H; Dirksen, A; Johansen, J D

    2007-11-01

    Environmental perfume exposure may cause respiratory symptoms. Individuals with asthma and perfume contact allergy report such symptoms more frequently than others. However, immunologic mechanisms have not been demonstrated and the symptoms are not associated with IgE-mediated allergy. The study aimed to investigate whether basophils from patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume released more histamine in the presence of perfume as compared with healthy volunteers. Histamine release was measured by the glass fibre method. Blood was obtained from healthy volunteers (n=20) and patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume (n=17) attending a dermatological outpatient clinic for patch testing. The effect of an international brand perfume was investigated using the basophil histamine release test with perfume. Furthermore, basophils from a healthy non-atopic donor were incubated with participant's sera and histamine release induced by perfume was measured. In both groups incremental perfume concentrations showed a positive and significant (Pperfume concentration, the basophils released significantly (PPerfume induces a dose-dependent non-IgE-mediated release of histamine from human peripheral blood basophils. Increased basophil reactivity to perfume was found in patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume.

  8. An Integrated Intervention for Increasing Clinical Nurses’ Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Occupational Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses’ knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300 were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ2 = 86.34, p = 0.00, and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4% and post-test (66.6% (χ2 = 73.2, p = 0.00. When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly

  9. Cannabidivarin (CBDV suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Amada

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, anticonvulsant effects of the plant cannabinoid, cannabidivarin (CBDV, have been reported in several animal models of seizure. However, these behaviourally observed anticonvulsant effects have not been confirmed at the molecular level. To examine changes to epilepsy-related gene expression following chemical convulsant treatment and their subsequent control by phytocannabinoid administration, we behaviourally evaluated effects of CBDV (400 mg/kg, p.o. on acute, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ: 95 mg/kg, i.p.-induced seizures, quantified expression levels of several epilepsy-related genes (Fos, Casp 3, Ccl3, Ccl4, Npy, Arc, Penk, Camk2a, Bdnf and Egr1 by qPCR using hippocampal, neocortical and prefrontal cortical tissue samples before examining correlations between expression changes and seizure severity. PTZ treatment alone produced generalised seizures (median: 5.00 and significantly increased expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf. Consistent with previous findings, CBDV significantly decreased PTZ-induced seizure severity (median: 3.25 and increased latency to the first sign of seizure. Furthermore, there were correlations between reductions of seizure severity and mRNA expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf in the majority of brain regions in the CBDV+PTZ treated group. When CBDV treated animals were grouped into CBDV responders (criterion: seizure severity ≤3.25 and non-responders (criterion: seizure severity >3.25, PTZ-induced increases of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf expression were suppressed in CBDV responders. These results provide the first molecular confirmation of behaviourally observed effects of the non-psychoactive, anticonvulsant cannabinoid, CBDV, upon chemically-induced seizures and serve to underscore its suitability for clinical development.

  10. Exploring the relationship between fall risk-increasing drugs and fall-related fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, Sabrina; Vanwynsberghe, Sarah; Foulon, Veerle; Dejaeger, Eddy; Flamaing, Johan; Sermon, An; Van der Linden, Lorenz; Spriet, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    .721). In a sample of hospitalised patients admitted for a fall-related injury, no significant difference in the number of fall risk-increasing drugs versus that of an outpatient group of non-fallers was found.

  11. Finnish physicians' stress related to information systems keeps increasing: a longitudinal three-wave survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Hyppönen, Hannele; Vehko, Tuulikki; Kujala, Sari; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Vänskä, Jukka; Elovainio, Marko

    2017-10-17

    Poorly functioning, time-consuming, and inadequate information systems are among the most important work-related psychosocial factors causing stress in physicians. The present study examined the trend in the perceived stress that was related to information systems (SRIS) among Finnish physicians during a nine-year follow-up. In addition, we examined the associations of gender, age, employment sector, specialization status, leadership position, on-call burden, and time pressure with SRIS change and levels. A longitudinal design with three survey data collection waves (2006, 2010 and 2015) based on a random sample of Finnish physicians in 2006 was used. The study sample included 1095 physicians (62.3% women, mean age 54.4 years) who provided data on SRIS in every wave. GLM repeated measures analyses were used to examine the associations between independent variables and the SRIS trend during the years 2006, 2010, and 2015. SRIS increased during the study period. The estimated marginal mean of SRIS in 2006 was 2.80 (95% CI = 2.68-2.92) and the mean increase was 0.46 (95% CI = 0.30-0.61) points from 2006 to 2010 and 0.25 (95% CI = 0.11-0.39) points from 2010 to 2015. Moreover, our results show that the increase was most pronounced in primary care, whereas in hospitals SRIS did not increase between 2010 and 2015. SRIS increased more among those in a leadership position. On-call duties and high time-pressures were associated with higher SRIS levels during all waves. Changing, difficult, and poorly functioning information systems (IS) are a prominent source of stress among Finnish physicians and this perceived stress continues to increase. Organizations should implement arrangements to ease stress stemming from IS especially for those with a high workload and on-call or leadership duties. To decrease IS-related stress, it would be important to study in more detail the main IS factors that contribute to SRIS. Earlier studies indicate that the usability and stability

  12. Microneedle fractional radiofrequency increases epidermal hyaluronan and reverses age-related epidermal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jung; Seo, Seong Rak; Yoon, Moon Soo; Song, Ji-Ye; Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Sang Eun

    2016-02-01

    Skin aging results in physiological alterations in keratinocyte activities and epidermal function, as well as dermal changes. Yet, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that cause epidermal dysfunction during skin aging are not well understood. Recently, the role of epidermal hyaluronan (HA) as an active regulator of dynamic cellular processes is getting attention and alterations in HA metabolism are thought to be important in age-related epidermal dysfunction. Microneedle fractional radiofrequency (RF) has shown effects for improving cutaneous aging. However, little is known about the effects of fractional RF on the epidermal HA and epidermal function. We investigated the effect of microneedle fractional RF on the expression of epidermal HA in young and aged mice epidermis. We performed fractional RF on the dorsal skin of 30 8-week-old (young) hairless mice and 15 47-week-old (aged) C57BL/6J mice. Skin samples were collected on day 1, 3, and 7. HA content was measured by ELISA. Gene expressions of CD 44, HABP4, and HAS3 were measured using real time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry for detection of HA, CD44, PCNA, and filaggrin were performed. HA content and the mRNA levels of HABP4, CD44, and HAS3 were upregulated in the epidermis of both young and aged mice after microneedle fractional RF treatment. The expression was increased from day 1 after treatment and increased expression persisted on day 7. Fractional RF treatment significantly increased PCNA and filaggrin expression only in the aged mice skin. Microneedle fractional RF increased epidermal HA and CD44 expression in both young and aged mice and reversed age-related epidermal dysfunction especially in aged mice, suggesting a new mechanism involved in the skin rejuvenation effect of microneedle fractional RF. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Unit Risk Quotient (RQ) and Relative Significance of Radionuclide on Flora and Fauna to the EU-APR Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keunsung [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sukhoon [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chonghui [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude.

  14. Unit Risk Quotient (RQ) and Relative Significance of Radionuclide on Flora and Fauna to the EU-APR Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunsung; Kim, Sukhoon; Lee, Chonghui

    2015-01-01

    As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude

  15. Physical dependence increases the relative reinforcing effects of caffeine versus placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, B E; Griffiths, R R

    1998-10-01

    Using a within-subject cross-over design, this study examined the role of physical dependence in caffeine reinforcement by experimentally manipulating physical dependence. Each subject was exposed to two chronic drug phases (300 mg/70 kg/day caffeine and placebo) for 9-12 days, with order of phases counterbalanced across subjects. On 2 separate days immediately following each of the chronic drug exposures, subjects received acute doses of either caffeine (300 mg/70 kg) or placebo in counterbalanced order. The reinforcing effects of these drugs were then determined by using a multiple-choice procedure in which subjects made a series of discrete choices between receiving varying amounts of money or receiving the drug again, and a choice between the two drugs. To ensure that subjects completed the form carefully, following exposure to both of the acute drug administrations, one of the subject's previous choices from the multiple-choice form was randomly selected and the consequence of that choice was implemented. When subjects were maintained on chronic caffeine, they were willing to forfeit significantly more money and showed significant increases in typical withdrawal symptoms (e.g. fatigue, mood disturbance) after receiving placebo as compared to the other three conditions. When subjects were maintained on chronic caffeine, they also chose to receive caffeine over placebo twice as often than when they were maintained on chronic placebo. These findings provide the strongest evidence to date indicating that caffeine physical dependence increases the relative reinforcing effects of caffeine versus placebo.

  16. Does wastewater discharge have relations with increase of Turner syndrome and Down syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intae Choi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine whether water and air pollutants have a relationship with an increase in the genetic disorders Turner syndrome and Down syndrome, which are caused by congenital chromosomal abnormalities, and to generate a hypothesis about the genetic health effects of environmental pollutants. A panel regression based on random effect was conducted on Korea’s metropolitan councils from 2012 to 2014. The dependent variable was the number of Turner syndrome and Down syndrome cases, and the main independent variables were those regarding the water and air pollution. Air pollutants did not have a significant impact on the number of Turner syndrome and Down syndrome cases; however, the increase in number of wastewater discharge companies did have a significant relationship with the number of cases. The more the number of wastewater discharge companies, the more the number Turner syndrome and Down syndrome cases were observed. Therefore, scientific investigation on water and air pollutants in relation with genetic health effects needs to be performed.

  17. Does wastewater discharge have relations with increase of Turner syndrome and Down syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Intae

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether water and air pollutants have a relationship with an increase in the genetic disorders Turner syndrome and Down syndrome, which are caused by congenital chromosomal abnormalities, and to generate a hypothesis about the genetic health effects of environmental pollutants. A panel regression based on random effect was conducted on Korea's metropolitan councils from 2012 to 2014. The dependent variable was the number of Turner syndrome and Down syndrome cases, and the main independent variables were those regarding the water and air pollution. Air pollutants did not have a significant impact on the number of Turner syndrome and Down syndrome cases; however, the increase in number of wastewater discharge companies did have a significant relationship with the number of cases. The more the number of wastewater discharge companies, the more the number Turner syndrome and Down syndrome cases were observed. Therefore, scientific investigation on water and air pollutants in relation with genetic health effects needs to be performed.

  18. The significance of the European beaver (Castor fibre activity for the process of renaturalization of river valleys in the era of increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusztal Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the environment that are caused by the activity of beavers bring numerous advantages. They affect the increase in biodiversity, contribute to improving the condition of cleanliness of watercourses, improve local water relations and restore the natural landscape of river valleys.

  19. Increase in Vascular Injury of Sodium Overloaded Mice May be Related to Vascular Angiotensin Modulation.

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    Cintia Taniguti Lima

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyzing the effect of chronic sodium overload upon carotid and femoral injury, and its relation to vascular angiotensin modulation. Male C57Bl6 mice were divided in: control (cont, receiving 1% NaCl solution for 2 weeks (salt-2 or 12 weeks (salt-12. Two-weeks before the end of the study, a 2mm catheter was implanted around the left femoral and carotid arteries to induce injury. Blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR were measured at the end of the study by tail plethysmography. Arteries were collected and prepared for histological analysis to determine arterial thickening and perivascular collagen deposition. Angiotensin II and Ang(1-7 were quantified in fresh arteries using the HPLC method. There were no differences in body weight, BP and HR. Intima/media ratio had a similar increase in both injured arteries of cont and salt-2 mice, but a more pronounced increase was observed in salt-12 mice (31.1±6%. On the other hand, sodium overload modified perivascular collagen deposition, increasing thick fibers (cont: 0.5%; salt-2: 3.4%; salt-12: 0.6% and decreasing thin fibers (cont: 7.4%; salt-2: 0.5%; salt-12: 6.8% in non-injured arteries. Injured arteries presented similar collagen fiber distribution. Angiotensin quantification showed increased Ang(1-7 in salt treated mice (salt-2: +72%; salt-12: +45% with a concomitant decrease in Ang II (salt-2: -54%; salt-12: -60%. Vascular injury increased significantly Ang(1-7 in salt-12 mice (+80%, maintaining Ang II reduction similar to that of a non-injured artery. The lack of changes in BP and HR suggests that the structural changes observed may be due to non-hemodynamic mechanisms such as local renin-angiotensin system. Collagen evaluation suggests that sodium overload induces time-related changes in vascular remodeling. The increase of artery injury with concomitant increase in Ang(1-7 in 12-week treated mice shows a direct association between the duration of salt treatment and the

  20. Significant Factors Related to Failed Pediatric Dental General Anesthesia Appointments at a Hospital-based Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emhardt, John R; Yepes, Juan F; Vinson, LaQuia A; Jones, James E; Emhardt, John D; Kozlowski, Diana C; Eckert, George J; Maupome, Gerardo

    2017-05-15

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) evaluate the relationship between appointment failure and the factors of age, gender, race, insurance type, day of week, scheduled time of surgery, distance traveled, and weather; (2) investigate reasons for failure; and (3) explore the relationships between the factors and reasons for failure. Electronic medical records were accessed to obtain data for patients scheduled for dental care under general anesthesia from May 2012 to May 2015. Factors were analyzed for relation to appointment failure. Data from 3,513 appointments for 2,874 children were analyzed. Bivariate associations showed statistically significant (Pgeneral anesthesia face specific barriers to care.

  1. Midlife Work-Related Stress Increases Dementia Risk in Later Life: The CAIDE 30-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindi, Shireen; Hagman, Göran; Håkansson, Krister; Kulmala, Jenni; Nilsen, Charlotta; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Soininen, Hilkka; Solomon, Alina; Kivipelto, Miia

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and Alzheimer's disease later in life, in a large representative population. Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study participants were randomly selected from independent population-based surveys (mean age 50 years). A random sample of 2,000 individuals was invited for two reexaminations including cognitive tests (at mean age 71 and mean age 78), and 1,511 subjects participated in at least one reexamination (mean follow-up 28.5 years). Work-related stress was measured using two questions on work demands that were administered in midlife. Analyses adjusted for important confounders. Higher levels of midlife work-related stress were associated with higher risk of MCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.76), dementia (OR, 1.53; CI, 1.13-2.07), and Alzheimer's disease (OR, 1.55; CI, 1.19-2.36) at the first follow-up among the CAIDE participants. Results remained significant after adjusting for several possible confounders. Work-related stress was not associated with MCI and dementia during the extended follow-up. Midlife work-related stress increases the risk for MCI, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease in later life. The association was not seen after the extended follow-up possibly reflecting selective survival/participation, heterogeneity in dementia among the oldest old, and a critical time window for the effects of midlife stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neill, Casey E.; Newsom, Ryan J.; Stafford, Jacob; Scott, Talia; Archuleta, Solana; Levis, Sophia C.; Spencer, Robert L.; Campeau, Serge; Bachtell, Ryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used psychoactive substance and consumption by children and adolescents continues to rise. Here, we examine the lasting effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on anxiety-related behaviors and several neuroendocrine measures in adulthood. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed caffeine (0.3 g/L) for 28 consecutive days from postnatal day 28 (P28) to P55. Age-matched control rats consumed water. Behavioral testing for anxiety-related behavior began in adulthood (P62) 7 days after removal of caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption enhanced anxiety-related behavior in an open field, social interaction test, and elevated plus maze. Similar caffeine consumption in adult rats did not alter anxiety-related behavior after caffeine removal. Characterization of neuroendocrine measures was next assessed to determine whether the changes in anxiety were associated with modifications in the HPA axis. Blood plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) were assessed throughout the caffeine consumption procedure in adolescent rats. Adolescent caffeine consumption elevated plasma CORT 24 h after initiation of caffeine consumption that normalized over the course of the 28-day consumption procedure. CORT levels were also elevated 24 h after caffeine removal and remained elevated for 7 days. Despite elevated basal CORT in adult rats that consumed caffeine during adolescence, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and CORT response to placement on an elevated pedestal (a mild stressor) was significantly blunted. Lastly, we assessed changes in basal and stress-induced c-fos and corticotropin-releasing factor (Crf) mRNA expression in brain tissue collected at 7 days withdrawal from adolescent caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption increased basal c-fos mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Adolescent caffeine consumption had no other effects on the basal or stress-induced c-fos mRNA changes. Caffeine consumption during adolescence

  3. Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Casey E; Newsom, Ryan J; Stafford, Jacob; Scott, Talia; Archuleta, Solana; Levis, Sophia C; Spencer, Robert L; Campeau, Serge; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2016-05-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used psychoactive substance and consumption by children and adolescents continues to rise. Here, we examine the lasting effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on anxiety-related behaviors and several neuroendocrine measures in adulthood. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed caffeine (0.3g/L) for 28 consecutive days from postnatal day 28 (P28) to P55. Age-matched control rats consumed water. Behavioral testing for anxiety-related behavior began in adulthood (P62) 7 days after removal of caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption enhanced anxiety-related behavior in an open field, social interaction test, and elevated plus maze. Similar caffeine consumption in adult rats did not alter anxiety-related behavior after caffeine removal. Characterization of neuroendocrine measures was next assessed to determine whether the changes in anxiety were associated with modifications in the HPA axis. Blood plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) were assessed throughout the caffeine consumption procedure in adolescent rats. Adolescent caffeine consumption elevated plasma CORT 24h after initiation of caffeine consumption that normalized over the course of the 28-day consumption procedure. CORT levels were also elevated 24h after caffeine removal and remained elevated for 7 days. Despite elevated basal CORT in adult rats that consumed caffeine during adolescence, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and CORT response to placement on an elevated pedestal (a mild stressor) was significantly blunted. Lastly, we assessed changes in basal and stress-induced c-fos and corticotropin-releasing factor (Crf) mRNA expression in brain tissue collected at 7 days withdrawal from adolescent caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption increased basal c-fos mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Adolescent caffeine consumption had no other effects on the basal or stress-induced c-fos mRNA changes. Caffeine consumption during adolescence increased

  4. Understanding the increase in the number of childbirth-related leave beneficiaries in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanić Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past number of years, the public expenditures for childbirth-related leave benefits have more than doubled – in 2015 amounted to 0.7% GDP in relation to 0.3% GDP in 2002. This increase can mainly be attributed to the increased number of beneficiaries that grew consistently from 24 thousand in 2002 up to 40 thousand in 2015, despite the fact that the annual number of live births has been almost continually decreasing and the registered employment has dropped by almost 20 per cent in the observed period. One of the clear reasons explaining part of this increase is the extension of 3+ order of birth leaves in 2006, from one to two years, which can explain the increase of around 3.5 thousand of beneficiaries. Another reason is high number of beneficiaries using special child-care leave meant for parents with children with disabilities, but which, in reality, is very often used simply as the extension of parental leave. The average number of special child-care leave beneficiaries in the second half of 2015 amounted to 2.8 thousand. When these two effects are taken into account, we still notice significant increase of beneficiaries of around 10 thousand in the observed period. Fictitious employment during the pregnancy can explain this increase to some extent. Available data unambiguously show that a number of women formally employing during the second and third trimester of pregnancy has increased from 800 in 2002 to almost 3.5 thousand monthly average in the second half of 2015. There are two flaws of the childbirth-related leave programme in Serbia, which together lead to the constant increase of the number of beneficiaries. First is the lack of flexibility of the programme, both in terms of eligibility for acquiring the right as well as in terms of flexibility in use. Maternity/parental leave benefit may acquire only those in „standard employment” i.e. employed under employment contract (and entrepreneurs while other type of

  5. Relating increasing hantavirus incidences to the changing climate: the mast connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maes Piet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nephropathia epidemica (NE, an emerging rodent-borne viral disease, has become the most important cause of infectious acute renal failure in Belgium, with sharp increases in incidence occurring for more than a decade. Bank voles are the rodent reservoir of the responsible hantavirus and are known to display cyclic population peaks. We tried to relate these peaks to the cyclic NE outbreaks observed since 1993. Our hypothesis was that the ecological causal connection was the staple food source for voles, being seeds of deciduous broad-leaf trees, commonly called "mast". We also examined whether past temperature and precipitation preceding "mast years" were statistically linked to these NE outbreaks. Results Since 1993, each NE peak is immediately preceded by a mast year, resulting in significantly higher NE case numbers during these peaks (Spearman R = -0.82; P = 0.034. NE peaks are significantly related to warmer autumns the year before (R = 0.51; P Conclusion NE peaks in year 0 are induced by abundant mast formation in year-1, facilitating bank vole survival during winter, thus putting the local human population at risk from the spring onwards of year 0. This bank vole survival is further promoted by higher autumn temperatures in year-1, whereas mast formation itself is primed by higher summer temperatures in year-2. Both summer and autumn temperatures have been rising to significantly higher levels during recent years, explaining the virtually continuous epidemic state since 2005 of a zoonosis, considered rare until recently. Moreover, in 2007 a NE peak and an abundant mast formation occurred for the first time within the same year, thus forecasting yet another record NE incidence for 2008. We therefore predict that with the anticipated climate changes due to global warming, NE might become a highly endemic disease in Belgium and surrounding countries.

  6. Subcontractors and increased risk for work-related diseases and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung B; Park, Shin G; Song, Jae S; Yi, Kwan H; Jang, Tae W; Min, Jin Y

    2013-11-01

    Despite increasing reliance on subcontracting in many economic sectors, there is little information available on occupational health and safety issues among subcontractor employees. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of subcontracting on self-reported health problems and absences due to occupational accidents and sickness using a nationally representative sample from South Korea. The data used were sampled from the second wave of the Korean Working Conditions Survey [2010]. Information on 3,282 parent firm employees and 728 subcontractor employees was obtained. For the logistic regression model, the outcomes were work-related health problems and absenteeism. The independent variables were personal and occupational characteristics, job aspects, and working hazards. Subcontractor employees were significantly more likely to experience health problems than the employee at parent firms. In particular, subcontractors' risk of injuries and anxiety/depression increased twofold (odd ratios, OR=2.01, 95% confidence interval, CIs, 1.24-3.26) and threefold (OR=2.95, 95% CIs 1.52-5.73), respectively, after controlling for potential variables. In addition, subcontractor employees were three times more likely than employees at parent firms to miss work due to illness (OR=3.56; 95% CIs 2.02-6.26). Working conditions, especially those related to job aspects and workplace exposures, attenuated these risks. Subcontracting workers were found to have a higher risk of work-related diseases and a higher absenteeism rate than parent firm workers. Our study highlights the need to protect and improve the occupational health and safety of subcontractor employees. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Chemoresistance of CD133(+) colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Ra; Ji, Sun-Young; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah; Cho, Mee-Yon

    2015-07-31

    CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133(+) colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133(-) cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133(+) and siRNA-induced CD133(-) cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133(+) cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133(+) cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133(+) cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133(+) cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133(+) colon cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased power spectral density in resting-state pain-related brain networks in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Seong-Ho; Seo, Jeehye; Kim, Sang-Hyon; Han, Seung Woo; Nam, Eon Jeong; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Hui Joong; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Yang-Tae; Chang, Yongmin

    2013-09-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM), characterized by chronic widespread pain, is known to be associated with heightened responses to painful stimuli and atypical resting-state functional connectivity among pain-related regions of the brain. Previous studies of FM using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have focused on intrinsic functional connectivity, which maps the spatial distribution of temporal correlations among spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation in functional MRI (fMRI) resting-state data. In the current study, using rs-fMRI data in the frequency domain, we investigated the possible alteration of power spectral density (PSD) of low-frequency fluctuation in brain regions associated with central pain processing in patients with FM. rsfMRI data were obtained from 19 patients with FM and 20 age-matched healthy female control subjects. For each subject, the PSDs for each brain region identified from functional connectivity maps were computed for the frequency band of 0.01 to 0.25 Hz. For each group, the average PSD was determined for each brain region and a 2-sample t test was performed to determine the difference in power between the 2 groups. According to the results, patients with FM exhibited significantly increased frequency power in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. In patients with FM, the increase in PSD did not show an association with depression or anxiety. Therefore, our findings of atypical increased frequency power during the resting state in pain-related brain regions may implicate the enhanced resting-state baseline neural activity in several brain regions associated with pain processing in FM. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression and Significance of gp96 and Immune-related Gene CTLA-4, CD8 in Lung Cancer Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan ZHENG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that gp96 plays an important role in specific cytotoxic immune response which is involved in anti-tumor effect in the body. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological significance of heat shock protein gp96 and immune-related gene CTLA-4, CD8 expressions in lung cancer tissues of different progressive stages. Methods We used Envision immunohistochemistry method to detect the levels of expression of gp96, CTLA-4, CD8 in tissue microarray, which contained 89 primary lung cancer tissues, 12 lymph node metastasis lung cancer tissues, 12 precancerous lesions and 10 normal lung tissues, and analyzed the relationship between their expressions and clinicopathological parameters. Results (1 The positive rate of gp96 in primary lung cancer was remarkably higher than that in precancerous lesion and normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of CTLA-4 in primary lung cancer tissue and precancerous lesion was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of CD8 in primary lung cancer tissue was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of gp96 in CD8-positive lymphocytes in the high expression group was less than that in the low group (P < 0.05. (2 The positive rate of gp96 was closely related to sex, differentiation and clinical stage (P < 0.05, but not to age, gross type, histological type and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. The positive rate of CTLA-4 was closely related to age and differentiation (P < 0.05, but not to sex, gross type, histological type, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. CD8 expression was related to clinical stage (P < 0.05, but not to sex, age, gross type, histological type, differentiation and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. The positive rates of gp96, CTLA-4 were higher than that of CD8 in squamous cell carcinoma and SCLC, respectively. (3 There was positive correlation between gp

  10. Evidence of significant central fatigue in patients with cancer-related fatigue during repetitive elbow flexions till perceived exhaustion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cai

    Full Text Available To investigate whether fatigue induced by an intermittent motor task in patients with cancer-related fatigue (CRF is more central or peripheral.Ten patients with CRF who were off chemo and radiation therapies and 14 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Participants completed a Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI and performed a fatigue task consisting of intermittent elbow-flexion contractions at submaximal (40% maximal voluntary contraction intensity till self-perceived exhaustion. Twitch force was elicited by an electrical stimulation applied to the biceps brachii muscle. The relative degree of peripheral (muscle vs. central contribution to fatigue induced by the intermittent motor task (IMT was assessed using twitch force ratio (TF ratio defined as post IMT twitch force to pre IMT twitch force. The total number of trials (intermittent contractions and total duration of all trials performed by each subject were also quantified.BFI scores were higher (p < 0.001 in CRF than controls, indicating greater feeling of fatigue in CRF patients than controls. A significantly smaller number of trials and shorter total duration of the trials (p < 0.05 were observed in CRF than control participants. The TF ratio (0.81 ± 0.05 in CRF was higher (p < 0.05 compared with that of controls (0.62 ± 0.05, suggesting CRF patients experienced a significantly lower degree of muscle (peripheral fatigue at the time of perceived exhaustion.Consistent with prior findings for fatigue under submaximal sustained contraction, our results indicate that motor fatigue in CRF is more of central than peripheral origin during IMT. Significant central fatigue in CRF patients limits their ability to prolong motor performance.

  11. Determination of vasculopathy-related indexes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its clinical significance

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    Xue-bin MA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determined the serum lipid profile, coagulation function and platelet parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and provide a basis for the prevention of diabetes related complications. Methods Two-hundred and forty-six T2DM patients (113 males and 133 females, aged 60.2±15.3 years, disease course 5-22 years hospitalized in the Navy General Hospital of PLA from March to December, 2012, were involved in the present study. The patients were divided into complication group (n=140 and no complication group (n=106 according to whether there were diabetes related complications, and 120 healthy individuals were recruited as control group. The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, prothrombin time (PT, fibrinogen (FIB, platelet count (PLT, and platelet size distribution width (PDW, mean platelet volume (MPV, and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR were determined and compared among the 3 groups. Results The levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, MPV, PDW, P-LCR and FIB were significantly higher in complication group than those in no complication group and control group (P<0.05, and PLT, APTT and PT were significantly lower than those in no complication group and control group (P<0.05. No significant difference of HDL-C levels was found among the 3 groups. Conclusions The blood of patients with T2DM was in hyperviscous and/or hypercoagulable states, and it is prone to induce vascular complications. Monitoring serum lipid profile, coagulation function and platelet parameters should be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of diabetes complications. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.10.015

  12. Clinical significance of fibromyalgia syndrome in different rheumatic diseases: Relation to disease activity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rabbat M, Sarah; Mahmoud, Nermeen K; Gheita, Tamer A

    2017-04-11

    To describe the frequencies of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) in various rheumatic diseases; rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Behçets disease (BD) patients and to study the relation to clinical manifestations and quality of life (QoL). 160 patients (50 RA, 50 SLE, 30 SSc and 30 BD) and matched corresponding healthy controls were included. Disease activity was assessed using disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) for RA, SLE Disease Activity index (SLEDAI), modified Rodnan skin score for SSc and BD Current Activity Form (BDCAF). The QoL was also recorded. Severity in FMS cases was estimated using the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire score. In the RA, SLE, SSc and BD patients, FMS was found in 14%, 18%, 6.67% and 3.33% respectively compared to 2.1%, 3%, 3.3% and 0% in their corresponding controls. In RA patients, DAS28 was significantly higher in those with FMS (p=0.009) and significantly correlated with both Widespread Pain Index (WPI) (p=0.011) and Symptom Severity (SS) scale (p=0.012). The QoL scale in those with FMS was significantly worse (62.3±7.9) compared to those without (71.7±14.4) (p=0.023). In SLE patients, The WPI and SS both significantly correlated with the presence of thrombosis (r=0.28, p=0.049 and r=0.43, p=0.002 respectively). The SS scale tended to correlate with the SLEDAI (r=0.28, p=0.05). In BD patients, BDCAF and WPI significantly correlated (p=0.03). Fibromyalgia syndrome is more frequent in rheumatic diseases, could be related to the disease activity in RA and BD patients and to thrombosis in SLE and affected the QoL in RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and application of a methodology for the analysis of significant human related event trends in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology is developed to identify and flag significant trends related to the safety and availability of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The development is intended to aid in reducing likelihood of human errors. To assure that the methodology can be easily adapted to various types of classification schemes of operation data, a data bank classified by the Transient Analysis Classification and Evaluation (TRACE) scheme is selected for the methodology. The significance criteria for human-initiated events affecting the systems and for events caused by human deficiencies were developed. Clustering analysis was used to verify the learning trend in multidimensional histograms. A computer code is developed based on the K-Means algorithm and applied to find the learning period in which error rates are monotonously decreasing with plant age. The Freeman-Tukey (F-T) deviates are used to select generic problems identified by a large positive value (here approximately over 2.0) for the deviate. The identified generic problems are: decision errors which are highly associated with reactor startup operations in the learning period of PWR plants (PWRs), response errors which are highly associated with Secondary Non-Nuclear Systems (SNS) in PWRs, and significant errors affecting systems and which are caused by response action are highly associated with startup reactor mode in BWRS

  14. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Luke A; Sands, Helen; Jones, Lewis; Clow, Angela; Evans, Phil; Stalder, Tobias; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the neurocognitive performance of recent users of recreational Ecstasy and investigate whether it was associated with the stress hormone cortisol. The 101 participants included 27 recent light users of Ecstasy (one to four times in the last 3 months), 23 recent heavier Ecstasy users (five or more times) and 51 non-users. Rivermead paragraph recall provided an objective measure for immediate and delayed recall. The prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire provided a subjective index of memory deficits. Cortisol levels were taken from near-scalp 3-month hair samples. Cortisol was significantly raised in recent heavy Ecstasy users compared with controls, whereas hair cortisol in light Ecstasy users was not raised. Both Ecstasy groups were significantly impaired on the Rivermead delayed word recall, and both groups reported significantly more retrospective and prospective memory problems. Stepwise regression confirmed that lifetime Ecstasy predicted the extent of these memory deficits. Recreational Ecstasy is associated with increased levels of the bio-energetic stress hormone cortisol and significant memory impairments. No significant relationship between cortisol and the cognitive deficits was observed. Ecstasy users did display evidence of a metacognitive deficit, with the strength of the correlations between objective and subjective memory performances being significantly lower in the Ecstasy users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Increase in maternal death-related venous thromboembolism during pregnancy in Japan (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Katsuragi, Shinji; Osato, Kazuhiro; Hasegawa, Junichi; Nakata, Masahiko; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Yoshimatsu, Jun; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Kanayama, Naohiro; Ishiwata, Isamu; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to understand the current circumstances of maternal-death-related venous thromboembolism (MD-VTE) in Japan. We retrospectively investigated the characteristics of cases of MD-VTE, and compared past and present rates of occurrence. We examined the Japanese data for MD-VTE in 2010-2013, and compared it with that from 1991-1992. MD-VTE occurred in 17 women in 1991-1992, and in 13 women in 2010-2013. The maternal mortality ratio of MD-VTE was 0.7 per 100,000 in 1991-1992 and 0.4 per 100,000 in 2010-2013. Both the maternal mortality ratio and rate of MD-VTE in 2010-2013 deceased significantly compared with 1991-1992 (PJapan. But, MD-VTE during pregnancy in 2010-2013 increased relative to 1991-1992. Future guidelines for prevention of VTE may need to extend beyond the perioperative period to decrease the incidence of MD-VTE.

  16. Weather is not significantly correlated with destination-specific transport-related physical activity among adults: A large-scale temporally matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Casey P; Zhang, Kai; Salvo, Deborah

    2017-08-01

    Weather is an element of the natural environment that could have a significant effect on physical activity. Existing research, however, indicates only modest correlations between measures of weather and physical activity. This prior work has been limited by a failure to use time-matched weather and physical activity data, or has not adequately examined the different domains of physical activity (transport, leisure, occupational, etc.). Our objective was to identify the correlation between weather variables and destination-specific transport-related physical activity in adults. Data were sourced from the California Household Travel Survey, collected in 2012-3. Weather variables included: relative humidity, temperature, wind speed, and precipitation. Transport-related physical activity (walking) was sourced from participant-recorded travel diaries. Three-part hurdle models were used to analyze the data. Results indicate statistically or substantively insignificant correlations between the weather variables and transport-related physical activity for all destination types. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that transport-related physical activity may occur relatively independently of weather conditions. The knowledge that weather conditions do not seem to be a significant barrier to this domain of activity may potentially expand the universe of geographic locations that are amenable to environmental and programmatic interventions to increase transport-related walking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. New food approaches to reduce and/or eliminate increased gastric acidity related to gastroesophageal pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langella, Ciro; Naviglio, Daniele; Marino, Marina; Calogero, Armando; Gallo, Monica

    2018-03-22

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is very common in industrialized countries and rapidly and significantly increasing even in developing countries. The approach in this study is one not commonly found to date in the scientific literature. To assess the ability of reduced-carbohydrate diets and foods that are enriched with acid potential of hydrogen (pH; lemon and tomato) to quickly and exponentially reduce symptoms that are related to conditions such as gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux and unrelated to Helicobacter pylori. After the administration of an anamnestic test, 130 patients were selected including 73 women and 57 men, 21 to 67 y, and with a gastritis diagnosis for 92 patients (56 women, 36 men) and reflux gastritis for 38 patients (17 women, 21 men). Study participants followed three dietary treatments in succession. Each treatment lasted 2 wk and treatments were separated by 2 wk of washout. The patients followed a diet that consisted primarily of proteins and fats and included the exponential reduction of glycides (simple and complex). In addition, the treatment provided for the daily intake of the juice of two lemons and approximately 100 g of fresh orange tomato without seeds eaten either raw or cooked and peeled. During treatment and at the end of 2 wk of treatment, the patients reported significant improvements including an almost total disappearance of symptoms that were related to the disease in question. This study shows that a carbohydrate-free diet and/or highly hypoglycidal diet that is enriched with acid pH foods appears to lead to a decrease in the pH of the gastric contents, thus inhibiting the further production of hydrochloric acid with a reduction or disappearance of heartburn symptoms that are typical of gastroesophageal diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Combat-related intradural gunshot wound to the thoracic spine: significant improvement and neurologic recovery following bullet removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H; Freedman, Brett A

    2015-02-01

    The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury.

  19. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure in China and their significances on the natural gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coal measure gas sources of coal-derived gas fields in the Late Paleozoic China are the Lower Carboniferous Dishuiquan Formation, the Upper Carboniferous Batamayineishan Formation and Benxi Formation, the Lower Permian Taiyuan Formation and Shanxi Formation, and the Upper Permian Longtan Formation. The coal-derived gas accumulates in Ordovician, Carboniferous, Permian, and Paleocene reservoirs and are distributed in Ordos Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, Junggar Basin, and Sichuan Basin. There are 16 gas fields and 12 of them are large gas fields such as the Sulige large gas field which is China's largest reserve with the highest annual output. According to component and alkane carbon isotope data of 99 gas samples, they are distinguished to be coal-derived gas from coal-derived gas with δ13C2 > −28.5‰ and δ13C1 -δ13C2 -δ13C3 identification chart. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure are significant for the Chinese natural gas industry: proven natural gas geological reserves and annual output of them account for 1/3 in China, and the gas source of three significant large gas fields is coal-derived, which of five significant large gas fields supporting China to be a great gas producing country. The average reserves of the gas fields and the large gas fields formed from the late Paleozoic coal measure are 5.3 and 1.7 times that of the gas fields and the large gas fields in China.

  20. Clinical significance of SNP (rs2596542 in histocompatibility complex class I-related gene A promoter region among hepatitis C virus related hepatocellular carcinoma cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal A. Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex class I-related gene A (MICA is an antigen induced by stress and performs an integral role in immune responses as an anti-infectious and antitumor agent. This work was designed to investigate whether (SNP rs2596542C/T in MICA promoter region is predictive of liver cirrhosis (LC and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC or not. Forty-seven healthy controls and 94 HCV-infected patients, subdivided into 47 LC and 47 HCC subjects were enrolled in this study. SNP association was studied using real time PCR and soluble serum MICA concentration was measured using ELISA. Results showed that heterozygous genotype rs2596542CT was significantly (P = 0.022 distributed between HCC and LC related CHC patients. The sMICA was significantly higher (P = 0.0001 among HCC and LC. No significant association (P = 0.56 between rs2596542CT genotypes and sMICA levels was observed. Studying SNP rs2596542C/T association with HCC and LC susceptibility revealed that statistical significant differences (P = 0.013, P = 0.027 were only observed between SNP rs2596542C/T and each of HCC and LC, respectively, versus healthy controls, indicating that the rs2596542C/T genetic variation is not a significant contributor to HCC development in LC patients. Moreover, the T allele was considered a risk factor for HCC and LC vulnerability in HCV patients (OR = 1.93 and 2.1, respectively, while the C allele contributes to decreasing HCC risk. Therefore, SNP (rs2596542C/T in MICA promoter region and sMICA levels might be potential useful markers in the assessment of liver disease progression to LC and HCC.

  1. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.

  2. Chemoresistance of CD133{sup +} colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Ra; Ji, Sun-Young; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Mee-Yon, E-mail: meeyon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Genomic Cohort, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133{sup +} colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133{sup −} cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133{sup +} and siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133{sup +} cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133{sup +} cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133{sup +} cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133{sup +} cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133{sup +} colon cancer. - Highlights: • We evaluate the role of CD133 in chemoresistance of colon cancer. • We compared the chemoresistance of CD133{sup +} cells and siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells. • CD133 had little to no effect on MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. • Survivin expression and chemoresistance were increased in CD133{sup +} colon cancer cells.

  3. Significance of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in body fluids as a marker related to diseased conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabe, Hiroyuki; Kato, Rina; Sasabe, Naoko; Obama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2018-03-06

    Oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to be involved in various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. The presence of oxLDL in the human circulatory system and in atherosclerotic lesions has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Studies have shown the significance of circulating oxLDL in various systemic diseases, including acute myocardial infarction and diabetic mellitus. Several different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures to measure oxLDL were utilized. Evidence has been accumulating that reveals changes in oxLDL levels under certain pathological conditions. Since oxLDL concentration tends to correlate with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, the ratio of oxLDL and LDL rather than oxLDL concentration alone has been focused attention. In addition to circulating plasma, LDL and oxLDL are found in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), where the ratio of oxLDL to LDL in GCF is much higher than in plasma. LDL and oxLDL levels in GCF show an increase in diabetic patients and periodontal patients, suggesting that GCF might be useful in examining systemic conditions. GCF oxLDL increased when the teeth were affected by periodontitis. It is likely that oxLDL levels in plasma and GCF could reflect oxidative stress and transfer efficacy in circulatory system. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Social anxiety is related to increased dwell time on socially threatening faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarov, Amit; Abend, Rany; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2016-03-15

    Identification of reliable targets for therapeutic interventions is essential for developing evidence-based therapies. Threat-related attention bias has been implicated in the etiology and maintenance of social anxiety disorder. Extant response-time-based threat bias measures have demonstrated limited reliability and internal consistency. Here, we examined gaze patterns of socially anxious and nonanxious participants in relation to social threatening and neutral stimuli using an eye-tracking task, comprised of multiple threat and neutral stimuli, presented for an extended time-period. We tested the psychometric properties of this task with the hope to provide a solid stepping-stone for future treatment development. Eye gaze was tracked while participants freely viewed 60 different matrices comprised of eight disgusted and eight neutral facial expressions, presented for 6000ms each. Gaze patterns on threat and neutral areas of interest (AOIs) of participants with SAD, high socially anxious students and nonanxious students were compared. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Participants did not differ on first-fixation variables. However, overall, socially anxious students and participants with SAD dwelled significantly longer on threat faces compared with nonanxious participants, with no difference between the anxious groups. Groups did not differ in overall dwell time on neutral faces. Internal consistency of total dwell time on threat and neutral AOIs was high and one-week test-retest reliability was acceptable. Only disgusted facial expressions were used. Relative small sample size. Social anxiety is associated with increased dwell time on socially threatening stimuli, presenting a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anthocyanin increases adiponectin secretion and protects against diabetes-related endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Dan; Zhang, Yuhua; Sun, Ruifang; Xia, Min

    2014-04-15

    Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-secreted adipokine with beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In this study, we evaluated a potential role for adiponectin in the protective effects of anthocyanin on diabetes-related endothelial dysfunction. We treated db/db mice on a normal diet with anthocyanin cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (C3G; 2 g/kg diet) for 8 wk. Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations of the aorta were then evaluated. Adiponectin expression and secretion were also measured. C3G treatment restores endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aorta in db/db mice, whereas diabetic mice treated with an anti-adiponectin antibody do not respond. C3G treatment induces adiponectin expression and secretion in cultured 3T3 adipocytes through transcription factor forkhead box O1 (Foxo1). Silencing Foxo1 expression prevented C3G-stimulated induction of adiponectin expression. In contrast, overexpression of Foxo1-ADA promoted adiponectin expression in adipocytes. C3G activates Foxo1 by increasing its deacetylation via silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirt1). Furthermore, purified anthocyanin supplementation significantly improved flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and increased serum adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Changes in adiponectin concentrations positively correlated with FMD in the anthocyanin group. Mechanistically, adiponectin activates cAMP-PKA-eNOS signaling pathways in human aortic endothelial cells, increasing endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability. These results demonstrate that adipocyte-derived adiponectin is required for anthocyanin C3G-mediated improvement of endothelial function in diabetes.

  6. Do age-related increases in tip-of-the-tongue experiences signify episodic memory impairments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthouse, Timothy A; Mandell, Arielle R

    2013-12-01

    Tip-of-the-tongue experiences (TOTs), in which a name is known but cannot be immediately retrieved from memory, can be a cause of concern if these experiences are viewed as a sign of memory decline. The current study was conducted to investigate the relation between age and TOT frequency, and the influence of episodic memory, which is the type of memory most often assessed to detect memory problems, on that relation. In a sample of adults, increased age was found to be associated with more TOTs across different types of materials, and additional analyses suggested that these relations between age and TOT frequency were not attributable to the use of different response criteria or to different amounts of knowledge. Because statistical control of a measure of episodic memory had little effect on the relation between age and TOT frequency, age-related increases in TOTs and age-related decreases in episodic memory appear to be at least partially independent phenomena.

  7. Increased UV-induced sister-chromatid exchange in cultured fibroblasts of first-degree relatives of melanoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knees-Matzen, S.; Roser, M.; Reimers, U.; Ehlert, U.; Weichenthal, M.; Breitbart, E.W.; Ruediger, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts of 17 first-degree relatives of familial melanoma patients and six first-degree relatives of cutaneous melanoma (CMM) patients with multiple CMM primaries were tested for in vitro sensitivity to UV light. Fibroblasts of nine familial CMM patients with a known UV-sensitivity and 19 healthy probands served as a control. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) was used as a parameter to detect UV-induced genotoxic damage. The authors found significantly (p less than 0.001) increased UV-induced SCE levels in familial melanoma patients, as well as in first-degree relatives of familial melanoma patients (p less than 0.001) after UV-A,B irradiation (375 J/m2), compared to the healthy probands without a family history of CMM. A significant (p less than 0.001) increase of UV-induced SCE was also observed in the relatives of CMM patients with multiple CMM primaries. In addition, the spontaneous SCE were significantly increased (p less than 0.05) in familial CMM patients. This study shows that increased UV sensitivity is a familial phenomenon. It is consistent with the concept of a genetic predisposition to CMM, which is based on increased UV sensitivity and may help to define groups with an elevated risk of developing cutaneous malignant melanoma

  8. Technology-Related Strategies Used by Educational Leaders to Increase Prosocial Behavior in K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Jason Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify technology-related strategies used by educational leaders to increase prosocial behavior in K-12 schools. Information and communication technology (ICT) is developing at a rapid rate and is becoming more ubiquitous among students. Discovering and understanding common technology-related strategies…

  9. Increased attention and memory for beloved-related information during infatuation: behavioral and electrophysiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; Olivier, Jamie R; Köhlen, Martine E; Nijs, Ilse M; Van Strien, Jan W

    2015-01-01

    Emotionally salient information is well attended and remembered. It has been shown that infatuated individuals have increased attention for their beloved. It is unknown whether this attention bias generalizes to information related to the beloved. Moreover, infatuated individuals report to remember trivial things about their beloved, but this has not yet been tested empirically. In two studies, we tested whether infatuated individuals have increased attention and memory for beloved-related information. In a passive viewing task (Study 1), the late positive potential, an event-related potential (ERP) component reflecting motivated attention, was enhanced for beloved-related vs friend-related words/phrases. In a recognition task (Study 2), memory performance and the frontal and parietal ERP old/new effects, reflecting familiarity and recollection, respectively, were not enhanced for beloved-related compared with friend-related words/phrases. In free recall tasks in both studies, memory was better for beloved-related than friend-related words/phrases. This research reveals that attention and memory are enhanced for beloved-related information. These attention and memory biases for beloved-related information were not due to valence, semantic relatedness, or experience, but to arousal. To conclude, romantic love has profound effects on cognition that play a clear role in daily life. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Final report of a randomized trial on altered-fractionated radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma prematurely terminated by significant increase in neurologic complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, Peter Man Lung; Leung, Sing Fai; Chan, Anthony Tak Cheung; Leung, Thomas Wai Tong; Choi, Peter Ho Keung; Kwan, Wing Hong; Lee, Wai Yee; Chau, Ricky Ming Chun; Yu, Peter Kau Wing; Johnson, Philip James

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the survival, local control and complications of conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy and conventional radiotherapy in nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: From February 1993 to October 1995, 159 patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic (M0) NPC with N0 or 4 cm or less N1 disease (Ho's N-stage classification, 1978) were randomized to receive either conventional radiotherapy (Arm I, n = 82) or conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy (Arm II, n = 77). Stratification was according to the T stage. The biologic effective dose (10 Grays) to the primary and the upper cervical lymphatics were 75.0 and 73.1 for Arm I and 84.4 and 77.2 for Arm II, respectively. Results: With comparable distribution among the T stages between the two arms, the free from local failure rate at 5 years after radiotherapy was not significantly different between the two arms (85.3%; 95% confidence interval, 77.2-93.4% for Arm I; and 88.9%; 95% confidence interval, 81.7-96.2% for Arm II). The two arms were also comparable in overall survival, relapse-free survival, and rates of distant metastasis and regional relapse. Conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy was associated with significantly increased radiation-induced damage to the central nervous system (including temporal lobe, cranial nerves, optic nerve/chiasma, and brainstem/spinal cord) in Arm II. Although insignificant, radiation-induced cranial nerve(s) palsy (typically involving VIII-XII), trismus, neck soft tissue fibrosis, and hypopituiturism and hypothyroidism occurred more often in Arm II. In addition, the complications occurred at significantly shorter intervals after radiotherapy in Arm II. Conclusion: Accelerated hyperfractionation when used in conjunction with a two-dimensional radiotherapy planning technique, in this case the Ho's technique, resulted in increased radiation damage to the central

  11. Decreases in left atrial compliance during early-stage exercise are related to exercise intolerance in asymptomatic significant mitral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi-Hyang; Jung, Hae Ok; Lee, Jung-Won; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2017-11-01

    Doppler-driven net atrioventricular compliance (C n ), which represents left atrial (LA) compliance, is an important determinant of pulmonary hypertension in mitral stenosis (MS). We hypothesized that decreases in C n during early-stage exercise underlie exercise intolerance in patients with MS. Thirty-three asymptomatic patients with significant MS (valve area 1.24 ± 0.16 cm 2 ) underwent resting and bicycle exercise echocardiography. LA compliance and conventional parameters were assessed at each workload. The patients were classified into two groups based on whether they developed dyspnea during exercise: an exercise-intolerance group (n = 22) and an exercise-tolerance group (n = 11). Moreover, "50 W" was defined as an early exercise stage. Although the groups had similar resting characteristics, there were striking differences in their echocardiographic parameters from the early stages of exercise. The relative C n decrease at 50 W (expressed as a percentage of the resting C n ) was significantly greater in the exercise-intolerance group (70.3 ± 15.4% vs 49.7 ± 9.7%, P intolerance group (P = .0005). Furthermore, differences in the trends in this parameter were observed between the two groups (P intolerance (adjusted OR 1.105, 95% CI 1.030-1.184) after adjustment for other conventional parameters. Decreases in C n during early-stage exercise are an important mechanism underlying exercise intolerance in MS. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Prognostic significance of normal quantitative Tl-201 stress scintigraphy in relation to pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, D.J.; Russo, D.; Clements, J.; Wackers, F.

    1984-01-01

    A previous study reported an excellent prognosis and low cardiac event rate in patients(pts) with chest pain and normal quantitative T1-201 scintigraphy(SC). Such result would not be unexpected if the population under study had a predominance of pts with low pre-T1-201 likelihood(L) of significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Hence, the authors undertook telephone follow-up in pts with chest pain syndrome and normal quantitative T1-201 exercise SC, and related outcome to pretest L of CAD. Pretest L was determined by serial L analysis on the basis of: symptoms, age, sex, and exercise ECG. All pts had T1-201 SC immediately post exercise and 2 hrs later. After interpolative background correction, circumferential count and washout profiles were generated. All pts had unequivocally normal studies. Of a total of 96 pts studied in 1981-82, 20 pts were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 76 pts, 45 were males and 31 females. The pretest L of CAD had an inverted Gaussian distribution: thirty-four pts(47%) had 66% L of CAD. Mean follow-up was 22+- 3 months. No deaths occurred. Two pts(3%) (with pretest L of 54% and 94%) had myocardial infarctions, 8 and 22 months respectively after T1-201 stress SC. One pt underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) 16 months after T1-201 stress SC. These findings confirm excellent prognostic significance of normal quantitative T1-201 stress scintigraphy

  13. Are Simulated and Observed Twentieth Century Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Trends Significant Relative to Internal Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, S.; Karnauskas, K. B.

    2017-10-01

    Historical trends in the tropical Pacific zonal sea surface temperature gradient (SST gradient) are analyzed herein using 41 climate models (83 simulations) and 5 observational data sets. A linear inverse model is trained on each simulation and observational data set to assess if trends in the SST gradient are significant relative to the stationary statistics of internal variability, as would suggest an important role for external forcings such as anthropogenic greenhouse gasses. None of the 83 simulations have a positive trend in the SST gradient, a strengthening of the climatological SST gradient with more warming in the western than eastern tropical Pacific, as large as the mean trend across the five observational data sets. If the observed trends are anthropogenically forced, this discrepancy suggests that state-of-the-art climate models are not capturing the observed response of the tropical Pacific to anthropogenic forcing, with serious implications for confidence in future climate projections. There are caveats to this interpretation, however, as some climate models have a significant strengthening of the SST gradient between 1900 and 2013 Common Era, though smaller in magnitude than the observational data sets, and the strengthening in three out of five observational data sets is insignificant. When combined with observational uncertainties and the possibility of centennial time scale internal variability not sampled by the linear inverse model, this suggests that confident validation of anthropogenic SST gradient trends in climate models will require further emergence of anthropogenic trends. Regardless, the differences in SST gradient trends between climate models and observational data sets are concerning and motivate the need for process-level validation of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics relevant to climate change in the tropical Pacific.

  14. Editorial Commentary: Big Data Suggest That Because of a Significant Increased Risk of Postoperative Infection, Steroid Injection Is Not Recommended After Ankle Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-02-01

    A recent study addressing infection rate after intra-articular steroid injection during ankle arthroscopy gives pause to this practice, with an odds ratio of 2.2 in the entire population that was injected with a steroid simultaneously with ankle arthroscopy compared with patients who did not receive an ankle injection. Big data, used in the study upon which the Editor comments here, suggest that because of a significant increased risk of postoperative infection, steroid injection is not recommended after ankle arthroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  16. Prognostic significance of repeat biopsy in lupus nephritis: Histopathologic worsening and a short time between biopsies is associated with significantly increased risk for end stage renal disease and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriens, Cristina; Chen, Sixia; Karp, David R; Saxena, Ramesh; Sambandam, Kamalanathan; Chakravarty, Eliza; James, Judith A; Merrill, Joan T

    2017-12-01

    histopathology had died compared to 2 (3.2%) of non-worsening patients. Biopsy worsening was associated with a significantly greater 15-year risk of ESRD (Hazard Ratio 4.2, p=0.0001) and death (Hazard Ratio 4.3, p=0.022), adjusting for age, gender, race, biopsy class, and treatment. Time between first and second biopsies was 5years in 28. Over a 15-year period, those with <1year between first and second biopsies (presumably enriched for patients with early clinical signs of progression) had a significantly greater risk of ESRD (Hazard Ratio 13.7, p<0.0001) and death (Hazard Ratio 16.9, p=0.0022) after adjusting for age, gender, race, biopsy class, and treatment. A repeat renal biopsy demonstrating worsening pathology increases the risk of ESRD and death more than four-fold compared to non-worsening patients. Given known potential mismatch between biopsy and clinical data, repeat biopsies may add important information and justify changes in treatment not considered on clinical grounds. Earlier detection of poor prognostic signs in those without early clinical deterioration might improve outcomes in enough patients to reconsider cost effectiveness of routine repeat biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Zhu

    Full Text Available Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish or non-meat proteins (casein or soy for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota.

  18. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Shi, Xuebin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota.

  19. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Shi, Xuebin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota. PMID:27042829

  20. Near-infrared spectroscopy can reveal increases in brain activity related to animal-assisted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yuka; Ebara, Fumio; Morita, Yoshimitsu; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] Previous studies have indicated that animal-assisted therapy can promote recovery of psychological, social, and physiological function in mental disorders. This study was designed as a pilot evaluation of the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to objectively identify changes in brain activity that could mediate the effect of animal-assisted therapy. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy students (10 males and 10 females; age 19-21 years) of the Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University. Participants were shown a picture of a Tokara goat or shack (control) while prefrontal cortical oxygenated haemoglobin levels (representing neural activity) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. [Results] The prefrontal cortical near-infrared spectroscopy signal was significantly higher during viewing of the animal picture than during a rest condition or during viewing of the control picture. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that near-infrared spectroscopy can be used to objectively identify brain activity changes during human mentation regarding animals; furthermore, these preliminary results suggest the efficacy of animal-assisted therapy could be related to increased activation of the prefrontal cortex.

  1. Sunitinib significantly suppresses the proliferation, migration, apoptosis resistance, tumor angiogenesis and growth of triple-negative breast cancers but increases breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchar, Edmund; Makey, Kristina L; Gibson, John; Chen, Fang; Cole, Shelby A; Megason, Gail C; Vijayakumar, Srinivassan; Miele, Lucio; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The majority of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are basal-like breast cancers. However there is no reported study on anti-tumor effects of sunitinib in xenografts of basal-like TNBC (MDA-MB-468) cells. In the present study, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MCF-7 cells were cultured using RPMI 1640 media with 10% FBS. Vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) protein levels were detected using ELISA (R & D Systams). MDA-MB-468 cells were exposed to sunitinib for 18 hours for measuring proliferation (3H-thymidine incorporation), migration (BD Invasion Chamber), and apoptosis (ApopTag and ApoScreen Anuexin V Kit). The effect of sunitinib on Notch-1 expression was determined by Western blot in cultured MDA-MB-468 cells. 10(6) MDA-MB-468 cells were inoculated into the left fourth mammary gland fat pad in athymic nude-foxn1 mice. When the tumor volume reached 100 mm(3), sunitinib was given by gavage at 80 mg/kg/2 days for 4 weeks. Tumor angiogenesis was determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from the tumors were determined by flow cytometry analysis using CD44(+)/CD24(-) or low. ELISA indicated that VEGF was much more highly expressed in MDA-MB-468 cells than MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Sunitinib significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis resistance in cultured basal like breast cancer cells. Sunitinib significantly increased the expression of Notch-1 protein in cultured MDA-MB-468 or MDA-MB-231 cells. The xenograft models showed that oral sunitinib significantly reduced the tumor volume of TNBCs in association with the inhibition of tumor angiogeneisis, but increased breast CSCs. These findings support the hypothesis that the possibility should be considered of sunitinib increasing breast CSCs though it inhibits TNBC tumor angiogenesis and growth/progression, and that effects of sunitinib on Notch expression and hypoxia may increase breast cancer stem cells. This work provides the groundwork for an

  2. Neonicotinoid Insecticides Alter Induced Defenses and Increase Susceptibility to Spider Mites in Distantly Related Crop Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Raupp, Michael J.; Parker, Roy D.; Kerns, David; Eubanks, Micky D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemical suppression of arthropod herbivores is the most common approach to plant protection. Insecticides, however, can cause unintended, adverse consequences for non-target organisms. Previous studies focused on the effects of pesticides on target and non-target pests, predatory arthropods, and concomitant ecological disruptions. Little research, however, has focused on the direct effects of insecticides on plants. Here we demonstrate that applications of neonicotinoid insecticides, one of the most important insecticide classes worldwide, suppress expression of important plant defense genes, alter levels of phytohormones involved in plant defense, and decrease plant resistance to unsusceptible herbivores, spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), in multiple, distantly related crop plants. Methodology/Principal Findings Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants, we show that transcription of phenylalanine amonia lyase, coenzyme A ligase, trypsin protease inhibitor and chitinase are suppressed and concentrations of the phytohormone OPDA and salicylic acid were altered by neonicotinoid insecticides. Consequently, the population growth of spider mites increased from 30% to over 100% on neonicotinoid-treated plants in the greenhouse and by nearly 200% in the field experiment. Conclusions/Significance Our findings are important because applications of neonicotinoid insecticides have been associated with outbreaks of spider mites in several unrelated plant species. More importantly, this is the first study to document insecticide-mediated disruption of plant defenses and link it to increased population growth of a non-target herbivore. This study adds to growing evidence that bioactive agrochemicals can have unanticipated ecological effects and suggests that the direct effects of insecticides on plant defenses should be considered when the ecological costs of insecticides are evaluated. PMID

  3. Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in southern Ethiopia: significance of improved HIV-related care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimelis, Techalew; Tassachew, Yayehyirad; Lambiyo, Tariku

    2016-05-10

    Intestinal parasitic infections are known to cause gastroenteritis, leading to higher morbidity and mortality, particularly in people living with HIV/AIDS. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients receiving care at a hospital in Ethiopia where previous available baseline data helps assess if improved HIV-related care has reduced infection rates. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa University Hospital in southern Ethiopia from May, 2013 to March, 2014. A consecutive sample of 491 HIV- infected patients with diarrhea or a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasites. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University. Physicians managed participants found to be infected with any pathogenic intestinal parasite. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the study population was 35.8 %. The most prevalent parasites were Cryptosporidium (13.2 %), followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.2 %), and Giardia lamblia (7.9 %). The rate of single and multiple infections were 25.5 and 10.3 %, respectively. Patients with a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasitic infection or cryptosporidiosis compared to those with counts ≥ 200 cells/μl, but with some type of diarrhea. The study shows high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the study population. However, the results in the current report are significantly lower compared to previous findings in the same hospital. The observed lower infection rate is encouraging and supports the need to strengthen and sustain the existing intervention measures in order to further reduce intestinal parasitic infections in people living with HIV/AIDS.

  4. A pilot study: Horticulture-related activities significantly reduce stress levels and salivary cortisol concentration of maladjusted elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Oh, Wook; Jang, Ja Soon; Lee, Ju Young

    2018-04-01

    The effects of three horticulture-related activities (HRAs), including floral arranging, planting, and flower pressing were compared to see if they influenced changes on a stress scale and on salivary cortisol concentrations (SCC) in maladjusted elementary school children. Twenty maladjusted elementary school children were randomly assigned either to an experimental or control group. The control group carried out individual favorite indoor activities under the supervision of a teacher. Simultaneously, the ten children in the experimental group participated in a HRA program consisting of flower arrangement (FA), planting (P), and flower pressing (PF) activities, in which the other ten children in the control group did not take part. During nine sessions, the activities were completed as follows: FA-FA-FA, P-P-P, and PF-PF-PF; each session lasted 40 min and took place once a week. For the quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol, saliva was collected from the experimental group one week before the HRAs and immediately after the activities for 9 consecutive weeks at the same time each session. In the experimental group, stress scores of interpersonal relationship, school life, personal problems, and home life decreased after the HRAs by 1.3, 1.8, 4.2, and 1.3 points, respectively. In particular, the stress score of school life was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In addition, from the investigation of the SCCs for the children before and after repeating HRAs three times, it was found that flower arrangement, planting, and flower pressing activities reduced the SCCs by ≥37% compared to the SCCs prior to taking part in the HRAs. These results indicate that HRAs are associated with a reduction in the stress levels of maladjusted elementary school children. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Increased Need for Gastrointestinal Surgery and Increased Risk of Surgery-Related Complications in Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulas Søborg, Marie-Louise; Leganger, Julie; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    . The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the causes of GI-related surgery and related mortality and morbidity in patients with EDSs. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Scopus to identify relevant studies. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta...

  6. The In Vitro Mass-Produced Model Mycorrhizal Fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, Significantly Increases Yields of the Globally Important Food Security Crop Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernández, Cristhian; Peña, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

  7. Addition of sodium caseinate to skim milk increases nonsedimentable casein and causes significant changes in rennet-induced gelation, heat stability, and ethanol stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingchen; Kelly, Alan L; O'Mahony, James A; Guinee, Timothy P

    2017-02-01

    The protein content of skim milk was increased from 3.3 to 4.1% (wt/wt) by the addition of a blend of skim milk powder and sodium caseinate (NaCas), in which the weight ratio of skim milk powder to NaCas was varied from 0.8:0.0 to 0.0:0.8. Addition of NaCas increased the levels of nonsedimentable casein (from ∼6 to 18% of total casein) and calcium (from ∼36 to 43% of total calcium) and reduced the turbidity of the fortified milk, to a degree depending on level of NaCas added. Rennet gelation was adversely affected by the addition of NaCas at 0.2% (wt/wt) and completely inhibited at NaCas ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Rennet-induced hydrolysis was not affected by added NaCas. The proportion of total casein that was nonsedimentable on centrifugation (3,000 × g, 1 h, 25°C) of the rennet-treated milk after incubation for 1 h at 31°C increased significantly on addition of NaCas at ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Heat stability in the pH range 6.7 to 7.2 and ethanol stability at pH 6.4 were enhanced by the addition of NaCas. It is suggested that the negative effect of NaCas on rennet gelation is due to the increase in nonsedimentable casein, which upon hydrolysis by chymosin forms into small nonsedimentable particles that physically come between, and impede the aggregation of, rennet-altered para-casein micelles, and thereby inhibit the development of a gel network. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ceballos

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P. The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future.

  9. Prognostic Significance of Creatinine Increases During an Acute Heart Failure Admission in Patients With and Without Residual Congestion: A Post Hoc Analysis of the PROTECT Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metra, Marco; Cotter, Gad; Senger, Stefanie; Edwards, Christopher; Cleland, John G; Ponikowski, Piotr; Cursack, Guillermo C; Milo, Olga; Teerlink, John R; Givertz, Michael M; O'Connor, Christopher M; Dittrich, Howard C; Bloomfield, Daniel M; Voors, Adriaan A; Davison, Beth A

    2018-05-01

    The importance of a serum creatinine increase, traditionally considered worsening renal function (WRF), during admission for acute heart failure has been recently debated, with data suggesting an interaction between congestion and creatinine changes. In post hoc analyses, we analyzed the association of WRF with length of hospital stay, 30-day death or cardiovascular/renal readmission and 90-day mortality in the PROTECT study (Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study of the Selective A1 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist Rolofylline for Patients Hospitalized With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal Function). Daily creatinine changes from baseline were categorized as WRF (an increase of 0.3 mg/dL or more) or not. Daily congestion scores were computed by summing scores for orthopnea, edema, and jugular venous pressure. Of the 2033 total patients randomized, 1537 patients had both available at study day 14. Length of hospital stay was longer and 30-day cardiovascular/renal readmission or death more common in patients with WRF. However, these were driven by significant associations in patients with concomitant congestion at the time of assessment of renal function. The mean difference in length of hospital stay because of WRF was 3.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.73) more days ( P =0.0019), and the hazard ratio for WRF on 30-day death or heart failure hospitalization was 1.49 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.09) times higher ( P =0.0205), in significantly congested than nonsignificantly congested patients. A similar trend was observed with 90-day mortality although not statistically significant. In patients admitted for acute heart failure, WRF defined as a creatinine increase of ≥0.3 mg/dL was associated with longer length of hospital stay, and worse 30- and 90-day outcomes. However, effects were largely driven by patients who had residual congestion at the time of renal function assessment. URL: https

  10. Increased Relative Risk of Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Warmer Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE is a serious acute neuroinfection of humans caused by a tick-borne flavivirus. The disease is typically seasonal, linked to the host-seeking activity of Ixodes ricinus (predominantly nymphs, the principal European tick vector species. To address the need for accurate risk predictions of contracting TBE, data on 4,044 TBE cases reported in the Czech Republic during 2001–2006 were compared with questing activity of I. ricinus nymphs monitored weekly at a defined location for the same 6-year period. A time shift of 21 days between infected tick bite and recorded disease onset provided the optimal model for comparing the number of cases of TBE with numbers of questing nymphs. Mean annual distribution of TBE cases and tick counts showed a similar bimodal distribution. Significantly, the ratio of TBE cases to questing nymphs was highest in the summer-autumn period even though the number of questing nymphs peaked in the spring-summer period. However, this pattern changed during a period of extreme meteorological events of flooding and abnormally high temperatures, indicating that changes in climate affect the incidence of TBE. Previous studies failed to link human behavior with changes in incidence of TBE but showed extrinsic temperature impacts arbovirus replication. Hence, we hypothesize the apparent discrepancy between peak nymphal tick activity and greatest risk of contracting TBE is due to the effect of temperature on virus replication in the tick vector. Relative proportions of questing nymphs and the numbers of weeks in which they were found were greater in summer-autumn compared with spring-summer at near-ground temperatures >5°C and at standard day and weekly average temperatures of >15°C. Thus, during the summer-autumn period, the virus dose in infected tick bites is likely greater owing to increased virus replication at higher microclimatic temperatures, consequently increasing the relative risk of

  11. Secukinumab Significantly Reduces Psoriasis-Related Work Impairment and Indirect Costs Compared With Ustekinumab and Etanercept in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R B; Halliday, A; Graham, C N; Gilloteau, I; Miles, L; McBride, D

    2018-05-30

    Psoriasis causes work productivity impairment that increases with disease severity. Whether differential treatment efficacy translates into differential indirect cost savings is unknown. To assess work hours lost and indirect costs associated with secukinumab versus ustekinumab and etanercept in the United Kingdom (UK). This was a post hoc analysis of work impairment data collected in the CLEAR study (secukinumab vs. ustekinumab) and applied to the FIXTURE study (secukinumab vs. etanercept). Weighted weekly and annual average indirect costs per patient per treatment were calculated from (1) overall work impairment derived from Work Productivity and Activity Impairment data collected in CLEAR at 16 and 52 weeks by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) response level; (2) weekly/annual work productivity loss by PASI response level; (3) weekly and annual indirect costs by PASI response level, based on hours of work productivity loss; and (4) weighted average indirect costs for each treatment. In the primary analysis, work impairment data for employed patients in CLEAR at Week 16 were used to compare secukinumab and ustekinumab. Secondary analyses were conducted at different timepoints and with patient cohorts, including FIXTURE. In CLEAR, 452 patients (67%) were employed at baseline. At Week 16, percentages of weekly work impairment/mean hours lost decreased with higher PASI: PASI hours; PASI 50-74: 13.3%/4.45 hours; PASI 75-89: 6.4%/2.14 hours; PASI ≥90: 4.9%/1.65 hours. Weighted mean weekly/annual work hours lost were significantly lower for secukinumab than ustekinumab (1.96/102.51 vs. 2.40/125.12; P=0.0006). Results were consistent for secukinumab versus etanercept (2.29/119.67 vs. 3.59/187.17; Ρreduced work impairment and associated indirect costs of psoriasis compared with ustekinumab and etanercept at Week 16 through 52 in the UK. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. In vivo topical application of acetyl aspartic acid increases fibrillin-1 and collagen IV deposition leading to a significant improvement of skin firmness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillbro, J M; Merinville, E; Cattley, K; Al-Bader, T; Hagforsen, E; Nilsson, M; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    Acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A) was discovered through gene array analysis with corresponding Cmap analysis. We found that A-A-A increased keratinocyte regeneration, inhibited dermal matrix metalloprotease (MMP) expression and relieved fibroblast stiffness through reduction of the fibroblast stiffness marker F-actin. Dermal absorption studies showed successful delivery to both the epidermal and dermal regions, and in-use trial demonstrated that 1% A-A-A was well tolerated. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether A-A-A could stimulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix supporting proteins in vivo and thereby improving the viscoelastic properties of human skin by conducting a dual histological and biophysical clinical study. Two separate double-blind vehicle-controlled in vivo studies were conducted using a 1% A-A-A containing oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. In the histological study, 16 female volunteers (>55 years of age) exhibiting photodamaged skin on their forearm were included, investigating the effect of a 12-day treatment of A-A-A on collagen IV (COLIV) and fibrillin-1. In a subsequent pilot study, 0.1% retinol was used for comparison to A-A-A (1%). The biomechanical properties of the skin were assessed in a panel of 16 women (>45 years of age) using the standard Cutometer MPA580 after topical application of the test products for 28 days. The use of multiple suction enabled the assessment of F4, an area parameter specifically representing skin firmness. Twelve-day topical application of 1% A-A-A significantly increased COLIV and fibrillin with 13% and 6%, respectively, compared to vehicle. 1% A-A-A and 0.1% retinol were found to significantly reduce F4 after 28 days of treatment by 15.8% and 14.7%, respectively, in the pilot Cutometer study. No significant difference was found between retinol and A-A-A. However, only A-A-A exhibited a significant effect vs. vehicle on skin firmness which indicated the incremental benefit of A-A-A as a skin

  13. Warming-related increases in soil CO2 efflux are explained by increased below-ground carbon flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian P. Giardina; Creighton M. Litton; Susan E. Crow; Gregory P Asner

    2014-01-01

    The universally observed exponential increase in soil-surface CO2 effux (‘soil respiration’; FS) with increasing temperature has led to speculation that global warming will accelerate soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition, reduce SOC storage, and drive a positive feedback to future warming. However, interpreting temperature–FS relationships,...

  14. The Long Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    related leave from 14 to 20 weeks. We use differences-in-differences regression discontinuity design to identify the causal effect of the leave reform and it estimated whether such a large increase in the mandated leave period has a large measurable and persistent effect on children's cognitive...... and educational outcomes. A 100% sample Danish population born in May, June, July, and August 1983, 1984, and 1985 and a dataset with Danish PISA-2000 scores are used for the estimations. Preliminary results indicate there is no positive effect on children's cognitive outcomes from increasing parents' mandated......    The length of parents' total birth related leave was increased with almost 50% in 1984 in Denmark. The previous length of the Danish maternity leave was long, especially compared to e.g. the U.S. today. This paper investigates the long term effects on children of increasing length of birth...

  15. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Rationality on the rise: Why relative risk aversion increases with stake size

    OpenAIRE

    Fehr-Duda, Helga; Bruhin, Adrian; Epper, Thomas F.; Schubert, Renate

    2008-01-01

    How does risk tolerance vary with stake size? This important question cannot be adequately answered if framing effects, nonlinear probability weighting, and heterogeneity of preference types are neglected. We show that, contrary to gains, no coherent change in relative risk aversion is observed for losses. The increase in relative risk aversion over gains cannot be captured by the curvature of the utility function. It is driven predominantly by a change in probability weighting of a majority ...

  17. Reinnervation of Vastus lateralis is increased significantly in seniors (70-years old with a lifelong history of high-level exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mosole

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has long been recognized that histological changes observed in aging muscle suggest that denervation contributes to muscle deterioration and that disuse accelerates the process while running activity, sustained for decades, protects against age-related loss of motor units. Here we show at the histological level that lifelong increased physical activity promotes reinnervation of muscle fibers. In muscle biopsies from 70-year old men with a lifelong history of high-level physical activity, we observed a considerable increase in fiber-type groupings (almost exclusively of the slow type in comparison to sedentary seniors, revealing a large population of reinnervated muscle fibers in the sportsmen. Slow-type transformation by reinnervation in senior sportsmen seems to be a clinically relevant mechanism: the muscle biopsies fluctuate from those with scarce fiber-type transformation and groupings to almost fully transformed muscle, going through a process in which isolated fibers co-expressing fast and slow MHCs seems to fill the gaps. Taken together, our results suggest that, beyond the direct effects of aging on the muscle fibers, changes occurring in skeletal muscle tissue appear to be largely, although not solely, a result of sparse denervation. Our data suggest that lifelong exercise allows the body to adapt to the consequences of the age-related denervation and to preserve muscle structure and function by saving otherwise lost muscle fibers through recruitment to different, mainly slow, motor units. These beneficial effects on motoneurons and, subsequently on muscle fibers, serve to maintain size, structure and function of muscle fibers, delaying the functional decline and loss of independence that are commonly seen in late aging.

  18. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivinius R

    2016-02-01

    group (P=0.0123. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596, 2-year (P=0.8620, 5-year (P=0.2737, or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049. Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786.Conclusion: Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with increased mortality after HTX. Keywords: amiodarone, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, heart transplantation, mortality

  19. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehling, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.stehling@radiology.ucsf.edu [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Souza, Richard B. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T. [Pfizer Inc. New London, CT (United States); Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008-0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  20. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehling, Christoph; Souza, Richard B.; Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T.; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008–0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  1. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  2. Symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n reduce methylation of RARB and PTEN while significantly increase methylation of rRNA genes in MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Kostyuk

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome.It is shown that DBP(n are able to penetrate the cellular membranes and accumulate in breast carcinoma cell MCF-7, mainly in the mitochondria and in the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. The DBP(n are non-toxic to the cells and have a weak overall demethylation effect on genomic DNA. DBP(n demethylate the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and RARB. DBP(n promotes expression of the genes RARB, PTEN, CDKN2A, RUNX3, Apaf-1 and APC "silent" in the MCF-7 because of the hypermethylation of their promoter regions. Simultaneously with the demethylation of the DNA in the nucleus a significant increase in the methylation level of rRNA genes in the nucleolus was detected. Increased rDNA methylation correlated with a reduction of the rRNA amount in the cells by 20-30%. It is assumed that during DNA methyltransferase activity inhibition by the DBP(n in the nucleus, the enzyme is sequestered in the nucleolus and provides additional methylation of the rDNA that are not shielded by DBP(n.It is concluded that DBP (n are able to accumulate in the nucleus (excluding the nucleolus area and in the mitochondria of cancer cells, reducing mitochondrial potential. The DBP (n induce the demethylation of a cancer cell's genome, including the demethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. DBP (n significantly increase the methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the nucleoli. Therefore the further study of these compounds is needed

  3. Trace metals in Antarctica related to climate change and increasing human impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2000-01-01

    Metals are natural constituents of the abiotic and biotic components of all ecosystems, and under natural conditions they are cycled within and between the geochemical spheres--the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere--at quite steady fluxes. In the second half of the twentieth century, the huge increase in energy and mineral consumption determined anthropogenic emissions of several metals exceeding those from natural sources, e.g., volcanoes and windborne soil particles. In the Northern Hemisphere, the biogeochemical cycles of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and other metals were significantly altered, even in Arctic regions. On the contrary, available data on trace metal concentrations in abiotic matrices from continental Antarctica, summarized in this review, suggest that the biogeochemical cycle of Pb is probably the only one that has been significantly altered by anthropogenic emissions in Antarctica and elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in the period 1950-1975. Environmental contamination by other metals from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica itself can generally only be detected in snow samples taken within a range of a few kilometers or several hundred meters from scientific stations. Local metal pollution from human activities in Antarctica may compromise studies aimed at assessing the biogeochemical cycle of trace elements and the effects of global climate change. Thus, this review focuses on concentrations of metals in atmospheric particulate, snow, surface soils, and freshwater from the Antarctic continent and surface sediments and seawater from the Southern Ocean, which can plausibly be regarded as global background values of trace elements. These baselines are also necessary in view of the construction of new stations, the expansion of existing facilities to support research, and the growth of tourism and fisheries. Despite difficulties in making comparisons with data from other remote areas of the world, concentrations of trace metals

  4. Increased colorectal cancer risk in first-degree relatives of patients with hyperplastic polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boparai, K. S.; Reitsma, J. B.; Lemmens, V.; van Os, T. A. M.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.; Koornstra, J. J.; Nagengast, F. M.; van Hest, L. P.; Keller, J. J.; Dekker, E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Hyperplastic polyposis syndrome (HPS) is characterised by the presence of multiple colorectal hyperplastic polyps and is associated with an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. For first-degree relatives of HPS patients (FDRs) this has not been adequately quantified. Reliable

  5. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-01-08

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.  Created: 1/8/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/8/2008.

  6. Increased colorectal cancer risk in first-degree relatives of patients with hyperplastic polyposis syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boparai, K.S.; Reitsma, J.B.; Lemmens, V.; Os, T.A. van; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.H.; Koornstra, J.J.; Nagengast, F.M.; Hest, L.P. van; Keller, J.J.; Dekker, E. den

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hyperplastic polyposis syndrome (HPS) is characterised by the presence of multiple colorectal hyperplastic polyps and is associated with an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. For first-degree relatives of HPS patients (FDRs) this has not been adequately quantified. Reliable

  7. Increased colorectal cancer risk in first-degree relatives of patients with hyperplastic polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boparai, K. S.; Lemmens, V.; van Os, T. A. M.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.; Koornstra, J. J.; Nagengast, F. M.; van Hest, L. P.; Keller, J. J.; Dekker, E.; Reitsma, J.

    Introduction Hyperplastic polyposis syndrome (HPS) is characterised by the presence of multiple colorectal hyperplastic polyps and is associated with an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. For first-degree relatives of HPS patients (FDRs) this has not been adequately quantified. Reliable

  8. Increasing cyclic electron flow is related to Na+ sequestration into vacuoles for salt tolerance in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Fu, Junliang; Yu, Chenliang; Wang, Xiaoman; Jiang, Qinsu; Hong, Jian; Lu, Kaixing; Xue, Gangping; Yan, Chengqi; James, Andrew; Xu, Ligen; Chen, Jianping; Jiang, Dean

    2015-11-01

    In land plants, the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) complex reduces plastoquinones and drives cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI. It also produces extra ATP for photosynthesis and improves plant fitness under conditions of abiotic environmental stress. To elucidate the role of CEF in salt tolerance of the photosynthetic apparatus, Na(+) concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence, and expression of NDH B and H subunits, as well as of genes related to cellular and vacuolar Na(+) transport, were monitored. The salt-tolerant Glycine max (soybean) variety S111-9 exhibited much higher CEF activity and ATP accumulation in light than did the salt-sensitive variety Melrose, but similar leaf Na(+) concentrations under salt stress. In S111-9 plants, ndhB and ndhH were highly up-regulated under salt stress and their corresponding proteins were maintained at high levels or increased significantly. Under salt stress, S111-9 plants accumulated Na(+) in the vacuole, but Melrose plants accumulated Na(+) in the chloroplast. Compared with Melrose, S111-9 plants also showed higher expression of some genes associated with Na(+) transport into the vacuole and/or cell, such as genes encoding components of the CBL10 (calcineurin B-like protein 10)-CIPK24 (CBL-interacting protein kinase 24)-NHX (Na(+)/H(+) antiporter) and CBL4 (calcineurin B-like protein 4)-CIPK24-SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1) complexes. Based on the findings, it is proposed that enhanced NDH-dependent CEF supplies extra ATP used to sequester Na(+) in the vacuole. This reveals an important mechanism for salt tolerance in soybean and provides new insights into plant resistance to salt stress. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Significance of measuring oxidative stress in lifestyle-related diseases from the viewpoint of correlation between d-ROMs and BAP in Japanese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Maruyama, Mie; Yasuda, Tadashi; Abe, Youichi; Kohno, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress has been postulated to be an important factor in the pathogenesis and development of lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the association between the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), as an index of products of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP), as an index of antioxidant potential. We also investigated the associations between d-ROMs or BAP and the risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases or metabolic syndrome-associated factors to evaluate their usefulness in preventive medicine. There were 442 subjects who underwent health checkup examination in our facilities. In addition to standard medical checkup items, we analyzed d-ROMs, BAP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and visceral fat area (VFA) visualized on a computed tomography scan. The mean d-ROM value in females was significantly higher than that in males. There was a positive correlation between the d-ROM and VFA levels. On correlation analysis, there was a negative correlation between the d-ROM and creatinine levels. As factors that influence d-ROMs, the level of VFA was selected, suggesting the significance of oxidative stress measurement with d-ROMs. In addition, there was a positive correlation between d-ROMs and BAP values. Further research is required to resolve whether increased production of ROS or the antioxidant potential that can compensate for such an increase of ROS is more important in vivo. (author)

  10. PARP-1 depletion in combination with carbon ion exposure significantly reduces MMPs activity and overall increases TIMPs expression in cultured HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Sarma, Asitikantha; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Ghosh, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Hadron therapy is an innovative technique where cancer cells are precisely killed leaving surrounding healthy cells least affected by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation like carbon ion beam. Anti-metastatic effect of carbon ion exposure attracts investigators into the field of hadron biology, although details remain poor. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors are well-known radiosensitizer and several PARP-1 inhibitors are in clinical trial. Our previous studies showed that PARP-1 depletion makes the cells more radiosensitive towards carbon ion than gamma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate combining effects of PARP-1 inhibition with carbon ion exposure to control metastatic properties in HeLa cells. Activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, MMP-9) were measured using the gelatin zymography after 85 MeV carbon ion exposure or gamma irradiation (0- 4 Gy) to compare metastatic potential between PARP-1 knock down (HsiI) and control cells (H-vector - HeLa transfected with vector without shRNA construct). Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of MMPs such as TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 were checked by immunofluorescence and western blot. Cell death by trypan blue, apoptosis and autophagy induction were studied after carbon ion exposure in each cell-type. The data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and 2-tailed paired-samples T-test. PARP-1 silencing significantly reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and carbon ion exposure further diminished their activities to less than 3 % of control H-vector. On the contrary, gamma radiation enhanced both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in H-vector but not in HsiI cells. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in H-vector and HsiI showed different pattern after carbon ion exposure. All three TIMPs were increased in HsiI, whereas only TIMP-1 was up-regulated in H-vector after irradiation. Notably, the expressions of all TIMPs were significantly higher in HsiI than H-vector at 4 Gy. Apoptosis was

  11. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk: a multicenter active-surveillance report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto; Valverde, Vicente Rodríguez; Mola, Emilio Martín; Montero, Maria Dolores

    2003-08-01

    The long-term safety of therapeutic agents that neutralize tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is uncertain. Recent evidence based on spontaneous reporting shows an association with active tuberculosis (TB). We undertook this study to determine and describe the long-term safety of 2 of these agents, infliximab and etanercept, in rheumatic diseases based on a national active-surveillance system following the commercialization of the drugs. We analyzed the safety data actively collected in the BIOBADASER (Base de Datos de Productos Biológicos de la Sociedad Española de Reumatología) database, which was launched in February 2000 by the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. For the estimation of TB risk, the annual incidence rate in patients treated with these agents was compared with the background rate and with the rate in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assembled before the era of anti-TNF treatment. Seventy-one participating centers sent data on 1,578 treatments with infliximab (86%) or etanercept (14%) in 1,540 patients. Drug survival rates (reported as the cumulative percentage of patients still receiving medication) for infliximab and etanercept pooled together were 85% and 81% at 1 year and 2 years, respectively. Instances of discontinuation were essentially due to adverse events. Seventeen cases of TB were found in patients treated with infliximab. The estimated incidence of TB associated with infliximab in RA patients was 1,893 per 100,000 in the year 2000 and 1,113 per 100,000 in the year 2001. These findings represent a significant increased risk compared with background rates. In the first 5 months of 2002, after official guidelines were established for TB prevention in patients treated with biologics, only 1 new TB case was registered (in January). Therapy with infliximab is associated with an increased risk of active TB. Proper measures are needed to prevent and manage this adverse event.

  12. Dephytinisation with Intrinsic Wheat Phytase and Iron Fortification Significantly Increase Iron Absorption from Fonio (Digitaria exilis) Meals in West African Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with 57Fe or 58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8–7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8–17.9) in FWFP (Pphytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges. PMID:24124445

  13. Significantly increased detection rate of drugs of abuse in urine following the introduction of new German driving licence re-granting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2012-02-10

    In this paper we present the first assessment of the new German driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines by comparing over 3500 urine samples tested under the old MPA cut-offs to over 5000 samples tested under the new MPA cut-offs. Since the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) technology used previously was not sensitive enough to screen for drugs at such low concentrations, as suggested by the new MPA guidelines, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening kits were used to screen for the drugs of abuse at the new MPA cut-offs. The above comparison revealed significantly increased detection rates of drug use or exposure during the rehabilitation period as follows: 1.61, 2.33, 3.33, and 7 times higher for 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), morphine, benzoylecgonine and amphetamine respectively. The present MPA guidelines seem to be more effective to detect non-abstinence from drugs of abuse and hence to detecting drivers who do not yet fulfil the MPA requirements to regain their revoked driving licence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Arborvitae (Thuja plicata essential oil significantly inhibited critical inflammation- and tissue remodeling-related proteins and genes in human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesheng Han

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Arborvitae (Thuja plicata essential oil (AEO is becoming increasingly popular in skincare, although its biological activity in human skin cells has not been investigated. Therefore, we sought to study AEO's effect on 17 important protein biomarkers that are closely related to inflammation and tissue remodeling by using a pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblast culture model. AEO significantly inhibited the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10, interferon-inducible T-cell chemoattractant (I-TAC, monokine induced by interferon gamma (MIG, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF. It also showed significant antiproliferative activity and robustly inhibited collagen-I, collagen-III, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 and 2 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. The inhibitory effect of AEO on increased production of these protein biomarkers suggests it has anti-inflammatory property. We then studied the effect of AEO on the genome-wide expression of 21,224 genes in the same cell culture. AEO significantly and diversely modulated global gene expression. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA showed that AEO robustly affected numerous critical genes and signaling pathways closely involved in inflammatory and tissue remodeling processes. The findings of this study provide the first evidence of the biological activity and beneficial action of AEO in human skin cells.

  15. Prognostic significance of catalase expression and its regulatory effects on hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in HBV-related advanced hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi-Young; Cheong, Jae Youn; Lim, Wonchung; Jo, Sujin; Lee, Youngsoo; Wang, Hee-Jung; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Cho, Hyeseong

    2014-12-15

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a role in liver cancer development. We previously showed that ROS increased HBx levels and here, we investigated the role of antioxidants in the regulation of HBx expression and their clinical relevance. We found that overexpression of catalase induced a significant loss in HBx levels. The cysteine null mutant of HBx (Cys-) showed a dramatic reduction in its protein stability. In clonogenic proliferation assays, Huh7-X cells produced a significant number of colonies whereas Huh7-Cys- cells failed to generate them. The Cys at position 69 of HBx was crucial to maintain its protein stability and transactivation function in response to ROS. Among 50 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens, 72% of HCCs showed lower catalase levels than those of surrounding non-tumor tissues. In advanced stage IV, catalase levels in non-tumor tissues were increased whereas those in tumors were further reduced. Accordingly, patients with a high T/N ratio for catalase showed significantly longer survival than those with a low T/N ratio. Together, catalase expression in HCC patients can be clinically useful for prediction of patient survival, and restoration of catalase expression in HCCs could be an important strategy for intervention in HBV-induced liver diseases.

  16. Prognostic significance of catalase expression and its regulatory effects on hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in HBV-related advanced hepatocellular carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi-Young; Cheong, Jae Youn; Lim, Wonchung; Jo, Sujin; Lee, Youngsoo; Wang, Hee-Jung; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Cho, Hyeseong

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a role in liver cancer development. We previously showed that ROS increased HBx levels and here, we investigated the role of antioxidants in the regulation of HBx expression and their clinical relevance. We found that overexpression of catalase induced a significant loss in HBx levels. The cysteine null mutant of HBx (Cys−) showed a dramatic reduction in its protein stability. In clonogenic proliferation assays, Huh7-X cells produced a significant number of colonies whereas Huh7-Cys− cells failed to generate them. The Cys at position 69 of HBx was crucial to maintain its protein stability and transactivation function in response to ROS. Among 50 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens, 72% of HCCs showed lower catalase levels than those of surrounding non-tumor tissues. In advanced stage IV, catalase levels in non-tumor tissues were increased whereas those in tumors were further reduced. Accordingly, patients with a high T/N ratio for catalase showed significantly longer survival than those with a low T/N ratio. Together, catalase expression in HCC patients can be clinically useful for prediction of patient survival, and restoration of catalase expression in HCCs could be an important strategy for intervention in HBV-induced liver diseases. PMID:25361011

  17. Increased reaction time variability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as a response-related phenomenon: evidence from single-trial event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Christopher W N; Feige, Bernd; Kluckert, Christian; Bender, Stephan; Biscaldi, Monica; Berger, Andrea; Fleischhaker, Christian; Henighausen, Klaus; Klein, Christoph

    2015-07-01

    Increased intra-subject variability (ISV) in reaction times (RTs) is a promising endophenotype for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and among the most robust hallmarks of the disorder. ISV has been assumed to represent an attentional deficit, either reflecting lapses in attention or increased neural noise. Here, we use an innovative single-trial event-related potential approach to assess whether the increased ISV associated with ADHD is indeed attributable to attention, or whether it is related to response-related processing. We measured electroencephalographic responses to working memory oddball tasks in patients with ADHD (N = 20, aged 11.3 ± 1.1) and healthy controls (N = 25, aged 11.7 ± 1.1), and analysed these data with a recently developed method of single-trial event-related potential analysis. Estimates of component latency variability were computed for the stimulus-locked and response-locked forms of the P3b and the lateralised readiness potential (LRP). ADHD patients showed significantly increased ISV in behavioural ISV. This increased ISV was paralleled by an increase in variability in response-locked event-related potential latencies, while variability in stimulus-locked latencies was equivalent between groups. This result held across the P3b and LRP. Latency of all components predicted RTs on a single-trial basis, confirming that all were relevant for speed of processing. These data suggest that the increased ISV found in ADHD could be associated with response-end, rather than stimulus-end processes, in contrast to prevailing conceptions about the endophenotype. This mental chronometric approach may also be useful for exploring whether the existing lack of specificity of ISV to particular psychiatric conditions can be improved upon. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  18. Clinical significance of asymptomatic urogenital Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in relation to seminal fluid parameters among infertile Jordanian males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The differences in the occurrence of M. hominis were statistically insignificant among infertility and control groups, but it was significant for U. urealyticum (p=0.046. M. hominis occurs more frequently in the semen of infertile-varicose male and normal seminal fluid quality. It seems to have no adverse effects on sperm motility but it might decline the fertility potential in such cases. U. urealyticum on the other hand have no clear significant impacts on sperm motility. The mean values for sperm motility, concentrations, and viscosity were not affected by the presence of the two species. Despite the significant presence of Ureaplasma among infertility, further studies were needed to clarify their potential effect on semen quality and infertility status.

  19. Rash related to use of scented products. A questionnaire study in the Danish population. Is the problem increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Thomsen, L K

    2000-01-01

    . Further, it was determined whether risk of self-reported 1st-time rash from scented products had increased during the past 15 years compared to the preceding period. The sample consisted of 1537 persons, 801 female and 736 male, above the age of 15 years. The participants were interviewed person......-to-person to obtain a general health profile, and in this connection, questions were asked concerning rash related to the use of scented products. 28.6% (440/1537) had on some occasion experienced rash from scented products, 10.6% had experienced rash within the year prior to interview. A multivariate analysis showed...... that women had a significantly increased risk of reporting rash from scented products compared to men (odds ratio: 1.56, pyears had a significantly increased risk of reporting rash from scented products compared to older age groups...

  20. Do Age-Related Increases in Tip-of-the-Tongue Experiences Signify Episodic Memory Impairments?

    OpenAIRE

    Salthouse, Timothy A.; Mandell, Arielle R.

    2013-01-01

    Tip-of-the-tongue experiences (TOTs), in which a name is known but cannot be immediately retrieved from memory, can be a cause of concern if these experiences are viewed as a sign of memory decline. The current study was conducted to investigate the relation between age and TOT frequency, and the influence of episodic memory, which is the type of memory most often assessed to detect memory problems, on that relation. In a sample of adults, increased age was found to be associated with more TO...

  1. Higher Language Ability is Related to Angular Gyrus Activation Increase During Semantic Processing, Independent of Sentence Incongruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene; McAllister, Anita; Lundberg, Peter; Karlsson, Thomas; Engström, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task—which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency—employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, there was a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing, is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that no evidence is found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation. PMID

  2. Higher language ability is related to angular gyrus activation increase during semantic processing, independent of sentence incongruency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene eVan Ettinger-Veenstra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task - which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency - employing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that there is no evidence found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation.

  3. How to measure renal artery stenosis - a retrospective comparison of morphological measurement approaches in relation to hemodynamic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Malin; Jägervall, Karl; Eriksson, Per; Persson, Anders; Granerus, Göran; Wang, Chunliang; Smedby, Örjan

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well known that renal artery stenosis may cause renovascular hypertension, it is unclear how the degree of stenosis should best be measured in morphological images. The aim of this study was to determine which morphological measures from Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) and Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) are best in predicting whether a renal artery stenosis is hemodynamically significant or not. Forty-seven patients with hypertension and a clinical suspicion of renovascular hypertension were examined with CTA, MRA, captopril-enhanced renography (CER) and captopril test (Ctest). CTA and MRA images of the renal arteries were analyzed by two readers using interactive vessel segmentation software. The measures included minimum diameter, minimum area, diameter reduction and area reduction. In addition, two radiologists visually judged the diameter reduction without automated segmentation. The results were then compared using limits of agreement and intra-class correlation, and correlated with the results from CER combined with Ctest (which were used as standard of reference) using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. A total of 68 kidneys had all three investigations (CTA, MRA and CER + Ctest), where 11 kidneys (16.2 %) got a positive result on the CER + Ctest. The greatest area under ROC curve (AUROC) was found for the area reduction on MRA, with a value of 0.91 (95 % confidence interval 0.82–0.99), excluding accessory renal arteries. As comparison, the AUROC for the radiologists’ visual assessments on CTA and MRA were 0.90 (0.82–0.98) and 0.91 (0.83–0.99) respectively. None of the differences were statistically significant. No significant differences were found between the morphological measures in their ability to predict hemodynamically significant stenosis, but a tendency of MRA having higher AUROC than CTA. There was no significant difference between measurements made by the radiologists and measurements made with

  4. Reduction of pain-related fear and increased function and participation in work-related upper extremity pain (WRUEP): effects of exposure in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jeroen R; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; van Eijsden, Marjon; Loo, Christoph; Onghena, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that pain-related fear influences the development and maintenance of pain disability, presumably mediated through the fear-related avoidance of valued activities. Individually tailored graded exposure in vivo (GEXP) has been demonstrated to reduce pain-related fear and increase functional abilities in patients with chronic low back pain, neck pain, and complex regional pain syndrome. The current study aimed to test whether these effects generalize towards patients with work-related upper extremity pain. A sequential replicated and randomized single-case experimental phase design with multiple measurements was used. Within each participant, GEXP was compared to a no-treatment baseline period and a no-treatment 6-month follow-up period. Eight patients who reported a high level of pain-related fear were included in the study. Daily changes in pain catastrophizing, pain-related fear, and pain intensity were assessed using a diary, and subjected to randomization tests. Before the start of the baseline period, just after GEXP, and at 6-month follow-up, clinically relevant changes of pain catastrophizing, pain-related fear, perceived harmfulness of physical activity, pain disability, and participation/autonomy were verified. When GEXP was introduced, levels of pain catastrophizing and pain-related fear decreased significantly. Clinically relevant improvements were observed for pain disability, perceived participation, and autonomy. These favourable changes were maintained until 6-month follow-up. The findings of the current study underscore the external validity of a cognitive-behavioural GEXP treatment for patients with chronic pain reporting increased pain-related fear. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. IMMUNOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF A COLLAGEN-DERIVED CULTURE FILTRATE CONTAINING PROTEOLYTIC ACTIVITY IN ASPERGILLUS-RELATED DISEASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TOMEE, JFC; KAUFFMAN, HF; KLIMP, AH; DEMONCHY, JGR; KOETER, GH; DUBOIS, AEJ

    Background: Despite increasing evidence implicating fungal proteases in the virulence of pulmonary fungal diseases, routine fungal culture media do not favor protease production. Hence, filtrates that serve as the source of antigen for serologic determinations are poor in proteases, and consequently

  6. Relating genes to function: identifying enriched transcription factors using the ENCODE ChIP-Seq significance tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Raymond K; Chen, Bin; Butte, Atul J

    2013-08-01

    Biological analysis has shifted from identifying genes and transcripts to mapping these genes and transcripts to biological functions. The ENCODE Project has generated hundreds of ChIP-Seq experiments spanning multiple transcription factors and cell lines for public use, but tools for a biomedical scientist to analyze these data are either non-existent or tailored to narrow biological questions. We present the ENCODE ChIP-Seq Significance Tool, a flexible web application leveraging public ENCODE data to identify enriched transcription factors in a gene or transcript list for comparative analyses. The ENCODE ChIP-Seq Significance Tool is written in JavaScript on the client side and has been tested on Google Chrome, Apple Safari and Mozilla Firefox browsers. Server-side scripts are written in PHP and leverage R and a MySQL database. The tool is available at http://encodeqt.stanford.edu. abutte@stanford.edu Supplementary material is available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Federal Funding Insulated State Budgets From Increased Spending Related To Medicaid Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Benjamin D; Gruber, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    As states weigh whether to expand Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and Medicaid reform remains a priority for some federal lawmakers, fiscal considerations loom large. As part of the ACA's expansion of eligibility for Medicaid, the federal government paid for 100 percent of the costs for newly eligible Medicaid enrollees for the period 2014-16. In 2017 states will pay some of the costs for new enrollees, with each participating state's share rising to 10 percent by 2020. States continue to pay their traditional Medicaid share (roughly 25-50 percent, depending on the state) for previously eligible enrollees. We used data for fiscal years 2010-15 from the National Association of State Budget Officers and a difference-in-differences framework to assess the effects of the expansion's first two fiscal years. We found that the expansion led to an 11.7 percent increase in overall spending on Medicaid, which was accompanied by a 12.2 percent increase in spending from federal funds. There were no significant increases in spending from state funds as a result of the expansion, nor any significant reductions in spending on education or other programs. States' advance budget projections were also reasonably accurate in the aggregate, with no significant differences between the projected levels of federal, state, and Medicaid spending and the actual expenses as measured at the end of the fiscal year. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Still a Special Relationship? The Significance of United States-United Kingdom Relations in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Anglo - Saxon ally over Nasser and the canal.55 In 2010, in a speech at Chatham House, Liberal Democrat Nick Clegg suggested that “what...strategic culture, and as an expression of shared values and institutions the character of which is vital for those charged with service in an Anglo ...American context as well as NATO. 14. SUBJECT TERMS United Kingdom, United States, Special Relationship, Anglo - American Relations, Iraq, Afghanistan

  9. Gaming Increases Craving to Gaming-Related Stimuli in Individuals With Internet Gaming Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Wang, Lingxiao; Du, Xiaoxia; Potenza, Marc N

    2017-07-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been proposed as a behavioral addiction warranting additional investigation. Craving is considered a core component of addictions. However, few studies to date have investigated craving in IGD. In the current study, we investigated how gaming was associated with changes in response to gaming-related stimuli in subjects with IGD and those with recreational game use (RGU). Behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 27 individuals with IGD and 43 individuals with RGU. Subjects' craving responses to gaming-related stimuli were measured before and after 30 minutes of gaming. The comparison between post- and pregaming measures showed that for IGD, gaming was associated with increased craving and increased brain activation of the lateral and prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and the precuneus when exposed to gaming-related stimuli. In individuals with RGU, no enhanced brain activity was observed. These results suggest that gaming behavior enhances craving responses in subjects with IGD but not in subjects with RGU, provide insight into potential mechanisms underlying IGD, and suggest behavioral and neurobiological targets for IGD-related interventions. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alcohol and public health in Africa: can we prevent alcohol-related harm from increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Dias, Sonia; Babor, Thomas; Esser, Marissa B; Parry, Charles D H

    2015-09-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the total amount of alcohol consumed in the African region is expected to increase due to the growth of new alcohol consumers, especially young people and women. With the changing alcohol environment, increases in the alcohol-attributable burden of disease are inevitable. To our knowledge, there has not been a comprehensive analysis of the factors that could be driving those increases. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence from peer reviewed literature regarding the factors that could be instrumental in this process, in order to inform strategic policy-related decisions. A narrative review was conducted using a thematic analysis approach. We searched papers published between January 2000 and July 2014 in PubMed, the WHO's Global Health Library and African Journals Online. Our analysis identified seven factors (demographics, rapid urbanization, economic development, increased availability, corporate targeting, weak policy infrastructure and trade agreements) which are potentially tied to changes in alcohol consumption in Africa. Driven largely by globalization, a potential convergence of these various factors is likely to be associated with continued growth in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. To address the emerging risk factors associated with increased alcohol consumption, African governments need to take a more active role in protecting the public's health. In particular, important strategic shifts are needed to increase implementation of intersectoral strategies, community involvement in the policy dialogue, health services re-orientation and better regulation of the alcohol beverage industry. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Prognostic Significance of the Systemic Inflammatory and Immune Balance in Alcoholic Liver Disease with a Focus on Gender-Related Differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kasztelan-Szczerbińska

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of immune regulation in alcoholic liver disease (ALD are still unclear. The aim of our study was to determine an impact of Th17 / regulatory T (Treg cells balance and its corresponding cytokine profile on the ALD outcome. Possible gender-related differences in the alcohol-induced inflammatory response were also assessed.147 patients with ALD were prospectively recruited, assigned to subgroups based on their gender, severity of liver dysfunction and presence of ALD complications at admission, and followed for 90 days. Peripheral blood frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells together with IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-23, and TGF-beta1 levels were investigated. Flow cytometry was used to identify T cell phenotype and immunoenzymatic ELISAs for the corresponding cytokine concentrations assessment. Multivariable logistic regression was applied in order to select independent predictors of advanced liver dysfunction and the disease complications.IL-17A, IL-1beta, IL-6 levels were significantly increased, while TGF-beta1 decreased in ALD patients. The imbalance with significantly higher Th17 and lower Treg frequencies was observed in non-survivors. IL-6 and TGF-beta1 levels differed in relation to patient gender in ALD group. Concentrations of IL-6 were associated with the severity of liver dysfunction, development of ALD complications, and turned out to be the only independent immune predictor of 90-day survival in the study cohort.We conclude that IL-6 revealed the highest diagnostic and prognostic potential among studied biomarkers and was related to the fatal ALD course. Gender-related differences in immune regulation might influence the susceptibility to alcohol-associated liver injury.

  12. Exercise in claudicants increase or decrease walking ability and the response relates to mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2017-06-07

    Exercise of patients with intermittent claudication improves walking performance. Exercise does not usually increase blood flow, but seems to increase muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities. Although exercise is beneficial in most patients, it might be harmful in some. The mitochondrial response to exercise might therefore differ between patients. Our hypothesis was that changes in walking performance relate to changes in mitochondrial function after 8 weeks of exercise. At a subgroup level, negative responders decrease and positive responders increase mitochondrial capacity. Two types of exercise were studied, calf raising and walking (n = 28). We wanted to see whether there were negative and positive responders, independent of type of exercise. Measurements of walking performance, peripheral hemodynamics, mitochondrial respiration and content (citrate synthase activity) were obtained on each patient before and after the intervention period. Multiple linear regression was used to test whether changes in peak walking time relate to mitochondrial function. Subgroups of negative (n = 8) and positive responders (n = 8) were defined as those that either decreased or increased peak walking time following exercise. Paired t test and analysis of covariance was used to test changes within and between subgroups. Changes in peak walking time were related to changes in mitochondrial respiration supported by electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF + CI) P (p = 0.004), complex I (CI + ETF) P (p = 0.003), complex I + complex II (CI + CII + ETF) P (p = 0.037) and OXPHOS coupling efficiency (p = 0.046) in the whole group. Negative responders had more advanced peripheral arterial disease. Mitochondrial respiration supported by electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF + CI) P (p = 0.0013), complex I (CI + ETF) P (p = 0.0005), complex I + complex II (CI + CII + ETF) P (p = 0.011) and electron transfer system capacity (CI + CII + ETF) E (p

  13. Cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone significantly increase the risk for spontaneous preterm birth: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančar, Nina; Mihevc Ponikvar, Barbara; Tomšič, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to explore the association between cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ) with spontaneous preterm birth in a large 10-year national sample. We wanted to explore further the association of these procedures with preterm birth according to gestation. We conducted a population based retrospective cohort study, using data from national Medical Birth Registry. The study population consisted of all women giving birth to singletons in the period 2003-2012 in Slovenia, excluding all induced labors and elective cesarean sections before 37 weeks of gestation (N=192730). We compared the prevalence of spontaneous preterm births (before 28 weeks, before 32 weeks, before 34 weeks and before 37 weeks of gestation) in women with cold-knife conisation or LLETZ compared to women without history of conisation, calculating odds ratios (OR), adjusted for potential confounders. Chi-square test was used for descriptive analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate crude odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) with two-sided probability (p) values. A total of 8420 (4.4%) women had a preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation, 2250 (1.2%) before 34 weeks of gestation, 1333 (0.7%) before 32 weeks of gestation and 603 (0.3%) before 28 weeks of gestation. A total of 4580 (2.4%) women had some type of conisation in their medical history: 2083 (1.1%) had cold-knife conisation and 2498 (1.3%) had LLETZ. In women with history of cold-knife conisation, the adjusted OR for preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation was 3.13 (95% CI; 2.74-3.57) and for preterm birth before 28 weeks of gestation 5.96 (95% CI; 4.3-8.3). In women with history of LLETZ, the adjusted OR was 1.95 (95% CI; 1.68-2.25) and 2.88 (95% CI; 1.87-4.43), respectively. Women with cervical excision procedure of any kind have significantly increased odds for preterm birth, especially for preterm birth before 28

  14. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.N.; Thomas, J.V.; Lockhart, M.E.; Berland, L.L.; Morgan, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    V was 31 ± 25 HU (p = 0.007). Conclusion: Significantly increased pancreatic lesion contrast was noted at lower viewing energies using spectral MDCT. Individual patient CNR-optimized energy level images have the potential to improve lesion conspicuity.

  15. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B N; Thomas, J V; Lockhart, M E; Berland, L L; Morgan, D E

    2013-02-01

    .007). Significantly increased pancreatic lesion contrast was noted at lower viewing energies using spectral MDCT. Individual patient CNR-optimized energy level images have the potential to improve lesion conspicuity. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High fasting blood glucose and obesity significantly and independently increase risk of breast cancer death in hormone receptor-positive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicozzi, Pamela; Berrino, Franco; Sebastiani, Federica; Falcini, Fabio; Vattiato, Rosa; Cioccoloni, Francesca; Calagreti, Gioia; Fusco, Mario; Vitale, Maria Francesca; Tumino, Rosario; Sigona, Aurora; Budroni, Mario; Cesaraccio, Rosaria; Candela, Giuseppa; Scuderi, Tiziana; Zarcone, Maurizio; Campisi, Ildegarda; Sant, Milena

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of fasting blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis on risk of breast cancer death for cases diagnosed in five Italian cancer registries in 2003-2005 and followed up to the end of 2008. For 1607 Italian women (≥15 years) with information on BMI or blood glucose or diabetes, we analysed the risk of breast cancer death in relation to glucose tertiles (≤84.0, 84.1-94.0, >94.0 mg/dl) plus diabetic and unspecified categories; BMI tertiles (≤23.4, 23.5-27.3, >27.3 kg/m(2), unspecified), stage (T1-3N0M0, T1-3N+M0 plus T4anyNM0, M1, unspecified), oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) status (ER+PR+, ER-PR-, ER and PR unspecified, other), age, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, using multiple regression models. Separate models for ER+PR+ and ER-PR- cases were also run. Patients often had T1-3N0M0, ER+PR+ cancers and received chemotherapy or endocrine therapy; only 6% were M1 and 17% ER-PR-. Diabetic patients were older and had more often high BMI (>27 kg/m(2)), ER-PR-, M1 cancers than other patients. For ER+PR+ cases, with adjustment for other variables, breast cancer mortality was higher in women with high BMI than those with BMI 23.5-27.3 kg/m(2) (hazard ratio (HR)=2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-6.9). Breast cancer mortality was also higher in women with high (>94 mg/dl) blood glucose compared to those with glucose 84.1-94.0mg/dl (HR=2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.7). Our results provide evidence that in ER+PR+ patients, high blood glucose and high BMI are independently associated with increased risk of breast cancer death. Detection and correction of these factors in such patients may improve prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improvement of Fabry Disease-Related Gastrointestinal Symptoms in a Significant Proportion of Female Patients Treated with Agalsidase Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcox, William R; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Martins, Ana Maria

    2018-01-01

    of organ involvement. Although variable, gastrointestinal symptoms are among the most common and significant early clinical manifestations; they tend to persist into adulthood if left untreated. To further understand the effects of sustained enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with agalsidase beta......Fabry disease, an X-linked inherited lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding α-galactosidase, GLA. In patients with Fabry disease, glycosphingolipids accumulate in various cell types, triggering a range of cellular and tissue responses that result in a wide spectrum...... on gastrointestinal symptoms in heterozygotes, a data analysis of female patients enrolled in the Fabry Registry was conducted. To be included, females of any age must have received agalsidase beta (average dose 1.0 mg/kg every 2 weeks) for at least 2.5 years. Measured outcomes were self-reported gastrointestinal...

  18. Pain-related psychological distress, self-rated health and significance of neuropathic pain in Danish soldiers injured in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, J R; Warburg, Finn; Koelle, S-F T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain and mental health concerns are prevalent among veterans. While the majority of research has focused on chronic pain as an entity, there has been little work directed towards investigating the role of neuropathic pain in relation to psychological comorbidity. As such, we...... hypothesised that participants with signs of neuropathic pain would report higher levels of psychological distress and diminished self-rated health compared to those without a neuropathic component. METHODS: A retrospective review of standardised questionnaires (PainDETECT Questionnaire, Post-traumatic Stress...... pain. RESULTS: Fifty-three participants were included. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian score was in median (interquartile range) 26 (22-31), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score was 4 (2-6.5) and 2 (1-5) for anxiety and depression respectively. Evidence of neuropathic...

  19. Work activity in food service: The significance of customer relations, tipping practices and gender for preventing musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperrière, Ève; Messing, Karen; Bourbonnais, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Some evidence shows that food servers are exposed to an elevated risk of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries, and that their work activity varies by gender. Interviews of servers and observations of food service in Québec, Canada, were carried out in three restaurants and a questionnaire was administered to 64 workers from 44 other restaurants. The relationship with the customer has specific effects on work activity and transforms the physical, emotional and cognitive work. Strategies intended to speed service or otherwise related to the customer relationship can involve health risks. Women reported more direct food service (p work per week (p < 0.01). Women workers reported experiencing more sites of pain (p < 0.003). This exploratory study suggests that managing the server-customer relationship could be important in preventing musculoskeletal disorders in this population and that women are at particular risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  1. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D; Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; St Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David C; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  2. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn D Rode

    Full Text Available Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013 when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia, highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  3. Substance use disorders in adolescent and young adult relatives of probands with bipolar disorder: What drives the increased risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulvershorn, Leslie A; King, Jennifer; Monahan, Patrick O; Wilcox, Holly C; Mitchell, Philip B; Fullerton, Janice M; Edenberg, Howard J; Roberts, Gloria M P; Kamali, Masoud; Glowinski, Anne L; Ghaziuddin, Neera; McInnis, Melvin; Iyer-Eimerbrink, Priya A; Nurnberger, John I

    2017-10-01

    Adults with bipolar disorder (BD) have higher rates of substance use disorders (SUDs) compared to the general population. SUD rates in young offspring/relatives of BD probands, as well as factors which drive those rates, are not as well-characterized. We aimed to examine SUD prevalence among adolescent/young adult offspring and relatives of probands with and without BD. Data were collected from five sites in the US and Australia during 2006-2011. Youth offspring/relatives ("Relatives of BD probands;" n=267; mean age=16.8years; ±2.9S.D.), identified through a proband family member with DSM-IV BD (Type I or II), were compared to offspring/relatives of control probands ("relatives of control probands;" n=149; mean age=17.4years; ±2.9S.D.). Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to compare the groups across a range of substance use and SUD variables. Odds ratios were calculated for lifetime prevalence of substance outcomes. Bivariate analyses showed DSM-IV SUDs were more prevalent among relatives of BD probands than among relatives of control probands (29% vs. 18%; p=0.01). Generalized estimating equation models showed BD mood and childhood-onset externalizing disorders in adolescent and young adult relatives to each significantly increase the odds (OR=2.80-3.17; p<0.02) for the development of several substance variables among all relatives, whereas the risk of SUDs in relatives was not increased when the relatives had no mood or externalizing disorders themselves. Relatives of BD probands with lifetime mood and externalizing disorders report more substance use/SUDs than relatives of control probands. In contrast, SUD outcomes in relatives of BD probands without mood or externalizing disorders were no different from control relatives without psychopathology. Early recognition and treatment of psychiatric disorders may lead to less substance use in this highly vulnerable population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. rTMS Induced Tinnitus Relief Is Related to an Increase in Auditory Cortical Alpha Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nadia; Lorenz, Isabel; Langguth, Berthold; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus, the continuous perception of a phantom sound, is a highly prevalent audiological symptom. A promising approach for the treatment of tinnitus is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as this directly affects tinnitus-related brain activity. Several studies indeed show tinnitus relief after rTMS, however effects are moderate and vary strongly across patients. This may be due to a lack of knowledge regarding how rTMS affects oscillatory activity in tinnitus sufferers and which modulations are associated with tinnitus relief. In the present study we examined the effects of five different stimulation protocols (including sham) by measuring tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related brain activity with Magnetoencephalography before and after rTMS. Changes in oscillatory activity were analysed for the stimulated auditory cortex as well as for the entire brain regarding certain frequency bands of interest (delta, theta, alpha, gamma). In line with the literature the effects of rTMS on tinnitus loudness varied strongly across patients. This variability was also reflected in the rTMS effects on oscillatory activity. Importantly, strong reductions in tinnitus loudness were associated with increases in alpha power in the stimulated auditory cortex, while an unspecific decrease in gamma and alpha power, particularly in left frontal regions, was linked to an increase in tinnitus loudness. The identification of alpha power increase as main correlate for tinnitus reduction sheds further light on the pathophysiology of tinnitus. This will hopefully stimulate the development of more effective therapy approaches. PMID:23390539

  5. Increased oxidative stress and its relation with collagen metabolism in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Ozlem; Erel, Ozcan; Aksoy, Nurten; Selek, Sahabettin; Celik, Hakim; Karaoglanoglu, Mustafa

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum oxidative/antioxidative status in patients with knee osteoarthritis and its relation with prolidase activity, which plays an important role in collagen metabolism. Serum antioxidative status was evaluated by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC), thiol level and catalase enzyme activity in patients with osteoarthritis and in healthy controls. Serum oxidative status was evaluated by measuring total peroxide (TP) and lipid hydroperoxide. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. Prolidase enzyme activity was measured to investigate the collagen metabolism. Serum TAC, thiol level, catalase activity and prolidase activity were significantly lower in patients than in controls (P antioxidant parameters decreased in patients with osteoarthritis; therefore, these patients may be exposed to a potent oxidative stress. Decreased collagen metabolism may be related with oxidative stress, which has a role in the ethiopathogenesis and/or in the progression of the disease.

  6. Prostate cancer risk: the significance of differences in age related changes in serum conjugated and unconjugated steroid hormone concentrations between Arab and Caucasian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, E O; Akanji, A O; Memon, A; Bashir, A A; Daar, A S; Al-Awadi, K A; Fatinikun, T

    2006-01-01

    Factors responsible for the low incidence of clinical prostate cancer (3-8/100,000 men/year) in the Arab population remain unclear, but may be related to changes in steroid hormone metabolism. We compared the levels of serum conjugated and unconjugated steroids between Arab and Caucasian populations, to determine if these can provide a rational explanation for differences in incidence of prostate cancer between the two populations. Venous blood samples were obtained from 329 unselected apparently healthy indigenous Arab men (Kuwaitis and Omanis) aged 15-80 years. Samples were also obtained from similar Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The samples were taken between 8:00 am and 12:00 noon. Serum levels of total testosterone, (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI); adrenal C19-steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (ADT) were determined using Immulite kits (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories Inc, Webster Texas, USA). The results obtained in Arab men were compared with those reported for similarly aged Chinese, German and White USA men. In all four ethnic groups, median TT and FAI declined with age, while SHBG increased with age. However, the mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower (p Arab men (p Arabs (p Arabs. There was no significant difference in mean serum levels of DHEAS between German and USA men. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the level of the hormones between Arab and Chinese men. Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer had high serum TT, SHBG and DHEAS compared to those without the disease. The mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower in Arab men compared to Caucasian men especially in early adulthood. Caucasians have significantly higher serum levels of the precursor androgens DHEAS and ADT especially in early adulthood compared to Arab men. These observations of low circulating androgens and their adrenal precursors in

  7. The Hematologic Definition of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Relation to Paraproteinemic Keratopathy (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisch, Walter; Wasielica-Poslednik, Joanna; Kivelä, Tero; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Rohrbach, Jens M; Sekundo, Walter; Pleyer, Uwe; Lisch, Christina; Desuki, Alexander; Rossmann, Heidi; Weiss, Jayne S

    2016-08-01

    To determine if paraproteinemic keratopathy (PPK) in the setting of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) causes distinct patterns of corneal opacification that can be distinguished from hereditary, immunologic, or inflammatory causes. A retrospective, interventional study of patients showed distinct bilateral opacity patterns of the cornea at the eye clinics of Hanau, Mainz, Helsinki, Marburg, and Berlin between 1993 and 2015. Data on patient characteristics and clinical features on ophthalmic examination were collected, and serum protein profiles were evaluated. A literature review and analysis of all published studies of MGUS with PPK is also presented. The largest group of patients diagnosed with MGUS-induced PPK is analyzed in this study. We studied 22 eyes of 11 patients (6 male, aged 43 to 65, mean age 54; 5 female, aged 49 to 76, mean age 61) with distinct corneal opacities and visual impairment who were first suspected of having hereditary, inflammatory, or immunologic corneal entities. Subsequently, serum protein electrophoresis revealed MGUS to be the cause of the PPK. Literature review revealed 72 patients with bilateral PPK (34 male, mean age 57; 38 female, mean age 58) in 51 studies of MGUS published from 1934 to 2015 and disclosed six additional corneal opacity patterns. This thesis shows that MGUS is not always an asymptomatic disorder, in contrast to the hematologic definition, which has no hint of PPK. The MGUS-induced PPK can mimic many other diseases of the anterior layer of the eye. A new clinical classification for PPK in MGUS is proposed.

  8. Validation of DAB2IP methylation and its relative significance in predicting outcome in renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang-Yun; Kapur, Payal; Wu, Kai-Jie; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Bing; He, Da-Lin; Chen, Wei; Margulis, Vitaly; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Luo, Jun-Hang

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported tumor suppressive role of DAB2IP in RCC development. In this study, We identified one CpG methylation biomarker (DAB2IP CpG1) located UTSS of DAB2IP that was associated with poor overall survival in a cohort of 318 ccRCC patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We further validated the prognostic accuracy of DAB2IP CpG methylation by pyrosequencing quantitative methylation assay in 224 ccRCC patients from multiple Chinese centers (MCHC set), and 239 patients from University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (UTSW set) by using FFPE samples. DAB2IP CpG1 can predict the overall survival of patients in TCGA, MCHC, and UTSW sets independent of patient age, Fuhrman grade and TNM stage (all p<0.05). DAB2IP CpG1 successfully categorized patients into high-risk and low-risk groups with significant differences of clinical outcome in respective clinical subsets, regardless of age, sex, grade, stage, or race (HR: 1.63-7.83; all p<0.05). The detection of DAB2IP CpG1 methylation was minimally affected by ITH in ccRCC. DAB2IP mRNA expression was regulated by DNA methylation in vitro. DAB2IP CpG1 methylation is a practical and repeatable biomarker for ccRCC, which can provide prognostic value that complements the current staging system. PMID:27129174

  9. Increased 3H-spiperone binding sites in mesolimbic area related to methamphetamine-induced behavioral hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, K.; Sato, M.; Otsuki, S.

    1982-01-01

    The specific 3 H-spiperone binding to membrane homogenates of the striatum, mesolimbic area, and frontal cortex was examined in two groups of rats pretreated once daily with saline or 4 mg/kg of methamphetamine (MAP) for 14 days. At 7 days following cessation of chronic pretreatment, all rats received an injection of 4 mg/kg of MAP and were decapitated 1 hr after the injection. In the chronic saline-pretreatment group, the single administration of MAP induced significant changes in the number (Bmax) of specific 3 H-spiperone binding sites (a decrease in the striatum and an increase in the mesolimbic area and frontal cortex), but no significant changes in the affinity (KD) in any brain area. The chronic MAP pretreatment markedly augmented the changes in Bmax in the striatum and mesolimbic area. The increase in specific 3 H-spiperone binding sites in the mesolimbic area is discussed in relation to MAP-induced behavioral hypersensitivity

  10. Increased genetic divergence between two closely related fir species in areas of range overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Abbott, Richard J; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Liu, Jianquan

    2014-01-01

    Because of introgressive hybridization, closely related species can be more similar to each other in areas of range overlap (parapatry or sympatry) than in areas where they are geographically isolated from each other (allopatry). Here, we report the reverse situation based on nuclear genetic divergence between two fir species, Abies chensiensis and Abies fargesii, in China, at sites where they are parapatric relative to where they are allopatric. We examined genetic divergence across 126 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in a set of 172 individuals sampled from both allopatric and parapatric populations of the two species. Our analyses demonstrated that AFLP divergence was much greater between the species when comparisons were made between parapatric populations than between allopatric populations. We suggest that selection in parapatry may have largely contributed to this increased divergence. PMID:24772279

  11. Microvascular filtration is increased in the forearms of patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Radmer; Simonsen, Lene; Karlsmark, Tonny

    2013-01-01

    -enhanced ultrasound; venous occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography; lower-body negative pressure; noninvasive blood pressure measurements; and skin (99m)Tc-pertechnetate clearance technique. Measurements were performed bilaterally and simultaneously in the forearms, enabling use of the nonedematous forearm...... relative microvascular volume, forearm blood flow, skin blood flow, or central or local sympathetic vascular reflexes. Forearm microvascular filtration is increased in patients with BCRL, and more so in the edematous arm. The vascular sympathetic control mechanisms seem to be preserved. We propose...... with unilateral BCRL, the following aspects of upper extremity peripheral circulation were examined: muscle relative microvascular volume; capillary filtration coefficient; central and local sympathetic vascular reflexes; skin blood flow; and forearm blood flow. These were studied via real-time, contrast...

  12. Transcriptional effects of glucocorticoid receptors in the dentate gyrus increase anxiety-related behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Sarrazin

    Full Text Available The Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR is a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in the brain. Activation of brain GRs by high levels of glucocorticoid (GC hormones modifies a large variety of physiological and pathological-related behaviors. Unfortunately the specific cellular targets of GR-mediated behavioral effects of GC are still largely unknown. To address this issue, we generated a mutated form of the GR called DeltaGR. DeltaGR is a constitutively transcriptionally active form of the GR that is localized in the nuclei and activates transcription without binding to glucocorticoids. Using the tetracycline-regulated system (Tet-OFF, we developed an inducible transgenic approach that allows the expression of the DeltaGR in specific brain areas. We focused our study on a mouse line that expressed DeltaGR almost selectively in the glutamatergic neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus. This restricted expression of the DeltaGR increased anxiety-related behaviors without affecting other behaviors that could indirectly influence performance in anxiety-related tests. This behavioral phenotype was also associated with an up-regulation of the MAPK signaling pathway and Egr-1 protein in the DG. These findings identify glutamatergic neurons in the DG as one of the cellular substrate of stress-related pathologies.

  13. Relative workload determines exercise-induced increases in PGC-1alpha mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lundby, Carsten; Leick, Lotte

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:: The hypothesis that brief intermittent exercise induced increases in human skeletal muscle metabolic mRNA is dependent on relative workload was investigated. METHODS:: Trained (n=10) and untrained (n=8) subjects performed exhaustive intermittent cycling exercise (4x4 min @ 85% of VO2...... peak, interspersed by 3 min). Trained subjects also performed the intermittent exercise at the same absolute workload as untrained, corresponding to 70% of VO2 peak (n=6). RESULTS:: Exercise at 85% of VO2 peak elevated (P... and untrained, respectively. PGC-1alpha mRNA expression was increased (Pelevated (3.1+/-0.7 mM) and PGC-1alpha mRNA content was less (P

  14. Related Research and Arthroscopy: Increasing the Breadth of Arthroscopy and Arthroscopy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzler, Merrick J; Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J; Lubowitz, James H

    2017-11-01

    An editorial goal is to increase the breadth of Arthroscopy and Arthroscopy Techniques. Our readers are more than arthroscopic surgeons and scientists. Rather, the health care providers and scientists who read our journals are, first and foremost, physicians, allied health practitioners, and academic intellectuals whose interests include improving individual and public health and welfare across a wide spectrum of scholarly topics. By reaching a broader audience, we hope to expand our contribution to arthroscopic and related surgery and continue to develop the potential of our subspecialty. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. No evidence of age-related increases in unconscious plagiarism during free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Timothy John; Defeldre, Anne-Catherine; Elliman, Rachel; Dehon, Hedwige

    2011-07-01

    In three experiments younger and older participants took part in a group generation task prior to a delayed recall task. In each, participants were required to recall the items that they had generated, avoiding plagiarism errors. All studies showed the same pattern: older adults did not plagiarise their partners any more than younger adults did. However, older adults were more likely than younger adults to intrude with entirely novel items not previously generated by anyone. These findings stand in opposition to the single previous demonstration of age-related increases in plagiarism during recall.

  16. Civil engineering airman at increased risk for injuries and injury-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Timothy S; Wells, Timothy S

    2011-03-01

    With the advent of electronic records, the opportunity to conduct research on workplace-related injuries and musculoskeletal disorders has increased dramatically. The purpose of this study was to examine the United States Air Force Civil Engineering career field to determine if they are negatively impacted by their work environment. Specifically, the objective of this study was to determine if enlisted Civil Engineering Airmen (n = 25,385) were at increased risk for injury or injury-related musculoskeletal disorders compared to enlisted Information Management/Communications Airmen (n = 28,947). Using an historical prospective design, electronic data were assembled and analyzed using Cox's proportional hazards modeling. Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for race/ethnicity, marital status, birth year, and deployment status. Male Civil Engineers were observed to be at greater risk for both inpatient injury-related musculoskeletal disorders (HR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.54-2.26) and injuries (HR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.48-2.11), while female Civil Engineers were more than double the risk for both inpatient injury-related musculoskeletal disorders (HR = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.28-3.73) and injuries (HR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.27-3.88) compared to Information Management/Communications Airmen. Although analyses do not allow exploration of specific causes, they highlight the utility of using electronic data to identify occupations for further evaluation. Based on these results, additional resources were allocated to survey Civil Engineers on their physical work demands and job requirements to identify key problem areas for further study and mitigation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Relative Humidity of 40% Inhibiting the Increase of Pulse Rate, Body Temperature, and Blood Lactic Acid During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Sandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive sweating of the body is a reaction to decrease the heat caused by prolonged exercise at high relative humidity (RH. This situation may cause an increase in pulse rate (PR, body temperature (BT, and blood lactic acid (BLA workout. Objective: This study aimed to prove that a RH of 40% better than a RH of 50% and 60% RH in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Methods: The study was conducted on 54 samples randomly selected from the IKIP PGRI Bali students. The samples were divided into three groups, and each group was given cycling exercise with a load of 80 Watt for 2 x 30 minutes with rest between sets for five minutes. Group-1 of cycling at 40% of RH, Group-2 at a RH of 50%, and the Group-3 at a RH of 60%. Data PR, BT, and BLA taken before and during exercise. The mean difference between groups before and during exercise were analyzed by One-way Anova and a further test used Least Significant Difference (LSD. Significance used was α = 0.05. Results: The mean of PR during exercise was significantly different between groups with p = 0.045, the mean of BT during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.006, and the mean of BLA during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.005 (p <0.05. Also found that PR, BT, and BLA during exercise at 40% RH was lower than 50% RH and 60% RH (p <0.05. Conclusion: Thus, the RH of 40% was better than RH of 50% and 60 % in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Therefore, when practiced in a closed room is expected at 40% relative humidity.

  18. Increasing notifications of dengue in Australia related to overseas travel, 1991 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knope, Katrina; Giele, Carolein

    2013-03-31

    Dengue is an important cause of illness in travellers returning to Australia. The risk of local transmission from imported cases is of particular concern, with several large and explosive outbreaks recorded in recent years in north Queensland in areas where the mosquito vector of dengue is present. The number and proportion of dengue cases that are overseas-acquired is increasing. The number of overseas cases in 2010 and 2011 had increased by 298% and 155% respectively compared with the 5 year mean. The number of overseas acquired cases in 2012 is likely to be the largest on record, with an average of 144 cases per month during the first 7 months of the year. More than half of all dengue cases with a known country of acquisition between 1999 and July 2012 were acquired in Indonesia. In Western Australia in 2010 and 2011, more than 80% of cases acquired in Indonesia were acquired in Bali and the trend has continued into 2012.1 While the frequency of travel by Australians to Indonesia has steadily increased since 2000, this does not completely explain the increased number of dengue cases in returning travellers. The relative risk of dengue in travellers returning from Indonesia between 2000 and 2011 compared with all other destinations was 8.3 (95% confidence interval 7.9-8.9).

  19. [Burden of smoking-related disease and potential impact of cigarette price increase in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardach, Ariel E; Caporale, Joaquín E; Alcaraz, Andrea; Augustovski, Federico; Huayanay-Falconí, Leandro; Loza-Munarriz, Cesar; Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Pichon-Riviere, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    . To calculate the burden of smoking-related disease and evaluate the potential economic and health impact of tax-induced cigarette price increase in Peru. A microsimulation model was used to estimate smoking-attributable impact on mortality, quality of life, and costs associated with heart and cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, lung cancer, and another nine cancers. Three scenarios, involving increased taxes, were evaluated. . A yearly total of 16,719 deaths, 6,926 cancer diagnoses, 7,936 strokes, and 7,548 hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease can be attributed to smoking in Peru. Similarly, 396,069 years of life are lost each year from premature death and disability, and the cost of treating smoking-attributable health issues rises to 2,500 million soles (PEN 2015). Currently, taxes on tobacco cover only 9.1% of this expense. If cigarette prices were to increase by 50% over the next 10 years, 13,391 deaths, 6,210 cardiovascular events, and 5,361 new cancers could be prevented, representing an economic benefit of 3,145 million (PEN) in savings in health costs and increases in tax revenues. . Smoking-attributable burden of disease and costs to the health system are very high in Peru. Higher cigarette taxes could have substantial health and economic benefits for the country.

  20. The distribution of FDG at PET examinations constitutes a relative mechanism: significant effects at activity quantification in patients with a high muscular uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, Henry; Johansson, Ove; Jacobsson, Hans; Jonsson, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    At 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) examinations a high tracer uptake of the skeletal muscles is sometimes encountered which can lead to reduced uptake in pathological lesions. This was evaluated in retrospect in patients being recalled for a repeat examination after reducing the muscular uptake. Ten patients with increased muscular tracer uptake were examined with FDG PET/CT on two occasions with a mean of 6 days. All patients showed at least one pathological lesion with increased tracer uptake. The muscular uptake was reduced at the second examination by informing the patient to refrain from physical activity together with pretreatment with diazepam. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of the pathological lesion and SUV mean of certain skeletal muscles, liver, spleen, lungs, blood and certain bone marrow portions were calculated. In all patients, the muscular uptake was reduced to a normal level at visual evaluation as well as at comparison of SUVs with 25 consecutive clinical patients exhibiting a normal FDG distribution (p max increased from 2.4 to 3.7 (54 %) between the examinations (p max to the activity of any of the reference tissues/organs there was no significant difference between the studies. The distribution of FDG constitutes a relative mechanism. This must be especially considered at longitudinal examinations in the same patient at therapy evaluations. In examinations with a somehow distorted general distribution of the activity, it may be more relevant to relate the lesion activity to a reference tissue/organ than relying on SUV assessments. (orig.)

  1. Increasing weather-related impacts on European population under climate and demographic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Cescatti, Alessandro; Batista e Silva, Filipe; Kovats, Sari R.; Feyen, Luc

    2017-04-01

    Over the last three decades the overwhelming majority of disasters have been caused by weather-related events. The observed rise in weather-related disaster losses has been largely attributed to increased exposure and to a lesser degree to global warming. Recent studies suggest an intensification in the climatology of multiple weather extremes in Europe over the coming decades in view of climate change, while urbanization continues. In view of these pressures, understanding and quantifying the potential impacts of extreme weather events on future societies is imperative in order to identify where and to what extent their livelihoods will be at risk in the future, and develop timely and effective adaptation and disaster risk reduction strategies. Here we show a comprehensive assessment of single- and multi-hazard impacts on the European population until the year 2100. For this purpose, we developed a novel methodology that quantifies the human impacts as a multiplicative function of hazard, exposure and population vulnerability. We focus on seven of the most impacting weather-related hazards - including heat and cold waves, wildfires, droughts, river and coastal floods and windstorms - and evaluated their spatial and temporal variations in intensity and frequency under a business-as-usual climate scenario. Long-term demographic dynamics were modelled to assess exposure developments under a corresponding middle-of-the-road scenario. Vulnerability of humans to weather extremes was appraised based on more than 2300 records of weather-related disasters. The integration of these elements provides a range of plausible estimates of extreme weather-related risks for future European generations. Expected impacts on population are quantified in terms of fatalities and number of people exposed. We find a staggering rise in fatalities from extreme weather events, with the projected death toll by the end of the century amounting to more than 50 times the present number of people

  2. [The effect of work-related stress on the occurrence of increased blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaj, A; Cybulski, J; Kułakowski, P; Makowska, E; Rezler, J; Lange, J; Gorzkowska, J; Abramowski, S

    In 546 officials the arterial blood pressure was measured twice at the beginning and at the end of a working day, filling also an inquiry form. As hypertension systolic BP over 160 mm Hg (21.3 kPa) or more, and diastolic BP 96 mm Hg (12.7 kPa) or more were accepted. In 90 subjects (16.5%) above normal pressure values were found. Hypertension had been diagnosed previously in 50 subjects in this group (55.5%) but only 13 of them (26%) were treated systematically. Excessive stress of work was complained of by 62.6% of the subjects. Increased blood pressure was found significantly more frequently in the group perceiving excessive stress of work (19.9%) as compared to those not experiencing this stress (10.8%, p less than 0.1). In the group in managerial posts these proportions were 24.8% and 14.4% respectively (p less than 0.1). Blood pressure rise to abnormal levels during the working day occurred also significantly more frequently in the group experiencing it this was noted only in 1.6% of cases (p less than 0.5). The knowledge of own hypertension was very low in this group. These results indicate the necessity of increasing prophylactic measures in the form of greater frequency of control measurements of the blood pressure, better health education, and limitation of stress situations in working environment.

  3. [Effects of practical training to increase motivation for learning and related factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takumi; Akiyama, Shinji; Sagara, Hidenori; Tanaka, Akihiro; Miyauchi, Yoshirou; Araki, Hiroaki; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Izushi, Fumio; Namba, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Under the six-year pharmaceutical education system that was initiated in April 2006, students who had completed the course in March 2012 became the first graduates. The six-year system encourages students to develop a well-rounded personality, a deep sense of ethics, knowledge required for health care professionals, abilities to identify and solve problems, and practical skills required in clinical settings, as well as basic knowledge and skills. Under the new education system based on the "pharmaceutical education model core curriculums" and "practical training model core curriculums", general pharmaceutical education is implemented in each college, and five-month practical training is conducted in clinical settings. Clinical tasks experienced by students for the first time are expected to significantly influence their motivation to learn and future prospects. In the present survey research, students who had completed practical training evaluated the training program, and correspondence and logistic regression analyses of the results were conducted to examine the future effects and influences of the training on the students. The results suggest that the students viewed the practical training program positively. In addition, clinical experience during the training sessions not only influenced their decisions on future careers, but also significantly increased their motivation to learn. Furthermore, their motivation for learning was increased most by the enthusiasm of pharmacists who advised them in clinical settings, rather than the training program itself. To improve pharmaceutical clinical learning, it is important to develop teaching and working environments for pharmacists in charge of advising students in clinical training.

  4. Increased lymphangiogenesis in Riedel thyroiditis (Immunoglobulin G4-related thyroid disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameselle-Teijeiro, José; Ladra, María Jesús; Abdulkader, Ihab; Eloy, Catarina; Soares, Paula; Barreiro, Francisco; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Beiras-Iglesias, Andrés

    2014-09-01

    The present study describes in depth a case of Riedel thyroiditis (RT) to clarify its pathogenesis and its putative inclusion in the spectrum of IgG4-related disease. We report the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of a case of RT in a 39-year-old white Spanish woman, admitted with a hard goiter and cold nodule in the left thyroid lobe. This case represents 0.05 % of a series of 1,973 consecutive thyroidectomies performed in our hospital. More than 80 % of the left thyroid lobe was effaced by fibrosis and inflammation (lymphocytes, 57 IgG4+ plasma cells per 1 high-power field, an IgG4/IgG ratio of 0.67, and eosinophils) with extension into the surrounding tissues and occlusive phlebitis. Immunostaining for podoplanin (D2-40) detected signs of increased lymphangiogenesis in the fibroinflammatory areas that were confirmed by electron microscopy. A strong, diffuse stain for podoplanin and transforming growth factor ß1 was also detected in the same areas. The increased number of lymphatic vessels in RT is reported for the first time. Our findings support the inclusion of RT within the spectrum of IgG4-related thyroid disease (IgG4-RTD). Although the etiology and physiopathology of IgG4-RTD still remain elusive, the results obtained in the present case suggest the participation of lymphatic vessels in the pathogenesis of RT.

  5. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

  6. Histone deacetylase inhibitors reverse age-related increases in side effects of haloperidol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Ortiz, Janitza L; Fisher, Daniel W; Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Fang, Deyu; Csernansky, John G; Dong, Hongxin

    2017-08-01

    Older patients can be especially susceptible to antipsychotic-induced side effects, and the pharmacodynamic mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. We hypothesized that age-related epigenetic alterations lead to decreased expression and functionality of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), contributing to this susceptibility. In this study, we treated young (2-3 months old) and aged (22-24 months old) C57BL/6 mice with the D2R antagonist haloperidol (HAL) once a day for 14 days to evaluate HAL-induced motor side effects. In addition, we pretreated separate groups of young and aged mice with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors valproic acid (VPA) or entinostat (MS-275) and then administered HAL. Our results show that the motor side effects of HAL are exaggerated in aged mice as compared to young mice and that HDAC inhibitors are able to reverse the severity of these deficits. HAL-induced motor deficits in aged mice are associated with an age- and drug-dependent decrease in striatal D2R protein levels and functionality. Further, histone acetylation was reduced while histone tri-methylation was increased at specific lysine residues of H3 and H4 within the Drd2 promoter in the striatum of aged mice. HDAC inhibitors, particularly VPA, restored striatal D2R protein levels and functionality and reversed age- and drug-related histone modifications at the Drd2 promoter. These results suggest that epigenetic changes at the striatal Drd2 promoter drive age-related increases in antipsychotic side effect susceptibility, and HDAC inhibitors may be an effective adjunct treatment strategy to reduce side effects in aged populations.

  7. Exploring the therapeutic potential of Ayahuasca: acute intake increases mindfulness-related capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Franquesa, Alba; Barker, Steven; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Pascual, Juan C; Riba, Jordi

    2016-03-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychotropic plant tea used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. In the last two decades, its use has expanded worldwide. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties. Acute administration induces an introspective dream-like experience characterized by visions and autobiographic and emotional memories. Studies of long-term users have suggested its therapeutic potential, reporting that its use has helped individuals abandon the consumption of addictive drugs. Furthermore, recent open-label studies in patients with treatment-resistant depression found that a single ayahuasca dose induced a rapid antidepressant effect that was maintained weeks after administration. Here, we conducted an exploratory study of the psychological mechanisms that could underlie the beneficial effects of ayahuasca. We assessed a group of 25 individuals before and 24 h after an ayahuasca session using two instruments designed to measure mindfulness capacities: The Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ). Ayahuasca intake led to significant increases in two facets of the FFMQ indicating a reduction in judgmental processing of experiences and in inner reactivity. It also led to a significant increase in decentering ability as measured by the EQ. These changes are classic goals of conventional mindfulness training, and the scores obtained are in the range of those observed after extensive mindfulness practice. The present findings support the claim that ayahuasca has therapeutic potential and suggest that this potential is due to an increase in mindfulness capacities.

  8. Increased working memory related fMRI signal in children following Tick Borne Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrik, Ullman; Åsa, Fowler; Ronny, Wickström

    2016-01-01

    Tick Borne Encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infection in the central nervous system endemic in Europe and Asia. While pediatric infection may carry a lower risk for serious neurological sequelae compared to adults, a large proportion of children experience long term cognitive problems, most markedly decreased working memory capacity. We explored whether task related functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could reveal a biological correlate of status-post TBE in children. We examined 11 serologically verified pediatric TBE patients with central nervous system involvement with 55 healthy controls with working memory tests and MRI. The TBE patients showed a prominent deficit in working memory capacity and an increased task related functional MRI signal in working memory related cortical areas during a spatial working memory task performed without sedation. No diffusion differences could be found with DTI, in line with the reported paucity of anatomical abnormalities. This study is the first to demonstrate functional MRI abnormalities in TBE patients that bears similarity to other patient groups with diffuse neuronal damage. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heterocyclic Naphthalimides as New Skeleton Structure of Compounds with Increasingly Expanding Relational Medicinal Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Huo-Hui; Addla, Dinesh; Lv, Jing-Song; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2016-01-01

    Naphthalimide compounds are an important type of nitrogen-containing aromatic heterocycles with cyclic double imides and the naphthalene framework. This π-deficient large conjugated planar structure enables naphthalimide derivatives to readily interact with various biological cations, anions, small molecules and macromolecules such as DNAs, enzymes and recetors in living organism via noncovalent bonds, therefore exhibiting extensive potentiality in relatively medicinal applications. Currently, some naphthalimides as anticancer agents have entered into clinical trials and other naphthalimide-based medicinal developments as potential drugs for treatment of various diseases are actively and unprecedentedly expanding. Naphthalimide-derived artificial ion receptors, fluorescent probes and cell imaging agents are being overwhelmingly investigated and have a diversity of potential applications in real-time detecting ions and biomolecules, understanding biological processes and determining pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties. All the above mentions have strongly implied that naphthalimide-based derivatives as new skeleton structure of compounds possess increasingly expanding relational medicinal applications, and the related research is becoming a quite attractive active topic and newly rising highlight. Combining with our research and referring other works from literature, this work systematically reviews the current research and development of heterocyclic naphthalimides as anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant agents as well as artificial cation and anion receptors, diagnostic agents and pathologic probes, and cell imaging agents for biologically important species. Some rational design strategies, structure-activity relationships and action mechanisms are discussed. The perspectives of the future development of naphthalimide-based medicinal chemistry are also presented.

  10. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Alter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  11. Increased frequency of gestational and delivery-related complications in women of 35 years of age and above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereczky, L-K; Kiss, Sz-L; Szabó, B

    2015-02-01

    This retrospective study evaluated gestational and delivery-related characteristics focusing on women aged 35 and above (≥ 35 years). Data were collected on maternal (n = 8,407) and newborn records during a 4-year admission period (2008-11) at the County Emergency Hospital, Tîrgu-Mureş, Romania. The prevalence of preterm deliveries increased in all age groups, from 19.5% to 27.8% (p = 0.006) in mothers ≥ 35 years. Twinning rate showed a highly significant increase, being 2.6% in 2008 and 9.5% in 2011 (p = 0.005), while caesarean delivery incidence increased from 46.3% to 51.0% in women aged ≥ 35. Our study revealed a highly significant decrease of mean gestational age and mean fetal weight, as well as a higher incidence of comorbidities and pregnancy-related complications in those aged ≥ 35 years. We assume that comorbidities, maternal and fetal indications to perform caesarean section (CS), in the more mature age group, were a main determinant of the elective or iatrogenic preterm deliveries, which might have contributed to further complications; moreover, previous CSs were likely a promoting factor for further CSs.

  12. Increasing water cycle extremes in California and in relation to ENSO cycle under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Wang, S-Y Simon; Gillies, Robert R.; Kravitz, Ben; Hipps, Lawrence; Rasch, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the winter of 2013–2014, California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history, causing statewide water stress, severe economic loss and an extraordinary increase in wildfires. Identifying the effects of global warming on regional water cycle extremes, such as the ongoing drought in California, remains a challenge. Here we analyse large-ensemble and multi-model simulations that project the future of water cycle extremes in California as well as to understand those associations that pertain to changing climate oscillations under global warming. Both intense drought and excessive flooding are projected to increase by at least 50% towards the end of the twenty-first century; this projected increase in water cycle extremes is associated with a strengthened relation to El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)—in particular, extreme El Niño and La Niña events that modulate California's climate not only through its warm and cold phases but also its precursor patterns. PMID:26487088

  13. Lack of age-related increase in carotid artery wall viscosity in cardiorespiratory fit men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kenta; Gando, Yuko; Tanimoto, Michiya; Murakami, Haruka; Ohmori, Yumi; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Age-related arterial stiffening and reduction of arterial elasticity are attenuated in individuals with high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Viscosity is another mechanical characteristic of the arterial wall; however, the effects of age and cardiorespiratory fitness have not been determined. We examined the associations among age, cardiorespiratory fitness and carotid arterial wall viscosity. Methods: A total of 111 healthy men, aged 25–39 years (young) and 40–64 years (middle-aged), were divided into either cardiorespiratory fit or unfit groups on the basis of peak oxygen uptake. The common carotid artery was measured noninvasively by tonometry and automatic tracking of B-mode images to obtain instantaneous pressure and diameter hysteresis loops, and we calculated the effective compliance, isobaric compliance and viscosity index. Results: In the middle-aged men, the viscosity index was larger in the unfit group than in the fit group (2533 vs. 2018 mmHg·s/mm, respectively: P viscosity index was increased with advancing age, but these parameters were unaffected by cardiorespiratory fitness level. Conclusion: These results suggest that the wall viscosity in the central artery is increased with advancing age and that the age-associated increase in wall viscosity may be attenuated in cardiorespiratory fit men. PMID:24029868

  14. Rapidly increasing macroalgal cover not related to herbivorous fishes on Mesoamerican reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Suchley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term phase shifts from coral to macroalgal dominated reef systems are well documented in the Caribbean. Although the impact of coral diseases, climate change and other factors is acknowledged, major herbivore loss through disease and overfishing is often assigned a primary role. However, direct evidence for the link between herbivore abundance, macroalgal and coral cover is sparse, particularly over broad spatial scales. In this study we use a database of coral reef surveys performed at 85 sites along the Mesoamerican Reef of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras, to examine potential ecological links by tracking site trajectories over the period 2005–2014. Despite the long-term reduction of herbivory capacity reported across the Caribbean, the Mesoamerican Reef region displayed relatively low macroalgal cover at the onset of the study. Subsequently, increasing fleshy macroalgal cover was pervasive. Herbivorous fish populations were not responsible for this trend as fleshy macroalgal cover change was not correlated with initial herbivorous fish biomass or change, and the majority of sites experienced increases in macroalgae browser biomass. This contrasts the coral reef top-down herbivore control paradigm and suggests the role of external factors in making environmental conditions more favourable for algae. Increasing macroalgal cover typically suppresses ecosystem services and leads to degraded reef systems. Consequently, policy makers and local coral reef managers should reassess the focus on herbivorous fish protection and consider complementary measures such as watershed management in order to arrest this trend.

  15. Co-downregulation of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and coumarate 3-hydroxylase significantly increases cellulose content in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongyong; Li, Heng; Zhang, Rongxue; Ma, Lei; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is a component of the cell wall that is essential for growth, development, structure and pathogen resistance in plants, but high lignin is an obstacle to the conversion of cellulose to ethanol for biofuel. Genetically modifying lignin and cellulose contents can be a good approach to overcoming that obstacle. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is rich in lignocellulose biomass and used as a model plant for the genetic modification of lignin in this study. Two key enzymes in the lignin biosynthesis pathway-hydroxycinnamoyl -CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)-were co-downregulated. Compared to wild-type plants, the lignin content in the modified strain was reduced by 38%, cellulose was increased by 86.1%, enzyme saccharification efficiency was increased by 10.9%, and cell wall digestibility was increased by 13.0%. The modified alfalfa exhibited a dwarf phenotype, but normal above ground biomass. This approach provides a new strategy for reducing lignin and increasing cellulose contents and creates a new genetically modified crop with enhanced value for biofuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Significant increase in cultivation of Gardnerella vaginalis, Alloscardovia omnicolens, Actinotignum schaalii, and Actinomyces spp. in urine samples with total laboratory automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabrina; Nurjadi, Dennis; Horner, Susanne; Heeg, Klaus; Zimmermann, Stefan; Burckhardt, Irene

    2018-04-13

    While total laboratory automation (TLA) is well established in laboratory medicine, only a few microbiological laboratories are using TLA systems. Especially in terms of speed and accuracy, working with TLA is expected to be superior to conventional microbiology. We compared in total 35,564 microbiological urine cultures with and without incubation and processing with BD Kiestra TLA for a 6-month period each retrospectively. Sixteen thousand three hundred thirty-eight urine samples were analyzed in the pre-TLA period and 19,226 with TLA. Sixty-two percent (n = 10,101/16338) of the cultures processed without TLA and 68% (n = 13,102/19226) of the cultures processed with TLA showed growth. There were significantly more samples with two or more species per sample and with low numbers of colony forming units (CFU) after incubation with TLA. Regarding the type of bacteria, there were comparable amounts of Enterobacteriaceae in the samples, slightly less non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, but significantly more Gram-positive cocci, and Gram-positive rods. Especially Alloscardivia omnicolens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Actinomyces spp., and Actinotignum schaalii were significantly more abundant in the samples incubated and processed with TLA. The time to report was significantly lower in the TLA processed samples by 1.5 h. We provide the first report in Europe of a large number of urine samples processed with TLA. TLA showed enhanced growth of non-classical and rarely cultured bacteria from urine samples. Our findings suggest that previously underestimated bacteria may be relevant pathogens for urinary tract infections. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  17. Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia — significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieler, Lilly; Larsson, Markus K.; Skogh, Elisabeth; Kegel, Magdalena E.; Orhan, Funda; Abdelmoaty, Sally; Finn, Anja; Bhat, Maria; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Erhardt, Sophie; Engberg, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with brain immune activation. While a number of reports suggest increased cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia, many of these studies have been limited by their focus on peripheral cytokines or confounded by various antipsychotic treatments. Here, well-characterized patients with schizophrenia, all receiving olanzapine treatment, and healthy volunteers were analyzed with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines. We correlated the CSF cytokine levels to previously analyzed metabolites of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Methods We analyzed the CSF from patients and controls using electrochemiluminescence detection with regard to cytokines. Cell culture media from human cortical astrocytes were analyzed for KYN and kynurenic acid (KYNA) using high-pressure liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results We included 23 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients with schizophrenia had increased CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared with healthy volunteers. In patients, we also observed a positive correlation between IL-6 and the tryptophan:KYNA ratio, indicating that IL-6 activates the KYN pathway. In line with this, application of IL-6 to cultured human astrocytes increased cell medium concentration of KYNA. Limitations The CSF samples had been frozen and thawed twice before analysis of cytokines. Median age differed between patients and controls. When appropriate, all present analyses were adjusted for age. Conclusion We have shown that IL-6, KYN and KYNA are elevated in patients with chronic schizophrenia, strengthening the idea of brain immune activation in patients with this disease. Our concurrent cell culture and clinical findings suggest that IL-6 induces the KYN pathway, leading to increased production of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist KYNA in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25455350

  18. DOES TRAINING IN THE CIRCLE OF SECURITY FRAMEWORK INCREASE RELATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN INFANT/CHILD AND FAMILY WORKERS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Catherine; Huber, Anna; Kohlhoff, Jane; Camberis, Anna-Lisa

    2017-09-01

    This article evaluated whether attendance at Circle of Security training workshops resulted in attendees showing greater empathy and attachment-related knowledge and understanding, and fewer judgmental responses to viewing a stressful parent-child interaction. Participants were 202 practitioners who attended and completed a 2-day (n = 70), 4-day (n = 105), or 10-day (n = 27) COS training workshop in Australia or New Zealand in 2015. In a pre/post design, participant reactions to a video clip of a challenging parent-child interaction were coded for empathic, judgmental, or attachment-focused language. Attachment understanding was coded in response to questions about the greatest challenge that the dyad faced. In all training conditions, participants provided significantly more attachment-focused descriptors and showed significantly greater attachment understanding after training, but significantly fewer empathic descriptors. While participants at the longer workshops provided significantly fewer judgmental/critical descriptors, there was no change for those attending the 2-day workshop. Irrespective of workshop duration or professional background, participants took a more relational perspective on the vignette after the training workshops. More detailed research is required to establish the extent to which this increased knowledge and understanding is retained and integrated into infant mental health practice with parents and young children. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Liza S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Osipov, Andrian N. [Federal Medial and Biological Center named after Burnazyan of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBTz named after Burnazyan of FMBA), Moscow (Russian Federation); State Research Center - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya, 46, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  20. Ibuprofen therapy resulted in significantly decreased tissue bacillary loads and increased survival in a new murine experimental model of active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Cristina; Marzo, Elena; Tapia, Gustavo; Diaz, Jorge; Garcia, Vanesa; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2013-07-15

    C3HeB/FeJ mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used in an experimental animal model mimicking active tuberculosis in humans to evaluate the effect of antiinflammatory agents. No other treatment but ibuprofen was given, and it was administered when the animals' health started to deteriorate. Animals treated with ibuprofen had statistically significant decreases in the size and number of lung lesions, decreases in the bacillary load, and improvements in survival, compared with findings for untreated animals. Because antiinflammatory agents are already on the market, further clinical trials should be done to evaluate this effect in humans as soon as possible, to determine their suitability as coadjuvant tuberculosis treatment.

  1. Increased salivary oxidative stress parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes: Relation with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Carlos; Moreno-Fernández, Ana María; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Morales-Portillo, Cristóbal; Serrano-Olmedo, Isabel; de la Cuesta Mayor, M Carmen; Martín Hernández, Tomás

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in salivary oxidative stress between patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and healthy non-diabetic patients, and whether this oxidative stress is associated with the presence of periodontal disease in diabetic patients. This observational study included 70 patients divided into three groups according to metabolic control levels: 19 non-diabetic patients (control group); 24 patients with good metabolic control (HbA1c7%). The following oxidative stress parameters were measured in all subjects: glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRd), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Periodontal health was determined by means of the community periodontal index (CPI) recommended by the WHO. The diabetic group with good metabolic control showed a significant increase in GPx and GRd activity in comparison with the control group (Pperiodontal health. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Bilingualism and increased attention to speech: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Jan Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-10-01

    A number of studies have shown that from an early age, bilinguals outperform their monolingual peers on executive control tasks. We previously found that bilingual children and adults also display greater attention to unexpected language switches within speech. Here, we investigated the effect of a bilingual upbringing on speech perception in one language. We recorded monolingual and bilingual toddlers' event-related potentials (ERPs) to spoken words preceded by pictures. Words matching the picture prime elicited an early frontal positivity in bilingual participants only, whereas later ERP amplitudes associated with semantic processing did not differ between groups. These results add to the growing body of evidence that bilingualism increases overall attention during speech perception whilst semantic integration is unaffected. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased risk and severity of ERCP-related complications associated with asymptomatic common bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hirokazu; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Kadono, Yoshihiro; Urata, Atsushi; Kamikawa, Kentaro; Imamura, Haruo; Tada, Shuji

    2017-09-01

     Endoscopic removal of asymptomatic common bile duct stones (CBDS) is generally recommended. Although many reports have described the risk of complications in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), no studies have addressed this problem in the context of asymptomatic CBDS. This study examines the risk of complications arising in ERCP for asymptomatic CBDS.  This retrospective study included 425 patients with naive papilla who underwent therapeutic ERCP for choledocholithiasis at 2 institutions in Japan for 2 years. The risk of complications was examined in patients who were divided into the asymptomatic and symptomatic CBDS groups. We used propensity score analysis to adjust for confounding effects.  Complications were observed in 32 (7.5 %) of the 425 patients. Of the 358 patients with symptomatic CBDS, 14 patients (3.9 %) had complications. In contrast, of the 67 patients with asymptomatic CBDS, 18 patients (26.9 %) had complications. Propensity score analysis revealed that asymptomatic CBDS was a significant risk factor, with a significantly higher incidence of complications compared with symptomatic CBDS (odds ratio, 5.3). Moderate to severe complications were observed in 15 of 18 patients (83.3 %) in the asymptomatic CBDS group, with significantly more moderate to severe complications than those in the symptomatic CBDS (odds ratio, 6.7).  Asymptomatic CBDS carried a high risk of ERCP-related complications, and these were often more severe. In asymptomatic CBDS, endoscopic treatment should be carefully performed after considering the patient's background, and detailed explanation of its possible complications should be given to patients in advance.

  4. Skeletal-related events significantly impact health-related quality of life in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: data from PREVAIL and AFFIRM trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, F; Ivanescu, C; Phung, D; Loriot, Y; Abhyankar, S; Beer, T M; Tombal, B; Holmstrom, S

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the impact of skeletal-related events (SREs) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in phase III trials of enzalutamide versus placebo. Patients with mCRPC experiencing at least one SRE during AFFIRM and PREVAIL were assessed for trajectory-adjusted mean change in HRQoL by first SRE using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P; AFFIRM, three domains, and PREVAIL, nine domains) and EQ-5D (PREVAIL) instruments. First SREs caused HRQoL deterioration in both trials. Spinal cord compression had the largest impact, with clinically meaningful reductions in seven of nine FACT-P domains in PREVAIL and all three in AFFIRM (mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) change in FACT-P total score -16.95 (-26.47, -7.44) and -9.69 (-16.10, -3.27), respectively). In PREVAIL, first SREs caused clinically meaningful declines in EQ-5D utility index, irrespective of category; spinal cord compression had the largest impact (mean (95% CI) change -0.24 (-0.39, -0.08)). In AFFIRM, FACT-P and FACT-General total scores showed clinically meaningful declines after radiation/surgery to bone. SREs were associated with clinically meaningful functional declines in the daily lives of patients with mCRPC. Spinal cord compression had the largest impact on HRQoL.

  5. The stage-classified matrix models project a significant increase in biomass carbon stocks in China's forests between 2005 and 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huifeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Guo, Zhaodi; Xu, Bing; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-06-25

    China's forests are characterized by young age, low carbon (C) density and a large plantation area, implying a high potential for increasing C sinks in the future. Using data of provincial forest area and biomass C density from China's forest inventories between 1994 and 2008 and the planned forest coverage of the country by 2050, we developed a stage-classified matrix model to predict biomass C stocks of China's forests from 2005 to 2050. The results showed that total forest biomass C stock would increase from 6.43 Pg C (1 Pg = 10(15) g) in 2005 to 9.97 Pg C (95% confidence interval: 8.98 ~ 11.07 Pg C) in 2050, with an overall net C gain of 78.8 Tg C yr(-1) (56.7 ~ 103.3 Tg C yr(-1); 1 Tg = 10(12) g). Our findings suggest that China's forests will be a large and persistent biomass C sink through 2050.

  6. The stage-classified matrix models project a significant increase in biomass carbon stocks in China’s forests between 2005 and 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huifeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Guo, Zhaodi; Xu, Bing; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-01-01

    China’s forests are characterized by young age, low carbon (C) density and a large plantation area, implying a high potential for increasing C sinks in the future. Using data of provincial forest area and biomass C density from China’s forest inventories between 1994 and 2008 and the planned forest coverage of the country by 2050, we developed a stage-classified matrix model to predict biomass C stocks of China’s forests from 2005 to 2050. The results showed that total forest biomass C stock would increase from 6.43 Pg C (1 Pg = 1015 g) in 2005 to 9.97 Pg C (95% confidence interval: 8.98 ~ 11.07 Pg C) in 2050, with an overall net C gain of 78.8 Tg C yr−1 (56.7 ~ 103.3 Tg C yr−1; 1 Tg = 1012 g). Our findings suggest that China’s forests will be a large and persistent biomass C sink through 2050. PMID:26110831

  7. Study on Relative COP Changes with Increasing Heat Input Temperatures of Double Effect Steam Absorption Chillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Majid Mohd Amin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorption chillers at cogeneration plants generate chilled water using steam supplied by heat recovery steam generators. The chillers are mainly of double effect type. The COP of double effect varies from 0.7 to 1.2 depending on operation and maintenance practices of the chillers. Heat input to the chillers during operations could have impact on the COP of the chillers. This study is on relative COP changes with increasing the heat input temperatures for a steam absorption chiller at a gas fueled cogeneration plant. Reversible COP analysis and zero order model were used for evaluating COP of the chiller for 118 days operation period. Results indicate increasing COP trends for both the reversible COP and zero model COP. Although the zero model COP are within the range of double effect absorption chiller, it is not so for the actual COP. The actual COP is below the range of normal double effect COP. It is recommended that economic replacement analysis to be undertaken to assess the feasibility either to repair or replace the existing absorption chiller.

  8. Heroin-Related Compartment Syndrome: An Increasing Problem for Acute Care Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benns, Matthew; Miller, Keith; Harbrecht, Brian; Bozeman, Matthew; Nash, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    Heroin use has been increasing in the United States with the rate of heroin overdose nearly quadrupling in the last 10 years. Heroin overdose can occasionally lead to compartment syndrome (CS) because of extended periods of immobility and pressure tissue injury. Heroin-related compartment syndrome (HRCS) has previously been described, but has been limited to isolated case reports. We sought to examine our experience with HRCS in the climate of rising rates of heroin use among the general population. Medical records of all patients undergoing operative decompression for a CS at our academic medical center over a six-year period (2010-2015) were examined. Patient demographics, operation performed, and etiology were recorded. Cases of HRCS were identified, and clinical outcomes examined. A total of 213 patients undergoing fasciotomy were identified. Twenty-two of these patients had HRCS. Heroin was the second most common etiology of CS after trauma. Only one case of HRCS presented during the first three years of the study period, with the remaining 95 per cent of cases occurring within the last three years. The most common single location for HRCSs was gluteal (31.8%); 36 per cent of HRCS patients needed dialysis and 27 per cent suffered complications such as tissue loss. The incidence of HRCS has increased dramatically over the past several years and is now the second most common etiology for CS in our patient population. Patients with HRCS may present with severe manifestations of CS and different body areas affected.

  9. Nuclear-related budget for fiscal 1982 increased by 7.1 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In the budget draft for fiscal 1982, highest priority is given to the cost of energy countermeasures, and 563,200 million yen is earmarked, which is 13.2 % increase as compared with the budget for 1981. Emphasis is placed on the stable supply of oil and the development of the alternative sources of energy. The main pillar of the measures for alternative energy sources is nuclear power development. 290,448 million yen is allocated to the nuclearrelated budget, which is 7.1 % increase as compared with that for 1981. Besides, in order to develop overseas uranium resources and to promote nuclear fuel cycle industries and the domestic production of nuclear power equipments, the fiscal loans and investments of 159,000 million yen are available. The budget draft for the nuclear power development in the Science and Technology Agency is 243,038 million yen, which amounts to 83.7 % of the nuclear-related budget mentioned above. The budget for the STA is roughly classified into the expansion and reinforcement of nuclear safety measures, the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, the development of advenced power reactors, the R and D on nuclear fusion and HTGRs, the R and D on nuclear ships, the smooth siting of nuclear facilities, etc. (Kako, I.)

  10. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during worry forecasts stress-related increases in psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been conceptualized as an index of emotion regulation abilities. Although resting RSA has been associated with both concurrent and prospective affective responses to stress, the impact of RSA reactivity on emotional responses to stress is inconsistent across studies. The type of emotional stimuli used to elicit these phasic RSA responses may influence the adaptive value of RSA reactivity. We propose that RSA reactivity to a personally relevant worry-based stressor might forecast future affective responses to stress. To evaluate whether resting RSA and RSA reactivity to worry inductions predict stress-related increases in psychological distress, an academic stress model was used to prospectively examine changes in psychological distress from the well-defined low- and high-stress periods. During the low-stress period, 76 participants completed self-report mood measures and had their RSA assessed during a resting baseline, free worry period and worry catastrophizing interview. Participants completed another mood assessment during the high-stress period. Results indicated that baseline psychological distress predicted larger decreases in RSA during the worry inductions. Lower resting RSA and greater RSA suppression to the worry inductions at baseline prospectively predicted larger increases in psychological distress from the low- to high-stress period, even after accounting for the impact of baseline distress on RSA. These results provide further evidence that RSA may represent a unique index of emotion regulation abilities in times of stress.

  11. Increased sugarcane water productivity in Brazil avoids land use change and related environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpare, F. V.; Galdos, M. V.; Kolln, O.; Gava, G.; Franco, H.; Trivelin, P.

    2012-12-01

    ratoon cane cycle. In order to demonstrate the potential effect of avoided land use change by increased productivity, we calculated the avoided GHG emissions related to land use change in a hypothetical fertirrigation project over a ten-year period (2010-2020). A conservative scenario for increased demand for sugarcane was selected, assuming a 20% increase in total production over the ten-year period. The current area under sugarcane in the municipality of Jaú is 42,500 ha. A 5,000 ha fertirrigation project, assuming the 40% increase in sugarcane productivity described above for the IN treatment, would avoid the conversion of 2,000 ha of other land uses in to sugarcane. Landsat data covering the region in the 2008/2009 crop year demonstrated that most conversion occurred over pasture areas (91%), with the remaining being converted from annual crops. Using IPCC biomass and soil carbon stock change factors and emission factors, the LUC-related emissions avoided by the fertirrigation project in the period were calculated as 53,199 Mg CO2 eq. A more comprehensive life cycle assessment of both the fertirrigation system and the reference case would be necessary to evaluate the actual GHG mitigation potential, but the preliminary results indicate that the increased productivity will bring environmental benefits under these conditions.

  12. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1act) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1act and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, furthermore, wanted to investigate the effect of urbanization, sex, central obesity, increased triglycerides, 4G/5G polymorphism (PAI-1 only) and BMI on the association of alcohol with PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Data from 2010 apparently healthy, randomly collected black South African volunteers from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study were cross-sectionally analyzed. Alcohol consumption was recorded using quantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis including PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased PAI-1act, in the total population as well as in the women separately, and tended to be so in men. This alcohol-related PAI-1act increase was observed in volunteers with increased triglycerides and central obesity but not in volunteers with normal levels and waist circumference. Urbanization, the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI did not affect the association of alcohol with PAI-1act. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fibrinogen concentration. Sex and level of urbanization did not affect the association of alcohol with fibrinogen. Fibrinogen decreased in normal and overweight volunteers but not in obese and centrally obese volunteers following moderate alcohol consumption. Triglyceride levels and waist circumference influence alcohol-related PAI-1act increase potentially through modulating adipocyte and triglyceride-induced PAI-1 production. Obesity prevented alcohol-related fibrinogen decrease possibly by counteracting the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate alcohol consumption.

  13. Increased working memory-related brain activity in middle-aged women with cognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Julie A; Kutz, Amanda M; McDonald, Brenna C; Naylor, Magdalena R; Pfaff, Ashley C; Saykin, Andrew J; Newhouse, Paul A

    2013-04-01

    Individuals who report subjective cognitive complaints but perform normally on neuropsychological tests might be at increased risk for pathological cognitive aging. The current study examined the effects of the presence of subjective cognitive complaints on functional brain activity during a working memory task in a sample of middle-aged postmenopausal women. Twenty-three postmenopausal women aged 50-60 completed a cognitive complaint battery of questionnaires. Using 20% of items endorsed as the threshold, 12 women were categorized as cognitive complainers (CC) and 11 were noncomplainers (NC). All subjects then took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning session during which they completed a visual-verbal N-back test of working memory. Results showed no difference in working memory performance between CC and NC groups. However, the CC group showed greater activation relative to the NC group in a broad network involved in working memory including the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area [BA] 9 and 10), the precuneus (BA 7), and the cingulate gyrus (BA 24 and 32). The CC group recruited additional regions of the working memory network compared with the NC group as the working memory load and difficulty of the task increased. This study showed brain activation differences during working memory performance in a middle-aged group of postmenopausal women with subjective cognitive complaints but without objective cognitive deficit. These findings suggest that subjective cognitive complaints in postmenopausal women might be associated with increased cortical activity during effort-demanding cognitive tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Liza S; Osipov, Andrian N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    2015-09-01

    The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism's cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1×Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab DNA and TM values may provide the information about the human organism's cell resistivity to chronic exposure to the low-dose IR and about the development of the adaptive response in the organism that is aimed, firstly, at the effective cfDNA elimination from the blood circulation, and, secondly - at survival of the cells, including the cells with the damaged DNA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Sieve-based device for MALDI sample preparation. I. Influence of sample deposition conditions in oligonucleotide analysis to achieve significant increases in both sensitivity and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Laura; Cristoni, Simone; Crotti, Sara; Bernardi, Luigi Rossi; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro

    2008-11-01

    Spraying of oligonucleotide-matrix solutions through a stainless steel (ss) sieve (38 microm, 450 mesh) leads to the formation, on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) sample holder, of uniformly distributed microcrystals, well separated from each other. When the resulting sample holder surface is irradiated by laser, abundant molecular species form, with a clear increase in both intensity and resolution with respect to values obtained by 'Dried Droplet', 'Double Layer', and 'Sandwich' deposition methods. In addition, unlike the usual situation, the sample is perfectly homogeneous, and identical spectra are obtained by irradiating different areas. On one hand, the data indicate that this method is highly effective for oligonucleotide MALDI analysis, and on the other, that it can be validly employed for fully automated MALDI procedures.

  16. Acute supramaximal exercise increases the brain oxygenation in relation to cognitive workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Seref Bediz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Single bout of exercise can improve the performance on cognitive tasks. However, cognitive responses may be controversial due to different type, intensity, and duration of exercise. In addition, the mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on brain is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of supramaximal exercise on cognitive tasks by means of brain oxygenation monitoring. The brain oxygenation of Prefrontal cortex (PFC was measured on 35 healthy male volunteers via functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS system. Subjects performed 2-Back test before and after the supramaximal exercise (Wingate Anaerobic Test lasting 30-s on cycle ergometer. The PFC oxygenation change evaluation revealed that PFC oxygenation rise during post-exercise 2-Back task was considerably higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back task. In order to describe the relationship between oxygenation change and exercise performance, subjects were divided into two groups as high performers (HP and low performers (LP according to their peak power values (PP obtained from the supramaximal test. The oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb values were compared between pre- and post-exercise conditions within subjects and also between subjects according to peak power. When performers were compared, in the HP group, the oxy-Hb values in post-exercise 2-Back test were significantly higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back test. HP had significantly higher post-exercise oxy-Hb change (Δ than those of LP. In addition, peak power values of the total group were significantly correlated with Δoxy-Hb. The key findings of the present study revealed that acute supramaximal exercise has an impact on the brain oxygenation during a cognitive task. Also, the higher the anaerobic PP describes the larger the oxy-Hb response in post-exercise cognitive task. The current study also demonstrated a significant correlation between peak power (exercise load and post-exercise hemodynamic

  17. Hydropower plans in eastern and southern Africa increase risk of concurrent climate-related electricity supply disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Declan; Dalin, Carole; Landman, Willem A.; Osborn, Timothy J.

    2017-12-01

    Hydropower comprises a significant and rapidly expanding proportion of electricity production in eastern and southern Africa. In both regions, hydropower is exposed to high levels of climate variability and regional climate linkages are strong, yet an understanding of spatial interdependences is lacking. Here we consider river basin configuration and define regions of coherent rainfall variability using cluster analysis to illustrate exposure to the risk of hydropower supply disruption of current (2015) and planned (2030) hydropower sites. Assuming completion of the dams planned, hydropower will become increasingly concentrated in the Nile (from 62% to 82% of total regional capacity) and Zambezi (from 73% to 85%) basins. By 2030, 70% and 59% of total hydropower capacity will be located in one cluster of rainfall variability in eastern and southern Africa, respectively, increasing the risk of concurrent climate-related electricity supply disruption in each region. Linking of nascent regional electricity sharing mechanisms could mitigate intraregional risk, although these mechanisms face considerable political and infrastructural challenges.

  18. Conjugation of the CRM197-inulin conjugate significantly increases the immunogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shun; Yu, Weili; Hu, Chunyang; Wei, Dong; Shen, Lijuan; Hu, Tao; Yi, Youjin

    2017-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a serious fatal pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB). Effective vaccination is urgently needed to deal with the serious threat from TB. Mtb-secreted protein antigens are important virulence determinants of Mtb with poor immunogenicity. Adjuvants and antigen delivery systems are thus highly desired to improve the immunogenicity of protein antigens. Inulin is a biocompatible polysaccharide (PS) adjuvant that can stimulate a strong cellular and humoral immunity. Bacterial capsular PS and haptens have been conjugated with cross-reacting material 197 (CRM 197 ) to improve their immunogenicity. CFP10 and TB10.4 were two Mtb-secreted immunodominant protein antigens. A CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein (CT) was used as the antigen for covalent conjugation with the CRM 197 -inulin conjugate (CRM-inu). The resultant conjugate (CT-CRM-inu) elicited high CT-specific IgG titers, stimulated splenocyte proliferation and provoked the secretion of Th1-type and Th2-type cytokines. Conjugation with CRM-inu significantly prolonged the systemic circulation of CT and exposure to the immune system. Moreover, CT-CRM-inu showed no apparent toxicity to cardiac, hepatic and renal functions. Thus, conjugation of CT with CRM-inu provided an effective strategy for development of protein-based vaccines against Mtb infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Repeated oral administration of a cathepsin K inhibitor significantly suppresses bone resorption in exercising horses with evidence of increased bone formation and maintained bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H; Dulin, J; Smanik, L; Drost, W T; Russell, D; Wellman, M; Bertone, A

    2017-08-01

    Our investigations evaluated the effect of VEL-0230, a highly specific irreversible inhibitor of cathepsin K (CatK). The objectives of our study were to determine whether repeated dosing of a CatK inhibitor (CatKI) produced a desired inhibition of the bone resorption biomarker (CTX-1), and document the effect of repeated dosing on bone homeostasis, structure, and dynamics of bone resorption and formation in horses. Twelve young exercising horses were randomized in a prospective, controlled clinical trial and received 4 weekly doses of a CatKI or vehicle. Baseline and poststudy nuclear scintigraphy, blood sampling and analysis of plasma bone biomarkers (CTX-1 and osteocalcin), poststudy bone fluorescent labeling, and bone biopsy were performed. Bone specimens were further processed for microcomputed tomography and bone histomorphometry. Each dose of this CatKI transiently inhibited plasma CTX-1 (reflecting inhibition of bone collagen resorption) and increased bone plasma osteocalcin concentrations, with no detectable adverse effect on normal bone turnover in the face of exercise. Bone morphology, density, and formation rate were not different between control and treated group. Further investigation of CatK inhibition in abnormal bone turnover is required in animals with bone diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Hypoxia and inactivity related physiological changes precede or take place in absence of significant rearrangements in bacterial community structure: The PlanHab randomized trial pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šket

    Full Text Available We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the randomized crossover design of run-in (5 day and experimental phases (21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR, hypoxic bed rest (HBR and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, with balanced fluid and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2 and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2 were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0.141 ± 0.004 and 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg for both hypoxic variants (HBR and HAmb; ~4000 m simulated altitude, respectively. A number of parameters linked to intestinal environment such as defecation frequency, intestinal electrical conductivity (IEC, sterol and polyphenol content and diversity, indole, aromaticity and spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM were measured (64 variables. The structure and diversity of bacterial microbial community was assessed using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Inactivity negatively affected frequency of defecation and in combination with hypoxia increased IEC (p < 0.05. In contrast, sterol and polyphenol diversity and content, various characteristics of DOM and aromatic compounds, the structure and diversity of bacterial microbial community were not significantly affected over time. A new in-house PlanHab database was established to integrate all measured variables on host physiology, diet, experiment, immune and metabolic markers (n = 231. The observed progressive decrease in defecation frequency and concomitant increase in IEC suggested that the transition from healthy physiological state towards the developed symptoms of low magnitude obesity-related syndromes was dose dependent on the extent of time spent in inactivity and preceded or took place in absence of significant rearrangements in bacterial microbial community. Species B. thetaiotamicron, B. fragilis, B

  1. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis induces a transient increase in the expression of proinflammatory, Th1-related, and autoregulatory cytokines in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anziliero, D.; Weiblen, R.; Kreutz, L.C.; Spilki, F.; Flores, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-α/β activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-γ and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines

  2. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis induces a transient increase in the expression of proinflammatory, Th1-related, and autoregulatory cytokines in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anziliero, D.; Weiblen, R. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Kreutz, L.C. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil); Spilki, F. [Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Flores, E.F. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-02-17

    The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-α/β activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-γ and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines.

  3. Deficiencies in both starch synthase IIIa and branching enzyme IIb lead to a significant increase in amylose in SSIIa-inactive japonica rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Hiroki; Abe, Natsuko; Matsushima, Ryo; Crofts, Naoko; Oitome, Naoko F; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2014-10-01

    Starch synthase (SS) IIIa has the second highest activity of the total soluble SS activity in developing rice endosperm. Branching enzyme (BE) IIb is the major BE isozyme, and is strongly expressed in developing rice endosperm. A mutant (ss3a/be2b) was generated from wild-type japonica rice which lacks SSIIa activity. The seed weight of ss3a/be2b was 74-94% of that of the wild type, whereas the be2b seed weight was 59-73% of that of the wild type. There were significantly fewer amylopectin short chains [degree of polymerization (DP) ≤13] in ss3a/be2b compared with the wild type. In contrast, the amount of long chains (DP ≥25) connecting clusters of amylopectin in ss3a/be2b was higher than in the wild type and lower than in be2b. The apparent amylose content of ss3a/be2b was 45%, which was >1.5 times greater than that of either ss3a or be2b. Both SSIIIa and BEIIb deficiencies led to higher activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), which partly explains the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b endosperm. The percentage apparent amylose content of ss3a and ss3a/be2b at 10 days after flowering (DAF) was higher than that of the wild type and be2b. At 20 DAF, amylopectin biosynthesis in be2b and ss3a/be2b was not observed, whereas amylose biosynthesis in these lines was accelerated at 30 DAF. These data suggest that the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b mutant results from higher amylose biosynthesis at two stages, up to 20 DAF and from 30 DAF to maturity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Assessment of the relative socioeconomic effects of increased coal development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenehjem, E.J.; Santini, D.J.

    1979-12-01

    This report contains a description of the Social and Economic Assessment Model, which is used to analyze the social and economic effects of energy development at the regional and county levels. Using the SEAM, the effects of coal mines and coal-fired utilities projected for over 340 US counties are examined. The study utilizes a clustering algorithm to determine the assimilative capacity of a county, that is, the county's ability to sustain the effects of an influx of population and thus an increased demand on its resources. The results of the clustering algorithm are used, together with county demographic data, as well as data on projected facility location, size, timing, and type, to estimate socioeconomic effects in terms of public costs that will be imposed on the affected populations. These results are aggregated to the regional level to give a rough estimate of the relative regional effects of coal development. The results indicate that 93% of the entire long-term, adverse impact from coal will be borne by states and counties of the Rocky Mountain area, whereas only 14% of the short-term impacts will be borne by this region. About 42% of the short-term costs will occur in the Southern region and 33% in the North Central region, but only 5% of the long-term costs are estimated for these two regions. Of the four major Census regions (Northeast, South, North Central, and West) only the Northeast is expected to be relatively free of community growth problems caused by coal development.

  5. Increasing HIV-related knowledge, communication, and testing intentions among Latinos: Protege tu Familia: Hazte la Prueba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Ellis, Britt; Espinoza, Lilia; Bird, Mara; Garcia, Melawhy; D'Anna, Laura Hoyt; Bellamy, Laura; Scolari, Rosana

    2010-08-01

    Latinos are less likely to be aware of their HIV seropositivity than African Americans and Whites. 'Protege tu Familia: Hazte la Prueba' is a culturally and linguistically-sensitive HIV/AIDS prevention and testing program targeting Latino families. Using community-based participatory research techniques, Spanish-speaking bicultural community health workers helped develop and then used an educational flip chart and materials to conduct outreach and HIV prevention education in diverse settings. The intervention was created to increase HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, to improve communication regarding sexual risk, and to augment intentions to use condoms and test for HIV. A secondary purpose was to decrease HIV-related stigma by improving knowledge about transmission and reducing homophobia. Participants demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge, intention to practice safer sex and communicate sexual risk to partner(s), and intention to test for HIV. Improvements were also found in self-reported comfort levels when interacting with and caring for the HIV positive, thus decreasing HIV/AIDS-related stigma.

  6. Increase in pediatric magnet-related foreign bodies requiring emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jonathan A; Brown, Julie C; Willis, Margaret M; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-12-01

    We describe magnetic foreign body injuries among children and obtain national estimates of magnetic foreign body injury incidence over time. We searched the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for cases of magnetic foreign bodies in children younger than 21 years in the United States, from 2002 to 2011. Cases were analyzed by location: alimentary or respiratory tract, nasal cavity, ear canal, or genital area. We identified 893 cases of magnetic foreign bodies, corresponding to 22,581 magnetic foreign body cases during a 10-year period (95% confidence interval [CI] 17,694 to 27,469). Most magnetic foreign bodies were ingested (74%) or intranasal (21%). Mean age was 5.2 years for ingested magnetic foreign bodies and 10.1 years for nasal magnetic foreign bodies (difference 4.9; 95% CI 4.1 to 5.6), suggesting different circumstances of injury. The incidence of pediatric magnet ingestions increased from 2002 to 2003 from 0.57 cases per 100,000 children per year (95% CI 0.22 to 0.92) to a peak in 2010 to 2011 of 3.06 cases per 100,000 children per year (95% CI 2.16 to 3.96). Most ingested magnetic foreign bodies (73%) and multiple magnet ingestions (91%) occurred in 2007 or later. Patients were admitted in 15.7% of multiple magnet ingestions versus 2.3% of single magnet ingestions (difference 13.4%; 95% CI 2.8% to 24.0%). Magnet-related injuries are an increasing public health problem for young children, as well for older children who may use magnets for play or to imitate piercings. Education and improved magnet safety standards may decrease the risk small magnets pose to children. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased missense mutation burden of Fatty Acid metabolism related genes in nunavik inuit population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sirui; Xiong, Lan; Xie, Pingxing; Ambalavanan, Amirthagowri; Bourassa, Cynthia V; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Spiegelman, Dan; Turcotte Gauthier, Maude; Henrion, Edouard; Diallo, Ousmane; Dion, Patrick A; Rouleau, Guy A

    2015-01-01

    Nunavik Inuit (northern Quebec, Canada) reside along the arctic coastline where for generations their daily energy intake has mainly been derived from animal fat. Given this particular diet it has been hypothesized that natural selection would lead to population specific allele frequency differences and unique variants in genes related to fatty acid metabolism. A group of genes, namely CPT1A, CPT1B, CPT1C, CPT2, CRAT and CROT, encode for three carnitine acyltransferases that are important for the oxidation of fatty acids, a critical step in their metabolism. Exome sequencing and SNP array genotyping were used to examine the genetic variations in the six genes encoding for the carnitine acyltransferases in 113 Nunavik Inuit individuals. Altogether ten missense variants were found in genes CPT1A, CPT1B, CPT1C, CPT2 and CRAT, including three novel variants and one Inuit specific variant CPT1A p.P479L (rs80356779). The latter has the highest frequency (0.955) compared to other Inuit populations. We found that by comparison to Asians or Europeans, the Nunavik Inuit have an increased mutation burden in CPT1A, CPT2 and CRAT; there is also a high level of population differentiation based on carnitine acyltransferase gene variations between Nunavik Inuit and Asians. The increased number and frequency of deleterious variants in these fatty acid metabolism genes in Nunavik Inuit may be the result of genetic adaptation to their diet and/or the extremely cold climate. In addition, the identification of these variants may help to understand some of the specific health risks of Nunavik Inuit.

  8. Is an increased elderly population related to decreased CO2 emissions from road transportation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the potential effects of an increase in the share of aged population on the environmental impacts of road transportation. In order to fill this gap in the literature, this paper empirically analyzes whether there is a relationship between the share of aged population and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from road transportation by applying a quadratic function. Using international panel data, it also addresses the level of the turning point in the relationships between the share of aged population and CO 2 emissions. The analysis in this paper uses a first-order differential equation to estimate an inverted U-shaped relationship between them in order to alleviate the unit roots issue. The results from 25 OECD countries, consisting mainly of European countries and Japan, indicate that there is a quadratic relationship between CO 2 emissions per capita and the share of aged population, and that the turning point is around 16 percent. The results also imply that a relative increase in the number of elderly people is associated with a decrease in CO 2 emissions per capita from the road sector when the share of aged population reaches more than 16 percent. - Highlights: ► I estimate the relationship between a country's share of elderly population and CO 2 emissions from road transport. ► In order to alleviate the unit roots issue, the analysis uses a first-order differential equation to estimate models. ► There is a quadratic relationship between CO 2 emissions per capita and the share of elderly. ► The level of the turning point in terms of the share of elderly in OECD European countries and Japan is around 16 percent.

  9. Site-directed immobilization of a genetically engineered anti-methotrexate antibody via an enzymatically introduced biotin label significantly increases the binding capacity of immunoaffinity columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Kaitlynn R; Smith, Christopher A; Hofstetter, Heike; Horn, James R; Hofstetter, Oliver

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the effect of random vs. site-directed immobilization techniques on the performance of antibody-based HPLC columns was investigated using a single-domain camelid antibody (VHH) directed against methotrexate (MTX) as a model system. First, the high flow-through support material POROS-OH was activated with disuccinimidyl carbonate (DSC), and the VHH was bound in a random manner via amines located on the protein's surface. The resulting column was characterized by Frontal Affinity Chromatography (FAC). Then, two site-directed techniques were explored to increase column efficiency by immobilizing the antibody via its C-terminus, i.e., away from the antigen-binding site. In one approach, a tetra-lysine tail was added, and the antibody was immobilized onto DSC-activated POROS. In the second site-directed approach, the VHH was modified with the AviTag peptide, and a biotin-residue was enzymatically incorporated at the C-terminus using the biotin ligase BirA. The biotinylated antibody was subsequently immobilized onto NeutrAvidin-derivatized POROS. A comparison of the FAC analyses, which for all three columns showed excellent linearity (R(2)>0.999), revealed that both site-directed approaches yield better results than the random immobilization; the by far highest efficiency, however, was determined for the immunoaffinity column based on AviTag-biotinylated antibody. As proof of concept, all three columns were evaluated for quantification of MTX dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Validation using UV-detection showed excellent linearity in the range of 0.04-12μM (R(2)>0.993). The lower limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were found to be independent of the immobilization strategy and were 40nM and 132nM, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was below 11.6%, and accuracy was between 90.7% and 112%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the AviTag-system in chromatography, and the first

  10. Use of a web site to increase knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Sharla; Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current level of knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues among a convenience sample of Delawareans. We also assessed whether raising knowledge and awareness of the hunger problem through the FBD's newly designed web site would encourage participation in antihunger activities. Via e-mail, 1,719 individuals were invited to participate in a three-phase, online survey, and 392 agreed. Phase-I questions were answered prior to viewing the web site, phase II (n=217) immediately afterward, and phase III (n=61) six weeks later. Responses indicated a high level of awareness about general hunger issues but specific knowledge proved to be at a lower level. No statistically significant differences were noted when data were collapsed across gender, age, educational level, or work setting. In a six-week post-survey, 41% of subjects were motivated by the web site to engage in an antihunger activity; 34% had told others about the web site and indicated it may be a useful tool in antihunger outreach efforts for the FBD.

  11. Use of a web site to increase knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Sharla; Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current level of knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues among a convenience sample of Delawareans. We also assessed whether raising knowledge and awareness of the hunger problem through the FBD's newly designed web site would encourage participation in antihunger activities. Via e-mail, 1,719 individuals were invited to participate in a three-phase, online survey, and 392 agreed. Phase-I questions were answered prior to viewing the web site, phase II (n=217) immediately afterward, and phase III (n=61) six weeks later. Responses indicated a high level of awareness about general hunger issues but specific knowledge proved to be at a lower level. No statistically significant differences were noted when data were collapsed across gender, age, educational level, or work setting. In a six-week post-survey, 41% of subjects were motivated by the web site to engage in an antihunger activity; 34% had told others about the web site and indicated it may be a useful tool in antihunger outreach efforts for the FBD. PMID:14651376

  12. Traffic-related air pollution increased the risk of Parkinson's disease in Taiwan: A nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Chen; Liu, Li-Ling; Sun, Yu; Chen, Yu-An; Liu, Chih-Ching; Li, Chung-Yi; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Ritz, Beate

    2016-11-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with many health conditions, but little is known about its effects on neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the influence of ambient air pollution on PD in a nationwide population-based case-control study in Taiwan. We identified 11,117 incident PD patients between 2007 and 2009 from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database and selected 44,468 age- and gender-matched population controls from the longitudinal health insurance database. The average ambient pollutant exposure concentrations from 1998 through the onset of PD were estimated using quantile-based Bayesian Maximum Entropy models. Basing from logistic regression models, we estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ambient pollutant exposures and PD risk. We observed positive associations between NO x , CO exposures, and PD. In multi-pollutant models, for NO x and CO above the 75th percentile exposure compared with the lowest percentile, the ORs of PD were 1.37 (95% CI=1.23-1.52) and 1.17 (95% CI=1.07-1.27), respectively. This study suggests that ambient air pollution exposure, especially from traffic-related pollutants such as NO x and CO, increases PD risk in the Taiwanese population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Increasing land-use intensity reverses the relative occupancy of two quadrupedal scavengers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Twining

    Full Text Available Human land use is continuously altering the natural environment, yet the greater ecological implications of this change for many groups that are key to healthy ecosystem functioning remains uncharacterised in the tropics. Terrestrial scavenging vertebrates are one such group, providing integral ecosystem services through the removal of carrion which is a crucial component of both nutrient cycling and disease dynamics. To explore how anthropogenic processes may affect forest scavengers, we investigated the changes in the relative occupancy of two important terrestrial scavengers along a gradient of land use intensity, ranging from protected forest to oil palm plantation in Borneo. We found the Malay civet (Viverra tangalunga had highest, albeit variable, occupancy in areas of low land use intensity and the Southeast Asian water monitor (Varanus salvator macromaculatus had highest occupancy in areas of high land use intensity. Land use had no effect on the combined occupancy of the two species. In high land use intensity sites, individual water monitors were larger and had better body condition, but at population level had a highly biased sex ratio with more males than females and increased signs of intraspecific conflict. We did not assess scavenging rate or efficiency as a process, but the high occupancy rates and apparent health of the scavengers in high land use intensity landscapes suggests this ecological process is robust to land use change.

  14. Novel Approach to Increase the Energy-related Process Efficiency and Performance of Laser Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstädt, C.; Seefeld, T.; Radel, T.; Vollertsen, F.

    Although laser brazing is well established, the energy-related efficiency of this joining method is quite low. That is because of low absorptivity of solid-state laser radiation, especially when copper base braze metals are used. Conventionally the laser beam is set close to the vertical axis and the filler wire is delivered under a flat angle. Therefore, the most of the utilized laser power is reflected and thus left unexploited. To address this situation an alternative processing concept for laser brazing, where the laser beam is leading the filler wire, has been investigated intending to make use of reflected shares of the laser radiation. Process monitoring shows, that the reflection of the laser beam can be used purposefully to preheat the substrate which is supporting the wetting and furthermore increasing the efficiency of the process. Experiments address a standard application from the automotive industry joining zinc coated steels using CuSi3Mn1 filler wire. Feasibility of the alternative processing concept is demonstrated, showing that higher processing speeds can be attained, reducing the required energy per unit length while maintaining joint properties.

  15. Antiherding in Financial Decision Increases Valuation of Return on Investment: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using event-related potentials, this study investigated how financial herding or antiherding affected the valuation of subsequent outcomes. For each trial, subjects decided whether to buy the stock according to its net money flow information which could be used to reflect the strength of buying power or selling power of the stock. The return on investment (ROI as feedback included the increase or decrease percentage after subjects’ responses. Results showed that, compared with herding, antiherding induced larger discrepancies of FRN and P300 amplitude between positive ROI and negative ROI, indicating that individuals under antiherding condition had stronger motivation and paid more attention in the evaluation process of ROI. Moreover, only for positive ROI, the amplitudes of FRN and P300 were modulated by two kinds of behaviors. We suggested that individuals making antiherd decisions were more confident with their own ability and choices, which reduced the positive outcome prediction error and gave more mental resources to evaluate positive outcome. However, negative outcomes evoked no different motivational meaning and negative emotion for individuals between herding and antiherding. The study may provide new insights into neurocognitive processes of herding and antiherding in financial market.

  16. Increased serum level of prolactin is related to autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, Q; Yang, X; Li, M

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is known to aid effector B cells and augment autoimmunity, but the role of PRL in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the serum levels of PRL and autoantibody production in SLE. Blood levels of PRL, anti-double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) antibody, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in samples from 30 adult patients with SLE and 25 healthy controls. The relationships between the serum level of PRL and SLE disease activity, as well as the titres of the ds-DNA antibody, IgM and IgG were determined. The serum level of PRL was higher in the SLE patients than in the healthy controls. PRL concentration increased during SLE flares-ups and decreased following disease remission. There was a positive correlation between the PRL concentration and serum levels of IgM, IgG and ds-DNA antibody titre. These data suggest that the serum level of PRL was closely related to the antibody production and disease activity of SLE patients. PRL concentration was dramatically reduced upon the remission of disease activity, indicating that PRL levels might be a promising predictor of SLE disease severity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Antiherding in Financial Decision Increases Valuation of Return on Investment: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Jin, Jia; Vieito, João Paulo; Ma, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    Using event-related potentials, this study investigated how financial herding or antiherding affected the valuation of subsequent outcomes. For each trial, subjects decided whether to buy the stock according to its net money flow information which could be used to reflect the strength of buying power or selling power of the stock. The return on investment (ROI) as feedback included the increase or decrease percentage after subjects' responses. Results showed that, compared with herding, antiherding induced larger discrepancies of FRN and P300 amplitude between positive ROI and negative ROI, indicating that individuals under antiherding condition had stronger motivation and paid more attention in the evaluation process of ROI. Moreover, only for positive ROI, the amplitudes of FRN and P300 were modulated by two kinds of behaviors. We suggested that individuals making antiherd decisions were more confident with their own ability and choices, which reduced the positive outcome prediction error and gave more mental resources to evaluate positive outcome. However, negative outcomes evoked no different motivational meaning and negative emotion for individuals between herding and antiherding. The study may provide new insights into neurocognitive processes of herding and antiherding in financial market.

  18. Increased serum ferritin levels are independently related to incidence of prediabetes in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, G; Yang, H; Bao, X; Zhang, Q; Liu, L; Wu, H; Du, H; Xia, Y; Shi, H; Guo, X; Liu, X; Li, C; Su, Q; Gu, Y; Fang, L; Yu, F; Sun, S; Wang, X; Zhou, M; Jia, Q; Guo, Q; Song, K; Huang, G; Wang, G; Wu, Y; Niu, K

    2017-04-01

    To comprehensively and exhaustively assess the relationship between serum ferritin levels and incidence of prediabetes in a prospective study. This prospective cohort study (n=7380) with a mean follow-up of 3.07 years (range: 1-7, 95% CI: 3.03-3.12) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Blood fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, serum ferritin levels and other potentially confounding factors were measured at baseline and at each year of follow-up. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the gender-specific relationship between baseline and mean serum ferritin quintiles and prediabetes. The incidence of prediabetes was 85 per 1000 person-years among men and 44 per 1000 person-years among women during follow-up (from 2007 to 2014). After adjusting for potential confounders, hazard ratios (95% CI) for prediabetes across baseline ferritin quintiles were: for men, 1.00, 1.13 (0.90-1.40), 1.20 (0.97-1.48), 1.41 (1.14-1.73) and 1.73 (1.41-2.11); and for women, 1.00, 1.01 (0.74-1.38), 0.68 (0.48-0.96), 0.84 (0.61-1.15) and 1.07 (0.80-1.45), respectively. Similar results were also observed for mean ferritin levels. Both baseline and mean serum ferritin levels were significantly and linearly related to prediabetes in men, whereas U-shaped relationships were observed between baseline and mean serum ferritin and prediabetes in women. The relationship between prediabetes risk and mean serum ferritin levels may be more stable than one with baseline serum ferritin levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Midkine Increases Diagnostic Yield in AFP Negative and NASH-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn Vongsuvanh

    Full Text Available Robust biomarkers for population-level hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC surveillance are lacking. We compared serum midkine (MDK, dickkopf-1 (DKK1, osteopontin (OPN and AFP for HCC diagnosis in 86 HCC patients matched to 86 cirrhotics, 86 with chronic liver disease (CLD and 86 healthy controls (HC. Based on the performance of each biomarker, we assessed a separate longitudinal cohort of 28 HCC patients, at and before cancer diagnosis. Serum levels of MDK and OPN were higher in HCC patients compared to cirrhosis, CLD and HC groups. DKK1 was not different between cases and controls. More than half of HCC patients had normal AFP. In this AFP-negative HCC cohort, 59.18% (n = 29/49 had elevated MDK, applying the optimal cut-off of 0.44 ng/ml. Using AFP ≥ 20 IU/ml or MDK ≥ 0.44 ng/ml, a significantly greater number (76.7%; n = 66/86 of HCC cases were detected. The area under the receiver operating curve for MDK was superior to AFP and OPN in NASH-HCC diagnosis. In the longitudinal cohort, MDK was elevated in 15/28 (54% of HCC patients at diagnosis, of whom 67% had elevated MDK 6 months prior.AFP and MDK have a complementary role in HCC detection. MDK increases the diagnostic yield in AFP-negative HCC and has greater diagnostic performance than AFP, OPN and DKK-1 in the diagnosis of NASH-HCC. Additionally, MDK has a promising role in the pre-clinical diagnosis of HCC.

  20. Reduced epidermal thickness, nerve degeneration and increased pain-related behavior in rats with diabetes type 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boric, Matija; Skopljanac, Ivan; Ferhatovic, Lejla; Jelicic Kadic, Antonia; Banozic, Adriana; Puljak, Livia

    2013-11-01

    To examine the mechanisms contributing to pain genesis in diabetic neuropathy, we investigated epidermal thickness and number of intraepidermal nerve fibers in rat foot pad of the animal model of diabetes type 1 and type 2 in relation to pain-related behavior. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes type 1 was induced with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and diabetes type 2 was induced with a combination of STZ and high-fat diet. Control group for diabetes type 1 was fed with regular laboratory chow, while control group for diabetes type 2 received high-fat diet. Body weights and blood glucose levels were monitored to confirm induction of diabetes. Pain-related behavior was analyzed using thermal (hot, cold) and mechanical stimuli (von Frey fibers, number of hyperalgesic responses). Two months after induction of diabetes, glabrous skin samples from plantar surface of the both hind paws were collected. Epidermal thickness was evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Intraepidermal nerve fibers quantification was performed after staining skin with polyclonal antiserum against protein gene product 9.5. We found that induction of diabetes type 1 and type 2 causes significant epidermal thinning and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in a rat model, and both changes were more pronounced in diabetes type 1 model. Significant increase of pain-related behavior two months after induction of diabetes was observed only in a model of diabetes type 1. In conclusion, animal models of diabetes type 1 and diabetes type 2 could be used in pharmacological studies, where cutaneous changes could be used as outcome measures for predegenerative markers of neuropathies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A single amino acid change (Y318F) in the L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LadA) from Aspergillus niger results in a significant increase in affinity for D-sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LAD) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) are involved in the degradation of L-arabinose and D-xylose, which are among the most abundant monosaccharides on earth. Previous data demonstrated that LAD and XDH not only differ in the activity on their biological substrate, but also that only XDH has significant activity on D-sorbitol and may therefore be more closely related to D-sorbitol dehydrogenases (SDH). In this study we aimed to identify residues involved in the difference in substrate specificity. Results Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that LAD, XDH and SDH form 3 distinct groups of the family of dehydrogenases containing an Alcohol dehydrogenase GroES-like domain (pfam08240) and likely have evolved from a common ancestor. Modelling of LadA and XdhA of the saprobic fungus Aspergillus niger on human SDH identified two residues in LadA (M70 and Y318), that may explain the absence of activity on D-sorbitol. While introduction of the mutation M70F in LadA of A. niger resulted in a nearly complete enzyme inactivation, the Y318F resulted in increased activity for L-arabitol and xylitol. Moreover, the affinity for D-sorbitol was increased in this mutant. Conclusion These data demonstrates that Y318 of LadA contributes significantly to the substrate specificity difference between LAD and XDH/SDH. PMID:19674460

  2. Increased Th1/Th17 Responses Contribute to Low-Grade Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajia; Wang, Wenzhan; Li, Qiuming

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the primary cause of senior blindness in developed countries. Mechanisms underlying initiation and development of AMD remained known. We examined the CD4+ T cell compartments and their functions in AMD patients. AMD patients presented significantly higher frequencies of interferon (IFN)-γ-expressing and interleukin (IL)-17-expressing CD4+ T cells than healthy controls. The levels of IFN-γ and IL-17 expression by CD4+ T cells were significantly higher in AMD patients. These IFN-γ-expressing Th1 cells and IL-17-expressing Th17 cells could be selectively enriched by surface CCR3+ and CCR4+CCR6+ expression, respectively. Th1 and Th17 cells from AMD patients promoted the differentiation of monocytes toward M1 macrophages, which were previously associated with retinal damage. Th1 and Th17 cells also increased the level of MHC class I expression in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE)-1 cells, while Th1 cells increased the frequency of MHC class II-expressing RPE-1 cells. These proinflammatory effects were partly, but not entirely, induced by the secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17. This study demonstrated an enrichment of Th1 cells and Th17 cells in AMD patients. These Th1 and Th17 cells possessed proinflammatory roles in an IFN-γ- and IL-17-dependent fashion, and could potentially serve as therapeutic targets. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Clinically significant changes in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    . On the depression scale the corresponding figures were 44.4% and 41.7%, respectively. When comparing relatives with and without CSC, we found that CSC in symptoms of anxiety was associated with significantly better functional improvement during rehabilitation and a shorter period of post-traumatic amnesia...

  4. Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas

    Age-related changes in visual functions influence how older individuals perceive and react upon objects in their environment. In particular, older individuals might be more distracted by highly salient, irrelevant information. Kanizsa figures induce a ‘global precedence’ effect, which reflects...... a processing advantage for salient whole-object representations relative to configurations of local elements not inducing a global form. We investigated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of age-related decline in visual abilities, and specifically, distractibility by salient global objects in visual...

  5. Nutritional Supplementation Inhibits the Increase in Serum Malondialdehyde in Patients with Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Matsuura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD, patients with dry AMD (dAMD, and patients without AMD and to evaluate the efficacy of nutritional supplementation for treating elevated serum MDA in patients with wAMD. Methods. MDA levels were measured in sera from 20 patients with wAMD, 20 with dAMD, and 24 without AMD. Patients with wAMD were randomized to receive or not receive nutritional supplementation (10 patients in each group, and MDA levels were measured after 3 months of treatment. Results. MDA levels in patients with wAMD were significantly greater compared with patients without AMD. In eyes with wAMD, there was a significant correlation between MDA levels and choroidal neovascularization lesion area. Serum MDA levels decreased in most patients that received supplementation and significantly increased in those who did not. Conclusion. Baseline serum MDA levels were elevated in patients with wAMD, and MDA levels were directly correlated with choroidal neovascularization lesion area. In addition, nutritional supplementation appeared to exert a protective effect against oxidative stress in patients with wAMD.

  6. Increased circulating leptin in alcoholic cirrhosis: relation to release and disposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Holst, J J; Møller, Søren

    1999-01-01

    during catheterization with elective blood sampling from different vascular beds. Blood samples for leptin determination (radioimmunoassay) were taken simultaneously from artery/hepatic vein, artery/renal vein, artery/iliac vein, and artery/cubital vein. Patients with cirrhosis had significantly...... was significantly lower than in the control patients (-44%, P inversely correlated to serum creatinine (r = -0.60, P

  7. Increased expression of IRE1α and stress-related signal transduction proteins in ischemia-reperfusion injured retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuyo Hata

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Natsuyo Hata1, Toshiyuki Oshitari1,2, Akiko Yokoyama1,3, Yoshinori Mitamura1, Shuichi Yamamoto11Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kimitsu Central Hospital, Kisarazu City, Chiba, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Inoue Memorial Hospital, Chuo-ku, Chiba, JapanAbstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the expression of ER stress-related factors IRE1α, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1, SAPK/ERK kinase 1 (SEK1 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK is associated with the damaged retinal neurons induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury. After 60 minutes of ischemia, the rat retinas were reperfused, and retinas were isolated and fixed after 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 hours, and 2, 5, and 9 days of reperfusion. Cryosections were immunostained with Fluoro-Jade B, a degenerating neuron marker to label degenerating neurons. Semi-quantitative analysis of the expression of IRE1α, ASK1, SEK1, and JNK were performed in both control and ischemic retinas. In ischemic retinas, the intensities of IRE1α immunoreactivity in the ganglion cell layer (GCL were significantly higher than in the control retinas. In ischemic retinas, the numbers of SEK1-, ASK1-, and JNK-positive cells were significantly increased in the GCL compared to those in the control retinas. In addition, the cells that were positive for SEK1-, ASK1-, and JNK were also positive for Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells. These results indicate that the increased expression of ER stress-related factors was, in part, associated with the retinal neuronal abnormalities after ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat retinas.Keywords: endoplasmic reticulum, IRE1α, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, SAPK/ERK kinase 1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, Fluoro-Jade B, ischemia-reperfusion injury

  8. A Mindfulness-Based Decentering Technique Increases the Cognitive Accessibility of Health and Weight Loss Related Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Tapper

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that a mindfulness-based decentering technique can help individuals resist eating chocolate over a 5-day period. However, it is unclear how this technique exerts its effect. This study explored one potential mechanism; that decentering increases the cognitive accessibility of relevant goals. Male and female participants (n = 90 spent 5 min practicing either a decentering or relaxation (control technique. They then viewed a picture of a chocolate bar for 3 min whilst either applying the decentering technique or letting their mind wander (control. Finally, all participants completed 20 letter strings, rated their motivation for weight loss and for healthy eating, and indicated whether or not they were dieting to lose weight. As predicted, those who had applied the decentering technique produced a greater number of health and weight loss related words when completing the letter strings, compared to those who had simply let their mind wander (p < 0.001. However, contrary to predictions, these effects were not significantly greater amongst those who were more motivated to lose weight or eat healthily, or amongst those who were dieting to lose weight, though the means were in the predicted directions. The results suggest that this particular mindfulness technique may increase the accessibility of relevant goals. Further research would be needed to (a compare effects with other strategies that prompt individuals to remember their goals, (b examine other potential mechanisms of action, and (c confirm that effects on self-control are mediated by increased goal accessibility.

  9. Deletion of the Wolfram syndrome-related gene Wfs1 results in increased sensitivity to ethanol in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raud, Sirli; Reimets, Riin; Loomets, Maarja; Sütt, Silva; Altpere, Alina; Visnapuu, Tanel; Innos, Jürgen; Luuk, Hendrik; Plaas, Mario; Volke, Vallo; Vasar, Eero

    2015-08-01

    Wolfram syndrome, induced by mutation in WFS1 gene, increases risk of developing mood disorders in humans. In mice, Wfs1 deficiency cause higher anxiety-like behaviour and increased response to anxiolytic-like effect of diazepam, a GABAA receptor agonist. As GABAergic system is also target for ethanol, we analysed its anxiolytic-like and sedative properties in Wfs1-deficient mice using elevated plus-maze test and tests measuring locomotor activity and coordination, respectively. Additionally loss of righting reflex test was conducted to study sedative/hypnotic properties of ethanol, ketamine and pentobarbital. To evaluate pharmacokinetics of ethanol in mice enzymatic colour test was used. Finally, gene expression of alpha subunits of GABAA receptors following ethanol treatment was studied by real-time-PCR. Compared to wild-types, Wfs1-deficient mice were more sensitive to ethanol-induced anxiolytic-like effect, but less responsive to impairment of motor coordination. Ethanol and pentobarbital, but not ketamine, caused longer duration of hypnosis in Wfs1-deficient mice. The expression of Gabra2 subunit at 30 minutes after ethanol injection was significantly increased in the frontal cortex of Wfs1-deficient mice as compared to respective vehicle-treated mice. For the temporal lobe, similar change in Gabra2 mRNA occurred at 60 minutes after ethanol treatment in Wfs1-deficient mice. No changes were detected in Gabra1 and Gabra3 mRNA following ethanol treatment. Taken together, increased anxiolytic-like effect of ethanol in Wfs1-deficient mice is probably related to altered Gabra2 gene expression. Increased anti-anxiety effect of GABAA receptor agonists in the present work and earlier studies (Luuk et al., 2009) further suggests importance of Wfs1 gene in the regulation of emotional behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. astrophysical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartois E.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clathrate hydrates, ice inclusion compounds, are of major importance for the Earth’s permafrost regions and may control the stability of gases in many astrophysical bodies such as the planets, comets and possibly interstellar grains. Their physical behavior may provide a trapping mechanism to modify the absolute and relative composition of icy bodies that could be the source of late-time injection of gaseous species in planetary atmospheres or hot cores. In this study, we provide and discuss laboratory-recorded infrared signatures of clathrate hydrates in the near to mid-infrared and the implications for space-based astrophysical tele-detection in order to constrain their possible presence.

  11. Altered visual strategies and attention are related to increased force fluctuations during a pinch grip task in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kevin G; Huddleston, Wendy E; Ernest, Bradley E

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the visual strategies used by older adults during a pinch grip task and to assess the relations between visual strategy, deficits in attention, and increased force fluctuations in older adults. Eye movements of 23 older adults (>65 yr) were monitored during a low-force pinch grip task while subjects viewed three common visual feedback displays. Performance on the Grooved Pegboard test and an attention task (which required no concurrent hand movements) was also measured. Visual strategies varied across subjects and depended on the type of visual feedback provided to the subjects. First, while viewing a high-gain compensatory feedback display (horizontal bar moving up and down with force), 9 of 23 older subjects adopted a strategy of performing saccades during the task, which resulted in 2.5 times greater force fluctuations in those that exhibited saccades compared with those who maintained fixation near the target line. Second, during pursuit feedback displays (force trace moving left to right across screen and up and down with force), all subjects exhibited multiple saccades, and increased force fluctuations were associated ( r s = 0.6; P = 0.002) with fewer saccades during the pursuit task. Also, decreased low-frequency (attention z scores. Comparison of these results with our previously published results in young subjects indicates that saccadic eye movements and attention are related to force control in older adults. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The significant contributions of the study are the addition of eye movement data and an attention task to explain differences in hand motor control across different visual displays in older adults. Older participants used different visual strategies across varying feedback displays, and saccadic eye movements were related with motor performance. In addition, those older individuals with deficits in attention had impaired motor performance on two different hand motor control tasks, including

  12. Increased Mortality in Relation to Insomnia and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Korean Patients Studied with Nocturnal Polysomnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Song, Ji Soo; Lee, Yu Jin; Won, Tae-Bin; Jeong, Do-Un

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: To elucidate the links between the two most prevalent sleep disorders, insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and mortality. Methods: We studied 4,225 subjects who were referred to the Center for Sleep and Chronobiology, Seoul National University Hospital, from January 1994 to December 2008. We divided the subjects into five groups: mild OSA (5 ≤ AHI insomnia, and a no-sleep-disorder group consisting of subjects without sleep disorders. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR), hazard ratio, and the survival rates of the five groups were calculated and evaluated. Results: The SMR of all-cause mortality was significantly higher in the severe OSA group than in the general population (1.52, 95% CI 1.23–1.85, p cause mortality (HR 3.50, 95% CI 1.03–11.91, p = 0.045) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 17.16, 95% CI 2.29–128.83, p = 0.006). Cardiovascular mortality was also significantly elevated in the insomnia group (HR 8.11, 95% CI 1.03–63.58, p = 0.046). Conclusions: Severe OSA was associated with increased all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality compared to the no-sleep-disorder group. Insomnia was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality compared to the no-sleep-disorder group. Citation: Choi JW, Song JS, Lee YJ, Won TB, Jeong DU. Increased mortality in relation to insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea in Korean patients studied with nocturnal polysomnography. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017;13(1):49–56. PMID:27655449

  13. Changing epidemiology of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections: increasing prevalence of Gram-negative pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Miguel; Soriano, Alex; Iñurrieta, Amaia; Martínez, José A; Romero, Alberto; Cobos, Nazaret; Hernández, Cristina; Almela, Manel; Marco, Francesc; Mensa, Josep

    2011-09-01

    Gram-positive microorganisms have been the predominant pathogens in central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). Recent guidelines recommend empirical therapy according to this and restrict coverage for Gram-negatives to specific circumstances. This study aimed to analyse the epidemiological changes in CRBSIs over the 1991-2008 period and to analyse predictors of Gram-negative CRBSIs. A prospectively collected cohort of patients with confirmed CRBSIs was analysed. Strains isolated and antimicrobial susceptibility, as well as clinical and demographic variables were recorded. Differences observed during the study period were analysed by means of a χ² trend test and factors associated with Gram-negative CRBSIs by means of multivariable analysis. Between 1991 and 2008, 1129 episodes of monomicrobial CRBSIs were recorded. There was an increase in the incidence of CRBSIs, from 0.10 (1991-92) to 0.31 (2007-08) episodes/1000 patient-days. A significant increase in the number of Gram-negative strains among the total isolates was also found, from 3 (4.7%) in 1991-92 to 70 (40.23%) in 2007-08, with a parallel decrease in the percentage of Gram-positives. Solid organ transplantation, prior use of penicillins and hospital stay longer than 11 days were independently associated with a significantly higher risk of Gram-negative CRBSIs, while cirrhosis, diabetes and use of quinolones were associated with a higher risk of Gram-positives. Gram-negative strains are an increasing cause of CRBSIs, reaching a prevalence of 40% in the 2007-08 period in our hospital. If this trend is confirmed in other centres, a broad-spectrum empirical therapy should be considered in managing these infections.

  14. Increased deoxythymidine triphosphate levels is a feature of relative cognitive decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Frederiksen, Jane H; Olsen, Maria Nathalie Angleys

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular levels of nucleotides have been hypothesized as early indicators of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Utilizing relative decline of cognitive ability as a predictor of AD risk, we evaluated the correlation between change...... of cognitive ability and mitochondrial bioenergetics, ROS and cellular levels of deoxyribonucleotides. Change of cognitive abilities, scored at ages of approximately 20 and 57 was determined for a cohort of 1985 male participants. Mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial ROS and whole-cell levels...... of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a total of 103 selected participants displaying the most pronounced relative cognitive decline and relative cognitive improvement. We show that relative cognitive decline is associated with higher PBMC content...

  15. Age-related neural correlates of cognitive task performance under increased postural load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Impe, A; Bruijn, S M; Coxon, J P; Wenderoth, N; Sunaert, S; Duysens, J; Swinnen, S P

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that postural control requires increased cognitive control and visuospatial processing with aging. Consequently, performance can decline when concurrently performing a postural and a demanding cognitive task. We aimed to identify the neural substrate underlying this

  16. Increasing Insect Reactions in Alaska: Is this Related to Changing Climate?

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Demain; Bradford Gessner; Joseph McLaughlin; Derek Sikes; Timothy Foote

    2008-01-01

    During the summer of 2006, Fairbanks Alaska experienced its first two known cases of fatal anaphylaxis as a result of Hymenoptera stings, presumably from yellowjackets. An increase in insect bites and stings has been observed throughout the state.Has there been an increased incidence of medical visits due to insect bites and stings in Alaska in recent years? We conducted a retrospective review of three independent patient databases in Alaska to identify trends of patients seeking medical care...

  17. The influence of mood on the perception of hearing-loss related quality of life in people with hearing loss and their significant others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preminger, Jill E; Meeks, Suzanne

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the congruent/incongruent perceptions of hearing-loss related quality of life between members of couples and to determine how incongruence was affected by individual psychosocial characteristics, specifically measures of mood (negative affect and positive affect), stress, and communication in the marriage. An exploratory correlational analysis was performed on data for 52 couples in which only one member had a hearing loss. In the regression analyses the independent variables were hearing-loss related quality of life scores measured in people with hearing loss, measured in significant others, and differences in hearing-loss related quality of life among members of a couple. The results demonstrate that both in people with hearing loss and their significant others, perceptions of hearing-loss related quality of life is highly correlated with negative mood scores. Incongruence in hearing-loss related quality of life scores reported by members of a couple were highly correlated with negative affect measured within each individual. Future research evaluating the effectiveness of audiologic rehabilitation can use measures of mood as an outcome variable.

  18. Individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms are characterised by a negative sleep-related expectancy bias: Results from a cognitive-experimental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtauld, Hannah; Notebaert, Lies; Milkins, Bronwyn; Kyle, Simon D; Clarke, Patrick J F

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive models of insomnia consistently suggest that negative expectations regarding the consequences of poor sleep contribute to the maintenance of insomnia. To date, however, no research has sought to determine whether insomnia is indeed characterised by such a negative sleep-related expectancy bias, using objective cognitive assessment tasks which are more immune to response biases than questionnaire assessments. Therefore, the current study employed a reaction-time task assessing biased expectations among a group with clinically significant insomnia symptoms (n = 30) and a low insomnia symptoms group (n = 40). The task involved the presentation of scenarios describing the consequences of poor sleep, and non-sleep related activities, which could be resolved in a benign or a negative manner. The results demonstrated that the high insomnia symptoms group were disproportionately fast to resolve sleep-related scenarios in line with negative outcomes, as compared to benign outcomes, relative to the low insomnia symptoms group. The two groups did not differ in their pattern of resolving non-sleep related scenarios. This pattern of findings is entirely consistent with a sleep-specific expectancy bias operating in individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms, and highlights the potential of cognitive-experimental assessment tasks to objectively index patterns of biased cognition in insomnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The significance of climate change in the Netherlands. An analysis of historical and future trends (1901-2020) in weather conditions, weather extremes and temperature-related impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, H.

    2005-07-01

    A rigorous statistical analysis reveals changes in Dutch climate that are statistically significant over the last century. Annually averaged temperatures have increased by 1.5 about 0.5 degrees Centigrade; the number of summer days has roughly doubled from 14 about 5 to 27 about 9 days; annual precipitation has increased by 120 about 100 mm; and the number of extremely wet days has increased by about 40%, from 19 about 3 to 26 about 3 days. Several other changes in Dutch climate, such as spring temperatures rising more rapidly than winter temperatures, the increase of the coldest temperature in each year by 0.9 degrees Centigrade and the annual maximum day sum of precipitation, turn out to be not (yet) statistically significant. The changes in Dutch climate have already led to several statistically significant impacts. The length of the growing season has increased by nearly a month, and the number of heating-degree days, a measure for the energy needed for the heating of houses and buildings, has decreased by 14 about 5%. Projections of future temperature increase in 2020 based on the statistical analysis closely resemble projections based on climate models: temperatures continue to increase from 10.4 about 0.4 degrees Centigrade in 2003 to 10.7 about 0.6 degrees Centigrade in 2010 and 11.1 about 1.0 degrees Centigrade in 2020. The energy needed for heating of houses and buildings is expected to decrease further. This warming effect is expected to lower projections of future Dutch greenhouse-gas emissions by 3.5 Mton CO2 equivalents, which is relevant in the context of commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. Finally, over the course of the 20th century the chance on an 'Elfstedentocht', an outdoor skating event in the Netherlands, has decreased from once every five years to once every ten years. Even though this impact change is not yet statistically significant, it resides 'on the edge' of significance: within a few years more evidence may

  20. Colonic vascular conductance increased by Daikenchuto via calcitonin gene-related peptide and receptor-activity modifying protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Toru; Koseki, Takashi; Chiba, Shinichi; Ebisawa, Yoshiaki; Chisato, Naoyuki; Iwamoto, Jun; Kasai, Shinichi

    2008-11-01

    Daikencyuto (DKT) is a traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) and is a mixture of extract powders from dried Japanese pepper, processed ginger, ginseng radix, and maltose powder and has been used as the treatment of paralytic ileus. DKT may increase gastrointestinal motility by an up-regulation of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). CGRP is also the most powerful vasoactive substance. In the present study, we investigated whether DKT has any effect on the colonic blood flow in rats. Experiments were performed on fasted anesthetized and artificially ventilated Wistar rats. Systemic mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. Red blood cell flux in colonic blood flow was measured using noncontact laser tissue blood flowmetry, and colonic vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as the ratio of flux to mean arterial blood pressure. We examined four key physiological mechanisms underlying the response using blocker drugs: CGRP1 receptor blocker (CGRP(8-37)), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) receptor blocker ([4-Cl-DPhe6, Leu17]-VIP), and substance P receptor blocker (spantide). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of mRNA of calcitonin receptor-like receptor, receptor-activity modifying protein 1, the component of CGRP 1 receptor and CGRP. After laparotomy, a cannula was inserted into the proximal colon to administer the DKT and to measure CVC at the distal colon. Intracolonal administration of DKT (10, 100, and 300 mg/kg) increased CVC (basal CVC, 0.10 mL/mmHg) from the first 15-min observation period (0.14, 0.17, and 0.17 mL/mmHg, respectively) and with peak response at either 45 min (0.17 mL/mmHg by 10 mg/kg), or 75 and 60 min (0.23 and 0.21 mL/mmHg by 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively). CGRP(8-37) completely abolished the DKT-induced hyperemia, whereas nitric oxide synthase inhibitor partially attenuated the DKT-induced hyperemia. [4-Cl-DPhe6, Leu17]-VIP and spantide

  1. Anticipating issues related to increasing preimplantation genetic diagnosis use: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S; Chung, Wendy; Sauer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Increasing use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) poses numerous clinical, social, psychological, ethical, legal and policy dilemmas, many of which have received little attention. Patients and providers are now considering and using PGD for a widening array of genetic disorders, and patients may increasingly seek 'designer babies.' In the USA, although governmental oversight policies have been discussed, few specific guidelines exist. Hence, increasingly, patients and providers will face challenging ethical and policy questions of when and for whom to use PGD, and how it should be financed. These issues should be better clarified and addressed through collection of data concerning the current use of PGD in the USA, including factors involved in decision making about PGD use, as well as the education of the various communities that are, and should be, involved in its implementation. Improved understanding of these issues will ultimately enhance the development and implementation of future clinical guidelines and policies.

  2. Trends and affordability of cigarette prices: ample room for tax increases and related health gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, G E; Tobin, S; Yach, D

    2002-03-01

    Increasing the price of tobacco products is arguably the most effective method of curbing the prevalence and consumption of tobacco products. Price increases would reduce the global burden of disease brought about by tobacco consumption. To compare cigarette price data from more than 80 countries using varying methods, examine trends in prices and affordability during the 1990s, and explore various policy implications pertaining to tobacco prices. March 2001 cigarette price data from the Economist Intelligence Unit are used to compare cigarette prices across countries. To facilitate comparison and to assess affordability, prices are presented in US dollars, purchasing power parity (PPP) units using the Big Mac index as an indicator of PPP and in terms of minutes of labour required to purchase a pack of cigarettes. Annual real percentage changes in cigarette prices between 1990 and 2000 and annual changes in the minutes of labour required to buy cigarettes between 1991 and 2000 are also calculated to examine trends. Cigarette prices tend to be higher in wealthier countries and in countries that have strong tobacco control programmes. On the other hand, minutes of labour required to purchase cigarettes vary vastly between countries. Trends between 1990 and 2000 in real prices and minutes of labour indicate, with some exceptions, that cigarettes have become more expensive in most developed countries but more affordable in many developing countries. However, in the UK, despite recent increases in price, cigarettes are still more affordable than they were in the 1960s. The results suggest that there is ample room to increase tobacco prices through taxation. In too many countries, cigarette prices have failed to keep up with increases in the general price level of goods and services, rendering them more affordable in 2000 than they were at the beginning of the decade. Opportunities to increase government revenue and improve health through reduced consumption brought

  3. Relation of increased short-term variability of QT interval to congenital long-QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinterseer, Martin; Beckmann, Britt-Maria; Thomsen, Morten B

    2009-01-01

    Apart from clinical symptoms the diagnosis and risk stratification in long-QT syndrome (LQTS) is usually based on the surface electrocardiogram. Studies have indicated that not only prolongation of the QT interval but also an increased short-term variability of QT interval (STV(QT)) is a marker...... that an STV(QT) of 4.9 ms was the optimal cut-off value to predict mutation carriers. When incorporating an STV(QT) >4.9 ms for those whose QTc interval was within the normal limits, sensitivity to distinguish mutation carriers increased to 83% with a specificity of 68%, so that another 15 mutation carriers...

  4. Increased Risk for School Violence-Related Behaviors among Adolescents with Insufficient Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Daly, Brian P.; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Brooks-Holliday, Stephanie; Kloss, Jacqueline D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: School violence is associated with significant acute and long-term negative health outcomes. Previous investigations have largely neglected the role of pertinent health behaviors in school violence, including sleep. Insufficient sleep is associated with adverse physical, behavioral, and psychosocial consequences among adolescents, many…

  5. The Long-Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    The length of parents. birth-related leave varies across countries and has been subject of some debate. I investigate the long-term e¤ects on children of increasing the length of parents.birth-related leave using a natural experiment from 1984 in Denmark when the leave length was increased from 14...... to 20 weeks. Regression discontinuity design is used to identify the causal e¤ect of the reform. A population sample of children born in 1984 and a dataset with PISA-2000 scores are used for the analysis. Results indicate that increasing parents. access to birth-related leave has no measurable e...

  6. Anger Management Leadership Groups: A Creative Intervention for Increasing Relational and Social Competencies with Aggressive Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Isaac; Patel, Samir H.; Lewis, Sally V.

    2012-01-01

    School counselors (SCs) have a wide range of responsibilities in schools, such as administrative, disciplinary, and counseling duties (Dahir & Stone, 2009). Due to the large number of responsibilities, SCs sometime struggle with developing programs to meet relational needs of at-risk students. The purpose of this article was to provide SCs with a…

  7. Increased expression of angiogenic growth factors in age-related maculopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kliffen (Mike); H.S. Sharma (Hari); C.M. Mooy (Cornelia); S. Kerkvliet (Sonja); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAIMS/BACKGROUND: The late stages of age-related maculopathy (ARM), especially neovascular macular degeneration (ARMD), can severely affect central vision and are the main cause of blindness in the elderly in the Western world. It has been shown that

  8. Increased pain sensitivity in accident-related chronic pain patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Harvold, Mathea

    2018-01-01

    , anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and fear of movement) in patients with accident-related chronic spinal pain with (N=44) and without (N=64) comorbid PTSD characteristics. METHODS: Cuff algometry was performed on lower legs to assess pressure pain threshold (cPPT), tolerance (cPTT), temporal summation...

  9. Pregnancy-related pelvic pain is more frequent in women with increased body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering, K; Nohr, EA; Olsen, J

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the association between pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and pregnancy-related pelvic pain. Design: Nested case-control study. Setting and population. The Danish National Birth Cohort, a cohort of pregnant women and their children recruited 1996–2002. Methods. The women...

  10. Two Aspects of Activation: Arousal and Subjective Significance – Behavioral and Event-Related Potential Correlates Investigated by Means of a Modified Emotional Stroop Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Imbir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The arousal level of words presented in a Stroop task was found to affect their interference on the required naming of the words’ color. Based on a dual-processes approach, we propose that there are two aspects to activation: arousal and subjective significance. Arousal is crucial for automatic processing. Subjective significance is specific to controlled processing. Based on this conceptual model, we predicted that arousal would enhance interference in a Stroop task, as attention would be allocated to the meaning of the inhibited word. High subjective significance should have the opposite effect, i.e., it should enhance the controlled and explicit part of Stroop task processing, which is color naming. We found that response latencies were modulated by the interaction between the arousal and subjective significance levels of words. The longest reaction times were observed for highly arousing words of medium subjective significance level. Arousal shaped event related potentials in the 150–290 ms time range, while effects of subjective significance were found for 50–150, 150–290, and 290–530 ms time ranges.

  11. Relative role of bed roughness change and bed erosion on peak discharge increase in hyperconcentrated floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, W.; Wang, Z.B.; Van Maren, D.S.; De Vriend, H.J.; Wu, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    River floods are usually featured by a downstream flattening discharge peak whereas a downstream increasing discharge peak is observed at a rate exceeding the tributary discharge during highly silt-laden floods (hyperconcentrated floods) in China’s Yellow River. It entails a great challenge in the

  12. Modeling Air Temperature/Water Temperature Relations Along a Small Mountain Stream Under Increasing Urban Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedders, E. R.; Anderson, W. P., Jr.; Hengst, A. M.; Gu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Boone Creek is a headwater stream of low to moderate gradient located in Boone, North Carolina, USA. Total impervious surface coverage in the 5.2 km2 catchment drained by the 1.9 km study reach increases from 13.4% in the upstream half of the reach to 24.3% in the downstream half. Other markers of urbanization, including culverting, lack of riparian shade vegetation, and bank armoring also increase downstream. Previous studies have shown the stream to be prone to temperature surges on short timescales (minutes to hours) caused by summer runoff from the urban hardscaping. This study investigates the effects of urbanization on the stream's thermal regime at daily to yearly timescales. To do this, we developed an analytical model of daily average stream temperatures based on daily average air temperatures. We utilized a two-part model comprising annual and biannual components and a daily component consisting of a 3rd-order Markov process in order to fit the thermal dynamics of our small, gaining stream. Optimizing this model at each of our study sites in each studied year (78 total site-years of data) yielded annual thermal exchange coefficients (K) for each site. These K values quantify the strength of the relationship between stream and air temperature, or inverse thermal stability. In a uniform, pristine catchment environment, K values are expected to decrease downstream as the stream gains discharge volume and, therefore, thermal inertia. Interannual average K values for our study reach, however, show an overall increase from 0.112 furthest upstream to 0.149 furthest downstream, despite a near doubling of stream discharge between these monitoring points. K values increase only slightly in the upstream, less urban, half of the reach. A line of best fit through these points on a plot of reach distance versus K value has a slope of 2E-6. But the K values of downstream, more urbanized sites increase at a rate of 2E-5 per meter of reach distance, an order of magnitude

  13. Significance of psychological stress response and health-related quality of life in spouses of cancer patients when given bad news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoko Kugimoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study illuminates the degree of psychological stress response experienced by spouses of cancer patients when given bad news at three different times (notification of the name of the disease, notification of recurrence, and notification of terminality as well as the factors that influence the response and the health status of the spouse as measured by health-related quality of life (QOL. Methods: A total of 203 individuals (57 men and 146 women who had received the three types of news were surveyed using a self-report questionnaire on psychological stress response, marital satisfaction, and health-related QOL scales. Results: The degree of the psychological stress response was the highest for notification of terminality, followed by notification of the name of the disease, and notification of recurrence. The influencing factors varied depending on the notification period. Although no significant difference was observed for health-related QOL among the three notification types, significant differences were observed for certain items when compared with national standard values. Conclusions: When a notification of terminality, which produced the highest psychological stress response, is given, providing care that considers health-related QOL is necessary not only for patients but also for their spouses.

  14. Clinically significant changes in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    .2% and 58.1% of relatives had scores above cut-off values on the anxiety and depression scales, respectively. On the anxiety scale 69.7% of these experienced a reliable improvement according to the Reliable Change Index (RCI) and 45.5% also obtained CSC, as their end-point was below the cut-off value...... the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) when the patients were admitted to sub-acute rehabilitation and at discharge. Improvement in emotional condition was investigated using the following criteria: (i) statistically reliable improvement; and (ii) clinically significant change (CSC). Results: At admission, 53...... in the patients. Conclusion: Of the relatives who reported scores above cut-off values on the anxiety and depression scales at patient's admission, approximately 40% experienced CSC in anxiety and depression during the patient's rehabilitation. Relatives of patients experiencing improvement during inpatient...

  15. Increased Burden of Healthcare Utilization and Cost Associated with Opioid-Related Constipation Among Patients with Noncancer Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ancilla W.; Kern, David M.; Datto, Catherine; Chen, Yen-Wen; McLeskey, Charles; Tunceli, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioids are widely accepted as treatment for moderate to severe pain, and opioid-induced constipation is one of the most common side effects of opioids. This side effect negatively affects pain management and patients’ quality of life, which could result in increased healthcare utilization and costs. Objective To assess healthcare utilization and costs (all-cause, constipation-related, and pain-related) for individuals with and without opioid-induced constipation during the 12 months after initiation of opioid therapy for noncancer pain. Methods This retrospective cohort study was conducted using administrative claims data from HealthCore Integrated Research Environment between January 1, 2006, and June 30, 2014. The analysis was limited to patients aged ≥18 years who filled a prescription for continuous opioid treatment (≥28 days) for noncancer pain. Propensity scores were used to match opioid users with constipation (cohort 1) and opioid users without constipation (cohort 2), using a 1:1 ratio. Generalized linear models were used to estimate all-cause, constipation-related, and pain-related healthcare utilization and costs during the 12 months after the initiation of opioid therapy. Results After matching and balancing for all prespecified variables, 17,384 patients were retained in each cohort (mean age, 56 years; 63% female). Opioid users with constipation were twice as likely as those without constipation to have ≥1 inpatient hospitalizations (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17–2.39) during the 12 months. The total mean adjusted overall costs per patient during the study period were $12,413 higher for patients with constipation versus those without it (95% CI, $11,726–$13,116). The total mean adjusted overall pain-related costs per patient were $6778 (95% CI, $6293–$7279) higher for the patients with constipation than those without. Among patients using opioids for noncancer pain, the annual mean constipation-related

  16. Task-related increases in fatigue predict recovery time after academic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasche, Gerhard; Zilic, Jelena; Frischenschlager, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time course of recovery after an academic exam as a model of high workload and its association with stress-related fatigue. Thirty-six medical students (17 females, 19 males) filled out diaries during an exam phase, starting 2 days prior to the exam, and a control phase 4 weeks after the exam for 14 days, respectively. Fatigue, distress, quality of sleep, and health complaints were assessed. Recovery time was determined for each individual and variable by comparing the 3-day average with the confidence interval of the control phase. Recovery time was predicted by Cox regression analyses. Recovery times of all variables except health complaints were predicted by stress-related fatigue. Half of the individuals had recovered after 6 days, and 80% of the individuals had recovered after 8 days. The time necessary for recovery from work demands is determined by fatigue as a measure of resource depletion.

  17. Increased release of histamine in patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, J; Skov, P S; Mosbech, H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Environmental perfume exposure may cause respiratory symptoms. Individuals with asthma and perfume contact allergy report such symptoms more frequently than others. However, immunologic mechanisms have not been demonstrated and the symptoms are not associated with IgE-mediated allergy....... The study aimed to investigate whether basophils from patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume released more histamine in the presence of perfume as compared with healthy volunteers. METHODS: Histamine release was measured by the glass fibre method. Blood was obtained from healthy volunteers (n......=20) and patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume (n=17) attending a dermatological outpatient clinic for patch testing. The effect of an international brand perfume was investigated using the basophil histamine release test with perfume. Furthermore, basophils from a healthy non...

  18. Negative statin-related news stories decrease statin persistence and increase myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    .03-1.06) for male sex, 1.13 (1.11-1.15) for living in cities, 1.67 (1.63-1.71) for other ethnicity than Danish, 0.92 (0.90-0.94) for positive statin-related news stories, 0.73 (0.72-0.74) for baseline cardiovascular disease, and 0.91 (0.90-0.93) for baseline diabetes. During follow-up, the hazard ratios...

  19. Fish Oil Supplementation Increases Event-Related Posterior Cingulate Activation in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boespflug, E L; McNamara, R K; Eliassen, J C; Schidler, M D; Krikorian, R

    2016-02-01

    To determine the effects of long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids found in fish oil, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on cortical blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity during a working memory task in older adults with subjective memory impairment. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Academic medical center. Healthy older adults (62-80 years) with subjective memory impairment, but not meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Fish oil (EPA+DHA: 2.4 g/d, n=11) or placebo (corn oil, n=10) for 24 weeks. Cortical BOLD response patterns during performance of a sequential letter n-back working memory task were determined at baseline and week 24 by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). At 24 weeks erythrocyte membrane EPA+DHA composition increased significantly from baseline in participants receiving fish oil (+31%, p ≤ 0.0001) but not placebo (-17%, p=0.06). Multivariate modeling of fMRI data identified a significant interaction among treatment, visit, and memory loading in the right cingulate (BA 23/24), and in the right sensorimotor area (BA 3/4). In the fish oil group, BOLD increases at 24 weeks were observed in the right posterior cingulate and left superior frontal regions during memory loading. A region-of-interest analysis indicated that the baseline to endpoint change in posterior cingulate cortex BOLD activity signal was significantly greater in the fish oil group compared with the placebo group during the 1-back (p=0.0003) and 2-back (p=0.0005) conditions. Among all participants, the change in erythrocyte EPA+DHA during the intervention was associated with performance in the 2-back working memory task (p = 0.01), and with cingulate BOLD signal during the 1-back (p = 0.005) with a trend during the 2-back (p = 0.09). Further, cingulate BOLD activity was related to performance in the 2-back condition. Dietary fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell omega-3 content

  20. Color relations increase the capacity of visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanocki, Thomas; Sulman, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Do color relations such as similarity or harmony influence the ease with which colored patterns can be perceived and held in mind? We tested the influence of a relation supported in research on color harmony--similarity of hue--on the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) for colors in patterns. Palettes of 4 similar-hue colors were rated as more pleasant (harmonious) than dissimilar-color palettes. The palettes were used in a VSTM color task. Patterns of 9 to 15 colored squares were presented, and accuracy of color change detection was measured. Memory performance was higher overall for similar-color palettes than for dissimilar-color palettes (experiments 1 and 3). Is this due to color similarity per se, or due to the harmony between colors in similar palettes? A final experiment provided strong support for the importance of color similarity as opposed to harmony. Overall, the advantages for color similarity, in terms of number of color squares held in memory (memory capacity) were 26% to 45% over dissimilar colors. The results indicate that color relations can have a strong impact on the capacity for perceiving and retaining color patterns.

  1. Increased relative risk of subsequent affective disorders in patients with a hospital diagnosis of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A F; Kvist, T K; Andersen, P K

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of clinical affective disorders of patients who were hospitalized because of obesity in the study period 1 January 1977 to 31 December 1999. METHOD: Using data from Danish hospital registers, three study cohorts were identified by their diagnoses at discharge from...... discharged with an index diagnosis was identified. In total, 1081 events occurred in the observation period. An index diagnosis of obesity was associated with an increased risk of affective-disorders hospitalization when compared with patients with osteoarthritis (Rate ratio: 1.35 (95% CI: 1.......09-1.67)) and tended to be associated with an increased risk when compared to patients with non-toxic goiter (Rate ratio: 1.23 (95% CI: 0.99-1.53)). Patients with obesity diagnoses who did not have additional hospital diagnoses of substance- or alcohol abuse had a risk of affective disorders that was 1.55 (95% CI: 1...

  2. Increased Working Memory-Related Brain Activity in Middle-Aged Women with Cognitive Complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Julie A.; Kutz, Amanda M.; McDonald, Brenna C.; R.Naylor, Magdalena; Pfaff, Ashley C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who report subjective cognitive complaints but perform normally on neuropsychological tests may be at increased risk for pathological cognitive aging. The current study examined the effects of the presence of subjective cognitive complaints on functional brain activity during a working memory task in a sample of middle-aged postmenopausal women. Twenty-three postmenopausal women aged 50–60 completed a cognitive complaint battery of questionnaires. Using 20% of items endorsed as th...

  3. Myocardial extracellular volume quantified by magnetic resonance is increased in cirrhosis and related to poor outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Signe; Hove, Jens; Mo, Silje

    2018-01-01

    .04). Furthermore, ECV increased across the Child Pugh A/B/C classes (26.9±4/ 31.5±5/ 34.4±6%, P=0.02). Four-teen patients experienced the composite end-point of death/LT during follow-up and these patients had higher ECV (33.2±4 vs. 30.4±6%, P=0.04). In a univariate Cox regression analysis ECV was associated...

  4. Significance of measurement of serum somatostatin (SS), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and some related cytokines levels in patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bao; Ma Yunbao; Zhang Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible roles of the related hormones and cytokines in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease. Methods: Serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 were measured with RIA in 1) 36 patients with Graves' disease before any treatment 2) another 30 patients with Graves' disease after successful anti-thyroid drug therapy and 3) 35 controls. Results: In the untreated group, the serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly higher but serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower than those in the controls (P<0.01). In the successfully treated group, the serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly lower (P<0.05 or P<0.01), but serum IL-2 levels were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those in the untreated group. Conclusion: These parameters played significant roles in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease; however, the precise mechanism remained to be speculative and further studies required. (authors)

  5. Increased tolerance to two oomycete pathogens in transgenic tobacco expressing pathogenesis-related protein 1a.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, D; Goodman, R M; Gut-Rella, M; Glascock, C; Weymann, K; Friedrich, L; Maddox, D; Ahl-Goy, P; Luntz, T; Ward, E

    1993-01-01

    Expression of pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR-1a), a protein of unknown biochemical function, is induced to high levels in tobacco in response to pathogen infection. The induction of PR-1a expression is tightly correlated with the onset of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a defense response effective against a variety of fungal, viral, and bacterial pathogens. While PR-1a has been postulated to be involved in SAR, and is the most highly expressed of the PR proteins, evidence for its ro...

  6. Stress history increases alcohol intake in relapse: relation to phosphodiesterase 10A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logrip, Marian L; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2012-09-01

    Stressful experiences can result in elevated alcohol drinking, as exemplified in many individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. However, how stress history, rather than acute stressors, influences alcohol intake remains uncertain. To model the protracted effects of past stress, male Wistar rats were subjected to light-cued footshock (stress history) or light cues alone (control) prior to acquisition of alcohol self-administration (1-hour sessions, fixed ratio 1-3, 100 µl of 10% v/v alcohol as reinforcer). Stress history did not alter mean alcohol intake during acquisition of self-administration, but it increased preference for the alcohol-paired lever over the inactive lever. Following an extinction period, rats with a history of stress exposure and low baseline alcohol intake showed a twofold elevation in alcohol self-administration, as compared with low-drinking rats with no stress history. Similar effects were not seen in rats self-administering 0.1% sucrose. Analysis of mRNA levels of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), a dual-specificity cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate hydrolyzing enzyme, showed that stress history increased Pde10a mRNA levels in the basolateral amygdala and, in low-drinking rats, the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC). Pde10a mRNA levels in the plPFC correlated directly with greater alcohol self-administration during the relapse-like phase, and greater BLA Pde10a mRNA levels correlated with increased ethanol preference after acquisition. The data demonstrate that stress history sensitizes otherwise low alcohol drinkers to consume more alcohol in a relapse-like situation and identify stress-induced neuroadaptations in amygdala and prefrontal cortical Pde10a expression as changes that may drive heightened alcohol intake and preference in susceptible individuals. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Increased Population Risk of AIP‐Related Acromegaly and Gigantism in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radian, Serban; Diekmann, Yoan; Gabrovska, Plamena; Holland, Brendan; Bradley, Lisa; Wallace, Helen; Stals, Karen; Bussell, Anna‐Marie; McGurren, Karen; Cuesta, Martin; Ryan, Anthony W.; Herincs, Maria; Hernández‐Ramírez, Laura C.; Holland, Aidan; Samuels, Jade; Aflorei, Elena Daniela; Barry, Sayka; Dénes, Judit; Pernicova, Ida; Stiles, Craig E.; Trivellin, Giampaolo; McCloskey, Ronan; Ajzensztejn, Michal; Abid, Noina; Akker, Scott A.; Mercado, Moises; Cohen, Mark; Thakker, Rajesh V.; Baldeweg, Stephanie; Barkan, Ariel; Musat, Madalina; Levy, Miles; Orme, Stephen M.; Unterländer, Martina; Burger, Joachim; Kumar, Ajith V.; Ellard, Sian; McPartlin, Joseph; McManus, Ross; Linden, Gerard J.; Atkinson, Brew; Balding, David J.; Agha, Amar; Thompson, Chris J.; Hunter, Steven J.; Thomas, Mark G.; Morrison, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) founder mutation R304* (or p.R304*; NM_003977.3:c.910C>T, p.Arg304Ter) identified in Northern Ireland (NI) predisposes to acromegaly/gigantism; its population health impact remains unexplored. We measured R304* carrier frequency in 936 Mid Ulster, 1,000 Greater Belfast (both in NI) and 2,094 Republic of Ireland (ROI) volunteers and in 116 NI or ROI acromegaly/gigantism patients. Carrier frequencies were 0.0064 in Mid Ulster (95%CI = 0.0027–0.013; P = 0.0005 vs. ROI), 0.001 in Greater Belfast (0.00011–0.0047) and zero in ROI (0–0.0014). R304* prevalence was elevated in acromegaly/gigantism patients in NI (11/87, 12.6%, P gigantism cases. tMRCA is consistent with historical/folklore accounts of Irish giants. Forward simulations predict many undetected carriers; geographically targeted population screening improves asymptomatic carrier identification, complementing clinical testing of patients/relatives. We generated disease awareness locally, necessary for early diagnosis and improved outcomes of AIP‐related disease. PMID:27650164

  8. Increased Population Risk of AIP-Related Acromegaly and Gigantism in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radian, Serban; Diekmann, Yoan; Gabrovska, Plamena; Holland, Brendan; Bradley, Lisa; Wallace, Helen; Stals, Karen; Bussell, Anna-Marie; McGurren, Karen; Cuesta, Martin; Ryan, Anthony W; Herincs, Maria; Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C; Holland, Aidan; Samuels, Jade; Aflorei, Elena Daniela; Barry, Sayka; Dénes, Judit; Pernicova, Ida; Stiles, Craig E; Trivellin, Giampaolo; McCloskey, Ronan; Ajzensztejn, Michal; Abid, Noina; Akker, Scott A; Mercado, Moises; Cohen, Mark; Thakker, Rajesh V; Baldeweg, Stephanie; Barkan, Ariel; Musat, Madalina; Levy, Miles; Orme, Stephen M; Unterländer, Martina; Burger, Joachim; Kumar, Ajith V; Ellard, Sian; McPartlin, Joseph; McManus, Ross; Linden, Gerard J; Atkinson, Brew; Balding, David J; Agha, Amar; Thompson, Chris J; Hunter, Steven J; Thomas, Mark G; Morrison, Patrick J; Korbonits, Márta

    2017-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) founder mutation R304 * (or p.R304 * ; NM_003977.3:c.910C>T, p.Arg304Ter) identified in Northern Ireland (NI) predisposes to acromegaly/gigantism; its population health impact remains unexplored. We measured R304 * carrier frequency in 936 Mid Ulster, 1,000 Greater Belfast (both in NI) and 2,094 Republic of Ireland (ROI) volunteers and in 116 NI or ROI acromegaly/gigantism patients. Carrier frequencies were 0.0064 in Mid Ulster (95%CI = 0.0027-0.013; P = 0.0005 vs. ROI), 0.001 in Greater Belfast (0.00011-0.0047) and zero in ROI (0-0.0014). R304 * prevalence was elevated in acromegaly/gigantism patients in NI (11/87, 12.6%, P acromegaly/gigantism cases. tMRCA is consistent with historical/folklore accounts of Irish giants. Forward simulations predict many undetected carriers; geographically targeted population screening improves asymptomatic carrier identification, complementing clinical testing of patients/relatives. We generated disease awareness locally, necessary for early diagnosis and improved outcomes of AIP-related disease. © 2016 The Authors. **Human Mutation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The consequences of increasing assertiveness of trans-national religious communities for international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najamudin Najamudin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The transnational communities, or in other terms, the migrant communities whowent to the US and the UK, or to any other European states had strong belief intheir religion in which they might not be contaminated by the secular ideology inthe Western countries. In this respect, the phenomenology of religion in internationalrelations is a relatively new and surprising. Accordingly, this paper aims atinvestigating the implications of the emergence of trans-national religious groupsfor international relations. The paper will argue that the rise of trans-nationalreligious groups has produced a profound impact on international relations. Thefactors that influenced this transformation in international relations is the contemporaryprocesses of globalization which scholars argue, are pivotal to bringingreligion to the centre stage of international relations. In order to deepen theunderstanding of this process, two case scenarios will be analyzed, namely, theSikh Diasporas and the imagined Islamic community, the umma. In this paper, ithas been argued that the rise of trans-national religious actors may affect statesovereignty in one way or another. Under secular ideology, the role of religion ismarginalized from the public sphere, in particular, the domain of politics and religion is being obviously separated. This separation, according to both groups,is problematic. It is therefore, the emergence of Islamic and Sikh communities isconsidered by some liberal democratic countries like India as a peril to its statesovereignty. In Islamic doctrines, the Muslims hold a principle in din wa dawla,the unity of state and religion, while in Sikhism, the Sikhs have to trust miri andpiri, the unification of religious and political institution.Masyarakat transnasional atau dalam terma lain disebut juga sebagai masyarakatmigran yang menetap di Amerika dan Inggris, atau ke negara-negara Eropalainnya memiliki keyakinan yang kuat terhadap agama mereka dan

  10. Chernobyl-Related Cancer and Precancerous Lesions: Incidence Increase vs. Late Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V.

    2014-01-01

    The reported incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in Soviet Union before the Chernobyl accident was lower than in other developed countries. This is not clearly recognizable from the literature because comparisons of the high incidence figures 4 years after the accident and later have been made with those from the first years after the accident, when the registered incidence had already started to increase. Considering the low pre-accident registered incidence, there was an accumulated pool of undiagnosed thyroid tumors before the accident. The percentage of more advanced cancers, larger in size and less differentiated, was higher after the accident, when the pool of neglected cancers was diagnosed due to the screening and improved diagnostics. Some of these advanced tumors found by screening were interpreted as aggressive radiogenic cancers. The same tendency might be true also for other cancers, e.g. renal cell carcinoma. Furthermore, the screening-effect, false-positivity and registration of non-exposed patients as Chernobyl victims has obviously contributed to the registered incidence increase of malignancy. PMID:25249833

  11. Tricuspid valve endocarditis following central venous cannulation: The increasing problem of catheter related infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Babu Kale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A central venous catheter (CVC is inserted for measurement of haemodynamic variables, delivery of nutritional supplements and drugs and access for haemodialysis and haemofiltration. Catheterization and maintenance are common practices and there is more to the technique than routine placement as evident when a procedure-related complication occurs. More than 15% of the patients who receive CVC placement have some complications and infectious endocarditis involving the tricuspid valve is a rare and serious complication with high morbidity and mortality. Overenthusiastic and deep insertion of the guide wire and forceful injection through the CVC may lead to injury of the tricuspid valve and predispose to bacterial deposition and endocarditis. We report a case of tricuspid valve endocarditis, probably secondary to injury of the anterior tricuspid leaflet by the guide wire or the CVC that required open heart surgery with vegetectomy and repair of the tricuspid valve.

  12. Age-Related Increase in Electromyography Burst Activity in Males and Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Theou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid advancement of electromyography (EMG technology facilitates measurement of muscle activity outside the laboratory during daily life. The purpose of this study was to determine whether bursts in EMG recorded over a typical 8-hour day differed between young and old males and females. Muscle activity was recorded from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris of 16 young and 15 old adults using portable surface EMG. Old muscles were active 16–27% of the time compared to 5–9% in young muscles. The number of bursts was greater in old than young adults and in females compared to males. Burst percentage and mean amplitude were greater in the flexor muscles compared with the extensor muscles. The greater burst activity in old adults coupled with the unique activity patterns across muscles in males and females provides further understanding of how changes in neuromuscular activity effects age-related functional decline between the sexes.

  13. Summary of IEA-R1 research a reactor licensing related to its power increase from 2 to 10 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This work is a summary of IEA-R1 research reactor licensing related to its power increase from 2 to 10 MW. It reports also safety requirements, fuel elements, and reactor control modifications inherent to power increase. (A.C.A.S.)

  14. The Utilization of an iPad for Increasing Work-Related Behaviors in Adults with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah; Bucholz, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an iPad to increase work related behaviors for one adult with disabilities in a vocational setting. A multiple baseline across behaviors single subject research design was used to determine if an iPad helped to increase independence in three identified behaviors, which included…

  15. 0268 Is perceived stress related to an increase in salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Samuel; Peter Bonde, Jens; Agergaard Vammen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Perceived Stress is a suspected cause of many psychological and physical illnesses. However it remains to be discovered what physiological measures are involved. While it is widely known that acute stress leads to an increase in cortisol levels, the findings in prolonged stress research...... have not been consistent. This study explores the association between Perceived Stress and salivary cortisol levels using the largest population ever used in this field. METHOD: 4467 public employees in the PRISME cohort in 2007. 3217 of those did a similar follow up study in 2009. A 4-item Danish...... version of the PSS-scale was used to measure perceived stress and operationalized as the average score. Salivary cortisol samples were taken at 30 min post awakening and at 8 pm. A mean value of cortisol was calculated. In our analysis we applied logarithmic transformation to the concentrations. RESULTS...

  16. Haloperidol increases false recognition memory of thematically related pictures in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Regina V; Buratto, Luciano G; Gomes, Carlos F A; Ribeiro, Rafaela L; de Souza, Altay A Lino; Stein, Lilian M; Galduróz, José C; Bueno, Orlando F A

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine can modulate long-term episodic memory. Its potential role on the generation of false memories, however, is less well known. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment, 24 young healthy volunteers ingested a 4-mg oral dose of haloperidol, a dopamine D 2 -receptor antagonist, or placebo, before taking part in a recognition memory task. Haloperidol was active during both study and test phases of the experiment. Participants in the haloperidol group produced more false recognition responses than those in the placebo group, despite similar levels of correct recognition. These findings show that dopamine blockade in healthy volunteers can specifically increase false recognition memory. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Reversal of propranolol blockade of adrenergic receptors and related toxicity with drugs that increase cyclic AMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, V E; Vick, J A; Alleva, F R; Zhang, J; Joseph, X; Balazs, T

    1999-09-01

    An overdose of propranolol, a widely used nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent, can result in hypotension and bradycardia leading to irreversible shock and death. In addition, the blockade of adrenergic receptors can lead to alterations in neurotransmitter receptors resulting in the interruption of the activity of other second messengers and the ultimate cellular responses. In the present experiment, three agents, aminophylline, amrinone, and forskolin were tested in an attempt to reverse the potential lethal effects of a propranolol overdose in dogs. Twenty-two anesthetized beagle dogs were given a 10-min infusion of propranolol at a dose of 1 mg/kg/min. Six of the dogs, treated only with intravenous saline, served as controls. Within 15-30 min all six control dogs exhibited profound hypotension and severe bradycardia that led to cardiogenic shock and death. Seven dogs were treated with intravenous aminophylline 20 mg/kg 5 min after the end of the propranolol infusion. Within 10-15 min heart rate and systemic arterial blood pressure returned to near control levels, and all seven dogs survived. Intravenous amrinone (2-3 mg/kg) given to five dogs, and forskolin (1-2 mg/kg) given to four dogs, also increased heart rate and systemic arterial blood pressure but the recovery of these parameters was appreciably slower than that seen with aminophylline. All of these animals also survived with no apparent adverse effects. Histopathologic evaluation of the hearts of the dogs treated with aminophylline showed less damage (vacuolization, inflammation, hemorrhage) than the hearts from animals given propranolol alone. Results of this study showed that these three drugs, all of which increase cyclic AMP, are capable of reversing the otherwise lethal effects of a propranolol overdose in dogs.

  18. Prolactin-derived vasoinhibins increase anxiety- and depression-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Miriam; Ledesma-Colunga, Maria G; Adán, Norma; Vera-Massieu, Camila; Lemini, Maria; Méndez, Isabel; Moreno-Carranza, Bibiana; Neumann, Inga D; Thebault, Stéphanie; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Torner, Luz; Clapp, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    The hormone prolactin (PRL) regulates neuroendocrine and emotional stress responses. It is found in the hypothalamus, where the protein is partially cleaved to vasoinhibins, a family of N-terminal antiangiogenic PRL fragments ranging from 14 to 18kDa molecular masses, with unknown effects on the stress response. Here, we show that the intracerebroventricular administration of a recombinant vasoinhibin, containing the first 123 amino acids of human PRL that correspond to a 14kDa PRL, exerts anxiogenic and depressive-like effects detected in the elevated plus-maze, the open field, and the forced swimming tests. To investigate whether stressor exposure affects the generation of vasoinhibins in the hypothalamus, the concentrations of PRL mRNA, PRL, and vasoinhibins were evaluated in hypothalamic extracts of virgin female rats immobilized for 30min at different time points after stress onset. The hypothalamic levels of PRL mRNA and protein were higher at 60min but declined at 360min to levels seen in non-stressed animals. The elevation of hypothalamic PRL did not correlate with the stress-induced increase in circulating PRL levels, nor was it modified by blocking adenohypophyseal PRL secretion with bromocriptine. A vasoinhibin having an electrophoretic migration rate corresponding to 17kDa was detected in the hypothalamus. Despite the elevation in hypothalamic PRL, the levels of this hypothalamic vasoinhibin were similar in stressed and non-stressed rats. Stress reduced the rate of cleavage of PRL to this vasoinhibin as shown by the incubation of recombinant PRL with hypothalamic extracts from stressed rats. These results suggest that vasoinhibins are potent anxiogenic and depressive factors and that stress increases PRL levels in the hypothalamus partly by reducing its conversion to vasoinhibins. The reciprocal interplay between PRL and vasoinhibins may represent an effective mechanism to regulate anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. Relation of burnout with lack of time for being with significant others, role conflict, cohesion, and self-confidence among Norwegian Olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjørmo, Odd; Halvari, Hallgeir

    2002-06-01

    We studied the relationship of burnout with environmental and personal characteristics such as lack of time for being with significant others outside sport, cohesion in training groups, role conflict, and self-confidence among 136 elite athletes. Analysis indicated that the mean Burnout scores were in the low range. Cohesion in training groups and Self-confidence were negatively associated with Burnout, whereas Lack of time to be with significant others and Role conflict were positively ssociated with Burnout scores. Results are in accordance with Coakley's 1992 conception of burnout explained as a social problem, Kahn's 1978 hypothesis that role conflict is positively correlated with stress and burnout, and Smith's 1986 hypothesis that personality factors such as self-confidence should be associated with cognitive appraisal of situational demands related to burnout.